WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid earthquake response

  1. Microscopic Evolution of Laboratory Volcanic Hybrid Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffith, W. A.; Benson, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the interaction between fluids and microscopic defects is one of the long-standing challenges in understanding a broad range of cracking processes, in part because they are so difficult to study experimentally. We address this issue by reexamining records of emitted acoustic phonon events during rock mechanics experiments under wet and dry conditions. The frequency spectrum of these events provides direct information regarding the state of the system. Such events are typically subdivided into high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) events, whereas intermediate “Hybrid” events, have HF onsets followed by LF ringing. At a larger scale in volcanic terranes, hybrid events are used empirically to predict eruptions, but their ambiguous physical origin limits their diagnostic use. By studying acoustic phonon emissions from individual microcracking events we show that the onset of a secondary instability-related to the transition from HF to LF-occurs during the fast equilibration phase of the system, leading to sudden increase of fluid pressure in the process zone. As a result of this squeezing process, a secondary instability akin to the LF event occurs. This mechanism is consistent with observations of hybrid earthquakes.

  2. Microscopic Evolution of Laboratory Volcanic Hybrid Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffith, W. A.; Benson, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the interaction between fluids and microscopic defects is one of the long-standing challenges in understanding a broad range of cracking processes, in part because they are so difficult to study experimentally. We address this issue by reexamining records of emitted acoustic phonon events during rock mechanics experiments under wet and dry conditions. The frequency spectrum of these events provides direct information regarding the state of the system. Such events are typically subdivided into high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) events, whereas intermediate “Hybrid” events, have HF onsets followed by LF ringing. At a larger scale in volcanic terranes, hybrid events are used empirically to predict eruptions, but their ambiguous physical origin limits their diagnostic use. By studying acoustic phonon emissions from individual microcracking events we show that the onset of a secondary instability–related to the transition from HF to LF–occurs during the fast equilibration phase of the system, leading to sudden increase of fluid pressure in the process zone. As a result of this squeezing process, a secondary instability akin to the LF event occurs. This mechanism is consistent with observations of hybrid earthquakes. PMID:28074878

  3. The 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviola, Giuseppe; Severe, Jennifer; Therosme, Tatiana; Oswald, Cate; Belkin, Gary; Eustache, Eddy

    2013-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters.

  4. Antioptimization of earthquake exitation and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zuccaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel approach to predict the response of earthquake-excited structures. The earthquake excitation is expanded in terms of series of deterministic functions. The coefficients of the series are represented as a point in N-dimensional space. Each available ccelerogram at a certain site is then represented as a point in the above space, modeling the available fragmentary historical data. The minimum volume ellipsoid, containing all points, is constructed. The ellipsoidal models of uncertainty, pertinent to earthquake excitation, are developed. The maximum response of a structure, subjected to the earthquake excitation, within ellipsoidal modeling of the latter, is determined. This procedure of determining least favorable response was termed in the literature (Elishakoff, 1991 as an antioptimization. It appears that under inherent uncertainty of earthquake excitation, antioptimization analysis is a viable alternative to stochastic approach.

  5. Hybrid wireless sensor network for rescue site monitoring after earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Chong; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Hu, Weijian; Tan, Min; Gao, Bowei

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the design of a low-cost, low-complexity, and rapidly deployable wireless sensor network (WSN) for rescue site monitoring after earthquakes. The system structure of the hybrid WSN is described. Specifically, the proposed hybrid WSN consists of two kinds of wireless nodes, i.e., the monitor node and the sensor node. Then the mechanism and the system configuration of the wireless nodes are detailed. A transmission control protocol (TCP)-based request-response scheme is proposed to allow several monitor nodes to communicate with the monitoring center. UDP-based image transmission algorithms with fast recovery have been developed to meet the requirements of in-time delivery of on-site monitor images. In addition, the monitor node contains a ZigBee module that used to communicate with the sensor nodes, which are designed with small dimensions to monitor the environment by sensing different physical properties in narrow spaces. By building a WSN using these wireless nodes, the monitoring center can display real-time monitor images of the monitoring area and visualize all collected sensor data on geographic information systems. In the end, field experiments were performed at the Training Base of Emergency Seismic Rescue Troops of China and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the monitor system.

  6. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  7. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, M; Fujita, K; Tsuji, M; Takewaki, I

    2016-02-01

    A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency) earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency) and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  8. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasagi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  9. PAGER - Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that estimates the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing...

  10. Fast and accurate earthquake location within complex medium using a hybrid global-local inversion approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoying Bai; Rui Zhao; Stewart Greenhalgh

    2009-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for earthquake location is proposed which uses a combined coarse global search and fine local inversion with a minimum search routine, plus an examination of the root mean squares (RMS) error distribution. The method exploits the advantages of network ray tracing and robust formulation of the Frechet derivatives to simultaneously update all possible initial source parameters around most local minima (including the global minimum) in the solution space, and finally to determine the likely global solution. Several synthetic examples involving a 3-D complex velocity model and a challenging source-receiver layout are used to demonstrate the capability of the newly-developed method. This new global-local hybrid solution technique not only incorporates the significant benefits of our recently published hypocenter determination procedure for multiple earthquake parameters, but also offers the attractive features of global optimal searching in the RMS travel time error distribution. Unlike the traditional global search method, for example, the Monte Carlo approach, where millions of tests have to be done to find the final global solution, the new method only conducts a matrix inversion type local search but does it multiple times simultaneously throughout the model volume to seek a global solution. The search is aided by inspection of the RMS error distribution. Benchmark tests against two popular approaches, the direct grid search method and the oct-tree important sampling method, indicate that the hybrid global-local inversion yields comparable location accuracy and is not sensitive to modest level of noise data, but more importantly it offers two-order of magnitude speed-up in computational effort. Such an improvement, combined with high accuracy, make it a promising hypocenter determination scheme in earthquake early warning, tsunami early warning, rapid hazard assessment and emergency response after strong earthquake occurrence.

  11. A Hybrid Ground-Motion Prediction Equation for Earthquakes in Western Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, N.; Yenier, E.; Law, A.; Moores, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of ground-motion amplitudes that may be produced by future earthquakes constitutes the foundation of seismic hazard assessment and earthquake-resistant structural design. This is typically done by using a prediction equation that quantifies amplitudes as a function of key seismological variables such as magnitude, distance and site condition. In this study, we develop a hybrid empirical prediction equation for earthquakes in western Alberta, where evaluation of seismic hazard associated with induced seismicity is of particular interest. We use peak ground motions and response spectra from recorded seismic events to model the regional source and attenuation attributes. The available empirical data is limited in the magnitude range of engineering interest (M>4). Therefore, we combine empirical data with a simulation-based model in order to obtain seismologically informed predictions for moderate-to-large magnitude events. The methodology is two-fold. First, we investigate the shape of geometrical spreading in Alberta. We supplement the seismic data with ground motions obtained from mining/quarry blasts, in order to gain insights into the regional attenuation over a wide distance range. A comparison of ground-motion amplitudes for earthquakes and mining/quarry blasts show that both event types decay at similar rates with distance and demonstrate a significant Moho-bounce effect. In the second stage, we calibrate the source and attenuation parameters of a simulation-based prediction equation to match the available amplitude data from seismic events. We model the geometrical spreading using a trilinear function with attenuation rates obtained from the first stage, and calculate coefficients of anelastic attenuation and site amplification via regression analysis. This provides a hybrid ground-motion prediction equation that is calibrated for observed motions in western Alberta and is applicable to moderate-to-large magnitude events.

  12. Optimal design of structures for earthquake loads by a hybrid RBF-BPSO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eysa Salajegheh; Saeed Gholizadeh; Mohsen Khatibina

    2008-01-01

    The optimal seismic design of structures requires that time history analyses (THA) be carried out repeatedly. This makes the optimal design process inefficient, in particular, if an evolutionary algorithm is used. To reduce the overall time required for structural optimization, two artificial intelligence strategies are employed. In the first strategy, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are used to predict the time history responses of structures in the optimization flow. In the second strategy, a binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) is used to find the optimum design. Combining the RBF and BPSO, a hybrid RBF-BPSO optimization method is proposed in this paper, which achieves fast optimization with high computational performance. Two examples are presented and compared to determine the optimal weight of structures under earthquake loadings using both exact and approximate analyses. The numerical results demonstrate the computational advantages and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid RBF-BPSO optimization method for the seismic design of structures.

  13. Responses to the 2011 Earthquake on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    In my investigation of how Japanese ODA policies and practices have engendered global networks, I have frequented the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS)' Facebook group. In the wake of the earthquake on March 11, 2011, many greetings came in from alumni who have within the last...

  14. Twitter Seismology: Earthquake Monitoring and Response in a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, D. C.; Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Smoczyk, G.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The potential uses of Twitter for earthquake response include broadcasting earthquake alerts, rapidly detecting widely felt events, qualitatively assessing earthquake damage effects, communicating with the public, and participating in post-event collaboration. Several seismic networks and agencies are currently distributing Twitter earthquake alerts including the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (@LastQuake), Natural Resources Canada (@CANADAquakes), and the Indonesian meteorological agency (@infogempabmg); the USGS will soon distribute alerts via the @USGSted and @USGSbigquakes Twitter accounts. Beyond broadcasting alerts, the USGS is investigating how to use tweets that originate near the epicenter to detect and characterize shaking events. This is possible because people begin tweeting immediately after feeling an earthquake, and their short narratives and exclamations are available for analysis within 10's of seconds of the origin time. Using five months of tweets that contain the word "earthquake" and its equivalent in other languages, we generate a tweet-frequency time series. The time series clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a simple Short-Term-Average / Long-Term-Average algorithm similar to that commonly used to detect seismic phases. As with most auto-detection algorithms, the parameters can be tuned to catch more or less events at the cost of more or less false triggers. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector found 48 globally-distributed, confirmed seismic events with only 2 false triggers. A space-shuttle landing and "The Great California ShakeOut" caused the false triggers. This number of

  15. Future Earth: Reducing Loss By Automating Response to Earthquake Shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes pose a significant threat to society in the U.S. and around the world. The risk is easily forgotten given the infrequent recurrence of major damaging events, yet the likelihood of a major earthquake in California in the next 30 years is greater than 99%. As our societal infrastructure becomes ever more interconnected, the potential impacts of these future events are difficult to predict. Yet, the same inter-connected infrastructure also allows us to rapidly detect earthquakes as they begin, and provide seconds, tens or seconds, or a few minutes warning. A demonstration earthquake early warning system is now operating in California and is being expanded to the west coast (www.ShakeAlert.org). In recent earthquakes in the Los Angeles region, alerts were generated that could have provided warning to the vast majority of Los Angelinos who experienced the shaking. Efforts are underway to build a public system. Smartphone technology will be used not only to issue that alerts, but could also be used to collect data, and improve the warnings. The MyShake project at UC Berkeley is currently testing an app that attempts to turn millions of smartphones into earthquake-detectors. As our development of the technology continues, we can anticipate ever-more automated response to earthquake alerts. Already, the BART system in the San Francisco Bay Area automatically stops trains based on the alerts. In the future, elevators will stop, machinery will pause, hazardous materials will be isolated, and self-driving cars will pull-over to the side of the road. In this presentation we will review the current status of the earthquake early warning system in the US. We will illustrate how smartphones can contribute to the system. Finally, we will review applications of the information to reduce future losses.

  16. Earthquake Response Mitigation of RC Building Using Friction Pendulum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan B. Sanap

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake hazard mitigation is very sensitive issue now a day’s therefore researchers are struggling for optimum solution since last few decades. Base isolation technique is one of the effective techniques which give better results seismic hazard mitigation under earthquake excitation particularly in building structures, bridges and water tanks etc. Base isolation reduces not only the effects of earthquake acceleration to be transmitted to the structures, but also protects the content of building while simultaneous supporting the mass of structure. This study proposed a realistic ten storey RC building which is model as shear type lumped mass having single degrees-of-freedom at each floor level. This building is isolated by Friction Pendulum System of sliding base isolated type and excited under unidirectional ground motion due to four realistic earthquakes namely, Imperial Valley, 1940, Loma Prieta, 1989, Kobe, 1995 and Northridge, 1994. The governing equation of motion for the building solved using Newmarks method whereas isolation system is modelled by Wen’s model. The effectiveness of proposed isolation system and building response has been evaluated by coding in MATLAB 8.2 computing software. Further, effectiveness of isolation system is also studied in terms of peak responses of building. The results obtained from the study underscored that Friction Pendulum System works effectively in limiting the building responses during excitation due to earthquakes.

  17. An Overview of Soil Models for Earthquake Response Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Yunita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes can damage thousands of buildings and infrastructure as well as cause the loss of thousands of lives. During an earthquake, the damage to buildings is mostly caused by the effect of local soil conditions. Depending on the soil type, the earthquake waves propagating from the epicenter to the ground surface will result in various behaviors of the soil. Several studies have been conducted to accurately obtain the soil response during an earthquake. The soil model used must be able to characterize the stress-strain behavior of the soil during the earthquake. This paper compares equivalent linear and nonlinear soil model responses. Analysis was performed on two soil types, Site Class D and Site Class E. An equivalent linear soil model leads to a constant value of shear modulus, while in a nonlinear soil model, the shear modulus changes constantly,depending on the stress level, and shows inelastic behavior. The results from a comparison of both soil models are displayed in the form of maximum acceleration profiles and stress-strain curves.

  18. Earthquake responses in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, N. G.; Turunen, E.; Ogloblina, O. F.; Chernyakov, S. M.

    2009-10-01

    The data, obtained using the methods of partial reflections and ionosphere vertical sounding on the Kola Peninsula and in Scandinavia, at Tumannyi (69.0° N, 35.7° E) and Sodankyla (67.37°N, 26.63°E) observatories, have been analyzed in order to detect earthquake responses. The strong earthquakes have been considered: one earthquake with a magnitude of 7.7 occurred at 0819:25 UT on July 17, 2006, on the western coast of Indonesia (9.33° S, 107.26° E), and another earthquake with a magnitude of 6.2 occurred 2253:59 UT on May 26, 2006, on Yava (7.94° S, 110.32° E). These earthquakes, the epicenters of which were located in the same region and at identical depths (10 km), were observed under quiet conditions in the geomagnetic field (Σ K p = 5.7 and 6.3) and during small solar flares. The response of the ionosphere to these flares was mainly observed in the parameters of the lower ionosphere in the D and E regions. It has been found out that the period of variations in the ordinary component of the partially reflected signal at altitudes of the E region increased before the earthquake that occurred on July 17, 2006. The f min variations at Sodankyla observatory started 20 h before the earthquake. The periods of these variations were 3-6 h. The same periods were found in the variations in other ionospheric parameters ( foEs and h’Es). The variations in the ordinary component of partially reflected signals with periods of 2-5 hours were observed on the day of another earthquake (May 26, 2006). Internal gravity waves with periods of several hours, which can be related to the earthquakes, were detected in the amplitude spectra of the ordinary component of partially reflected signals and in other parameters in the lower ionosphere.

  19. Reduction of structural response to near fault earthquakes by seismic isolation columns and variable friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribakov, Y.

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on the investigation of a hybrid seismic isolation system with passive variable friction dampers for protection of structures against near fault earthquakes. The seismic isolation can be implemented by replacing the conventional columns fixed to the foundations by seismic isolating ones. These columns allow horizontal displacement between the superstructure and the foundations and decouple the building from the damaging earthquake motion. As a result, the forces in the structural elements decrease and damage that may be caused to the building by the earthquake significantly decreases. However, this positive effect is achieved on account of displacements occurring in the isolating columns. These displacements become very large when the structure is subjected to a strong earthquake. In this case, impact may occur between the parts of the isolating column yielding their damage or collapse. In order to limit the displacements in the isolating columns, it is proposed to add variable friction dampers. A method for selecting the dampers’ properties is proposed. It is carried out using an artificial ground motion record and optimal active control algorithm. Numerical simulation of a sevenstory structure shows that the proposed method allows efficient reduction in structural response and limits the displacements at the seismic isolating columns.

  20. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  1. Peak earthquake response of structures under multi-component excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwei Song; Zach Liang; Yi-Lun Chu; George C.Lee

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the peak seismic responses of structures is important in earthquake resistant design.The internal force distributions and the seismic responses of structures are quite complex,since ground motions are multidirectional.One key issue is the uncertainty of the incident angle between the directions of ground motion and the reference axes of the structure.Different assumed seismic incidences can result in difierent peak values within the scope of design spectrum analysis for a given structure and earthquake ground motion record combination.Using time history analysis to determine the maximum structural responses excited by a given earthquake record requires repetitive calculations to determine the critical incident angle.This paper presents a transformation approach for relatively accurate and rapid determination of the maximum peak responses of a linear structure subjected to three-dimensional excitations within all possible seismic incident angles.The responses can be deformations,internal forces,strains and so on.An irregular building structure model is established using SAP2000 program.Several typical earthquake records and an artificial white noise are applied to the structure model to illustrate the variation of the maximum structural responses for different incident angles.Numerical results show that for many structural parameters,the variation can be greater than 100%.This method can be directly applied to time history analysis of structures using existing computer software to determine the peak responses without carrying out the analyses for all possible incident angles.It can also be used to verify and/or modify aseismic designs by using response spectrum analysis.

  2. Human Trafficking in Nepal: Post-Earthquake Risk and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Keeling, June; Kallestrup, Per

    2016-09-15

    As Nepal mourns the 1-year commemoration of the April 2015 earthquake and its aftershocks that killed more than 8500 people and left thousands injured and displaced, other more hidden repercussions of the resultant chaotic environment need attention: the increased risk of human trafficking. Considering that natural disasters provide a milieu for this illicit trade, there is a need for a robust response from stakeholders such as donors, civil society organizations, and government organizations against human trafficking following disasters such as the Nepal earthquake. Responsibility to prevent and fight trafficking should be explicitly included in the mandate of relief and rehabilitation mechanisms set up at the national level to coordinate the disaster relief response, serving to support populations in both rural and urban areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 2).

  3. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  4. Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正A serious earthquake happened in Wenchuan, Sichuan. Over 60,000 people died in the earhtquake, millins of people lost their homes. After the earthquake, people showed their love in different ways. Some gave food, medicine and everything necessary, some gave money,

  5. Response of endlessly long shipping channel due to earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-supported tanks are used to store a variety of liquid. The fluid develops hydrodynamic pressure on walls and bottom of tank during an earthquake. This paper provides theoretical background for specification of impulsive and convective actions of fluid in rectangular endlessly long shopping channel container by using analytical methods. This article contains description of methods for solution of response of vertical containment with fluid on the soil, which is subject to horizontal seismic loads.

  6. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  7. Magma fracture and hybrid earthquakes in the conduit of Augustine Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, Helena; West, Michael E.

    2013-12-01

    exploit subtle but systematic shifts in seismic waveforms to examine a 2 h cluster of repeating hybrid volcanic earthquakes preceding the first magmatic explosions at Augustine Volcano in January 2006. We extract differential P wave traveltimes of <0.01 s to determine that the source locations migrated downward by approximately 35 m. Waveform characteristics, GPS observations, and visual reports of lava effusion at the summit suggest that the earthquakes were sourced by fracturing magma in the upper conduit. As the lava cooled and degassed at the surface, the conditions in the upper conduit changed causing the zone in which magma fracture could occur to move downward through the magma column. These changes may also have been the first indicators that the conduit was becoming choked, causing a buildup in pressure that resulted in the large magmatic explosions that followed 36 h later.

  8. A STUDY ON THE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE AND EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN METHOD OF AN OPEN TYPE WHARF WITH PNEUMATIC CAISSONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masahiko; Nagao, Takashi; Shigeki, Kouji; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Sato, Yuske; Kinomiya, Osamu

    Seismic response of an open type wharf with pneumatic caisson was clarified using a dynamic finite element method. As a result, rocking behavior of caisson foundations were observed and applicability of a frame model analysis to the earthquake resistant design of a wharf was suggested. Authors proposed the framework of earthquake resistant design method of the wharf including the evaluation method of response acceleration of the wharf.

  9. Strategies for rapid global earthquake impact estimation: the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art for rapid earthquake impact estimation. It details the needs and challenges associated with quick estimation of earthquake losses following global earthquakes, and provides a brief literature review of various approaches that have been used in the past. With this background, the chapter introduces the operational earthquake loss estimation system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) known as PAGER (for Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response). It also details some of the ongoing developments of PAGER’s loss estimation models to better supplement the operational empirical models, and to produce value-added web content for a variety of PAGER users.

  10. E-DECIDER Decision Support Gateway For Earthquake Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Stough, T. M.; Parker, J. W.; Burl, M. C.; Donnellan, A.; Blom, R. G.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Ma, Y.; Rundle, J. B.; Yoder, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing capabilities for decision-making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software in order to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. E-DECIDER incorporates earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project in order to produce standards-compliant map data products to aid in decision-making following an earthquake. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools, help provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). E-DECIDER utilizes a service-based GIS model for its cyber-infrastructure in order to produce standards-compliant products for different user types with multiple service protocols (such as KML, WMS, WFS, and WCS). The goal is to make complex GIS processing and domain-specific analysis tools more accessible to general users through software services as well as provide system sustainability through infrastructure services. The system comprises several components, which include: a GeoServer for thematic mapping and data distribution, a geospatial database for storage and spatial analysis, web service APIs, including simple-to-use REST APIs for complex GIS functionalities, and geoprocessing tools including python scripts to produce standards-compliant data products. These are then served to the E-DECIDER decision support gateway (http://e-decider.org), the E-DECIDER mobile interface, and to the Department of Homeland Security decision support middleware UICDS (Unified Incident Command and Decision Support). The E-DECIDER decision support gateway features a web interface that

  11. Response of Olive View Hospital to Northridge and Whittier earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the response of the conventionally designed new Olive View Medical Center (OVMC) building at 16 km from the epicenter of the January 17, 1994 Northridge, California earthquake (Ms = 6.8). OVMC is on an alluvial deposit. The building was subjected to design level peak accelerations during the earthquake and suffered only limited structural and nonstructural damage. The recorded motions at different levels of the OVMC building as well as its associated free-field sites are analyzed using spectral analyses and system identification techniques. The new OVMC building was conservatively designed in 1976 with very high lateral load resisting capability - particularly as a reaction to the detrimental fate of the original Olive View Hospital that was heavily damaged during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. The original hospital building was later razed. The replacement structure, the new cross-shaped OVMC building, experienced peak acceleration of 2.31g at the roof while its peak ground floor acceleration was 0.82g. The free-field peak acceleration was 0.91g. The lateral load resisting system of the OVMC building consists of concrete shear walls in the lower two stories and steel shear walls at the perimeter of the upper four stories. Spectral analysis shows that this stiff structure was not affected by the long duration pulses of the motions recorded at this site.

  12. Survival interval in earthquake entrapments: research findings reinforced during the 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Anthony G; Barbera, Joseph A; Petinaux, Bruno P

    2011-03-01

    Earthquakes can result in collapsed structures with the potential to entrap individuals. In some cases, people can survive entrapment for lengthy periods. The search for and rescue of entrapped people is resource intensive and competes with other postdisaster priorities. The decision to end search and rescue activities is often difficult and in some cases protracted. Medical providers participating in response may be consulted about the probability of continued survival in undiscovered trapped individuals. Historically, many espouse a rigid time frame for viability of entrapped living people (eg, 2 days, 4 days, 14 days). The available medical and engineering data and media reports demonstrate a wide variety in survival "time to rescue," arguing against the acceptance of a single time interval applicable to all incidents. This article presents historical evidence and reports from the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Factors that may contribute to survival after entombment are listed. Finally, a decision process for projecting viability that considers the critical factors in each incident rather than adhering to a single time frame for ceasing search and rescue activities is proposed.

  13. Blurred lines: accountability and responsibility in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Diana Manilla

    2014-01-01

    Allegations that International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) are not accountable to the populations they assist have followed several humanitarian operations, and the 2010 Haiti Earthquake was no exception. In response, initiatives such as the Humanitarian Accountability Partnership guided agencies' efforts to become more accountable. Results of mechanisms implemented by two INGOs showed that although conditions were created for people to raise concerns, the ability of Haitians to obtain a response from the agencies was limited. The research found that while in principle agencies have the best interests of affected populations as their aim, fragmentation and power asymmetries within the humanitarian sector create conditions wherein agencies define the limits of what they are responsible for and, consequently, what they can be held accountable for. This literature review shows that without agencies' recognition of the responsibility that comes with power, no initiatives will enhance a more coherent vision to improving their accountability.

  14. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Using Scenario Earthquakes for the Istanbul Area

    KAUST Repository

    Reshi, Owais A.

    2016-04-13

    Seismic design, analysis and retrofitting of structures demand an intensive assessment of potential ground motions in seismically active regions. Peak ground motions and frequency content of seismic excitations effectively influence the behavior of structures. In regions of sparse ground motion records, ground-motion simulations provide the synthetic seismic records, which not only provide insight into the mechanisms of earthquakes but also help in improving some aspects of earthquake engineering. Broadband ground-motion simulation methods typically utilize physics-based modeling of source and path effects at low frequencies coupled with high frequency semi-stochastic methods. I apply the hybrid simulation method by Mai et al. (2010) to model several scenario earthquakes in the Marmara Sea, an area of high seismic hazard. Simulated ground motions were generated at 75 stations using systematically calibrated model parameters. The region-specific source, path and site model parameters were calibrated by simulating a w4.1 Marmara Sea earthquake that occurred on November 16, 2015 on the fault segment in the vicinity of Istanbul. The calibrated parameters were then used to simulate the scenario earthquakes with magnitudes w6.0, w6.25, w6.5 and w6.75 over the Marmara Sea fault. Effects of fault geometry, hypocenter location, slip distribution and rupture propagation were thoroughly studied to understand variability in ground motions. A rigorous analysis of waveforms reveal that these parameters are critical for determining the behavior of ground motions especially in the near-field. Comparison of simulated ground motion intensities with ground-motion prediction quations indicates the need of development of the region-specific ground-motion prediction equation for Istanbul area. Peak ground motion maps are presented to illustrate the shaking in the Istanbul area due to the scenario earthquakes. The southern part of Istanbul including Princes Islands show high amplitudes

  15. Phase response curves for models of earthquake fault dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Franović, Igor; Perc, Matjaz; Klinshov, Vladimir; Nekorkin, Vladimir; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We systematically study effects of external perturbations on models describing earthquake fault dynamics. The latter are based on the framework of the Burridge-Knopoff spring-block system, including the cases of a simple mono-block fault, as well as the paradigmatic complex faults made up of two identical or distinct blocks. The blocks exhibit relaxation oscillations, which are representative for the stick-slip behavior typical for earthquake dynamics. Our analysis is carried out by determining the phase response curves of first and second order. For a mono-block fault, we consider the impact of a single and two successive pulse perturbations, further demonstrating how the profile of phase response curves depends on the fault parameters. For a homogeneous two-block fault, our focus is on the scenario where each of the blocks is influenced by a single pulse, whereas for heterogeneous faults, we analyze how the response of the system depends on whether the stimulus is applied to the block having a shorter or a ...

  16. Phase response curves for models of earthquake fault dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franović, Igor; Kostić, Srdjan; Perc, Matjaž; Klinshov, Vladimir; Nekorkin, Vladimir; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We systematically study effects of external perturbations on models describing earthquake fault dynamics. The latter are based on the framework of the Burridge-Knopoff spring-block system, including the cases of a simple mono-block fault, as well as the paradigmatic complex faults made up of two identical or distinct blocks. The blocks exhibit relaxation oscillations, which are representative for the stick-slip behavior typical for earthquake dynamics. Our analysis is carried out by determining the phase response curves of first and second order. For a mono-block fault, we consider the impact of a single and two successive pulse perturbations, further demonstrating how the profile of phase response curves depends on the fault parameters. For a homogeneous two-block fault, our focus is on the scenario where each of the blocks is influenced by a single pulse, whereas for heterogeneous faults, we analyze how the response of the system depends on whether the stimulus is applied to the block having a shorter or a longer oscillation period.

  17. Examining the Causes of Low-frequency Hybrid Earthquakes During Dike Intrusions in the Afar Rift, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepp, G.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2005 and 2012, there were 14 large dike intrusions into the Dabbahu rift segment in the Afar rift, Ethiopia. Swarms of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.45events found 173 earthquakes with more low-frequency content and longer codas than expected for typical volcano-tectonic events. These unusual earthquakes were classified as low-frequency hybrid events based on peak frequency and percent of energy below 2 Hz. Previous studies in other volcanic regions have found similar events, which has led to debate about what causes these events and how best to classify them. Explanations for hybrid events include both source and path effects, though the results from previous work and this study suggest that the Afar hybrids are largely a result of path effects based on high attenuation (Q ~ 200) and azimuthal dependence of spectral content. However, large (~3m) surface displacements on short faults indicate that unusual source processes, such as slow rupture times, may also be a factor in these hybrid events. The aims of this study are to distinguish between path and source effects, to characterize the source processes of these events, and to explore the relation between hybrid and normal tectonic events in the region - are the differences in the source or only in the path? For closely located earthquakes, an Empirical Green's Function approach is a great method to isolate the source-time function. Spectral analysis of the source-time function can be used to provide insights into the rupture time, stress drop, and scaling relations of the earthquakes. These results will be used to further refine earthquake classifications and determine if there are any defining characteristics of the classes that associate them with specific faulting processes, such as surface ruptures, that occur during diking events.

  18. A dasymetric data supported earthquake disaster loss quick assessment method for emergency response in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving earthquake disaster loss estimation speed and accuracy is one of key factors in effective earthquake response and rescue. The presentation of exposure data by applying a dasymetric map approach has good potential for addressing this issue. With the support of 30'' × 30'' areal exposure data (population and building data in China, this paper presents a new two-phase earthquake disaster loss estimation method for emergency response situations. This method has two phases: a pre-earthquake phase and a co-earthquake phase. In the pre-earthquake phase, we pre-calculate the earthquake loss related to different seismic intensities and store them in a 30'' × 30'' grid format, which has four stages: determining the earthquake loss calculation factor, gridding possible damage matrixes, the building damage calculation and the people loss calculation. The dasymetric map approach makes this possible. Then, in the co-earthquake phase, there are two stages of estimating loss: generating a theoretical isoseismal map to depict the spatial distribution of the seismic intensity field; then, using the seismic intensity field to extract statistics of disaster loss from pre-calculated loss estimation data to obtain the final estimation results. The method is validated by four actual earthquakes that occurred in China. The method not only significant improves the speed and accuracy of loss estimation, but gives spatial distribution for the loss, which will be effective in aiding earthquake emergency response and rescue. Additionally, related pre-calculated earthquake loss estimation data in China could serve to provide disaster risk analysis before earthquakes happen. Currently, the pre-calculated loss estimation data and the two-phase estimation method are used by the China Earthquake Administration.

  19. Critical Time: Earthquake Response Planning and Schools. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    A videotape that describes what earthquakes are, and examines the disaster planning schools can develop during the first few minutes following an earthquake to assure students and staff survive. The kinds of destruction likely to happen during a damaging earthquake are highlighted. The videotape stresses the need for children and staff to know…

  20. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Jenna, E-mail: jmmartin@ucdavis.edu; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O' Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. - Highlights: • Remote sensing to improve agricultural disaster management • Introduce post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework • Apply PEARS framework to 2010 Maule Earthquake in Central Chile.

  1. Method discussion for quick response grey prediction of stronger aftershocks of an earthquake sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we take occurrence process of early strong aftershocks of a main-after shock type′s earthquake sequence as a complex grey system, and introduce predicting method for its stronger aftershocks by grey predicting theory. Through inspection prediction for 1998 Zhangbei MS=6.2 earthquake sequence, it shows that the grey predicting method maybe has active significance for the investigation of quick response prediction problems of stronger aftershocks of an earthquake sequence.

  2. Seismoelectric ground response to local and regional earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieran, Laura; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thorwart, Martin; Ritter, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    During earthquakes magnetotelluric stations occasionally record electric and magnetic signals similar to seismograms. The major part of these magnetic signals is induced by the seismic movement of the magnetometers (induction coils) in the static magnetic field. In contrast, the electric field signals are caused by the seismoelectric effect. Based on more than 600 earthquakes from Chile, Costa Rica and Europe we established a logarithmic magnitude-distance-relationship describing the magnitude threshold to be exceeded for observing seismoelectric (SE) signals with standard magnetotelluric (MT) recording units at given hypocentral distance r and for noise levels less than 3 μV/m. The log(r) term results from the geometric spreading of the radiated seismic waves. A comparison of SE signals at different hypocentral distances shows that observability is not only influenced by the amplitude of the incoming seismic wave. It also depends on the geological structure underneath the station which causes a unique frequency dependent SE response. To quantify these site effects we computed spectral seismoelectric transfer functions representing the ratios of the spectral amplitudes of SE records and acceleration seismograms (SESRs). Some stations show constant SESRs in the major frequency range, while others show a decrease with increasing frequencies. Based on the current Biot-type seismoelectric theory constant SESRs can be explained by coseismic SE waves alone. The observed SESR amplitudes at some sites are indeed consistent with theoretical expectations for electrically highly resistive soils or rocks, in agreement with the local geology of the investigated areas. The frequency dependence of SESRs observed at other locations can be explained if the incident SE waves consist not only of coseismic arrivals but also of a significant contribution from SE interface response waves which are generated at electrical or mechanical boundaries. Therefore, frequency-dependent SESRs

  3. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs, particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Methods: Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. Results: The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  4. Earthquake Response Mitigation of RC Building Using Friction Pendulum System

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan B. Sanap; Pradip D. Jadhao; S. M. Dumne

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake hazard mitigation is very sensitive issue now a day’s therefore researchers are struggling for optimum solution since last few decades. Base isolation technique is one of the effective techniques which give better results seismic hazard mitigation under earthquake excitation particularly in building structures, bridges and water tanks etc. Base isolation reduces not only the effects of earthquake acceleration to be transmitted to the structures, but also protects the content of ...

  5. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management.

  6. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-15

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments.

  7. Earthquake and bay: Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Franklin B.; Norton, Jerrold G.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    The magnitude-7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake, which ruptured a segment of the San Andreas fault on October 17, 1989, and caused extensive damage over a large area of central California, also produced substantial motions in nearby Monterey Bay (Figure 1). Earthquake effects included a tsunami, or seismic sea wave, and subsequent surface water oscillations that were detected for about 24 hours following the main shock and widespread, substantial slumping of sediments on the Monterey Bay continental shelf and along the walls of Monterey Submarine Canyon.

  8. Streamflow responses in Chile to megathrust earthquakes in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Manga, Michael; Wang, Chi-yuen; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Both coseismic static stress and dynamic stresses associated with seismic waves may cause responses in hydrological systems. Such responses include changes in the water level, hydrochemistry and streamflow discharge. Earthquake effects on hydrological systems provide a means to study the interaction between stress changes and regional hydrology, which is otherwise rarely possible. Chile is a country of frequent and large earthquakes and thus provides abundant opportunities to study such interactions and processes. We analyze streamflow responses in Chile to several megathrust earthquakes, including the 1943 Mw 8.1 Coquimbo, 1950 Mw 8.2 Antofagasta, 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia, 1985 Mw 8.0 Valparaiso, 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquakes. We use data from 716 stream gauges distributed from the Altiplano in the North to Tierra del Fuego in the South. This network covers the Andes mountain ranges, the central valley, the Coastal Mountain ranges and (mainly in the more southern parts) the Coastal flats. We combine empirical magnitude-distance relationships, machine learning tools, and process-based modeling to characterize responses. We first assess the streamflow anomalies and relate these to topographical, hydro-climatic, geological and earthquake-related (volumetric and dynamic strain) factors using various classifiers. We then apply 1D-groundwater flow modeling to selected catchments in order to test competing hypotheses for the origin of streamflow changes. We show that the co-seismic responses of streamflow mostly involved increasing discharges. We conclude that enhanced vertical permeability can explain most streamflow responses at the regional scale. The total excess water released by a single earthquake, i.e. the Maule earthquake, yielded up to 1 km3. Against the background of megathrust earthquakes frequently hitting Chile, the amount of water released by earthquakes is substantial, particularly for the arid northern

  9. Parallel finite element modeling of earthquake ground response and liquefaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinchi Lu(陆金池); Jun Peng(彭军); Ahmed Elgamal; Zhaohui Yang(杨朝晖); Kincho H. Law

    2004-01-01

    Parallel computing is a promising approach to alleviate the computational demand in conducting large-scale finite element analyses. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for earthquake ground response and liquefaction using the parallel nonlinear finite element program, ParCYCLIC, designed for distributed-memory message-passing parallel computer systems. In ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive model calibrated by physical tests represents the salient characteristics of sand liquefaction and associated accumulation of shear deformations. Key elements of the computational strategy employed in ParCYCLIC include the development of a parallel sparse direct solver, the deployment of an automatic domain decomposer, and the use of the Multilevel Nested Dissection algorithm for ordering of the finite element nodes. Simulation results of centrifuge test models using ParCYCLIC are presented. Performance results from grid models and geotechnical simulations show that ParCYCLIC is efficiently scalable to a large number of processors.

  10. Complete Coverage Path Planning for a Multi-UAV Response System in Post-Earthquake Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Arman Nedjati; Gokhan Izbirak; Bela Vizvari; Jamal Arkat

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a post-earthquake response system for a rapid damage assessment. In this system, multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are deployed to collect the images from the earthquake site and create a response map for extracting useful information. It is an extension of well-known coverage path problem (CPP) that is based on the grid pattern map decomposition. In addition to some linear strengthening techniques, two mathematic formulations, 4-index and 5-index models, are propos...

  11. Application of GIS to build earthquake emergency response system for urban area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤爱平; 谢礼立; 陶夏新

    2002-01-01

    A GIS based decision-making system is designed for earthquake emergency response for city governments. The system could be used for seismic hazard assessment, earthquake damage and losses evaluation, emergency response and post-earthquake recovering. The principle, design criteria, structure and functions of the system are described in detials. The system is composed of four parts: an information- and data-base, analytical modules, a decision-making subsystem and a user interface. The information- and data-base consists of 68 coverages, including historically and instrumentally recorded earthquakes, seismo-tectonic zones, active faults, potential source areas, isoseismals of scenario earthquake, soil profiles, characteristics of buildings, and all infrastructure systems such as: transportation network (roads and bridges, culverts), oil pipeline network, gas, water, electric-power, communication etc., distribution of citizens, rush-repair schemes of infrastructures and so on. There are also 28 analytical modules established in the system for generating isoseismals of scenario earthquake, site effects estimation, damage and losses evaluation and decision-making for rescue, relief, evacuation and other emergency response actions. As an illustration, the operation of this system for reoccurrence of a historical earthquake is demonstrated.

  12. Earthquake Response Modeling for a Parked and Operating Megawatt-Scale Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Elgamal, A.; Romanowitz, H.; Duggan, J. E.; Jonkman, J.

    2010-10-01

    Demand parameters for turbines, such as tower moment demand, are primarily driven by wind excitation and dynamics associated with operation. For that purpose, computational simulation platforms have been developed, such as FAST, maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). For seismically active regions, building codes also require the consideration of earthquake loading. Historically, it has been common to use simple building code approaches to estimate the structural demand from earthquake shaking, as an independent loading scenario. Currently, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) design requirements include the consideration of earthquake shaking while the turbine is operating. Numerical and analytical tools used to consider earthquake loads for buildings and other static civil structures are not well suited for modeling simultaneous wind and earthquake excitation in conjunction with operational dynamics. Through the addition of seismic loading capabilities to FAST, it is possible to simulate earthquake shaking in the time domain, which allows consideration of non-linear effects such as structural nonlinearities, aerodynamic hysteresis, control system influence, and transients. This paper presents a FAST model of a modern 900-kW wind turbine, which is calibrated based on field vibration measurements. With this calibrated model, both coupled and uncoupled simulations are conducted looking at the structural demand for the turbine tower. Response is compared under the conditions of normal operation and potential emergency shutdown due the earthquake induced vibrations. The results highlight the availability of a numerical tool for conducting such studies, and provide insights into the combined wind-earthquake loading mechanism.

  13. Earthquake Response Modeling for a Parked and Operating Megawatt-Scale Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Elgamal, A.; Romanowitz, H.; Duggan, J. E.; Jonkman, J.

    2010-10-01

    Demand parameters for turbines, such as tower moment demand, are primarily driven by wind excitation and dynamics associated with operation. For that purpose, computational simulation platforms have been developed, such as FAST, maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). For seismically active regions, building codes also require the consideration of earthquake loading. Historically, it has been common to use simple building code approaches to estimate the structural demand from earthquake shaking, as an independent loading scenario. Currently, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) design requirements include the consideration of earthquake shaking while the turbine is operating. Numerical and analytical tools used to consider earthquake loads for buildings and other static civil structures are not well suited for modeling simultaneous wind and earthquake excitation in conjunction with operational dynamics. Through the addition of seismic loading capabilities to FAST, it is possible to simulate earthquake shaking in the time domain, which allows consideration of non-linear effects such as structural nonlinearities, aerodynamic hysteresis, control system influence, and transients. This paper presents a FAST model of a modern 900-kW wind turbine, which is calibrated based on field vibration measurements. With this calibrated model, both coupled and uncoupled simulations are conducted looking at the structural demand for the turbine tower. Response is compared under the conditions of normal operation and potential emergency shutdown due the earthquake induced vibrations. The results highlight the availability of a numerical tool for conducting such studies, and provide insights into the combined wind-earthquake loading mechanism.

  14. Hybrid Simulations of the Broadband Ground Motions for the 2008 MS8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 at 14:28 Beijing Time. It is the largest event happened in the mainland of China since the 1976, Mw7.6, Tangshan earthquake. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. These resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Casualties numbered more than 80,000 people, and there were major economic losses. However, this earthquake is the first Ms 8 intraplate earthquake with good close fault strong motion coverage. Over four hundred strong motion stations of the National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) recorded the mainshock. Twelve of them located within 20 km of the fault traces and another 33 stations located within 100 km. These observations, accompanying with the hundreds of GPS vectors and multiple ALOS INSAR images, provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the rupture process of such a great intraplate earthquake. In this study, we calculate broadband near-field ground motion synthetic waveforms of this great earthquake using a hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology, which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies (f Green's function calculation approach at high frequency ( ~ 10.0 Hz). The fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time that were obtained by an inversion kinematic source model. At the same time, based on the aftershock data, we analyze the site effects for the near-field stations. Frequency-dependent site-amplification values for each station are calculated using genetic algorithms. For the calculation of the synthetic waveforms, at first, we carry out simulations using the hybrid methodology for the frequency up to 10.0 Hz. Then, we consider for the soil site simulations

  15. 88 hours: the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center response to the March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David J.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Earle, Paul S.; Briggs, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    The M 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and associated tsunami near the east coast of the island of Honshu caused tens of thousands of deaths and potentially over one trillion dollars in damage, resulting in one of the worst natural disasters ever recorded. The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC), through its responsibility to respond to all significant global earthquakes as part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, quickly produced and distributed a suite of earthquake information products to inform emergency responders, the public, the media, and the academic community of the earthquake's potential impact and to provide scientific background for the interpretation of the event's tectonic context and potential for future hazard. Here we present a timeline of the NEIC response to this devastating earthquake in the context of rapidly evolving information emanating from the global earthquake-response community. The timeline includes both internal and publicly distributed products, the relative timing of which highlights the inherent tradeoffs between the requirement to provide timely alerts and the necessity for accurate, authoritative information. The timeline also documents the iterative and evolutionary nature of the standard products produced by the NEIC and includes a behind-the-scenes look at the decisions, data, and analysis tools that drive our rapid product distribution.

  16. Seismic response of a typical fixed platform foundation under earthquake loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Feng; Wang Jun

    2013-01-01

    Offshore platforms in seismically active areas should be designed to service severe earthquake excitations with no global structural failure.This paper summarizes the dynamic analysis of a typical fixed platform under the earthquake loading in the seismically active area.The dynamic analysis includes interpretation of dynamic design parameters based on the available site-specific data,together with foundation design recommendations for earthquake loading conditions,which include free-field site response analyses,liquefaction analyses and soil-pile interaction analyses.

  17. Intra-day response of foreign exchange markets after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shuhei; Hirata, Yoshito; Iwayama, Koji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Although an economy is influenced by a natural disaster, the market response to the disaster during the first 24 hours is not clearly understood. Here we show that an earthquake quickly causes temporal changes in a foreign exchange market by examining the case of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Recurrence plots and statistical change point detection independently show that the United States dollar-Japanese yen market responded to the earthquake activity without delay and with the delay of about 2 minutes, respectively. These findings support that the efficient market hypothesis nearly holds now in the time scale of minutes.

  18. USGS response to an urban earthquake, Northridge '94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Brown, William M.; Johnson, Margo L.; Omdahl, Eleanor M.; Powers, Philip S.; Rhea, Susan; Tarr, Arthur C.

    1996-01-01

    The urban centers of our Nation provide our people with seemingly unlimited employment, social, and cultural opportunities as a result of the complex interactions of a diverse population embedded in an highly-engineered environment. Catastrophic events in one or more of the natural earth systems which underlie or envelop urban environment can have radical effects on the integrity and survivability of that environment. Earthquakes have for centuries been the source of cataclysmic events on cities throughout the world. Unlike many other earth processes, the effects of major earthquakes transcend all political, social, and geomorphic boundaries and can have decided impact on cities tens to hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter. In modern cities, where buildings, transportation corridors, and lifelines are complexly interrelated, the life, economic, and social vulnerabilities in the face of a major earthquake can be particularly acute.

  19. [Response of bacterial community structures at No. 10 Spring in Urumqi to felt earthquakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiao; Yang, Hongmei; Gao, Xiaoqi; You, Luhua; Lou, Kai

    2015-03-04

    Our aim was to know response of spring bacteria and metabolic characteristics of sensitive bacteria to felt earthquake. Water samples were collected from January 31 to December 31, 2012, during which period 5 felt earthquakes occurred and the epicenter was 100 kilometers away from the No. 10 Spring in Urumqi. We monitored the spring bacterial activities and function diversity changes from No. 10 Spring in Urumqi during the pre- and post-earthquake stages by using plate culture counting methods and BIOLOG GEN III bacteria plate. The spring bacterial numbers presented stochastic dynamic changes through the year. The culturable bacteria numbers and average well color development (AWCD ) of carbon source utilization of bacterial community were higher after the earthquake. Besides, there were some correlations with magnitude and epicenter distance of earthquake. The main carbon source utilization types of sensitive bacteria group for felt earthquake were sugar alcohol at the No. 10 Spring. The results indicated that the BIOLOG GEN III plate can be used for spring bacterial metabolism diversity research. Culturable bacteria numbers and carbon source utilization of bacterial communities showed some reflecting earthquake law.

  20. Biomarker responses of mussels exposed to earthquake disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri; Marsden, Islay D.; Glover, Chris N.; Gaw, Sally

    2016-12-01

    The green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus is recognised as a bioindicator of coastal contamination in New Zealand (NZ). Mussels (shell length 60-80 mm) were collected from three intertidal areas of Canterbury in the South Island of NZ prior to extreme earthquake disturbances on 22nd February 2011, and 9 months later in October 2011. Trace elements, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), were measured in the gills, digestive gland, foot and mantle. Metal levels in tissues were site specific, and mostly unaffected by earthquake disturbances. Physiological biomarkers were negatively affected by earthquake disturbances and mussels from the Port of Lyttelton had higher negative scope for growth post-earthquake. Metallothionein-like protein in the digestive gland correlated with metal content of tissues, as did catalase activity in the gill and lipid peroxidation values for the digestive gland. This research demonstrates that physiological and other biomarkers are effective at detecting the effects of multiple stressors following seismic disturbances.

  1. SEISMIC RESPONSE OF FRAME BUILDINGS WITH COMBINED EARTHQUAKE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abakar J. Abakarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to search for methods to improve the efficiency of the earthquake protection systems with rubber-metallic seismic insulating supports by combining them with dry friction and brittle uncoupling elements. Method The research is based on dynamic modelling methods. Results The computational dynamic model of the combined earthquake protection system and the system of differential equations of the seismic motion of a five-story frame building were compiled and an algorithm for estimating the efficiency and selection of the optimum parameters of the earthquake protection system was developed. Horizontal shifting seismic forces, maximum mass movements and maximum movements of rubber-metallic seismic insulating supports at different intensities and prevailing periods of seismic soil oscillations were determined. It is shown that, by using a combined earthquake protection system, seismic loads on frame buildings can be reduced by a factor of 1.5-2 and maximum mass movements – by 4-5 times. In addition, the area of rational application of seismic isolation systems with rubber-metallic supports in relation to the prevailing periods of seismic ground oscillations is expanding substantially. Conclusion The combined earthquake protection system allows the area of effective use of rubber-metallic supports to be expanded by increasing the range of possible prevailing periods of seismic soil vibrations at which the maximum movement of the top of the rubber-metallic supports does not exceed the maximum allowable value. The maximum residual movements of rubber-metallic supports can be reduced by using a lead core. 

  2. COMPARING SEA LEVEL RESPONSE AT MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA FROM THE 1989 LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE AND THE 1964 GREAT ALASKAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Breaker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the largest earthquakes to affect water levels in Monterey Bay in recent years were the Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPE of 1989 with a moment magnitude of 6.9, and the Great Alaskan Earthquake (GAE of 1964 with a moment magnitude of 9.2. In this study, we compare the sea level response of these events with a primary focus on their frequency content and how the bay affected it, itself. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA was employed to extract the primary frequencies associated with each event. It is not clear how or exactly where the tsunami associated with the LPE was generated, but it occurred inside the bay and most likely began to take on the characteristics of a seiche by the time it reached the tide gauge in Monterey Harbor. Results of the SSA decomposition revealed two primary periods of oscillation, 9-10 minutes, and 31-32 minutes. The first oscillation is in agreement with the range of periods for the expected natural oscillations of Monterey Harbor, and the second oscillation is consistent with a bay-wide oscillation or seiche mode. SSA decomposition of the GAE revealed several sequences of oscillations all with a period of approximately 37 minutes, which corresponds to the predicted, and previously observed, transverse mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay. In this case, it appears that this tsunami produced quarter-wave resonance within the bay consistent with its seiche-like response. Overall, the sea level responses to the LPE and GAE differed greatly, not only because of the large difference in their magnitudes but also because the driving force in one case occurred inside the bay (LPE, and in the second, outside the bay (GAE. As a result, different modes of oscillation were excited.

  3. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  4. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants, Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants, and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants. Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan. The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  5. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  6. Response of Alum Rock springs to the October 30, 2007 Alum Rock earthquake and implications for the origin of increased discharge after earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manga, Michael [UC BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    The origin of increased stream flow and spring discharge following earthquakes have been the subject of controversy, in large part because there are many models to explain observations and few measurements suitable for distinguishing between hypotheses. On October 30, 2007 a magnitude 5.5 earthquake occurred near the Alum Rock springs, California, USA. Within a day we documented a several-fold increase in discharge. Over the following year, we have monitored a gradual return towards pre-earthquake properties, but for the largest springs there appears to be a permanent increase in the steady discharge at all the springs. The Alum Rock springs discharge waters that represent a mixture between modern ('shallow') meteoric water and old ('deep') connate waters expelled by regional transpression. After the earthquake, the increased discharge at the largest springs was accompanied by a small decrease in the fraction of connate water in the spring discharge. Combined with the rapid response, this implies that the increased discharge has a shallow origin. Increased discharge at these springs occurs for earthquakes that cause static volumetric expansion and those that cause contraction, supporting models in which dynamic strains are responsible for the subsurface changes that cause flow to increase. We show that models in which the permeability of the fracture system feeding the springs increases after the earthquake are in general consistent with the changes in discharge. The response of these springs to another earthquake will provide critical constraints on the changes that occur in the subsurface.

  7. Site-Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located near Paducah , Kentucky, under the same IAG and is reported under...Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Portsmouth, Ohio by David W. Sykora, Jennifer J. Davis Geotechnical Laboratory...PAPER Miscellaneous Paper GL-93-13 August 1993 Site-Specific Earthquke Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Portsmouth, Ohio by

  8. Rapid response seismic networks in Europe: lessons learnt from the L'Aquila earthquake emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Strollo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The largest dataset ever recorded during a normal fault seismic sequence was acquired during the 2009 seismic emergency triggered by the damaging earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy. This was possible through the coordination of different rapid-response seismic networks in Italy, France and Germany. A seismic network of more than 60 stations recorded up to 70,000 earthquakes. Here, we describe the different open-data archives where it is possible to find this unique set of data for studies related to hazard, seismotectonics and earthquake physics. Moreover, we briefly describe some immediate and direct applications of emergency seismic networks. At the same time, we note the absence of communication platforms between the different European networks. Rapid-response networks need to agree on common strategies for network operations. Hopefully, over the next few years, the European Rapid-Response Seismic Network will became a reality.

  9. Response spectrum of seismic design code for zones lack of near-fault strong earthquake records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-le; DOU Hui-juan; ZHU Xi; SUN Jian-gang

    2007-01-01

    It was shown from the study on the recently near-fault earthquake ground motions that the near-fault effects were seldom considered in the existing Chinese seismic code. Referring to the UBC97 design concept for near-fault factors, based on the collected world-widely free-site records of near-fault earthquakes ground motions classified by earthquake magnitude and site condition, the attenuation relationship expressions of the acceleration spectrum demand at the key points within the long period and moderate period were established in term of the earthquake magnitude and the site condition. Furthermore, the near-fault factors' expressions about the earthquake magnitude and the fault distance were deduced for the area lack of near-fault strong earthquake records. Based on the current Chinese Building Seismic Design Code, the near-fault effect factors and the modified design spectral curves, which were valuable for the seismic design, were proposed to analyze the seismic response of structures.

