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Sample records for hybrid digital signal

  1. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks applications in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kavaklioglu, K.

    1991-01-01

    Signal validation and plant subsystem tracking in power and process industries require the prediction of one or more state variables. Both heteroassociative and auotassociative neural networks were applied for characterizing relationships among sets of signals. A multi-layer neural network paradigm was applied for sensor and process monitoring in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This nonlinear interpolation technique was found to be very effective for these applications

  2. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  3. The UTMOST: A Hybrid Digital Signal Processor Transforms the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, M.; Jameson, A.; Flynn, C.; Bateman, T.; Barr, E. D.; Bhandari, S.; Bunton, J. D.; Caleb, M.; Campbell-Wilson, D.; Farah, W.; Gaensler, B.; Green, A. J.; Hunstead, R. W.; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman; Murphy, Tara; O'Neill, M.; Osłowski, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Ravi, V.; Rosado, P.; Temby, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820-851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.

  4. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  5. The newest digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Uk

    2002-08-01

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  6. Digitally programmable signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  7. Fast digitizing and digital signal processing of detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaske, Roland

    2008-01-01

    A fast-digitizer data acquisition system recently installed at the neutron time-of-flight experiment nELBE, which is located at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is tested with two different detector types. Preamplifier signals from a high-purity germanium detector are digitized, stored and finally processed. For a precise determination of the energy of the detected radiation, the moving-window deconvolution algorithm is used to compensate the ballistic deficit and different shaping algorithms are applied. The energy resolution is determined in an experiment with γ-rays from a 22 Na source and is compared to the energy resolution achieved with analogously processed signals. On the other hand, signals from the photomultipliers of barium fluoride and plastic scintillation detectors are digitized. These signals have risetimes of a few nanoseconds only. The moment of interaction of the radiation with the detector is determined by methods of digital signal processing. Therefore, different timing algorithms are implemented and tested with data from an experiment at nELBE. The time resolutions achieved with these algorithms are compared to each other as well as to reference values coming from analog signal processing. In addition to these experiments, some properties of the digitizing hardware are measured and a program for the analysis of stored, digitized data is developed. The analysis of the signals shows that the energy resolution achieved with the 10-bit digitizer system used here is not competitive to a 14-bit peak-sensing ADC, although the ballistic deficit can be fully corrected. However, digital methods give better result in sub-ns timing than analog signal processing. (orig.)

  8. Digital signal processing the Tevatron BPM signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancelo, G.; James, E.; Wolbers, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Beam Position Monitor (TeV BPM) readout system at Fermilab's Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups are processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describes the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode are presented

  9. Chaotic signals in digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Eisencraft, Marcio; Suyama, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chaotic Signals in Digital Communications combines fundamental background knowledge with state-of-the-art methods for using chaotic signals and systems in digital communications. The book builds a bridge between theoretical works and practical implementation to help researchers attain consistent performance in realistic environments. It shows the possible shortcomings of the chaos-based communication systems proposed in the literature, particularly when they are subjected to non-ideal conditions. It also presents a toolbox of techniques for researchers working to actually implement such system

  10. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  11. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  12. Eliminating ambiguity in digital signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1979-01-01

    Multiamplitude minimum shift keying (mamsk) transmission system, method of differential encoding overcomes problem of ambiguity associated with advanced digital-transmission techniques with little or no penalty in transmission rate, error rate, or system complexity. Principle of method states, if signal points are properly encoded and decoded, bits are detected correctly, regardless of phase ambiguities.

  13. The design and validation of a hybrid digital-signal-processing plug-in for traditional cochlear implant speech processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghababa, Fatemeh; Marateb, Hamid R; Kermani, Saeed

    2018-06-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are electronic devices restoring partial hearing to deaf individuals with profound hearing loss. In this paper, a new plug-in for traditional IIR filter-banks (FBs) is presented for cochlear implants based on wavelet neural networks (WNNs). Having provided such a plug-in for commercially available CIs, it is possible not only to use available hardware in the market but also to optimize their performance compared with the-state-of-the-art. An online database of Dutch diphone perception was used in our study. The weights of the WNNs were tuned using particle swarm optimization (PSO) on a training set (speech-shaped noise (SSN) of 2 dB SNR), while its performance was assessed on a test set in terms of objective and composite measures in the hold-out validation framework. The cost function was defined based on the combination of mean square error (MSE), short‑time objective intelligibility (STOI) criteria on the training set. Variety of performance indices were used including segmental signal- to -noise ratio (SNRseg), MSE, STOI, log-likelihood ratio (LLR), weighted spectral slope (WSS), and composite measures C sig , C bak and C ovl . Meanwhile, the following CI speech processing techniques were used for comparison: traditional FBs, dual resonance nonlinear (DRNL) and simple dual path nonlinear (SPDN) models. The average SNRseg, MSE, and LLR values for the WNN in the entire data set were 2.496 ± 2.794, 0.086 ± 0.025 and 2.323 ± 0.281, respectively. The proposed method significantly improved MSE, SNR, SNRseg, LLR, C sig C bak and C ovl compared with the other three methods (repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA); P < 0.05). The average running time of the proposed algorithm (written in Matlab R2013a) on the training and test sets for each consonant or vowel on an Intel dual-core 2.10 GHz CPU with 2GB of RAM was 9.91 ± 0.87 (s) and 0.19 ± 0.01 (s), respectively. The proposed algorithm is accurate and

  14. Digital signal processing for NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1994-01-01

    NDT begins to adapt and use the most recent developments of digital signal and image processing. We briefly sum up the main characteristics of NDT situations (particularly noise and inverse problem formulation) and comment on techniques already used or just emerging (SAFT, split spectrum, adaptive learning network, noise reference filtering, stochastic models, neural networks). This survey is focused on ultrasonics, eddy currents and X-ray radiography. The final objective of end users (availability of automatic diagnosis systems) cannot be achieved only by signal processing algorithms. A close cooperation with other techniques such as artificial intelligence has therefore to be implemented. (author). 20 refs

  15. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  16. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  17. Fast digital recorders of signal shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshko, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Methodology of fast digital registration and pulse signals through fast-action analog-to-digital converters is considered. Systems of digital recorders: sampling and storage devices and operational memory units are described. Main attention is paid to developing parallel analog-to-digital converters, making it possible to bring the conversion frequencies up to several gigahertzes are described. Parallel-sequential analog-to-digital converters, combining high action with increased accuracy are also considered. Concrete examples of designing universal and specialized digital signal recorders, applied in experimental physics, are presented. 44 refs., 12 figs

  18. Digital signal processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the development, implementation, and application of modern DSP techniques with DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING USING MATLAB(R), 3E. Written in an engaging, informal style, this edition immediately captures your attention and encourages you to explore each critical topic. Every chapter starts with a motivational section that highlights practical examples and challenges that you can solve using techniques covered in the chapter. Each chapter concludes with a detailed case study example, a chapter summary with learning outcomes, and practical homework problems cross-referenced to specific chapter sections for your convenience. DSP Companion software accompanies each book to enable further investigation. The DSP Companion software operates with MATLAB(R) and provides intriguing demonstrations as well as interactive explorations of analysis and design concepts.

  19. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  20. Digital signal processing - growth of a technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.B.H.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid development of microelectronics has led to an increasing extent in circuits and systems for digital signal processing. This happened first in professional applications, e.g. geophysics, astronomy and space flight, and now, with the Compact Disc player, these techniques have entered the consumer field. In the near future digital TV applications will undoubtedly follow. This article outlines a number of the developments behind the advancing 'digitization' of modern technology. The article also considers the main advantages and disadvantages of digital signal processing the main modules now used and some common applications. Particular attention is paid to medical applications. (Auth.)

  1. Physical Interactions with Digital Strings - A hybrid approach to a digital keyboard instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2017-01-01

    of stopping and muting the strings at arbitrary positions. The parameters of the string model are controlled through TouchKeys multitouch sensors on each key, combined with MIDI data and acoustic signals from the digital keyboard frame, using a novel mapping. The instrument is evaluated from a performing...... of control. The contributions are two-fold. First, the use of acoustic sounds from a physical keyboard for excitations and resonances results in a novel hybrid keyboard instrument in itself. Second, the digital model of "inside piano" playing, using multitouch keyboard data, allows for performance techniques...

  2. Digital signal processing with kernel methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo-Alvarez, José Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    A realistic and comprehensive review of joint approaches to machine learning and signal processing algorithms, with application to communications, multimedia, and biomedical engineering systems Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods reviews the milestones in the mixing of classical digital signal processing models and advanced kernel machines statistical learning tools. It explains the fundamental concepts from both fields of machine learning and signal processing so that readers can quickly get up to speed in order to begin developing the concepts and application software in their own research. Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods provides a comprehensive overview of kernel methods in signal processing, without restriction to any application field. It also offers example applications and detailed benchmarking experiments with real and synthetic datasets throughout. Readers can find further worked examples with Matlab source code on a website developed by the authors. * Presents the necess...

  3. Digital control card based on digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shigang; Yin Zhiguo; Xia Le

    2008-01-01

    A digital control card based on digital signal processor was developed. Two Freescale DSP-56303 processors were utilized to achieve 3 channels proportional- integral-differential regulations. The card offers high flexibility for 100 MeV cyclotron RF system development. It was used as feedback controller in low level radio frequency control prototype, with the feedback gain parameters continuously adjustable. By using high precision analog to digital converter with 500 kHz sampling rate, a regulation bandwidth of 20 kHz was achieved. (authors)

  4. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  5. RF applications in digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schilcher, T

    2008-01-01

    Ever higher demands for stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and monitoring capability are being placed on Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) systems of particle accelerators. Meanwhile, continuing rapid advances in digital signal processing technology are being exploited to meet these demands, thus leading to development of digital LLRF systems. The rst part of this course will begin by focusing on some of the important building-blocks of RF signal processing including mixer theory and down-conversion, I/Q (amplitude and phase) detection, digital down-conversion (DDC) and decimation, concluding with a survey of I/Q modulators. The second part of the course will introduce basic concepts of feedback systems, including examples of digital cavity eld and phase control, followed by radial loop architectures. Adaptive feed-forward systems used for the suppression of repetitive beam disturbances will be examined. Finally, applications and principles of system identi cation approaches will be summarized.