  10. Development of the cloud sharing system for residential earthquake responses using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohei, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Azuma, H.; Hao, K. X.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake responses at residential depends on its building structure, site amplification, epicenter distance, and etc. Until recently, it was impossible to obtain the individual residential response by conventional seismometer in terms of costs. However, current technology makes it possible with the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors inside mobile terminals like smartphones. We developed the cloud sharing system for residential earthquake response in local community utilizing mobile terminals, such as an iPhone, iPad, iPod touch as a collaboration between NIED and Hakusan Corp. The triggered earthquake acceleration waveforms are recorded at sampling frequencies of 100Hz and stored on their memories once an threshold value was exceeded or ordered information received from the Earthquake Early Warning system. The recorded data is automatically transmitted and archived on the cloud server once the wireless communication is available. Users can easily get the uploaded data by use of a web browser through Internet. The cloud sharing system is designed for residential and only shared in local community internal. Residents can freely add sensors and register information about installation points in each region. And if an earthquake occurs, they can easily view the local distribution of seismic intensities and even analyze waves.To verify this cloud-based seismic wave sharing system, we have performed on site experiments under the cooperation of several local communities, The system and experimental results will be introduced and demonstrated in the presentation.

  11. Long-period building response to earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A.H.; Aagaard, B.T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study of modeled, long-period building responses to ground-motion simulations of earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. The earthquakes include the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, a magnitude 7.8 simulation of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and two hypothetical magnitude 7.8 northern San Andreas fault earthquakes with hypocenters north and south of San Francisco. We use the simulated ground motions to excite nonlinear models of 20-story, steel, welded moment-resisting frame (MRF) buildings. We consider MRF buildings designed with two different strengths and modeled with either ductile or brittle welds. Using peak interstory drift ratio (IDR) as a performance measure, the stiffer, higher strength building models outperform the equivalent more flexible, lower strength designs. The hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake with hypocenter north of San Francisco produces the most severe ground motions. In this simulation, the responses of the more flexible, lower strength building model with brittle welds exceed an IDR of 2.5% (that is, threaten life safety) on 54% of the urban area, compared to 4.6% of the urban area for the stiffer, higher strength building with ductile welds. We also use the simulated ground motions to predict the maximum isolator displacement of base-isolated buildings with linear, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models. For two existing 3-sec isolator systems near San Francisco, the design maximum displacement is 0.5 m, and our simulations predict isolator displacements for this type of system in excess of 0.5 m in many urban areas. This article demonstrates that a large, 1906-like earthquake could cause significant damage to long-period buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  12. Analysis of Taipei Basin Response for Earthquakes of Various Depths and Locations Using Empirical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sokolov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Taipei basin upon earthquake excitation was studied using records of recent earthquakes. The strong-motion database includes records obtained at 32 stations of the Taipei TSMIP net work from 83 deep and 142 shallow earthquakes (M > 4.0 that occurred in 1992 - 2004. The characteristics of frequency-de pendent site response were obtained as spectral ratios between the actual earthquake records (horizontal components and those modelled for a hypothetical Very Hard Rock (VHR condition. The models for VHR spectra of Taiwan earthquakes had been recently proposed by Sokolov et al. (2005b, 2006. Analysis of site response characteristics and comparison with simple 1D models of the soil column resulted in the following conclusions: (1 The spectral ratios through out the basin obtained from deep earth quakes (depth > 35 km exhibit good agreement with the theoretical ratios calculated using the 1D models constructed using avail able geological and geotechnical data. (2 The spectral ratios obtained from shallow earth quakes show influence of: (a surface waves generated when travelling from distant sources to the basin and (b relatively low-frequency (< 1 - 2 Hz waves generated within the basin. (3 Some shallow earth quakes pro duce extremely high amplification at frequencies 0.3 - 1 Hz within the basin that may be dangerous for high-rise buildings and high way bridges. (4 The obtained results may be used in probabilistic seismic microzonation of the basin when many possible earth quakes located at various distances are considered. 2D and 3D simulation is necessary to model the seismic influence from particularly large earthquakes.

  13. Performance of Irikura Recipe Rupture Model Generator in Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations with Graves and Pitarka Hybrid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarka, Arben; Graves, Robert; Irikura, Kojiro; Miyake, Hiroe; Rodgers, Arthur

    2017-02-01

    We analyzed the performance of the Irikura and Miyake (Pure and Applied Geophysics 168(2011):85-104, 2011) (IM2011) asperity-based kinematic rupture model generator, as implemented in the hybrid broadband ground motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 100(5A):2095-2123, 2010), for simulating ground motion from crustal earthquakes of intermediate size. The primary objective of our study is to investigate the transportability of IM2011 into the framework used by the Southern California Earthquake Center broadband simulation platform. In our analysis, we performed broadband (0-20 Hz) ground motion simulations for a suite of M6.7 crustal scenario earthquakes in a hard rock seismic velocity structure using rupture models produced with both IM2011 and the rupture generation method of Graves and Pitarka (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 2016) (GP2016). The level of simulated ground motions for the two approaches compare favorably with median estimates obtained from the 2014 Next Generation Attenuation-West2 Project (NGA-West2) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) over the frequency band 0.1-10 Hz and for distances out to 22 km from the fault. We also found that, compared to GP2016, IM2011 generates ground motion with larger variability, particularly at near-fault distances (1 s). For this specific scenario, the largest systematic difference in ground motion level for the two approaches occurs in the period band 1-3 s where the IM2011 motions are about 20-30% lower than those for GP2016. We found that increasing the rupture speed by 20% on the asperities in IM2011 produced ground motions in the 1-3 s bandwidth that are in much closer agreement with the GMPE medians and similar to those obtained with GP2016. The potential implications of this modification for other rupture mechanisms and magnitudes are not yet fully understood, and this topic is the subject of ongoing study. We concluded

  14. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  15. Site-Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Paducah , Kentucky by David W. Sykora, Jennifer J. Davis Geotechnical Laboratory Approved For Public Release...1993 Site-Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Paducah , Kentucky by David W. Sykora, Jennifer J. Davis... Gaseous diffusion plants -- Kentucky -- Paducah . 3. Nuclear facilities - Kentucky -- Paducah . 1. Davis, Jennifer J. 11. United

  16. Response spectra for differential motion of structures supports during earthquakes in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I.S. Elmasry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential motions of ground supports of stiff structures with large plan dimensions and separate foundations under earthquakes were studied by researchers during the last few decades. Such a type of structural response was previously underestimated. The importance of studying such a response comes up from the fact that usually the structures affected are of strategic importance such as bridges. During their expected life, structures may experience vibrations excited by ground waves of short wavelengths during near-source earthquakes, or during amplified earthquake signals, during explosions, or during vibrations induced from nearby strong vibration sources. This is the case when the differential motion of supports becomes considerable. This paper aims to review the effects of seismic signal variations along the structures dimensions with emphasis on Egypt as a case study. The paper shows some patterns of the damage imposed by such differential motion. A replication of the differential motion in the longitudinal direction is applied on a frame bridge model. The resulting straining actions show the necessity for considering the differential motion of supports in the design of special structures in Egypt. Finally, response spectra for the differential motion of supports, based on the available data from previous earthquakes in Egypt, is derived and proposed for designers to include in the design procedure when accounting for such type of structural response, and especially in long-span bridges.

  17. Maskirovka 2.0: Hybrid Threat, Hybrid Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    including the AUN Charter, Helsinki Accords, Russia-NATO Founding Act, Budapest Memorandum, and the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.2...Although somewhat less forceful, the 2015 G-7 Summit Declaration also condemns Russia’s actions in Ukraine. We reiterate our condemnation of the...the creation (and maintenance) of a family of like-minded nations who agree that responsible self-governance via the rule of law, the protection of

  18. Earthquake Response Analysis of Buildings at The Union Territory of Chandigarh, India, by using Building Vibration Observations due to Weak Earthquake Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, K.; Ito, T.; Masuda, T.; Koketsu, K.; Ramancharla, P. K.; Sangam, R.; Bodige, N.; Dasari, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of built environment in highly seismic areas is an important component of earthquake risk mitigation. As part of Indo-Japan collaborative research project (DISANET) sponsored by JST and JICA, six sets of building vibration sensors have been installed in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. The Union Territory of Chandigarh, India is located at South of the Himalayan Frontal Belt (HFT) is in zone IV of the seismic zone map of India (BIS, 2007). In past few decades, this area has experienced several minor earthquakes and a few moderate earthquakes. In spite of being in high seismic zone, most of the buildings in Chandigarh are designed and constructed for gravity loads only disregarding seismic forces. Such kind of buildings may deteriorate in strength even when they are subjected to minor earthquakes. To understand the response of buildings to micro-tremors, vibration sensors were installed in the building of Department of Geology of Panjab University in July 2012. Subsequently 5 more buildings were instrumented by January 2014. For each building, in order to capture the overall vibration of building during earthquake, vibration sensors of 8 or 10 units are installed to the ground floor, top floor and middle floor of the building. These sensors are continuously monitoring the building vibration and recording all data which include the weak ground motion occurring from near to far earthquakes. Through these sensors, over 20 minor ground motions have been recorded during last two years. Even in these weak ground motions, it was possible to confirm the state of the building response caused by earthquakes. In this presentation, we will introduce some building vibration records caused by the weak ground motion of the earthquakes and discuss the important insights drawn from analysis of recorded data.

  19. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement as response of finite elastic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Iyengar; Shailesh K R Agrawal

    2001-03-01

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the source location and forces generated during an earthquake as an inverse problem in structural dynamics. Based on this analogy, a simple model for the basic earthquake source is proposed. The unknown source is assumed to be a sequence of impulses acting at locations yet to be found. These unknown impulses and their locations are found using the normal mode expansion along with a minimization of mean square error. The medium is assumed to be finite, elastic, homogeneous, layered and horizontal with a specific set of boundary conditions. Detailed results are obtained for Uttarkashi earthquake. The impulse locations exhibit a linear structure closely associated with the causative fault. The results obtained are shown to be in good agreement with reported values. The proposed engineering model is then used to simulate the acceleration time histories at a few recording stations. The earthquake source in terms of a sequence of impulses acting at different locations is applied on a 2D finite elastic medium and acceleration time histories are found using finite element methods. The synthetic accelerations obtained are in close match with the recorded accelerations.

  20. Disaster epidemiology and medical response in the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, N J; Shih, Y T; Shih, F Y; Wu, H M; Wang, H J; Shi, S F; Liu, M Y; Wang, B B

    2001-11-01

    We examine the mortality and morbidity associated with earthquakes in the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan in 1999. Crude casualty data were collected from the reports of the government, local health bureaus, and 97 hospitals. The demographic data from the annual report of the Department of Interior were also employed for data analysis. Cross tables showing incidence of deaths and injuries by age, sex, time, and geographic distribution were generated to compare the mortality among different subgroups. Multiple regression models were established to explore the risk factors related to the mortality caused by earthquakes. The following results were found: the mortality rate increased with proximity to the epicenter, mortality was higher among the elderly than among young people, 30% of the victims died from head injuries caused by the collapse of dwellings, and the peak of medical demand was 12 hours after the earthquake and significantly increased demand for care lasted as long as 3 days. Furthermore, the regression model indicated that 78.5% of the variation of locality-age-sex-specific mortality was explained by the intensity of the earthquake, age, population density, distance to epicenter, medical beds per 10,000 people, and physicians per 10,000 people. The results implied that fragile minorities, specifically the elderly and children, require special consideration and attention in regard to disaster rescue and emergency medical care allocation. Epidemiologic analysis can guide disaster response and preparation.

  1. Tectonic Summaries for Web-served Earthquake Responses, Southeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the rationale and strategy used to write short summaries of the seismicity and tectonic settings of domains in southeastern North America. The summaries are used in automated responses to notable earthquakes that occur anywhere east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States or Canada. Specifically, the report describes the geologic and tectonic information, data sources, criteria, and reasoning used to determine the content and format of the summaries, for the benefit of geologists or seismologists who may someday need to revise the summaries or write others. These tectonic summaries are designed to be automatically posted on the World Wide Web as soon as an earthquake?s epicenter is determined. The summaries are part of a larger collection of summaries that is planned to cover the world.

  2. The Response of Long-Span Bridges to Low Frequency, Near-Fault Earthquake Ground Motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, David; Astaneh-Asl, A.; Larsen, S.C.; Hutchings, Larry

    2009-02-27

    Historical seismic hazard characterizations did not include earthquake ground motion waveforms at frequencies below approximately 0.2 Hz (5 seconds period). This resulted from limitations in early strong motion instrumentation and signal processing techniques, a lack of measurements in the near-field of major earthquakes and therefore no observational awareness, and a delayed understanding in the engineering community of the potential significance of these types of motions. In recent years, there is a growing recognition of the relevance of near-fault, low frequency motions, particularly for long-period structures such as large bridges. This paper describes a computationally based study of the effects of low frequency (long-period) near-fault motions on long-span bridge response. The importance of inclusion of these types of motions for long span cable supported bridges is demonstrated using actual measured broad-band, near-fault motions from large earthquakes.

  3. A Cooperative Test of the Load/Unload Response Ratio Proposed Method of Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, J. E.; Tullis, T. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Load/Unload Response Ratio (LURR) method is a proposed technique to predict earthquakes that was first put forward by Yin in 1984 (Yin, 1987). LURR is based on the idea that when a region is near failure, there is an increase in the rate of seismic activity during loading of the tidal cycle relative to the rate of seismic activity during unloading of the tidal cycle. Typically the numerator of the LURR ratio is the number, or the sum of some measure of the size (e.g. Benioff strain), of small earthquakes that occur during loading of the tidal cycle, whereas the denominator is the same as the numerator except it is calculated during unloading. LURR method suggests this ratio should increase in the months to year preceding a large earthquake. Regions near failure have tectonic stresses nearly high enough for a large earthquake to occur, thus it seems more likely that smaller earthquakes in the region would be triggered when the tidal stresses add to the tectonic ones. However, until recently even the most careful studies suggested that the effect of tidal stresses on earthquake occurrence is very small and difficult to detect. New studies have shown that there is a tidal triggering effect on shallow thrust faults in areas with strong tides from ocean loading (Tanaka et al., 2002; Cochran et al., 2004). We have been conducting an independent test of the LURR method, since there would be important scientific and social implications if the LURR method were proven to be a robust method of earthquake prediction. Smith and Sammis (2003) also undertook a similar study. Following both the parameters of Yin et al. (2000) and the somewhat different ones of Smith and Sammis (2003), we have repeated calculations of LURR for the Northridge and Loma Prieta earthquakes in California. Though we have followed both sets of parameters closely, we have been unable to reproduce either set of results. A general agreement was made at the recent ACES Workshop in China between research

  4. Types of hydrogeological response to large-scale explosions and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Besedina, Alina; Martynov, Vasilii

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogeological response to anthropogenic and natural impact indicates massif properties and mode of deformation. We studied uneven-aged aquifers that had been unsealed at the Semipalatinsk testing area (Kazakhstan) and geophysical observatory "Mikhnevo" at the Moscow region (Russia). Data was collected during long-term underground water monitoring that was carried out in 1983-1989 when large-scale underground nuclear explosions were realized. Precise observations of underground water response to distant earthquakes waves passage at GPO "Mikhnevo" have been conducted since 2008. One of the goals of the study was to mark out main types of either dynamic or irreversible spatial-temporal underground water response to large-scale explosions and to compare them with those of earthquakes impact as it had been presented in different papers. As far as nobody really knows hydrogeological processes that occur at the earthquake source it's especially important to analyze experimental data of groundwater level variations that was carried close to epicenter first minutes to hours after explosions. We found that hydrogeodynamic reaction strongly depends on initial geological and hydrogeological conditions as far as on seismic impact parameters. In the near area post-dynamic variations can lead to either excess pressure dome or depression cone forming that results of aquifer drainage due to rock massif fracturing. In the far area explosion effect is comparable with the one of distant earthquake and provides dynamic water level oscillations. Precise monitoring at the "Mikhnevo" area was conducted in the platform conditions far from active faults thus we consider it as a purely calm area far from earthquake sources. Both dynamic and irreversible water level change seem to form power dependence on vertical peak ground displacement velocity due to wave passage. Further research will be aimed at transition close-to-far area to identify a criterion that determines either irreversible

  5. Water-responsive shape memory hybrid: Design concept and demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory materials are featured by their ability to recover their original shapes when a particular stimulus, such as heat, light, magnetic field, even moisture/water, etc. is applied. However, it is not an easy task for non-professionals to synthesize a shape memory material which can meet all the requirements of a particular application. Even for professionals, like materials researchers, it could involve tedious trial and error procedures. In this paper, the concept of water-responsive shape memory hybrid is proposed and the advantages are demonstrated by two examples. The hybrid concept is versatile and can be easily accessed by those even without much polymer/chemistry background. Moreover, the performance of such hybrids can be well-predicted. This concept can be further extended into solvent-responsive shape memory hybrids, which can be routinely designed and realized in a Do-It-Yourself manner by almost anyone.

  6. Response of base-isolated nuclear structures to extreme earthquake shaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar2@buffalo.edu; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of nuclear structures base-isolated using lead–rubber bearings is performed. • Advanced numerical model of lead–rubber bearing is used to capture behavior under extreme earthquake shaking. • Results of response-history analysis obtained using simplified and advanced model of lead–rubber bearings are compared. • Heating of the lead core and variation in buckling load and axial stiffness affect the response. - Abstract: Seismic isolation using low damping rubber and lead–rubber bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. The mechanical properties of these bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead–rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the lateral displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) are investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead–rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees. A macro-model is used for response-history analysis of base-isolated NPPs. Ground motions are selected and scaled to be consistent with response spectra for design basis and beyond design basis earthquake shaking at the site of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station. Ten isolation systems of two periods and five characteristic strengths are analyzed. The responses obtained using simplified and advanced isolator models are compared. Strength degradation due to heating of lead cores and changes in buckling load most significantly affect the response of the base-isolated NPP.

  7. Numerical modelling of iceberg calving force responsible for glacial earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of cubic-kilometer scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves with dominant energy between 10-150 s of period whose seismogenic source is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. A reverse motion and posterior rebound of the terminus have also been measured and associated with the fluctuation of this contact force. Using a finite element model of iceberg and glacier terminus coupled with simplified fluid-structure interaction model, we simulate calving and capsize of icebergs. Contact and frictional forces are measured on the terminus and compared with laboratory experiments. We also study the influence of geometric factors on the force history, amplitude and duration at the laboratory and field scales. We show first insights into the force and the generated seismic waves exploring different scenarios for iceberg capsizing.

  8. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  9. Facilitators and obstacles in pre-hospital medical response to earthquakes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrén Maaret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earthquakes are renowned as being amongst the most dangerous and destructive types of natural disasters. Iran, a developing country in Asia, is prone to earthquakes and is ranked as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world in this respect. The medical response in disasters is accompanied by managerial, logistic, technical, and medical challenges being also the case in the Bam earthquake in Iran. Our objective was to explore the medical response to the Bam earthquake with specific emphasis on pre-hospital medical management during the first days. Methods The study was performed in 2008; an interview based qualitative study using content analysis. We conducted nineteen interviews with experts and managers responsible for responding to the Bam earthquake, including pre-hospital emergency medical services, the Red Crescent, and Universities of Medical Sciences. The selection of participants was determined by using a purposeful sampling method. Sample size was given by data saturation. Results The pre-hospital medical service was divided into three categories; triage, emergency medical care and transportation, each category in turn was identified into facilitators and obstacles. The obstacles identified were absence of a structured disaster plan, absence of standardized medical teams, and shortage of resources. The army and skilled medical volunteers were identified as facilitators. Conclusions The most compelling, and at the same time amenable obstacle, was the lack of a disaster management plan. It was evident that implementing a comprehensive plan would not only save lives but decrease suffering and enable an effective praxis of the available resources at pre-hospital and hospital levels.

  10. Immediate behavioural responses to earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Wu, Hao Che; Huang, Shih-Kai; Johnston, David M; Becker, Julia S; Shiroshita, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study examines people's immediate responses to earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch and 332 respondents in Hitachi revealed notable similarities between the two cities in people's emotional reactions, risk perceptions, and immediate protective actions during the events. Respondents' physical, household, and social contexts were quite similar, but Hitachi residents reported somewhat higher levels of emotional reaction and risk perception than did Christchurch residents. Contrary to the recommendations of emergency officials, the most frequent response of residents in both cities was to freeze. Christchurch residents were more likely than Hitachi residents to drop to the ground and take cover, whereas Hitachi residents were more likely than Christchurch residents to evacuate immediately the building in which they were situated. There were relatively small correlations between immediate behavioural responses and demographic characteristics, earthquake experience, and physical, social, or household context. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  11. Emergency Response to Earthquake in Chile: Experience of a Cuban Field Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Carlos R

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the author's experiences in deploying and later establishing a Cuban field hospital in response to the major earthquake that struck Chile in February 2010. It also reveals the initial difficulties the medical team faced and how collaboration with local social, medical and military partners contributed to response efficiency, and highlights the importance of Cuba's international health cooperation, especially in emergency situations. Over 254 days, Cuban health professionals had 50,048 patient encounters (outpatient visits and hospitalizations), a daily average of 197. They performed 1778 surgeries (1427 major, 80.2% of total) and accumulated valuable experience in managing a field hospital in a disaster situation. KEYWORDS Earthquake, humanitarian aid, health care, emergency response, disaster medicine, logistics, Chile, Cuba.

  12. PBO Southwest Region: Baja Earthquake Response and Network Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Mann, D.; Lawrence, S.; Jarvis, C.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The SW region of the Plate Boundary Observatory consists of 455 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault and Eastern California Shear Zone. In the past year network uptime exceeded an average of 97% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (307), radio (92), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual downloads (1). Sixty-three stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. In the past 12 months, 4 new stations were installed to replace removed stations or to augment the network at strategic locations. Following the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake CGPS station P796, a deep-drilled braced monument, was constructed in San Luis, AZ along the border within 5 weeks of the event. In addition, UNAVCO participated in a successful University of Arizona-led RAPID proposal for the installation of six continuous GPS stations for post-seismic observations. Six stations are installed and telemetered through a UNAM relay at the Sierra San Pedro Martir. Four of these stations have Vaisala WXT520 meteorological sensors. An additional site in the Sierra Cucapah (PTAX) that was built by CICESE, an Associate UNAVCO Member institution in Mexico, and Caltech has been integrated into PBO dataflow. The stations will be maintained as part of the PBO network in coordination with CICESE. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to upgrade PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and communications systems capable of streaming real-time GPS and met data. The real-time GPS and meteorological sensor data streaming support watershed and flood analyses for regional early-warning systems related to NOAA's work with California Department of Water Resources. Currently 19 stations are online and streaming with 7 more in

  13. Streamflow responses to Chilean Megathrust earthquakes during the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, C.; Manga, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Korup, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coseismic static stress and dynamic stresses generated by propagating seismic waves cause responses in hydrological systems. Such responses include changes in the water level, hydrochemistry and streamflow discharge. Earthquake effects on hydrological systems provide a means to study the interaction between stress changes and regional hydrology, which is otherwise rarely possible. Chile is a country of frequent and large earthquakes and thus provides abundant opportunities to study such interactions and processes. Here we present streamflow responses to several Chilean Megathrust earthquakes, including the 1943 Mw 8.1 Coquimbo, 1950 Mw 8.2 Antofagasta, 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia, 1985 Mw 8.0 Valparaiso, 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquakes. The stream gauges (n=716) are scattered across Chile, from the Altiplano in the North to Tierra del Fuego in the South. The network thus covers the Andes mountain ranges, the central valley, the Coastal Mountain ranges and (mainly in the more southern parts) the Coastal flats. We combine empirical magnitude-distance relationships, tree-based machine learning tools, and process-based modeling to characterize responses. We first assess the streamflow anomalies and relate these to environmental factors including geology, topography, altitude, soil and vegetation. We then apply 1D-groundwater flow modeling to selected catchments in order to test competing hypotheses for the origin of streamflow changes. We show that the responses of streamflow were heterogeneous, both in sign (decreases and increases in discharge) and in magnitude.

  14. International postseismic response after the Mw=7.8 April 16, 2016 Pedernales Earthquake in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Y.; Ruiz, M. C.; Alvarado, A. P.; Mercerat, D.; Beck, S. L.; Leon Rios, S.; Meltzer, A.; Charvis, P.; Regnier, M. M.; Jarrin, P.; Rietbrock, A.; Vasconez, F.; Dionicio, V.; Calvache, M. L.; Singaucho, J. C.; Pazmino, A.; Rolandone, F.; Mothes, P. A.; Nocquet, J. M.; Martin, X.; Viracucha, C.; Audin, L.; Saillard, M.; Laurendeau, A.; Perrault, M.; Garth, T.; Pernoud, M.; Barros, J. G.; Yates, B.; Malengros, D.; Oregioni, D.; Villegas Lanza, J. C.; Cisneros, D.; Gomez, J.; Montes, L.; Beauval, C. M.; Bertrand, E.; Delouis, B.; Ruiz Paspuel, A. G.; Freymueller, J. T.; Williams, K.; La Femina, P.; Fuenzalida, A.; Mariniere, J.; Cheze, J.; Gueguen, P.; Maron, C.; Michaud, F.; Yepes, H. A.; Palacios, P.; Vallee, M.; Deschamps, A.; Gabriela, P.; Ambrois, D.; Ramos, C.; Courboulex, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Pedernales earthquake is a large Mw7.8 subduction earthquake caused by the relative convergence between the Nazca and South American plates. It occured north of the city of Pedernales, at 21 km depth and struck the coastal and densely populated Manabi Province, causing many casualties, structural damages and widespread surficial deformation. The 2016 epicenter was located near the Mw 7.8 1942 epicenter. Both events are similar in size and probably ruptured the same segment, which also corresponds to the southern part of the 1906 Mw8.8 Ecuador-Colombia megathrust rupture zone. Immediately after the earthquake, an international team from Ecuador, France, Colombia, the United Kingdom, Peru and the United States coordinated a scientific response with the respective financial support of EPN, IRD and CNRS, SGC, NERC and NSF. Equipment was provided by IGEPN, IRD, CEREMA, SGC, LIVERPOOL, IRIS PASSCAL and UNAVCO. Within a 1.5 month, the team progressively deployed a temporary seismic network of about 70 accelerometer and seismic stations, and 17 continuous GPS stations, complementing the permanent seismic, accelerometer and geodetic network of the IG-EPN. The dense network covers the 300 x 150 km wide area affected by the earthquake, including a trench-parallel line of 10 ocean bottom seismometers deployed by the R/V Orion of INOCAR for 6 months, assuring a minimized azimuthal gap. Intense seismicity is observed up to 150 km N- and S-ward from the rupture zone aligning mainly along 3 seismic strips roughly perpendicular to the trench and also near the rupture area. Peak ground and spectral accelerations are compared with existing ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed for interface earthquakes. Different soil investigations were realized to highlight soil characteristics in cities. The geodetic observations captured the immediate afterslip and will help determining the time history of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation in response to this earthquake. A

  15. Ionospheric Plasma Response to M w 8.3 Chile Illapel Earthquake on September 16, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. D.; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Seemala, Gopi K.; González, Gabriel; Baez, Juan Carlos

    2016-05-01

    The lithosphere and the atmosphere/ionosphere continuously exchange energy through various coupling mechanisms. In particular, the earth surface displacement caused by earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis can manifest as ionospheric plasma perturbations. We investigate the coseismic induced ionospheric total electron content (TEC) perturbations following the M w 8.3 Illapel thrust earthquake that occurred on September 16, 2015. The continuous global positioning system (GPS) data at 48 sites from Centro Sismológico Nacional and International GNSS Service GPS networks have been used in this study. The nearest GPS site recorded the ionospheric response 10 min after the occurrence of this earthquake. The maximum vertical coseismic induced TEC amplitude is ~1.4 TECU, and the perturbations are pronounced in the northern region of the epicenter and confined to less than ~1500 km radius. The average horizontal acoustic wave velocity has been determined as ~1260 m/s. We also observed acoustic resonance recorded by PRN 12 at 4.3 mHz corresponding to the first overtone of acoustic mode and lasting for about 30 min. In this study, we present characteristics of GPS derived ionospheric plasma perturbations following Illapel earthquake.

  16. Abating Earthquake Effects on Buildings by Active Slip Brace Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Akbay

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid control system for reducing building vibration under a spectrum of earthquake load amplitudes is presented. The hybrid control is accomplished by an energy dissipation device called the active slip brace device (ASBD. The hybrid control system uses the ASBD to regulate the energy dissipation characteristics of the building during its response to earthquakes by utilizing active control principles. The ASBD consists of a Coulomb friction interface with a clamping mechanism on the interface. The clamping force on the friction interface is altered at short time intervals during building vibration. Computer simulations of building response with and without ASBD are compared.

  17. Complete Coverage Path Planning for a Multi-UAV Response System in Post-Earthquake Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Nedjati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a post-earthquake response system for a rapid damage assessment. In this system, multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are deployed to collect the images from the earthquake site and create a response map for extracting useful information. It is an extension of well-known coverage path problem (CPP that is based on the grid pattern map decomposition. In addition to some linear strengthening techniques, two mathematic formulations, 4-index and 5-index models, are proposed in the approach and coded in GAMS (Cplex solver. They are tested on a number of problems and the results show that the 5-index model outperforms the 4-index model. Moreover, the proposed system could be significantly improved by the solver-generated cuts, additional constraints, and the variable branching priority extensions.

  18. Response Analysis for Steel Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures under Earthquake Load

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Wei; Jiye Zhang; Haijun Wang

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the whole process of the steel reinforced concrete frame structure from elastic to elasto-plastic cracking gradually, damage until the collapse, the elasto-plastic finite element analysis theory and ETABS structural analysis software were used, then the spatial three-dimensional truss system model of frame structures was established. Based on the analysis of the elasto-plastic response for the frame structure under one-dimensional and two-dimensional earthquake load, th...

  19. Climate responsive and safe earthquake construction: a community building a school

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Darshan; Jishnu Subedi; Ryuichi Yatabe; Netra Prakash Bhandary

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines environment friendly features, climate responsive features and construction features of a prototype school building constructed using green building technology. The school building has other additional features such as earthquake resistant construction, use of local materials and local technology. The construction process not only establishes community ownership, but also facilitates dissemination of the technology to the communities. Schools are effective media for rais...

  20. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for the UCSB Campus, and Related Response of the Engineering 1 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, R.; Bonilla, F.; Doroudian, M.; Elgamal, A.; Hueze, F.

    2000-06-06

    This is the second report on the UC/CLC Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), concerning the estimation of exposure of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus to strong earthquake motions (Phase 2 study). The main results of Phase 1 are summarized in the current report. This document describes the studies which resulted in site-specific strong motion estimates for the Engineering I site, and discusses the potential impact of these motions on the building. The main elements of Phase 2 are: (1) determining that a M 6.8 earthquake on the North Channel-Pitas Point (NCPP) fault is the largest threat to the campus. Its recurrence interval is estimated at 350 to 525 years; (2) recording earthquakes from that fault on March 23, 1998 (M 3.2) and May 14, 1999 (M 3.2) at the new UCSB seismic station; (3) using these recordings as empirical Green's functions (EGF) in scenario earthquake simulations which provided strong motion estimates (seismic syntheses) at a depth of 74 m under the Engineering I site; 240 such simulations were performed, each with the same seismic moment, but giving a broad range of motions that were analyzed for their mean and standard deviation; (4) laboratory testing, at U.C. Berkeley and U.C. Los Angeles, of soil samples obtained from drilling at the UCSB station site, to determine their response to earthquake-type loading; (5) performing nonlinear soil dynamic calculations, using the soil properties determined in-situ and in the laboratory, to calculate the surface strong motions resulting from the seismic syntheses at depth; (6) comparing these CEP-generated strong motion estimates to acceleration spectra based on the application of state-of-practice methods - the IBC 2000 code, UBC 97 code and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), this comparison will be used to formulate design-basis spectra for future buildings and retrofits at UCSB; and (7) comparing the response of the Engineering I building to the CEP ground motion estimates and to the design

  1. Golden Gate Bridge response: a study with low-amplitude data from three earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic response of the Golden Gate Bridge, located north of San Francisco, CA, has been studied previously using ambient vibration data and finite element models. Since permanent seismic instrumentation was installed in 1993, only small earthquakes that originated at distances varying between ~11 to 122 km have been recorded. Nonetheless, these records prompted this study of the response of the bridge to low amplitude shaking caused by three earthquakes. Compared to previous ambient vibration studies, the earthquake response data reveal a slightly higher fundamental frequency (shorter-period) for vertical vibration of the bridge deck center span (~7.7–8.3 s versus 8.2–10.6 s), and a much higher fundamental frequency (shorter period) for the transverse direction of the deck (~11.24–16.3 s versus ~18.2 s). In this study, it is also shown that these two periods are dominant apparent periods representing interaction between tower, cable, and deck.

  2. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  3. GPS time-series and its response to Ms=8.1 Kunlunshan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Shao-qun; WU Yun; QIAO Xue-jun; ZHOU Shuo-yu; SHI Shun-ying

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, observation data in 25 GPS reference stations of China have been analyzed by calculating GPS position coordinate time-series with GIPSY. Result shows there is an obvious trend variation in such time-series. The trend variations of time series along the longitude and latitude coordinate reflect the motion of each position in the global-plate, in which the trend variation in the vertical direction reveals some large-scale construction information or reflects the local movement around the positions. The analysis also shows that such time-series have a variation cycle of nearly 1.02 a, but the reason still remains to be further studied. At the end of this paper, response of the time-series to Ms=8.1 Kunlunshan earthquake was analyzed, and the seismogenic process of Ms=8.1 Kunlunshan earthquake, according to the time proceeding and the feature of anomaly, was divided into 3 phases-changes in blocks with forces, strain accumulation, quick accumulation and slow release of energy. At the initial stage of seismogenic process of Ms=8.1 earthquake and at the imminent earthquake, coseismic process as well as during the post earthquake recovery, anomaly in vertical direction is always in a majority. The anomalous movement in vertical direction at the initial stage resulted in a blocking between faults, while at the middle stage of seismogenic process, the differential movement between blocks are in a majority, which is the major reason causing energy accumulating at the blocking stage of faults.

  4. Site response zones and short-period earthquake ground motion projections for the Las Vegas Basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barbara Luke; Ying Liu

    2008-11-01

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis was conducted to address the effect of local soil conditions on earthquake-induced strong ground motion in the Las Vegas Basin, Nevada (US). Using a large geological and geotechnical database, two response units were defined: a fine-grained unit, predominantly clay; and a coarse-grained unit, predominantly gravel. A moderate number of high-quality shallow shear wave velocity measurements were collected from which characteristic shear wave velocity profiles were developed for each response unit. An equivalent-linear one-dimensional site response model was used. The model was calibrated using a basin-wide, small-strain ground motion database. Calibration tests showed that ground motion projections become increasingly conservative with increasing ground-motion amplitude. Projections were overconservative for the coarsegrained response unit, likely due to the sparseness of the velocity database. For the earthquake response analyses, historical ground motions were used to model characteristic ‘bedrock’ motion for earthquakes on 10 faults judged to be critical. Response spectral envelopes were generated for each unit through Monte-Carlo simulations. For the fine-grained response unit, 95th percentile peak ground acceleration, peak spectral acceleration and predominant period were 310 cm/s2, 1100cm/s2, and 0.29 s, respectively. With respect to codified design spectra, projections are lower at short periods and higher at long periods. Projections of peak spectral accelerations for the coarsegrained response unit, were more than double that of codified spectra; however, they are believed to be overconservative. Near-fault effects and basin-edge effects, though potentially important, were not considered in these analyses.

  5. Planning Matters: Response Operations following the 30 September 2009 Sumatran Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, L. K.; Cedillos, V.; Rahayu, H.

    2009-12-01

    Response operations following the 9/30/2009 West Sumatra earthquake tested extensive planning that had been done in Indonesia since the 26 December 2004 Sumatran Earthquake and Tsunami. After massive destruction in Aceh Province in 2004, the Indonesian National Government revised its national disaster management plans. A key component was to select six cities in Indonesia exposed to significant risk and make a focused investment of resources, planning activities, and public education to reduce risk of major disasters. Padang City was selected for this national “showcase” for disaster preparedness, planning, and response. The question is whether planning improved governmental performance and coordination in practice. There is substantial evidence that disaster preparedness planning and training initiated over the past four years had a positive effect on Padang in terms of disaster risk reduction. The National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB, 10/28/09) reported the following casualties: Padang City: deaths, 383; severe injuries, 431, minor injuries, 771. Province of West Sumatra: deaths, 1209; severe injuries, 67; minor injuries, 1179. These figures contrasted markedly with the estimated losses following the 2004 Earthquake and Tsunami when no training had been done: Banda Aceh, deaths, 118,000; Aceh Province, dead/missing, 236,169 (ID Health Ministry 2/22/05). The 2004 events were more severe, yet the comparable scale of loss was significantly lower in the 9/30/09 earthquake. Three factors contributed to reducing disaster risk in Padang and West Sumatra. First, annual training exercises for tsunami warning and evacuation had been organized by national agencies since 2004. In 2008, all exercises and training activities were placed under the newly established BNPB. The exercise held in Padang in February, 2009 served as an organizing framework for response operations in the 9/30/09 earthquake. Public officers with key responsibilities for emergency operations

  6. Response Analysis for Steel Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures under Earthquake Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the whole process of the steel reinforced concrete frame structure from elastic to elasto-plastic cracking gradually, damage until the collapse, the elasto-plastic finite element analysis theory and ETABS structural analysis software were used, then the spatial three-dimensional truss system model of frame structures was established. Based on the analysis of the elasto-plastic response for the frame structure under one-dimensional and two-dimensional earthquake load, the interbedded displacement angle-time curve and horizontal displacement-time curve were obtained. Through the analysis of the model, the sequence of appearance of plastic hinges in the frame structure under earthquake load was cleared and the weak location of the frame structure was detected.

  7. Responses of the Ionosphere to the Great Sumatra Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption of Pinatubo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yong-Qiang; XIAO Zuo; ZHANG Dong-He

    2006-01-01

    @@ A sudden ionospheric disturbance was detected by the Doppler shift sounding equipment at Beijing, about 25min later after the outbreak of the Sumatra earthquake on 26 December 2004. This ionospheric disturbance appeared less than 10min after the earthquake was first recorded at Beijing seismological station by the arrival of the seismic Rayleigh wave. The analysis shows that about 18 min is the time necessary for the seismic Rayleigh wave to propagate from the epicentre to Beijing and then about 5-10min for acoustic waves to propagate from the surface of the Beijing area to the altitude of the ionosphere. Also, a report was made as another example to show the ionospheric response of Doppler shift observation at Beijing area during the Mount Pinatubo eruption of 1991.These two examples show clear evidence of the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. The former case is in the frequency domain of infrasonic waves of the Earth surface oscillation due to the Rayleigh waves caused by the earthquake, while the latter is in the acoustic-gravity wave category directly excited in the atmosphere by the mass and energy eruptions of Mount Pinatubo.

  8. Multispectral, hyperspectral, and LiDAR remote sensing and geographic information fusion for improved earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.; Kim, A. M.; Runyon, S. C.; Carlisle, Sarah C.; Clasen, C. C.; Esterline, C. H.; Jalobeanu, A.; Metcalf, J. P.; Basgall, P. L.; Trask, D. M.; Olsen, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Remote Sensing Center (RSC) and research partners have completed a remote sensing pilot project in support of California post-earthquake-event emergency response. The project goals were to dovetail emergency management requirements with remote sensing capabilities to develop prototype map products for improved earthquake response. NPS coordinated with emergency management services and first responders to compile information about essential elements of information (EEI) requirements. A wide variety of remote sensing datasets including multispectral imagery (MSI), hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and LiDAR were assembled by NPS for the purpose of building imagery baseline data; and to demonstrate the use of remote sensing to derive ground surface information for use in planning, conducting, and monitoring post-earthquake emergency response. Worldview-2 data were converted to reflectance, orthorectified, and mosaicked for most of Monterey County; CA. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired at two spatial resolutions were atmospherically corrected and analyzed in conjunction with the MSI data. LiDAR data at point densities from 1.4 pts/m2 to over 40 points/ m2 were analyzed to determine digital surface models. The multimodal data were then used to develop change detection approaches and products and other supporting information. Analysis results from these data along with other geographic information were used to identify and generate multi-tiered products tied to the level of post-event communications infrastructure (internet access + cell, cell only, no internet/cell). Technology transfer of these capabilities to local and state emergency response organizations gives emergency responders new tools in support of post-disaster operational scenarios.

  9. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  10. Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Building Retrofitted with Geopolymer Concrete and X-shaped Metallic Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Prakash vel, J.; Sathishkumar, K.; Rao, G. V. Rama

    2017-06-01

    A three-storey half scale reinforced concrete (RC) building is fixed with X-shaped metallic damper at the ground floor level, is designed and fabricated to study its seismic response characteristics. Experimental studies are carried out using the (4 m × 4 m) tri-axial shake-table facility to evaluate the seismic response of a retrofitted RC building with open ground storey (OGS) structure using yielding type X-shaped metallic dampers (also called as Added Damping and Stiffness-ADAS elements) and repairing the damaged ground storey columns using geopolymer concrete composites. This elasto-plastic device is normally incorporated within the frame structure between adjacent floors through chevron bracing, so that they efficiently enhance the overall energy dissipation ability of the seismically deficient frame structure under earthquake loading. Free vibration tests on RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper is carried out. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper are determined. The retrofitted reinforced concrete building is subjected to earthquake excitations and the response from the structure is recorded. This work discusses the preparation of test specimen, experimental set-up, instrumentation, method of testing of RC building and the response of the structure. The metallic damper reduces the time period of the structure and displacement demands on the OGS columns of the structure. Nonlinear time history analysis is performed using structural analysis package, SAP2000.

  11. Real-Time Seismic Monitoring of Thenewcape Girardeau (mo) Bridge and Recorded Earthquake Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    çelebi, Mehmet

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Design of the bridge accounted for the possibility of a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network consists of a superstructure and two free-field arrays and comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and free-field in the vicinity of the bridge. The paper also introduces the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to (1) assess the performance of the bridge, (2) check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and (3) better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of low-amplitude ambient vibration data and that from a small earthquake reveal specific response characteristics of this new bridge and the free-field in its proximity. There is coherent tower-cabledeck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Also, while the motions at the lowest (tri-axial) downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free-from any feedback from the bridge, the motions at the middle downhole and surface accelerometers are significantly influenced by amplified ambient motions of the bridge.

  12. Response of high-rise and base-isolated buildings to a hypothetical mw 7.0 blind thrust earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, T H; Hall, J F; Wald, D J; Halling, M W

    1995-01-13

    High-rise flexible-frame buildings are commonly considered to be resistant to shaking from the largest earthquakes. In addition, base isolation has become increasingly popular for critical buildings that should still function after an earthquake. How will these two types of buildings perform if a large earthquake occurs beneath a metropolitan area? To answer this question, we simulated the near-source ground motions of a M(w) 7.0 thrust earthquake and then mathematically modeled the response of a 20-story steel-frame building and a 3-story base-isolated building. The synthesized ground motions were characterized by large displacement pulses (up to 2 meters) and large ground velocities. These ground motions caused large deformation and possible collapse of the frame building, and they required exceptional measures in the design of the base-isolated building if it was to remain functional.

  13. Hybrid Analysis Approach for Stochastic Response of Offshore Jacket Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伟良; 郑忠双; 李海波; 张立

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic response of offshore platforms is more serious in hostile sea environment than in shallow sea. In this paper, a hybrid solution combined with analytical and numerical method is proposed to compute the stochastic response of fixed offshore platforms to random waves, considering wave-structure interaction and non-linear drag force. The simulation program includes two steps: the first step is the eigenanalysis aspects associated the structure and the second step is response estimation based on spectral equations. The eigenanalysis could be done through conventional finite element method conveniently and its natural frequency and mode shapes obtained. In the second part of the process, the solution of the offshore structural response is obtained by iteration of a series of coupled spectral equations. Considering the third-order term in the drag force, the evaluation of the three-fold convolution should be demanded for nonlinear stochastic response analysis. To demonstrate this method, a numerical analysis is carried out for both linear and non-linear platform motions. The final response spectra have the typical two peaks in agreement with reality, indicating that the hybrid method is effective and can be applied to offshore engineering.

  14. Dynamic Response and Ground-Motion Effects of Building Clusters During Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbiliroglu, Y. D.; Taborda, R.; Bielak, J.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the response of building clusters during earthquakes, the effect that they have on the ground motion, and how individual buildings interact with the surrounding soil and with each other. We conduct a series of large-scale, physics-based simulations that synthesize the earthquake source and the response of entire building inventories. The configuration of the clusters, defined by the total number of buildings, their number of stories, dynamic properties, and spatial distribution and separation, is varied for each simulation. In order to perform these simulations efficiently while recurrently modifying these characteristics without redoing the entire "source to building structure" simulation every time, we use the Domain Reduction Method (DRM). The DRM is a modular two-step finite-element methodology for modeling wave propagation problems in regions with localized features. It allows one to store and reuse the background motion excitation of subdomains without loss of information. Buildings are included in the second step of the DRM. Each building is represented by a block model composed of additional finite-elements in full contact with the ground. These models are adjusted to emulate the general geometric and dynamic properties of real buildings. We conduct our study in the greater Los Angeles basin, using the main shock of the 1994 Northridge earthquake for frequencies up to 5Hz. In the first step of the DRM we use a domain of 82 km x 82 km x 41 km. Then, for the second step, we use a smaller sub-domain of 5.12 km x 5.12 km x 1.28 km, with the buildings. The results suggest that site-city interaction effects are more prominent for building clusters in soft-soil areas. These effects consist in changes in the amplitude of the ground motion and dynamic response of the buildings. The simulations are done using Hercules, the parallel octree-based finite-element earthquake simulator developed by the Quake Group at Carnegie

  15. Severity of pre-existing psychiatric illness and response to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Michitaka; Mizushima, Jin

    2013-10-01

    Reports have described how psychiatric patients respond to disasters. However, previous reports on the response depending on diagnostic categories have provided no clear consensus. Here we analyzed response to the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, among psychiatric patients in light of severity of pre-existing psychiatric illness. We studied psychiatric change among a population of psychiatric outpatients in Tochigi prefecture, located ~160 km (~100 miles) southeast of the Fukushima nuclear power plant, in an area that suffered moderate damage from the earthquake and radiation. A total of 294 psychiatric outpatients was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF-F). A change of ≥10 points in the GAF-F score was counted as a change in symptoms. The data were stratified by disease category, gender, and GAF-F score and analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. In the 2 months after the earthquake, 5.4% of patients showed evidence of a change in symptoms, with 4.1% worsening and 1.4% improving. Compared with patients having a GAF-F score ≤50, significantly more patients with a score >50 showed evidence of worsening symptoms. No significant difference was found with respect to gender or diagnostic category for patients with worsened or improved symptoms. Our findings reveal that a relatively small percent of patients with pre-existing psychiatric diseases showed evidence of a change in symptoms and that patients with mild-to-moderate psychiatric illness are potentially vulnerable to the impacts of a natural disaster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Expression of negative emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: Analysis of big data from social media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Asako; Komori, Masashi; Matsumura, Naohiro; Maeda, Kazutoshi

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.

  17. Seismic Response of Wind Turbines: Dynamic Analysis of a Wind Turbine in Horizontal and Vertical Direction - Subject to Earthquake, Wind & SSI

    OpenAIRE

    Kjørlaug, Remi André

    2013-01-01

    For a numerical model of a 5-MW wind turbine, it is shown that vertical excitation from earthquake can produce severe response in the upper parts of the tower. Furthermore, for horizontal excitation it is shown that mainly the higher order mode shapes are excited from earthquake. Comparison between response from earthquake and wind is conducted. Throughout, the importance of soil-structure interaction is emphasized.

  18. On dynamic response analysis of base-isolated structures for the Northridge earthquake and the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; Chokka jishin ni taisuru nenshin kozo no oto kyodo ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, M.; Morita, K. [Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-09-01

    The January 17, 1995, Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was occurred. This earthquake was the most damaging earthquake to have struck Japan since the great Kanto earthquake. In Los Angela area, the Northridge earthquake was occurred at January 17, 1994. In this earthquake, the large acceleration over 1G was observed. Two base-isolated buildings (computer center and research facility) in Kobe-city, and USC Hospice (base-isolated building) in Los Angeles survived these big earthquakes. In this paper, the observed response of these base-isolated buildings was introduced and the performance of base-isolated buildings was discussed. And the dynamic response analysis was carried out using the observed ground motions during the two big earthquakes. As the results, the acceleration response of base-isolated buildings which isolated period Tf is over 4 sec was below 0.1-0.2G, and the relative displacement of isolated story was under 30-50cm. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Coupled large earthquakes in the Baikal rift system: Response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Klyuchevskii

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current lithospheric geodynamics and tectonophysics in the Baikal rift are discussed in terms of a nonlinear oscillator with dissipation. The nonlinear oscillator model is applicable to the area because stress change shows up as quasi-periodic inharmonic oscillations at rifting attractor structures (RAS. The model is consistent with the space-time patterns of regional seismicity in which coupled large earthquakes, proximal in time but distant in space, may be a response to bifurcations in nonlinear resonance hysteresis in a system of three oscillators corresponding to the rifting attractors. The space-time distribution of coupled MLH > 5.5 events has been stable for the period of instrumental seismicity, with the largest events occurring in pairs, one shortly after another, on two ends of the rift system and with couples of smaller events in the central part of the rift. The event couples appear as peaks of earthquake ‘migration’ rate with an approximately decadal periodicity. Thus the energy accumulated at RAS is released in coupled large events by the mechanism of nonlinear oscillators with dissipation. The new knowledge, with special focus on space-time rifting attractors and bifurcations in a system of nonlinear resonance hysteresis, may be of theoretical and practical value for earthquake prediction issues. Extrapolation of the results into the nearest future indicates the probability of such a bifurcation in the region, i.e., there is growing risk of a pending M ≈ 7 coupled event to happen within a few years.

  20. Haitian and international responders' and decision-makers' perspectives regarding disability and the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Chung, Ryoa; Durocher, Evelyne; Henrys, Jean Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Following disasters, persons with disabilities (PWD) are especially vulnerable to harm, yet they have commonly been excluded from disaster planning, and their needs have been poorly addressed during disaster relief. Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, thousands of individuals experienced acute injuries. Many more individuals with preexisting disabilities experienced heightened vulnerability related to considerations including safety, access to services, and meeting basic needs. The objective of this research was to better understand the perceptions of responders and decision-makers regarding disability and efforts to address the needs of PWD following the 2010 earthquake. We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description methodology and semistructured interviews with 14 Haitian and 10 international participants who were involved in the earthquake response. Participants identified PWD as being among the most vulnerable individuals following the earthquake. Though some forms of disability received considerable attention in aid efforts, the needs of other PWD did not. Several factors were identified as challenges for efforts to address the needs of PWD including lack of coordination and information sharing, the involvement of multiple aid sectors, perceptions that this should be the responsibility of specialized organizations, and the need to prioritize limited resources. Participants also reported shifts in local social views related to disability following the earthquake. Addressing the needs of PWD following a disaster is a crucial population health challenge and raises questions related to equity and responsibility for non-governmental organizations, governments, and local communities.

  1. Haitian and international responders’ and decision-makers’ perspectives regarding disability and the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Hunt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following disasters, persons with disabilities (PWD are especially vulnerable to harm, yet they have commonly been excluded from disaster planning, and their needs have been poorly addressed during disaster relief. Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, thousands of individuals experienced acute injuries. Many more individuals with preexisting disabilities experienced heightened vulnerability related to considerations including safety, access to services, and meeting basic needs. Objective: The objective of this research was to better understand the perceptions of responders and decision-makers regarding disability and efforts to address the needs of PWD following the 2010 earthquake. Design: We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description methodology and semistructured interviews with 14 Haitian and 10 international participants who were involved in the earthquake response. Results: Participants identified PWD as being among the most vulnerable individuals following the earthquake. Though some forms of disability received considerable attention in aid efforts, the needs of other PWD did not. Several factors were identified as challenges for efforts to address the needs of PWD including lack of coordination and information sharing, the involvement of multiple aid sectors, perceptions that this should be the responsibility of specialized organizations, and the need to prioritize limited resources. Participants also reported shifts in local social views related to disability following the earthquake. Conclusions: Addressing the needs of PWD following a disaster is a crucial population health challenge and raises questions related to equity and responsibility for non-governmental organizations, governments, and local communities.

  2. EVALUATION ON THE SEISMIC RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ROAD EMBANKMENT BASED ON THE MODERATE EARTHQUAKE OBSERVATION AND THE MICROTREMOR MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yoshiya; Ichii, Koji; Yamada, Masayuki; Tokida, Ken-Ichi; Takezawa, Koichiro; Shibao, Susumu; Mitsushita, Junji; Murata, Akira; Furukawa, Aiko; Koizumi, Keigo

    Accurate evaluation on the seismic response characteristics of a road embankment is very important for the rational seismic assessment. However, in a lot of previous studies, the seismic response characteristics of an embankment were evaluated based on the results of shaking table test, centrifuge model test and dynamic FEM analysis. In this study, the transfer function and the shear wave velocity of a road embankment were evaluated based on the in-situ records of moderate earthquake observation and microtremor measurement. Test results show the possibility that the shear wave velocity of an embankment can be estimated by the earthquake observation or the microtremor measurement and the dynamic linear FEM analysis.

  3. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  4. Deconvolution effect of near-fault earthquake ground motions on stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hacıefendioğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The deconvolution effect of the near-fault earthquake ground motions on the stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems are investigated by using the finite element method. Two different earthquake input mechanisms are used to consider the deconvolution effects in the analyses: the standard rigid-base input and the deconvolved-base-rock input model. The Bolu tunnel in Turkey is chosen as a numerical example. As near-fault ground motions, 1999 Kocaeli earthquake ground motion is selected. The interface finite elements are used between tunnel and soil deposit. The mean of maximum values of quasi-static, dynamic and total responses obtained from the two input models are compared with each other.

  5. EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF STEEL PORTAL FRAMES BY PSEUDODYNAMIC SIMULATION TECHNIQUE USING A GENERAL-PURPOSE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Toshihiro; Mizusawa, Tomisaku; Yamada, Osamu; Toda, Tomoki

    This paper studies the earthquake response of steel portal frames when the shear collapse occurs at the centre of the beam. The pseudodynamic simulation technique for the earthquake response analysis of the frames is developed in correspondence to the pseudodynamic substructure testing method. For the thin-walled box element under shear force in the middle of beam, the numerical process is utilized by a general-purpose finite element analysis program. The numerical results show the shear collapse behaviour in stiffened box beams and corresponding restoring force - displacement relationship of frames. The advantages of shear collapse of beams for the use in frames during earthquakes are discussed from the point of view of the hysteretic energy dissipated by the column base.

  6. Site specific seismic hazard analysis and determination of response spectra of Kolkata for maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiuly, Amit; Sahu, R. B.; Mandal, Saroj

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents site specific seismic hazard analysis of Kolkata city, former capital of India and present capital of state West Bengal, situated on the world’s largest delta island, Bengal basin. For this purpose, peak ground acceleration (PGA) for a maximum considered earthquake (MCE) at bedrock level has been estimated using an artificial neural network (ANN) based attenuation relationship developed on the basis of synthetic ground motion data for the region. Using the PGA corresponding to the MCE, a spectrum compatible acceleration time history at bedrock level has been generated by using a wavelet based computer program, WAVEGEN. This spectrum compatible time history at bedrock level has been converted to the same at surface level using SHAKE2000 for 144 borehole locations in the study region. Using the predicted values of PGA and PGV at the surface, corresponding contours for the region have been drawn. For the MCE, the PGA at bedrock level of Kolkata city has been obtained as 0.184 g, while that at the surface level varies from 0.22 g to 0.37 g. Finally, Kolkata has been subdivided into eight seismic subzones, and for each subzone a response spectrum equation has been derived using polynomial regression analysis. This will be very helpful for structural and geotechnical engineers to design safe and economical earthquake resistant structures.

  7. Nonlinear ionospheric responses to large-amplitude infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by undersea earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical models of ionospheric coupling with the neutral atmosphere are used to investigate perturbations of plasma density, vertically integrated total electron content (TEC), neutral velocity, and neutral temperature associated with large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by the initial ocean surface displacements from strong undersea earthquakes. A simplified source model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is constructed from estimates of initial ocean surface responses to approximate the vertical motions over realistic spatial and temporal scales. Resulting TEC perturbations from modeling case studies appear consistent with observational data, reproducing pronounced TEC depletions which are shown to be a consequence of the impacts of nonlinear, dissipating acoustic waves. Thermospheric acoustic compressional velocities are ˜±250-300 m/s, superposed with downward flows of similar amplitudes, and temperature perturbations are ˜300 K, while the dominant wave periodicity in the thermosphere is ˜3-4 min. Results capture acoustic wave processes including reflection, onset of resonance, and nonlinear steepening and dissipation—ultimately leading to the formation of ionospheric TEC depletions "holes"—that are consistent with reported observations. Three additional simulations illustrate the dependence of atmospheric acoustic wave and subsequent ionospheric responses on the surface displacement amplitude, which is varied from the Tohoku case study by factors of 1/100, 1/10, and 2. Collectively, results suggest that TEC depletions may only accompany very-large amplitude thermospheric acoustic waves necessary to induce a nonlinear response, here with saturated compressional velocities ˜200-250 m/s generated by sea surface displacements exceeding ˜1 m occurring over a 3 min time period.

  8. Climate responsive and safe earthquake construction: a community building a school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Darshan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines environment friendly features, climate responsive features and construction features of a prototype school building constructed using green building technology. The school building has other additional features such as earthquake resistant construction, use of local materials and local technology. The construction process not only establishes community ownership, but also facilitates dissemination of the technology to the communities. Schools are effective media for raising awareness, disseminating technology and up-scaling the innovative approach. The approach is cost effective and sustainable for long-term application of green building technology. Furthermore, this paper emphasizes that such construction technology will be instrumental to build culture of safety in communities and reduce disaster risk.

  9. Structural Acoustic Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed to predict the structural acoustic response of shape memory alloy hybrid composite panels subjected to acoustic excitation. The panel is modeled by a finite element analysis and the radiated field is predicted using Rayleigh's integral. Transmission loss predictions for the case of an aluminum panel excited by a harmonic acoustic pressure are shown to compare very well with a classical analysis. Predictions of the normal velocity response and transmitted acoustic pressure for a clamped aluminum panel show excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Predicted transmission loss performance for a composite panel with and without shape memory alloy reinforcement are also presented. The preliminary results demonstrate that the transmission loss can be significantly increased with shape memory alloy reinforcement.

  10. Interactive terrain visualization enables virtual field work during rapid scientific response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Eric; Bernardin, Tony S.; Oskin, Michael E.; Bowles, Christopher; Yikilmaz, M. Burak; Kreylos, Oliver; Elliott, Austin J.; Bishop, Scott; Gold, Ryan D.; Morelan, Alexander; Bawden, Gerald W.; Hamann, Bernd; Kellogg, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake is the first major earthquake for which a large-footprint LiDAR (light detection and ranging) survey was acquired within several weeks of the event. Here, we describe the use of virtual reality data visualization to analyze massive amounts (67 GB on disk) of multiresolution terrain data during the rapid scientific response to a major natural disaster. In particular, we describe a method for conducting virtual field work using both desktop computers and a 4-sided, 22 m3 CAVE immersive virtual reality environment, along with KeckCAVES (Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences) software tools LiDAR Viewer, to analyze LiDAR point-cloud data, and Crusta, for 2.5 dimensional surficial geologic mapping on a bare-earth digital elevation model. This system enabled virtual field work that yielded remote observations of the topographic expression of active faulting within an ∼75-km-long section of the eastern Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault spanning the 2010 epicenter. Virtual field observations indicated that the geomorphic evidence of active faulting and ancient surface rupture varies along strike. Landform offsets of 6–50 m along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault east of the 2010 epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes there. In the west, the fault trace is well defined by displaced landforms, but it is not as clear as in the east. The 2010 epicenter is within a transition zone between these sections that extends from Grand Goâve in the west to Fayette in the east. Within this transition, between L'Acul (lat 72°40′W) and the Rouillone River (lat 72°35′W), the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault is undefined along an embayed low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. Based on the geometry of the eastern and western faults that show evidence of recent surface rupture, we propose that the 2010

  11. [Comment to “Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989”] Montery Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Franklin B.; Norton, Jerrold G.; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.

    Observations of liquefaction and slumping in Monterey Bay, Calif., described in “Response of Monterey Bay to the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989,” (Eos, February [6], 1990, p. 250), were based on the ongoing work of a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML), Hopkins Marine Station, and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), who are continuing to investigate the causes and effects of slumping and other processes that occurred in association with the earthquake.

  12. The extent of soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries after earthquakes; describing a role for reconstructive surgeons in an emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, A J P; Jemec, B; Redmond, A D

    2014-10-01

    Earthquakes are the leading cause of natural disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries are the predominant type of injury seen after these events and a major reason for admission to hospital. Open fractures are relatively common; however, they are resource-intense to manage. Appropriate management is important in minimising amputation rates and preserving function. This review describes the pattern of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries seen after earthquakes and explores the manpower and resource implications involved in their management. A Medline search was performed, including terms "injury pattern" and "earthquake," "epidemiology injuries" and "earthquakes," "plastic surgery," "reconstructive surgery," "limb salvage" and "earthquake." Papers published between December 1992 and December 2012 were included, with no initial language restriction. Limb injuries are the commonest injuries seen accounting for 60 % of all injuries, with fractures in more than 50 % of those admitted to hospital, with between 8 and 13 % of these fractures open. After the first few days and once the immediate lifesaving phase is over, the management of these musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries are the commonest procedures required. Due to the predominance of soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries, plastic surgeons as specialists in soft-tissue reconstruction should be mobilised in the early stages of a disaster response as part of a multidisciplinary team with a focus on limb salvage.

  13. Coseismic responses of groundwater levels in the Three Gorges well-network to the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenglong Liu; Guangcai Wang; Weihua Zhang; Jiangchang Mei

    2009-01-01

    We systematically analyze coseismic responses and post-seismic characteristics of groundwater levels in the Three Gorges well-network to the Afs8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008. The results indicate that these characteristics differ among wells. On the conditions of similar borehole configurations, the differences are associated with geological structural sites of wells, burial types of aquifers monitored, and transmissivities of aquifer systems. We explored coseismic and post-seismic step-rise and step-drop mechanical mechanisms and their implication to earthquake prediction. We validated the inference that the residual step-rise zone is a possible earthquake risk zone based on recent seismic activity on the Xianniishan fault in the area.

  14. Three dimensional elastoplastic response of compliant fault zones to nearby earthquakes: A theoretic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Duan, B.

    2012-12-01

    Response of compliant fault zone to the nearby dynamic rupture is detected by seismic and InSAR observations. Seismic observations of damage to the Landers fault zone by the Hector Mine earthquake suggest that response of fault zones can be inelastic. Recent two dimensional theoretical studies reveal that inelastic response of fault zones results in distinguished features in the surface residual displacement field that can be detected by InSAR images. In this study, we extend the recent theoretical studies to three dimensions, so that we may compare modeling results with InSAR observations in the future. We use a Drucker-Prager criterion to characterize elastoplastic response of rocks to nearby spontaneous dynamic rupture in an inhomogeneous medium that contains a compliant fault zone. A finite element method is used to simulate dynamic rupture and seismic wave propagations in the model. Preliminary results show that 1) depth dependence of plastic strain within the fault zone may have important effects on the surface deformation field, 2) plastic strain near the Earth's surface within the fault zone can occur in both extensional and compressive quadrants of the rupture, which is different from previous two dimensional studies, and 3) the vertical surface residual displacement is enhanced within the fault zone, while is reduced outside of the fault zone.

  15. A hybrid model for improving response time in distributed data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Shonali; Loke, Seng W; Zaslasvky, Arkady

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid distributed data mining (DDM) model for optimization of response time. The model combines a mobile agent approach with client server strategies to reduce the overall response time. The hybrid model proposes and develops accurate a priori estimates of the computation and communication components of response time as the costing strategy to support optimization. Experimental evaluation of the hybrid model is presented.

  16. Development of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Earle, P.S.; Allen, T.I.; Jaiswal, K.; Porter, K.; Hearne, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) System plays a primary alerting role for global earthquake disasters as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) response protocol. We provide an overview of the PAGER system, both of its current capabilities and our ongoing research and development. PAGER monitors the USGS’s near real-time U.S. and global earthquake origins and automatically identifies events that are of societal importance, well in advance of ground-truth or news accounts. Current PAGER notifications and Web pages estimate the population exposed to each seismic intensity level. In addition to being a useful indicator of potential impact, PAGER’s intensity/exposure display provides a new standard in the dissemination of rapid earthquake information. We are currently developing and testing a more comprehensive alert system that will include casualty estimates. This is motivated by the idea that an estimated range of possible number of deaths will aid in decisions regarding humanitarian response. Underlying the PAGER exposure and loss models are global earthquake ShakeMap shaking estimates, constrained as quickly as possible by finite-fault modeling and observed ground motions and intensities, when available. Loss modeling is being developed comprehensively with a suite of candidate models that range from fully empirical to largely analytical approaches. Which of these models is most appropriate for use in a particular earthquake depends on how much is known about local building stocks and their vulnerabilities. A first-order country-specific global building inventory has been developed, as have corresponding vulnerability functions. For calibrating PAGER loss models, we have systematically generated an Atlas of 5,000 ShakeMaps for significant global earthquakes during the last 36 years. For many of these, auxiliary earthquake source and shaking intensity data are also available. Refinements to the loss models are ongoing

  17. Behavioral Response in the Immediate Aftermath of Shaking: Earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Ihnji; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Huang, Shih-Kai; Wu, Hao-Che; Johnston, David M; Becker, Julia S; Shiroshita, Hideyuki; Doyle, Emma E H; Potter, Sally H; McClure, John; Lambie, Emily

    2016-11-15

    This study examines people's response actions in the first 30 min after shaking stopped following earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch, 332 respondents in Hitachi, and 204 respondents in Wellington revealed notable similarities in some response actions immediately after the shaking stopped. In all four events, people were most likely to contact family members and seek additional information about the situation. However, there were notable differences among events in the frequency of resuming previous activities. Actions taken in the first 30 min were weakly related to: demographic variables, earthquake experience, contextual variables, and actions taken during the shaking, but were significantly related to perceived shaking intensity, risk perception and affective responses to the shaking, and damage/infrastructure disruption. These results have important implications for future research and practice because they identify promising avenues for emergency managers to communicate seismic risks and appropriate responses to risk area populations.

  18. Geological Investigation and analysis in response to Earthquake Induced Landslide in West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Salahudin, S.; Sudarno, I.; Burton, P.

    2009-12-01

    Substantial socio-economical loss occurred in response to the September 30. 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake with magnitude of 7.6. Damage of houses and engineered structures mostly occurred at the low land of alluvium sediments due to the ground amplification, whilst at the high land of mountain slopes several villages were buried by massive debris of rocks and soils. It was recorded that 1115 people died due to this disasters. Series of geological investigation was carried out by Geological Engineering Department of Gadjah Mada University, with the purpose to support the rehabilitation program. Based on this preliminary investigation it was identified that most of the house and engineered structural damages at the alluvial deposits mainly due to by the poor quality of such houses and engineered structures, which poorly resist the ground amplification, instead of due to the control of geological conditions. On the other hand, the existence and distribution of structural geology (faults and joints) at the mountaineous regions are significant in controlling the distribution of landslides, with the types of rock falls, debris flows and debris falls. Despite the landslide susceptibility mapping conducted by Geological Survey of Indonesia, more detailed investigation is required to be carried out in the region surrounding Maninjau Lake, in order to provide safer places for village relocation. Accordingly Gadjah Mada University in collaboration with the local university (Andalas University) as well as with the local Government of Agam Regency and the Geological Survey of Indonesia, serve the mission for conducting rather more detailed geological and landslide investigation. It is also crucial that the investigation (survey and mapping) on the social perception and expectation of local people living in this landslide susceptible area should also be carried out, to support the mitigation effort of any future potential earthquake induced landslides.

  19. Disaster Response and Decision Support in Partnership with the California Earthquake Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Rosinski, A.; Vaughan, D.; Morentz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Getting the right information to the right people at the right time is critical during a natural disaster. E-DECIDER (Emergency Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response) is a NASA decision support system designed to produce remote sensing and geophysical modeling data products that are relevant to the emergency preparedness and response communities and serve as a gateway to enable the delivery of NASA decision support products to these communities. The E-DECIDER decision support system has several tools, services, and products that have been used to support end-user exercises in partnership with the California Earthquake Clearinghouse since 2012, including near real-time deformation modeling results and on-demand maps of critical infrastructure that may have been potentially exposed to damage by a disaster. E-DECIDER's underlying service architecture allows the system to facilitate delivery of NASA decision support products to the Clearinghouse through XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration that allows trusted information exchange among partner agencies. This in turn allows Clearinghouse partners to visualize data products produced by E-DECIDER and other NASA projects through incident command software such as SpotOnResponse or ArcGIS Online.

  20. Site responses based on ambient vibrations and earthquake data: a case study from the meizoseismal area of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Thulasiraman; Rajendran, Kusala

    2016-08-01

    The 2001 Mw 7.6 earthquake sourced in the Kachchh rift of northwest India led to extensive damage in the city of Bhuj, located ~70 km southwest of its epicenter. The building stock of this densely populated city was a mix of modern, single, and multistoried structures as well as traditional and non-engineered abodes, most of which were not designed to withstand severe shaking effects. Although there was extensive liquefaction and ground failure in the meizoseismal area, they were not observed in Bhuj, but the damage was severe here. In this study, we apply horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method to ambient vibrations (HVSR-AV) to obtain fundamental resonance frequency (f0) and H/V peak amplitude (A0) to examine if site response had any significant role in the observed damage. The patterns of H/V curves as well as spatial distributions of f0 (0.6-1.4 Hz) and A0 (1.5-4.4) suggest absence of any strong impedance contrast within the subsurface. Similar results obtained for ambient vibrations and earthquake signals suggest the efficacy of the HVSR-AV method as most useful for regions of low-level seismicity. The weathered sandstone that is generally exposed in the city represents the resonating layer whose thickness is approximately estimated as ~66-155 m, based on 1D assumption. The current set of available data precludes any quantitative modeling, but our preliminary inference is that site effects were not significant during the 2001 earthquake damage observed in Bhuj.

  1. Site Response in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada from NTS Explosions and Earthquake Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Arthur; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; McCallen, David; Larsen, Shawn; Snelson, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    We report site response in Las Vegas Valley (LVV) from historical recordings of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosions and earthquake recordings from permanent and temporary seismic stations. Our data set significantly improves the spatial coverage of LVV over previous studies, especially in the northern, deeper parts of the basin. Site response at stations in LVV was measured for frequencies in the range 0.2 5.0 Hz using Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) and Horizontal-Vertical Spectral Ratios (HVR). For the SSR measurements we used a reference site (approximately NEHRP B ``rock'' classification) located on Frenchman Mountain outside the basin. Site response at sedimentary sites is variable in LVV with average amplifications approaching a factor of 10 at some frequencies. We observed peaks in the site response curves at frequencies clustered near 0.6, 1.2 and 2.0 Hz, with some sites showing additional lower amplitude peaks at higher frequencies. The spatial pattern of site response is strongly correlated with the reported depth to basement for frequencies between 0.2 and 3.0 Hz, although the frequency of peak amplification does not show a similar correlation. For a few sites where we have geotechnical shear velocities, the amplification shows a correlation with the average upper 30-meter shear velocities, V 30. We performed two-dimensional finite difference simulations and reproduced the observed peak site amplifications at 0.6 and 1.2 Hz with a low velocity near-surface layer with shear velocities 600 750 m/s and a thickness of 100 200 m. These modeling results indicate that the amplitude and frequencies of site response peaks in LVV are strongly controlled by shallow velocity structure.

  2. EARLY STAGE RESPONSES OF INTENSIVE CARE UNITS DURING MAJOR DISASTERS: FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Jiro; Tase, Choichiro; Tsukada, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Arifumi; Iida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of intensive care units (ICU) during disasters, including the responses of our ICU following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Our ICU comprises 8 beds for postoperative inpatients and those with rapidly deteriorating conditions; 20 beds in an emergency unit for critically ill patients; and 17 beds for neonates. It is important to secure empty beds when a major disaster occurs, as was the case after the Great Hanshin Earthquake, due to the resulting large numbers of trauma patients. Therefore, each ICU section cooperated to ensure sufficient space for admissions following the Great East Japan Earthquake. However, unlike the Great Hanshin Earthquake, securing beds was ultimately unnecessary due to the nature of the recent disaster, which also consisted of a subsequent tsunami and nuclear accident. Therefore, air quality monitoring was required on this occasion due to the risk of environmental radioactive pollution from the nuclear disaster causing problems with artificial respiration management involving atmospheric air. The variability in damage arising during different disasters thus requires a flexible response from ICUs that handle seriously ill patients.

  3. Vivid Intrusive Memories in PTSD: Responses of Child Earthquake Survivors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksi, Aysel; Peykerli, Gulcan; Saydam, Reyhan; Toparla, Derya; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Case histories of five earthquake survivors are presented. One girl and four boys aged 10-15 were interviewed 2 days to 8 weeks following a devastating 7.4 earthquake in Istanbul, Turkey. At initial assessment, all met criteria for PTSD with major depressive and anxiety symptoms. Two children experienced vivid intrusive voices, one experienced…

  4. Investigation of the response of the lower ionosphere to distant powerful earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmash, K. P.; Gokov, A. M.; Gritchin, A. I.; Misiura, V. A.; Chernogor, L. F.

    The method of partial reflections was used in an experimental investigation of disturbances in the lower ionosphere accompanying distant powerful earthquakes. This method makes it possible to obtain vertical profiles of the parameters of the signal and of the lower ionosphere with a high time resolution. The results suggest that the observed disturbances are in fact caused by the earthquakes.

  5. Rainfall-triggering response patterns of post-seismic debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Tang, C.; van Asch, Th.W.J.; Zhou, nn.

    2013-01-01

    Several giant debris flows occurred in southwestern China after the Wenchuan earthquake, causing serious casualties and economic losses. Debris flows were frequently triggered after the earthquake. A relatively accurate prediction of these post-seismic debris flows can help to reduce the consequent

  6. Rear impact responses of different sized adult Hybrid III dummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosia, John; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2004-03-01

    Rear impact sled tests were conducted using 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile Hybrid III dummies to evaluate proposed injury criteria. Different head restraint height (750, 800 mm) and backset (0, 50, 100 mm) positions were used to determine axial and shear forces, bending moments, and injury criteria (NIC, N(ij), and N(km)). The time sequence to attain each parameter was also determined. Three events were identified in the response. Event I was coincident with the maximum rearward motion of the torso, Event II occurred at the time of the peak upper neck flexion moment, and Event III occurred at the time of maximum rearward motion of the head. Parameters such as backset, head restraint height, seat-head restraint interaction, and anthropometry affected impact responses. Head rotations increased with increasing backset and increasing head restraint height. However, N(ij) and N(km) did not exhibit such clear trends. The 50th percentile dummy responded with consistent injury criteria values (e.g., the magnitude of the injury criteria increased with backset increase or head restraint height decrease). However, the 5th and 95th percentile dummies did not demonstrate such trends. These findings underscore the need to include subject anthropometry in addition to seat and head restraint characteristics for better assessment of rear impact responses.

  7. M9 Tohoku earthquake hydro- and seismic response in the Caucasus and North Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelidze Tamaz L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there are a lot of observations on the significant impact of strong remote earthquakes on underground water and local seismicity. Teleseismic wave trains of strong earthquakes give rise to several hydraulic effects in boreholes, namely permanent water level changes and water level oscillations, which closely mimic the seismograms (hydroseismograms. Clear identical anomalies in the deep borehole water levels have been observed on a large part of the territory of Georgia during passing of the S and Love–Rayleigh teleseismic waves (including also multiple surface Rayleigh waves of the 2011 Tohoku M9 earthquake. The analysis carried out in order to find dynamically triggered events (non-volcanic tremors of the Tohoku earthquake by the accepted methodology has not revealed a clear tremor signature in the test area: the Caucasus and North Turkey. The possible mechanisms of some seismic signals of unknown origin observed during passage of teleseismic waves of Tohoku earthquake are discussed.

  8. M9 Tohoku Earthquake Hydro- and Seismic Response in the Caucasus and North Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Shengelia, Ia; Zhukova, Natalya; Matcharashvili, Teimuraz; Melikadze, George; Kobzev, Genady

    2016-06-01

    Presently, there are a lot of observations on the significant impact of strong remote earthquakes on underground water and local seismicity. Teleseismic wave trains of strong earthquakes give rise to several hydraulic effects in boreholes, namely permanent water level changes and water level oscillations, which closely mimic the seismograms (hydro-seismograms). Clear identical anomalies in the deep borehole water levels have been observed on a large part of the territory of Georgia during passing of the S and Love-Rayleigh teleseismic waves (including also multiple surface Rayleigh waves) of the 2011 Tohoku M9 earthquake. The analysis carried out in order to find dynamically triggered events (non-volcanic tremors) of the Tohoku earthquake by the accepted methodology has not revealed a clear tremor signature in the test area: the Caucasus and North Turkey. The possible mechanisms of some seismic signals of unknown origin observed during passage of teleseismic waves of Tohoku earthquake are discussed.

  9. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Roger D; Valdivia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, our results suggest that the effects of the Maule mega-earthquake on the ecological communities were spatially heterogeneous and highly localised. We suggest that high mobility and other species' adaptations to the dynamic environmental conditions of sandy beaches might explain the comparatively high resilience of these assemblages. With this work we hope to motivate further experimental research on the role of individual- and population-level properties in the response of sandy-beach communities to interacting sources of disturbances.

  10. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Sepúlveda

    tsunami. Therefore, our results suggest that the effects of the Maule mega-earthquake on the ecological communities were spatially heterogeneous and highly localised. We suggest that high mobility and other species' adaptations to the dynamic environmental conditions of sandy beaches might explain the comparatively high resilience of these assemblages. With this work we hope to motivate further experimental research on the role of individual- and population-level properties in the response of sandy-beach communities to interacting sources of disturbances.

  11. Extreme earthquake response of nuclear power plants isolated using sliding bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: mkumar@iitgn.ac.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar 382355 (India); Whittaker, Andrew S.; Constantinou, Michael C. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Response-history analysis of a nuclear power plant (NPP) isolated using sliding bearings. • Two models of the NPP, five friction models and four seismic hazard levels considered. • Isolation system displacement can be obtained using a macro NPP model subjected to only horizontal ground motions. • Temperature dependence of friction should be considered in isolation-system displacement calculations. • The effect of friction model on floor spectral ordinates is rather small, especially near the basemat. - Abstract: Horizontal seismic isolation is a viable approach to mitigate risk to structures, systems and components (SSCs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) under extreme ground shaking. This paper presents a study on an NPP seismically isolated using single concave Friction Pendulum™ (FP) bearings subjected to ground motions representing seismic hazard at two US sites: Diablo Canyon and Vogtle. Two models of the NPP, five models to describe friction at the sliding surface of the FP bearings, and four levels of ground shaking are considered for response-history analysis, which provide insight into the influence of 1) the required level of detail of an NPP model, 2) the vertical component of ground motion on response of isolated NPPs, and 3) the pressure-, temperature- and/or velocity-dependencies of the coefficient of friction, on the response of an isolated NPP. The isolation-system displacement of an NPP can be estimated using a macro model subjected to only the two orthogonal horizontal components of ground motion. The variation of the coefficient of friction with temperature at the sliding surface during earthquake shaking should be accounted for in the calculation of isolation-system displacements, particularly when the shaking intensity is high; pressure and velocity dependencies are not important. In-structure floor spectra should be computed using a detailed three-dimensional model of an isolated NPP subjected to all three components of

  12. Relationship between isoseismal area and magnitude of historical earthquakes in Greece by a hybrid fuzzy neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselentis, G.-A.; Sokos, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we suggest the use of diffusion-neural-networks, (neural networks with intrinsic fuzzy logic abilities) to assess the relationship between isoseismal area and earthquake magnitude for the region of Greece. It is of particular importance to study historical earthquakes for which we often have macroseismic information in the form of isoseisms but it is statistically incomplete to assess magnitudes from an isoseismal area or to train conventional artificial neural networks for magnitude estimation. Fuzzy relationships are developed and used to train a feed forward neural network with a back propagation algorithm to obtain the final relationships. Seismic intensity data from 24 earthquakes in Greece have been used. Special attention is being paid to the incompleteness and contradictory patterns in scanty historical earthquake records. The results show that the proposed processing model is very effective, better than applying classical artificial neural networks since the magnitude macroseismic intensity target function has a strong nonlinearity and in most cases the macroseismic datasets are very small.

  13. Deficient induction response in a Xenopus nucleocytoplasmic hybrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Narbonne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibilities between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of sufficiently distant species result in developmental arrest of hybrid and nucleocytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid embryos. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their lethality, including problems in embryonic genome activation (EGA and/or nucleo-mitochondrial interactions. However, conclusive identification of the causes underlying developmental defects of cybrid embryos is still lacking. We show here that while over 80% of both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus (Silurana tropicalis same-species androgenetic haploids develop to the swimming tadpole stage, the androgenetic cybrids formed by the combination of X. laevis egg cytoplasm and X. tropicalis sperm nucleus invariably fail to gastrulate properly and never reach the swimming tadpole stage. In spite of this arrest, these cybrids show quantitatively normal EGA and energy levels at the stage where their initial gastrulation defects are manifested. The nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility between these two species instead results from a combination of factors, including a reduced emission of induction signal from the vegetal half, a decreased sensitivity of animal cells to induction signals, and differences in a key embryonic protein (Xbra concentration between the two species, together leading to inefficient induction and defective convergence-extension during gastrulation. Indeed, increased exposure to induction signals and/or Xbra signalling partially rescues the induction response in animal explants and whole cybrid embryos. Altogether, our study demonstrates that the egg cytoplasm of one species may not support the development promoted by the nucleus of another species, even if this nucleus does not interfere with the cytoplasmic/maternal functions of the egg, while the egg cytoplasm is also capable of activating the genome of that nucleus. Instead, our results provide evidence that inefficient signalling and differences in the

  14. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  15. Earthquake Disaster Management and Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As one of the most powerful tools to reduce the earthquake loss, the Earthquake Disaster Management [EDM] and Insurance [EI] have been highlighted and have had a great progress in many countries in recent years. Earthquake disaster management includes a series of contents, such as earthquake hazard and risk analysis, vulnerability analysis of building and infrastructure, earthquake aware training, and building the emergency response system. EI, which has been included in EDM after this practice has been...

  16. Response and recovery lessons from the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierepiekarz, Mark; Johnston, David; Berryman, Kelvin; Hare, John; Gomberg, Joan S.; Williams, Robert A.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts and opportunities that result when low-probability moderate earthquakes strike an urban area similar to many throughout the US were vividly conveyed in a one-day workshop in which social and Earth scientists, public officials, engineers, and an emergency manager shared their experiences of the earthquake sequence that struck the city of Christchurch and surrounding Canterbury region of New Zealand in 2010-2011. Without question, the earthquake sequence has had unprecedented impacts in all spheres on New Zealand society, locally to nationally--10% of the country's population was directly impacted and losses total 8-10% of their GDP. The following paragraphs present a few lessons from Christchurch.

  17. Performance of Irikura's Recipe Rupture Model Generator in Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations as Implemented in the Graves and Pitarka Hybrid Approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitarka, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We analyzed the performance of the Irikura and Miyake (2011) (IM2011) asperity-­ based kinematic rupture model generator, as implemented in the hybrid broadband ground-­motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (2010), for simulating ground motion from crustal earthquakes of intermediate size. The primary objective of our study is to investigate the transportability of IM2011 into the framework used by the Southern California Earthquake Center broadband simulation platform. In our analysis, we performed broadband (0 -­ 20Hz) ground motion simulations for a suite of M6.7 crustal scenario earthquakes in a hard rock seismic velocity structure using rupture models produced with both IM2011 and the rupture generation method of Graves and Pitarka (2016) (GP2016). The level of simulated ground motions for the two approaches compare favorably with median estimates obtained from the 2014 Next Generation Attenuation-­West2 Project (NGA-­West2) ground-­motion prediction equations (GMPEs) over the frequency band 0.1–10 Hz and for distances out to 22 km from the fault. We also found that, compared to GP2016, IM2011 generates ground motion with larger variability, particularly at near-­fault distances (<12km) and at long periods (>1s). For this specific scenario, the largest systematic difference in ground motion level for the two approaches occurs in the period band 1 – 3 sec where the IM2011 motions are about 20 – 30% lower than those for GP2016. We found that increasing the rupture speed by 20% on the asperities in IM2011 produced ground motions in the 1 – 3 second bandwidth that are in much closer agreement with the GMPE medians and similar to those obtained with GP2016. The potential implications of this modification for other rupture mechanisms and magnitudes are not yet fully understood, and this topic is the subject of ongoing study.

  18. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE GREAT TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE OF 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carroll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Monterey Bay to the Great Tohoku earthquake of 2011 is examined in this study. From a practical standpoint, although the resulting tsunami did not cause any damage to the open harbors at Monterey and Moss Landing, it caused extensive damage to boats and infrastructure in Santa Cruz Harbor, which is closed to surrounding waters. From a scientific standpoint, the observed and predicted amplitudes of the tsunami at 1 km from the source were 21.3 and 22.5 m based on the primary arrival from one DART bottom pressure recorder located 986 km ENE of the epicenter. The predicted and observed travel times for the tsunami to reach Monterey Bay agreed within 3%. The predicted and observed periods of the tsunami-generated wave before it entered the bay yielded periods that approached 2 hours. Once the tsunami entered Monterey Bay it was transformed into a seiche with a primary period of 36-37 minutes, corresponding to quarter-wave resonance within the bay. Finally, from a predictive standpoint, major tsunamis that enter the bay from the northwest, as in the present case, are the ones most likely to cause damage to Santa Cruz harbor.

  19. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Wan Hu; Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs) subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced fra...

  20. Hydrothermal response to a volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm, Lassen, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Shelly, David R.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Clor, Laura; P.H. Seward,; Evans, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing capability of seismic, geodetic, and hydrothermal observation networks allows recognition of volcanic unrest that could previously have gone undetected, creating an imperative to diagnose and interpret unrest episodes. A November 2014 earthquake swarm near Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, which included the largest earthquake in the area in more than 60 years, was accompanied by a rarely observed outburst of hydrothermal fluids. Although the earthquake swarm likely reflects upward migration of endogenous H2O-CO2 fluids in the source region, there is no evidence that such fluids emerged at the surface. Instead, shaking from the modest sized (moment magnitude 3.85) but proximal earthquake caused near-vent permeability increases that triggered increased outflow of hydrothermal fluids already present and equilibrated in a local hydrothermal aquifer. Long-term, multiparametric monitoring at Lassen and other well-instrumented volcanoes enhances interpretation of unrest and can provide a basis for detailed physical modeling.

  1. Responses of a tall building in Los Angeles, California as inferred from local and distant earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet; Hasan Ulusoy,; Nori Nakata,

    2016-01-01

    Increasing inventory of tall buildings in the United States and elsewhere may be subjected to motions generated by near and far seismic sources that cause long-period effects. Multiple sets of records that exhibited such effects were retrieved from tall buildings in Tokyo and Osaka ~ 350 km and 770 km from the epicenter of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In California, very few tall buildings have been instrumented. An instrumented 52-story building in downtown Los Angeles recorded seven local and distant earthquakes. Spectral and system identification methods exhibit significant low frequencies of interest (~0.17 Hz, 0.56 Hz and 1.05 Hz). These frequencies compare well with those computed by transfer functions; however, small variations are observed between the significant low frequencies for each of the seven earthquakes. The torsional and translational frequencies are very close and are coupled. Beating effect is observed in at least two of the seven earthquake data.

  2. Real-Time Earthquake Risk Mitigation Of Infrastructures Using Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali; Tunc, Suleyman; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The Istanbul EEW network consisting of 10 inland and 5 OBS strong motion stations located close to the Main Marmara Fault zone is operated by KOERI. Data transmission between the remote stations and the base station at KOERI is provided both with satellite and fiber optic cable systems. The continuous on-line data from these stations is used to provide real time warning for emerging potentially disastrous earthquakes. The data transmission time from the remote stations to the KOERI data center is a few milliseconds through fiber optic lines and less than a second via satellites. The early warning signal (consisting three alarm levels) is communicated to the appropriate servo shut-down systems of the receipent facilities, that automatically decide proper action based on the alarm level. Istanbul Gas Distribution Corporation (IGDAS) is one of the end users of the EEW signal. IGDAS, the primary natural gas provider in Istanbul, operates an extensive system 9,867 km of gas lines with 550 district regulators and 474,000 service boxes. State of-the-art protection systems automatically cut natural gas flow when breaks in the pipelines are detected. Since 2005, buildings in Istanbul using natural gas are required to install seismometers that automatically cut natural gas flow when certain thresholds are exceeded. IGDAS uses a sophisticated SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system to monitor the state-of-health of its pipeline network. This system provides real-time information about quantities related to pipeline monitoring, including input-output pressure, drawing information, positions of station and RTU (remote terminal unit) gates, slum shut mechanism status at 581 district regulator sites. The SCADA system of IGDAŞ receives the EEW signal from KOERI and decide the proper actions according to the previously specified ground acceleration levels. Presently, KOERI sends EEW signal to the SCADA system of IGDAS Natural Gas Network of Istanbul. The EEW signal

  3. An Approach for the Response of Buildings Subjected to Impact Load after Soft-Story Failure due to Earthquake Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Migda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft-story failure is one of the most typical types of damage observed in buildings during earthquakes. The failure of an intermediate soft story of a structure results in large impact loading acting on the lower floors due to the fall of the upper stories. The aim of the present paper is to study the behavior of the structural members exposed to such extreme load conditions occurring under ground motion excitation. Special attention is paid to investigate the influence of the degradation of horizontal stiffness of columns on the response of the building during earthquake. The results of the study show that the stiffness degradation of building columns, due to impact caused by the fall of the upper stories, may have a considerable influence on the structural response. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that the time of impact plays a substantial role in the overall behavior of the building suffering from the soft-story failure. It has been shown that the structural response may be increased significantly if impact takes place when the building is in the range of its peak deformations during the earthquake, especially when the structure is just approaching the extreme position.

  4. Proactive vs. reactive learning on buildings response and earthquake risks, in schools of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DOBRE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years, many specific activities of earthquake education and preparedness were initiated and supported in Romania by drafting materials for citizens, students, professors etc. (Georgescu et al., 2004, 2006. The education, training and information on earthquake disaster potential are important factors to mitigate the earthquake effects. Such activities, however, need time to be developed and may take different forms of presentation in order to capture the attention, to increase interest, to develop skills and attitudes in order to induce a proper behavior towards safety preparedness. It shall also be based on the accumulation of concerns and knowledge, which are, in principle, a consequence of the motivation, but which depend on the methods applied and actions taken for efficient earthquake preparedness, assessed and updated following actual earthquakes (Masuda, Midorikawa, Miki and Ohmachi, 1988. We are now at a crossroad and the proactive attitude and behavior (anticipative and participative needs to be extended in learning, within institutional framework, but correlated with the usual targets of schools and teenagers proactive issue (ROEDUSEIS-NET; Page and Page, 2003, by encouraging students in activities closer to earthquake engineering.

  5. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  6. Medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Ishinomaki City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Ishii

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital is the only designated disaster hospital in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone, Japan that was undamaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. The tsunami completely destroyed a large part of the Ishinomaki Medical Zone.Context: The Ishinomaki Red Cross Hospital was designed with the capability to respond to disasters. An instruction manual for responding to disasters had been developed and was exercised through drills. Action: In accordance with the manual, the hospital disaster task force was established. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team coordinated medical support from organizations such as physicians associations, dental associations, self-defence forces medical teams, pharmacists associations, the Japanese Red Cross and relief teams from hospitals all over the country. In three days, the joint relief team directly visited all emergency shelters to make an initial assessment and to collect information about the number and state of health of evacuees, provision of food and drinking water and the availability of electricity, water and sewerage. Outcome: Initial assessment revealed that 35 emergency shelters lacked a sufficient food supply and that 100 shelters had unsanitary conditions. The joint relief team provided the Miyagi Prefecture government and the Ishinomaki municipal government with information about emergency shelters that did not have a sufficient food supply. As of 30 September, the activities of the joint relief teams were completed, and there was no outbreak of communicable diseases in the Ishinomaki Medical Zone. A total of 328 shelters with 46 480 evacuees were managed by the Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team.Discussion: Advanced preparation to quickly establish an initial response system, expertise, and decision-making ability and the ability to get things done are required for disaster response management.

  7. Aftershock communication during the Canterbury Earthquakes, New Zealand: implications for response and recovery in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia Becker,; Wein, Anne; Sally Potter,; Emma Doyle,; Ratliff, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    On 4 September 2010, a Mw7.1 earthquake occurred in Canterbury, New Zealand. Following the initial earthquake, an aftershock sequence was initiated, with the most significant aftershock being a Mw6.3 earthquake occurring on 22 February 2011. This aftershock caused severe damage to the city of Christchurch and building failures that killed 185 people. During the aftershock sequence it became evident that effective communication of aftershock information (e.g., history and forecasts) was imperative to assist with decision making during the response and recovery phases of the disaster, as well as preparedness for future aftershock events. As a consequence, a joint JCDR-USGS research project was initiated to investigate: • How aftershock information was communicated to organisations and to the public; • How people interpreted that information; • What people did in response to receiving that information; • What information people did and did not need; and • What decision-making challenges were encountered relating to aftershocks. Research was conducted by undertaking focus group meetings and interviews with a range of information providers and users, including scientists and science advisors, emergency managers and responders, engineers, communication officers, businesses, critical infrastructure operators, elected officials, and the public. The interviews and focus group meetings were recorded and transcribed, and key themes were identified. This paper focuses on the aftershock information needs for decision-making about the built environment post-earthquake, including those involved in response (e.g., for building assessment and management), recovery/reduction (e.g., the development of new building standards), and readiness (e.g. between aftershocks). The research has found that the communication of aftershock information varies with time, is contextual, and is affected by interactions among roles, by other information, and by decision objectives. A number

  8. Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    tested. Damage scores for all the tested hybrids were significantly different from the susceptible check (Atwalira). ... diseases, soil infertility among others and ... biological and host plant resistance. ..... Data analyses were carried out using SAS.

  9. Growth and Physiological Response of Jatropha Interspecific Hybrid (Jatropha curcas x J. integerrima under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhimas Handhi Putranto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid of Jatropha curcas x J. integerrima is expected to answer the low oil yield problem of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.. However, as a novel invention, research concerning on Jatropha interspecific hybrid is still limited especially in the aspect of its adaptability to unfavorable environment such as salt stress condition. It is interesting to know how Jatropha interspecific hybrid responses to salt stress condition due to the moderate salt tolerance ability of its mother plant (J. curcas L.. The objectives of this study were to compare the growth and physiological response of interspecific hybrid and non-hybrid Jatropha under salt stress. Three varieties of both interspecific hybrid and non-hybrid Jatropha seedling were exposed with 3 levels of sodium chloride treatment in Hoagland media solution which are 2.0 (control, 8.0, and 16.0 dS m-1 for 7 weeks. The parameters measured include plant height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content (SPAD Index, leaf water potential, and leaf solute concentration. V2 (interspecific hybrid showed the highest potential as moderate salt tolerant variety among experimental Jatropha varieties due to its increasing trend of leaf number, dry weight, and total leaf area at moderate salinity level   (8 dS m-1. KUBP 35 and KUBP 40 showed the best growth performance under salt stress among experimental Jatropha varieties, but its potential to be moderate salt tolerant variety was still lower than V2 variety. The solute concentration, osmotic potential, and turgor potential of both interspecific hybrid (V2 and non-hybrid variety (KUBP 35 and KUBP 40 showed an increasing pattern which could be implied as an adaptive response to salt stress. This study has showed that Jatropha interspecific hybrid might have an adaptive physiological response to salt stress and could be considered as potential moderate salt tolerant variety under salt stress.

  10. Disaster of Ecuador earthquake and the emergency response and rescue%厄瓜多尔地震灾害及其应急救援

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱慧; 陈虹

    2016-01-01

    介绍了2016年4月17日厄瓜多尔发生的MS7.5地震灾害、受灾国政府应急响应及国际救援情况。总结了厄瓜多尔地震灾害和应急救援的经验与教训。%An overview is presented on April 17,2016,Ecuador magnitude 7.5 earth-quake disaster.The national and international emergency response and rescue activities after the earthquake are introduced.The lessons learnt for the earthquake are summarized.

  11. Rapid Response Products of The ARIA Project for the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Milillo, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dawson, T. E.; Mccrink, T. P.; Jo, M. J.; Barnhart, W. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Jung, H. S.; Webb, F.; Milillo, G.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    A magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck southern Napa county northeast of San Francisco, California, on Aug. 24, 2014, causing significant damage in the city of Napa and nearby areas. One day after the earthquake, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team produced and released observations of coseismic ground displacement measured with continuous GPS stations of the Plate Boundary Observatory (operated by UNAVCO for the National Science Foundation) and the Bay Area Rapid Deformation network (operated by Berkeley Seismological Laboratory). Three days after the earthquake (Aug. 27), the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellite acquired their first post-event data. On the same day, the ARIA team, in collaboration with ASI and University of Basilicata, produced and released a coseismic interferogram that revealed ground deformation and surface rupture. The depiction of the surface rupture - discontinuities of color fringes in the CSK interferogram - helped guide field geologists from the US Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey (CGS) to features that may have otherwise gone undetected. Small-scale cracks were found on a runway of the Napa County Airport, as well as bridge damage and damaged roads. ARIA's response to this event highlighted the importance of timeliness for mapping surface deformation features. ARIA's rapid response products were shared through Southern California Earthquake Center's response website and the California Earthquake Clearinghouse. A damage proxy map derived from InSAR coherence of CSK data was produced and distributed on Aug. 27. Field crews from the CGS identified true and false positives, including mobile home damage, newly planted grape vines, and a cripple wall failure of a house. Finite fault slip models constrained from CSK interferograms and continuous GPS observations reveal a north-propagating rupture with well-resolved slip from 0-10.5 km depth. We also measured along-track coseismic

  12. Comparison of test and earthquake response modeling of a nuclear power plant containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The reactor building of a BWR plant was subjected to dynamic testing, a minor earthquake, and a strong earthquake at different times. Analytical models simulating each of these events were devised by previous investigators. A comparison of the characteristics of these models is made in this paper. The different modeling assumptions involved in the different simulation analyses restrict the validity of the models for general use and also narrow the comparison down to only a few modes. The dynamic tests successfully identified the first mode of the soil-structure system.

  13. Negative infrared photocurrent response in layered WS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratha, Satyajit; Rout, Chandra Sekhar, E-mail: datta099@gmail.com, E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Simbeck, Adam J. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Late, Dattatray J., E-mail: datta099@gmail.com, E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in [CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India); Nayak, Saroj K. [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We report high performance IR photocurrent response of two-dimensional hybrid materials consisting of layered WS{sub 2} nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Comparative photocurrent response studies of WS{sub 2} nanosheets, RGO, and WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids were carried out by performing current-voltage (I-V) and time-dependent current measurements with a laser excitation source having a wavelength of 808 nm. The experimental investigations indicate that WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids show negative photocurrent response, whereas WS{sub 2} and RGO show positive photocurrent response. The negative photocurrent response of the WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids is explained using a band alignment diagram and attributed to a charge transfer mechanism between WS{sub 2} and RGO. This analysis is further corroborated by first-principles density functional calculations. The fabricated device based on WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids shows a photosensitivity R{sub λ} of about 6 AW{sup −1} and a quantum efficiency η of ∼924%, which demonstrates high sensitivity of the hybrid material towards IR detection. WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids are therefore promising candidates for potential applications in optoelectronic circuits and low cost, high performance, and reliable photodetectors.

  14. ShakeCast: Automating and Improving the Use of ShakeMap for Post-Earthquake Decision- Making and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K.; Wald, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users" facilities, sends notifications of potential damage to responsible parties, and generates facility damage maps and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders. ShakeMap, a tool used to portray the extent of potentially damaging shaking following an earthquake, provides overall information regarding the affected areas. When a potentially damaging earthquake occurs, utility and other lifeline managers, emergency responders, and other critical users have an urgent need for information about the impact on their particular facilities so they can make appropriate decisions and take quick actions to ensure safety and restore system functionality. To this end, ShakeCast estimates the potential damage to a user's widely distributed facilities by comparing the complex shaking distribution with the potentially highly variable damageability of their inventory to provide a simple, hierarchical list and maps showing structures or facilities most likely impacted. All ShakeMap and ShakeCast files and products are non-propriety to simplify interfacing with existing users" response tools and to encourage user-made enhancement to the software. ShakeCast uses standard RSS and HTTP requests to communicate with the USGS Web servers that host ShakeMaps, which are widely-distributed and heavily mirrored. The RSS approach allows ShakeCast users to initiate and receive selected ShakeMap products and information on software updates. To assess facility damage estimates, ShakeCast users can combine measured or estimated ground motion parameters with damage relationships that can be pre-computed, use one of these ground motion parameters as input, and produce a multi-state discrete output of damage likelihood. Presently three common approaches are being used to provide users with an

  15. Crowdsourcing for Natural Disaster Response: An Evaluation of Crisis Mapping the 2010 Haitian Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, Annie

    2014-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, causing catastrophic damages that resulted in at least 300,000 dead, 300,000 serious injuries, and 1.8 million homeless. The destruction was so complete that roads were no longer visible. While buildings, roads, power, and other infrastructure have taken years to restore, mobile phone…

  16. Crowdsourcing for Natural Disaster Response: An Evaluation of Crisis Mapping the 2010 Haitian Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, Annie

    2014-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, causing catastrophic damages that resulted in at least 300,000 dead, 300,000 serious injuries, and 1.8 million homeless. The destruction was so complete that roads were no longer visible. While buildings, roads, power, and other infrastructure have taken years to restore, mobile phone…

  17. Disaster response under One Health in the aftermath of Nepal earthquake, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Vanitha, A

    2017-03-01

    Until now, an estimate quotes that 1100 healthcare facilities were damaged and over 100,000 livestock lost in the two earthquakes that occurred in April and May of 2015 in Nepal. Threats of infectious diseases, mostly zoonoses, could affect Nepal's economy, trade, and tourism, and reaching the targets of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Historically, outbreaks of infectious diseases, including zoonoses, were largely associated with the aftereffects of the earthquakes. It has been documented that zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this communication was to examine the infectious disease outbreaks after earthquakes around the world and explore the risk assessment of the zoonoses threats reported in Nepal and highlight adopting One Health. Our summaries on reported zoonoses in Nepal have shown that parasitic zoonoses were predominant, but other infectious disease outbreaks can occur. The fragile public health infrastructure and inadequately trained public health personnel can accelerate the transmission of infections, mostly zoonoses, in the post impact phase of the earthquake in Nepal. Therefore, we believe that with the support of aid agencies, veterinarians and health professionals can team up to resolve the crisis under One Health. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incertitude in disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities: A case study of the L'Aquila earthquake trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Oki, Satoko

    2015-04-01

    What disaster sciences are expected by the society is to prevent or mitigate future natural disasters, and therefore it is necessary to foresee natural disasters. However, various constraints often make the foreseeing difficult so that there is a high incertitude in the social contribution of disaster sciences. If scientists overstep this limitation, they will be held even criminally responsible. The L'Aquila trial in Italy is such a recent example and so we have performed data collections, hearing investigations, analyses of the reasons for the initial court's judgment, etc., to explore the incertitude of disaster sciences and scientists' responsibilities. As a result, we concluded that the casualties during the L'Aquila earthquake were mainly due to a careless "safety declaration" by the vice-director of the Civil Protection Agency, where the incertitude of disaster sciences had never been considered. In addition, news media which reported only this "safety declaration" were also seriously responsible for the casualties. The accused other than the vice-director were only morally responsible, because their meeting remarks included poor risk communication in disaster sciences but those were not reported to the citizens in advance to the L'Aquila earthquake. In the presentation, we will also discuss the similarities and differences between our conclusions above and the reasons for the appeals court's judgement, which will be published in February.

  19. Behavioral Response in the Immediate Aftermath of Shaking: Earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihnji Jon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines people’s response actions in the first 30 min after shaking stopped following earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch, 332 respondents in Hitachi, and 204 respondents in Wellington revealed notable similarities in some response actions immediately after the shaking stopped. In all four events, people were most likely to contact family members and seek additional information about the situation. However, there were notable differences among events in the frequency of resuming previous activities. Actions taken in the first 30 min were weakly related to: demographic variables, earthquake experience, contextual variables, and actions taken during the shaking, but were significantly related to perceived shaking intensity, risk perception and affective responses to the shaking, and damage/infrastructure disruption. These results have important implications for future research and practice because they identify promising avenues for emergency managers to communicate seismic risks and appropriate responses to risk area populations.