  6. Design and implementation of a hybrid circuit system for micro sensor signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhuping; Chen Jing; Liu Ruqing

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers a micro sensor analog signal processing circuit system (MASPS) chip with low power and a digital signal processing circuit board implementation including hardware connection and software design. Attention has been paid to incorporate the MASPS chip into the digital circuit board. The ultimate aim is to form a hybrid circuit used for mixed-signal processing, which can be applied to a micro sensor flow monitoring system. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. An introduction to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, John H

    1989-01-01

    An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing is written for those who need to understand and use digital signal processing and yet do not wish to wade through a multi-semester course sequence. Using only calculus-level mathematics, this book progresses rapidly through the fundamentals to advanced topics such as iterative least squares design of IIR filters, inverse filters, power spectral estimation, and multidimensional applications--all in one concise volume.This book emphasizes both the fundamental principles and their modern computer implementation. It presents and demonstrates how si

  8. Low power digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun

    2003-01-01

    hardwired ASICs and more than 6 21 times lower than current state of the art low-power DSP processors. An orthogonal but practical contribution of this thesis is the test bench implementation. A PCI-based FPGA board has been used to equip a standard desktop PC with tester facilities. The test bench proved...... to be a viable alternative to conventional expensive test equipment. Finally, the work presented in this thesis has been published at several IEEE workshops and conferences, and in the Journal of VLSI Signal Processing....

  9. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  10. Digital signal processing theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Deergha

    2018-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive exposition of all major topics in digital signal processing (DSP). With numerous illustrative examples for easy understanding of the topics, it also includes MATLAB-based examples with codes in order to encourage the readers to become more confident of the fundamentals and to gain insights into DSP. Further, it presents real-world signal processing design problems using MATLAB and programmable DSP processors. In addition to problems that require analytical solutions, it discusses problems that require solutions using MATLAB at the end of each chapter. Divided into 13 chapters, it addresses many emerging topics, which are not typically found in advanced texts on DSP. It includes a chapter on adaptive digital filters used in the signal processing problems for faster acceptable results in the presence of changing environments and changing system requirements. Moreover, it offers an overview of wavelets, enabling readers to easily understand the basics and applications of this po...

  11. Digital signal processing at GEND's data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion and recording of analog signals in digital form has been an active element in the manufacturing operations of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) since 1966. The first computerized data system for these digitized waveforms was implemented at GEND's data center approximately two years later during 1968. The evolution and integration of these two activities at GEND are addressed in this paper. Beginning with the tester--data center interface, emphasis is placed on previous approaches, current capabilities, near-term trends, and future requirements. The digitizing process has developed into a firmly established set of hardware and associated software techniques which has proven itself as an accurate, reliable procedure for capturing waveform characteristics. The most important aspect of this process is the recent trend toward increased sampling rates and a greater number of digitized parameters per operation. The combined effect is a tremendous increase in output data volumes. Since digital signal processing carries the potential for significant contributions to manufacturing quality and reliability, as well as engineering design and development, increased activity in this area appears extremely desirable. 11 figures

  12. Ping-Pong Beam Training with Hybrid Digital-Analog Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro; Carvalho, Elisabeth De; Andersen, Jørgen Bach

    2017-01-01

    In this article we propose an iterative training scheme that approximates optimal beamforming between two transceivers equipped with hybrid digital-analog antenna arrays. Inspired by methods proposed for digital arrays that exploit algebraic power iterations, the proposed training procedure...... is based on a series of alternate (ping-pong) transmissions between the two devices over a reciprocal channel. During the transmissions, the devices updates their digital beamformers by conjugation and normalization operations on the received digital signal, while the analog beamformers are progressively...

  13. Concurrent signal combining and channel estimation in digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormesher, Richard C [Albuquerque, NM; Mason, John J [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-08-30

    In the reception of digital information transmitted on a communication channel, a characteristic exhibited by the communication channel during transmission of the digital information is estimated based on a communication signal that represents the digital information and has been received via the communication channel. Concurrently with the estimating, the communication signal is used to decide what digital information was transmitted.

  14. Patterns of Inclusion: Fostering Digital Citizenship through Hybrid Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Alex Young; Nørgaard, Rikke Toft; Köppe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reconsidering the concept of digital citizenship and the essential component of education, the authors propose that the concept of Hybrid Education may serve both as a guideline for the utilization of digital technologies in education and as a methodology for fostering new forms of participation, inclusion and engagement in society. Following T.…

  15. Hybrid Obfuscation Using Signals and Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahare Hashemzade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obfuscation of software and data is one of the subcategories of software security. Hence, the outlines of the obfuscation problem and its various methods have been studied in this article. This paper proposes a hybrid of two signals and encryption obfuscation to hide the behaviour program and prevent reconstruction of the normal code by hackers. The usual signal method is strong enough for obfuscation, but its problem is the high complexity because of a lot of call and return instructions. In this study, a new dispatcher was added to the source code to reconstruct the original control flow graph from the hidden one to solve the problem of the signal method. This dispatcher code is encrypted to preclude access by the hacker. In this paper, the potency that makes the obfuscation strong has been increased and the resilience that makes the obfuscation poor has been decreased. The results of a comparison of the similarity among the ambiguous data with its original code and with available efficient methods present a performance advantage of the proposed hybrid obfuscation algorithm.

  16. Hybrid Data Hiding Scheme Using Right-Most Digit Replacement and Adaptive Least Significant Bit for Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of image steganographic methods considers three main key issues: high embedding capacity, good visual symmetry/quality, and security. In this paper, a hybrid data hiding method combining the right-most digit replacement (RMDR with an adaptive least significant bit (ALSB is proposed to provide not only high embedding capacity but also maintain a good visual symmetry. The cover-image is divided into lower texture (symmetry patterns and higher texture (asymmetry patterns areas and these textures determine the selection of RMDR and ALSB methods, respectively, according to pixel symmetry. This paper has three major contributions. First, the proposed hybrid method enhanced the embedding capacity due to efficient ALSB utilization in the higher texture areas of cover images. Second, the proposed hybrid method maintains the high visual quality because RMDR has the closest selection process to generate the symmetry between stego and cover pixels. Finally, the proposed hybrid method is secure against statistical regular or singular (RS steganalysis and pixel difference histogram steganalysis because RMDR is capable of evading the risk of RS detection attacks due to pixel digits replacement instead of bits. Extensive experimental tests (over 1500+ cover images are conducted with recent least significant bit (LSB-based hybrid methods and it is demonstrated that the proposed hybrid method has a high embedding capacity (800,019 bits while maintaining good visual symmetry (39.00% peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  17. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Hybrid intravenous digital subtraction angiography of the carotid bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, F.H.; Enzmann, D.; Keyes, G.S.; Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A hybrid digital subtraction angiography technique and noise-reduction algorithm were used to evaluate the carotid bifurcation. Temporal, hybrid, and reduced-noise hybrid images were obtained in right and left anterior oblique projections, and both single- and multiple-frame images were created with each method. The resulting images were graded on a scale of 1 to 5 by three experienced neuroradiologists. Temporal images were preferred over hybrid images. The percentage of nondiagnostic examinations, as agreed upon by two readers, was higher for temporal alone than temporal + hybrid. In addition, also by agreement between two readers, temporal + hybrid images significantly increased the number of bifurcations seen in two views (87%) compared to temporal subtraction alone

  19. Hybrid opto-digital signal processing in 112 Gbit/s DP-16QAM and DP-QDB transmission for long-haul large-Aeff pure-silica-core fiber links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Ahmad, Ramshah; Basir, Rabeea

    2016-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations, we demonstrated that all-optical signal processing methods (XPM-suppressor module and in-line nonlinear equalization) significantly increase the system performance of digital nonlinear compensation (digital backward propagation) and improve the system performanc...... in five-channel 112 Gbit/s DP-16QAM and DP-QDB transmission over 2400 km large- effective-area pure-silica-core fiber ((Formula presented.)-PSCF). The system performance is quantified with the help of Q-factor (dB) for both dispersion-managed and nondispersion-managed fiber links....

  20. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.S.; Ahmadov, Q.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing make possible to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions. Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a digital storage oscilloscope. This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit (256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5 * 10 8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252. To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages.

  1. Hybrid digital-analog coding with bandwidth expansion for correlated Gaussian sources under Rayleigh fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2017-12-01

    Consider communicating a correlated Gaussian source over a Rayleigh fading channel with no knowledge of the channel signal-to-noise ratio (CSNR) at the transmitter. In this case, a digital system cannot be optimal for a range of CSNRs. Analog transmission however is optimal at all CSNRs, if the source and channel are memoryless and bandwidth matched. This paper presents new hybrid digital-analog (HDA) systems for sources with memory and channels with bandwidth expansion, which outperform both digital-only and analog-only systems over a wide range of CSNRs. The digital part is either a predictive quantizer or a transform code, used to achieve a coding gain. Analog part uses linear encoding to transmit the quantization error which improves the performance under CSNR variations. The hybrid encoder is optimized to achieve the minimum AMMSE (average minimum mean square error) over the CSNR distribution. To this end, analytical expressions are derived for the AMMSE of asymptotically optimal systems. It is shown that the outage CSNR of the channel code and the analog-digital power allocation must be jointly optimized to achieve the minimum AMMSE. In the case of HDA predictive quantization, a simple algorithm is presented to solve the optimization problem. Experimental results are presented for both Gauss-Markov sources and speech signals.

  2. Analog and digital signal analysis from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen Tenoudji, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive, graduate-level treatment of analog and digital signal analysis suitable for course use and self-guided learning. This expert text guides the reader from the basics of signal theory through a range of application tools for use in acoustic analysis, geophysics, and data compression. Each concept is introduced and explained step by step, and the necessary mathematical formulae are integrated in an accessible and intuitive way. The first part of the book explores how analog systems and signals form the basics of signal analysis. This section covers Fourier series and integral transforms of analog signals, Laplace and Hilbert transforms, the main analog filter classes, and signal modulations. Part II covers digital signals, demonstrating their key advantages. It presents z and Fourier transforms, digital filtering, inverse filters, deconvolution, and parametric modeling for deterministic signals. Wavelet decomposition and reconstruction of non-stationary signals are also discussed...