  20. Earthquake response of storey building in Jakarta using accelerographs data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julius, Admiral Musa, E-mail: admiralmusajulius@yahoo.com [Study Program of Geophysics, Indonesia State College of Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics (STMKG), Jl. Perhubungan 1 No. 5, Bintaro 15221 (Indonesia); Jakarta Geophysics Observatory, Indonesia Agency of Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jl. Angkasa 1 No. 2, Kemayoran, Jakarta 10720 (Indonesia); Sunardi, Bambang, E-mail: b.sunardi@gmail.com [Research and Development Center, Indonesia Agency of Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jl. Angkasa 1 No. 2, Kemayoran, Jakarta 10720 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    As seismotectonic, the Jakarta city will be greatly affected by the earthquake which originated from the subduction zone of the Sunda Strait and south of Java. Some occurrences of earthquakes in these location are often perceived by the occupants in the upper floors of multi-storey buildings in Jakarta but was not perceived by the occupants on the ground floor. The case shows the difference in ground-motion parameters on each floor height. The analysis of the earthquake data recorded by accelerographs on different floors need to be done to know the differences in ground-motion parameters. Data used in this research is accelerograph data installed on several floors in the main building of Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Agency with a case study of Kebumen earthquake on January 25{sup th} 2014. Parameters analyzed include the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Peak Ground Displacement (PGD), Peak Spectral Acceleration (PSA), Amplification (Ag), and the Effective Duration of earthquake (t{sub e}). Research stages include accelerographs data acquisition in three (3) different floors, conversion and data partition for each component, conversion to units of acceleration, determination of PGA, PGD, PSA, Ag and t{sub e} as well as data analysis. The study shows the value of PGA on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floors, respectively are 0.016 g, 0.053 g and 0.116 g. PGD on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floor respectively are 2.15 cm, 2.98 cm and 4.92 cm. PSA on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floor respectively are 0.067 g, 0.308 g and 0.836 g. Amplification of the peak acceleration value on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floor to the surface rock are 4.37, 6.07 and 7.30. Effective duration of the earthquake on the ground floor, 7{sup th} floor and 15{sup th} floor respectively are 222.28 s, 202.28 s and 91.58 s. In general, with increasing floor of the building, the value of the

  1. Hybrid Warfare in the Baltics: Threats and Potential Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-23

    Balance, 2015, p. 6. See also Michael Kofman and Matthew Rojansky, “A Closer Look at Russia’s ‘Hybrid War,’” Woodrow Wilson Center Kennan Cable No. 7...Kofman, Michael, and Matthew Rojansky, “A Closer Look at Russia’s ‘Hybrid War,’” Woodrow Wilson Center Kennan Cable No. 7, April 2015. Kravchenko...Recommendations for NATO,” German Marshall Fund of the United States, February 2015, p. 2; Andrew Wilson , Virtual Politics: Faking Democracy in the Post

  2. Seismic analysis of the large 70-meter antenna, part 1: Earthquake response spectra versus full transient analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedron, K.; Chian, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    As a check on structure safety aspects, two approaches in seismic analysis for the large 70-m antennas are presented. The first approach, commonly used by civil engineers, utilizes known recommended design response spectra. The second approach, which is the full transient analysis, is versatile and applicable not only to earthquake loading but also to other dynamic forcing functions. The results obtained at the fundamental structural frequency show that the two approaches are in good agreement with each other and both approaches show a safe design. The results also confirm past 64-m antenna seismic studies done by the Caltech Seismology Staff.

  3. Earthquake Risk - SEISMIC_SHAKING_PREDICTED_RESPONSE_RP35_IN: Predicted Responses of Geologic Materials to Seismically Induced Ground Shaking (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SEISMIC_SHAKING_PREDICTED_RESPONSE_RP35_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows the distribution and classification of National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  4. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and damage in Los Gatos, California, from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Aftershock records of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are used to calculate site response in the frequency band of 0.5-10 Hz at 24 locations in Los Gatos, California, on the edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Two different methods are used: spectral ratios relative to a reference site on rock and a source/site spectral inversion method. These two methods complement each other and give consistent results. Site amplification factors are compared with surficial geology, thickness of alluvium, shallow shear-wave velocity measurements, and ground deformation and structural damage resulting from the Loma Prieta earthquake. Higher values of site amplification are seen on Quaternary alluvium compared with older Miocene and Cretaceous units of Monterey and Franciscan Formation. However, other more detailed correlations with surficial geology are not evident. A complex pattern of alluvial sediment thickness, caused by crosscutting thrust faults, is interpreted as contributing to the variability in site response and the presence of spectral resonance peaks between 2 and 7 Hz at some sites. Within the range of our field measurements, there is a correlation between lower average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 m and 50% higher values of site amplification. An area of residential homes thrown from their foundations correlates with high site response. This damage may also have been aggravated by local ground deformation. Severe damage to commercial buildings in the business district, however, is attributed to poor masonry construction.

  5. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  6. Broadband negative permeability using hybridized metamaterials: Characterization, multiple hybridization, and terahertz response

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Nguyen Thanh; Tung, Bui Son; Janssens, Ewald; Lievens, Peter; Lam, Vu Dinh

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased interest to create artificial magnetic metamaterials that show a negative permeability over a wide frequency range. In this paper, we experimentally and numerically demonstrate a broadband negative permeability using symmetric cut-wire-pair metamaterial structures. This finding is based on the second-order hybridization, which is activated by manipulating the correlation between the coupling within a single cut-wire pair and the coupling between neighboring cut-wire pair...

  7. The orientation of disaster donations: differences in the global response to five major earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Marinova, Dora

    2016-07-01

    This study analyses the influence of gift giving, geographical location, political regime, and trade openness on disaster donation decisions, using five severe earthquakes that occurred between 2008 and 2012 as case studies. The results show that global disaster donation is not dominated by only philanthropy or trade interests, and that the determinants of donation decisions vary with the scale of the natural disaster and the characteristics of the disaster-affected countries. While gift giving exists in the case of middle-size earthquakes, political regimes play a very important part in the overall donation process. Countries with higher perceived corruption may donate more frequently, but those that are more democratic may be more generous in their donations. Generosity based on geographical proximity to the calamity is significant in the decision-making process for most natural disasters, yet it may have a negative effect on donations in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  8. Networks in disasters: Multidisciplinary communication and coordination in response and recovery to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Augenstein, J.; Comfort, L.; Huggins, L.; Krenitsky, N.; Scheinert, S.; Serrant, T.; Siciliano, M.; Stebbins, S.; Sweeney, P.; University Of Pittsburgh Haiti Reconnaissance Team

    2010-12-01

    The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti demonstrates the necessity of understanding information communication between disciplines during disasters. Armed with data from a variety of sources, from geophysics to construction, water and sanitation to education, decision makers can initiate well-informed policies to reduce the risk from future hazards. At the core of this disaster was a natural hazard that occurred in an environmentally compromised country. The earthquake itself was not solely responsible for the magnitude of the disaster- poor construction practices precipitated by extreme poverty, a two centuries of post-colonial environmental degradation and a history of dysfunctional government shoulder much of the responsibility. Future policies must take into account the geophysical reality that future hazards are inevitable and may occur within the very near future, and how various institutions will respond to the stressors. As the global community comes together in reconstruction efforts, it is necessary for the various actors to take into account what vulnerabilities were exposed by the earthquake, most vividly seen during the initial response to the disaster. Responders are forced to prioritize resources designated for building collapse and infrastructure damage, delivery of critical services such as emergency medical care, and delivery of food and water to those in need. Past disasters have shown that communication lapses between the response and recovery phases results in many of the exposed vulnerabilities not being adequately addressed, and the recovery hence fails to bolster compromised systems. The response reflects the basic characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System, where new agents emerge and priorities within existing organizations shift to deal with new information. To better understand how information is shared between actors during this critical transition, we are documenting how information is communicated between critical sectors during the

  9. Earthquake Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Hydrodynamic and Foundation Interaction Effects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Presas y Depositos", Boletin Sociedad Mexicana de Ingenieria Sismica, Vol. 1, No. 2, October 1963. 10. A. K. Chopra,"Hydrodynamic Pressures on Dams...Veracruz, Mexico , 1968. 12. A. Flores, I. Herrera and C. Lozano, "Hydrodynamic Pressure Generated by Vertical Earthquake Component", Proceedings, Fourth...transform of the ground motion and Nthe inverse transforms of the re- sponses are obtained at the first -T points spaced at equal intervals of time At

  10. Development of Earthquake Emergency Response Plan for Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The tour included the site of back-up generators, airfield including hangers, ramp, runway taxi way, adjacent landscape, Buddha Air’s hangar...potential spot for Humanitarian Staging Area ( HSA) and Helicopter operation etc. The team also met with the staff of Buddha Air, the leading private...airline operating in Nepal, in their office. Buddha Air showed their interest in the airport earthquake ERP and expressed commitment in compliance which

  11. Using SW4 for 3D Simulations of Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: Application to Near-Field Strong Motion, Building Response, Basin Edge Generated Waves and Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Petersson, N. A.; Sjogreen, B.; McCallen, D.; Miah, M.

    2016-12-01

    Simulation of earthquake ground motions is becoming more widely used due to improvements of numerical methods, development of ever more efficient computer programs (codes), and growth in and access to High-Performance Computing (HPC). We report on how SW4 can be used for accurate and efficient simulations of earthquake strong motions. SW4 is an anelastic finite difference code based on a fourth order summation-by-parts displacement formulation. It is parallelized and can run on one or many processors. SW4 has many desirable features for seismic strong motion simulation: incorporation of surface topography; automatic mesh generation; mesh refinement; attenuation and supergrid boundary conditions. It also has several ways to introduce 3D models and sources (including Standard Rupture Format for extended sources). We are using SW4 to simulate strong ground motions for several applications. We are performing parametric studies of near-fault motions from moderate earthquakes to investigate basin edge generated waves and large earthquakes to provide motions to engineers study building response. We show that 3D propagation near basin edges can generate significant amplifications relative to 1D analysis. SW4 is also being used to model earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. This includes modeling moderate (M3.5-5) events to evaluate the United States Geologic Survey's 3D model of regional structure as well as strong motions from the 2014 South Napa earthquake and possible large scenario events. Recently SW4 was built on a Commodity Technology Systems-1 (CTS-1) at LLNL, new systems for capacity computing at the DOE National Labs. We find SW4 scales well and runs faster on these systems compared to the previous generation of LINUX clusters.

  12. Rapid field-based landslide hazard assessment in response to post-earthquake emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattini, Paolo; Gambini, Stefano; Cancelliere, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    On April 25, 2015 a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred 80 km to the northwest of Kathmandu (Nepal). The largest aftershock, occurred on May 12, 2015, was the Mw 7.3 Nepal earthquake (SE of Zham, China), 80 km to the east of Kathmandu. . The earthquakes killed ~9000 people and severely damaged a 10,000 sqkm region in Nepal and neighboring countries. Several thousands of landslides have been triggered during the event, causing widespread damages to mountain villages and the evacuation of thousands of people. Rasuwa was one of the most damaged districts. This contribution describes landslide hazard analysis of the Saramthali, Yarsa and Bhorle VDCs (122 km2, Rasuwa district). Hazard is expressed in terms of qualitative classes (low, medium, high), through a simple matrix approach that combines frequency classes and magnitude classes. The hazard analysis is based primarily on the experience gained during a field survey conducted in September 2014. During the survey, local knowledge has been systematically exploited through interviews with local people that have experienced the earthquake and the coseismic landslides. People helped us to recognize fractures and active deformations, and allowed to reconstruct a correct chronicle of landslide events, in order to assign the landslide events to the first shock, the second shock, or the post-earthquake 2015 monsoon. The field experience was complemented with a standard analysis of the relationship between potential controlling factors and the distribution of landslides reported in Kargel et al (2016). This analysis allowed recognizing the most important controlling factor. This information was integrated with the field observations to verify the mapped units and to complete the mapping in area not accessible for field activity. Finally, the work was completed with the analysis and the use of a detailed landslide inventory produced by the University of Milano Bicocca that covers most of the area affected by coseismic landslides in

  13. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced frame structure, these self-centering friction damping brace members make the best use of their representative characteristics to minimize residual deformations and to withstand earthquake loads without member replacement. The configuration and response mechanism of self-centering friction damping brace systems are firstly described in this study, and then parametric investigations are conducted through nonlinear time-history analyses performed on numerical single degree-of-freedom spring models. After observing analysis results, adequate design methodologies that optimally account for recentering capability and energy dissipation according to their comparative parameters are intended to be suggested in order to take advantage of energy capacity and to minimize residual deformation simultaneously.

  14. Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring for Emergency Response and Hazards Assessment: Recent Developments at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buland, R. P.; Guy, M.; Kragness, D.; Patton, J.; Erickson, B.; Morrison, M.; Bryon, C.; Ketchum, D.; Benz, H.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has put into operation a new generation of seismic acquisition, processing and distribution subsystems that seamlessly integrate regional, national and global seismic network data for routine monitoring of earthquake activity and response to large, damaging earthquakes. The system, Bulletin Hydra, was designed to meet Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) design goals to handle thousands of channels of real-time seismic data, compute and distribute time-critical seismic information for emergency response applications, and manage the integration of contributed earthquake products and information, arriving from near-real-time up to six weeks after an event. Bulletin Hydra is able meet these goals due to a modular, scalable, and flexible architecture that supports on-the-fly consumption of new data, readily allows for the addition of new scientific processing modules, and provides distributed client workflow management displays. Through the Edge subsystem, Bulletin Hydra accepts waveforms in half a dozen formats. In addition, Bulletin Hydra accepts contributed seismic information including hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, unassociated and associated picks, and amplitudes in a variety of formats including earthworm import/export pairs and EIDS. Bulletin Hydra has state-driven algorithms for computing all IASPEI standard magnitudes (e.g. mb, mb_BB, ML, mb_LG, Ms_20, and Ms_BB) as well as Md, Ms(VMAX), moment tensor algorithms for modeling different portions of the wave-field at different distances (e.g. teleseismic body-wave, centroid, and regional moment tensors), and broadband depth. All contributed and derived data are centrally managed in an Oracle database. To improve on single station observations, Bulletin Hydra also does continuous real-time beam forming of high-frequency arrays. Finally, workflow management displays are used to assist NEIC analysts in their day-to-day duties. All combined

  15. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  16. Investigating the Subsurface Stress Field based on Hybrid Earthquake Focal Mechanisms: Examples from the Fort Worth Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Wong, R.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of in situ stress state and rock failure mechanisms is key for modelling and predicting subsurface material behavior. Earthquake focal mechanisms are extensively used for in situ stress determination, as reflected by their widespread use for the World Stress Map project. The rupture process emits radiated seismic energy, from which equivalent force couples acting a point (moment tensor) may be determined. Inversion methods, including formal estimates of uncertainty, have been developed to estimate stress parameters from moment-tensor observations. Methods that have been developed so far are based on the assumptions that the source mechanism is purely double-couple (DC) and the direction of the slip vector is parallel to the shear stress acting on the fault plane (Wallace-Bott hypothesis). However, this is not always the case, especially for microseismic events that occur during hydraulic fracturing, in which case injected fluids can significantly elevate the pore pressure. In the case of shear-tensile failure, the slip vector may deviate from the fault plane due to complex failure mechanisms surrounding an injection site. To eliminate this restriction and better analyze stress state during injection, a new approach is developed under the assumption that the slip vector is parallel to the direction of the traction vector acting on a fault plane. The microseismic data analyzed in this study were acquired in 2010 during a multi-well completion in the Fort Worth Basin. The dataset contains 7444 microseismic events with full moment-tensor solutions. Results of our analysis, which utilizes events with the best resolved solutions, reveal that the shear-tensile stress inversion approach improves the determination of failure plane and stress state.

  17. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to properly operate the hybrid microgrid. These batteries increase the system cost, require proper operation and maintenance, and have been shown to be unreliable in case studies on hybrid microgrids. This work examines the impacts of leveraging demand response in a hybrid microgrid in lieu of energy storage. The study is performed by simulating two different hybrid diesel generator—PV microgrid topologies, one with a single diesel generator and one with multiple paralleled diesel generators, for a small residential neighborhood with varying levels of demand response. Various system designs are considered and the optimal design, based on cost of energy, is presented for each level of demand response. The solar resources, performance of solar PV source, performance of diesel generators, costs of system components, maintenance, and operation are modeled and simulated at a time interval of ten minutes over a twenty-five year period for both microgrid topologies. Results are quantified through cost of energy, diesel fuel requirements, and utilization of the energy sources under varying levels of demand response. The results indicate that a moderate level of demand response can have significant positive impacts to the operation of hybrid microgrids through reduced energy cost, fuel consumption, and increased utilization of PV sources.

  18. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis - A case study of collapsed Margalla Tower in Islamabad during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Rehman, Zia-ur-; Farooq, Khalid; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2016-07-01

    One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis was conducted in the Margalla Tower building in Islamabad, which collapsed during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake. The analyses were conducted in DEEPSOIL software, without considering the effect of ground water table. The input subsoil data were selected from laboratory and field tests conducted for the site with bedrock at a depth of 21 m as per site condition. The field and laboratory testing data showed that the subsoil beneath the Tower site was silty clay to lean clay according to the unified soil classification system. Four different accelerograms with PGA values of 0.17 g, 0.15 g, 0.22 g and 0.21 g, compatible with the earthquake in the target area were applied at the bedrock. The surface response spectra showed that, except the Accelerogram-1 all other three were amplified near the fundamental period of the site. The analyses showed that different PGA values (0.26 g, 0.21 g, 0.36 g and 0.21 g) were produced at the surface which can be explained due to the difference in the Fourier amplitude of input accelerograms. Furthermore, the different input accelerograms produced a different shear strain and thus mobilized different shear strengths along the soil profile depth. Finally, the calculated response spectra of accelerograms were compared with the response spectra of Islamabad. The calculated spectral acceleration values were found to be higher than reported by the Building Code of Pakistan (0.16 g to 0.24 g).

  19. An assessment of the response of Military lower extremity and Hybrid III leg during typical blast impact using the Hybrid III and EUROSID-2 ATD.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the response of Military lower extremity and Hybrid III leg during typical blast impact using the Hybrid III and EUROSID-2 ATD Thanyani Pandelani, David Reinecke, Tleyane Sono, Frans Beetge and Phumlane Nkosi Abstract: This paper...

  20. Overview of Ground-Motion Issues for Cascadia Megathrust Events: Simulation of Ground-Motions and Earthquake Site Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghofrani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground motions for earthquakes of M7.5 to 9.0 on the Cascadia subduction interface are simulated based on a stochastic finite-fault model and used to estimate average response spectra for reference firm soil conditions. The simulations are first validated by modeling the wealth of ground-motion data from the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of Japan. Adjustments to the calibrated model are then made to consider average source, attenuation and site parameters for the Cascadia region. This includes an evaluation of the likely variability in stress drop for large interface earthquakes and an assessment of regional attenuation and site effects. We perform best-estimate simulations for a preferred set of input parameters. Typical results suggest mean values of 5%-damped pseudoacceleration in the range from about 100 to 200 cm/s2, at frequencies from 1 to 4 Hz, for firm-ground conditions in Vancouver. Uncertainty in most-likely value of the parameter representing stress drop causes variability in simulated response spectra of about ±50%. Uncertainties in the attenuation model produce even larger variability in response spectral amplitudes—a factor of about two at a closest distance to the rupture plane (Rcd of 100 km, becoming even larger at greater distances. It is thus important to establish the regional attenuation model for ground-motion simulations and to bound the source properties controlling radiation of ground motion. We calculate theoretical one-dimensional spectral amplification estimates for four selected Fraser River Delta sites to show how the presence of softer sediments in the region may alter the predicted ground motions. The amplification functions are largely consistent with observed spectral amplification at Fraser River delta sites, suggesting amplification by factors of 2.5–5 at the peak frequency of the site; we note that deep sites in the delta have a low peak frequency, ∼0.3 Hz. This work will aid in seismic hazard

  1. Hybridization in endophyte symbionts alters host response to moisture and nutrient treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Cyd E; Dowling, Thomas E; Faeth, Stanley H

    2010-05-01

    When a host organism is infected by a symbiont, the resulting symbiotum has a phenotype distinct from uninfected hosts. Genotypic interactions between the partners may increase phenotypic variation of the host at the population level. Neotyphodium is an asexual, vertically transmitted endophytic symbiont of grasses often existing in hybrid form. Hybridization in Neotyphodium rapidly increases the symbiotum's genomic content and is likely to increase the phenotypic variation of the host. This phenotypic variation is predicted to enhance host performance, especially in stressful environments. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the growth, survival, and resource allocation of hybrid and nonhybrid infected host plants exposed to controlled variation in soil moisture and nutrients. Infection by a hybrid endophyte did not fit our predictions of comparatively higher root and total biomass production under low moisture/low nutrient treatments. Regardless of whether the host was infected by a hybrid or nonhybrid endophyte, both produced significantly higher root/total biomass when both nutrient and moisture were high compared to limited nutrient/moisture treatments. However, infection by hybrid Neotyphodium did result in significantly higher total biomass and host survival compared to nonhybrid infected hosts, regardless of treatment. Endophyte hybridization alters host strategies in response to stress by increasing survival in depauperate habitats and thus, potentially increasing the relative long-term host fitness.

  2. [Response of primary care teams to manage mental health problems after the 2010 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitriol, Verónica; Minoletti, Alberto; Alvarado, Rubén; Sierralta, Paula; Cancino, Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    Thirty to 50% of people exposed to a natural disaster suffer psychological problems in the ensuing months. To characterize the activities in mental health developed by Primary Health Care centers after the earthquake that affected Chile on february 27th, 2010. A cross-sectional study analyzing 16 urban centers of Maule Region, was carried out. A questionnaire was developed to know the preparatory and supportive activities directed to the community and the training and self-care activities directed to Health Care personnel that were made during the 12 months following the catastrophe. In addition, a questionnaire evaluating structural aspects was designed. Only 1/3 of the centers made some preparatory activity and none of them made a diagnosis of population vulnerability. The average of protective Mental Health interventions coverage reached 35% of the population estimated to be most affected. The activities lasted 31 to 62% of the optimal duration standards set by experts (according to the type of action). Important differences between centers in economic and geographical accessibility, construction and professional resources were found. This study shows the difficulties faced by urban centers of Maule Region to deal with mental health problems caused by the earthquake, which were attributable to the absence of local planning and drills, and to the lack of intra and inter sectorial coordination.

  3. Patient tracking in earthquake emergency response in Iran: A qualitative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahid; Tavakoli; Mohammad; H; Yarmohammadian; Reza; Safdari; Mahmoud; Keyvanara

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a disaster, all victims have to be rapidly and accurately identified for locating, tracking and regulating them. The purpose of this study was to summarize people’s experiences that how the patients were tracked in past earthquake disasters in Iran.METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out in 2015. This was an interview-based qualitative study using content analysis. The interviewed people included physicians, nurses, emergency medical technicians, disaster managers, Red Crescent Society’ first responders and managers. Participants were identified using a snow ball sampling method. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, coded, and entered into MAXQDA(version 10) for coding and content analysis.RESULTS: Three main themes and seven categories including content(recoding data), function(identification of victims, identification of the deceased, informing the patients’ relatives, patients’ evacuation and transfer, and statistical reporting), technology(the state of using technology) were identifi ed that showed the patient tracking status in past earthquakes in Iran.CONCLUSION: Participants believed that to identify and register the data related to patients or the dead, no consistent action plan was available. So developing a consistent patient tracking system could overcome this issue and improve patient safety.

  4. Filter design of eight order butterworth infinite impulse response for earthquake sign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Yusuf Hadi; Marsono, Agus

    2017-07-01

    Filtering is an important procedure in modern seismology analysis to obtain the best quality result in advanced process. There are many programs of signal processing consisting of signal filtering features, for example Seismic Analysis Code (SAC). Unfortunately, the basic mathematical equations in signal processing are not explained in detail. This research has purposes to design a Butterworth filter and to examine the influence of increasing order on the arrival time, polarity, and first motion amplitude of seismic wave. Filter design was done by computing eight order lowpass analog transfer functions and transforming them into lowpass, highpass, and bandpass digital using bilinear transformation so we have recursive and causal filters. The designed filter was then validated by the result of SAC. Based on the research we have found that the method and algorithm of designed filter are consistent with SAC. Increasing filter order can clarify the phases of seismic wave positions. On the other hand, it can influence the phase delay and impulse attenuation of seismic waves. The implication of this effects are error on computation of earthquake parameter and source mechanism. Filter instability due to increasing order will quickly occur if the cutoff frequency range is short or the sampling frequency is high. An appropriate passband frequency at low filter order can optimally generate earthquake filtered waves.

  5. Global hybrids from the semiclassical atom theory satisfying the local density linear response

    CERN Document Server

    Fabiano, E; Cortona, P; Della Sala, F

    2015-01-01

    We propose global hybrid approximations of the exchange-correlation (XC) energy functional which reproduce well the modified fourth-order gradient expansion of the exchange energy in the semiclassical limit of many-electron neutral atoms and recover the full local density approximation (LDA) linear response. These XC functionals represent the hybrid versions of the APBE functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 186406, (2011)] yet employing an additional correlation functional which uses the localization concept of the correlation energy density to improve the compatibility with the Hartree-Fock exchange as well as the coupling-constant-resolved XC potential energy. Broad energetical and structural testings, including thermochemistry and geometry, transition metal complexes, non-covalent interactions, gold clusters and small gold-molecule interfaces, as well as an analysis of the hybrid parameters, show that our construction is quite robust. In particular, our testing shows that the resulting hybrid, including 20\\% o...

  6. Low and high velocity impact response of thick hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Clement; Ishai, Ori

    1993-01-01

    The effects of low and high velocity impact on thick hybrid composites (THC's) were experimentally compared. Test Beams consisted of CFRP skins which were bonded onto an interleaved syntactic foam core and cured at 177 C (350 F). The impactor tip for both cases was a 16 mm (0.625 inch) steel hemisphere. In spite of the order of magnitude difference in velocity ranges and impactor weights, similar relationships between impact energy, damage size, and residual strength were found. The dependence of the skin compressive strength on damage size agree well with analytical open hole models for composite laminates and may enable the prediction of ultimate performance for the damaged composite, based on visual inspection.

  7. Corn Hybrid Response to Water Management Practices on Claypan Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study evaluated corn (Zea mays L. hybrids (Asgrow785, DKC61-73, DKC63-42, LG2642, and Kruger2114 and water management systems (nondrained, nonirrigated (NDNI; drained, nonirrigated (DNI with subsurface drain tiles 6.1 and 12.2 m apart; drained plus subirrigated (DSI with tiles 6.1 and 12.2 m apart; nondrained, overhead irrigated (NDOHI on yields, plant population, and grain quality from 2008 to 2010. Precipitation during this study was 36 to 283 mm above the past decade. Planting date was delayed 18 d in the nondrained control in 2009, and additional delayed planting controls were included this year. Grain yields were similar in the 6.1- and 12.2 m-spaced DNI and DSI systems in 2008 and 2010, but plant population increased 74% and yields were 3.1 Mg ha−1 greater with DSI at a 6.1 m spacing compared to 12.2 m in 2009. At a 6.1 m spacing, DNI or DSI increased yield 1.1 to 6.6 Mg ha−1 (10 to over 50% compared to NDNI or NDOHI soil. High yielding hybrids achieved similar yields with DNI, while NDNI DKC63-42 had 1.2 Mg ha−1 greater yields compared to DKC61-73. A 6.1 m spacing for DNI claypan soils is recommended for high yielding corn production.

  8. Soft Schemes for Earthquake-Geotechnical Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Models of real systems are of fundamental importance in virtually all disciplines because they can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the organism. Models make it possible to predict or simulate a system’s behavior; in earthquake geotechnical engineering, they are required for the design of new constructions and for the analysis of those that exist. Since the quality of the model typically determines an upper bound on the quality of the final problem solution, modeling is often the bottleneck in the development of the whole system. As a consequence, a strong demand for advanced modeling and identification schemes arises. During the past years, soft computing techniques have been used for developing unconventional procedures to study earthquake geotechnical problems. Considering the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithms, in this work a criterion to leverage the best features to develop efficient hybrid models is presented. Via the development of schemes for integrating data-driven and theoretical procedures, the soft computing tools are presented as reliable earthquake geotechnical models. This assertion is buttressed using a broad history of seismic events and monitored responses in complicated soils systems. Combining the versatility of fuzzy logic to represent qualitative knowledge, the data-driven efficiency of neural networks to provide fine-tuned adjustments via local search, and the ability of genetic algorithms to perform efficient coarse-granule global search, the earthquake geotechnical problems are observed, analyzed, and solved under a holistic approach.

  9. On the Potential Uses of Static Offsets Derived From Low-Cost Community Instruments and Crowd-Sourcing for Earthquake Monitoring and Rapid Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Murray, J. R.; Iannucci, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the efficacy of low-cost community instruments (LCCIs) and crowd-sourcing to produce rapid estimates of earthquake magnitude and rupture characteristics which can be used for earthquake loss reduction such as issuing tsunami warnings and guiding rapid response efforts. Real-time high-rate GPS data are just beginning to be incorporated into earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. These data are showing promising utility including producing moment magnitude estimates which do not saturate for the largest earthquakes and determining the geometry and slip distribution of the earthquake rupture in real-time. However, building a network of scientific-quality real-time high-rate GPS stations requires substantial infrastructure investment which is not practicable in many parts of the world. To expand the benefits of real-time geodetic monitoring globally, we consider the potential of pseudorange-based GPS locations such as the real-time positioning done onboard cell phones or on LCCIs that could be distributed in the same way accelerometers are distributed as part of the Quake Catcher Network (QCN). While location information from LCCIs often have large uncertainties, their low cost means that large numbers of instruments can be deployed. A monitoring network that includes smartphones could collect data from potentially millions of instruments. These observations could be averaged together to substantially decrease errors associated with estimated earthquake source parameters. While these data will be inferior to data recorded by scientific-grade seismometers and GPS instruments, there are features of community-based data collection (and possibly analysis) that are very attractive. This approach creates a system where every user can host an instrument or download an application to their smartphone that both provides them with earthquake and tsunami warnings while also providing the data on which the warning system operates. This symbiosis helps to encourage

  10. Role of Young Scientists in the Emergency Response and Scientific Investigation Related to the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake: Performance Evaluation and Discussion on the Implications to Seismological Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, S.; Zhang, D.; Chen, Y.; Xiao, C.; Feng, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake is one of the largest inland earthquakes in continental China in the last 30 years. Over twenty thousand aftershocks were detected and aftershocks are still occurring along the Longmenshan thrust fault. Facing challenge of such large earthquakes, it is a new problem for our education, training and human resource management about how to respond quickly and arrange effectively to reduce the earthquake disasters and carry out relative researches. For such an earthquake, the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration (IGPCEA) organized a series of investigation immediately after the quake. The researches include application in seismology, geomagnetism, seismotectonics, engineering seismology, earthquake engineering and socio-seismology. In the third day after the earthquake, many young scientists involved in the deployment of mobile seismic stations to record aftershock sequence. Up to now, 79 experts of our institute have been arranged to go to the meizoseismal region for monitoring and investigation. Among them, over 40 young scientists are no more than 40 years old, including many graduates. Less than 36 hours after the Wenchuan earthquake, 17 quick reports have been sent to China Earthquake Administration for the consultation of the emergency response. These researches dealt with a wide-band of topics from earthquake location, focal mechanism, rupture processes to suggestion on the rescue actions. According to experiences and lessons of the field works in the Wenchuan earthquake, it is deserved for us to think how to arrange theoretical courses and practical training more practical for young graduates and scientists to meet the demands of the reduction of earthquake disasters. Key words: Wenchuan earthquake; Longmenshan fault; young scientists; education and training

  11. Enhanced NLO response in BODIPY-coumarin hybrids: density functional theory approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YOGESH ERANDE; NAGAIYAN SEKAR

    2017-09-01

    We have thoroughly investigated the first, second and third polarizability characteristics of four hybrid chromophores by spectroscopic and computational methods. B3LYP, CAMB3LYP and BHandHLYP functionals in combination with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set were used to evaluate the polarizability and hyperpolarizability characteristics of these chromophores. Generalized Mulliken Hush analysis and frontier molecular orbital electronic distribution images of chromophores obtained from Density functional theory computation has established the charge transfer characteristics of these hybrid chromophores. On the basis of charge transfer characteristic, these red absorbing and NIR emissive chromophores possess high nonlinear optical response. Comparison of isolated units with their analogous hybrid chromophores shows that fusion ofcoumarin with BODIPY enhances the nonlinear optical response.

  12. Nowcasting Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Turcotte, D. L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gail, G.

    2016-12-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system, and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(nearthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(nearthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  13. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to Navigation Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United States was a magnitude 9.2 that struck Prince William Sound, ... we know, there is no such thing as "earthquake weather" . Statistically, there is an equal distribution of ...

  14. Nowcasting earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Luginbuhl, M.; Gong, G.

    2016-11-01

    Nowcasting is a term originating from economics and finance. It refers to the process of determining the uncertain state of the economy or markets at the current time by indirect means. We apply this idea to seismically active regions, where the goal is to determine the current state of the fault system and its current level of progress through the earthquake cycle. In our implementation of this idea, we use the global catalog of earthquakes, using "small" earthquakes to determine the level of hazard from "large" earthquakes in the region. Our method does not involve any model other than the idea of an earthquake cycle. Rather, we define a specific region and a specific large earthquake magnitude of interest, ensuring that we have enough data to span at least 20 or more large earthquake cycles in the region. We then compute the earthquake potential score (EPS) which is defined as the cumulative probability distribution P(n < n(t)) for the current count n(t) for the small earthquakes in the region. From the count of small earthquakes since the last large earthquake, we determine the value of EPS = P(n < n(t)). EPS is therefore the current level of hazard and assigns a number between 0% and 100% to every region so defined, thus providing a unique measure. Physically, the EPS corresponds to an estimate of the level of progress through the earthquake cycle in the defined region at the current time.

  15. A Spatial Correlation Model of Peak Ground Acceleration and Response Spectra Based on Data of the Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Thomas; Goda, Katsuichiro; Erdik, Mustafa; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion intensity measures such as the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the pseudo spectral acceleration (PSA) at two sites due to the same seismic event are correlated. The spatial correlation needs to be considered when modelling ground-motion fields for seismic loss assessments, since it can have a significant influence on the statistical moments and probability distribution of aggregated seismic loss of a building portfolio. Empirical models of spatial correlation of ground motion intensity measures exist only for a few seismic regions in the world such as Japan, Taiwan and California, since for this purpose a dense observation network of earthquake ground motion is required. The Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System (IERREWS) provides one such dense array with station spacing of typically 2 km in the urban area of Istanbul. Based on the records of eight small to moderate (Mw3.5 - Mw5.1) events, which occurred since 2003 in the Marmara region, we establish a model of intra-event spatial correlation for PGA and PSA up to the natural period of 1.0 s. The results indicate that the correlation coefficients of PGA and short-period PSA decay rapidly with increasing interstation distance, resulting in correlation lengths of approximately 2-3 km, while correlation lengths at longer natural periods (above 0.5 s) exceed 5 km. Finally, we implement the correlation model in a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate economic loss in Istanbul's district Zeytinburnu due to an Mw7.2 scenario earthquake.

  16. Responses of tadpoles to hybrid predator odours: strong maternal signatures and the potential risk/response mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Douglas P; Mathiron, Anthony; Sloychuk, Janelle R; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2015-06-22

    Previous studies have established that when a prey animal knows the identity of a particular predator, it can use this knowledge to make an 'educated guess' about similar novel predators. Such generalization of predator recognition may be particularly beneficial when prey are exposed to introduced and invasive species of predators or hybrids. Here, we examined generalization of predator recognition for woodfrog tadpoles exposed to novel trout predators. Tadpoles conditioned to recognize tiger trout, a hybrid derived from brown trout and brook trout, showed generalization of recognition of several unknown trout odours. Interestingly, the tadpoles showed stronger responses to odours of brown trout than brook trout. In a second experiment, we found that tadpoles trained to recognize brown trout showed stronger responses to tiger trout than those tadpoles trained to recognize brook trout. Given that tiger trout always have a brown trout mother and a brook trout father, these results suggest a strong maternal signature in trout odours. Tadpoles that were trained to recognize both brown trout and brook trout showed stronger response to novel tiger trout than those trained to recognize only brown trout or only brook trout. This is consistent with a peak shift in recognition, whereby cues that are intermediate between two known cues evoke stronger responses than either known cue. Given that our woodfrog tadpoles have no evolutionary or individual experience with trout, they have no way of knowing whether or not brook trout, brown trout or tiger trout are more dangerous. The differential intensity of responses that we observed to hybrid trout cues and each of the parental species indicates that there is a likely mismatch between risk and anti-predator response intensity. Future work needs to address the critical role of prey naivety on responses to invasive and introduced hybrid predators.

  17. On determination of microphone response and other parameters by a hybrid experimental and numerical method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn; Rasmussen, Knud

    2008-01-01

    such as the acoustic centres. In this work, a hybrid method is presented. The velocity distributions of condenser Laboratory Standard microphones were measured using a laser vibrometer. This measured velocity distribution was used for estimating the microphone responses and parameters. The agreement with experimental...

  18. Nanostructure induced changes in lifetime and enhanced second-harmonic response of organic-plasmonic hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Kostiučenko, Oksana; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    In this letter we show that the optical response of organic nanofibers, grown from functionalized para-quaterphenylene molecules, can be controlled by forming organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. The interaction between nanofibers and supporting regular arrays of nanostructures leads to a strongly...

  19. Long-term responses of sandy beach crustaceans to the effects of coastal armouring after the 2010 Maule earthquake in South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F.; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Velasquez, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are large physical disturbances frequently striking the coast of Chile with dramatic effects on intertidal habitats. Armouring structures built as societal responses to beach erosion and shoreline retreat are also responsible of coastal squeeze and habitat loss. The ecological implications of interactions between coastal armouring and earthquakes have recently started to be studied for beach ecosystems. How long interactive impacts persist is still unclear because monitoring after disturbance generally extends for a few months. During five years after the Maule earthquake (South Central Chile, February 27th 2010) we monitored the variability in population abundances of the most common crustacean inhabitants of different beach zones (i.e. upper, medium, and lower intertidal) at two armoured (one concrete seawall and one rocky revetment) and one unarmoured sites along the sandy beach of Llico. Beach morphology changed after the earthquake-mediated uplift, restoring upper- and mid-shore armoured levels that were rapidly colonized by typical crustacean species. However, post-earthquake increasing human activities affected the colonization process of sandy beach crustaceans in front of the seawall. Lower-shore crab Emerita analoga was the less affected by armouring structures, and it was the only crustacean species present at the three sites before and after the earthquake. This study shows that field sampling carried out promptly after major disturbances, and monitoring of the affected sites long after the disturbance is gone are effective approaches to increase the knowledge on the interactive effects of large-scale natural phenomena and artificial defences on beach ecology.

  20. A HYBRID GRANULARITY PARALLEL ALGORITHM FOR PRECISE INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC RESPONSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyin Li; Xianlong Jin; Genguo Li

    2008-01-01

    Precise integration methods to solve structural dynamic responses and the corre-sponding time integration formula are composed of two parts: the multiplication of an exponential matrix with a vector and the integration term. The second term can be solved by the series solu-tion. Two hybrid granularity parallel algorithms are designed, that is, the exponential matrix and the first term are computed by the fine-grained parallel algorithm and the second term is com-puted by the coarse-grained parallel algorithm. Numerical examples show that these two hybrid granularity parallel algorithms obtain higher speedup and parallel efficiency than two existing parallel algorithms.

  1. Effects of hanging wall and forward directivity in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake on inelastic displacement response of structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuang; Xie Lili

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of the inelastic response of structures affected by hanging wall and forward directivity in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake are investigated. Inelastic displacement ratios (IDRs) for ground motions impacted by these nearfield effects are evaluated and comprehensively compared to far-field ground motions. In addition, the inelastic displacement responses to hanging wall and footwall ground motions are compared. It is concluded that the inelastic displacement response is significantly affected in the short period range by hanging wall and in the long period range by footwall. Although high peak ground acceleration was observed at hanging wall stations, the IDRs for structures on hanging wall sites are only larger than footwall sites in the very long period range. Forward directivity effects result in larger IDRs for periods longer than about 0.5s. Adopting statistical relationships for IDRs established using far-field ground motions may lead to either overestimation or underestimation in the seismic evaluation of existing structures located in near-field regions, depending on their fundamental vibration periods.

  2. High-response hybrid quantum dots- 2D conductor phototransistors: recent progress and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablon, Kimberly A.; Sergeev, Andrei; Najmaei, Sina; Dubey, Madan

    2017-03-01

    Having been inspired by the tremendous progress in material nanoscience and device nanoengineering, hybrid phototransistors combine solution processed colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with graphene or two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials. Novel detectors demonstrate ultrahigh photoconductive gain, high and selective photoresponse, low noise, and very high responsivity in visible- and near-infrared ranges. The outstanding performance of phototransistors is primarily due to the strong, selective, and size tunable absorption of QDs and fast charge transfer in 2D high mobility conductors. However, the relatively small mobility of QD nanomaterials was a technological barrier, which limited the operating rate of devices. Very recent innovations in detector design and significant progress in QD ligand engineering provide effective tools for further qualitative improvements. This article reviews the recent progress in material science, nanophysics, and device engineering related to hybrid phototransistors. Detectors based on various QD nanomaterials and several 2D conductors are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of various nanomaterials for applications in hybrid phototransistors are identified. We also benchmark the experimental characteristics with model results that establish interrelations and tradeoffs between detector characteristics, such as responsivity, dark and noise currents, the photocarrier lifetime, response, and noise bandwidths. We have shown that the most recent phototransistors demonstrate performance limited by the fundamental generation recombination noise in high gain devices. Interrelation between the dynamic range of the detector and the detector sensitivity is discussed. The review is concluded with a brief discussion of the remaining challenges and possible significant improvements in the performance of hybrid phototransistors.

  3. Earthquake impact scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  4. Phase Transformations and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Phase transformations have been cited as responsible for, or at least involved in, "deep" earthquakes for many decades (although the concept of "deep" has varied). In 1945, PW Bridgman laid out in detail the string of events/conditions that would have to be achieved for a solid/solid transformation to lead to a faulting instability, although he expressed pessimism that the full set of requirements would be simultaneously achieved in nature. Raleigh and Paterson (1965) demonstrated faulting during dehydration of serpentine under stress and suggested dehydration embrittlement as the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes. Griggs and Baker (1969) produced a thermal runaway model of a shear zone under constant stress, culminating in melting, and proposed such a runaway as the origin of deep earthquakes. The discovery of Plate Tectonics in the late 1960s established the conditions (subduction) under which Bridgman's requirements for earthquake runaway in a polymorphic transformation could be possible in nature and Green and Burnley (1989) found that instability during the transformation of metastable olivine to spinel. Recent seismic correlation of intermediate-depth-earthquake hypocenters with predicted conditions of dehydration of antigorite serpentine and discovery of metastable olivine in 4 subduction zones, suggests strongly that dehydration embrittlement and transformation-induced faulting are the underlying mechanisms of intermediate and deep earthquakes, respectively. The results of recent high-speed friction experiments and analysis of natural fault zones suggest that it is likely that similar processes occur commonly during many shallow earthquakes after initiation by frictional failure.

  5. Comparison of Hybrid III child test dummies to pediatric PMHS in blunt thoracic impact response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, D P; Crandall, J R; Bolton, J R; Bass, C R; Ouyang, J; Lau, S H

    2010-08-01

    The limited availability of pediatric biomechanical impact response data presents a significant challenge to the development of child dummies. In the absence of these data, the development of the current generation of child dummies has been driven by scaling of the biomechanical response requirements of the existing adult test dummies. Recently published pediatric blunt thoracic impact response data provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of these scaling methodologies. However, the published data include several processing anomalies and nonphysical features. These features are corrected by minimizing instrumentation and processing error to improve the fidelity of the individual force-deflection responses. Using these data, biomechanical impact response corridors are calculated for a 3-year-old child and a 6-year-old child. These calculated corridors differ from both the originally published postmortem human subject (PMHS) corridors and the impact response requirements of the current child dummies. Furthermore, the response of the Hybrid III 3-year-old test dummy in the same impact condition shows a similar deflection but a significantly higher force than the 3-year-old corridor. The response of the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy, on the other hand, correlates well with the calculated 6-year-old corridor. The newly developed 3-year-old and 6-year-old blunt thoracic impact response corridors can be used to define data-driven impact response requirements as an alternative to scaling-driven requirements.

  6. Arginine-responsive terbium luminescent hybrid sensors triggered by two crown ether carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lasheng [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Ke; Ding, Xiaoping [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Zhan; Xiao, Rui [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Crown ether carboxylic acids constitute main building blocks for the synthesis of terbium containing covalent cross-linked luminescent materials. Both the complexes and the hybrid nanomaterials could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water. More importantly, they were found to have a profound effect on the luminescence responses to arginine compared with glutamic acid, histidine, tryptophan, threonine, tyrosine and phenylalanine in aqueous environment. The present study provided the possibility of using a host–guest mechanism as a way of signal transduction based on lanthanide supramolecular hybrid materials. - Highlights: • Crown ether carboxylic acids were found to sensitize terbium ions among a group of ethers. • The complexes and silica hybrid materials were both prepared and characterized. • They could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water.

  7. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham S. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA-based artificial neural network (ANN to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM, are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period.

  8. 屈曲约束支撑钢框架的地震反应分析%Earthquake response analysis of BRB steel frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德伟; 常彦铮

    2011-01-01

    This article carries on finite element numerical value simulation for the BRBFs and common steel bracing frame by applying ANSYS software, analyzes and compares time-history response of two systems under condition of big and small earthquake. Results show that the seismic resistance performance of two structures are good under small earthquake, but the rigid will reduce under unique earthquake for common bracing steel frame, and BRBFs can reduce the earthquake response of the structure.%应用ANSYS软件对屈曲约束支撑钢框架(BRBFs)和普通支撑钢框架的抗震性能进行有限元数值模拟,对比分析了这两种体系大、小震的时程响应,结果表明,在小震作用下两种结构抗震性能均表现良好,但在罕遇地震作用下普通支撑钢框架刚度退化,而屈曲约束支撑钢框架则能降低结构的地震响应。

  9. Fluid‐driven seismicity response of the Rinconada fault near Paso Robles, California, to the 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon, California, earthquake caused significant damage in the city of Paso Robles and a persistent cluster of aftershocks close to Paso Robles near the Rinconada fault. Given the importance of secondary aftershock triggering in sequences of large events, a concern is whether this cluster of events could trigger another damaging earthquake near Paso Robles. An epidemic‐type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model is fit to the Rinconada seismicity, and multiple realizations indicate a 0.36% probability of at least one M≥6.0 earthquake during the next 30 years. However, this probability estimate is only as good as the projection into the future of the ETAS model. There is evidence that the seismicity may be influenced by fluid pressure changes, which cannot be forecasted using ETAS. The strongest evidence for fluids is the delay between the San Simeon mainshock and a high rate of seismicity in mid to late 2004. This delay can be explained as having been caused by a pore pressure decrease due to an undrained response to the coseismic dilatation, followed by increased pore pressure during the return to equilibrium. Seismicity migration along the fault also suggests fluid involvement, although the migration is too slow to be consistent with pore pressure diffusion. All other evidence, including focal mechanisms and b‐value, is consistent with tectonic earthquakes. This suggests a model where the role of fluid pressure changes is limited to the first seven months, while the fluid pressure equilibrates. The ETAS modeling adequately fits the events after July 2004 when the pore pressure stabilizes. The ETAS models imply that while the probability of a damaging earthquake on the Rinconada fault has approximately doubled due to the San Simeon earthquake, the absolute probability remains low.

  10. Epidemiologic assessment of mortality, building collapse pattern, and medical response after the 1992 earthquake in Turkey. Disaster Reanimatology Study Group (DRSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, D C; Pretto, E A; Abrams, J I; Ceciliano, N; Watoh, Y; Kirimli, B; Certug, A; Comfort, L K

    1997-01-01

    Post-earthquake engineering and epidemiologic assessments are important for the development of injury prevention strategies. This paper describes mortality and its relationship to building collapse patterns and initial medical responses following the 1992 earthquake in Erzincan, Turkey. The study consisted of: 1) background data collection and review; 2) design and implementation of a field survey; and 3) site inspection of building collapse patterns. The survey included: 1) national (n = 11) and local (n = 17) officials; 2) medical and search and rescue (SAR) workers (n = 38); and 3) a geographically stratified random sample of lay survivors (n = 105). The survey instruments were designed to gather information regarding location, injuries, initial actions and prior training of survivors and responders, and the location, injuries, and management of dead and dying victims. A case-control design was constructed to assess the relationship between mortality, location, and building collapse pattern. There was extensive structural damage throughout the region, especially in the city where mid-rise, unreinforced masonry buildings (MUMBs) incorporating a "soft" first floor design (large store windows for commercial use) and one story adobe structures were most vulnerable to collapse. Of 526 people who died in the city, 87% (n = 456) were indoors at the time of the earthquake. Of these, 92% (n = 418) died in MUMBs. Of 54 witnessed deaths, 55% (n = 28) of victims died slowly, the majority of whom (n = 26) were pinned or trapped (p building type is inappropriate for areas of seismic risk. The vulnerability of MUMBs appears due to a lack of lateral force resistance as a result of the use of glass store front windows and the absence of shear walls. The prevalence of this building type in earthquake-prone regions needs to be investigated further. A large portion of victims dying in an earthquake die slowly at the scene of injury. Prior public first-aid and rescue training

  11. Responses of dune plant communities to continental uplift from a major earthquake: sudden releases from coastal squeeze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván F Rodil

    Full Text Available Vegetated dunes are recognized as important natural barriers that shelter inland ecosystems and coastlines suffering daily erosive impacts of the sea and extreme events, such as tsunamis. However, societal responses to erosion and shoreline retreat often result in man-made coastal defence structures that cover part of the intertidal and upper shore zones causing coastal squeeze and habitat loss, especially for upper shore biota, such as dune plants. Coseismic uplift of up to 2.0 m on the Peninsula de Arauco (South central Chile, ca. 37.5º S caused by the 2010 Maule earthquake drastically modified the coastal landscape, including major increases in the width of uplifted beaches and the immediate conversion of mid to low sandy intertidal habitat to supralittoral sandy habitat above the reach of average tides and waves. To investigate the early stage responses in species richness, cover and across-shore distribution of the hitherto absent dune plants, we surveyed two formerly intertidal armoured sites and a nearby intertidal unarmoured site on a sandy beach located on the uplifted coast of Llico (Peninsula de Arauco over two years. Almost 2 years after the 2010 earthquake, dune plants began to recruit, then rapidly grew and produced dune hummocks in the new upper beach habitats created by uplift at the three sites. Initial vegetation responses were very similar among sites. However, over the course of the study, the emerging vegetated dunes of the armoured sites suffered a slowdown in the development of the spatial distribution process, and remained impoverished in species richness and cover compared to the unarmoured site. Our results suggest that when released from the effects of coastal squeeze, vegetated dunes can recover without restoration actions. However, subsequent human activities and management of newly created beach and dune habitats can significantly alter the trajectory of vegetated dune development. Management that integrates the

  12. Responses of dune plant communities to continental uplift from a major earthquake: sudden releases from coastal squeeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Hubbard, David M; Dugan, Jenifer E; Melnick, Daniel; Velasquez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Vegetated dunes are recognized as important natural barriers that shelter inland ecosystems and coastlines suffering daily erosive impacts of the sea and extreme events, such as tsunamis. However, societal responses to erosion and shoreline retreat often result in man-made coastal defence structures that cover part of the intertidal and upper shore zones causing coastal squeeze and habitat loss, especially for upper shore biota, such as dune plants. Coseismic uplift of up to 2.0 m on the Peninsula de Arauco (South central Chile, ca. 37.5º S) caused by the 2010 Maule earthquake drastically modified the coastal landscape, including major increases in the width of uplifted beaches and the immediate conversion of mid to low sandy intertidal habitat to supralittoral sandy habitat above the reach of average tides and waves. To investigate the early stage responses in species richness, cover and across-shore distribution of the hitherto absent dune plants, we surveyed two formerly intertidal armoured sites and a nearby intertidal unarmoured site on a sandy beach located on the uplifted coast of Llico (Peninsula de Arauco) over two years. Almost 2 years after the 2010 earthquake, dune plants began to recruit, then rapidly grew and produced dune hummocks in the new upper beach habitats created by uplift at the three sites. Initial vegetation responses were very similar among sites. However, over the course of the study, the emerging vegetated dunes of the armoured sites suffered a slowdown in the development of the spatial distribution process, and remained impoverished in species richness and cover compared to the unarmoured site. Our results suggest that when released from the effects of coastal squeeze, vegetated dunes can recover without restoration actions. However, subsequent human activities and management of newly created beach and dune habitats can significantly alter the trajectory of vegetated dune development. Management that integrates the effects of natural

  13. A hybrid method based upon nonlinear Lamb wave response for locating a delamination in composite laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelve, Nitesh P; Mitra, Mira; Mujumdar, P M; Ramadas, C

    2016-08-01

    A new hybrid method based upon nonlinear Lamb wave response in time and frequency domains is introduced to locate a delamination in composite laminates. In Lamb wave based nonlinear method, the presence of damage is shown by the appearance of higher harmonics in the Lamb wave response. The proposed method not only uses this spectral information but also the corresponding temporal response data, for locating the delamination. Thus, the method is termed as a hybrid method. The paper includes formulation of the method and its application to locate a Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) induced delamination in a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminate. The method gives the damage location fairly well. It is a baseline free method, as it does not need data from the pristine specimen.

  14. Health education and promotion at the site of an emergency: experience from the Chinese Wenchuan earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiangyang; Zhao, Genming; Cao, Dequan; Wang, Duoquan; Wang, Liang

    2016-03-01

    Theories and strategies of social mobilization, capacity building, mass and interpersonal communication, as well as risk communication and behavioral change were used to develop health education and promotion campaigns to decrease and prevent injuries and infectious diseases among the survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008. We evaluated the effectiveness of the campaigns and short-term interventions using mixed-methods. The earthquake survivors' health knowledge, skills, and practice improved significantly with respect to injury protection, food and water safety, environmental and personal hygiene, and disease prevention. No infectious disease outbreaks were reported after the earthquake, and the epidemic level was lower than before the earthquake. After a short-term intervention among the students of Leigu Township Primary and Junior School, the proportion of those with personal hygiene increased from 59.7% to 98.3% (peducation and promotion during public health emergencies such as earthquakes play an important role in preventing injuries and infectious diseases among survivors.

  15. Preparation of supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibiting biomolecule-responsive gel degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Hajime; Fujisaku, Takahiro; Onogi, Shoji; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Ikeda, Masato; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogelators are small, self-assembling molecules that form supramolecular nanofiber networks that exhibit unique dynamic properties. Development of supramolecular hydrogels that degrade in response to various biomolecules could potentially be used for applications in areas such as drug delivery and diagnostics. Here we provide a synthetic procedure for preparing redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogelators that are used to create hydrogels that degrade in response to oxidizing or reducing conditions. The synthesis takes ∼2-4 d, and it can potentially be carried out in parallel to prepare multiple hydrogelator candidates. This described solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol can be used to produce previously described hydrogelators or to construct a focused molecular library to efficiently discover and optimize new hydrogelators. In addition, we describe the preparation of redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids that are created by mixing aqueous solutions of hydrogelators and enzymes, which requires 2 h for completion. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibit gel degradation in response to various biomolecules, and can be rationally designed by connecting the chemical reactions of the hydrogelators with enzymatic reactions. Gel degradation in response to biomolecules as triggers occurs within a few hours. We also describe the preparation of hydrogel-enzyme hybrids arrayed on flat glass slides, enabling high-throughput analysis of biomolecules such as glucose, uric acid, lactate and so on by gel degradation, which is detectable by the naked eye. The protocol requires ∼6 h to prepare the hydrogel-enzyme hybrid array and to complete the biomolecule assay.

  16. Dynamic nanocrystal response and high temperature growth of carbon nanotube-ferroelectric hybrid nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of hybrid nanostructures. Raman spectra indicate that MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si possess good quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition until 650 °C. The monoclinic Cc/Cm phase of PZT which is optimum in piezoelectric properties was prominent in the hybrid structure and should be useful for device applications. An unusual hexagonal faceting oscillation of the nano-crystal perimeter on a 10-30 s period is also observed.A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of

  17. Analysis and design for inelastic structural response of extended pile shaft foundations in laterally spreading ground during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravifar, Arash

    Experiences from past earthquakes have shown that lateral spreading associated with liquefaction of cohesionless soils can be a cause of severe damage to bridge foundations. Large diameter extended pile shafts can be an effective bridge foundation choice for areas subjected to lateral spreading because they offer greater stiffness and strength relative to the magnitude of lateral spreading loads that can develop against them. A limited degree of plastic hinging below the ground surface may be allowable in design of extended pile shafts. Issues for design for extended pile shafts include: (a) how to estimate the demands due to superstructure inertia and lateral spreading in liquefied soils, and (b) how to combine these two loads in estimating the local and global inelastic demands on the structure. Studies of the response of pile foundations and pile-supported structures in liquefiable soils using physical models, numerical models, and case studies have provided the basis for a number of design recommendations. The guidance is, however, quite varied regarding how lateral spreading and superstructure inertial loads should be combined in design. To answer the above questions a series of Nonlinear Dynamic Finite Element Analyses (NDA) have been performed to investigate inelastic response of extended pile shafts subjected to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading, covering a range of soil, pile, and ground motion conditions. The results of NDA were first used to show that combined effects of lateral spreading and superstructure inertia produce larger demands than are produced by either loading case alone, such that the combined demand cannot be enveloped by analyzing the two load cases separately. The results were then used to evaluate current equivalent static analysis (ESA) method (Caltrans, 2008), with the relatively poor agreement illustrating the limitations of methods that do not combine the two loads. The results of NDA parametric study were then used to develop

  18. A hybrid model for mapping simplified seismic response via a GIS-metamodel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grelle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid model, consisting of GIS and metamodel (model of model procedures, was introduced with the aim of estimating the 1-D spatial seismic site response. Inputs and outputs are provided and processed by means of an appropriate GIS model, named GIS Cubic Model (GCM. This discretizes the seismic underground half-space in a pseudo-tridimensional way. GCM consists of a layered parametric structure aimed at resolving a predicted metamodel by means of pixel to pixel vertical computing. The metamodel leading to the determination of a bilinear-polynomial function is able to design the classic shape of the spectral acceleration response in relation to the main physical parameters that characterize the spectrum itself. The main physical parameters consist of (i the average shear wave velocity of the shallow layer, (ii the fundamental period and, (iii the period where the spatial spectral response is required. The metamodel is calibrated on theoretical spectral accelerations regarding the local likely Vs-profiles, which are obtained using the Monte Carlo simulation technique on the basis of the GCM information. Therefore, via the GCM structure and the metamodel, the hybrid model provides maps of normalized acceleration response spectra. The hybrid model was applied and tested on the built-up area of the San Giorgio del Sannio village, located in a high-risk seismic zone of Southern Italy.

  19. 25 April 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal Himalaya (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Burgmann, Roland; Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Gahalaut, Vineet; Pandey, Anand

    2017-06-01

    The response from the geosciences community working on Himalaya in general, and the 2015 Nepal earthquakes in specific, was overwhelming, and after a rigorous review process, thirteen papers were selected and published in Part-1. We are still left with a few good papers which are being brought out as Part-2 of the special issue. In the opening article Jean-Louis Mugnier and colleagues attempt to provide a structural geological perspective of the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake and highlight the role of segmentation in generating the Himalayan mega-thrusts. They could infer segmentation by stable barriers in the HT that define barrier-type earthquake families. In yet another interesting piece of work, Pandey and colleagues map the crustal structure across the earthquake volume using Receiver function approach and infer a 5-km thick low velocity layer that connects to the MHT ramp. They are also able to correlate the rupture termination with the highest point of coseismic uplift. The last paper by Shen et al. highlights the usefulness of INSAR technique in mapping the coseismic slip distribution applied to the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake. They infer low stress drop and corner frequency which coupled with hybrid modeling explain the low level of slip heterogeneity and frequency of ground motion. We compliment the journal of Asian Earth Sciences for bringing out the two volumes and do hope that these efforts have made a distinct impact on furthering our understanding of seismogenesis in Himalaya using the very latest data sets.

  20. A Substractive Clustering Based Fuzzy Hybrid Reference Control Design for Transient Response Improvement of PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Joelianto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The well known PID controller has inherent limitations in fulfilling simultaneously the conflicting control design objectives. Parameters of the tuned PID controller should trade off the requirement of tracking set-point performances, disturbance rejection and stability robustness. Combination of hybrid reference control (HRC with PID controller results in the transient response performances can be independently achieved without deteriorating the disturbance rejection properties and the stability robustness requirement. This paper proposes a fuzzy based HRC where the membership functions of the fuzzy logic system are obtained by using a substractive clustering technique. The proposed method guarantees the transient response performances satisfaction while preserving the stability robustness of the closed loop system controlled by the PID controller with effective and systematic procedures in designing the fuzzy hybrid reference control system.

  1. Numerical simulations of deformation and movement of blocks within North China in response to 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白武明; 林邦慧; 陈祖安

    2003-01-01

    Using methods of discontinuous deformation analysis and finite element (DDA+FEM), this paper simulates dynamic processes of the Tangshan earthquake of 1976, which occurred in the northern North China where its internal blocks apparently interacted. Studies focus upon both the movement and deformation of the blocks, in particular, the Ordos block, and variations of stress states on the boundary faults. The Tangshan earthquake was composed of three events: slipping motions of NNE-striking major fault, NE-striking fault near the northeastern end of the NNE-striking fault, and NW-striking fault on the southeastern side of the NNE-striking fault. Compared with previous studies, our model yields a result that is more agreeable with the configuration of aftershock distributions. A number of data are presented, such as the principle stress field during the earthquake, contours of the maximum shear stress, the strike-slip deformation between blocks near the earthquake focus, time-dependent variations of slips of earthquake-triggered faulting, the maximum slip distance, and stress drops. These results are in accord with the earthquake source mechanism, basic parameters from earthquake wave study, macro-isoseismic line, observed horizontal displacement vectors, etc. The Tangshan earthquake exerted different influences on the adjacent blocks and boundary faults between them, thus resulting in differential movement and deformation. The Ordos block seems to have experienced the small-scale counterclockwise rotation and deformation, but its northeast part, bounded on the east by the Taihangshan and on the north by the Yanshan and Yinshan belts, underwent relatively stronger deformation. The Tangshan earthquake also changed the stress state of boundary faults of the North China, leading to an increase in shear stress and a decrease in normal stress in the NW-trending Zhangjiakou-Penglai fault through Tangshan City and the northern border faults of the Ordos block, and therefore

  2. Earthquake engineering for nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground...

  3. A New Method for Nonlinear and Nonstationary Time Series Analysis and Its Application to the Earthquake and Building Response Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E.

    1999-01-01

    A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part of the method is the Empirical Mode Decomposition method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF). An IMF is defined as any function having the same numbers of zero-crossing and extrema, and also having symmetric envelopes defined by the local maxima and minima respectively. The IMF also admits well-behaved Hilbert transform. This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. Since the decomposition is based on the local characteristic time scale of the data, it is applicable to nonlinear and nonstationary processes. With the Hilbert transform, the Intrinsic Mode Functions yield instantaneous frequencies as functions of time that give sharp identifications of imbedded structures. The final presentation of the results is an energy-frequency-time distribution, designated as the Hilbert Spectrum, Example of application of this method to earthquake and building response will be given. The results indicate those low frequency components, totally missed by the Fourier analysis, are clearly identified by the new method. Comparisons with Wavelet and window Fourier analysis show the new method offers much better temporal and frequency resolutions.

  4. Damping scaling factors for elastic response spectra for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions: "average" horizontal component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Abrahamson, Norman; Campbell, Kenneth; Silva, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and nonstructural systems can have other damping ratios. This paper develops a new model for a damping scaling factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE for damping ratios between 0.5% to 30%. The model is developed based on empirical data from worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. Dependencies of the DSF on potential predictor variables, such as the damping ratio, spectral period, ground motion duration, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site conditions, are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by the inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions show weak influence on the DSF. The proposed damping scaling model provides functional forms for the median and logarithmic standard deviation of DSF, and is developed for both RotD50 and GMRotI50 horizontal components. A follow-up paper develops a DSF model for vertical ground motion.

  5. Dynamic nanocrystal response and high temperature growth of carbon nanotube-ferroelectric hybrid nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J F; Katiyar, R S

    2014-01-21

    A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of hybrid nanostructures. Raman spectra indicate that MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si possess good quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition until 650 °C. The monoclinic Cc/Cm phase of PZT which is optimum in piezoelectric properties was prominent in the hybrid structure and should be useful for device applications. An unusual hexagonal faceting oscillation of the nano-crystal perimeter on a 10-30 s period is also observed.

  6. Cyanobacterial inoculation elicits plant defense response and enhanced Zn mobilization in maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Prasanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation evaluated the effect of inoculating different cyanobacterial formulations on a set of hybrids of maize, in terms of plant defense enzyme activity, soil health parameters, Zn concentration, and yields. Microbial inoculation showed significant effects on accumulation of Zn in flag leaf, with A4 (Anabaena–Azotobacter biofilm recording the highest values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that both the hybrids and cyanobacterial treatments brought about significant variation in terms of glomalin-related soil proteins and polysaccharides in soil and the activity of defense enzymes in roots and shoots of the plants. Cyanobacterial inoculants—A4 (Anabaena–Azotobacter biofilm and A1 (Anabaena sp.–Providencia sp., CW1 + PW5 enhanced the activity of peroxidase, PAL and PPO in roots, which also showed a positive correlation with Zn concentration in the flag leaf. Grain yield ranged from 7.0 to 7.29 t/ha among the different inoculants. Comparative analyses of treatments showed that A3 (Anabaena–Trichoderma-biofilmed formulation and hybrid B8 (Bio-9681 were superior in terms of parameters investigated. This represents the first report on the genotypic responses of maize hybrids to cyanobacteria-based inoculants. Future research should focus on dissecting the role of root exudates and cyanobacteria-mediated Zn mobilization pathway in maize.

  7. Chance of damage from an earthquake in 2016 based on horizontal spectral response acceleration for 1.0-second period

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States, based on induced and natural earthquakes, has been produced by the U.S. Geological...

  8. Simulations of hybrid system varying solar radiation and microturbine response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Fernández Ribaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, such as combinations of renewable power sources with intermittent power production and non-renewable power sources, theoretically increase the reliability and thus integration of renewable sources in the electrical system. However, a recent increase in the number of hybrid installations has sparked interest in the effects of their connection to the grid, especially in remote areas. This paper analyses a photovoltaic-gas microturbine hybrid system dimensioned to be installed in La Paz (Mexico.The research presented in this paper studies and quantifies the effects on the total electric power produced, varying both the solar radiation and the gas microturbine response time. The gas microturbine and the photovoltaic panels are modelled using Matlab/Simulink software, obtaining a platform where different tests to simulate real conditions have been executed. They consist of diverse ramps of irradiance that replicate solar radiation variations, and different microturbine response times reproduced by the time constants of a first order transfer function that models the microturbine dynamic response. The results obtained show that when radiation varies quickly it does not produce significant differences in the power guarantee or the microturbine gas consumption, to any microturbine response time. However, these two parameters are highly variable with smooth radiance variations. The maximum total power variation decreases greatly as the radiation variation gets lower. In addition, by decreasing the microturbine response time, it is possible to appreciably increase the power guarantee although the maximum power variation and gas consumption increase. Only in cases of low radiation variation is there no appreciable difference in the maximum power variation obtained by the different turbine response times.

  9. Simulations of hybrid system varying solar radiation and microturbine response time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ribaya, Yolanda; Álvarez, Eduardo; Paredes Sánchez, José Pablo; Xiberta Bernat, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid power systems, such as combinations of renewable power sources with intermittent power production and non-renewable power sources, theoretically increase the reliability and thus integration of renewable sources in the electrical system. However, a recent increase in the number of hybrid installations has sparked interest in the effects of their connection to the grid, especially in remote areas. This paper analyses a photovoltaic-gas microturbine hybrid system dimensioned to be installed in La Paz (Mexico).The research presented in this paper studies and quantifies the effects on the total electric power produced, varying both the solar radiation and the gas microturbine response time. The gas microturbine and the photovoltaic panels are modelled using Matlab/Simulink software, obtaining a platform where different tests to simulate real conditions have been executed. They consist of diverse ramps of irradiance that replicate solar radiation variations, and different microturbine response times reproduced by the time constants of a first order transfer function that models the microturbine dynamic response. The results obtained show that when radiation varies quickly it does not produce significant differences in the power guarantee or the microturbine gas consumption, to any microturbine response time. However, these two parameters are highly variable with smooth radiance variations. The maximum total power variation decreases greatly as the radiation variation gets lower. In addition, by decreasing the microturbine response time, it is possible to appreciably increase the power guarantee although the maximum power variation and gas consumption increase. Only in cases of low radiation variation is there no appreciable difference in the maximum power variation obtained by the different turbine response times.

  10. Simulations of hybrid system varying solar radiation and microturbine response time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández Ribaya, Yolanda, E-mail: fernandezryolanda@uniovi.es; Álvarez, Eduardo; Paredes Sánchez, José Pablo; Xiberta Bernat, Jorge [Department of Energy E.I.M.E.M., University of Oviedo. 13 Independencia Street 2" n" d floor, 36004, Oviedo (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Hybrid power systems, such as combinations of renewable power sources with intermittent power production and non-renewable power sources, theoretically increase the reliability and thus integration of renewable sources in the electrical system. However, a recent increase in the number of hybrid installations has sparked interest in the effects of their connection to the grid, especially in remote areas. This paper analyses a photovoltaic-gas microturbine hybrid system dimensioned to be installed in La Paz (Mexico).The research presented in this paper studies and quantifies the effects on the total electric power produced, varying both the solar radiation and the gas microturbine response time. The gas microturbine and the photovoltaic panels are modelled using Matlab/Simulink software, obtaining a platform where different tests to simulate real conditions have been executed. They consist of diverse ramps of irradiance that replicate solar radiation variations, and different microturbine response times reproduced by the time constants of a first order transfer function that models the microturbine dynamic response. The results obtained show that when radiation varies quickly it does not produce significant differences in the power guarantee or the microturbine gas consumption, to any microturbine response time. However, these two parameters are highly variable with smooth radiance variations. The maximum total power variation decreases greatly as the radiation variation gets lower. In addition, by decreasing the microturbine response time, it is possible to appreciably increase the power guarantee although the maximum power variation and gas consumption increase. Only in cases of low radiation variation is there no appreciable difference in the maximum power variation obtained by the different turbine response times.

  11. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  12. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records

  13. [Analysis of allelic content of genes responsible for baking properties in allocytoplasmic wheat hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimushina, M V; Divashuk, M G; Mukhammed, T A K; Semenov, O G; Karlov, G I

    2013-05-01

    A collection comprised of allocytoplasmic hybrids of mild wheat (ACPH) was screened for the allelic state of genes responsible for baking properties (high-molecular glutenins, puroindolines, and Waxy). The possibility of the introgression of the Waxy gene of T. timopheevii into the mild wheat genome was demonstrated in several ACPH samples using the set of molecular markers. Allelic gene variants responsible for the baking properties were revealed for 22 ACPH samples, which make it possible to detect the most challenging samples for both molecular-genetic research and applied science.

  14. Earthquake Engineering Research Center: 25th anniversry edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Earthquake Engineering Research Center exists to conduct research and develop technical information in all areas pertaining to earthquake engineering, including strong ground motion and ground failure, response of natural and manmade structures to earthquakes, design of structures to resist earthquakes, development of new systems for earthquake protection, and development of architectural and public policy aspects of earthquake engineering. The annual report for 1992-93 presents information on: Current Research Programs; Contracts and Grants; Public Service Program; National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering; Core Administration; Committees of the Earthquake Engineering Research Center; Research Participants - Faculty; and Research Participants - Students.

  15. Magnetic field activated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Deok; Sartor, Marta; Hu, Che-Ming Jack; Zhang, Weizhou; Zhang, Liangfang; Jin, Sungho

    2013-03-01

    Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles (SRNPs) offer the potential of enhancing the therapeutic efficacy and minimizing the side-effects of chemotherapeutics by controllably releasing the encapsulated drug at the target site. Currently controlled drug release through external activation remains a major challenge during the delivery of therapeutic agents. Here we report a lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle system containing magnetic beads for stimuli-responsive drug release using a remote radio frequency (RF) magnetic field. These hybrid nanoparticles show long-term stability in terms of particle size and polydispersity index in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Controllable loading of camptothecin (CPT) and Fe(3)O(4) in the hybrid nanoparticles was demonstrated. RF-controlled drug release from these nanoparticles was observed. In addition, cellular uptake of the SRNPs into MT2 mouse breast cancer cells was examined. Using CPT as a model anticancer drug the nanoparticles showed a significant reduction in MT2 mouse breast cancer cell growth in vitro in the presence of a remote RF field. The ease of preparation, stability, and controllable drug release are the strengths of the platform and provide the opportunity to improve cancer chemotherapy.

  16. Solid Particle Erosion response of fiber and particulate filled polymer based hybrid composites: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid particle erosion behaviour of fiber and particulate filled polymer composites has been reviewed. An overview of the problem of solid particle erosion was given with respect to the processes and modes during erosion with focus on polymer matrix composites. The new aspects in the experimental studies of erosion of fiber and particulate filled polymer composites were emphasized in this paper. Various predictions and models proposed to describe the erosion rate were listed and their suitability was mentioned. Implementation of design of experiments and statistical techniques in analyzing the erosion behaviour of composites was discussed. Recent findings on erosion response of multi-component hybrid composites were also presented. Recommendations were given on how to solve some open questions related to the structureerosion resistance relationships for polymers and polymer based hybrid composites.

  17. Step Response Enhancement of Hybrid Stepper Motors Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amged S. El-Wakeel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of different soft computing techniques for step response enhancement of Hybrid Stepper Motors. The basic differential equations of hybrid stepper motor are used to build up a model using MATLAB software package. The implementation of Fuzzy Logic (FL and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controllers are used to improve the motor performance. The numerical simulations by a PC-based controller show that the PID controller tuned by Genetic Algorithm (GA produces better performance than that tuned by Fuzzy controller. They show that, the Fuzzy PID-like controller produces better performance than the other linear Fuzzy controllers. Finally, the comparison between PID controllers tuned by genetic algorithm and the Fuzzy PID-like controller shows that, the Fuzzy PID-like controller produces better performance.

  18. Synthesis and micellization behavior of stimuli-responsive polypeptide hybrid triblock copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO JingYi; ZHU ZhiYuan; LIU ShiYong

    2009-01-01

    Polypeptide hybrid triblock copolymer, poly(L-glutamic acid)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly (L-gluo tamic acid) (PLGA-b-PPO-b-PLGA), was synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of benzyI-L-glutamic N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA) using poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) as initiator, followed by the subsequent deprotection step. The obtained double hydrophilic triblock co-polymer exhibits "schizophrenic" micellization behavior in aqueous solution upon dually playing with solution pH and temperature. The multi-responsive micellization behavior of this poiypeptide hybrid triblock copolymer has been thoroughly investigated by 1H NMR, laser light scattering (LLS), tempera-ture-dependent optical transmittance, and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD).

  19. Insights on the post-seismic geomorphological response to the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake from detrital cosmogenic nuclides data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Godard, Vincent; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Scherler, Dirk; Xu, Chong; Xu, Quiang; Xie, Kejia; Bellier, Olivier; Ansberque, Claire; de Sigoyer, Julia; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    In high-relief mountain ranges bounded by reverse faults, large-magnitude earthquakes can contribute to topographic growth by co- and inter-seismic surface uplift of the hanging wall; meanwhile, earthquakes can also lower relief by causing erosion through extensive landslides. Quantifying evacuation process of co-seismic landslides material is central to our understanding of mass redistribution at the earth surface and the evolution of active mountain ranges. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Longmen Shan range of eastern Tibet provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate such direct impact. Cosmogenic nuclides concentrations in river sands are diluted by the input of low-concentration landslide debris materials after the earthquake (West et al., 2014), and we document the evolution 10Be concentrations in quartz for several years after the Wenchuan earthquake to trace the routing processes of co-seismic landslides. Over the 2008-2013 period we collected river sand samples at 19 locations annually along the rivers that flow through the rupture zone. When compared with published pre-earthquake data, our results show that the 10Be concentration in river sand declined dramatically after the earthquake at all sampling sites. Meanwhile, multi-year time series of 10Be concentration at single sites present roughly constant level of dilution with moderate fluctuations. Our analyses indicate that the 10Be dilution amplitude is closely controlled by local catchment slope and landslide density, rather than by the location of landslides with respect to sampling sites. The perturbation we observed for 10Be concentrations in the 0.25~1 mm size fraction appears to be sustained over the timescale of our survey with no clear relaxation, which is consistent with independent results from suspended sediment analysis (Wang et al., 2015).

  20. The Ferrara thrust earthquakes of May-June 2012: preliminary site response analysis at the sites of the OGS temporary network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Priolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the Ml 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia area in northern Italy on May 20, 2012, at 02:03:53 UTC, and in co-operation with the personnel of the Municipality of Ferrara and the University of Ferrara, a team of seismologists of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS; National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics deployed a temporary seismographic network. This consisted of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The OGS intervention was integrated into the broader action of the emergency response to the earthquake sequence, which was promoted by the National Department of Civil Protection and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology [Moretti et al. 2012, this volume]. The aim of the OGS intervention was on the one hand to extend the seismic monitoring area towards the East, to include Ferrara and its surroundings, to be ready in case of migration of the seismicity in that direction, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the instrumented sites. Some days later, another team of researchers coordinated by the University of Potenza carried out some investigations at a number of sites, and in particular at three of the sites instrumented by the OGS temporary network. […] 

  1. Tunable Radiation Response in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Gate Dielectrics for Low-Voltage Graphene Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Heather N; Cress, Cory D; McMorrow, Julian J; Schmucker, Scott W; Sangwan, Vinod K; Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Kumar, Rajan; Puntambekar, Kanan P; Luck, Kyle A; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-03-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor and dielectric materials are attractive for future lightweight, low-voltage, flexible electronics, but their response to ionizing radiation environments is not well understood. Here, we investigate the radiation response of graphene field-effect transistors employing multilayer, solution-processed zirconia self-assembled nanodielectrics (Zr-SANDs) with ZrOx as a control. Total ionizing dose (TID) testing is carried out in situ using a vacuum ultraviolet source to a total radiant exposure (RE) of 23.1 μJ/cm(2). The data reveal competing charge density accumulation within and between the individual dielectric layers. Additional measurements of a modified Zr-SAND show that varying individual layer thicknesses within the gate dielectric tuned the TID response. This study thus establishes that the radiation response of graphene electronics can be tailored to achieve a desired radiation sensitivity by incorporating hybrid organic-inorganic gate dielectrics.

  2. Earthquake response of concrete arch dams with layered rock foundation in time domain with a case study of an arch dam in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barikani, A. [Tabriz Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Hashemiravan, M. [Varamin Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the dynamic behaviour of an arch dam and the interactions between the dam and its layered rock foundation. The seismic response of the Amir Kabir dam located in Iran was investigated using a 3-D finite element model. The rock foundation of the dam was divided into 3 areas: high resistance rock, medium resistance rock, and low resistance rock. The hydrodynamic effects of water were modelled using an added mass method with concentrate masses in nodes of elements on the upstream face of the dam body. Earthquake response of the dam was demonstrated using a time history of displacement at the dam crest, contours of maximum tensile stresses, and maximum pressure stresses on the upstream and downstream face of the dam. The study also examined issues concerning tensile cracks that occurred as a result of an actual earthquake. Results showed that the maximum tensile stress in the upstream face of the dam was 2.5 times more than allowable limits for tensile stress in concrete. The maximum pressure stress was lower than allowable limits. A comparison between the time history of the principal stresses at different points of the dam demonstrated that maximum tensile stress occurred in the middle of the dam. However pressure was highest near the foundation level. Results showed that the tensile cracks in the dam crest area were caused by the excessive amounts of tensile stress. It was also concluded that the earthquake used in the study was in the design basis earthquake (DBE) category, with a return period of approximately 200 years. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Hypersensitive response-like reaction is associated with hybrid necrosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii coss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Mizuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hybrid speciation is classified into homoploid and polyploid based on ploidy level. Common wheat is an allohexaploid species that originated from a naturally occurring interploidy cross between tetraploid wheat and diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Aegilops tauschii provides wide naturally occurring genetic variation. Sometimes its triploid hybrids with tetraploid wheat show the following four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: types II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. The growth abnormalities in the triploid hybrids could act as postzygotic hybridization barriers to prevent formation of hexaploid wheat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report on the geographical and phylogenetic distribution of Ae. tauschii accessions inducing the hybrid growth abnormalities and showed that they are widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Molecular and cytological characterization of the type III necrosis phenotype was performed. The hybrid abnormality causing accessions were widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes such as pathogenesis-related genes were highly up-regulated in the type III necrosis lines. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that cell death occurred accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species in leaves undergoing type III necrosis. The reduction of photosynthetic activity occurred prior to the appearance of necrotic symptoms on the leaves exhibiting hybrid necrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking these results together strongly suggests that an autoimmune response might be triggered by intergenomic incompatibility between the tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii genomes in type III necrosis, and that genetically programmed cell death could be regarded as a hypersensitive response-like cell death similar to that observed in Arabidopsis

  4. Earthquake Response and Isolation Layer Parameter Effect of Seismic Isolation Systems of Transformers With Bushings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Meigen; ZHOU Fulin; TAN Ping; ZHANG Guangping; GAO Zhengguo

    2012-01-01

    Seismic damage data and experiences on power transformers at home and abroad indicate that the destruction type of high-power transformers is various and the vulnerability is very high. Furthermore, the post-disaster reconstruction of transformers, which needs a long recovery cycle and a high cost, will be very difficult. Studies have shown that the acceleration response of the transformer and bushings will be quickly reduced and seismic reliability of transformer will be improved because there is one seismic isolation layer between the bottom of transformer tank and the base which form the seismic isolation system of the transformer and bushings (SISTB). But isolation layer design and parameters selection of SISTB have larger difference with general structures.

  5. Simulating Earthquake Rupture and Off-Fault Fracture Response: Application to the Safety Assessment of the Swedish Nuclear Waste Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Falth, B.

    2014-12-09

    To assess the long-term safety of a deep repository of spent nuclear fuel, upper bound estimates of seismically induced secondary fracture shear displacements are needed. For this purpose, we analyze a model including an earthquake fault, which is surrounded by a number of smaller discontinuities representing fractures on which secondary displacements may be induced. Initial stresses are applied and a rupture is initiated at a predefined hypocenter and propagated at a specified rupture speed. During rupture we monitor shear displacements taking place on the nearby fracture planes in response to static as well as dynamic effects. As a numerical tool, we use the 3Dimensional Distinct Element Code (3DEC) because it has the capability to handle numerous discontinuities with different orientations and at different locations simultaneously. In tests performed to benchmark the capability of our method to generate and propagate seismic waves, 3DEC generates results in good agreement with results from both Stokes solution and the Compsyn code package. In a preliminary application of our method to the nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, southern Sweden, we assume end-glacial stress conditions and rupture on a shallow, gently dipping, highly prestressed fault with low residual strength. The rupture generates nearly complete stress drop and an M-w 5.6 event on the 12 km(2) rupture area. Of the 1584 secondary fractures (150 m radius), with a wide range of orientations and locations relative to the fault, a majority move less than 5 mm. The maximum shear displacement is some tens of millimeters at 200 m fault-fracture distance.

  6. Characterizing the Kathmandu Valley sediment response through strong motion recordings of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaure, S.; Asimaki, Domniki; Thompson, Eric; Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey; Ampuero, J.P.; Dhital, M.R.; Inbal, A; Takai, N; Shigefuji, M.; Bijukchhen, S; Ichiyanagi, M; Sasatani, T; Paudel, L

    2016-01-01

    We analyze strong motion records and high-rate GPS measurements of the M 7.8 Gorkha mainshock, M 7.3 Dolakha, and two moderate aftershock events recorded at four stations on the Kathmandu basin sediments, and one on rock-outcrop. Recordings on soil from all four events show systematic amplification relative to the rock site at multiple frequencies in the 0.1–2.5 Hz frequency range, and de-amplification of higher frequencies ( >2.5–10 Hz). The soil-to-rock amplification ratios for the M 7.8 and M 7.3 events have lower amplitude and frequency peaks relative to the ratios of the two moderate events, effects that could be suggestive of nonlinear site response. Further, comparisons to ground motion prediction equations show that 1) both soil and rock mainshock recordings were severely depleted of high frequencies, and 2) the depletion at high frequencies is not present in the aftershocks. These observations indicate that the high frequency deamplification is additionally related to characteristics of the source that are not captured by simplified ground motion prediction equations, and allude to seismic hazard analysis models being revised – possibly by treating isolated high frequency radiation sources separately from long period components to capture large magnitude near-source events such as the 2015 Gorkha mainshock.

  7. Dynamic response evaluation of sensorless MPPT method for hybrid PV-DFIG wind turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danvu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method for a hybrid Photovoltaic-Wind system, which consists of Photovoltaic (PV system and Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG Wind Turbine. In the hybrid system, the DC/DC converter output of the PV system is directly connected to the DC-link of DFIG’s back-to-back converter. Therefore, the PV inverter and its associated circuit can be removed in this structure. Typically, the PV power is monitored by using PV current sensor and PV voltage sensor for MPPT. In this paper, the powers of converters on grid side and rotor side of DFIG are used to estimate the PV power without the PV current sensor. That can efficiently reduce the cost of the hybrid system. The detailed analysis of the sensorless MPPT method, which includes derived equations and operation response, is also presented in this paper. In addition, an overview of PV-DFIG research in literature is stated to supply comprehensive knowledge of related research.

  8. ALMA measures Calama earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, R.; Shillue, B.

    2010-04-01

    On 4 March 2010, the ALMA system response to an extraordinarily large disturbance was measured when a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck near Calama, Chile, relatively close to the ALMA site. Figures 1 through 4 demonstrate the remarkable performance of the ALMA system to a huge disturbance that was more than 100 times the specification for correction accuracy.

  9. Conceptual Design and Structural Optimization of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving the fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project requires innovative and unconventional aircraft concepts. In response, advanced hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft concepts have been proposed and analyzed as a means of meeting these objectives. For the current study, several HWB concepts were analyzed using the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) analysis code. HCDstruct is a medium-fidelity finite element based conceptual design and structural optimization tool developed to fill the critical analysis gap existing between lower order structural sizing approaches and detailed, often finite element based sizing methods for HWB aircraft concepts. Whereas prior versions of the tool used a half-model approach in building the representative finite element model, a full wing-tip-to-wing-tip modeling capability was recently added to HCDstruct, which alleviated the symmetry constraints at the model centerline in place of a free-flying model and allowed for more realistic center body, aft body, and wing loading and trim response. The latest version of HCDstruct was applied to two ERA reference cases, including the Boeing Open Rotor Engine Integration On an HWB (OREIO) concept and the Boeing ERA-0009H1 concept, and results agreed favorably with detailed Boeing design data and related Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) analyses. Following these benchmark cases, HCDstruct was used to size NASA's ERA HWB concepts and to perform a related scaling study.

  10. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  11. Thermal response of novel shape memory polymer-shape memory alloy hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Takashima, Kazuto; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2014-03-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMP) and shape memory alloys (SMA) have both been proven important smart materials in their own fields. Shape memory polymers can be formed into complex three-dimensional structures and can undergo shape programming and large strain recovery. These are especially important for deployable structures including those for space applications and micro-structures such as stents. Shape memory alloys on the other hand are readily exploitable in a range of applications where simple, silent, light-weight and low-cost repeatable actuation is required. These include servos, valves and mobile robotic artificial muscles. Despite their differences, one important commonality between SMPs and SMAs is that they are both typically activated by thermal energy. Given this common characteristic it is important to consider how these two will behave when in close environmental proximity, and hence exposed to the same thermal stimulus, and when they are incorporated into a hybrid SMA-SMP structure. In this paper we propose and examine the operation of SMA-SMP hybrids. The relationship between the two temperatures Tg, the glass transition temperature of the polymer, and Ta, the nominal austenite to martensite transition temperature of the alloy is considered. We examine how the choice of these two temperatures affects the thermal response of the hybrid. Electrical stimulation of the SMA is also considered as a method not only of actuating the SMA but also of inducing heating in the surrounding polymer, with consequent effects on actuator behaviour. Likewise by varying the rate and degree of thermal stimulation of the SMA significantly different actuation and structural stiffness can be achieved. Novel SMP-SMA hybrid actuators and structures have many ready applications in deployable structures, robotics and tuneable engineering systems.

  12. Geodetic Infrastructure, Data, Education and Community Engagement in Response to Earthquakes and Other Geophysical Events: An Overview of UNAVCO Support Resources Plus Highlights from Recent Event Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. A.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Maggert, D.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Puskas, C. M.; Bartel, B. A.; Baker, S.; Blume, F.; Normandeau, J.; Feaux, K.; Galetzka, J.; Williamson, H.; Pettit, J.; Crosby, C. J.; Boler, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO responds to community requests for support during and following significant geophysical events such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, landslides, glacial and ice-sheet movements, unusual uplift or subsidence, extreme meteorological events, or other hazards. UNAVCO can also respond proactively to events in anticipation of community demand for relevant data, data products or other services. Recent major events to which UNAVCO responded include the 2015 M7.8 Nepal EQ, the 2014 M6.0 American Canyon (Napa) EQ, the 2014 M8.2 Chile EQ, the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku, Japan EQ and tsunami, the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile EQ, and the 2010 M7.0 Haiti EQ. UNAVCO provided geophysical event response support for 15 events in 2014 alone. UNAVCO event response resources include geodetic infrastructure, data, and education and community engagement. Specific support resources include: field engineering personnel; continuous and campaign GNSS/GPS station deployment; real-time and/or high rate field GNSS/GPS station upgrades or deployment; data communications and power systems deployment; tiltmeter, strainmeter, and borehole seismometer deployments; terrestrial laser scanning (TLS a.k.a. ground-based LiDAR); InSAR data support; education and community engagement assistance or products; data processing services; generation of custom GNSS/GPS or borehole data sets and products; equipment shipping and logistics coordination; and assistance with RAPID proposal preparation, budgeting, and submission. The most critical aspect of a successful event response is effective and efficient communication. To facilitate such communication, UNAVCO creates event response web pages describing the event and the support being provided, and in the case of major events also provides an online event response forum. These resources are shared broadly with the geophysical community through multiple dissemination strategies including social media of UNAVCO and partner organizations. We will provide an overview of

  13. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  14. Significance of stiffening of high damping rubber bearings on the response of base-isolated buildings under near-fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhan, Cenk; Gazi, Hatice; Kurtuluş, Hakan

    2016-10-01

    High Damping Rubber Bearings (HDRBs) are among various types of laterally flexible isolation system elements that effectively protect structures from detrimental effects of earthquakes by lengthening their fundamental periods. However, large isolator displacements resulting in strains larger than 100% may come into scene in case of near-fault ground motions containing long-period and large-amplitude velocity and/or displacement pulses. This is particularly important when HDRBs are used since the post-yield stiffness of an HDRB increases due to inherent strain hardening characteristics when a threshold isolator displacement limit is exceeded. Therefore, it may be critical to consider the stiffening of HDRBs in modeling of these elements for accurate seismic response evaluation of the buildings equipped with HDRBs that are located in near-fault regions. In this study, the significance of stiffening of HDRBs on the response of base-isolated buildings is investigated by conducting nonlinear time history analyses of benchmark six-story base-isolated buildings which employ HDRBs that are represented by non-stiffening or stiffening models under both historical and synthetic near-fault ground motions of various magnitudes and fault distances. The structural response parameters included in the comparisons are base displacements, story drifts, and floor accelerations. It is found that, the significance of stiffening of HDRBs on the response of base-isolated buildings under near-fault earthquakes becomes more prominent as the earthquake magnitude increases and the fault distance decreases and thus suggestions for modifications to seismic code regulations are made accordingly.

  15. California Earthquake Clearinghouse: Advocating for, and Advancing, Collaboration and Technology Interoperability, Between the Scientific and Emergency Response Communities, to Produce Actionable Intelligence for Situational Awareness, and Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Beilin, P.; Colwell, J.; Hornick, M.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Morentz, J.; Smorodinsky, S.; Millington, A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Penn, P.; Ortiz, M.; Kennedy, M.; Long, K.; Miller, K.; Stromberg, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Clearinghouse provides emergency management and response professionals, scientific and engineering communities with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes or tsunamis. Clearinghouse activations include participation from Federal, State and local government, law enforcement, fire, EMS, emergency management, public health, environmental protection, the military, public and non-governmental organizations, and private sector. For the August 24, 2014 S. Napa earthquake, over 100 people from 40 different organizations participated during the 3-day Clearinghouse activation. Every organization has its own role and responsibility in disaster response; however all require authoritative data about the disaster for rapid hazard assessment and situational awareness. The Clearinghouse has been proactive in fostering collaboration and sharing Essential Elements of Information across disciplines. The Clearinghouse-led collaborative promotes the use of standard formats and protocols to allow existing technology to transform data into meaningful incident-related content and to enable data to be used by the largest number of participating Clearinghouse partners, thus providing responding personnel with enhanced real-time situational awareness, rapid hazard assessment, and more informed decision-making in support of response and recovery. The Clearinghouse efforts address national priorities outlined in USGS Circular 1242, Plan to Coordinate NEHRP post-earthquake investigations and S. 740-Geospatial Data Act of 2015, Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT), to streamline and coordinate geospatial data infrastructure, maximizing geospatial data in support of the Robert T. Stafford Act. Finally, the US Dept. of Homeland Security, Geospatial Management Office, recognized Clearinghouse's data sharing efforts as a Best Practice to be included in the forthcoming 2015 HLS Geospatial Concept of Operations.

  16. A novel thermal and pH responsive drug delivery system based on ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Licheng; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Weihua [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Junchao, E-mail: weijunchao@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Peng, Zhiping [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2014-12-01

    A smart ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid was prepared by grafting thermal responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the grafting amount of PNIPAM was about 38%, and the SEM images show that the PNIPAM chains can prevent the aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles. The responsive properties of ZnO@PNIPAM were measured by photoluminescence spectra, and the results demonstrate that the PNIPAM chains grafted on ZnO surfaces can realize reversible thermal responsive and photoluminescence properties. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox), was used as a model drug and loaded into the hybrid nanoparticles, and an in vitro drug release test implied that ZnO@PNIPAM could work as a thermal responsive drug delivery system. Furthermore, pH sensitive drug releases were carried out in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 and pH 6.0 and in water at pH 7.0, and the results showed evident pH dependency, showing its pH responsive properties. - Graphical abstract: In this manuscript, thermal responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) was grafted on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The obtained ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid showed reversible thermal responsive photoluminescent properties, and can also work as a thermal and pH responsive drug delivery system. - Highlights: • The ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid was prepared via ATRP. • The ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid showed thermal responsive properties. • The ZnO@PNIPAM hybrid can work as a thermal and pH responsive drug delivery system.

  17. Earthquake Response Analysis of Approach Bridge of Suramadu Sea-Crossing Bridge%苏拉马都大桥引桥抗震分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭河; 范轶峰

    2011-01-01

    苏拉马都大桥是印度尼西哑的一座特大型桥梁,其引桥为预应力混凝土连续箱梁结构,通过V形墩与主桥相连.由于桥址处抗震设防烈度较高,又是跨越马都拉海峡的特大型桥梁,其抗震性能尤为重要.采用两水平的抗震设计方法,从地震输入、地震反应谱分析、非线性时程分析、结构的抗震性能验算等方面对苏拉马都大桥引桥的抗震性能进行分析,结果表明,在2 500年1重现期的地震作用下,该桥的抗震性能均满足抗震设防要求.%Surammadu Bridge is an especially large bridge in Indonesia. Its structure style is prestressed concrete continuous box bridge and links with the main bridge by V-style pier. The seismic performance of Suramadu Bridge is particularly important because of the bridge across the Madula Strait and the high seismic intensity at the bridge site. In this paper, based on the antiseismic design of Suramadu Approach Bridge, seismic behavior of cable-stayed bridge is investigated by two-level earthquake-resistance method from the seismic input, the analysis of earthquake response spectrum, the analysis of nonlinear time history and the checking of structural earthquake-resistance performance. It is indicated that, the resistance of Suramadu Approach Bridge is larger than the requirement under the 2 500-year recurrence interval (2% in 50year) earthquake load.

  18. Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A scenario represents one realization of a potential future earthquake by assuming a particular magnitude, location, and fault-rupture geometry and estimating...

  19. 震灾应急对策时刻表编制方法研究%Establishing Method of Earthquake Disaster Response Time Schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海鹰; 孙刚; 欧阳春; 陈思羽; 赖俊彦

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步提高地震灾害应急处置能力,我国于2012年8月颁布修订后的《国家地震应急预案》,新版预案充分吸取了汶川、玉树等抗震救灾经验,并在芦山7.0级等地震应急工作中发挥了重要作用。但是在实际工作中,地震应急预案仍存在一些问题,包括编制时对涉及的灾害程度估计不足,定位不准、实施过程中部门间协调不够顺畅,部分条文过于原则、缺乏可操作性等。针对以上问题,引入美国“事件后回顾方法(After Ac-tion Review)”和日本“新!县震灾应急对策时刻表(Time Schedule)”,提出改进建议以促进地震应急预案的发展和完善。%In order to improve on the ability of earthquake disaster response and management,China issued the new version of The National Earthquake Emergency Plan in August 2012 based on the experience of Wenchuan and Yushu earthquake emergency management,and it also played an important role in Lushan M7.0 earthquake in April 2013.However,there are some shortages of the plan in practical work,including insufficient damage and loss assessment of disaster level,hindered cooperation between departments in headquarters,over principled of some terms in emergency plan,lack of operability,etc.To solve the above problems,After Action Review method using in American Army and Earthquake Disaster Response Time Schedule of Niigata,Japan are introduced to ac-celerate the development and modification of the emergency plan.

  20. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...

  1. Psychological responses after a major fatal earthquake: The effect of preitraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms on anxiety and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Esma; Dorahy, Martin J; Hanna, Donncha; Bagshaw, Sue; Blampied , Neville

    2013-01-01

    Following trauma, most people with initial symptoms of stress recover, but it is important to identify those at risk for continuing difficulties so resources are allocated appropriately. There has been limited investigation of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder following natural disasters. This study assessed psychological difficulties experienced in 101 adult treatment seekers following exposure to a significant earthquake. Peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ...

  2. Adaptive Response of Children and Adolescents with Autism to the 2009 Earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Marco; Ciprietti, Tiziana; Di Egidio, Claudia; Gabrielli, Maura; Masedu, Francesco; Tomassini, Anna Rita; Sorge, Germana

    2012-01-01

    The literature offers no descriptions of the adaptive outcomes of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) after natural disasters. Aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptive behaviour of participants with ASD followed for 1 year after their exposure to the 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy) compared with an unexposed peer group with ASD,…

  3. Adaptive Response of Children and Adolescents with Autism to the 2009 Earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Marco; Ciprietti, Tiziana; Di Egidio, Claudia; Gabrielli, Maura; Masedu, Francesco; Tomassini, Anna Rita; Sorge, Germana

    2012-01-01

    The literature offers no descriptions of the adaptive outcomes of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) after natural disasters. Aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptive behaviour of participants with ASD followed for 1 year after their exposure to the 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy) compared with an unexposed peer group with ASD,…

  4. Analyzing the emergency mode of the Earthquake Emergency Response Administration during the 2013 M7 . 0 Lushan Earthquake%四川省地震应急指挥中心在芦山7.0级地震中应急模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼; 范开红; 郭红梅; 唐姝娅; 陈维锋

    2014-01-01

    According to the present technique condition,a systematic,scientific and regular scheme and response mode is very important for the earthquake emergency response administration to increase the relieving speed,the communication ability and the news service level for earthquake disaster information. In this paper we analyze the experiences got from the 2013 M7 . 0 Lushan Earthquake and bring about the emergency mode of the Earthquake E-mergency Response Administration,which includes four periods that is the preparation before an earthquake,the e-mergency response after an earthquake,dealing with matters after an earthquake and the restoring & re-building.%在现有技术储备条件上,科学、规范的流程和应急服务模式是地震应急指挥中心提高响应速度、提升震灾情信息和应急通信保障服务能力投资小、见效快的方式之一。本文对“4·20”芦山7.0级强烈地震实战经验进行分析总结,提出围绕震前准备期、震时应急期、应急处置期和恢复重建期四个阶段的地震应急指挥中心应急模式。

  5. Response of a tall building far from the epicenter of the 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake and aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mehmet; Okawa, Izuru; Kashima, Toshidate; Koyama, Shin; Iiba, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake generated significant long-duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of a tall building at 770 km from the epicenter of the mainshock and other related or unrelated events show how structures sensitive to long-period motions can be affected by distant sources. Even when the largest peak input motions to the building is about 3% g, the strong-shaking duration was about 140 s. The 300- to 1000-s prolonged responses of the building are primarily due to a combination of site resonance (e.g. structural fundamental frequency ~0.15 Hz and site frequency ~0.13–0.17 Hz) and low damping (~1–2%) of the structure. Response modification technologies can improve the response of the building during future earthquakes. The need-to-consider risks to such built environments from distant sources are emphasized.

  6. Nonlinear coupling of lower hybrid waves to the kinetic low-frequency plasma response in the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, K. Y.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.

    A hybrid kinetic-fluid model is developed which is relevant to lower hybrid spikelets observed in the topside auroral ionosphere [Vago et al., 1992; Eriksson et al., 1994]. In contrast to previous fluid models [Shapiro et al., 1995; Tam and Chang, 1995; Seyler, 1994; Shapiro et al., 1993] our linear low frequency plasma response is magnetized and kinetic. Fluid theory is used to incorporate the nonlinear wave coupling. Performing a linear stability analysis, we calculate the growth rate for the modulational instability, driven by a lower hybrid wave pump. We find that both the magnetic and kinetic effects inhibit the modulational instability.

  7. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  8. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation into the static and dynamic responses of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) beams is performed to provide quantitative validation of a recently commercialized numerical analysis/design tool for SMAHC structures. The SMAHC beam specimens consist of a composite matrix with embedded pre-strained SMA actuators, which act against the mechanical boundaries of the structure when thermally activated to adaptively stiffen the structure. Numerical results are produced from the numerical model as implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. A rigorous experimental investigation is undertaken to acquire high fidelity measurements including infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry for full-field temperature and displacement measurements, respectively. High fidelity numerical results are also obtained from the numerical model and include measured parameters, such as geometric imperfection and thermal load. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  9. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation into the static and dynamic responses of shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) beams is performed to provide quantitative validation of a recently commercialized numerical analysis/design tool for SMAHC structures. The SMAHC beam specimens consist of a composite matrix with embedded pre-strained SMA actuators, which act against the mechanical boundaries of the structure when thermally activated to adaptively stiffen the structure. Numerical results are produced from the numerical model as implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. A rigorous experimental investigation is undertaken to acquire high fidelity measurements including infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry for full-field temperature and displacement measurements, respectively. High fidelity numerical results are also obtained from the numerical model and include measured parameters, such as geometric imperfection and thermal load. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  10. Nanostructure induced changes in lifetime and enhanced second-harmonic response of organic-plasmonic hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leißner, Till [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark); Kostiučenko, Oksana; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Fiutowski, Jacek, E-mail: fiutowski@mci.sdu.dk [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Brewer, Jonathan R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2015-12-21

    In this letter we show that the optical response of organic nanofibers, grown from functionalized para-quaterphenylene molecules, can be controlled by forming organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. The interaction between nanofibers and supporting regular arrays of nanostructures leads to a strongly enhanced second harmonic response. At the same time, the fluorescence lifetime of the nanofibers is reduced from 0.32 ns for unstructured gold films to 0.22 ns for gold nanosquare arrays, demonstrating efficient organic–plasmonic interaction. To study the origin of these effects, we applied two-photon laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. These findings provide an effective approach for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation at the nanoscale, which is attractive for nanophotonic circuitry.

  11. Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.; Simpson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

  12. Response estimation of a building subject to a large earthquake using acceleration data of a single floor recorded by a sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Akira; Shinagawa, Yushi

    2014-03-01

    This study proposes two algorithms for estimating the maximum response of a building when subject to a devastating earthquake only using a sensor agent robot equipped with an accelerometer situated on an arbitrary floor of the building. The first algorithm is for normal buildings. The second one is for base isolated buildings. The algorithms do not require the information on the input motion. The sensor agent robot may be used for other purposes such as security and lighting control under normal circumstances. Thus the proposed algorithms are very useful tools for a robot-based structural health monitoring system.

  13. Comparisons of yield performance and nitrogen response between hybrid and inbred rice under different ecological conditions in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Peng; XIONG Hong; ZOU Ying-bin; XIE Xiao-bing; HUANG Min; ZHOU Xue-feng; ZHANG Rui-chun; CHEN Jia-na; WU Dan-dan; XIA Bing; XU Fu-xian

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the yield performance and nitrogen (N) response of hybrid rice under different ecological conditions in southern China, ifeld experiments were conducted in Huaiji County of Guangdong Province, Binyang of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Changsha City of Hunan Province, southern China in 2011 and 2012. Two hybrid (Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1) and two inbred rice cultivars (Yuxiangyouzhan and Huanghuazhan) were grown under three N treatments (N1, 225 kg ha–1;N2, 112.5–176 kg ha–1;N3, 0 kg ha–1) in each location. Results showed that grain yield was higher in Changsha than in Huaiji and Binyang for both hybrid and inbred cultivars. The higher grain yield in Changsha was attribut-ed to larger panicle size (spikelets per panicle) and higher biomass production. Consistently higher grain yield in hybrid than in inbred cultivars was observed in Changsha but not in Huaiji and Binyang. Higher grain weight and higher biomass production were responsible for the higher grain yield in hybrid than in inbred cultivars in Changsha. The better crop perfor-mance of rice (especial y hybrid cultivars) in Changsha was associated with its temperature conditions and indigenous soil N. N2 had higher internal N use efifciency, recovery efifciency of applied N, agronomic N use efifciency, and partial factor productivity of applied N than N1 for both hybrid and inbred cultivars, while the difference in grain yield between N1 and N2 was relatively smal . Our study suggests that whether hybrid rice can outyield inbred rice to some extent depends on the ecological conditions, and N use efifciency can be increased by using improved nitrogen management such as site-speciifc N management in both hybrid and inbred rice production.