  3. Closed orbit feedback with digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F.

    1994-01-01

    The closed orbit feedback experiment conducted on the SPEAR using the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique and digital signal processing (DSP) is presented. The beam response matrix, defined as beam motion at beam position monitor (BPM) locations per unit kick by corrector magnets, was measured and then analyzed using SVD. Ten BPMs, sixteen correctors, and the eight largest SVD eigenvalues were used for closed orbit correction. The maximum sampling frequency for the closed loop feedback was measured at 37 Hz. Using the proportional and integral (PI) control algorithm with the gains Kp = 3 and K I = 0.05 and the open-loop bandwidth corresponding to 1% of the sampling frequency, a correction bandwidth (-3 dB) of approximately 0.8 Hz was achieved. Time domain measurements showed that the response time of the closed loop feedback system for 1/e decay was approximately 0.25 second. This result implies ∼ 100 Hz correction bandwidth for the planned beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring with the projected 4-kHz sampling frequency

  4. eCTG: an automatic procedure to extract digital cardiotocographic signals from digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrollini, Agnese; Agostinelli, Angela; Marcantoni, Ilaria; Morettini, Micaela; Burattini, Luca; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG), consisting in the simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal uterine contractions (UC), is a popular clinical test to assess fetal health status. Typically, CTG machines provide paper reports that are visually interpreted by clinicians. Consequently, visual CTG interpretation depends on clinician's experience and has a poor reproducibility. The lack of databases containing digital CTG signals has limited number and importance of retrospective studies finalized to set up procedures for automatic CTG analysis that could contrast visual CTG interpretation subjectivity. In order to help overcoming this problem, this study proposes an electronic procedure, termed eCTG, to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images, possibly obtainable by scanning paper CTG reports. eCTG was specifically designed to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images. It includes four main steps: pre-processing, Otsu's global thresholding, signal extraction and signal calibration. Its validation was performed by means of the "CTU-UHB Intrapartum Cardiotocography Database" by Physionet, that contains digital signals of 552 CTG recordings. Using MATLAB, each signal was plotted and saved as a digital image that was then submitted to eCTG. Digital CTG signals extracted by eCTG were eventually compared to corresponding signals directly available in the database. Comparison occurred in terms of signal similarity (evaluated by the correlation coefficient ρ, and the mean signal error MSE) and clinical features (including FHR baseline and variability; number, amplitude and duration of tachycardia, bradycardia, acceleration and deceleration episodes; number of early, variable, late and prolonged decelerations; and UC number, amplitude, duration and period). The value of ρ between eCTG and reference signals was 0.85 (P digital FHR and UC signals from digital CTG images. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  6. Mathematical Modeling and Digital Control of A Hybrid Switching Buck Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Abbasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe mathematical modeling and digital control of a hybrid switching buck converter. This converter belongs to a class of so called hybrid switching converters and contains a resonant capacitor, resonant inductor and a diode in addition to original buck converter components. The dc gain of this converter is shown to be independent of resonant branch parameters. Moreover the dc conversion ratio is derived for both ideal case and including main inductor dc resistance. Small signal model of the converter is derived and is shown to be similar to conventional buck converter. Simulation results in SIMPLIS Software as well as experimental results of digital control using an 8 bit STM microcontroller are presented. The potential advantages and applications of this converter are discussed.

  7. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  8. Interactive Digital Storytelling: Towards a Hybrid Conceptual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spierling, Ulrike

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction In this contribution, Interactive Digital Storytelling is viewed as a hybrid form of game design and cinematic storytelling for the understanding and making of future learning and entertainment applications. The paper shall present formal design models that provide a conceptual bridge between both traditional linear narrative techniques as well as agent-based emergent conversations with virtual characters. In summary, a theoretical classification of thinking models for authors ...

  9. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    CERN Document Server

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  10. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the

  11. Electronic circuit for rapid digital NMR signal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurak, P.; Krejci, I.; Belusa, J.

    1992-01-01

    The circuit is made up of two analog-to-digital converters whose outputs are connected to a process computer and the synchronization inputs to the clock terminal. The one analog-to-digital converter is connected, via the signal input, to the terminal of the nuclear magnetic resonance locking signal. The signal input of the other analog-to-digital converter is connected to the time base generator, which can be switched off, and to the magnetic field sweep circuit. The assets of this citcuit include easy computerized processing of the digitized information independently of the time base generation, and prevention of interfering signals from penetrating into the magnetic field sweep circuits. (Z.S.). 1 fig

  12. Signal Digitizer and Cross-Correlation Application Specific Integrated Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Dalius (Inventor); Baranauskas, Gytis (Inventor); Zelenin, Denis (Inventor); Kangaslahti, Pekka (Inventor); Tanner, Alan B. (Inventor); Lim, Boon H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    According to one embodiment, a cross-correlator comprises a plurality of analog front ends (AFEs), a cross-correlation circuit and a data serializer. Each of the AFEs comprises a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a corresponding analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in which the VGA receives and modifies a unique analog signal associates with a measured analog radio frequency (RF) signal and the ADC produces digital data associated with the modified analog signal. Communicatively coupled to the AFEs, the cross-correlation circuit performs a cross-correlation operation on the digital data produced from different measured analog RF signals. The data serializer is communicatively coupled to the summing and cross-correlating matrix and continuously outputs a prescribed amount of the correlated digital data.

  13. Digital signaling decouples activation probability and population heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellogg, Ryan A; Tian, Chengzhe; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Digital signaling enhances robustness of cellular decisions in noisy environments, but it is unclear how digital systems transmit temporal information about a stimulus. To understand how temporal input information is encoded and decoded by the NF-κB system, we studied transcription factor dynamic...

  14. Streamlining digital signal processing a tricks of the trade guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Streamlining Digital Signal Processing, Second Edition, presents recent advances in DSP that simplify or increase the computational speed of common signal processing operations and provides practical, real-world tips and tricks not covered in conventional DSP textbooks. It offers new implementations of digital filter design, spectrum analysis, signal generation, high-speed function approximation, and various other DSP functions. It provides:Great tips, tricks of the trade, secrets, practical shortcuts, and clever engineering solutions from seasoned signal processing professionalsAn assortment.

  15. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, Q.S.; Institute of Radiation Problems, ANAS, Baku

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing allow us to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions.Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors [1] [2]. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a OTSZS-02 (250USB)-4 digital storage oscilloscope from ZAO R UDNEV-SHILYAYEV . This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit(256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5.10''8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252.To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages

  16. Process and circuiting arrangement for the conversion of analog signals to digital signals and digital signals to analog signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintzer, K.

    1977-01-01

    Process for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion in telecommunication systems whose outstations each have an analog transmitter and an analog receiver. The invention illustrates a method of reducing the power demand of the converters at times when no conversion processes take place. (RW) [de

  17. Effect of sample storage time on detection of hybridization signals in Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cássio; Muller, Katia; Sato, Sandra; Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Long-term sample storage can affect the intensity of the hybridization signals provided by molecular diagnostic methods that use chemiluminescent detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different storage times on the hybridization signals of 13 bacterial species detected by the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method using whole-genomic DNA probes. Ninety-six subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 36 healthy subjects, and the intensity of hybridization signals was evaluated at 4 different time periods: (1) immediately after collecting (n = 24) and (2) after storage at -20 °C for 6 months (n = 24), (3) for 12 months (n = 24), and (4) for 24 months (n = 24). The intensity of hybridization signals obtained from groups 1 and 2 were significantly higher than in the other groups (p  0.05). The Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method was suitable to detect hybridization signals from all groups evaluated, and the intensity of signals decreased significantly after long periods of sample storage.

  18. Influence of Signal Stationarity on Digital Stochastic Measurement Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Župunski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of signal stationarity on digital stochastic measurement method implementation. The implementation method is based on stochastic voltage generators, analog adders, low resolution A/D converter, and multipliers and accumulators implemented by Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The characteristic of first implementations of digital stochastic measurement was the measurement of stationary signal harmonics over the constant measurement period. Later, digital stochastic measurement was extended and used also when it was necessary to measure timeseries of non-stationary signal over the variable measurement time. The result of measurement is the set of harmonics, which is, in the case of non-stationary signals, the input for calculating digital values of signal in time domain. A theoretical approach to determine measurement uncertainty is presented and the accuracy trends with varying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR are analyzed. Noisy brain potentials (spontaneous and nonspontaneous are selected as an example of real non-stationary signal and its digital stochastic measurement is tested by simulations and experiments. Tests were performed without noise and with adding noise with SNR values of 10dB, 0dB and - 10dB. The results of simulations and experiments are compared versus theory calculations, and comparasion confirms the theory.

  19. Synthesis of digital locomotive receiver of automatic locomotive signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Goncharov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Automatic locomotive signaling of continuous type with a numeric coding (ALSN has several disadvantages: a small number of signal indications, low noise stability, high inertia and low functional flexibility. Search for new and more advanced methods of signal processing for automatic locomotive signaling, synthesis of the noise proof digital locomotive receiver are essential. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of detection and identification locomotive signaling codes is based on the definition of mutual correlations of received oscillation and reference signals. For selecting threshold levels of decision element the following criterion has been formulated: the locomotive receiver should maximum set the correct solution for a given probability of dangerous errors. Findings. It has been found that the random nature of the ALSN signal amplitude does not affect the detection algorithm. However, the distribution law and numeric characteristics of signal amplitude affect the probability of errors, and should be considered when selecting a threshold levels According to obtained algorithm of detection and identification ALSN signals the digital locomotive receiver has been synthesized. It contains band pass filter, peak limiter, normalizing amplifier with automatic gain control circuit, analog to digital converter and digital signal processor. Originality. The ALSN system is improved by the way of the transfer of technical means to modern microelectronic element base, more perfect methods of detection and identification codes of locomotive signaling are applied. Practical value. Use of digital technology in the construction of the locomotive receiver ALSN will expand its functionality, will increase the noise immunity and operation stability of the locomotive signal system in conditions of various destabilizing factors.

  20. Unified Digital Periodic Signal Filters for Power Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Xin, Zhen; Zhou, Keliang

    2017-01-01

    Periodic signal controllers like repetitive and resonant controllers have demonstrated much potential in the control of power electronic converters, where periodic signals (e.g., ac voltages and currents) can be precisely regulated to follow references. Beyond the control of periodic signals, ac...... signal processing (e.g., in synchronization and pre-filtering) is also very important for power converter systems. Hence, this paper serves to unify digital periodic signal filters so as to maximize their roles in power converter systems (e.g., enhance the control of ac signals). The unified digital...... periodic signal filters behave like a comb filter, but it can also be configured to selectively filter out the harmonics of interest (e.g., the odd-order harmonics in single-phase power converter systems). Moreover, a virtual variable-sampling-frequency unit delay that enables frequency adaptive periodic...