  14. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2016-07-01

    For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

  15. The postseismic response to the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake: Constraints from InSAR 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, J.; Burgmann, R.; Freymueller, J.T.; Lu, Zhiming; Parsons, B.; Ryder, I.; Schmalzle, G.; Wright, Tim

    2009-01-01

    InSAR is particularly sensitive to vertical displacements, which can be important in distinguishing between mechanisms responsible for the postseismic response to large earthquakes (afterslip, viscoelastic relaxation). We produce maps of the surface displacements resulting from the postseismic response to the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake, using data from the Canadian Radarsat-1 satellite from the periods summer 2003, summer 2004 and summer 2005. A peak-to-trough signal of amplitude 4 cm in the satellite line of sight was observed between summer 2003 and summer 2004. By the period between summer 2004 and summer 2005, the displacement rate had dropped below the threshold required for observation with InSAR over a single year. The InSAR observations show that the principal postseismic relaxation process acted at a depth of ???50 km, equivalent to the top of the mantle. However, the observations are still incapable of distinguishing between distributed (viscoelastic relaxation) and localized (afterslip) deformation. The imposed coseismic stresses are highest in the lower crust and, assuming a Maxwell rheology, a viscosity ratio of at least 5 between lower crust and upper mantle is required to explain the contrast in behaviour. The lowest misfits are produced by mixed models of viscoelastic relaxation in the mantle and shallow afterslip in the upper crust. Profiles perpendicular to the fault show significant asymmetry, which is consistent with differences in rheological structure across the fault. ?? 2008 The Author Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  16. Electrically-responsive core-shell hybrid microfibers for controlled drug release and cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuntao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Li; Li, Chenxi; Dai, Beibei; Yang, Jiazhi; Liu, Jian; Sun, Dongping

    2017-06-01

    It is an active research field to develop fiber-shaped smart materials for biomedical applications. Here we report the development of the multifunctional core-shell hybrid microfibers with excellent mechanical and electrical performance as a new smart biomaterial. The microfibers were synthesized using a combination of co-axial spinning with a microfluidic device and subsequent dip-coating, containing a hydrogel core of bacterial cellulose (BC) and a conductive polymer shell layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The hybrid microfibers were featured with a well-controlled microscopic morphology, exhibiting enhanced mechanic properties. A model drug, diclofenac sodium, can be loaded in the core layer of the microfibers in situ during the process of synthesis. Our experiments suggested that the releasing behaviors of the drug molecules from the microfibers were enhanced by external electrical stimulation. Interestingly, we demonstrated an excellent biocompatibility and electroactivity of the hybrid microfibers for PC12 cell culture, thus promising a flexible template for the reconstruction of electrically-responsive tissues mimicking muscle fibers or nerve networks. Fiber-shaped biomaterials are useful in creating various functional objects from one dimensional to three-dimensional. The fabrication of microfibers with integrated physicochemical properties and bio-performance has drawn an increasing attention on researchers from chemical to biomedical. This study combined biocompatible bacterial cellulose with electroconductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and further reduced them to a highly electroactive BC/PEDOT core-shell microfiber electrode for electrochemical actuator design. The result showed that the microfibers were well fabricated and the release of drugs from the microfibers was enhanced and could be controlled under electrical stimulation externally. Considering the excellent biocompatibility and electroactive toward PC12 cells, these

  17. Use of a hybrid computer in engineering-seismology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R.B.; Hays, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    A hybrid computer is an important tool in the seismological research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the Energy Research and Development Administration nuclear explosion testing program at the Nevada Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. The hybrid computer system, which employs both digital and analog computational techniques, facilitates efficient seismic data processing. Standard data processing operations include: (1) preview of dubbed magnetic tapes of data; (2) correction of data for instrument response; (3) derivation of displacement and acceleration time histories from velocity recordings; (4) extraction of peak-amplitude data; (5) digitization of time histories; (6) rotation of instrumental axes; (7) derivation of response spectra; and (8) derivation of relative transfer functions between recording sites. Catalog of time histories and response spectra of ground motion from nuclear explosions and earthquakes that have been processed by the hybrid computer are used in the Earthquake Hazard Research Program to evaluate the effects of source, propagation path, and site effects on recorded ground motion; to assess seismic risk; to predict system response; and to solve system design problems.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Emergency Response Operations: Haiti Earthquake in January 2010 and Pakistan’s Flood in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    safer by implementing strict building code and educating the population on how to respond when the tremor strikes; both of these measures need...separated children, human trafficking, sexual and gender based violence and overall violence in the camps continued to be serious issues even seven months...Lessons from Earthquakes in Haiti and Chile to Reduce Global Risk,” Speech given at The National Academies Disasters Roundtable Workshop,1 March , 2011

  19. Earthquakes: Thinking about the unpredictable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Robert J.

    The possibility of predicting earthquakes has been investigated by professionals and amateurs, seismologists and nonseismologists, for over 100 years. More than once, hopes of a workable earthquake prediction scheme have been raised only to be dashed. Such schemes—on some occasions accompanied by claims of an established track record—continue to be proposed, not only by Earth scientists, but also by workers in other fields. The assessment of these claims is not just a scientific or technical question. Public administrators and policy makers must make decisions regarding appropriate action in response to claims that some scheme has a predictive capability, or to specific predictions of imminent earthquakes.

  20. Upper crust response to geodynamic processes beneath Isparta Angle, SW Turkey: Revealed by CMT solutions of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Över, Semir; Özden, Süha; Kamacı, Züheyr; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can; Pınar, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The Isparta Angle is an important area of SW Anatolia where extensions in all directions (N-S, NE-SW, NW-SE and E-W) meet. These extensions were determined by normal faulting structures as well as by shallow earthquakes. All extensions, except the E-W one, were attributed to the deviatoric stresses in relation to slab forces and/or extrusion of Anatolia. The moment tensor inversion of 40 shallow earthquakes which occurred in the inner part of the Isparta Angle give focal mechanisms mostly indicating normal faulting. Inversion of all focal mechanisms of the earthquakes obtained from the moment tensor inversion yields normal faulting characterized by an approximately E-W (N268°E) σ3 axis. The calculated stress ratio R is 0.6944 indicating a triaxial stress state. Commonly accepted geodynamic models for the eastern Mediterranean region do not include plate boundary forces acting in the east or west direction. Our hypothesis is that the cause of the E-W extension is the combined forces of Gravitational Potential Energy and the hot asthenosphere upwelling through a tear fault in the subducted African plate between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs beneath the Isparta Angle.

  1. Metabolic and Phenotypic Responses of Greenhouse-Grown Maize Hybrids to Experimentally Controlled Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Witt; Luis Galici; Jan Lisec; Jill Cairns; Axel Tiessen; Jose Luis Araus; Natalia Palacios-Rojas; Alisdair R.Fernie

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to abiotic stresses like drought is an important acquirement of agriculturally relevant crops like maize.Development of enhanced drought tolerance in crops grown in climatic zones where drought is a very dominant stress factor therefore plays an essential role in plant breeding.Previous studies demonstrated that corn yield potential and enhanced stress tolerance are associated traits.In this study,we analyzed six different maize hybrids for their ability to deal with drought stress in a greenhouse experiment.We were able to combine data from morphophysiological parameters measured under well-watered conditions and under water restriction with metabolic data from different organs.These different organs possessed distinct metabolite compositions,with the leaf blade displaying the most considerable metabolome changes following water deficiency.Whilst we could show a general increase in metabolite levels under drought stress,including changes in amino acids,sugars,sugar alcohols,and intermediates of the TCA cycle,these changes were not differential between maize hybrids that had previously been designated based on field trial data as either drought-tolerant or susceptible.The fact that data described here resulted from a greenhouse experiment with rather different growth conditions compared to natural ones in the field may explain why tolerance groups could not be confirmed in this study.We were,however,able to highlight several metabolites that displayed conserved responses to drought as well as metabolites whose levels correlated well with certain physiological traits.

  2. Growth and yield of corn hybrids in response to association with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniele Marini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in optimizing the positive effects of the association between Azospirillum bacteria and corn crop in order to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. This study aimed to evaluate the inoculation efficiency of an A. brasilense-based commercial product in association with different rates of nitrogen fertilization in two corn genotypes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of two corn hybrids (30F53 and CD386; with and without inoculation with a commercial product based on A. brasilense and five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1. The variables plant height, basal stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry matter, leaf nitrogen content, length and diameter of the cob, weight of 100 grains and grain yield were evaluated. Inoculation with A. brasilense provided increases of 11 and 12% in leaf area and shoot dry matter, respectively. There were differences in the response of the corn hybrids for most variables and the increase in nitrogen supply provided increments in the growth and yield of corn.

  3. Multi-responsive hybrid particles: thermo-, pH-, photo-, and magneto-responsive magnetic hydrogel cores with gold nanorod optical triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittikulsittichai, Supparesk; Kolhatkar, Arati G; Sarangi, Subhasis; Vorontsova, Maria A; Vekilov, Peter G; Brazdeikis, Audrius; Randall Lee, T

    2016-06-01

    The research strategy described in this manuscript harnesses the attractive properties of hydrogels, gold nanorods (Aurods), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by synthesizing one unique multi-responsive nanostructure. This novel hybrid structure consists of silica-coated magnetic particles encapsulated within a thermo-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AA) hydrogel network on which Aurods are assembled. Furthermore, this research demonstrates that these composite particles respond to several forms of external stimuli (temperature, pH, light, and/or applied magnetic field) owing to their specific architecture. Exposure of the hybrid particles to external stimuli led to a systematic and reversible variation in the hydrodynamic diameter (swelling-deswelling) and thus in the optical properties of the hybrid particles (red-shifting of the plasmon band). Such stimuli-responsive volume changes can be effectively exploited in drug-delivery applications.

  4. Earthquake engineering research: 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate chapters of the report: Applications of Past Research, Assessment of Earthquake Hazard, Earthquake Ground Motion, Soil Mechanics and Earth Structures, Analytical and Experimental Structural Dynamics, Earthquake Design of Structures, Seismic Interaction of Structures and Fluids, Social and Economic Aspects, Earthquake Engineering Education, Research in Japan.

  5. Transient responses of surface properties to large earthquakes: what do we learn from coupling geomorphological and geophysical data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, Niels; Marc, Odin; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Meunier, Patrick; Illien, Luc; Hobiger, Manuel; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Ohzono, Mako; Sawazaki, Kaoru; Rault, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Some studies have suggested that the shaking and deformation associated with earthquake would result in a temporary increase in hillslope erodibility. However very few data have been able to clarify what causes this transient and what controls it temporal evolution. We present integrated geomorphic data constraining an elevated landslide susceptibility to rainfall following 5 continental shallow earthquakes, the Mw 6.9 Finisterre (1993), the Mw 7.6 ChiChi (1999), the Mw 6.6 Niigata (2004), the Mw 6.8 Iwate-Miyagi (2008) and the Mw 7.9 Gorkha (2015) earthquakes. We constrained the magnitude (5 to 20 fold) and the recovery time (1 to 4 years) of this susceptibility change and associated it with subsurface damage caused by the strong shaking. The landslide data suggest that this ground strength weakening is not limited to the soil cover but also affect the shallow bedrock. Coseismic rock damage is supported by observations of shallow (0 to 100m) seismic velocity drops constrained with ambient noise waveform correlations within the epicentral area of four of those earthquakes. For most stations we observe a subsequent exponential velocity recovery with an e-folding time in fair agreement with the one estimated based on landslide observation. This recovery dynamics is also consistent with post-seismic processes, namely GPS post-seismic displacement and aftershocks decay. We analyzed strain time series in Japan and Taiwan and it appears inconsistent with the recovery of landslide susceptibility and shallow seismic velocities. In contrast, surface dynamic strain associated with ground shaking caused by aftershocks display similar relaxation time and may control the subsurface property recovery. However, two end-member models remain plausible at this stage. one in which repeated shaking cause additional damages that delay internal rock healing similar to the one observed in the laboratory. The other, in which repeated vibration allows progressive compaction and

  6. A Full Dynamic Compound Inverse Method for output-only element-level system identification and input estimation from earthquake response signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioldi, Fabio; Rizzi, Egidio

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new output-only element-level system identification and input estimation technique, towards the simultaneous identification of modal parameters, input excitation time history and structural features at the element-level by adopting earthquake-induced structural response signals. The method, named Full Dynamic Compound Inverse Method (FDCIM), releases strong assumptions of earlier element-level techniques, by working with a two-stage iterative algorithm. Jointly, a Statistical Average technique, a modification process and a parameter projection strategy are adopted at each stage to achieve stronger convergence for the identified estimates. The proposed method works in a deterministic way and is completely developed in State-Space form. Further, it does not require continuous- to discrete-time transformations and does not depend on initialization conditions. Synthetic earthquake-induced response signals from different shear-type buildings are generated to validate the implemented procedure, also with noise-corrupted cases. The achieved results provide a necessary condition to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed identification method.

  7. Multiplicative earthquake likelihood models incorporating strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, D. A.; Christophersen, A.; Gerstenberger, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe examine the potential for strain-rate variables to improve long-term earthquake likelihood models. We derive a set of multiplicative hybrid earthquake likelihood models in which cell rates in a spatially uniform baseline model are scaled using combinations of covariates derived from earthquake catalogue data, fault data, and strain-rates for the New Zealand region. Three components of the strain rate estimated from GPS data over the period 1991-2011 are considered: the shear, rotational and dilatational strain rates. The hybrid model parameters are optimised for earthquakes of M 5 and greater over the period 1987-2006 and tested on earthquakes from the period 2012-2015, which is independent of the strain rate estimates. The shear strain rate is overall the most informative individual covariate, as indicated by Molchan error diagrams as well as multiplicative modelling. Most models including strain rates are significantly more informative than the best models excluding strain rates in both the fitting and testing period. A hybrid that combines the shear and dilatational strain rates with a smoothed seismicity covariate is the most informative model in the fitting period, and a simpler model without the dilatational strain rate is the most informative in the testing period. These results have implications for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and can be used to improve the background model component of medium-term and short-term earthquake forecasting models.

  8. Multi-responsive hybrid particles: thermo-, pH-, photo-, and magneto-responsive magnetic hydrogel cores with gold nanorod optical triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittikulsittichai, Supparesk; Kolhatkar, Arati G.; Sarangi, Subhasis; Vorontsova, Maria A.; Vekilov, Peter G.; Brazdeikis, Audrius; Randall Lee, T.

    2016-06-01

    The research strategy described in this manuscript harnesses the attractive properties of hydrogels, gold nanorods (Aurods), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by synthesizing one unique multi-responsive nanostructure. This novel hybrid structure consists of silica-coated magnetic particles encapsulated within a thermo-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AA) hydrogel network on which Aurods are assembled. Furthermore, this research demonstrates that these composite particles respond to several forms of external stimuli (temperature, pH, light, and/or applied magnetic field) owing to their specific architecture. Exposure of the hybrid particles to external stimuli led to a systematic and reversible variation in the hydrodynamic diameter (swelling-deswelling) and thus in the optical properties of the hybrid particles (red-shifting of the plasmon band). Such stimuli-responsive volume changes can be effectively exploited in drug-delivery applications.The research strategy described in this manuscript harnesses the attractive properties of hydrogels, gold nanorods (Aurods), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by synthesizing one unique multi-responsive nanostructure. This novel hybrid structure consists of silica-coated magnetic particles encapsulated within a thermo-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AA) hydrogel network on which Aurods are assembled. Furthermore, this research demonstrates that these composite particles respond to several forms of external stimuli (temperature, pH, light, and/or applied magnetic field) owing to their specific architecture. Exposure of the hybrid particles to external stimuli led to a systematic and reversible variation in the hydrodynamic diameter (swelling-deswelling) and thus in the optical properties of the hybrid particles (red-shifting of the plasmon band). Such stimuli-responsive volume changes can be effectively exploited in drug-delivery applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Contains detailed information about the synthesis of

  9. Cell response to single-walled carbon nanotubes in hybrid porous collagen sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongli; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous collagen sponges incorporated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared and used for 3D culture of bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs). The pore structures of the sponges were controlled by using ice particulates as a porogen material. The responses of cells to SWCNTs were investigated in this 3D cell culture system by evaluation of cell functions and cellular uptake of SWCNTs. The results showed that cells adhered and spatially distributed in the porous sponges. The incorporation of SWCNTs in the porous sponges promoted cell proliferation and production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG). Confocal Raman imaging revealed that SWCNTs could be internalized by cells. The hybrid porous sponges not only provided nanostructured pore surfaces to facilitate cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion but also supplied nanomaterials for cellular uptake which may be useful for biomedical applications.

  10. Investigation of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical model. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results, thereby quantitatively validating the numerical tool.

  11. Structural Acoustic Response of a Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panel (Lessons Learned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents results from an effort to fabricate a shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) panel specimen and test the structure for dynamic response and noise transmission characteristics under the action of thermal and random acoustic loads. A method for fabricating a SMAHC laminate with bi-directional SMA reinforcement is described. Glass-epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape and Nitinol ribbon comprise the material system. Thermal activation of the Nitinol actuators was achieved through resistive heating. The experimental hardware required for mechanical support of the panel/actuators and for establishing convenient electrical connectivity to the actuators is presented. Other experimental apparatus necessary for controlling the panel temperature and acquiring structural acoustic data are also described. Deficiency in the thermal control system was discovered in the process of performing the elevated temperature tests. Discussion of the experimental results focuses on determining the causes for the deficiency and establishing means for rectifying the problem.

  12. Responses to NaCl stress of cultivated and wild tomato species and their hybrids in callus cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, E A; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Moreno, V; Bolarin, M C

    1996-06-01

    If in vitro culture is to be used for evaluating the salt tolerance of tomato hybrids and segregant populations in a breeding programme, it is previously necessary to get quick and reliable traits. In this work, growth and physiological responses to salinity of two interspecific hybrids between the cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and its wild salt-tolerant species L pennellii are compared to those of their parents. The leaf callus of the first subculture was grown on media amended with 0, 35, 70, 105, 140, 175 and 210 mM NaCl for 40 days. Relative fresh weight growth of callus in response to increased salinity in the culture medium was much greater in L pennellii than in the tomato cultivars, and greater in the hybrids than in the wild species. Moreover, the different salt tolerance degree of hybrids was related to that of female parents. At high salt levels, only Cl(-) accumulation was higher in L pennellii than in tomato cultivars, whereas in the hybrids both Cl(-), and Na(+) accumulation were higher than in their parents. Proline increased with salinity in the callus of all genotypes; these increases were much higher in the tomato cultivars than in L pennellii, and the hybrids showed a similar response to that of the wild species. Salt-treated callus of the tomato cultivars showed significant increases in valine, isoleucine and leucine contents compared to control callus tissue. In contrast, these amino acids in callus tissues of the wild species and hybrids showed a tendency to decrease with increasing salinity.

  13. Identification of cold responsive genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinxia; Wei, Pinyuan; Chen, Xiuli; Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiaohan

    2016-01-10

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most widely cultured shrimp species in the world. Despite L. vannamei having tropical origins, it is being reared subtropically, with low temperature stress being one of the most severe threats to its growth, survival and distribution. To unravel the molecular basis of cold tolerance in L. vannamei, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) platform was employed to identify cold responsive genes in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Both forward and reverse cDNA libraries were constructed, followed by dot blot hybridization, cloning, sequence analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. These approaches identified 92 cold induced and 48 cold inhibited ESTs to give a total of 37 cold induced and 17 cold inhibited contigs. Some of the identified genes related to stress response or cell defense, such as tetraspanins (TSPANs), DEAD-box helicase, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothionein (MT), which were more abundant in the forward SSH library than in the reverse SSH library. The most abundant Est was a tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) homolog dubbed LvTSPAN8. A multiple sequence alignment and transmembrane domain prediction was also performed for LvTSPAN8. LvTSPAN8 expression was also examined in the gills, muscle, heart and hepatopancreas following cold exposure and showed the highest expression levels in the hepatopancreas. Overall, this study was able to identify several known genes and novel genes via SSH that appear to be associated with cold stress and will help to provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance in L. vannamei.

  14. 一种乏池检测装置的地震响应分析及优化%Earthquake Response Analysis and Optimization of Spent Fuel Detection Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌金; 何佳林; 尹健

    2014-01-01

    For improving shock absorption and anti-seismic in earthquake, the optimization method of spent fuel detection equipment is presented. Used Pro Engineer software to established model, used SeismoSignal software to changed earthquake data sample in to earthquake spectrum by Fourier transform, then used earthquake spectrum to carry out spectrum response by Response Spectrum Analysis software module of Ansys workbench, optimize shock absorption module. The analysis results show that the method effectively improve shock absorption of spent fuel detection equipment in earthquake with error less than 5%.%为了提高乏池检测装置在地震时的减震性和抗震性,提出一种乏池检测装置的地震响应优化方法。通过Pro Engineer软件对检测装置进行建模,使用SeismoSignal软件将采样得到的地震数据通过傅里叶变换为地震波谱,并以此为输入信息通过Ansys workbench的Response Spectrum Analysis软件模块进行谱响应分析,优化其减震模块。分析结果表明:该方法有效提高了乏池检测装置在地震时的抗震性,误差不超过5%。

  15. Poroelastic properties of the Arbuckle Group in Oklahoma derived from well fluid level response to the 3 September 2016 Mw 5.8 Pawnee and 7 November 2016 Mw 5.0 Cushing earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Kayla A.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2017-01-01

    The Arbuckle Group (Arbuckle) is a basal sedimentary unit that is the primary target for saltwater disposal in Oklahoma. Thus, the reservoir characteristics of the Arbuckle, including how the poroelastic properties change laterally and over time are of significant interest. We report observations of fluid level changes in two monitoring wells in response to the 3 September 2016 Mw 5.8 Pawnee and the 7 November 2016 Mw 5.0 Cushing earthquakes. We investigate the relationship between static strain resulting from these events and the fluid level changes observed in the wells. We model the fluid level response by estimating static strains from a set of earthquake source parameters and spatiotemporal poroelastic properties of the Arbuckle in the neighborhood of the monitoring wells. Results suggest that both the direction of the observed fluid level step and the amplitude can be predicted from the computed volumetric strain change and a reasonable set of poroelastic parameters. Modeling results indicate that poroelastic parameters differ at the time of the Pawnee and Cushing earthquakes, with a moderately higher Skempton’s coefficient required to fit the response to the Cushing earthquake. This may indicate that dynamic shaking resulted in physical alteration of the Arbuckle at distances up to ∼50  km from the Pawnee earthquake.

  16. Hybrid Decision-making Method for Emergency Response System of Unattended Train Operation Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suitable selection of the emergency alternatives is a critical issue in emergency response system of Unattended Train Operation (UTO metro system of China. However, there is no available method for dispatcher group in Operating Control Center (OCC to evaluate the decision under emergency situation. It was found that the emergency decision making in UTO metro system is relative with the preferences and the importance of multi-dispatcher in emergency. Regarding these factors, this paper presents a hybrid method to determinate the priority weights of emergency alternatives, which aggregates the preference matrix by constructing the emergency response task model based on the Weighted Ordered Weighted Averaging (WOWA operator. This calculation approach derives the importance weights depending on the dispatcher emergency tasks and integrates it into the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case from train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed methods for Group Multi-Criteria Decision Making (GMCDM in emergency management of UTO metro system. The innovation of this research is paving the way for a systematic emergency decision-making solution which connects the automatic metro emergency response system with the GMCDM theory.

  17. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana transcriptional response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infection using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Quan; Liang, Jun; Zhang, Xing-Yao

    2013-05-28

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO) and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection.

  18. Characterization of the Pinus massoniana Transcriptional Response to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Yao Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD caused by pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the most destructive diseases of pine and poses a threat of serious economic losses worldwide. Although several of the mechanisms involved in disease progression have been discovered, the molecular response of Pinus massoniana to PWN infection has not been explored. We constructed four subtractive suppression hybridization cDNA libraries by taking time-course samples from PWN-inoculated Masson pine trees. One-hundred forty-four significantly differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified, and 124 high-quality sequences with transcriptional features were selected for gene ontology (GO and individual gene analyses. There were marked differences in the types of transcripts, as well as in the timing and levels of transcript expression in the pine trees following PWN inoculation. Genes involved in signal transduction, transcription and translation and secondary metabolism were highly expressed after 24 h and 72 h, while stress response genes were highly expressed only after 72 h. Certain transcripts responding to PWN infection were discriminative; pathogenesis and cell wall-related genes were more abundant, while detoxification or redox process-related genes were less abundant. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the biochemical and physiological responses of pine trees to PWN infection, particularly during the initial stage of infection.

  19. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons within the beam structures. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical analysis/design tool. The experimental investigation is refined by a more thorough test procedure and incorporation of higher fidelity measurements such as infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry. The numerical results are produced by a recently commercialized version of the constitutive model as implemented in ABAQUS and are refined by incorporation of additional measured parameters such as geometric imperfection. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of SMAHC structures in controlling static and dynamic responses by adaptive stiffening. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  20. High throughput RNA sequencing of a hybrid maize and its parents shows different mechanisms responsive to nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yong-Mei; Meyer, Ann; Downs, Gregory S; Shi, Xuejiang; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Lukens, Lewis; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-01-28

    Development of crop varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is crucial for minimizing N loss, reducing environmental pollution and decreasing input cost. Maize is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide and its productivity is closely linked to the amount of fertilizer used. A survey of the transcriptomes of shoot and root tissues of a maize hybrid line and its two parental inbred lines grown under sufficient and limiting N conditions by mRNA-Seq has been conducted to have a better understanding of how different maize genotypes respond to N limitation. A different set of genes were found to be N-responsive in the three genotypes. Many biological processes important for N metabolism such as the cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process and the cellular amino acid metabolic process were enriched in the N-responsive gene list from the hybrid shoots but not from the parental lines' shoots. Coupled to this, sugar, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, glucose, and sorbitol transport pathways were all up-regulated in the hybrid, but not in the parents under N limitation. Expression patterns also differed between shoots and roots, such as the up-regulation of the cytokinin degradation pathway in the shoots of the hybrid and down-regulation of that pathway in the roots. The change of gene expression under N limitation in the hybrid resembled the parent with the higher NUE trait. The transcript abundances of alleles derived from each parent were estimated using polymorphic sites in mapped reads in the hybrid. While there were allele abundance differences, there was no correlation between these and the expression differences seen between the hybrid and the two parents. Gene expression in two parental inbreds and the corresponding hybrid line in response to N limitation was surveyed using the mRNA-Seq technology. The data showed that the three genotypes respond very differently to N-limiting conditions, and the hybrid clearly has a unique expression pattern

  1. Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid Field Response to the 3 September 2016 M5.8 Earthquake Near Pawnee, Oklahoma: Summary of Structural Damage and Liquefaction Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S. E. K.; Streig, A. R.; Chang, J. C.; Hornsby, K. T.; Woelfel, I. E.; Andrews, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; McNamara, D. E.; Williams, R. A.; Wald, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Mw5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma earthquake occurred on 03 September 2016 (07:02:44 local time; depth 5.6 km) in a rural, sparsely populated area. The USGS, Mw-phase moment tensor indicated slip occurred on a sub-vertical fault plane, striking WNW or NNE. Relocations of this mainshock and a dozen aftershocks (Mw 2.5-3.6) in the day following the event were broadly aligned along a WNW trend. These data, along with USGS `Did You Feel It?' and ShakeMap products, helped guide our field response. Our team arrived to the epicentral region 10 hours after the mainshock and spent the next 1.5 days examining 60 km of paved and dirt roads across a 40 km2 area for evidence of surface deformation, liquefaction, and structural damage. We completed a 2 km-long, NNE transect on foot centered on the epicenter, perpendicular to the suspected WNW-striking source fault. No surface rupture was observed during our reconnaissance surveys. We interviewed 10 residents within a 1-6 km radius of the epicenter, who reported up to 30 seconds of shaking. Structural damage was common and ranged from minor to moderate. Failure and collapse of masonry chimneys and exterior house facades made of stone or brick was common near the epicenter, yet a few were undamaged. At several locations, damage patterns suggest an E-W shaking direction; for example, only the western wall of a century-old unreinforced brick storage building failed, elevated fuel tanks shook E-W, and most metal straps securing a trailer home to its cinder-block foundation were sheared in an E-W direction. One earthquake-related injury was caused by chimney bricks that struck a man on the head. Strong ground motion cracked foundations and interior walls at many homes near the epicenter. Minor ground settlement and ground cracking was observed in artificial fill surrounding houses and along the crests of small earthen dams. A large barn fire was attributed to the earthquake. Landowners reported sand blows in farm fields underlain by sandy

  3. Teachers and Students' Perceptions of a Hybrid Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Menendez-Santurio, Jose Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess students and teachers' perceptions concerning their participation in an educational kickboxing learning unit based on a hybridization of two pedagogical models: Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility. Method: Seventy-one students and three physical education teachers…

  4. Equipment for the Characterization of Synthetic Bio-hybrid Polymers and Micellar Nanoparticles for Stimuli Responsive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-08

    reactions. These materials couple together synthetic polymers with biopolymers including DNA, peptides and proteins. The project therefore requires a... Synthetic Bio-hybrid Polymers and Micellar Nanoparticles for Stimuli Responsive Materials. The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...this instrument in terms of fully characterizing biomolecule interactions occurring at the interface of semi- synthetic biopolymer -based nano materials

  5. Non-inductive components of electromagnetic signals associated with L'Aquila earthquake sequences estimated by means of inter-station impulse response functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Lorenzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available On 6 April 2009 at 01:32:39 UT a strong earthquake occurred west of L'Aquila at the very shallow depth of 9 km. The main shock local magnitude was Ml = 5.8 (Mw = 6.3. Several powerful aftershocks occurred the following days. The epicentre of the main shock occurred 6 km away from the Geomagnetic Observatory of L'Aquila, on a fault 15 km long having a NW-SE strike, about 140°, and a SW dip of about 42°. For this reason, L'Aquila seismic events offered very favourable conditions to detect possible electromagnetic emissions related to the earthquake. The data used in this work come from the permanent geomagnetic Observatories of L'Aquila and Duronia. Here the results concerning the analysis of the residual magnetic field estimated by means of the inter-station impulse response functions in the frequency band from 0.3 Hz to 3 Hz are shown.

  6. Estimating the near-surface site response to mitigate earthquake disasters at the October 6th city, Egypt, using HVSR and seismic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by earthquake occurrences in different localities necessitates the evaluation of the subsurface structure. A priori estimation of the site effects became a major challenge for an efficient mitigation of the seismic risk. In the case of moderate to large earthquakes, at some distances from large events, severe damage often occurred at zones of unfavorable geotechnical conditions that give rise to significant site effects. The damage distribution in the near-source area is also significantly affected by fault geometry and rupture history. The microtremor (background noises and shallow seismic surveys (through both the seismic refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW were carried out in a specific area (The club of October 6 city and its adjacent space area. The natural periods derived from the HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio analysis vary from 0.37 to 0.56 s. The shallow seismic refraction data, which were conducted at the area, are used to determine the attenuation of P-waves (Qp in different layers, using the pulse-width technique. The evaluation of the site response at the studied area yields amplification factor of the ground motion, ranging between 2.4 and 4.4.

  7. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  8. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  9. Base isolation system for earthquake protection and vibration isolation of structures. Part 11. ; System identification of vibration model and earthquake response simulation analysis of base-isolated building. Tatemono no menshin boshin koho no kenkyu kaihatsu. 11. ; Shindo kaiseki model no dotei to jishin oto simulation kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, H.; Ishida, M.; Yasaka, A.; Takenaka, Y.; Yamaya, H. (Kajima Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-31

    Before the completion of the Toshin No.24 Omori Building (an earthquake protected building in Tokyo), a forced vibration test was performed to confirm the vibration characteristics and the rigidities of the laminated rubber bearing and the damper. Seismic observation was performed after the completion to confirm the effect of the earthquake protected building on decreasing acceleration response. A vibration analysis model built by identification method utilizing those data was used to carry out a simulation analysis of the earthquake on February 2, 1992 (5 seismic intensity in Tokyo) which recorded the largest ground motion acceleration since the observation was started in the building. Relative displacement of maximum 0.8cm was observed in the base-isolation layer at the time of the earthquake, and decrease in the natural frequency was also observed in the earthquake record. Reference, therefore, was made to the results of the past experiments to modify the rigidity of this portion only considering nonlinearity of the high damping rubber portion of the damper bearing. As a result, a simulated analytical result was obtained which agreed well with the observed values. 6 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Medical complications associated with earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan A; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2012-02-25

    Major earthquakes are some of the most devastating natural disasters. The epidemiology of earthquake-related injuries and mortality is unique for these disasters. Because earthquakes frequently affect populous urban areas with poor structural standards, they often result in high death rates and mass casualties with many traumatic injuries. These injuries are highly mechanical and often multisystem, requiring intensive curative medical and surgical care at a time when the local and regional medical response capacities have been at least partly disrupted. Many patients surviving blunt and penetrating trauma and crush injuries have subsequent complications that lead to additional morbidity and mortality. Here, we review and summarise earthquake-induced injuries and medical complications affecting major organ systems.

  11. SEISMIC SITE RESPONSE ESTIMATION IN THE NEAR SOURCE REGION OF THE 2009 L’AQUILA, ITALY, EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, E.; Azzara, R.; Bergamashi, F.; Bordoni, P.; Cara, F.; Cogliano, R.; Cultrera, G.; di Giulio, G.; Duval, A.; Fodarella, A.; Milana, G.; Pucillo, S.; Régnier, J.; Riccio, G.; Salichon, J.

    2009-12-01

    The 6th of April 2009, at 3:32 local time, a Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzo region (central Italy) causing more than 300 casualties. The epicenter of the earthquake was 95km NE of Rome and 10km from the center of the city of L’Aquila, the administrative capital of the Abruzzo region. This city has a population of about 70,000 and was severely damaged by the earthquake, the total cost of the buildings damage being estimated around 3 Bn €. Historical masonry buildings particularly suffered from the seismic shaking, but some reinforced concrete structures from more modern construction were also heavily damaged. To better estimate the seismic solicitation of these structures during the earthquake, we deployed temporary arrays in the near source region. Downtown L’Aquila, as well as a rural quarter composed of ancient dwelling-centers located western L’Aquila (Roio area), have been instrumented. The array set up downtown consisted of nearly 25 stations including velocimetric and accelerometric sensors. In the Roio area, 6 stations operated for almost one month. The data has been processed in order to study the spectral ratios of the horizontal component of ground motion at the soil site and at a reference site, as well as the spectral ratio of the horizontal and the vertical movement at a single recording site. Downtown L’Aquila is set on a Quaternary fluvial terrace (breccias with limestone boulders and clasts in a marly matrix), which forms the left bank of the Aterno River and slopes down in the southwest direction towards the Aterno River. The alluvial are lying on lacustrine sediments reaching their maximum thickness (about 250m) in the center of L’Aquila. After De Luca et al. (2005), these quaternary deposits seem to lead in an important amplification factor in the low frequency range (0.5-0.6 Hz). However, the level of amplification varies strongly from one point to the other in the center of the city. This new experimentation allows new and more

  12. Optimization of hybrid laser - TIG welding of 316LN steel using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, M.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Ravikumar, R.; Saxena, Rajesh; Vasudevan, M.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, the hybrid laser - TIG welding parameters for welding of 316LN austenitic stainless steel have been investigated by combining a pulsed laser beam with a TIG welding heat source at the weld pool. Laser power, pulse frequency, pulse duration, TIG current were presumed as the welding process parameters whereas weld bead width, weld cross-sectional area and depth of penetration (DOP) were considered as the process responses. Central composite design was used to complete the design matrix and welding experiments were conducted based on the design matrix. Weld bead measurements were then carried out to generate the dataset. Multiple regression models correlating the process parameters with the responses have been developed. The accuracy of the models were found to be good. Then, the desirability approach optimization technique was employed for determining the optimum process parameters to obtain the desired weld bead profile. Validation experiments were then carried out from the determined optimum process parameters. There was good agreement between the predicted and measured values.

  13. Research on Hybrid Seismic Response Control System for Motion Control of Two Span Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, G.; Kim, C.; Jeon, S.; Seo, S.; Jeon, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid seismic response control (HSRC) system was developed to control bridge motion caused by seismic load. It was aimed at optimum vibration control, composed of a rubber bearing of passive type and a MR-damper of semi-active type. The bridge model was built for experiment, a two-span bridge of 8.3 meters in length with the HSRC system put up on it. Then, inflicting El-centro seismic load on it, shaking table tests were carried out to confirm the system's validity. The experiments were conducted under the basic structure state (without an MR-damper applied) first, and then under the state with an MR-damper applied. It was also done under the basic structure state with a reinforced rubber bearing applied, then the passive on/off state of the HSRC system, and finally the semi-active state where the control algorithm was applied to the system. From the experiments, it was observed that collision rather increased when the MR-damper alone was applied, and also that the application of the HSRC system effectively prevented it from occurring. As a result, the HSRC system was proven to be effective in mitigating responses of the two-span bridge under seismic load.

  14. The Role of Citizen Science in Risk Mitigation and Disaster Response: A Case Study of 2015 Nepalese Earthquake Using OpenStreetMap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen science includes networks of ordinary people acting as sensors, observing and recording information for science. OpenStreetMap is one such sensor network which empowers citizens to collaboratively produce a global picture from free geographic information. The success of this open source software is extended by the development of freely used open databases for the user community. Participating citizens do not require a high level of skill. Final results are processed by professionals following quality assurance protocols before map information is released. OpenStreetMap is not only the cheapest source of timely maps in many cases but also often the only source. This is particularly true in developing countries. Emergency responses to the recent earthquake in Nepal illustrates the value for rapidly updated geographical information. This includes emergency management, damage assessment, post-disaster response, and future risk mitigation. Local disaster conditions (landslides, road closings, bridge failures, etc.) were documented for local aid workers by citizen scientists working remotely. Satellites and drones provide digital imagery of the disaster zone and OpenStreetMap participants shared the data from locations around the globe. For the Nepal earthquake, OpenStreetMap provided a team of volunteers on the ground through their Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) which contribute data to the disaster response through smartphones and laptops. This, combined with global citizen science efforts, provided immediate geographically useful maps to assist aid workers, including the Red Cross and Canadian DART Team, and the Nepalese government. As of August 2014, almost 1.7 million users provided over 2.5 billion edits to the OpenStreetMap map database. Due to the increased usage of smartphones, GPS-enabled devices, and the growing participation in citizen science projects, data gathering is proving an effective way to contribute as a global citizen. This paper

  15. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  16. Is Earthquake Triggering Driven by Small Earthquakes?

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A

    2002-01-01

    Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this scaling and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer aftershocks than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the non-trivial scaling of the number of aftershocks emerges from the fractal spatial distribution of aftershocks.

  17. Dynamical Linear Response of TDDFT with LDA+U Functional: Strongly Hybridized Frenkel Excitons in NiO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.C.; Ku, W.; Hsueh, H.C.

    2010-08-30

    Within the framework of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), we derive the dynamical linear response of local-density approximation plus U functional and benchmark it on NiO, a prototypical Mott insulator. Formulated using real-space Wannier functions, our computationally inexpensive framework gives detailed insights into the formation of tightly bound Frenkel excitons with reasonable accuracy. Specifically, a strong hybridization of multiple excitons is found to significantly modify the exciton properties. Furthermore, our study exposes a significant generic limitation of adiabatic approximation in TDDFT with hybrid functionals and in existing Bethe-Salpeter-equation approaches, advocating the necessity of strongly energy-dependent kernels in future development.

  18. NGA Nepal Earthquake Support Data Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Geospatial Intelligence Agency — In support of the Spring 2015 Nepal earthquake response, NGA is providing to the public and humanitarian disaster response community these Nepal data services. They...

  19. Predictable earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, D.

    2002-12-01

    acceleration) and global number of earthquake for this period from published literature which give us a great picture about the dynamical geophysical phenomena. Methodology: The computing of linear correlation coefficients gives us a chance to quantitatively characterise the relation among the data series, if we suppose a linear dependence in the first step. The correlation coefficients among the Earth's rotational acceleration and Z-orbit acceleration (perpendicular to the ecliptic plane) and the global number of the earthquakes were compared. The results clearly demonstrate the common feature of both the Earth's rotation and Earth's Z-acceleration around the Sun and also between the Earth's rotational acceleration and the earthquake number. This fact might means a strong relation among these phenomena. The mentioned rather strong correlation (r = 0.75) and the 29 year period (Saturn's synodic period) was clearly shown in the counted cross correlation function, which gives the dynamical characteristic of correlation, of Earth's orbital- (Z-direction) and rotational acceleration. This basic period (29 year) was also obvious in the earthquake number data sets with clear common features in time. Conclusion: The Core, which involves the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, is the only sufficiently mobile part of the Earth with a sufficient mass to modify the rotation which probably effects on the global time distribution of the earthquakes. Therefore it might means that the secular variation of the earthquakes is inseparable from the changes in Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the interior process of the Earth's core belongs to the dynamical state of the solar system. Therefore if the described idea is real the global distribution of the earthquakes in time is predictable.

  20. Defeating Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  1. Comparison of gene expression profiles and responses to zinc chloride among inter- and intraspecific hybrids with growth abnormalities in wheat and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Kiyofumi; Iehisa, Julio C M; Nishijima, Ryo; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid necrosis is a well-known reproductive isolation mechanism in plant species, and an autoimmune response is generally considered to trigger hybrid necrosis through epistatic interaction between disease resistance-related genes in hybrids. In common wheat, the complementary Ne1 and Ne2 genes control hybrid necrosis, defined as type I necrosis. Two other types of hybrid necrosis (type II and type III) have been observed in interspecific hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii. Another type of hybrid necrosis, defined here as type IV necrosis, has been reported in F1 hybrids between Triticum urartu and some accessions of Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides. In types I, III and IV, cell death occurs gradually starting in older tissues, whereas type II necrosis symptoms occur only under low temperature. To compare comprehensive gene expression patterns of hybrids showing growth abnormalities, transcriptome analysis of type I and type IV necrosis was performed using a wheat 38k oligo-DNA microarray. Defense-related genes including many WRKY transcription factor genes were dramatically up-regulated in plants showing type I and type IV necrosis, similarly to other known hybrid abnormalities, suggesting an association with an autoimmune response. Reactive oxygen species generation and necrotic cell death were effectively inhibited by ZnCl2 treatment in types I, III and IV necrosis, suggesting a significant association of Ca(2+) influx in upstream signaling of necrotic cell death in wheat hybrid necrosis.

  2. Homology of olfactory receptor neuron response characteristics inferred from hybrids between Asian and European corn borer moths (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J; Musto, Callie J; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L; Baker, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    First generation hybrid males from crosses between the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, and the "univoltine Z-strain" European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, were examined with respect to behavioral and physiological responses to ACB and ECB pheromones. The hybrid males often flew to the pheromone of ECB Z-strain, but very rarely to the ACB pheromone. We mapped the tuning profiles of each ORN of the F(1) hybrids with respect to the relevant pheromone components and a common behavioral antagonist by employing differential cross-adaptation and varying doses of the ligands. In the trichoid sensilla of F(1) hybrid males, the three co-compartmentalized ORNs produced spikes that were very difficult to distinguish by size, unlike the parental populations. Comparing the responses to ACB and ECB components at different doses reveals overlapping profiles similar to males of both parental types, but more responsiveness to the ECB pheromone components. We were unable to detect any differences in the ORN tuning profiles when comparing males with different behavioral phenotypes. While the two ECB pheromone races have similar ORN tuning properties that are different from those in ACB, the spike-amplitude patterns of ECB E-strain and ACB have greater homology when compared to ECB Z-strain.

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum C014 on Innate Immune Response and Disease Resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Hybrid Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureerat Butprom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain isolated from intestines of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Male × Clarias macrocephalus Female exhibited an in vitro inhibitory effect on a fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila TISTR 1321. By using the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum C014. To examine whether L. plantarum C014 had potential for use as an immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish, the fish diet supplemented with L. plantarum C014 (107 CFU/g diet was prepared and used for the in vivo investigation of its effect on innate immune response and disease resistance of hybrid catfish. Two innate immune response parameters, phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and plasma lysozyme activity, were significantly enhanced in the treated fish after 45 days of feeding. Feeding the fish with the L. plantarum C014 supplemented diet for 45 days before challenging them with A. hydrophila at the dose of LD50 could reduce the mortality rate of the fish from 50% (in control group to 0% (in treated group. Based on its origin and beneficial effect on innate immune response and disease resistance, L. plantarum C014 may be a potential candidate for use as a natural and safe immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish.

  4. Growth response of Larix hybrids between L. kaempferi and L. gmelinii var. japonica with altitudinal gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisanuki, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Akio; Takahashi, Yasuo [Tokyo Univ. Forest, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    To test the adaptability of Japanese larch, Dahurian larch and their hybrid to the environment in Hokkaido, these three materials were planted and surveyed of their survival and growth for 30 years at four elevation in central Hokkaido, northern Japan. Japanese larch showed low adaptation with high mortality affected by voles at every elevation. Dahurian larch has high vole resistance but showed high mortality caused by the infection of Armillaria root rot. Hybrid could persist through low to high elevation. Only hybrid showed enough growth at the highest elevation. Stress tolerance of hybrid was confirmed under high altitudinal condition. 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  5. A Self-Consistent Scheme for Optical Response of large Hybrid Networks of Semiconductor Quantum Dots and Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo; Hayati, L.; Lane, C.; Bansil, A.; Mosallaei, H.

    We discuss a self-consistent scheme for treating the optical response of large, hybrid networks of semiconducting quantum dots (SQDs) and plasmonic metallic nanoparticles (MNPs). Our method is efficient and scalable and becomes exact in the limiting case of weakly interacting SQDs. The self-consistent equations obtained for the steady state are analogous to the Heisenberg equations of motion for the density matrix of a SQD placed in an effective electric field computed within the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). Illustrative applications of the theory to square and honeycomb SQD, MNP and hybrid SDQ/MNP lattices as well as SQD-MNP dimers are presented. Our results demonstrate that hybrid SQD-MNP lattices can provide flexible platforms for light manipulation with tunable resonant characteristics.

  6. Self-consistent scheme for optical response of large hybrid networks of semiconductor quantum dots and plasmonic metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, L.; Lane, C.; Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.; Mosallaei, H.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a self-consistent scheme for treating the optical response of large, hybrid networks of semiconducting quantum dots (SQDs) and plasmonic metallic nanoparticles (MNPs). Our method is efficient and scalable and becomes exact in the limiting case of weakly interacting SQDs. The self-consistent equations obtained for the steady state are analogous to the von Neumann equations of motion for the density matrix of a SQD placed in an effective electric field computed within the discrete dipole approximation. Illustrative applications of the theory to square and honeycomb SQD, MNP, and hybrid SDQ-MNP lattices as well as SQD-MNP dimers are presented. Our results demonstrate that hybrid SQD-MNP lattices can provide flexible platforms for light manipulation with tunable resonant characteristics.

  7. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  8. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  9. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  10. Site response of the Ganges Basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from the 1897 Shillong, 1905 Kangra and 1934 Nepal earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan E Hough; Roger Bilham

    2008-11-01

    We analyze previously published geodetic data and intensity values for the = 8.1 Shillong (1897), = 7.8 Kangra (1905), and = 8.2 Nepal/Bihar (1934) earthquakes to investigate the rupture zones of these earthquakes as well as the amplification of ground motions throughout the Punjab, Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys. For each earthquake we subtract the observed MSK intensities from a synthetic intensity derived from an inferred planar rupture model of the earthquake, combined with an attenuation function derived from instrumentally recorded earthquakes. The resulting residuals are contoured to identify regions of anomalous intensity caused primarily by local site effects. Observations indicative of liquefaction are treated separately from other indications of shaking severity lest they inflate inferred residual shaking estimates. Despite this precaution we find that intensites are 1–3 units higher near the major rivers, as well as at the edges of the Ganges basin. We find evidence for a post-critical Moho reflection from the 1897 and 1905 earthquakes that raises intensities 1–2 units at distances of the order of 150 km from the rupture zone, and we find that the 1905 earthquake triggered a substantial subsequent earthquake at Dehra Dun, at a distance of approximately 150 km. Four or more = 8 earthquakes are apparently overdue in the region based on seismic moment summation in the past 500 years. Results from the current study permit anticipated intensities in these future earthquakes to be refined to incorporate site effects derived from dense macroseismic data.

  11. Prediction of structure response of missile instrument cabin based on Hybrid FE-SEA%应用Hybrid FE-SEA预示仪器舱动力学环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘时秀

    2011-01-01

    应用Hybrid FE-SEA方法,对某导弹仪器舱在宽频混响声场中结构响应进行了分析计算,并将Hybrid FE-SEA方法预示结果与试验结果作了比较,初步验证了Hybrid FE-SEA方法计算复杂结构声振响应的可行性.%The structure response of a missile instrument cabin in the broadband reverberation sound field is analyzed and calculated by the method of Hybrid FE-SEA. The results of the method are compared with the testing results, which primarily validates the feasibility of calculating the acoustic response of complex structure by the method of Hybrid FE-SEA.

  12. Earthquake forewarning in the Cascadia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Atwater, Brian F.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Bodin, Paul; Davis, Earl; Frankel, Arthur; Hayes, Gavin P.; McConnell, Laura; Melbourne, Tim; Oppenheimer, David H.; Parrish, John G.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Rogers, Gary D.; Sherrod, Brian; Vidale, John; Walsh, Timothy J.; Weaver, Craig S.; Whitmore, Paul M.

    2015-08-10

    This report, prepared for the National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (NEPEC), is intended as a step toward improving communications about earthquake hazards between information providers and users who coordinate emergency-response activities in the Cascadia region of the Pacific Northwest. NEPEC charged a subcommittee of scientists with writing this report about forewarnings of increased probabilities of a damaging earthquake. We begin by clarifying some terminology; a “prediction” refers to a deterministic statement that a particular future earthquake will or will not occur. In contrast to the 0- or 100-percent likelihood of a deterministic prediction, a “forecast” describes the probability of an earthquake occurring, which may range from >0 to 4 earthquakes on the plate interface north of the Mendocino region 

  13. Biocompatible SiO2 in the Fabrication of Stimuli-Responsive Hybrid Composites and Their Application Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic hybrid composite materials have been extensively studied as they combine the properties of inorganic material and organic polymer. Among the inorganic material biocompatible silica (SiO2 is an interesting candidate for application in biotechnology because such material is wide spread in nature as well as in medicine. During the last few decades, stimuli-responsive polymers are drawing much attention from the researchers for application versatility such as target-specific delivery of drug and corrosion inhibitors. Considering the biocompatibility and many such important properties as high cargo loading capacity, long blood circulation lifetime, enhanced permeability and retention, mechanical strength, and easy processability, combination of SiO2 particles with stimuli-responsive polymers is gaining attention over the last decade. This review article will report the progress made towards the development and application of stimuli-responsive hybrid composites based on SiO2.

  14. Heart rate and heart rate variability assessment identifies individual differences in fear response magnitudes to earthquake, free fall, and air puff in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Wei; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z; Zhao, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR) with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse's fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models.

  15. Heart rate and heart rate variability assessment identifies individual differences in fear response magnitudes to earthquake, free fall, and air puff in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available Fear behaviors and fear memories in rodents have been traditionally assessed by the amount of freezing upon the presentation of conditioned cues or unconditioned stimuli. However, many experiences, such as encountering earthquakes or accidental fall from tree branches, may produce long-lasting fear memories but are behaviorally difficult to measure using freezing parameters. Here, we have examined changes in heartbeat interval dynamics as physiological readout for assessing fearful reactions as mice were subjected to sudden air puff, free-fall drop inside a small elevator, and a laboratory-version earthquake. We showed that these fearful events rapidly increased heart rate (HR with simultaneous reduction of heart rate variability (HRV. Cardiac changes can be further analyzed in details by measuring three distinct phases: namely, the rapid rising phase in HR, the maximum plateau phase during which HRV is greatly decreased, and the recovery phase during which HR gradually recovers to baseline values. We showed that durations of the maximum plateau phase and HR recovery speed were quite sensitive to habituation over repeated trials. Moreover, we have developed the fear resistance index based on specific cardiac response features. We demonstrated that the fear resistance index remained largely consistent across distinct fearful events in a given animal, thereby enabling us to compare and rank individual mouse's fear responsiveness among the group. Therefore, the fear resistance index described here can represent a useful parameter for measuring personality traits or individual differences in stress-susceptibility in both wild-type mice and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD models.

  16. Structural Earthquake Resistance Design Using Energy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Rongrong

    2003-01-01

    A summary of status of researches in the field of structural earthquake resistance design on energy concept is presented in three parts: earthquake input, demands on the structure and supplied capacity of the structure. A new approach is proposed for analysis of the seismic response and damage criteria based on the momentary input energy.

  17. A hybrid deterministic-probabilistic approach to model the mechanical response of helically arranged hierarchical strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraldi, M.; Perrella, G.; Ciervo, M.; Bosia, F.; Pugno, N. M.

    2017-09-01

    Very recently, a Weibull-based probabilistic strategy has been successfully applied to bundles of wires to determine their overall stress-strain behaviour, also capturing previously unpredicted nonlinear and post-elastic features of hierarchical strands. This approach is based on the so-called ;Equal Load Sharing (ELS); hypothesis by virtue of which, when a wire breaks, the load acting on the strand is homogeneously redistributed among the surviving wires. Despite the overall effectiveness of the method, some discrepancies between theoretical predictions and in silico Finite Element-based simulations or experimental findings might arise when more complex structures are analysed, e.g. helically arranged bundles. To overcome these limitations, an enhanced hybrid approach is proposed in which the probability of rupture is combined with a deterministic mechanical model of a strand constituted by helically-arranged and hierarchically-organized wires. The analytical model is validated comparing its predictions with both Finite Element simulations and experimental tests. The results show that generalized stress-strain responses - incorporating tension/torsion coupling - are naturally found and, once one or more elements break, the competition between geometry and mechanics of the strand microstructure, i.e. the different cross sections and helical angles of the wires in the different hierarchical levels of the strand, determines the no longer homogeneous stress redistribution among the surviving wires whose fate is hence governed by a ;Hierarchical Load Sharing; criterion.