  1. Digital signal display board design: A knowledge based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitanya, V. Sree Krishna; Rao, C. Raghavendra

    2007-01-01

    The digital signal display board is assumed to be composed of picture tubes for the purpose of displaying characters. The signal board with the picture tubes constitutes an Information System. A methodology for obtaining the discrimable matrix or table (more decisive attributes) and knowledge reduction for the above information system is proposed

  2. Design of digital load torque observer in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yukun; Zhang, Haoming; Wang, Yinghai

    2008-12-01

    In hybrid electric vehicle, engine begain to work only when motor was in high speed in order to decrease tail gas emission. However, permanent magnet motor was sensitive to its load, adding engine to the system always made its speed drop sharply, which caused engine to work in low efficiency again and produced much more environment pollution. Dynamic load torque model of permanent magnet synchronous motor is established on the basic of motor mechanical equation and permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control theory, Full- digital load torque observer and compensation control system is made based on TMS320F2407A. Experiment results prove load torque observer and compensation control system can detect and compensate torque disturbing effectively, which can solve load torque disturbing and decrease gas pollution of hybrid electric vehicle.

  3. A Computer- Based Digital Signal Processing for Nuclear Scintillator Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, M.A.; Abo Shosha, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Computer-based system for the nuclear scintillation signals with exponential decay is presented. The main objective of this work is to identify the characteristics of the acquired signals smoothly, this can be done by transferring the signal environment from random signal domain to deterministic domain using digital manipulation techniques. The proposed system consists of two major parts. The first part is the high performance data acquisition system (DAQ) that depends on a multi-channel Logic Scope. Which is interfaced with the host computer through the General Purpose Interface Board (GPIB) Ver. IEEE 488.2. Also, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been designed for this purpose using the graphical programming facilities. The second of the system is the DSP software Algorithm which analyses, demonstrates, monitoring these data to obtain the main characteristics of the acquired signals; the amplitude, the pulse count, the pulse width, decay factor, and the arrival time

  4. Cyclic LTI Systems in Digital Signal Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaidyanathan, P

    1998-01-01

    .... While circular convolution has been the centerpiece of many algorithms in signal processing for decades, such freedom, especially from the viewpoint of linear system theory, has not been studied in the past...

  5. Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zejnalova, O.; Zejnalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms are provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter on the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer is considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionization chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer is investigated in terms of the distance between pile-up pulses. The efficiency of the developed algorithms is compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature

  6. Digital signal processing with Matlab examples

    CERN Document Server

    Giron-Sierra, Jose Maria

    2017-01-01

    This is the first volume in a trilogy on modern Signal Processing. The three books provide a concise exposition of signal processing topics, and a guide to support individual practical exploration based on MATLAB programs. This book includes MATLAB codes to illustrate each of the main steps of the theory, offering a self-contained guide suitable for independent study. The code is embedded in the text, helping readers to put into practice the ideas and methods discussed. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to periodic and non-periodic signals. The second part is devoted to filtering, which is an important and commonly used application. The third part addresses more advanced topics, including the analysis of real-world non-stationary signals and data, e.g. structural fatigue, earthquakes, electro-encephalograms, birdsong, etc. The book’s last chapter focuses on modulation, an example of the intentional use of non-stationary signals.

  7. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  8. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  9. UMTS signal measurements with digital spectrum analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Palazzuoli, D.; Ricci, A. S.; Silvi, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The launch of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UNITS), the most recent mobile telecommunications standard has imposed the requirement of updating measurement instrumentation and methodologies. In order to define the most reliable measurement procedure, which is aimed at assessing the exposure to electromagnetic fields, modern spectrum analysers' features for correct signal characterisation has been reviewed. (authors)

  10. Eight-Channel Digital Signal Processor and Universal Trigger Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulski, Wojtek; Wolfs, Frank

    2003-04-01

    A 10-bit, 8-channel, 40 megasamples per second digital signal processor and waveform digitizer DDC-8 (nicknamed Universal Trigger Module) is presented. The digitizer features 8 analog inputs, 1 analog output for a reconstructed analog waveform, 16 NIM logic inputs, 8 NIM logic outputs, and a pool of 16 TTL logic lines which can be individually configured as either inputs or outputs. The first application of this device is to enhance the present trigger electronics for PHOBOS at RHIC. The status of the development and the first results are presented. Possible applications of the new device are discussed. Supported by the NSF grant PHY-0072204.

  11. Robotic digital subtraction angiography systems within the hybrid operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yuichi; Irie, Koreaki; Saguchi, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Ebara, Masaki; Nagashima, Hiroyasu; Isoshima, Akira; Arakawa, Hideki; Takao, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hiroki; Joki, Tatsuhiro; Kato, Masataka; Tani, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Satoshi; Abe, Toshiaki

    2011-05-01

    Fully equipped high-end digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within the operating room (OR) environment has emerged as a new trend in the fields of neurosurgery and vascular surgery. To describe initial clinical experience with a robotic DSA system in the hybrid OR. A newly designed robotic DSA system (Artis zeego; Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany) was installed in the hybrid OR. The system consists of a multiaxis robotic C arm and surgical OR table. In addition to conventional neuroendovascular procedures, the system was used as an intraoperative imaging tool for various neurosurgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and spine instrumentation. Five hundred one neurosurgical procedures were successfully conducted in the hybrid OR with the robotic DSA. During surgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and arteriovenous fistula treatment, intraoperative 2-/3-dimensional angiography and C-arm-based computed tomographic images (DynaCT) were easily performed without moving the OR table. Newly developed virtual navigation software (syngo iGuide; Siemens AG) can be used in frameless navigation and in access to deep-seated intracranial lesions or needle placement. This newly developed robotic DSA system provides safe and precise treatment in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery.

  12. Signals, systems, transforms, and digital signal processing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Corinthios, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsIntroductionContinuous-Time SignalsPeriodic FunctionsUnit Step FunctionGraphical Representation of FunctionsEven and Odd Parts of a FunctionDirac-Delta ImpulseBasic Properties of the Dirac-Delta ImpulseOther Important Properties of the ImpulseContinuous-Time SystemsCausality, StabilityExamples of Electrical Continuous-Time SystemsMechanical SystemsTransfer Function and Frequency ResponseConvolution and CorrelationA Right-Sided and a Left-Sided FunctionConvolution with an Impulse and Its DerivativesAdditional Convolution PropertiesCorrelation FunctionProperties of the Correlation FunctionGraphical InterpretationCorrelation of Periodic FunctionsAverage, Energy and Power of Continuous-Time SignalsDiscrete-Time SignalsPeriodicityDifference EquationsEven/Odd DecompositionAverage Value, Energy and Power SequencesCausality, StabilityProblemsAnswers to Selected ProblemsFourier Series ExpansionTrigonometric Fourier SeriesExponential Fourier SeriesExponential versus ...

  13. Sound card based digital correlation detection of weak photoelectrical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Guanghui; Wang Jiangcheng

    2005-01-01

    A simple and low-cost digital correlation method is proposed to investigate weak photoelectrical signals, using a high-speed photodiode as detector, which is directly connected to a programmably triggered sound card analogue-to-digital converter and a personal computer. Two testing experiments, autocorrelation detection of weak flickering signals from a computer monitor under background of noisy outdoor stray light and cross-correlation measurement of the surface velocity of a motional tape, are performed, showing that the results are reliable and the method is easy to implement

  14. Real-time digital signal processing fundamentals, implementations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Sen M; Tian, Wenshun

    2013-01-01

    Combines both the DSP principles and real-time implementations and applications, and now updated with the new eZdsp USB Stick, which is very low cost, portable and widely employed at many DSP labs. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing introduces fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) principles and will be updated to include the latest DSP applications, introduce new software development tools and adjust the software design process to reflect the latest advances in the field. In the 3rd edition of the book, the key aspect of hands-on experiments will be enhanced to make the DSP principle

  15. Robust digital processing of speech signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Branko; Veinović, Mladen; Marković, Milan

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on speech signal phenomena, presenting a robustification of the usual speech generation models with regard to the presumed types of excitation signals, which is equivalent to the introduction of a class of nonlinear models and the corresponding criterion functions for parameter estimation. Compared to the general class of nonlinear models, such as various neural networks, these models possess good properties of controlled complexity, the option of working in “online” mode, as well as a low information volume for efficient speech encoding and transmission. Providing comprehensive insights, the book is based on the authors’ research, which has already been published, supplemented by additional texts discussing general considerations of speech modeling, linear predictive analysis and robust parameter estimation.

  16. KNN BASED CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL MODULATED SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmed Ghauri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Demodulation process without the knowledge of modulation scheme requires Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC. When receiver has limited information about received signal then AMC become essential process. AMC finds important place in the field many civil and military fields such as modern electronic warfare, interfering source recognition, frequency management, link adaptation etc. In this paper we explore the use of K-nearest neighbor (KNN for modulation classification with different distance measurement methods. Five modulation schemes are used for classification purpose which is Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 16-QAM and 64-QAM. Higher order cummulants (HOC are used as an input feature set to the classifier. Simulation results shows that proposed classification method provides better results for the considered modulation formats.

  17. A simple approach to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Marven, Craig

    1996-01-01

    A readable, understandable introduction to DSP for professionals and students alike . . . This practical guide is a welcome alternative to more complicated introductions to DSP. It assumes no prior DSP experience and takes the reader step-by-step through the most basic signal processing concepts to more complex functions and devices, including sampling, filtering, frequency transforms, data compression, and even DSP design decisions. The guide provides clear, concise explanations and examples, while keeping mathematics to a minimum, to help develop a fundamental understanding of DSP. Other features include: * An extensive resource bibliography of more advanced DSP books. * An example of a typical DSP system development cycle, including tool descriptions. * A complete glossary of DSP-related acronyms Whether you're a working engineer looking into DSP for the first time or an undergraduate struggling to comprehend the subject, this engaging introduction provides easy access to the basic knowledge that will l...

  18. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...

  19. Subband coding of digital audio signals without loss of quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Waal, Robbert

    1989-01-01

    A subband coding system for high quality digital audio signals is described. To achieve low bit rates at a high quality level, it exploits the simultaneous masking effect of the human ear. It is shown how this effect can be used in an adaptive bit-allocation scheme. The proposed approach has been

  20. Application of Field programmable Gate Array to Digital Signal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... This work shows how one parallel technology Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) can be applied to digital signal processing problem to increase computational speed. ... In this research work FPGA typically exploits parallelism because FPGA is a parallel device. With the ...

  1. Foundations of digital signal processing theory, algorithms and hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydecki, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    An excellent introductory text, this book covers the basic theoretical, algorithmic and real-time aspects of digital signal processing (DSP). Detailed information is provided on off-line, real-time and DSP programming and the reader is effortlessly guided through advanced topics such as DSP hardware design, FIR and IIR filter design and difference equation manipulation.