  18. Risk assessment of people trapped in earthquake based on km grid: a case study of the 2014 Ludian earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ben-Yong; Nie, Gao-Zhong; Su, Gui-Wu; Sun, Lei

    2017-04-01

    China is one of the most earthquake prone countries in the world. The priority during earthquake emergency response is saving lives and minimizing casualties. Rapid judgment of the trapped location is the important basis for government to reasonable arrange the emergency rescue forces and resources after the earthquake. Through analyzing the key factors resulting in people trapped, we constructed an assessment model of personal trapped (PTED)in collapsed buildings caused by earthquake disaster. Then taking the 2014 Ludian Earthquake as a case, this study evaluated the distribution of trapped personal during this earthquake using the assessment model based on km grid data. Results showed that, there are two prerequisites for people might be trapped by the collapse of buildings in earthquake: earthquake caused buildings collapse and there are people in building when building collapsing; the PTED model could be suitable to assess the trapped people in collapsed buildings caused by earthquake. The distribution of people trapped by the collapse of buildings in the Ludian earthquake assessed by the model is basically the same as that obtained by the actual survey. Assessment of people trapped in earthquake based on km grid can meet the requirements of search-and-rescue zone identification and rescue forces allocation in the early stage of the earthquake emergency. In future, as the basic data become more complete, assessment of people trapped in earthquake based on km grid should provide more accurate and valid suggestions for earthquake emergency search and rescue.

  19. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  20. Hurricane Sandy and earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    MAVASHEV BORIS; MAVASHEV IGOR

    2013-01-01

    Submit for consideration the connection between formation of a hurricane Sandy and earthquakes. As a rule, weather anomalies precede and accompany earthquakes. The hurricane Sandy emerged 2 days prior to strong earthquakes that occurred in the area. And the trajectory of the hurricane Sandy matched the epicenter of the earthquakes. Possibility of early prediction of natural disasters will minimize the moral and material damage.

  1. Earthquake Response Analysis of High Pier and Upper Auxiliary Structure%高闸墩及其上部附属结构地震响应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢义华; 宫必宁; 刘莎

    2013-01-01

    At present, there is less aseismic research on the upper auxiliary structure and has no standards for mention, so it leads to random and empirical knowledge for equivalent static calculation. Dynamic time-history method is applied to calculate pier and frame structures of a hydropower station in the northwestern districts by using ADINA software. And the coupling effect between different structures is discussed under the action of earthquake through dynamic characteristics of different structures and response characteristics at different operating conditions. The results show that under the action of earthquake, pier and frame structures with mutational mass and stiffness in vertical direction produce structural damages like whiplash effect easily. So this phenomenon must be taken a special attention when designing.%鉴于我国对上部附属结构抗震研究较少,规范中也未专门提及,由此导致设计人员进行等效静力计算时带有一定的随意性和经验性.借助有限元软件ADINA,利用动力时程分析法计算了西北地区某水电站的闸墩和框架结构,并通过各结构的动力特性和不同工况下的响应特点,探讨了地震作用下结构之间的耦联作用.结果表明,在地震作用时,质量和刚度沿竖向均存在明显突变的高闸墩和框架结构易产生类鞭梢效应的结构破坏,设计时应引起格外重视.

  2. Inducing transparency with large magnetic response and group indices by hybrid dielectric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Kuang; Lai, Yueh-Chun; Yang, Yu-Hang; Chen, Chia-Yun; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2012-03-26

    We present metamaterial-induced transparency (MIT) phenomena with enhanced magnetic fields in hybrid dielectric metamaterials. Using two hybrid structures of identical-dielectric-constant resonators (IDRs) and distinct-dielectric-constant resonators (DDRs), we demonstrate a larger group index (ng~354), better bandwidth-delay product (BDP~0.9) than metallic-type metamaterials. The keys to enable these properties are to excite either the trapped mode or the suppressed mode resonances, which can be managed by controlling the contrast of dielectric constants between the dielectric resonators in the hybrid metamaterials.

  3. On the Correct Application of the 100-40-40 Rule for Combining Responses Due to three Directions of Earthquake Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Morante, R.; Miranda, M., Braverman, J.

    2010-07-18

    The 100-40-40 rule is often used with the response spectrum analysis method to determine the maximum seismic responses from structural responses resulting from the three spatial earthquake components. This rule has been referenced in several recent Design Certification applications of nuclear power plants, and appears to be gaining in popularity. However, this rule is described differently in ASCE 4-98 and Regulatory Guide 1.92, consequently causing confusion on correct implementation of this rule in practice. The square root of the sum of the squares method is another acceptable spatial combination method and was used to justify the adequacy of the 100-40-40 rule during the development of the Regulatory Guide 1.92. The 100-40-40 rule, when applied correctly, is almost always conservative compared to the SRSS method, and is only slightly unconservative in rare cases. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the proper application of the 100-40-40 rule, as prescribed in ASCE 4-98 and in Regulatory Guide 1.92, and to clarify the confusion caused by the two different formats of this rule.

  4. An organized, comprehensive, and security-enabled strategic response to the Haiti earthquake: a description of pre-deployment readiness preparation and preliminary experience from an academic anesthesiology department with no preexisting international disaster response program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunn, Maureen; Ashburn, Michael A; Floyd, Thomas F; Schwab, C William; Harrington, Paul; Hanson, C William; Sarani, Babak; Mehta, Samir; Speck, Rebecca M; Fleisher, Lee A

    2010-12-01

    On Tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 16:53 local time, a magnitude 7.0 M(w) earthquake struck Haiti. The global humanitarian attempt to respond was swift, but poor infrastructure and emergency preparedness limited many efforts. Rapid, successful deployment of emergency medical care teams was accomplished by organizations with experience in mass disaster casualty response. Well-intentioned, but unprepared, medical teams also responded. In this report, we describe the preparation and planning process used at an academic university department of anesthesiology with no preexisting international disaster response program, after a call from an American-based nongovernmental organization operating in Haiti requested medical support. The focus of this article is the pre-deployment readiness process, and is not a post-deployment report describing the medical care provided in Haiti. A real-time qualitative assessment and systematic review of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania's communications and actions relevant to the Haiti earthquake were performed. Team meetings, conference calls, and electronic mail communication pertaining to planning, decision support, equipment procurement, and actions and steps up to the day of deployment were reviewed and abstracted. Timing of key events was compiled and a response timeline for this process was developed. Interviews with returning anesthesiology members were conducted. Four days after the Haiti earthquake, Partners in Health, a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization based in Boston, Massachusetts, with >20 years of experience providing medical care in Haiti contacted the University of Pennsylvania Health System to request medical team support. The departments of anesthesiology, surgery, orthopedics, and nursing responded to this request with a volunteer selection process, vaccination program, and systematic development of equipment lists. World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control guidelines, the American

  5. Psychological responses after a major, fatal earthquake: the effect of peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms on anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Esma; Dorahy, Martin J; Hanna, Donncha; Bagshaw, Sue; Blampied, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Following trauma, most people with initial symptoms of stress recover, but it is important to identify those at risk for continuing difficulties so resources are allocated appropriately. There has been limited investigation of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder following natural disasters. This study assessed psychological difficulties experienced in 101 adult treatment seekers following exposure to a significant earthquake. Peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, depression, and emotional support were assessed. Path analysis was used to determine whether the experience of some psychological difficulties predicted the experience of other difficulties. As hypothesized, peritraumatic dissociation was found to predict posttraumatic stress symptoms and anxiety. Posttraumatic stress symptoms then predicted anxiety and depression. Depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Contrary to expectations, emotional support was not significantly related to other psychological variables. These findings justify the provision of psychological support following a natural disaster and suggest the benefit of assessing peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms soon after the event to identify people in need of monitoring and intervention.

  6. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  7. Design and synthesis of temperature-responsive polymer/silica hybrid nanoparticles and application to thermally controlled cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruta, Yuki; Nemoto, Ryo; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2017-05-01

    This study reports the development of temperature-responsive polymer/silica hybrid nanoparticles and their application to temperature-dependent intracellular uptake of hydrophobic encapsulated fluorescence molecules. Amphiphilic diblock copolymer comprising a temperature-responsive segment, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) [P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm)] and a trimethyoxysilyl-containing hydrophobic segment was synthesized (PBM-b-ND); this amphiphilic diblock copolymer self-assembled in an aqueous solution, and temperature-responsive polymer/silica hybrid fluorescence nanoparticles were fabricated via a base-catalyzed sol-gel process. The fluorescence probe rhodamine DHPE or boron dipyrromethene derivative was encapsulated into the polymer core with a silica network in a stable manner. Other types of polymer/silica hybrid fluorescence nanoparticles were also developed using either homo-PNIPAAm (PBM-b-N) or homo-PDMAAm (PBM-b-D) segments, instead of P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm). While PBM-b-D did not exhibit a temperature-dependent phase transition (hydrophilic characteristic), PBM-b-N and PBM-b-ND exhibited temperature-dependent phase transition (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) at 32°C and 38°C, respectively. The cellular uptake of PBM-b-N was clearly observed at both 37°C and 42°C, while the cellular uptake of PBM-b-D was minimal at these temperatures. On the other hand, significant enhancement in the intracellular uptake of PBM-b-ND was observed at 42°C, compared to its uptake at a lower temperature of 37°C. These results indicated that temperature-responsive polymer/silica hybrid nanoparticle, PBM-b-ND demonstrate potential for applications in theranostics with cancer therapy via the combination of local drug delivery and local hyperthermia, as well as for monitoring treatment effectiveness with fluorescence imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SiSeRHMap v1.0: a simulator for mapped seismic response using a hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelle, Gerardo; Bonito, Laura; Lampasi, Alessandro; Revellino, Paola; Guerriero, Luigi; Sappa, Giuseppe; Guadagno, Francesco Maria

    2016-04-01

    The SiSeRHMap (simulator for mapped seismic response using a hybrid model) is a computerized methodology capable of elaborating prediction maps of seismic response in terms of acceleration spectra. It was realized on the basis of a hybrid model which combines different approaches and models in a new and non-conventional way. These approaches and models are organized in a code architecture composed of five interdependent modules. A GIS (geographic information system) cubic model (GCM), which is a layered computational structure based on the concept of lithodynamic units and zones, aims at reproducing a parameterized layered subsoil model. A meta-modelling process confers a hybrid nature to the methodology. In this process, the one-dimensional (1-D) linear equivalent analysis produces acceleration response spectra for a specified number of site profiles using one or more input motions. The shear wave velocity-thickness profiles, defined as trainers, are randomly selected in each zone. Subsequently, a numerical adaptive simulation model (Emul-spectra) is optimized on the above trainer acceleration response spectra by means of a dedicated evolutionary algorithm (EA) and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) as the final optimizer. In the final step, the GCM maps executor module produces a serial map set of a stratigraphic seismic response at different periods, grid solving the calibrated Emul-spectra model. In addition, the spectra topographic amplification is also computed by means of a 3-D validated numerical prediction model. This model is built to match the results of the numerical simulations related to isolate reliefs using GIS morphometric data. In this way, different sets of seismic response maps are developed on which maps of design acceleration response spectra are also defined by means of an enveloping technique.

  9. Response of cattleya hybrids for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cattleyae Foster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cattleya genus has a great importance in the flower agro-business market. Fusarium wilts, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cattleyae, is considered one of the main factors of decline and death of plants of this genus. Using seven hybrids (intra and intergenerics of Cattleya, tests of resistance and susceptibility to F. oxysporum were performed in conditions of greenhouse for 12 months, using, as evaluation criterion, a scale of the disease severity ranging from one (resistant to eight (highly susceptible. High susceptibility to the fungus by Cattleya Nobile's Wax Toy, Cattleya Orquidacea's Mister Fast intrageneric hybrids and Potinara Orquidacea's Havana Brown intergeneric hybrid, related to Brassocattleya Orquidacea's Melody intergeneric hybrid, high resistance to the pathogens was observed.

  10. 多层框架结构在地震作用下的静动响应分析%Multi-storeys and Multi Spans Frame Structure's under Earthquake Action the Static and Dynamic Response Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶庆东; 谭上俞; 肖盛燮

    2012-01-01

    主要研究多层多跨框架结构在地震作用下的响应。运用底部建立法研究框架结构在地震作用下的静态响应,运用ABAQUS软件研究这一多层多跨框架结构在地震作用下的动态响应。将动态响应与静态响应结果进行对比,得出按静态方法得到的响应具有较好的精度。进行结构设计时偏于安全。%Mainly study the multi-storeys and multi spans frame structure's response under the earthquake action. Use the established method to study of frame structure ~s static response under earthquake action, and use ABAQUS software to study the multi span frame structure's dynamic response under earthquake action. Compared the dynamic response results and static response results, which draw that static method' s response has a better precision. , according to the static methods for structural designing is more partial safety.

  11. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s) and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to prope...

  12. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  13. Plasmonic Effect on the Population Dynamics and the Optical Response in a Hybrid V-Type Three-Level Quantum Dot-Metallic Nanoparticle Nanosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Myong-Chol; Choe, Song-Il; So, Gwang-Hyok; Kim, Pong-Ryol Jang Yong-Jin; Kim, Il-Gwang; Li, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated theoretically the exciton-plasmon coupling effects on the population dynamics and the absorption properties of a hybrid nanosystem composed of a metal nanoparticle (MNP) and a V-type three level semiconductor quantum dot (SQD), which are created by the interaction with the induced dipole moments in the SQD and the MNP, respectively. Excitons of the SQD and the plasmons of the MNP in such a hybrid nanosystem could be coupled strongly or weakly to demonstrate novel properties of the hybrid system. Our results show that the nonlinear optical response of the hybrid nanosystem can be greatly enhanced or depressed due to the exciton-plasmon couplings.

  14. Identification and characterization of low temperature stress responsive genes in Poncirus trifoliata by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T; Zhu, X F; Fan, Q J; Sun, P P; Liu, J H

    2012-01-15

    Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) is extremely cold hardy when fully acclimated, but knowledge relevant to the molecular events underlying the acclimation is still limited so far. In this study, forward (4 °C over 25 °C) and reverse (25 °C over 4 °C) suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed in order to identify the genes involved in cold acclimation in trifoliate orange. After reverse northern blotting analysis and sequencing, a total of 105 and 117 non-redundant differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained from the forward and reverse libraries, respectively. Blast2go analysis revealed that 91 ESTs, 31 from the forward library and 60 from the reverse library, displayed significant sequence homology to the genes with known or putative functions. They were categorized into various functional groups, including catalytic activity, binding protein, structural molecule, enzyme regulator, molecular transducer, electron carrier, and transport activity/transcription regulation. Expression analysis of the selected ESTs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was consistent with the results of differential screening. In addition, time-course expression patterns of the genes further confirmed that they were responsive to low temperature treatment. Among the genes of known functions, many are related to maintenance of cell wall integrity, adjustment of osmotic potential and maintenance of reactive oxygen species homeostasis, implying that these physiological processes might be of paramount significance in rendering protective mechanisms against the low temperature stress. The data presented here gain an insight into the molecular changes underlying the cold acclimation of trifoliate orange, and the results can be of reference for unraveling candidate genes that hold great potential for genetic engineering in an effort to create novel germplasms with enhanced cold stress tolerance.

  15. Investigating the drought-stress response of hybrid poplar genotypes by metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchet, Genoa L H; Dauwe, Rebecca; Guy, Robert D; Schroeder, William R; Soolanayakanahally, Raju Y; Campbell, Malcolm M; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2014-11-01

    Drought stress is perhaps the most commonly encountered abiotic stress plants experience in the natural environment, and it is one of the most important factors limiting plant productivity. Here, we employed untargeted metabolite profiling to examine four drought-stressed hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) genotypes for their metabolite content, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The primary objective of these analyses was to characterize the metabolite profile of poplar trees to assess relative drought resistance and to investigate the underlying biochemical mechanisms employed by the genotypes to combat drought. Metabolite profiling identified key metabolites that increased or decreased in relative abundance upon exposure to drought stress. Overall, amino acids, the antioxidant phenolic compounds catechin and kaempferol, as well as the osmolytes raffinose and galactinol exhibited increased abundance under drought stress, whereas metabolites involved in photorespiration, redox regulation and carbon fixation showed decreased abundance under drought stress. One clone in particular, Okanese, displayed unique responses to the imposed drought conditions. This clone was found to have higher leaf water potential, but lower growth rate relative to the other clones tested. Okanese also had lower accumulation of osmolytes such as raffinose, galactinol and proline, but higher overall levels of antioxidants such as catechin and dehydroascorbic acid. As such, it was proposed that osmotic adjustment as a mechanism for drought avoidance in this clone is not as well developed in comparison with the other clones investigated in this study, and that a possible alternative mechanism for the enhanced drought avoidance displayed by Okanese may be due to differential allocation of resources or better retention of water.

  16. Yield and tillering response of super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu to tillage and establishment methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A.Badshah; Naimei; Tu; Yingbin; Zou; M.Ibrahim; Ke; Wang

    2014-01-01

    Tillering is an important agronomic trait for rice grain production. To evaluate yield and tillering response, Liangyoupeijiu(super hybrid rice) was grown in Hunan, China during 2011–2012 under different methods of tillage(conventional and no-tillage system) and crop establishment methods(transplanting at a spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm with one seedling per hill and direct seeding at a seeding rate of 22.5 kg ha-1). Our results revealed that, at maximum tillering(Max.) and at maturity(MA) stages, direct seeding(DS) resulted in 22% more tillers than transplanting(TP) irrespective of tillage system. Tiller mortality reached a peak between panicle initiation(PI) and booting(BT) stages, and was 16% higher under conventional tillage(CT) than under no-tillage(NT). Transplanting required 29% more time for the completion of tillering and less for DS. Tillering rate was 43% higher in DS than TP under either CT or NT. There was a positive correlation between panicle number per m2and maximum tiller number per m2, but not panicle-bearing tiller rate. The panicle bearing tiller rate was higher under DS than TP and higher under NT than CT. Tiller dry weight gradually increased up to heading(HD) stage, and was 14% higher under TP than DS. Leaf area(cm2tiller-1) gradually increased from Max. to HD stage and then decreased by 34% in conventional tillage transplanting(CTTP) and 45% in no-tillage transplanting(NTTP) from 12DAH–24DAH(days after heading), but was similar(35%) under DS under either CT or NT. Grain yield was higher under CTTP owing to the larger sink size(heavier panicle, more spikelets in per cm length of panicle) than under DS.

  17. Magneto-rheological response of elastomer composites with hybrid-magnetic fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Sahbi; Klüppel, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    We study the magneto-rheological response of hybrid-magnetic elastomer composites consisting of two different magnetic filler particles at fixed overall concentration. Thereby, we focus on an optimization of mechanical and magnetic properties by combining highly reinforcing magnetic nano-particles (MagSilica) with micro-sized carbonyl-iron particles (CIP), which exhibit high switch ability in a magnetic field. We observe a symbiotic interaction of both filler types, especially in the case when an orientation of the magnetic filler particles is achieved due to curing in an external magnetic field. The orientation effect is significant only for the micro-sized CIP particles with high saturation magnetization, indicating that the induced magnetic moment for the nano-sized particles is too small for delivering sufficient attraction between the particles in an external magnetic field. A pronounced switching behavior is observed for the non-cross-linked melts with 15 and 20 vol.% CIP, whereby the small strain modulus increases by more than 50%. For the sample without the coupling agent silane, one even observes a relative modulus increase of about 140%, which can be related to the combined effect of a higher mobility of the particles without a silane layer and the ability of the particles to come in close contact when they are arranged in strings along the field lines. For the cross-linked samples, a maximum switching effect of about 30% is achieved for the system with pure CIP. This magneto-sensitivity decreases successively if CIP is replaced by MagSilica, while the tensile strength of the systems increases significantly. The use of silane reduces the switching effect, but it is necessary for a good mechanical performance by delivering strong chemical bonding of the magnetic filler particles to the polymer matrix.

  18. Photosynthesis and growth response of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids exposed to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Tasneem; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Nawaz, Rab; Ali, Shafaqat; Murtaza, Ghulam; Maqsood, Muhammad Aamer; Azhar, Muhammad; Khalid, Hinnan; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a biologically non-essential heavy metal while the cultivation of Cd-tolerant varieties/hybrids (V) seems the most promising strategy for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. For this, 24-day-old seedlings of seven maize hybrids, DKC 65-25, DKC 61-25, DKC 919, 23-T-16, 32-B-33, 31-P-41, and Syn hybrid, were grown in hydroponic conditions for 21 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15 μM). Effects of variety, Cd, and their interaction were highly significant (p ≤ 0.05) for studied plant agronomic and physiological traits except the V × Cd interaction for leaf chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and root dry weight. The Cd accumulation in root and shoot increased gradually with increasing Cd treatments while copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) uptake was decreased in all hybrids. The reduction in root and shoot biomass and Cd uptake was lower in 32-B-33 and 23-T-16 compared to other hybrids. The highest accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Mn was observed in 32-B-33, DK C65-25, and 31-P-41, respectively. The differential uptake and accumulation of Cd by maize hybrids may be useful in selection and breeding for Cd-tolerant genotypes.

  19. Responses of the cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to two Bt corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinghua, Shu; Yan, Du; Jin, Chen; Jiaxi, Wei; Jianwu, Wang

    2017-01-01

    To examine the responses of the secondary lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids [5422Bt1 (Event Bt11), 5422CBCL (MON810)] expressing Cry1Ab, larval bioassays with Cry1Ab toxin, corn leaves or kernels and bagging on corn plants were conducted. The results showed that larvae displayed a similar performance when fed kernels, but not leaves of 5422Bt1, 5422CBCL and their near-isogenic non-Bt corn (5422). Significantly higher Cry1Ab amounts were detected in larvae fed leaves than kernels of both Bt hybrids, with different molecular weights of protein band in plants (72 and 90 kDa for 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL, respectively), gut contents (65 kDa), feces (50 kDa), which indicated that larvae had lower ingestion, higher degradation and excretion of Cry1Ab when fed kernels not leaves of both Bt hybrids. Significantly higher levels of cadherin-like receptors and alkaline phosphatase transcripts were detected in larvae fed leaves than kernels of two Bt hybrids. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in larvae fed 5422Bt1 leaves were significantly higher than that of 5422 treatments. Therefore, S. litura had low susceptibility to 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL when larvae fed kernels not leaves of Bt corn. Additionally, S. litura presented a much stronger tolerance to 5422CBCL than 5422Bt1. PMID:28186125

  20. Identification of immune response-related genes in the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Wang, Lei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Dai, Li-Shang; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Sun, Yu; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Fu, Wei-Wei; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Insects possess an innate immune system that responds to invading microorganisms. In this study, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed to screen for immune response-related genes in the fat bodies of Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) pupa challenged with Escherichia coli. Four hundred putative EST clones were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), including 50 immune response-related genes, three cytoskeleton genes, eight cell cycle and apoptosis genes, five respiration and energy metabolism genes, five transport genes, 40 metabolism genes, ten stress response genes, four transcription and translation regulation genes and 77 unknown genes. To verify the reliability of the SSH data, the transcription of a set of randomly selected immune response-related genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). These identified immune response-related genes provide insight into understanding the innate immunity in A. pernyi.

  1. Metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; Onderwater, Mark Q.; de Jong, Jelle; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre vertical bar Reade,

  2. Tohoku earthquake: a surprise?

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) how to evaluate the earthquake maximum size in subduction zones, (2) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in Tohoku area, and (3) what are the possibilities of short-term forecasts during the 2011 sequence. There are two quantitative methods which can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size: a statistical analysis of the available earthquake record and the moment conservation principle. The latter technique studies how much of the tectonic deformation rate is released by earthquakes. For the subduction zones, the seismic or historical record is not sufficient to provide a reliable statistical measure of the maximum earthquake. The moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates of maximum earthquake size: for all the subduction zones the magnitude is of the order 9.0--9.7, and for major subduction zones the maximum earthquake size is statistically indistinguishable. Starting in 1999 we have carried out...

  3. Magnetic-responsive hybrids of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with β-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils and nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Vallooran, Jijo J; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2013-07-23

    We report on the synthesis and magnetic-responsive behavior of hybrids formed by dispersing negatively charged iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles in positively charged β-lactoglobulin protein solutions at acidic pH, followed by heating at high temperatures. Depending on the pH used, different hybrid aggregates can be obtained, such as nanoparticle-modified amyloid fibrils (pH 3) and spherical nanoclusters (pH 4.5). We investigate the effect of magnetic fields of varying strengths (0-5 T) on the alignment of these Fe3O4-modified amyloid fibrils and spherical nanoclusters using a combination of scattering, birefringence and microscopic techniques and we find a strong alignment of the hybrids upon increasing the intensity of the magnetic field, which we quantify via 2D and 3D order parameters. We also demonstrate the possibility of controlling magnetically the sol-gel behavior of these hybrids: addition of salt (NaCl, 150 mM) to a solution containing nanoparticles modified with β-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils (2 wt % fibrils modified with 0.6 wt % Fe3O4 nanoparticles) induces first the formation of a reversible gel, which can then be converted back to solution upon application of a moderate magnetic field of 1.1 T. These hybrids offer a new appealing functional colloidal system in which the aggregation, orientational order and rheological behavior can be efficiently controlled in a purely noninvasive way by external magnetic fields of weak intensity.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of Crassostrea sikamea × Crassostrea angulata hybrids in response to low salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lulu; Su, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhaoping; Yan, Xiwu; Yu, Ruihai; Ma, Peizhen; Li, Yangchun; Du, Junpeng

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid oysters often show heterosis in growth rate, weight, survival and adaptability to extremes of salinity. Oysters have also been used as model organisms to study the evolution of host-defense system. To gain comprehensive knowledge about various physiological processes in hybrid oysters under low salinity stress, we performed transcriptomic analysis of gill tissue of Crassostrea sikamea ♀ × Crassostrea angulata♂ hybrid using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq. We exploited the high-throughput technique to delineate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in oysters maintained in hypotonic conditions. A total of 199,391 high quality unigenes, with average length of 644 bp, were generated. Of these 35 and 31 genes showed up- and down-regulation, respectively. Functional categorization and pathway analysis of these DEGs revealed enrichment for immune mechanism, apoptosis, energy metabolism and osmoregulation under low salinity stress. The expression patterns of 41 DEGs in hybrids and their parental species were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study will serve as a platform for subsequent gene expression analysis regarding environmental stress. Our findings will also provide valuable information about gene expression to better understand the immune mechanism, apoptosis, energy metabolism and osmoregulation in hybrid oysters under low salinity stress. PMID:28182701

  5. Modeling mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal response to earthquakes, tides, and ocean currents: a case study at the Grotto mound, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Bemis, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems feature intricate interconnections among oceanic, geological, hydrothermal, and biological processes. The advent of the NEPTUNE observatory operated by Ocean Networks Canada at the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge enables scientists to study these interconnections through multidisciplinary, continuous, real-time observations. The multidisciplinary observatory instruments deployed at the Grotto Mound, a major study site of the NEPTUNE observatory, makes it a perfect place to study the response of a seafloor hydrothermal system to geological and oceanic processes. In this study, we use the multidisciplinary datasets recorded by the NEPTUNE Observatory instruments as observational tools to demonstrate two different aspects of the response of hydrothermal activity at the Grotto Mound to geological and oceanic processes. First, we investigate a recent increase in venting temperature and heat flux at Grotto observed by the Benthic and Resistivity Sensors (BARS) and the Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) respectively. This event started in Mar 2014 and is still evolving by the time of writing this abstract. An initial interpretation in light of the seismic data recorded by a neighboring ocean bottom seismometer on the NEPTUNE observatory suggests the temperature and heat flux increase is probably triggered by local seismic activities. Comparison of the observations with the results of a 1-D mathematical model simulation of hydrothermal sub-seafloor circulation elucidates the potential mechanisms underlying hydrothermal response to local earthquakes. Second, we observe significant tidal oscillations in the venting temperature time series recorded by BARS and the acoustic imaging of hydrothermal plumes by COVIS, which is evidence for hydrothermal response to ocean tides and currents. We interpret the tidal oscillations of venting temperature as a result of tidal loading on a poroelastic medium. We then invoke poroelastic

  6. The Quadraplex Tetraploids Hybrids and Duplex Tetraploids Hybrids Are Responsible for Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ze-li; James A Birchler; WANG Lu-xin; JIN Liang

    2005-01-01

    The maize quadraplex tetraploids and duplex tetraploids were developed using Kato's protocols. The phenotype of heterosis and inbreeding depression over generations in their parents and progenies of F1, F2 and F3 were investigated.The results indicated that different duplex tetraploids have different genetic backgrounds, but they acquire maximum heterosis at same traits, such as the leaf length, leaf width, culm circumference and days to flowering. P.N. rises much faster from the F2 to F3 segment than the A.W. does for the plant height in duplex tetraploids. In comparing duplex and quadraplex over a generation the quadriplex is showing the greatest heterosis in plant height, leaf height, leaf width and days to flowering. Most of the examples achieve the maximum heterosis at Qu F2, with the exception of culm circumference,which achieves greatest heterosis at PNAW F1. Meanwhile, this experiment shows that quadraplex tetraploids has distinct additional favorable alleles that are not contained in duplex tetraploid, this is demonstrated by the heterosis found in crosses between the two duplex tetraploid. This finding helps explain quadraploids superiority and unique breeding behavior, in which, the progressive heterosis and inbreeding depression in maize are due mainly to linkage disequilibrium.The severe inbreeding depression in duplex tetraploids is due mainly to the rapid loss of complementary chromosomes or genes interactions in the first few generation of inbreeding. Correspondingly, the progressive heterosis in quadraplex tetraploids is due mainly to a progressive increase in complementarities of homologous chromosomes or genes interactions.Greater complementarities of homologous chromosomes or genes interactions in tetraploids maize alse helps explain recent molecular biology research indicating that some of traits in quadraplex tetraploids are more responsive to genetic diversity than in duplex tetraploids. In addition, the dosage effect of polyploid in relation

  7. Effects of natural hybrid and non-hybrid Epichloë endophytes on the response of Hordelymus europaeus to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Martina; Güsewell, Sabine; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) are prevalent in wild grass populations, possibly because of their larger gene variation, resulting in increased fitness benefits for host plants; however, the reasons are not yet known. We tested hypotheses regarding niche expansion mediated by hybrid endophytes, population-dependent interactions and local co-adaptation in the woodland grass Hordelymus europaeus, which naturally hosts both hybrid and non-hybrid endophyte taxa. Seedlings derived from seeds of four grass populations made endophyte free were re-inoculated with hybrid or non-hybrid endophyte strains, or left endophyte free. Plants were grown in the glasshouse with or without drought treatment. Endophyte infection increased plant biomass and tiller production by 10-15% in both treatments. Endophyte types had similar effects on growth, but opposite effects on reproduction: non-hybrid endophytes increased seed production, whereas hybrid endophytes reduced or prevented it completely. The results are consistent with the observation that non-hybrid endophytes in H. europaeus prevail at dry sites, but cannot explain the prevalence of hybrid endophytes. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of niche expansion of hybrid-infected plants. Moreover, plants inoculated with native relative to foreign endophytes yielded higher infections, but both showed similar growth and survival, suggesting weak co-adaptation.

  8. Effects of Hybrid and Non-hybrid Epichloë Endophytes and Their Associated Host Genotypes on the Response of a Native Grass to Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tong; Oberhofer, Martina; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Faeth, Stanley H

    2016-07-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes are prevalent in cool season grasses, and many are of hybrid origin. Hybridization of asexual endophytes is thought to provide a rapid influx of genetic variation that may be adaptive to endophyte-host grass symbiota in stressful environments. For Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica), hybrid symbiota are commonly found in resource-poor environments, whereas non-hybrid symbiota are more common in resource-rich environments. There have been very few experimental tests where infection, hybrid and non-hybrid status, and plant genotype have been controlled to tease apart their effects on host phenotype and fitness in different environments. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where hybrid (H) and non-hybrid (NH) endophytes were inoculated into plant genotypes that were originally uninfected (E-) or once infected with either the H or NH endophytes. Nine endophyte and plant genotypic group combinations were grown under low and high water and nutrient treatments. Inoculation with the resident H endophyte enhanced growth and altered allocation to roots and shoots, but these effects were greatest in resource-rich environments, contrary to expectations. We found no evidence of co-adaptation between endophyte species and their associated host genotypes. However, naturally E- plants performed better when inoculated with the hybrid endophyte, suggesting these plants were derived from H infected lineages. Our results show complex interactions between endophyte species of hybrid and non-hybrid origin with their host plant genotypes and environmental factors.

  9. Cavity QED analysis of an exciton-plasmon hybrid molecule via the generalized nonlocal optical response method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchi, Harini; Premaratne, Malin; Bao, Qiaoliang; Cheng, Wenlong; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2017-06-01

    A metal nanoparticle coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot forms a tunable hybrid system which exhibits remarkable optical phenomena. Small metal nanoparticles possess nanocavitylike optical concentration capabilities due to the presence of strong dipolar excitation modes in the form of localized surface plasmons. Semiconductor quantum dots have strong luminescent capabilities widely used in many applications such as biosensing. When a quantum dot is kept in the vicinity of a metal nanoparticle, a dipole-dipole coupling occurs between the two nanoparticles giving rise to various optical signatures in the scattered spectra. This coupling makes the two nanoparticles behave like a single hybrid molecule. Hybrid molecules made of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and quantum dots (QDs) under the influence of an external driving field have been extensively studied in literature, using the local response approximation (LRA). However, such previous work in this area was not adequate to explain some experimental observations such as the size-dependent resonance shift of metal nanoparticles which becomes quite significant with decreasing diameter. The nonlocal response of metallic nanostructures which is hitherto disregarded by such studies is a main reason for such nonclassical effects. The generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model provides a computationally less-demanding path to incorporate such properties into the theoretical models. It allows unified theoretical explanation of observed experimental phenomena which previously seemed to require ab initio microscopic theory. In this paper, we analyze the hybrid molecule in an external driving field as an open quantum system using a cavity-QED approach. In the process, we quantum mechanically model the dipole moment operator and the dipole response field of the metal nanoparticle taking the nonlocal effects into account. We observe that the spectra resulting from the GNOR based model effectively demonstrate the

  10. Whether solar flares can trigger earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R.

    2007-05-01

    We present the study of 682 earthquakes of ¡Ý4.0 magnitude observed during January 1991 to January 2007 in the light of solar flares observed by GOES and SOXS missions in order to explore the possibility of any association between solar flares and earthquakes. Our investigation preliminarily shows that each earthquake under study was preceded by a solar flare of GOES importance B to X class by 10-100 hrs. However, each flare was not found followed by earthquake of magnitude ¡Ý4.0. We classified the earthquake events with respect to their magnitude and further attempted to look for their correlation with GOES importance class and delay time. We found that with the increasing importance of flares the delay in the onset of earthquake reduces. The critical X-ray intensity of the flare to be associated with earthquake is found to be ~10-6 Watts/m2. On the other hand no clear evidence could be established that higher importance flares precede high magnitude earthquakes. Our detailed study of 50 earthquakes associated with solar flares observed by SOXS mission and other wavebands revealed many interesting results such as the location of the flare on the Sun and the delay time in the earthquake and its magnitude. We propose a model explaining the charged particles accelerated during the solar flare and released in the space that undergone further acceleration by interplanetary shocks and produce the ring current in the earth's magnetosphere, which may enhance the process of tectonics plates motion abruptly at fault zones. It is further proposed that such sudden enhancement in the process of tectonic motion of plates in fault zones may increase abruptly the heat gradients on spatial (dT/dx) and temporal (dT/dt) scales responsible for earthquakes.

  11. Retrospective Evaluation of Earthquake Forecasts during the 2010-12 Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M. J.; Marzocchi, W.; Taroni, M.; Zechar, J. D.; Gerstenberger, M.; Liukis, M.; Rhoades, D. A.; Cattania, C.; Christophersen, A.; Hainzl, S.; Helmstetter, A.; Jimenez, A.; Steacy, S.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand (NZ), earthquake triggered a complex earthquake cascade that provides a wealth of new scientific data to study earthquake triggering and the predictive skill of statistical and physics-based forecasting models. To this end, the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is conducting a retrospective evaluation of over a dozen short-term forecasting models that were developed by groups in New Zealand, Europe and the US. The statistical model group includes variants of the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model, non-parametric kernel smoothing models, and the Short-Term Earthquake Probabilities (STEP) model. The physics-based model group includes variants of the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis, which are embedded either in Dieterich's (1994) rate-state formulation or in statistical Omori-Utsu clustering formulations (hybrid models). The goals of the CSEP evaluation are to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms governing earthquake triggering, to improve short-term earthquake forecasting models and time-dependent hazard assessment for the Canterbury area, and to understand the influence of poor-quality, real-time data on the skill of operational (real-time) forecasts. To assess the latter, we use the earthquake catalog data that the NZ CSEP Testing Center archived in near real-time during the earthquake sequence and compare the predictive skill of models using the archived data as input with the skill attained using the best available data today. We present results of the retrospective model comparison and discuss implications for operational earthquake forecasting.

  12. Response to traumatic brain injury neurorehabilitation through an artificial intelligence and statistics hybrid knowledge discovery from databases methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Karina; García-Rudolph, Alejandro; García-Molina, Alberto; Roig-Rovira, Teresa; Bernabeu, Montse; Tormos, José María

    2008-01-01

    Develop a classificatory tool to identify different populations of patients with Traumatic Brain Injury based on the characteristics of deficit and response to treatment. A KDD framework where first, descriptive statistics of every variable was done, data cleaning and selection of relevant variables. Then data was mined using a generalization of Clustering based on rules (CIBR), an hybrid AI and Statistics technique which combines inductive learning (AI) and clustering (Statistics). A prior Knowledge Base (KB) is considered to properly bias the clustering; semantic constraints implied by the KB hold in final clusters, guaranteeing interpretability of the resultis. A generalization (Exogenous Clustering based on rules, ECIBR) is presented, allowing to define the KB in terms of variables which will not be considered in the clustering process itself, to get more flexibility. Several tools as Class panel graph are introduced in the methodology to assist final interpretation. A set of 5 classes was recommended by the system and interpretation permitted profiles labeling. From the medical point of view, composition of classes is well corresponding with different patterns of increasing level of response to rehabilitation treatments. All the patients initially assessable conform a single group. Severe impaired patients are subdivided in four profiles which clearly distinct response patterns. Particularly interesting the partial response profile, where patients could not improve executive functions. Meaningful classes were obtained and, from a semantics point of view, the results were sensibly improved regarding classical clustering, according to our opinion that hybrid AI & Stats techniques are more powerful for KDD than pure ones.

  13. Immune responses to vaccines delivered by encapsulation into and/or adsorption onto cationic lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanxia; Ma, Pingchuan; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Hongfan; Wang, Chun; Song, Cunxian; Leng, Xigang; Kong, Deling; Ma, Guilei

    2016-03-10

    In this study, we used cationic lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) hybrid nanoparticles as antigen delivery carriers to investigate how antigen-loading methods affect antigen exposure to the immune system and evaluated the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We formulated three classes of antigen adsorbed and/or encapsulated cationic lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles; we designated antigen-adsorbed (out), antigen-encapsulated (in), and antigen-adsorbed/encapsulated (both) nanoparticles. Our results demonstrate significantly more efficient lysosomal escape and cross-presentation of antigen from dendritic cells (DCs) that were exposed to "both" and "in" nanoparticles. In vivo experiments further revealed that "both" nanoparticles significantly more effectively provided not only adequate initial antigen exposure but also long-term antigen persistence at the injection site. Data from flow cytometry and ELISA analyses demonstrated elevated in vivo immune responses from mice that were immunized with nanoparticles-delivered OVA when compared with free OVA. In addition, "in" and "both" nanoparticles elicited significantly higher antigen-specific immune response than "out" nanoparticles and free OVA. These results suggest that the location of antigen entrapment is an important factor in modulating the immune responses of antigens delivered by nanoparticles. Overall, we propose here a promising approach for the future design of vaccines using cationic lipid-PLGA nanoparticles.

  14. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  15. Challenges to the programmatic implementation of ready to use infant formula in the post-earthquake response, Haiti, 2010: a program review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisel E Talley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, infant and young child feeding was identified as a priority nutrition intervention. A new approach to support breastfeeding mothers and distribute ready-to-use infant formula (RUIF to infants unable to breastfeed was established. The objective of the evaluation was to assess the implementation of infant feeding programs using RUIF in displaced persons camps in Port-au-Prince, Haiti during the humanitarian response. METHODS: A retrospective record review was conducted from April-July, 2010 to obtain data on infants receiving RUIF in 30 baby tents. A standardized data collection form was created based on data collected across baby tents and included: basic demographics, admission criteria, primary caretaker, feeding practices, and admission and follow-up anthropometrics. MAIN FINDINGS: Orphans and abandoned infants were the most frequent enrollees (41% in the program. While the program targeted these groups, it is unlikely that this is a true reflection of population demographics. Despite programmatic guidance, admission criteria were not consistently applied across programs. Thirty-four percent of infants were undernourished (weight for age Z score <-2 at the time of admission. Defaulting accounted for 50% of all program exits and there was no follow-up of these children. Low data quality was a significant barrier. CONCLUSIONS: The design, implementation and magnitude of the 'baby tents' using RUIF was novel in response to infant and young child feeding (IYCF in emergencies and presented multiple challenges that should not be overlooked, including adherence to protocols and the adaption of emergency programs to existing programs. The implementation of IYCF programs should be closely monitored to ensure that they achieve the objectives set by the humanitarian community and national government. IYCF is an often overlooked component of emergency preparedness; however to improve

  16. Responses of tadpoles to hybrid predator odours: strong maternal signatures and the potential risk/response mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Chivers, Douglas P.; Mathiron, Anthony; Sloychuk, Janelle R.; Ferrari, Maud C.O.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have established that when a prey animal knows the identity of a particular predator, it can use this knowledge to make an ‘educated guess' about similar novel predators. Such generalization of predator recognition may be particularly beneficial when prey are exposed to introduced and invasive species of predators or hybrids. Here, we examined generalization of predator recognition for woodfrog tadpoles exposed to novel trout predators. Tadpoles conditioned to recognize tiger...

  17. Numerical earthquake simulations for seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Sokolov, Vladimir; Soloviev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive seismic hazard assessment can contribute to earthquake preparedness and preventive measures aimed to reduce impacts of earthquakes, especially in the view of growing population and increasing vulnerability and exposure. Realistic earthquake simulations coupled with a seismic hazard analysis can provide better assessments of potential ground shaking due to large earthquakes. We present a model of block-and-fault dynamics, which simulates earthquakes in response to lithosphere movements and allows for studying the influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns. Using case studies (e.g., the Tibet-Himalayan region and the Caucasian region), we analyse the model's performance in terms of reproduction of basic features of the observed seismicity, such as the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrences of large events, fault slip rates, and earthquake mechanisms. We examine a new approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, which is based on instrumentally recorded, historical and simulated earthquakes. Based on predicted and observed peak ground acceleration values, we show that the hazard level associated with large events significantly increases if the long record of simulated seismicity is considered in the hazard assessment.

  18. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-09-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  19. Monitoring Endothelial and Tissue Responses to Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles and Hybrid Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Uva, Marianna; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed for many biomedical applications as in vivo imaging and drug delivery in cancer treatment, but their toxicity is an ongoing concern. When NPs are intravenously administered, the endothelium represents the first barrier to tissue diffusion/penetration. However, there is little information about the biological effects of NPs on endothelial cells. In this work we showed that cobalt-ferrite (CoFe2O4) NPs affect endothelial cell integrity by increasing permeability, oxidative stress, inflammatory profile and by inducing cytoskeletal modifications. To overcome these problems, NPs have be loaded into biocompatible gels to form nanocomposite hybrid material (polysaccharide hydrogels containing magnetic NPs) that can be further conjugated with anticancer drugs to allow their release close to the target. The organic part of hybrid biomaterials is a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) polymer, while the inorganic part consists of CoFe2O4 NPs coated with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane. The biological activity of these hybrid hydrogels was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Our findings showed that hybrid hydrogels, instead of NPs alone, were not toxic on endothelial, stromal and epithelial cells, safe and biodegradable in vivo. In conclusion, biohydrogels with paramagnetic NPs as cross-linkers can be further exploited for antitumor drug loading and delivery systems. PMID:28036325

  20. Monitoring Endothelial and Tissue Responses to Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles and Hybrid Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Federica; Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Uva, Marianna; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed for many biomedical applications as in vivo imaging and drug delivery in cancer treatment, but their toxicity is an ongoing concern. When NPs are intravenously administered, the endothelium represents the first barrier to tissue diffusion/penetration. However, there is little information about the biological effects of NPs on endothelial cells. In this work we showed that cobalt-ferrite (CoFe2O4) NPs affect endothelial cell integrity by increasing permeability, oxidative stress, inflammatory profile and by inducing cytoskeletal modifications. To overcome these problems, NPs have be loaded into biocompatible gels to form nanocomposite hybrid material (polysaccharide hydrogels containing magnetic NPs) that can be further conjugated with anticancer drugs to allow their release close to the target. The organic part of hybrid biomaterials is a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) polymer, while the inorganic part consists of CoFe2O4 NPs coated with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane. The biological activity of these hybrid hydrogels was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Our findings showed that hybrid hydrogels, instead of NPs alone, were not toxic on endothelial, stromal and epithelial cells, safe and biodegradable in vivo. In conclusion, biohydrogels with paramagnetic NPs as cross-linkers can be further exploited for antitumor drug loading and delivery systems.

  1. Response of SC704 maize hybrid seed production to planting pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Reza

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... 1Safiabad Research Center, Dezful, Iran. 2Department of ... Key words: Planting pattern, seed produce, corn grain, S.C.704 hybrid. INTRODUCTION ... plants for light, moisture and food would decrease and plants will have a ...

  2. Responses of two tall buildings in Tokyo, Japan, before, during, and after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Hisada, Yoshiuaki; Omrani, Roshanak; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The 11 March 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku earthquake generated significant long duration shaking that propagated hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter and affected urban areas throughout much of Honshu. Recorded responses of tall buildings at several hundred km from the epicenter of the main shock and other events show tall buildings were affected by long-period motions of events at distant sources. This study presents behavioral aspects of 29-story and 30-story neighboring buildings in the Shinjuku area of Tokyo, Japan, as inferred from records retrieved from a sparse array of accelerometers deployed in the superstructures, at ground and 100 m below the ground level over a time interval covering before, during, and after the main shock. Such long-period effects are common in several regions of Japan as well as in the United States and in other seismically active countries. Permanent shifts in fundamental frequencies are observed. Drift ratios indicate possible structural nonlinear behavior occurred during the main shock. The need to consider risks to built environments from distant sources, including those in neighboring countries, is emphasized.

  3. Epidemiological evaluation of cat health at a first-response animal shelter in Fukushima, following the Great East Japan Earthquakes of 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aki; Kass, Philip H; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Hayama, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquakes of March 11, 2011 caused immense harm to the community and subsequent nuclear accident in Fukushima Prefecture extended the damage. Local residents were forced to evacuated without pets and the left behind animals were rescued from the restricted zone one month later. Unplanned animal rescue and unregulated sheltering caused secondary damage to animals such as disease epidemics at impounded animal shelter. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of upper respiratory infection (URI) and diarrhea in cats at the first response animal shelter in Fukushima, and investigate factors affecting the duration of disease and determinants of treatments performed. Eighty percent and 59% of impounded cats developed URI, 71% and 54% of cats developed diarrhea, and 91% and 83% of cats had at least one disease in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Uses of multiple drug administration (more than five drugs) was associated with prolonged URI and diarrhea. Multiple antibiotics, antihistamines, interferon, and steroids were associated with relapse of and prolonged URI. Developing a standardized treatment protocol for commonly observed diseases at Japanese animal shelters to prevent and control diseases, to promote animal welfare, and protect public health in the face of future disasters is overdue.

  4. 黑河土石坝的地震响应和液化分析%Dynamic response of earthquake and liquefaction analysis of the Heihe Earth Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞熊; 李宁; 谢定义

    2000-01-01

    本文根据饱和土体固 液两相介质的振动固结模型,采用非线性静力本构模型(Duncan-Chang模型)及摩尔 库仑强度准则和土的动力模型(Hardin模型)对黑河土石坝进行了地震作用下的动力反应有限元分析,得到了振动期孔压增长与消散过程。分析表明,该坝不会出现液化现象。%Based on the dynamic consolidation model of the saturated soil,the Duncan-Chang Model and the Hardin model are used for the purpose of the dynamic response ana lysis of the Heihe Earth Dam under the seismic load.The development of the gener ation,dispersion and dissipation of the pore water pressure in the dam is studied and the identification of the liquefaction of the dam is conducted.The analysis results show that no liquefaction will happen to the dam during earthquake.

  5. Impact of the Christchurch earthquakes on hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovaranonte, Pleayo; Cawood, Tom J

    2013-06-01

    On September 4, 2010 a major earthquake caused widespread damage, but no loss of life, to Christchurch city and surrounding areas. There were numerous aftershocks, including on February 22, 2011 which, in contrast, caused substantial loss of life and major damage to the city. The research aim was to assess how these two earthquakes affected the staff in the General Medicine Department at Christchurch Hospital. Problem To date there have been no published data assessing the impact of this type of natural disaster on hospital staff in Australasia. A questionnaire that examined seven domains (demographics, personal impact, psychological impact, emotional impact, impact on care for patients, work impact, and coping strategies) was handed out to General Medicine staff and students nine days after the September 2010 earthquake and 14 days after the February 2011 earthquake. Response rates were ≥ 99%. Sixty percent of responders were earthquakes, respectively. A fifth to a third of people had to find an alternative route of transport to get to work but only eight percent to 18% took time off work. Financial impact was more severe following the February earthquake, with 46% reporting damage of >NZ $1,000, compared with 15% following the September earthquake (P earthquake than the September earthquake (42% vs 69%, P earthquake but this rose to 53% after the February earthquake (12/53 vs 45/85, P earthquake but this dropped significantly to 15% following the February earthquake (27/53 vs 13/62, P earthquakes upon General Medicine hospital staff. The effect was widespread with minor financial impact during the first but much more during the second earthquake. Moderate psychological impact was experienced in both earthquakes. This data may be useful to help prepare plans for future natural disasters. .

  6. Spectral analysis of dike-induced earthquakes in Afar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepp, Gabrielle; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Yun, Sang-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Shallow dike intrusions may be accompanied by fault slip above the dikes, a superposition which complicates seismic and geodetic data analyses. The diverse volcano-tectonic and low-frequency local earthquakes accompanying the 2005-2010 large-volume dike intrusions in the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo rift (Afar), some with fault displacements of up to 3 m at the surface, provide an opportunity to examine the relations among the earthquakes, dike intrusions, and surface ruptures. We apply the frequency index (FI) method to characterize the spectra of swarm earthquakes from six of the dikes. These earthquakes often have broad spectra with multiple peaks, making the usual peak frequency classification method unreliable. Our results show a general bimodal character with high FI earthquakes associated with deeper dikes (top > 3 km subsurface) and low FI earthquakes associated with shallow dikes, indicating that shallow dikes result in earthquakes with more low-frequency content and larger-amplitude surface waves. Low FI earthquakes are more common during dike emplacement, suggesting that interactions between the dike and faults may lead to lower FI. Taken together, likely source processes for low FI earthquakes are shallow hypocenters (<3 km) possibly with surface rupture, slow rupture velocities, and interactions with dike fluids. Strong site effects also heavily influence the earthquake spectral content. Additionally, our results suggest a continuum of spectral responses, implying either that impulsive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and the unusual, emergent earthquakes have similar source processes or that simple spectral analyses, such as FI, cannot distinguish different source processes.

  7. Earthquake Damage - General

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake is the motion or trembling of the ground produced by sudden displacement of rock in the Earth's crust. Earthquakes result from crustal strain,...

  8. Earthquake Notification Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) is a free service that sends you automated notifications to your email or cell phone when earthquakes happen.

  9. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  10. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  11. Chance of damage from an earthquake in 2016 based on the average of horizontal spectral response acceleration for 1.0-second period and peak ground acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States, based on induced and natural earthquakes, has been produced by the U.S. Geological...

  12. Chance of damage from an earthquake in 2017 based on the average of horizontal spectral response acceleration for 1.0-second period and peak ground acceleration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States, based on induced and natural earthquakes, has been produced by the U.S. Geological...

  13. Operation Aftershock: the U.S. military disaster response to the Yogyakarta earthquake May through June 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Dennis; Lane, David; Ferrara, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. military has recently been involved in many humanitarian assistance and disaster response missions around the world. This newfound role is in response to the U.S. government's desire to use "medical diplomacy" rather than "military might" to shape its relationship with foreign governments. With each of these humanitarian assistance and disaster response missions, the U.S. military has learned how to more rapidly insert desperately needed services and skill sets into disaster-struck communities, how to arrange for in-country services (translation services, transportation, etc.) that cannot be readily brought in, and how to work closely with foreign governments and nongovernmental organizations to determine their needs and expectations without the U.S. military appearing as if it were trying to establish a permanent presence.

  14. Ground effects and hydrological changes in the Southern Apennines (Italy) in response to the 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Esposito; Pece, R.; Porfido, S.; G. Tranfaglia

    2009-01-01

    The 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7) in the Southern Apennines (Italy) was a catastrophic event that produced many effects such as surface faulting, fractures, landslides, settlements, hydrological changes, variations in chemical/physical activity related to the volcanic and/or thermal zones and also acoustic and optical phenomena. It is the first great earthquake of the twentieth century that was studied, thanks to the hydrological monitoring network of the Italian Hydrogra...

  15. Development of an Earthquake Impact Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D. J.; Marano, K. D.; Jaiswal, K. S.