  2. The study of image processing of parallel digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzes the basic characteristic of parallel DSP (digital signal processor) TMS320C80 and proposes related optimized image algorithm and the parallel processing method based on parallel DSP. The realtime for many image processing can be achieved in this way

  3. Some recent work on lattice structures for digital signal processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Digital signal processing (DSP); lattice structures; finite impulse ... fascinated this author for a long time, and for the known non-canonical ...... where M

  4. Single particle irradiation effect of digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Si'an; Chen Kenan

    2010-01-01

    The single particle irradiation effect of high energy neutron on digital signal processor TMS320P25 in dynamic working condition has been studied. The influence of the single particle on the device has been explored through the acquired waveform and working current of TMS320P25. Analysis results, test data and test methods have also been presented. (authors)

  5. Digital Signal Processor System for AC Power Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available DSP (Digital Signal Processor is the bestsolution for motor control systems to make possible thedevelopment of advanced motor drive systems. The motorcontrol processor calculates the required motor windingvoltage magnitude and frequency to operate the motor atthe desired speed. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulationcircuit controls the on and off duty cycle of the powerinverter switches to vary the magnitude of the motorvoltages.

  6. Digital signal array processor for NSLS booster power supply upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplied for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole have been installed. This paper will outline the design and function of the digital signal processor used as the primary control element in the power supply control system

  7. A high speed digital signal averager for pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Ramakrishna, J.; Ra agopalan, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    A 256-channel digital signal averager suitable for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is described. It implements 'stable averaging' algorithm and hence provides a calibrated display of the average signal at all times during the averaging process on a CRT. It has a maximum sampling rate of 2.5 μ sec and a memory capacity of 256 x 12 bit words. Number of sweeps is selectable through a front panel control in binary steps from 2 3 to 2 12 . The enhanced signal can be displayed either on a CRT or by a 3.5-digit LED display. The maximum S/N improvement that can be achieved with this instrument is 36 dB. (auth.)

  8. Digital circuit for the introduction and later removal of dither from an analog signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Gary S.

    1994-05-01

    An electronics circuit is presented for accurately digitizing an analog audio or like data signal into a digital equivalent signal by introducing dither into the analog signal and then subsequently removing the dither from the digitized signal prior to its conversion to an analog signal which is a substantial replica of the incoming analog audio or like data signal. The electronics circuit of the present invention is characterized by a first pseudo-random number generator which generates digital random noise signals or dither for addition to the digital equivalent signal and a second pseudo-random number generator which generates subtractive digital random noise signals for the subsequent removal of dither from the digital equivalent signal prior its conversion to the analog replica signal.

  9. Distortions in power spectra of digitized signals - II: Suggested solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1982-04-01

    In Part I of this report we developed analytical expressions which represent exactly the energy density spectra of ''digitization processes'' that are essentially involved in spectral analysis of continuous signals. Besides, we related the spectral energy density of each digitization process to the parameters of the exact spectral energy density of the corresponding signal. On this basis, we briefly discussed the forms of distortions (or false structures) which are present in normally computed power spectra when the corresponding spectra of the digitization processes are not sufficiently decoupled from or nullified in the computed spectra. The biggest worry with regard to these distortions is not only that they may mask the actual information contained in the original signal, but also they may tempt the researcher to establish false characteristics about the signal involved. It is, in this context, that any reasonable method that could be used (even conditionally) to pinpoint false structures in computed power spectra would be both timely and useful. A simple, handy guidance through which some portions of computed energy density spectra which are dominated by the false structures mentioned above, can be located is presented herein. Equations are presented which give the various frequencies at which false peaks may be located in such ''contaminated'' portions of computed energy density spectra. The occurrence of frequency shifts in computed power spectra is also briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Attitude Control of a Satellite by using Digital Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirelle C. Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article has discussed the development of a three-axis attitude digital controller for an artificial satellite using a digital signal processor. The main motivation of this study is the attitude control system of the satellite Multi-Mission Platform, developed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research for application in different sort of missions. The controller design was based on the theory of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator, synthesized from the linearized model of the motion of the satellite, i.e., the kinematics and dynamics of attitude. The attitude actuators considered in this study are pairs of cold gas jets powered by a pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. In the first stage of the project development, a system controller for continuous time was studied with the aim of testing the adequacy of the adopted control. The next steps had included an analysis of discretization techniques, the setting time of sampling rate, and the testing of the digital version of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator controller in the MATLAB/SIMULINK. To fulfill the study, the controller was implemented in a digital signal processor, specifically the Blackfin BF537 from Analog Devices, along with the pulse width/pulse frequency modulator. The validation tests used a scheme of co-simulation, where the model of the satellite was simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, while the controller and modulator were processed in the digital signal processor with a tool called Processor-In-the-Loop, which acted as a data communication link between both environments.function and required time to achieve a given mission accuracy are determined, and results are provided as illustration.

  11. A digital signal processing system for coherent laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Diana M.; Jones, William D.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1991-01-01

    A data processing system for use with continuous-wave lidar is described in terms of its configuration and performance during the second survey mission of NASA'a Global Backscatter Experiment. The system is designed to estimate a complete lidar spectrum in real time, record the data from two lidars, and monitor variables related to the lidar operating environment. The PC-based system includes a transient capture board, a digital-signal processing (DSP) board, and a low-speed data-acquisition board. Both unprocessed and processed lidar spectrum data are monitored in real time, and the results are compared to those of a previous non-DSP-based system. Because the DSP-based system is digital it is slower than the surface-acoustic-wave signal processor and collects 2500 spectra/s. However, the DSP-based system provides complete data sets at two wavelengths from the continuous-wave lidars.

  12. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Course on Digital Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Digital Signal Processing; CAS 2007

    2008-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twenty-first specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic being Digital Signal Processing. The course was held in Sigtuna, Sweden, from 31 May–9 June 2007. This is the first time this topic has been selected for a specialized course. Taking into account the number of related applications currently in use in accelerators around the world, it was recognized that such a topic should definitively be incorporated into the CAS series of specialized courses. The specific aim of the course was to introduce the participants to the use and programming of Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) evaluation boards. The course consisted of lectures in the mornings covering fundamental background knowledge in mathematics, controls theory, design tools, programming hardware platforms, and implementation details. In the afternoons the students split into two groups with people working in pairs. One group w...

  13. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  14. Diagnostic analysis of vibration signals using adaptive digital filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, R. E.; Jones, J. H.; Paul, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Signal enhancement techniques are described using recently developed digital adaptive filtering equipment. Adaptive filtering concepts are not new; however, as a result of recent advances in microprocessor-based electronics, hardware has been developed that has stable characteristics and of a size exceeding 1000th order. Selected data processing examples are presented illustrating spectral line enhancement, adaptive noise cancellation, and transfer function estimation in the presence of corrupting noise.

  15. A digitally assisted, signal folding neural recording amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Basu, Arindam; Liu, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Dawe, Gavin Stewart; Je, Minkyu

    2014-08-01

    A novel signal folding and reconstruction scheme for neural recording applications that exploits the 1/f(n) characteristics of neural signals is described in this paper. The amplified output is 'folded' into a predefined range of voltages by using comparison and reset circuits along with the core amplifier. After this output signal is digitized and transmitted, a reconstruction algorithm can be applied in the digital domain to recover the amplified signal from the folded waveform. This scheme enables the use of an analog-to-digital convertor with less number of bits for the same effective dynamic range. It also reduces the transmission data rate of the recording chip. Both of these features allow power and area savings at the system level. Other advantages of the proposed topology are increased reliability due to the removal of pseudo-resistors, lower harmonic distortion and low-voltage operation. An analysis of the reconstruction error introduced by this scheme is presented along with a behavioral model to provide a quick estimate of the post reconstruction dynamic range. Measurement results from two different core amplifier designs in 65 nm and 180 nm CMOS processes are presented to prove the generality of the proposed scheme in the neural recording applications. Operating from a 1 V power supply, the amplifier in 180 nm CMOS has a gain of 54.2 dB, bandwidth of 5.7 kHz, input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms and power dissipation of 2.52 μW leading to a NEF of 3.1 in spike band. It exhibits a dynamic range of 66 dB and maximum SNDR of 43 dB in LFP band. It also reduces system level power (by reducing the number of bits in the ADC by 2) as well as data rate to 80% of a conventional design. In vivo measurements validate the ability of this amplifier to simultaneously record spike and LFP signals.

  16. A Versatile Multichannel Digital Signal Processing Module for Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H.; Collins, J. W.; Walby, M.; Hennig, W.; Warburton, W. K.; Grudberg, P.

    2012-06-01

    Different techniques have been developed for reading out microcalorimeter sensor arrays: individual outputs for small arrays, and time-division or frequency-division or code-division multiplexing for large arrays. Typically, raw waveform data are first read out from the arrays using one of these techniques and then stored on computer hard drives for offline optimum filtering, leading not only to requirements for large storage space but also limitations on achievable count rate. Thus, a read-out module that is capable of processing microcalorimeter signals in real time will be highly desirable. We have developed multichannel digital signal processing electronics that are capable of on-board, real time processing of microcalorimeter sensor signals from multiplexed or individual pixel arrays. It is a 3U PXI module consisting of a standardized core processor board and a set of daughter boards. Each daughter board is designed to interface a specific type of microcalorimeter array to the core processor. The combination of the standardized core plus this set of easily designed and modified daughter boards results in a versatile data acquisition module that not only can easily expand to future detector systems, but is also low cost. In this paper, we first present the core processor/daughter board architecture, and then report the performance of an 8-channel daughter board, which digitizes individual pixel outputs at 1 MSPS with 16-bit precision. We will also introduce a time-division multiplexing type daughter board, which takes in time-division multiplexing signals through fiber-optic cables and then processes the digital signals to generate energy spectra in real time.

  17. Evaluation of hybrids algorithms for mass detection in digitalized mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Jose; Garzon Reyes, Johnson

    2011-01-01

    The breast cancer remains being a significant public health problem, the early detection of the lesions can increase the success possibilities of the medical treatments. The mammography is an image modality effective to early diagnosis of abnormalities, where the medical image is obtained of the mammary gland with X-rays of low radiation, this allows detect a tumor or circumscribed mass between two to three years before that it was clinically palpable, and is the only method that until now achieved reducing the mortality by breast cancer. In this paper three hybrids algorithms for circumscribed mass detection on digitalized mammograms are evaluated. In the first stage correspond to a review of the enhancement and segmentation techniques used in the processing of the mammographic images. After a shape filtering was applied to the resulting regions. By mean of a Bayesian filter the survivors regions were processed, where the characteristics vector for the classifier was constructed with few measurements. Later, the implemented algorithms were evaluated by ROC curves, where 40 images were taken for the test, 20 normal images and 20 images with circumscribed lesions. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages in the correct detection of a lesion of every algorithm are discussed.

  18. Using a digital signal processor as a data stream controller for digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, J.D.; Katz, J.E.

    1991-10-01

    High speed, flexibility, and good arithmetic abilities make digital signal processors (DSP) a good choice as input/output controllers for real time applications. The DSP can be made to pre-process data in real time to reduce data volume, to open early windows on what is being acquired and to implement local servo loops. We present an example of a DSP as an input/output controller for a digital subtraction angiographic imaging system. The DSP pre-processes the raw data, reducing data volume by a factor of two, and is potentially capable of producing real-time subtracted images for immediate display

  19. The Signal Validation method of Digital Process Instrumentation System on signal conditioner for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hee Gun; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Jung Seon; Shon, Chang Ho; Park, Heui Youn; Koo, In Soo

    2005-01-01

    The function of PIS(Process Instrumentation System) for SMART is to acquire the process data from sensor or transmitter. The PIS consists of signal conditioner, A/D converter, DSP(Digital Signal Process) and NIC(Network Interface Card). So, It is fully digital system after A/D converter. The PI cabinet and PDAS(Plant Data Acquisition System) in commercial plant is responsible for data acquisition of the sensor or transmitter include RTD, TC, level, flow, pressure and so on. The PDAS has the software that processes each sensor data and PI cabinet has the signal conditioner, which is need for maintenance and test. The signal conditioner has the potentiometer to adjust the span and zero for test and maintenance. The PIS of SMART also has the signal conditioner which has the span and zero adjust same as the commercial plant because the signal conditioner perform the signal condition for AD converter such as 0∼10Vdc. But, To adjust span and zero is manual test and calibration. So, This paper presents the method of signal validation and calibration, which is used by digital feature in SMART. There are I/E(current to voltage), R/E(resistor to voltage), F/E(frequency to voltage), V/V(voltage to voltage). Etc. In this paper show only the signal validation and calibration about I/E converter that convert level, pressure, flow such as 4∼20mA into signal for AD conversion such as 0∼10Vdc

  20. Applying advanced digital signal processing techniques in industrial radioisotopes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.K.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes can be used to obtain signals or images in order to recognize the information inside the industrial systems. The main problems of using these techniques are the difficulty of identification of the obtained signals or images and the requirement of skilled experts for the interpretation process of the output data of these applications. Now, the interpretation of the output data from these applications is performed mainly manually, depending heavily on the skills and the experience of trained operators. This process is time consuming and the results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors. The objective of the thesis is to apply the advanced digital signal processing techniques for improving the treatment and the interpretation of the output data from the different Industrial Radioisotopes Applications (IRA). This thesis focuses on two IRA; the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) measurement and the defect inspection of welded pipes using a gamma source (gamma radiography). In RTD measurement application, this thesis presents methods for signal pre-processing and modeling of the RTD signals. Simulation results have been presented for two case studies. The first case study is a laboratory experiment for measuring the RTD in a water flow rig. The second case study is an experiment for measuring the RTD in a phosphate production unit. The thesis proposes an approach for RTD signal identification in the presence of noise. In this approach, after signal processing, the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and polynomial coefficients are extracted from the processed signal or from one of its transforms. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been tested and compared for efficient feature extraction. Neural networks have been used for matching of the extracted features. Furthermore, the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of the RTD signal has been also used instead of the discrete

  1. Resolving the range ambiguity in OFDR using digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesen, Nicolas; Lam, Timothy T-Y; Chow, Jong H

    2014-01-01

    A digitally range-gated variant of optical frequency domain reflectometry is demonstrated which overcomes the beat note ambiguity when sensing beyond a single frequency sweep. The range-gating is achieved using a spread spectrum technique involving time-stamping of the optical signal using high-frequency pseudorandom phase modulation. The reflections from different sections of fiber can then be isolated in the time domain by digitally inverting the phase modulation using appropriately-delayed copies of the pseudorandom noise code. Since the technique overcomes the range ambiguity in OFDR, it permits high sweep repetition rates without sacrificing range, thus allowing for high-bandwidth sensing over long lengths of fiber. This is demonstrated for the case of quasi-distributed sensing. (paper)

  2. Analytical prediction of digital signal crosstalk of FCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleisle, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of study effort whose aim was the development of accurate means of analyzing and predicting signal cross-talk in multi-wire digital data cables. A complete analytical model is developed n + 1 wire systems of uniform transmission lines with arbitrary linear boundary conditions. In addition, a minimum set of parameter measurements required for the application of the model are presented. Comparisons between cross-talk predicted by this model and actual measured cross-talk are shown for a six conductor ribbon cable.

  3. Digital signal processing of data from borehole creep closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Patrick, W.C.; Duplancic, N.

    1987-01-01

    Digital signal processing, a technique commonly used in the fields of electrical engineering and communication technology, has been successfully used to analyze creep closure data obtained from a 0.91 m diameter by 5.13 deep borehole in bedded salt. By filtering the ''noise'' component of the closure data from a test borehole, important data trends were made more evident and average creep closure rates were able to be calculated. This process provided accurate estimates of closure rates that are used in the design of lined boreholes in which heat-generating transuranic nuclear wastes are emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  4. Mathematical pattern, smoothing and digital filtering of a speech signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzam, Mohamed Habib

    1979-01-01

    After presentation of speech synthesis methods, characterized by a treatment of pre-recorded natural signals, or by an analog simulation of vocal tract, we present a new synthesis method especially based on a mathematical pattern of the signal, as a development of M. RODET's method. For their physiological origin, these signals are partially or totally voiced, or aleatory. For the phoneme voiced parts, we compute the formant curves, the sum of which constitute the wave, directly in time-domain by applying a specific envelope (operating as a time-window analysis) to a sinusoidal wave, The sinusoidal wave computation is made at the beginning of each signal's pseudo-period. The transition from successive periods is assured by a polynomial smoothing followed by a digital filtering. For the aleatory parts, we present an aleatory computation method of formant curves. Each signal is subjected to a melodic diagrams computed in accordance with the nature of the phoneme (vowel or consonant) and its context (isolated or not). (author) [fr

  5. Wireless receiver architectures and design antennas, RF, synthesizers, mixed signal, and digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rouphael, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Receiver Architectures and Design presents the various designs and architectures of wireless receivers in the context of modern multi-mode and multi-standard devices. This one-stop reference and guide to designing low-cost low-power multi-mode, multi-standard receivers treats analog and digital signal processing simultaneously, with equal detail given to the chosen architecture and modulating waveform. It provides a complete understanding of the receiver's analog front end and the digital backend, and how each affects the other. The book explains the design process in great detail, s

  6. Hybrid soft computing systems for electromyographic signals analysis: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) is a bio-signal collected on human skeletal muscle. Analysis of EMG signals has been widely used to detect human movement intent, control various human-machine interfaces, diagnose neuromuscular diseases, and model neuromusculoskeletal system. With the advances of artificial intelligence and soft computing, many sophisticated techniques have been proposed for such purpose. Hybrid soft computing system (HSCS), the integration of these different techniques, aims to further improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of EMG analysis. This paper reviews and compares key combinations of neural network, support vector machine, fuzzy logic, evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence for EMG analysis. Our suggestions on the possible future development of HSCS in EMG analysis are also given in terms of basic soft computing techniques, further combination of these techniques, and their other applications in EMG analysis. PMID:24490979

  7. Hybrid soft computing systems for electromyographic signals analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Guo, Tianruo; Bai, Siwei; Dokos, Socrates

    2014-02-03

    Electromyographic (EMG) is a bio-signal collected on human skeletal muscle. Analysis of EMG signals has been widely used to detect human movement intent, control various human-machine interfaces, diagnose neuromuscular diseases, and model neuromusculoskeletal system. With the advances of artificial intelligence and soft computing, many sophisticated techniques have been proposed for such purpose. Hybrid soft computing system (HSCS), the integration of these different techniques, aims to further improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of EMG analysis. This paper reviews and compares key combinations of neural network, support vector machine, fuzzy logic, evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence for EMG analysis. Our suggestions on the possible future development of HSCS in EMG analysis are also given in terms of basic soft computing techniques, further combination of these techniques, and their other applications in EMG analysis.

  8. Study of signal-to-noise ratio in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuri; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kodera, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    Mammography techniques have recently advanced from those using analog systems (the screen-film system) to those using digital systems; for example, computed radiography (CR) and flat-panel detectors (FPDs) are nowadays used in mammography. Further, phase contrast mammography (PCM)-a digital technique by which images with a magnification of 1.75× can be obtained-is now available in the market. We studied the effect of the air gap in PCM and evaluated the effectiveness of an antiscatter x-ray grid in conventional mammography (CM) by measuring the scatter fraction ratio (SFR) and relative signal-to-noise ratio (rSNR) and comparing them between PCM and the digital CM. The results indicated that the SFRs for the CM images obtained with a grid were the lowest and that these ratios were almost the same as those for the PCM images. In contrast, the rSNRs for the PCM images were the highest, which means that the scattering of x-rays was sufficiently reduced by the air gap without the loss of primary x-rays.

  9. Long-distance digital signal transfers between trigger system and TOF system of BES III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangdong; Liu Shubin; An Qi

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces a design of digital signals communication between the trigger system and the TOF system of BES III. The design can support the BES III successfully, which is based on fiber digital communication, FPGA etc. (authors)

  10. Digital Signal Processing and Control for the Study of Gene Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the digital revolution, digital signal processing and control has been widely used in many areas of science and engineering today. It provides practical and powerful tools to model, simulate, analyze, design, measure, and control complex and dynamic systems such as robots and aircrafts. Gene networks are also complex dynamic systems which can be studied via digital signal processing and control. Unlike conventional computational methods, this approach is capable of not only modeling but also controlling gene networks since the experimental environment is mostly digital today. The overall aim of this article is to introduce digital signal processing and control as a useful tool for the study of gene networks.

  11. Improvement of the characterization of ultrasonic data by means of digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.; Romy, D.; Weigel, D.