    2009-12-01

    With the advent of the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, domestic (U.S.) and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels as well as their response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and proportionate earthquake response, we propose and describe an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) founded on two alerting criteria. One, based on the estimated cost of damage, is most suitable for domestic events; the other, based on estimated ranges of fatalities, is more appropriate for most global events. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and response levels, turn out to be quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response level of an event, characterized by alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (major disaster, necessitating international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses exceeding 1M, 10M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness dominate in countries where vernacular building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and it is these impacts that set prioritization for international response. In contrast, it is often financial and overall societal impacts that trigger the level of response in regions or countries where prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and associated fatalities. Any newly devised alert protocols, whether financial or casualty based, must be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. In this analysis, we make an attempt

  16. EARTHQUAKE SCALING PARADOX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZHONG-LIANG

    2001-01-01

    Two measures of earthquakes, the seismic moment and the broadband radiated energy, show completely different scaling relations. For shallow earthquakes worldwide from January 1987 to December 1998, the frequency distribution of the seismic moment shows a clear kink between moderate and large earthquakes, as revealed by previous works. But the frequency distribution of the broadband radiated energy shows a single power law, a classical Gutenberg-Richter relation. This inconsistency raises a paradox in the self-organized criticality model of earthquakes.

  17. Closed-form critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures on compliant ground under near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eKojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The double impulse is introduced as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. A closed-form solution of the elastic-plastic response of a structure on compliant (flexible ground by the ‘critical double impulse’ is derived for the first time based on the solution for the corresponding structure with fixed base. As in the case of fixed-base model, only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse and the energy approach plays an important role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response on compliant ground. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that, in the case of a smaller input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes larger, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. On the other hand, in the case of a larger input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes smaller, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. The criticality and validity of the proposed theory are investigated through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

  18. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  19. Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the…

  20. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  1. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  2. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  3. Hardware-Based Simulation of a Fuel Cell Turbine Hybrid Response to Imposed Fuel Cell Load Transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.P. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Tucker, D.A.; Haynes, C.L. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Liese, E.A.; Wepfer, W.J. (Georgia Inst. of Technology)

    2006-11-01

    Electrical load transients imposed on the cell stack of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power system are studied using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project. The hardware simulation facility is located at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A computational fuel cell model capable of operating in real time is integrated with operating gas turbine hardware. The thermal output of a modeled 350 kW solid oxide fuel cell stack is replicated in the facility by a natural gas fired burner in a direct fired hybrid configuration. Pressure vessels are used to represent a fuel cell stack's cathode flow and post combustion volume and flow impedance. This hardware is used to simulate the fuel cell stack and is incorporated with a modified turbine, compressor, and 120 kW generator on a single shaft. For this study, a simulation was started with a simulated current demand of 307 A on the fuel cell at approximately 0.75 V and an actual 45 kW electrical load on the gas turbine. An open loop response, allowing the turbine rotational speed to respond to thermal transients, was successfully evaluated for a 5% current reduction on the fuel cell followed by a 5% current increase. The impact of the fuel cell load change on system process variables is presented. The test results demonstrate the capabilities of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation approach in evaluating hybrid fuel cell turbine dynamics and performance.

  4. SiSeRHMap v1.0: a simulator for mapped seismic response using a hybrid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grelle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SiSeRHMap is a computerized methodology capable of drawing up prediction maps of seismic response. It was realized on the basis of a hybrid model which combines different approaches and models in a new and non-conventional way. These approaches and models are organized in a code-architecture composed of five interdependent modules. A GIS (Geographic Information System Cubic Model (GCM, which is a layered computational structure based on the concept of lithodynamic units and zones, aims at reproducing a parameterized layered subsoil model. A metamodeling process confers a hybrid nature to the methodology. In this process, the one-dimensional linear equivalent analysis produces acceleration response spectra of shear wave velocity-thickness profiles, defined as trainers, which are randomly selected in each zone. Subsequently, a numerical adaptive simulation model (Spectra is optimized on the above trainer acceleration response spectra by means of a dedicated Evolutionary Algorithm (EA and the Levenberg–Marquardt Algorithm (LMA as the final optimizer. In the final step, the GCM Maps Executor module produces a serial map-set of a stratigraphic seismic response at different periods, grid-solving the calibrated Spectra model. In addition, the spectra topographic amplification is also computed by means of a numerical prediction model. This latter is built to match the results of the numerical simulations related to isolate reliefs using GIS topographic attributes. In this way, different sets of seismic response maps are developed, on which, also maps of seismic design response spectra are defined by means of an enveloping technique.

  5. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project's Response to the April 25, 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake: Rapid Measurements and Models for Science and Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Yue, H.; Polet, J.; Riel, B. V.; Liang, C.; Huang, M. H.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Moore, A. W.; Agram, P. S.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hua, H.; Liu, Z.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Manipon, G.

    2015-12-01

    On April 25, 2015, the M7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck Nepal and the city of Kathmandu. The quake caused a significant humanitarian crisis and killed more than 8,000 due to widespread building damage and triggered landslides throughout the region. This was the strongest earthquake to occur in the region since the 1934 Nepal-Bihar magnitude 8.0 quake caused more than 10,000 fatalities. In the days following the earthquake, the JPL/Caltech ARIA project produced coseismic GPS and SAR displacements, fault slip models, and damage assessments from SAR coherence change that were helpful in both understanding the event and in the response efforts. The ARIA project produced InSAR observations from two new SAR missions - JAXA's ALOS-2 and ESA's Sentinel 1a. The GPS coseismic displacements showed ~1.8 meters of southward motion and ~1.3 meters of uplift in Kathmandu. InSAR images of the displacement field and fault models show that the rupture extended 135 km southeast of the epicenter. The SAR imagery also confirmed that the fault slip did not extend to the surface, though localized offsets formed due to liquefaction. The GPS and SAR analysis has continued to image the large M7.3 aftershock and postseismic deformation. The damage assessments from coherence change were used by several organizations guiding the response effort, including the NGA, the World Bank, and OFDA/USAID. We will present imaging, modeling, and damage assessment results from the recent April 25, 2015 M7.8 earthquake in Nepal, and its largest aftershock, a M7.3 event on May 12, 2015. We also discuss how these data were used for understanding the event, guiding the response, and for educational outreach.

  6. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time‐dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground‐motion exceedance probabilities as well as short‐term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long‐term forecasts of probabilistic seismic‐hazard analysis (PSHA).

  7. Responses of Yield Characteristics to High Temperature During Flowering Stage in Hybrid Rice Guodao 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Guan-fu; TAO Long-xing; SONG Jian; WANG Xi; CAO Li-yong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2008-01-01

    By sowing at different dates during 2005 and 2006 both in paddy fields and greenhouse, a super hybrid rice combination Guodao 6 and a conventional hybrid rice combination Xieyou 46 (as control) were used to analyze the differences in heat injury index, seed setting rate, grain yield and its components. Guodao 6 showed more stable yield and spikelet fertility, and lower heat injury index than Xieyou 46. Further studies indicated that the spikelet sterility is positively correlated with the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature, with the coefficients of 0.8604 and 0.9850 (P<0.05) respectively in Guodao 6. The effect of high temperature injury on seed setting caused by maximum daily temperature was lower than that by average daily temperature during the grain filling stage.

  8. Response of cattleya hybrids for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cattleyae Foster

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Pedroso-de-Moraes; Marcelo Claro de Souza; Cínthia Cristina Ronconi; Marco Aurélio Marteline

    2011-01-01

    The Cattleya genus has a great importance in the flower agro-business market. Fusarium wilts, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cattleyae, is considered one of the main factors of decline and death of plants of this genus. Using seven hybrids (intra and intergenerics) of Cattleya, tests of resistance and susceptibility to F. oxysporum were performed in conditions of greenhouse for 12 months, using, as evaluation criterion, a scale of the disease severity ranging from one (resistant) to eigh...

  9. Eco-efficiency optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on response surface method and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nzisabira, Jonathan; Louvigny, Yannick; Duysinx, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The electric vehicles (EV) and sometimes the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies are environmentally very efficient but can not succeed on the market because of a smaller ability to satisfy customer’s requirements. Comparison of clean technologies in automotive and transportation systems has been measured using different analysis tools such as LCA (life cycle analysis). However, these instruments never account for the user’s satisfaction which partly explains the market acceptance prob...

  10. Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2013-04-01

    The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity

  11. Optical response of a quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid interacting with a weak probe field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosionis, Spyridon G; Terzis, Andreas F; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2013-01-30

    We study optical effects in a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a spherical metal nanoparticle that interacts with a weak probe electromagnetic field. We use modified nonlinear density matrix equations for the description of the optical properties of the system and obtain a closed-form expression for the linear susceptibilities of the quantum dot, the metal nanoparticle, and the total system. We then investigate the dependence of the susceptibility on the interparticle distance as well as on the material parameters of the hybrid system. We find that the susceptibility of the quantum dot exhibits optical transparency for specific frequencies. In addition, we show that there is a range of frequencies of the applied field for which the susceptibility of the semiconductor quantum dot leads to gain. This suggests that in such a hybrid system quantum coherence can reverse the course of energy transfer, allowing flow of energy from the metallic nanoparticle to the quantum dot. We also explore the susceptibility of the metal nanoparticle and show that it is strongly influenced by the presence of the quantum dot.

  12. Hybrid liquid crystals: Enhanced electro-optic and nonlinear response for manipulating beams (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Malgosia; D'Alessandro, Giampaolo; Proctor, Matthew B.

    2016-09-01

    The manipulation and processing of light beams can be efficiently accomplished through devices based on soft matter placed in a hybrid "symbiosis" with other organic or inorganic, photoresponsive materials. The performance of such smart modulating systems often relies on a subtle balance between individual properties of each component, together with the varying interaction between organic and inorganic elements. Some promising demonstrations in the visible as well as in the THz regimes include liquid crystals integrated with plasmonic or ferroelectric nanoparticles, photoconductive or photosensitive polymers as well as metamaterials. They offer adaptive, flexible and tailor-made solutions for applications in displays and optoelectronics, switching, steering and modulating electromagnetic waves. Hybrid configurations that include multiple photoresponsive layers, sandwiched with liquid crystals, led to stronger modulation and steering of light beams in the visible. Such effects can also be observed in the other regions of spectrum, as inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystals modify the magnitude of the material refractive indices measured in THz. The development of such hybrid materials has to be accompanied by comprehensive characterisation of their uniformity, stability and optical quality across the whole surface of the device, capable of determining their optical, electrical and physical parameters.

  13. Spatial and temporal variability in response to hybrid electro-optical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Austin R.; Lu, Hui; Jenkins, Michael W.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2012-06-01

    Hybrid electro-optical neural stimulation is a novel paradigm combining the advantages of optical and electrical stimulation techniques while reducing their respective limitations. However, in order to fulfill its promise, this technique requires reduced variability and improved reproducibility. Here we used a comparative physiological approach to aid the further development of this technique by identifying the spatial and temporal factors characteristic of hybrid stimulation that may contribute to experimental variability and/or a lack of reproducibility. Using transient pulses of infrared light delivered simultaneously with a bipolar electrical stimulus in either the marine mollusk Aplysia californica buccal nerve or the rat sciatic nerve, we determined the existence of a finite region of excitability with size altered by the strength of the optical stimulus and recruitment dictated by the polarity of the electrical stimulus. Hybrid stimulation radiant exposures yielding 50% probability of firing (RE50) were shown to be negatively correlated with the underlying changes in electrical stimulation threshold over time. In Aplysia, but not in the rat sciatic nerve, increasing optical radiant exposures (J cm-2) beyond the RE50 ultimately resulted in inhibition of evoked potentials. Accounting for the sources of variability identified in this study increased the reproducibility of stimulation from 35% to 93% in Aplysia and 23% to 76% in the rat with reduced variability.

  14. Ground effects and hydrological changes in the Southern Apennines (Italy in response to the 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tranfaglia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7 in the Southern Apennines (Italy was a catastrophic event that produced many effects such as surface faulting, fractures, landslides, settlements, hydrological changes, variations in chemical/physical activity related to the volcanic and/or thermal zones and also acoustic and optical phenomena. It is the first great earthquake of the twentieth century that was studied, thanks to the hydrological monitoring network of the Italian Hydrographic Survey (IHS set up from 1925 to 1929. For this earthquake we analysed the initial IHS hydrometric and pluviometric data, looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. Hydrological data relative to rivers, springs and water wells indicate that some changes can be correlated with the earthquake: a post-seismic excess discharge in some streams, pre- and co-seismic decreases in stream flows and water levels in wells, pre- and post-seismic increases in discharges. The pre- and co-seismic stresses and the tectonic deformations were studied in order to find a possible model of interaction between stress state and hydrological variations. The anomalies found in this work can be considered "rebound anomalies", which are the most common precursor reported by many authors and related to increases in porosity and permeability caused by the fracturing that precedes an earthquake. An estimation of the total excess discharge (0.035 km3 caused by the MS=6.7 Irpinia earthquake is consistent with the excess discharge of about 0.01 km3 determined for the Mw=6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake.

  15. Ground effects and hydrological changes in the Southern Apennines (Italy) in response to the 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, E.; Pece, R.; Porfido, S.; Tranfaglia, G.

    2009-04-01

    The 23 July 1930 earthquake (MS=6.7) in the Southern Apennines (Italy) was a catastrophic event that produced many effects such as surface faulting, fractures, landslides, settlements, hydrological changes, variations in chemical/physical activity related to the volcanic and/or thermal zones and also acoustic and optical phenomena. It is the first great earthquake of the twentieth century that was studied, thanks to the hydrological monitoring network of the Italian Hydrographic Survey (IHS) set up from 1925 to 1929. For this earthquake we analysed the initial IHS hydrometric and pluviometric data, looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. Hydrological data relative to rivers, springs and water wells indicate that some changes can be correlated with the earthquake: a post-seismic excess discharge in some streams, pre- and co-seismic decreases in stream flows and water levels in wells, pre- and post-seismic increases in discharges. The pre- and co-seismic stresses and the tectonic deformations were studied in order to find a possible model of interaction between stress state and hydrological variations. The anomalies found in this work can be considered "rebound anomalies", which are the most common precursor reported by many authors and related to increases in porosity and permeability caused by the fracturing that precedes an earthquake. An estimation of the total excess discharge (0.035 km3) caused by the MS=6.7 Irpinia earthquake is consistent with the excess discharge of about 0.01 km3 determined for the Mw=6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake.

  16. ZnO(N)-Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Onkar; Singh, Upendra; Kumari, Tanya; Banpurkar, Arun; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2014-01-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with environmentally friendly and earth-abundant materials. Herein, we report a facile solution-processed fabrication of a self-powered organic-inorganic hybrid photodetector using n-type oriented ZnO nanorods and p-type Spiro-MeOTAD semiconductor. ZnO is eco-friendly and earth-abundant, and Spiro-MeOTAD is non-hazardous. We show that the latter has far less toxicity than the toxic elements stated above. This visible blind UV photodetector shows high sensitivity (10(2)) and a UV/visible rejection ratio of 300. It also exhibits fast response times of τ(rise) ~ 200 μs and τ(fall) ~ 950 μs. Importantly, with a small modification of nitrogen incorporation in ZnO one can also realize a highly-sensitive self-powered visible light photodetector with at least 1000% (or higher) improvements in quality factors (photocurrent/sensitivity/response time) as compared to previously reported organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors based on metal-chalcogenides (CdS-PANI or CuInSe2-P3HT). Interestingly, the broadband sensitivity of such N:ZnO-Spiro-MeOTAD photodiode enables sensing of low intensity (~28 μW cm(-2)) ambient white light with a high photocurrent density of 120 nA cm(-2) making it an efficient ambient white light detector.

  17. RESPONSE OF CORN HYBRIDS ON TWO SOIL TYPES OF SLATINA PODRAVINA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda Antunović

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten corn hybrids were grown on two soil types of Drava Valley in Slatina area (alluvial soil and pseudogley during two growing seasons (1998 and 1999. The field trials were sown by pneumatic sowing machine in four replicates (exp. plot 14 m2. Planned plant density (PPD depends on the hybrids and it was 71428, 63493 or 58310 plants/ha. Grain yields were calculated on 14% moisture and 90% realization of PPD basis. The ear-leaf at beginning of silking stage was taken for chemical analysis. The total amount of N was determined by Kjeldahl procedure, while P and K in corn leaves samples were measured by ICP-AES technique after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soils was also determined by ICP-AES technique after their extraction by ammonium acetate-EDTA. Alluvial soil is neutral reaction and contains considerable higher levels of total and mobile fractions of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, as well as lower levels of potassium in comparison with pseudogley. The growing seasons 1998 and 1999 were favourable for corn growing under conditions of the eastern Croatia. In both year of testing, corn yields on acid soil were about 25% lower in comparison with alluvial soil. The yields of individual hybrids (2-year means were from 10.40 to 12.35 t/ha The higher yields (2-year means on alluvial soil were found by 3 hybrids (OsSK554, OsSK458 and OsSK568exp.: mean 14,01 t/ha, OsSK332, OsSK444, OsSK458exp found Yields above 10 t/ha on acid soil were found by four corn hybrids (OsSK 332, OsSK 444, OsSK458 and OsSK490exp. : mean 10,84 t/ha. Significant influences of growing season on ear-leaf composition were found for N and K, while P concentrations were similar in both years of testing. The higher concentrations of N and K, as well as the lower P concentrations were found in leaves when corn was grown on alluvial soil (means 3.75 and 3.56% N, 2.44 and 2.62% K, 0.344 and 0.327% P, for alluvial soil and

  18. Earthquake Education in Prime Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    hazard response to create a program that is both educational and provides a public service. Seismic Sleuths and Written in Stone are the harbingers of a new genre of earthquake programs that are the antithesis of the 1974 film Earthquake and the 2004 miniseries 10.5. Film producers and those in the earthquake education community are demonstrating that it is possible to tell an exciting story, inspire awareness, and encourage empowerment without sensationalism.

  19. Inelastic off-fault response and three-dimensional dynamics of earthquake rupture on a strike-slip fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.J.; Ma, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Large dynamic stress off the fault incurs an inelastic response and energy loss, which contributes to the fracture energy, limiting the rupture and slip velocity. Using an explicit finite element method, we model three-dimensional dynamic ruptures on a vertical strike-slip fault in a homogeneous half-space. The material is subjected to a pressure-dependent Drucker-Prager yield criterion. Initial stresses in the medium increase linearly with depth. Our simulations show that the inelastic response is confined narrowly to the fault at depth. There the inelastic strain is induced by large dynamic stresses associated with the rupture front that overcome the effect of the high confining pressure. The inelastic zone increases in size as it nears the surface. For material with low cohesion (~5 MPa) the inelastic zone broadens dramatically near the surface, forming a "flowerlike" structure. The near-surface inelastic strain occurs in both the extensional and the compressional regimes of the fault, induced by seismic waves ahead of the rupture front under a low confining pressure. When cohesion is large (~10 MPa), the inelastic strain is significantly reduced near the surface and confined mostly to depth. Cohesion, however, affects the inelastic zone at depth less significantly. The induced shear microcracks show diverse orientations near the surface, owing to the low confining pressure, but exhibit mostly horizontal slip at depth. The inferred rupture-induced anisotropy at depth has the fast wave direction along the direction of the maximum compressive stress.

  20. Installing logic-gate responses to a variety of biological substances in supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Tanida, Tatsuya; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Kurotani, Kazuya; Onogi, Shoji; Urayama, Kenji; Hamachi, Itaru

    2014-06-01

    Soft materials that exhibit stimuli-responsive behaviour under aqueous conditions (such as supramolecular hydrogels composed of self-assembled nanofibres) have many potential biological applications. However, designing a macroscopic response to structurally complex biochemical stimuli in these materials still remains a challenge. Here we show that redox-responsive peptide-based hydrogels have the ability to encapsulate enzymes and still retain their activities. Moreover, cooperative coupling of enzymatic reactions with the gel response enables us to construct unique stimuli-responsive soft materials capable of sensing a variety of disease-related biomarkers. The programmable gel-sol response (even to biological samples) is visible to the naked eye. Furthermore, we built Boolean logic gates (OR and AND) into the hydrogel-enzyme hybrid materials, which were able to sense simultaneously plural specific biochemicals and execute a controlled drug release in accordance with the logic operation. The intelligent soft materials that we have developed may prove valuable in future medical diagnostics or treatments.

  1. Photopolymerization of polydiacetylene in hybrid liposomes: effect of polymerization on stability and response to pathogenic bacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thet, Naing Tun; Jamieson, William David; Laabei, Maisem; Mercer-Chalmers, June D; Jenkins, A Toby A

    2014-05-22

    Liposomes containing lipids and polydiacetylene (PDA) are hybrid systems encompassing both a fluid phospholipid membrane and a polymer scaffold (PDA). However, the biophysical role of PDA in such liposomes is not well understood. In this report, we studied the effects of photopolymerization of PDA on the stability of lipid-PDA liposomes, and their sensitivity to selected purified toxins and bacterial supernatants, using a fluorescence assay. Of the three different types of liposomes with variable lipid chain lengths that were chosen, the degree of polymerization had a significant impact on the long-term stability, and response, to external microbial exotoxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The degree of polymerization of TCDA played an important role in lipid-chain-length-dependent stabilization of lipid-PDA liposomes, as well as in their response to bacterial toxins of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

  2. Hypersensitive Response-Like Reaction Is Associated with Hybrid Necrosis in Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii Coss

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Mizuno; Naoki Hosogi; Pyoyun Park; Shigeo Takumi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hybrid speciation is classified into homoploid and polyploid based on ploidy level. Common wheat is an allohexaploid species that originated from a naturally occurring interploidy cross between tetraploid wheat and diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Aegilops tauschii provides wide naturally occurring genetic variation. Sometimes its triploid hybrids with tetraploid wheat show the following four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: types II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid ...

  3. The Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in Central Java Earthquake: A Preliminary Study on Consumer Belief, Attitude, and Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresno Agus Hendarto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, Law No. 40/2007 paragraph 74 on Limited Liability Corporation regulates corporate social responsibility (CSR. Although CSR is mandatory for Indonesian resource-based firms, only four months after its enactment, six parties have asked for a judicial review to the Constitution Court as to the mandatory implementation of CSR. They argue that the mandatory implementation of CSR might result in legal uncertainty, render businesses inefficient, decrease competitiveness, and trigger discriminative treatments. Using the cases of CSR after the earthquake in Yogyakarta, this paper aims at answering the question of whether the implementation of CSR will lead to a decrease in competitiveness. Harnessing a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches, this paper examines the models of beliefs, attitudes, and purchase intentions of consumers toward a company implementing CSR. The first phase of this study used a focus group discussion (FGD to collect data from those who had benefited from CSR, and was analyzed using the content analysis. The results of the first phase then became the basis for the second phase. In the second phase, data were collected by surveying parents of school children whose school buildings were reconstructed by CSR programs, and answers were analyzed using the partial least squares analysis. Results show that the conjecture that the implementation of CSR will result in a decrease in competitiveness is not true. It is evident that CSR program affects the attitudes of consumers toward the firm, and that attitude fully mediates the relation between beliefs and purchase intentions toward the products of the firm implementing CSR.

  4. Seismic Shaking Table Requirements and Consideration of Fluid-Structure Interaction Effect in Seismic Response Analysis Model for In-Reactor Fuel Assembly Under Severe Earthquake Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kanghee; Yoon, Kyungho; Kang, Heungsoek; Lee, Youngho; Kim, Hyungkyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dynamic response of fuel assembly can be significantly affected by added hydrodynamic mass and additional damping from the fluid and flow inside operating reactor core. Added mass or hydrodynamic virtual mass from surrounding fluid medium can be theoretically estimated by the potential flow theory. Solving Laplace equation in terms of velocity potential can leads to calculate mass components in the mass matrix of simplified fuel FE model. Additional damping from the fluid and the flow inside reactor core are originated from fluid drag and flow lift force, respectively. Lift force from axial flow can increase fuel assembly damping by twice compared to still fluid damping from the loop testing. In practice, fuel assembly damping should be measured by mockup loop testing and referred to published data in the literature. The justification is performed via time history analysis with simplified dynamic model using a group of fuel assembly in the core. Key check points in this analysis might be the integrity of intermediate spacer grids when impacting fuels into core shroud plate or into neighboring fuel assembly. Thus, dynamic displacement and impact force at grid elevations are the important structural parameters to be traced out during the analysis and the simulation testing. KAERI have a plan to develop dynamic analysis model and to setup test infrastructure for full scale and several fuel assembly rows seismic simulation testing. This paper briefly discuss on the reference earthquake accident scenario, shaking table requirements for full-scale seismic simulation testing, virtual testing issues before the hardware setup, and modelling issue related to fluid-structure interaction effect in accident core analysis.

  5. Thermo-responsive PNIPAM-metal hybrids: An efficient nanocatalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Smith Sagar; Bhol, Prachi; Chakkarambath, Aswathy; Mohanta, Jagdeep; Samantaray, Kunal; Bhat, Suresh K.; Panda, Subhendu K.; Mohanty, Priti S.; Si, Satyabrata

    2017-10-01

    Micron size thermoresponsive cross-linked polymeric microgels of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) are used as ;microreactor; for embedding metal nanoparticles of different shapes. Using a simple and robust method, we have synthesized various polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures incorporated with Au nanorods (AuNR), Au nanospheres (AuNS) and Ag nanospheres (AgNS). These hybrid nanostructures have been characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and static light scattering (SLS) followed by their catalytic activity. TEM studies directly confirmed the mondispersity of synthesized hybrid microgels and stability of the embedded metal nanoparticles within the microgels. Optical studies confirmed the presence of respective absorption bands that correspond to AuNS, AgNS and AuNR respectively. Extensive DLS studies demonstrated that although these hybrid microgels preserve their thermoresponsive properties, i.e their hydrodynamic radius decreased with increasing temperature, their thermosensitivity were comparatively lesser than pure PNIPAM microgels. Combining with studies using static light scattering, we further found that AuNS and AgNS were inhomogeneously distributed within microgels where the majority of the nanoparticles present within the loosely cross-linked shell. On the other hand AuNR were distributed more homogeneously within the microgels. Catalytic performance of various nanostructures loaded onto PNIPAM microgel beads were evaluated by studying the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Complete catalytic conversion using AgNS occurred in ∼30 min with a first-order rate constant of 0.159 min-1 having a 7 min induction period. On the other hand no induction period was observed for AuNS and AuNR and the reaction completed in 3-4 min with a first-order rate constant of 1.607 min-1 and 1.627 min-1 respectively. Further, PNIPAM-AuNS and PNIPAM-AuNR possess better catalytic activity as well as

  6. Short-term response of the solid Earth to cryosphere fluctuations and the earthquake cycle in south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, J. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Han, S. C.; Davis, J. L.; Ruppert, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    In southern Alaska surface deformation and gravimetric change are associated with the seismic cycle as well as a strong seasonal cycle of snow accumulation and melt and a variable rate of glacier mass wastage. Numerical modeling of the solid Earth response to cryosphere change on a variety of temporal and spatial scales plays a critical role in supporting the interpretation of time-variable gravity and other geodetic data. In this study we calculate the surface displacements and stresses associated with variable spatial and temporal cryospheric loading and unloading in south-central coastal Alaska. A challenging aspect of estimating the response of the solid Earth to short-term (months to 102 years) regional cryospheric fluctuations is choosing the rock mechanics constitutive laws appropriate to this region. Here we report calculated differences in the predicted surface displacements and stresses during the GRACE time period (2002 to present). Broad-scale, GRACE-derived estimates of cryospheric mass change, along with independent snow melt onset/refreeze timing, snow depth and annual glacier wastage estimates from a variety of methods, were used to approximate the magnitude and timing of cryospheric load changes. We used the CIG finite element code PyLith to enable input of spatially complex surface loads. An as example of our evaluation of the influence of variable short-term surface loads, we calculated and contrasted the predicted surface displacements and stresses for a cooler than average and higher precipitation water year (WY12) versus a warmer than average year (WY05). Our calculation of these comparative stresses is motivated by our earlier empirical evaluation of the influence of short-term cryospheric fluctuations on the background seismic rate between 1988-2006 (Sauber and Ruppert, 2008). During the warmer than average years between 2002-2006 we found a stronger seasonal dependency in the frequency of small tectonic events in the Icy Bay region relative

  7. Using exercises to identify Veterans Health Administration priorities for disaster response: findings from the New Madrid Earthquake training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, June L; Chan, Edward W; Brewster, Pete; Mitchell, Michael N; Ricci, Karen A; Afable, Melissa K; Dobalian, Aram

    2013-01-01

    Emergency managers are often charged with prioritizing the relative importance of key issues and tasks associated with disaster response. However, little work has been done to identify specific ways that the decision-making process can be improved. This exercise was conducted with 220 employees of the US Department of Veterans Affairs, who were asked to assign priority rankings to a list of possible options of the most important issues to address after a hypothetical disaster scenario impacting a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We found that groups that were assigned to represent perspectives farther from the impacted site had less agreement in their identification of the top priorities than those assigned to the impacted facility. These findings suggest that greater geographic and administrative proximity to the impacted site may generate greater clarity and certainty about priority setting. Given the complex structure of many organizations, and the multiple levels of group decision making and coordination likely to be needed during disasters, research to better understand training needs with respect to decision making is essential to improve preparedness. Relatively simple modifications to exercises, as outlined here, could provide valuable information to better understand emergency management decision making across multiple organizational levels.

  8. Using regional pore-fluid pressure response following the 3 Sep 2016 M­­w5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma earthquake to constrain far-field seismicity rate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, K.; Murray, K. E.; Cochran, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    The 3 Sep 2016 M­­w5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma earthquake was the largest event to occur in recorded history of the state. Widespread shaking from the event was felt in seven central U.S. states and caused damage as far away as Oklahoma City ( 115 km SSW). The Pawnee earthquake occurred soon after the deployment of a subsurface pore-fluid pressure monitoring network in Aug 2016. Eight pressure transducers were installed downhole in inactive saltwater disposal wells that were completed in the basal sedimentary zone (the Arbuckle Group). The transducers are located in Alfalfa, Grant, and Payne Counties at distances of 48 to 140 km from the Pawnee earthquake. We observed coseismic fluid pressure changes in all monitoring wells, indicating a large-scale poroelastic response in the Arbuckle. Two wells in Payne County lie in a zone of volumetric compression 48-52 km SSE of the rupture and experienced a co-seismic rise in fluid pressures that we conclude was related to poroelastic rebound of the Arbuckle reservoir. We compare measurements of the pore-fluid pressure change to estimated values given by the product of the volumetric strain, a Skempton's coefficient of 0.33, and a Bulk modulus of 25 GPa for fractured granitic basement rocks. We explore the possibility that the small increase in pore-fluid pressure may increase the rate of seismicity in regions outside of the mainshock region. We test this hypothesis by supplementing the Oklahoma Geological Survey earthquake catalog by semi-automated detection smaller magnitude (<2.6 M) earthquakes on seismic stations that are located in the vicinity of the wells. Using the events that occur in the week before the mainshock (27 Aug to 3 Sep 2016) as the background seismicity rate and the estimated pore-fluid pressure increase, we use a rate-state model to predict the seismicity rate change in the week following the event. We then compare the model predictions to the observed seismicity in the week following the Pawnee earthquake

  9. Earthquake Science: a New Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yun-tai

    2009-01-01

    @@ Understanding the mechanisms which cause earthquakes and thus earthquake prediction, is inher-ently difficult in comparison to other physical phenom-ena. This is due to the inaccessibility of the Earth's inte-rior, the infrequency of large earthquakes, and the com-plexities of the physical processes involved. Conse-quently, in its broadest sense, earthquake science--the science of studying earthquake phenomena, is a com-prehensive and inter-disciplinary field. The disciplines involved in earthquake science include: traditional seismology, earthquake geodesy, earthquake geology, rock mechanics, complex system theory, and informa-tion and communication technologies related to earth-quake studies.

  10. Lateral-torsional response of base-isolated buildings with curved surface sliding system subjected to near-fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The curved surface sliding (CSS) system is one of the most in-demand techniques for the seismic isolation of buildings; yet there are still important aspects of its behaviour that need further attention. The CSS system presents variation of friction coefficient, depending on the sliding velocity of the CSS bearings, while friction force and lateral stiffness during the sliding phase are proportional to the axial load. Lateral-torsional response needs to be better understood for base-isolated structures located in near-fault areas, where fling-step and forward-directivity effects can produce long-period (horizontal) velocity pulses. To analyse these aspects, a six-storey reinforced concrete (r.c.) office framed building, with an L-shaped plan and setbacks in elevation, is designed assuming three values of the radius of curvature for the CSS system. Seven in-plan distributions of dynamic-fast friction coefficient for the CSS bearings, ranging from a constant value for all isolators to a different value for each, are considered in the case of low- and medium-type friction properties. The seismic analysis of the test structures is carried out considering an elastic-linear behaviour of the superstructure, while a nonlinear force-displacement law of the CSS bearings is considered in the horizontal direction, depending on sliding velocity and axial load. Given the lack of knowledge of the horizontal direction at which near-fault ground motions occur, the maximum torsional effects and residual displacements are evaluated with reference to different incidence angles, while the orientation of the strongest observed pulses is considered to obtain average values.

  11. Ballistic Impact Response of Woven Hybrid Coir/Kevlar Laminated Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrin Hani A.R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different laminated hybrid composites stacking configuration subjected to ballistic impact were investigated. The hybrid composites consist of woven coir (C and woven Kevlar (K layers laminated together. The samples of woven coir were prepared using handloom device. The composites were produced by stacking the laminated woven coir and Kevlar alternately with the presence of the binder. The samples were tested under ballistic impact with different stacking configuration. The results obtained had successfully achieved the National Institute of Justice (NIJ standard level IIA with energy absorption of 435.6 kJ and 412.2 kJ under the projectile speed of between 330 m/s and 321 m/s respectively. Samples that having Kevlar layer at the front face and woven coir layer as back face achieved partial penetration during projectile impact. This orientation is proven to have good impact energy absorption and able to stop projectile at the second panel of the composites.

  12. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  13. Response on yield and nutritive value of two commercial maize hybrids as a consequence of a water irrigation reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gallo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated in a practical farm condition the response of two commercial maize hybrids (maturity class FAO rating 700 grown for silage production on chemical composition and digestibility of whole maize plant as consequence of a severe water irrigation reduction. Based on different irrigation applications, water restricted (WR and fully irrigated (FI plots received 50 and 200 mm of irrigation water, respectively. A split-plot factorial arrangement in a randomised complete block design with two main plots (WR and FI and two sub-plots (hybrid A and B with 12 replications/ treatment was performed. Studied parameters were dry matter (DM yield, harvest index (HI, chemical composition, rumen in situ DM and neutral detergent fibre disappearance (DMD and NDFD, respectively, indigestible NDF (iNDF, 7h in vitro starch degradability (7hIVSD and net energy (NE for lactation content. Total DM and grain yields, HI and chemical composition differed (P<0.05 between FI and WR crops and only slight differences were recorded between hybrids. When compared to FI plants, WR had lower starch and higher fibre contents (P<0.05. Higher DMD (59.2 vs 56.4% DM and NDFD (61.0 vs 58.4% NDFOM were measured for FI with respect to WR crops, whereas iNDF was about 36% higher (P<0.05 in WR than FI. Lastly, WR plants had a lower NE content than FI plants (P<0.05. Our research showed that a drastic reduction in water irrigation negatively affected whole plant yield, chemical composition and nutrient availability of forage maize.

  14. Outsmarting cancer: the power of hybrid genomic/proteomic biomarkers to predict drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexer, Brent N; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2014-01-01

    A recent study by Niepel and colleagues describes a novel approach to predicting response to targeted anti-cancer therapies. The authors used biochemical profiling of signaling activity in basal and ligand-stimulated states for a panel of receptor and intracellular kinases to develop predictive models of drug sensitivity. In some cases, the response to ligand stimulation predicted drug response better than did target abundance or genomic alterations in the targeted pathway. Furthermore, combining biochemical profiles with genomic information was better at predicting drug response. This work suggests that incorporating biochemical signaling profiles with genomic alterations should provide powerful predictors of response to molecularly targeted therapies.

  15. Influence of Earthquake Tsunami Acting on Dynamic Response of Offshore Bridges in Deep Water%地震海啸作用对近海深水桥梁结构动力响应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄信; 黄兆纬; 胡雪瀛; 蔡浩良; 齐麟; 刘涛

    2012-01-01

    It is need to analysis seismic responses of across-sea bridges to ensure safety of bridge structure. Meantime, it is necessary to study the influence of earthquake tsunami action on dynamic responses of bridges in deep water when tsunami is induced because of earthquake action. In this paper, the dynamic responses of offshore bridge in deep water are studied under tsunami action, and earthquake induced hydrodynamic pressure should also be considered based on radiation wave theory. The results indicated that; dynamic responses of bridge in deep water are augmented because of tsunami action, and the influence of tsunami action on seismic response of bridge in deep water is increased with the largen of tsunami wave height. Bridges in deep water will take serious damage and lost bearing capacity when tsunami wave height is more lager. In conclusion, the effect of earthquake tsunami action should be reasonable considered in seismic response analysis of offshore bridges in deep water.%为确保跨海桥梁结构安全,需要进行地震响应分析.同时,由于地震可能引发海啸,有必要分析地震海啸作用对深水桥梁动力响应的影响.本文考虑地震海啸作用,同时采用辐射波浪理论考虑桥墩地震动水压力,对近海深水桥梁结构进行地震响应分析.研究表明:海啸作用增大了桥梁结构的动力响应,其影响随着海啸浪高的增加而增大;海啸浪高较大会导致桥梁结构发生损伤破坏直至丧失承载能力.综上所述,近海深水桥梁结构抗震设计应合理考虑地震海啸作用的影响.

  16. Hybrid poplar and forest soil response to municipal and industrial by-products: a greenhouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Gilmore, Daniel W; Mozaffari, Morteza; Rosen, Carl J; Halbach, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been conducted in the Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan) to evaluate the effects of municipal and industrial by-product applications on the early growth of short rotation woody crops such as hybrid poplar. Anticipated shortages of harvestable-age aspen in the next decade can be alleviated and rural development can be enhanced through the application of by-products to forest soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inorganic fertilizer, boiler ash, biosolids, and the co-application of ash and biosolids application on tree growth and soil properties by measuring hybrid poplar clone NM-6 (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry) yield, nutrient uptake, and select post-harvest soil properties after 15 wk of greenhouse growth. Treatments included a control of no amendment; agricultural lime; inorganic N, P, and K; three types of boiler ash; biosolids application rates equivalent to 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg available N ha(-1); and boiler ash co-applied with biosolids. All of the by-products treatments showed biomass production that was equal to or greater than inorganic fertilizer and lime treatments. A trend of increased biomass with increasing rates of biosolids was observed. Soil P concentration increased with increasing rates of biosolids application. None of the by-products treatments resulted in plant tissue metal concentrations greater than metal concentrations of plant tissue amended with inorganic amendments. Biosolids, boiler ash, and the co-application of biosolids and boiler ash together on forest soils were as beneficial to plant growth as inorganic fertilizers.

  17. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  18. Reduction of earthquake disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顒; 陈祺福; 黄静; 徐文立

    2003-01-01

    The article summarizes the researches on mitigating earthquake disasters of the past four years in China. The studyof earthquake disasters′ quantification shows that the losses increase remarkably when population concentrates inurban area and social wealth increase. The article also summarizes some new trends of studying earthquake disas-ters′ mitigation, which are from seismic hazard to seismic risk, from engineering disaster to social disaster andintroduces the community-centered approach.

  19. ZnO(N)-Spiro-MeOTAD hybrid photodiode: an efficient self-powered fast-response UV (visible) photosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Onkar; Singh, Upendra; Kumari, Tanya; Banpurkar, Arun; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2013-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with environmentally friendly and earth-abundant materials. Herein, we report a facile solution-processed fabrication of a self-powered organic-inorganic hybrid photodetector using n-type oriented ZnO nanorods and p-type Spiro-MeOTAD semiconductor. ZnO is eco-friendly and earth-abundant, and Spiro-MeOTAD is non-hazardous. We show that the latter has far less toxicity than the toxic elements stated above. This visible blind UV photodetector shows high sensitivity (102) and a UV/visible rejection ratio of 300. It also exhibits fast response times of τrise ~ 200 μs and τfall ~ 950 μs. Importantly, with a small modification of nitrogen incorporation in ZnO one can also realize a highly-sensitive self-powered visible light photodetector with at least 1000% (or higher) improvements in quality factors (photocurrent/sensitivity/response time) as compared to previously reported organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors based on metal-chalcogenides (CdS-PANI or CuInSe2-P3HT). Interestingly, the broadband sensitivity of such N:ZnO-Spiro-MeOTAD photodiode enables sensing of low intensity (~28 μW cm-2) ambient white light with a high photocurrent density of 120 nA cm-2 making it an efficient ambient white light detector.Organic-inorganic hybrid photo-detectors with a self-sufficient mode of operation represent a research area of great current interest. In most efficient photodetectors and optoelectronic devices compound semiconductors containing toxic elements such as Cd, As, Te, S, Se etc. are used and these are also expensive. Hence there is also a rapidly growing interest in replacing these with

  20. Ethnic and Urban Intersections in the Classroom: Latino Students, Hybrid Identities, and Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Jason G.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from data collected through classroom observations and in-depth interviews, this article describes and analyzes practices identified as culturally responsive by Latinos students in an urban, multiethnic/racial context. The findings suggest that culturally responsive pedagogy must be more broadly conceptualized to address the cultural…

  1. Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    placement of Haitian children granted humanitarian parole into the United States in an unaccompanied refugee minor program if a suitable family... unaccompanied children . With so many people displaced and in need of protection, general security against crime is a critical concern. • Water, Sanitation and...security at the distribution sites. Supplementary food programs have been launched for 53,000 children under 5 and 16,000 pregnant women in the Port

  2. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams. This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  3. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams. This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  4. The relation between the earthquake response spectrum, power spectrum and Fourier spectrum%地震反应谱、功率谱以及傅立叶谱关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊辉; 李正良; 晏致涛; 汪之松; 张晓敏

    2011-01-01

    时程分析法作为目前结构地震响应分析中最为精准的方法,其准确性在很大程度上依赖于地震波的选取.然而,目前可用的地震记录较少,此时人工合成地震动不失为一个合理的选择.人工地震波的合成有一个基本的要求:模拟结果能与目标反应谱符合得较好,这就要求对地震动的功率谱、傅立叶谱以及反应谱等有较清楚的认识.本文详细地阐述了地震动模拟中涉及到的反应谱、功率谱和傅立叶谱的概念以及三者之间的关系,并初步讨论了目前地震动模拟中存在的一些缺陷,展望了未来地震动模型的发展方向.%The time history analysis method is recognized as the most accurate method in the structure's seismic response analysis, and its accuracy,to a great extent, determined by the selection of seismic wave.Because of the real seismic record is not enough, so that the numerical simulation of the earthquake acceleration time histories is a substitute.A basic require of the artificial earthquake wave that the numerical simulation result can match with the target response spectrum, and then the earthquake response spectrum, power spectrum and Fourier spectrum should be clearly recognized.Therefore, the relation between the earthquake response spectrum, power spectrum and Fourier spectrum is discussed, and some prospect is proposed in the numerical simulation of seismic wave.

  5. A hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of X-ray photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dufan; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Sen

    2016-09-01

    In photon counting computed tomography (CT), it is vital to know the energy response functions of the detector for noise estimation and system optimization. Empirical methods lack flexibility and Monte Carlo simulations require too much knowledge of the detector. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of photon counting detectors in X-ray medical applications. GEANT4 was used to model the energy deposition of X-rays in the detector. Then numerical models were used to describe the process of charge sharing, anti-charge sharing and spectral broadening, which were too complicated to be included in the Monte Carlo model. Several free parameters were introduced in the numerical models, and they could be calibrated from experimental measurements such as X-ray fluorescence from metal elements. The method was used to model the energy response function of an XCounter Flite X1 photon counting detector. The parameters of the model were calibrated with fluorescence measurements. The model was further tested against measured spectrums of a VJ X-ray source to validate its feasibility and accuracy.

  6. A hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of X-ray photon counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dufan; Xu, Xiaofei [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Sen [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-09-11

    In photon counting computed tomography (CT), it is vital to know the energy response functions of the detector for noise estimation and system optimization. Empirical methods lack flexibility and Monte Carlo simulations require too much knowledge of the detector. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of photon counting detectors in X-ray medical applications. GEANT4 was used to model the energy deposition of X-rays in the detector. Then numerical models were used to describe the process of charge sharing, anti-charge sharing and spectral broadening, which were too complicated to be included in the Monte Carlo model. Several free parameters were introduced in the numerical models, and they could be calibrated from experimental measurements such as X-ray fluorescence from metal elements. The method was used to model the energy response function of an XCounter Flite X1 photon counting detector. The parameters of the model were calibrated with fluorescence measurements. The model was further tested against measured spectrums of a VJ X-ray source to validate its feasibility and accuracy.

  7. A novel hybrid kinase is essential for regulating the sigma(B)-mediated stress response of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Been, Mark; Tempelaars, Marcel H; van Schaik, Willem; Moezelaar, Roy; Siezen, Roland J; Abee, Tjakko

    2010-03-01

    A common bacterial strategy for monitoring environmental challenges is to use two-component systems, which consist of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). In the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus, the alternative sigma factor sigma(B) is activated by the RR RsbY. Here we present strong indications that the PP2C-type phosphatase RsbY receives its input from the multi-sensor hybrid kinase BC1008 (renamed RsbK). Genome analyses revealed that, across bacilli, rsbY and rsbK are located in a conserved gene cluster. A B. cereus rsbK deletion strain was shown to be incapable of inducing sigma(B) upon stress conditions and was impaired in its heat adaptive response. Comparison of the wild-type and rsbK mutant transcriptomes upon heat shock revealed that RsbK was primarily involved in the activation of the sigma(B)-mediated stress response. Truncation of the RsbK RR receiver domain demonstrated the importance of this domain for sigma(B) induction upon stress. The domain architecture of RsbK suggests that in the B. cereus group and in other bacilli, environmental and intracellular stress signalling routes are combined into one single protein. This strategy is markedly different from the sigma(B) activation pathway in other low-GC Gram-positives.

  8. Isolation of transcription factors binding auxin response elements using a yeast one-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐眉; 黄美娟; 陈凡

    2002-01-01

    Plant hormones play an important role during higher plant embryogenesis. Auxin is central to the development of vascular tissues, formation of lateral and adventitious roots, control of apical dominance, and tropic responses. Auxin response element (AuxRE), present in the promoters of many auxin-induced genes, can confer auxin responsiveness. Using carrot somatic embryo under specific developmental phase, a cDNA expression library was constructed. Several plasmids were recombined containing the tetramer of AuxRE as a bait. After screening by a yeast one-hy- brid system, one positive clone was confirmed and characterized. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that AxRF1 protein expressed in yeast cell could bind AuxRE in vitro. It suggests that AxRF1 participates in regulation of the expression of auxin responsive gene during carrot somatic embryogenesis.

  9. Silicon spectral response extension through single wall carbon nanotubes in hybrid solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and n-silicon multiple heterojunctions have been fabricated by a SWCNT film transferring process. We report on the ability of the carbon nanotubes to extend the Si spectral range towards the near ultraviolet (UV) and the near infrared regions. Semiconducting and about metallic SWCNT networks have been studied as a function of the film sheet resistance, Rsh. Optical absorbance and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assign nanotube chirality and electronic character. This gave us hints of evidence of the participation of the metal nanotubes in the photocurrent generation. Moreover, we provide evidence that the external quantum efficiency spectral range can be modulated as a function of the SWCNT network sheet resistance in a hybrid SWCNT/Si solar cell. This result will be very useful to further design/optimize devices with improved performance in spectral regions generally not covered by conventional Si p-n devices. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Improved response to disasters and outbreaks by tracking population movements with mobile phone network data: a post-earthquake geospatial study in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Bengtsson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population movements following disasters can cause important increases in morbidity and mortality. Without knowledge of the locations of affected people, relief assistance is compromised. No rapid and accurate method exists to track population movements after disasters. We used position data of subscriber identity module (SIM cards from the largest mobile phone company in Haiti (Digicel to estimate the magnitude and trends of population movements following the Haiti 2010 earthquake and cholera outbreak. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Geographic positions of SIM cards were determined by the location of the mobile phone tower through which each SIM card connects when calling. We followed daily positions of SIM cards 42 days before the earthquake and 158 days after. To exclude inactivated SIM cards, we included only the 1.9 million SIM cards that made at least one call both pre-earthquake and during the last month of study. In Port-au-Prince there were 3.2 persons per included SIM card. We used this ratio to extrapolate from the number of moving SIM cards to the number of moving persons. Cholera outbreak analyses covered 8 days and tracked 138,560 SIM cards. An estimated 630,000 persons (197,484 Digicel SIM cards, present in Port-au-Prince on the day of the earthquake, had left 19 days post-earthquake. Estimated net outflow of people (outflow minus inflow corresponded to 20% of the Port-au-Prince pre-earthquake population. Geographic distribution of population movements from Port-au-Prince corresponded well with results from a large retrospective, population-based UN survey. To demonstrate feasibility of rapid estimates and to identify areas at potentially increased risk of outbreaks, we produced reports on SIM card movements from a cholera outbreak area at its immediate onset and within 12 hours of receiving data. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that estimates of population movements during disasters and outbreaks can be delivered rapidly and with

  11. Continuous Pressure and Temperature Monitoring in Lower Arbuckle Saline Aquifer in Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas - Response to the M5.8 Pawnee Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watney, W. L.; Bidgoli, T. S.; Victorine, J.; Simpson, P.; Holubnyak, Y.; Nolte, K.; Tsoflias, G. P.; Wreath, D.; Birdie, T. R.

    2016-12-01

    Since April 2016 a downhole P/T gauge has been continuously recording high-resolution data (1 /sec, 0.7 kP and 0.01 ºC accuracy) in the lower Arbuckle saline aquifer at a depth of 1524 m in the Berexco Wellington KGS #1-28 well. The cased well was perforated and tested in August 2011 and has remained idle since. The wellsite located in south-central Kansas has experienced the introduction of numerous, low magnitude earthquakes since early 2015. The downhole pressure measured at the start of continuous monitoring in April 2016 was 216 kP above pressures measured five years before in August 2011. Pressure has risen at a rate of up to 4.1 kP /mo until 9-1-16, two-days prior to the Pawnee earthquake, after which time, long-term pressure has remained essentially level (mid October 2017). In addition, short-term, multiple, hours-long, asymmetric pressure spikes of up to 345 kP accompanied by temperature falls of 0.3 ºC have been observed. The M5.8 Pawnee earthquake was detected by pressure oscillations (1.4 to 5.5 kP and 0.1 sec freq) coinciding closely with the larger amplitude portion of the earthquake's CODA. Oscillations are attributed local aquifer and wellbore effects from the wave train of the passing earthquake. The validation of a regional pressure field forecasted by simulation of brine disposal by Bidgoli et al. (2016) suggests hydrologic continuity of the regional Arbuckle aquifer and a possible explanation for the observed expansion of the seismicity linked to the pressure field. Short term spikes of pressure increases and temperature falls suggest cooler brine entering casing perforations that accompany the pressure increase. These short term anomalies are attributed to changes in disposal rates and casing pressure of wells in the local vicinity. The leveling off of pressure that occurred 2-days before the Pawnee earthquake may be just a coincidence, but could potentially have occurred either from moving brine from the Arbuckle into another formation or

  12. Monitoring the Earthquake source process in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, H.; Ammon, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the implementation of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response system (PAGER), rapid determination of earthquake moment magnitude is essential, especially for earthquakes that are felt within the contiguous United States. We report an implementation of moment tensor processing for application to broad, seismically active areas of North America. This effort focuses on the selection of regional crustal velocity models, codification of data quality tests, and the development of procedures for rapid computation of the seismic moment tensor. We systematically apply these techniques to earthquakes with reported magnitude greater than 3.5 in continental North America that are not associated with a tectonic plate boundary. Using the 0.02-0.10 Hz passband, we can usually determine, with few exceptions, moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w as small as 3.7. The threshold is significantly influenced by the density of stations, the location of the earthquake relative to the seismic stations and, of course, the signal-to-noise ratio. With the existing permanent broadband stations in North America operated for rapid earthquake response, the seismic moment tensor of most earthquakes that are M w 4 or larger can be routinely computed. As expected the nonuniform spatial pattern of these solutions reflects the seismicity pattern. However, the orientation of the direction of maximum compressive stress and the predominant style of faulting is spatially coherent across large regions of the continent.

  13. Earthquakes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  14. More Earthquake Misery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Less than four months after the devastation of the Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, another quake brings further death and destruction to southwest China on August 30, a 6.1-magnitude earthquake hit southwest China, the border of Sichuan Province and Yunnan Province. Panzhihua City, Huili County in Sichuan and Yuanmou County and Yongren County in Yunnan were worst hit.

  15. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  16. Do weak global stresses synchronize earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendick, R.; Bilham, R.

    2017-08-01

    Insofar as slip in an earthquake is related to the strain accumulated near a fault since a previous earthquake, and this process repeats many times, the earthquake cycle approximates an autonomous oscillator. Its asymmetric slow accumulation of strain and rapid release is quite unlike the harmonic motion of a pendulum and need not be time predictable, but still resembles a class of repeating systems known as integrate-and-fire oscillators, whose behavior has been shown to demonstrate a remarkable ability to synchronize to either external or self-organized forcing. Given sufficient time and even very weak physical coupling, the phases of sets of such oscillators, with similar though not necessarily identical period, approach each other. Topological and time series analyses presented here demonstrate that earthquakes worldwide show evidence of such synchronization. Though numerous studies demonstrate that the composite temporal distribution of major earthquakes in the instrumental record is indistinguishable from random, the additional consideration of event renewal interval serves to identify earthquake groupings suggestive of synchronization that are absent in synthetic catalogs. We envisage the weak forces res