    1985-01-01

    The digital signal processing method for averaging using minima developed by Framatome allows to improve signal-to-noise ratio up to 7 dB during ultrasonic testing of cast stainless steel structures (primary pipes of PWR power plants). Application of digital signal processing to industrial testing conditions requires the availability of a fast analog-digital converter capable of real time processings which has been developed by CGR [fr

  12. Optimization of signal processing algorithm for digital beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Longwei; Yi Xing; Leng Yongbin; Yan Yingbing; Chen Zhichu

    2013-01-01

    Based on turn-by-turn (TBT) signal processing, the paper emphasizes on the optimization of system timing and implementation of digital automatic gain control, slow application (SA) modules. Beam position including TBT, fast application (FA) and SA data can be acquired. On-line evaluation on Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) shows that the processor is able to get the multi-rate position data which contain true beam movements. When the storage ring is 174 mA and 500 bunches filled, the resolutions of TBT data, FA data and SA data achieve 0.84, 0.44 and 0.23 μm respectively. The above results prove that the design could meet the performance requirements. (authors)

  13. Interference and protection of electromagnetic pulse to digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Jiao Hongling; He Shanhong; Pan Chao; Feng Deren; Che Wenquan; Xiong Ying

    2013-01-01

    The effective electromagnetic pulse protection is studied in this paper, first the interference of electromagnetic pulse simulator path is analyzed, including the digital signal processor (DSP) and the discharge circuit of coupling interference and net electricity coupling interference. Using the structure optimization design, the hardware block reinforcement measurement and the setting of open software trap, and the watchdog anti-jamming measures, the interference test is completed such as the central processor core voltage of DSP, input/output (I/O) ports of DSP and the display screen. The experimental results show that the combination of hardware and software protection reinforcement technology is effective, and the interference pulse amplitude of DSP board I/O port and the kernel work voltage are reduced, and the interference duration is reduced from 2 μs to 400 ns. The interference pulse is effectively restrained. (authors)

  14. Loss-Free Counting with Digital Signal Processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markku Koskelo; Dave Hall; Martin Moslinger

    2000-01-01

    Loss-free-counting (LFC) techniques have frequently been used with traditional analog pulse processing systems to compensate for the time or pulses lost when a spectroscopy system is unavailable (busy) for processing an accepted pulse. With the availability of second-generation digital signal processing (DSP) electronics that offer a significantly improved performance for both high and low count rate applications, the LFC technique has been revisited. Specific attention was given to the high and ultra-high count rate behavior, using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with both transistor reset preamplifiers (TRP) and conventional RC preamplifiers. The experiments conducted for this work show that the known LFC techniques further benefit when combined with modern DSP pulse shaping

  15. Analyzing gigahertz bunch length instabilities with a digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stege, R.E. Jr.; Krejcik, P.; Minty, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    A bunch length instability, nicknamed the ''sawtooth'', because of its transient behavior, has been observed at high current running in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) electron damping ring. The incompatibility of this instability with successful SLC naming prompted its study using a high bandwidth real-time spectrum analyzer, the Tektronix 3052 digital signal processor (DSP) system. This device has been used to study energy ramping in storage rings but this is the first time it has been used to study transient instability phenomena. It is a particularly valuable tool for use in understanding non-linear, multiple frequency phenomena. The frequency range of this device has been extended through the use of radio frequency (RF) down converters. This paper describes the measurement setup and presents some of the results

  16. REVIEW ARTICLE: Spectrophotometric applications of digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Roman Z.

    2006-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is more and more often the method of choice not only in analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the identification of physical properties of various objects and their classification. The applications of spectrophotometry include such diversified tasks as monitoring of optical telecommunications links, assessment of eating quality of food, forensic classification of papers, biometric identification of individuals, detection of insect infestation of seeds and classification of textiles. In all those applications, large numbers of data, generated by spectrophotometers, are processed by various digital means in order to extract measurement information. The main objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art methodology for digital signal processing (DSP) when applied to data provided by spectrophotometric transducers and spectrophotometers. First, a general methodology of DSP applications in spectrophotometry, based on DSP-oriented models of spectrophotometric data, is outlined. Then, the most important classes of DSP methods for processing spectrophotometric data—the methods for DSP-aided calibration of spectrophotometric instrumentation, the methods for the estimation of spectra on the basis of spectrophotometric data, the methods for the estimation of spectrum-related measurands on the basis of spectrophotometric data—are presented. Finally, the methods for preprocessing and postprocessing of spectrophotometric data are overviewed. Throughout the review, the applications of DSP are illustrated with numerous examples related to broadly understood spectrophotometry.

  17. Digital Signal Processing For Low Bit Rate TV Image Codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R.

    1987-06-01

    In view of the 56 KBPS digital switched network services and the ISDN, low bit rate codecs for providing real time full motion color video are under various stages of development. Some companies have already brought the codecs into the market. They are being used by industry and some Federal Agencies for video teleconferencing. In general, these codecs have various features such as multiplexing audio and data, high resolution graphics, encryption, error detection and correction, self diagnostics, freezeframe, split video, text overlay etc. To transmit the original color video on a 56 KBPS network requires bit rate reduction of the order of 1400:1. Such a large scale bandwidth compression can be realized only by implementing a number of sophisticated,digital signal processing techniques. This paper provides an overview of such techniques and outlines the newer concepts that are being investigated. Before resorting to the data compression techniques, various preprocessing operations such as noise filtering, composite-component transformation and horizontal and vertical blanking interval removal are to be implemented. Invariably spatio-temporal subsampling is achieved by appropriate filtering. Transform and/or prediction coupled with motion estimation and strengthened by adaptive features are some of the tools in the arsenal of the data reduction methods. Other essential blocks in the system are quantizer, bit allocation, buffer, multiplexer, channel coding etc.

  18. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  19. Non-linear hybrid control oriented modelling of a digital displacement machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2017-01-01

    Proper feedback control of digital fluid power machines (Pressure, flow, torque or speed control) requires a control oriented model, from where the system dynamics can be analyzed, stability can be proven and design criteria can be specified. The development of control oriented models for hydraulic...... Digital Displacement Machines (DDM) is complicated due to non-smooth machine behavior, where the dynamics comprises both analog, digital and non-linear elements. For a full stroke operated DDM the power throughput is altered in discrete levels based on the ratio of activated pressure chambers....... In this paper, a control oriented hybrid model is established, which combines the continuous non-linear pressure chamber dynamics and the discrete shaft position dependent activation of the pressure chambers. The hybrid machine model is further extended to describe the dynamics of a Digital Fluid Power...

  20. Generation and coherent detection of QPSK signal using a novel method of digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Hu, Bingliang; He, Zhen-An; Xie, Wenjia; Gao, Xiaohui

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate an optical quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal transmitter and an optical receiver for demodulating optical QPSK signal with homodyne detection and digital signal processing (DSP). DSP on the homodyne detection scheme is employed without locking the phase of the local oscillator (LO). In this paper, we present an extracting one-dimensional array of down-sampling method for reducing unwanted samples of constellation diagram measurement. Such a novel scheme embodies the following major advantages over the other conventional optical QPSK signal detection methods. First, this homodyne detection scheme does not need strict requirement on LO in comparison with linear optical sampling, such as having a flat spectral density and phase over the spectral support of the source under test. Second, the LabVIEW software is directly used for recovering the QPSK signal constellation without employing complex DSP circuit. Third, this scheme is applicable to multilevel modulation formats such as M-ary PSK and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or higher speed signals by making minor changes.

  1. Photonic Ultra-Wideband 781.25-Mb/s Signal Generation and Transmission Incorporating Digital Signal Processing Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    The generation of photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse signals using an uncooled distributed-feedback laser is proposed. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit digital signal processing (DSP) bit-error-rate measurements for transmission of a 781.25-Mb/s photonic UWB signal...

  2. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! DISP-2003 - Digital Signal Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DISP-2003 - Digital Signal Processing DISP-2003 is a two-term course given by CERN and University of Lausanne (UNIL) experts within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will review the current techniques dealing with Digital Signal Processing, and it is intended for an audience who work or will work on digital signal processing aspects, and who need an introductory or refresher/update course. The course will be in English, with question and answers also in French. Spring 2 Term: DISP-2003: Advanced Digital Signal Processing 30 April 2003 - 21 May 2003, 4 lectures, Wednesdays afternoon (attendance cost: 40.- CHF, registration required) Lecturers: Léonard Studer, UNIL; Laurent Deniau, AT-MTM; Elena Wildner, AT-MAS Programme: Intelligent signal processing (ISP). Non-linear time series analysis. Image processing. Wavelets. (Basic concepts and definitions have been introduced during the previous Spring 1 Term: DISP-2003: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing). DISP-2003 is open...

  3. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! DISP-2003  -  Digital Signal Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DISP-2003 is a two-term course given by CERN and University of Lausanne (UNIL) experts within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will review the current techniques dealing with Digital Signal Processing. The DISP-2003 lecture series is composed of two Terms, and it is intended for an audience who work or will work on digital signal processing aspects, and who need an introductory or refresher/update course. The course will be in English, with questions and answers also in French. Spring 1 Term: DISP-2003: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing 20 February 2003 - 3 April 2003, 7 lectures, Thursdays (attendance cost: 70.- CHF, registration required) Lecturers: Maria Elena Angoletta, AB-BDI; Guy Baribaud, AB-BDI; Philippe Baudrenghien, AB-RF; Laurent Deniau, AT-MTM Programme: 'Classical' digital signal processing. Fourier analysis. The Laplace transform. The z-transform. Digital filters. Statistics for Signal Processing. Signal Estimation and Spectral Analysis. Spring 2 T...

  4. A New Digital Signal Processing Method for Spectrum Interference Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, L.; Capriglione, D.; Ferrigno, L.; Miele, G.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency spectrum is a limited shared resource, nowadays interested by an ever growing number of different applications. Generally, the companies providing such services pay to the governments the right of using a limited portion of the spectrum, consequently they would be assured that the licensed radio spectrum resource is not interested by significant external interferences. At the same time, they have to guarantee that their devices make an efficient use of the spectrum and meet the electromagnetic compatibility regulations. Therefore the competent authorities are called to control the access to the spectrum adopting suitable management and monitoring policies, as well as the manufacturers have to periodically verify the correct working of their apparatuses. Several measurement solutions are present on the market. They generally refer to real-time spectrum analyzers and measurement receivers. Both of them are characterized by good metrological accuracies but show costs, dimensions and weights that make no possible a use "on the field". The paper presents a first step in realizing a digital signal processing based measurement instrument able to suitably accomplish for the above mentioned needs. In particular the attention has been given to the DSP based measurement section of the instrument. To these aims an innovative measurement method for spectrum monitoring and management is proposed in this paper. It performs an efficient sequential analysis based on a sample by sample digital processing. Three main issues are in particular pursued: (i) measurement performance comparable to that exhibited by other methods proposed in literature; (ii) fast measurement time, (iii) easy implementation on cost-effective measurement hardware.

  5. Physical, Digital, and Hybrid Setups Supporting Card-Based Collaborative Design Ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Caroline Emilie; Klinkhammer, Daniel; Dalsgaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    to supporting collaborative ideation? To answer this question, we present a study and analysis of three different implementations of a well-established collaborative ideation technique called Inspiration Card Workshop, with physical, digital, and hybrid setups. Each setup is evaluated in a controlled experiment...

  6. Low-power digital ASIC for on-chip spectral analysis of low-frequency physiological signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Zedong; Zhang Fengjuan; Li Jie; Wang Lei

    2012-01-01

    A digital ASIC chip customized for battery-operated body sensing devices is presented. The ASIC incorporates a novel hybrid-architecture fast Fourier transform (FFT) unit that is capable of scalable spectral analysis, a licensed ARM7TDMI IP hardcore and several peripheral IP blocks. Extensive experimental results suggest that the complete chip works as intended. The power consumption of the FFT unit is 0.69 mW at 1 MHz with 1.8 V power supply. The low-power and programmable features of the ASIC make it suitable for ‘on-the-fly’ low-frequency physiological signal processing. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Exploring the Use of Interactive Digital Storytelling Video: Promoting Student Engagement and Learning in a University Hybrid Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Catharyn C.; Warren, Annie E.; Archambault, Leanna M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores interactive digital storytelling in a university hybrid course. Digital stories leverage imagery and narrative-based content to explore concepts, while appealing to millennials. When digital storytelling is used as the main source of course content, tensions arise regarding how to engage and support student learning while…

  8. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  9. Floating-to-Fixed-Point Conversion for Digital Signal Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Daniel; Chillet, Daniel; Sentieys, Olivier

    2006-12-01

    Digital signal processing applications are specified with floating-point data types but they are usually implemented in embedded systems with fixed-point arithmetic to minimise cost and power consumption. Thus, methodologies which establish automatically the fixed-point specification are required to reduce the application time-to-market. In this paper, a new methodology for the floating-to-fixed point conversion is proposed for software implementations. The aim of our approach is to determine the fixed-point specification which minimises the code execution time for a given accuracy constraint. Compared to previous methodologies, our approach takes into account the DSP architecture to optimise the fixed-point formats and the floating-to-fixed-point conversion process is coupled with the code generation process. The fixed-point data types and the position of the scaling operations are optimised to reduce the code execution time. To evaluate the fixed-point computation accuracy, an analytical approach is used to reduce the optimisation time compared to the existing methods based on simulation. The methodology stages are described and several experiment results are presented to underline the efficiency of this approach.

  10. Digital Signal Processing for Medical Imaging Using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2013-01-01

    This book describes medical imaging systems, such as X-ray, Computed tomography, MRI, etc. from the point of view of digital signal processing. Readers will see techniques applied to medical imaging such as Radon transformation, image reconstruction, image rendering, image enhancement and restoration, and more. This book also outlines the physics behind medical imaging required to understand the techniques being described. The presentation is designed to be accessible to beginners who are doing research in DSP for medical imaging. Matlab programs and illustrations are used wherever possible to reinforce the concepts being discussed.  ·         Acts as a “starter kit” for beginners doing research in DSP for medical imaging; ·         Uses Matlab programs and illustrations throughout to make content accessible, particularly with techniques such as Radon transformation and image rendering; ·         Includes discussion of the basic principles behind the various medical imaging tec...

  11. TMS320C25 Digital Signal Processor For 2-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M. Syamsa

    1996-01-01

    The Fourier transform is one of the most important mathematical tool in signal processing and analysis, which converts information from the time/spatial domain into the frequency domain. Even with implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithms in imaging data, the discrete Fourier transform execution consume a lot of time. Digital signal processors are designed specifically to perform computation intensive digital signal processing algorithms. By taking advantage of the advanced architecture. parallel processing, and dedicated digital signal processing (DSP) instruction sets. This device can execute million of DSP operations per second. The device architecture, characteristics and feature suitable for fast Fourier transform application and speed-up are discussed

  12. HYBRID REPRESENTATION OF DIGITAL MOCKUP FOR HERITAGE BUILDINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nicolas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the implementation of tool allowing the portability of the digital mock-up for architectural projects on the building renovation place and the use of representation layers giving functions adapted to the different workers open to work in this place. Our test case is applied to renovation works on old windows in an ancient abbey where it is necessary to improve the thermal efficiency.

  13. Digital-Analog Hybrid Scheme and Its Application to Chaotic Random Number Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeshi; Li, Hongtao; Miao, Yunchi; Hu, Wen; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Practical random number generation (RNG) circuits are typically achieved with analog devices or digital approaches. Digital-based techniques, which use field programmable gate array (FPGA) and graphics processing units (GPU) etc. usually have better performances than analog methods as they are programmable, efficient and robust. However, digital realizations suffer from the effect of finite precision. Accordingly, the generated random numbers (RNs) are actually periodic instead of being real random. To tackle this limitation, in this paper we propose a novel digital-analog hybrid scheme that employs the digital unit as the main body, and minimum analog devices to generate physical RNs. Moreover, the possibility of realizing the proposed scheme with only one memory element is discussed. Without loss of generality, we use the capacitor and the memristor along with FPGA to construct the proposed hybrid system, and a chaotic true random number generator (TRNG) circuit is realized, producing physical RNs at a throughput of Gbit/s scale. These RNs successfully pass all the tests in the NIST SP800-22 package, confirming the significance of the scheme in practical applications. In addition, the use of this new scheme is not restricted to RNGs, and it also provides a strategy to solve the effect of finite precision in other digital systems.

  14. Distortions in power spectra of digitized signals - I: General formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1982-04-01

    When a continuous signal f(t) is digitized and then spectrally analysed, the resultant energy spectral density R(ω) is given as R(ω) = |F(ω) * D(ω)| 2 , where F(ω) is the exact Fourier transform of f(t), D(ω) is the exact Fourier transform of the digitization process and * denotes convolution operation. A notable practical problem in spectral analysis is how to adequately decouple D(ω) from R(ω) and hence obtain the exact energy spectral density of f(t), i.e. |F(ω)| 2 , since R(ω) → |F(ω)| 2 only if D(ω) → delta(ω) or (under certain conditions) when D(ω) → delta(ω-ω 0 ) or if D(ω) → Σsub(n) delta(ω-ωsub(n)), where the latter is a sufficiently spaced series of delta functions and ωsub(j) is constant for a given j. A solution to this problem requires, among others, thorough understanding of D(ω), how it relates to F(ω) and hence the manner or degree to which D(ω) distorts or contaminates F(ω) to form R(ω). In this paper, we have developed exact analytical expressions of D(ω) that are well related to the corresponding F(ω) in the cases when f(t) is a simple sinusoid as well as when it is in the form of a more complex function. It is established that in either of these cases, D(ω) is a clear function of the salient parameters of both f(t) and F(ω). The contents of this paper are used in Part II to examine the manner and extent to which D(ω) causes distortions in R(ω) under given conditions, and also to establish a procedure by which such distortions may be decoupled from a practically computed R(ω). Other related issues such as frequency shifts in computed power spectra are also discussed therein. (author)

  15. Digital Signal Processing in Beam Instrumentation Latest Trends and Typical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, Maria Elena

    2003-01-01

    The last decade has seen major improvements in digital hardware, algortithms and software, which have trickled down to the Beam Instrumentation (BI) area. An advantageous transition is taking place towards systems with an ever-stronger digital presence. Digital systems are assembled by means of a rather small number of basic building blocks, with improved speed, precision, signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, flexibility, and accompanied by a range of powerful and user-friendly development tools. The paper reviews current digital BI trends, including using Digital Signal Processors, Field Programmable Gate Arrays, Digital Receivers and General Purpose Processors as well as some useful processing algorithms. Selected digital applications are illustrated on control/feedback and beam diagnostics.

  16. Implementation theory of distortion-invariant pattern recognition for optical and digital signal processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhamon, Michael Earl

    A pattern recognition system which uses complex correlation filter banks requires proportionally more computational effort than single-real valued filters. This introduces increased computation burden but also introduces a higher level of parallelism, that common computing platforms fail to identify. As a result, we consider algorithm mapping to both optical and digital processors. For digital implementation, we develop computationally efficient pattern recognition algorithms, referred to as, vector inner product operators that require less computational effort than traditional fast Fourier methods. These algorithms do not need correlation and they map readily onto parallel digital architectures, which imply new architectures for optical processors. These filters exploit circulant-symmetric matrix structures of the training set data representing a variety of distortions. By using the same mathematical basis as with the vector inner product operations, we are able to extend the capabilities of more traditional correlation filtering to what we refer to as "Super Images". These "Super Images" are used to morphologically transform a complicated input scene into a predetermined dot pattern. The orientation of the dot pattern is related to the rotational distortion of the object of interest. The optical implementation of "Super Images" yields feature reduction necessary for using other techniques, such as artificial neural networks. We propose a parallel digital signal processor architecture based on specific pattern recognition algorithms but general enough to be applicable to other similar problems. Such an architecture is classified as a data flow architecture. Instead of mapping an algorithm to an architecture, we propose mapping the DSP architecture to a class of pattern recognition algorithms. Today's optical processing systems have difficulties implementing full complex filter structures. Typically, optical systems (like the 4f correlators) are limited to phase

  17. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs

  18. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC! DISP-2003 - Digital Signal Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DISP-2003 is a two-term course given by CERN and University of Lausanne (UNIL) experts within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will review the current techniques dealing with Digital Signal Processing, and it is intended for an audience who work or will work on digital signal processing aspects, and who need an introductory or refresher/update course. The course will be in English, with question and answers also in French. Spring 2 Term: DISP-2003: Advanced Digital Signal Processing 30 April 2003 - 21 May 2003, 4 lectures, Wednesdays afternoon. Attendance cost: 40.- CHF, registration required. Lecturers: Léonard Studer, UNIL; Laurent Deniau, AT-MTM; Elena Wildner, AT-MAS. Programme: Intelligent signal processing (ISP). Non-linear time series analysis. Image processing. Wavelets. Basic concepts and definitions have been introduced during the previous Spring 1 Term: DISP-2003: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing. DISP-2003 is open to all people interested, but registrat...

  19. Characterization of three digital signal processor systems used in gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reguigui, N.; Morel, J.; Ben Kraiem, H.; Mahjoub, A.

    2002-01-01

    Various manufacturers have recently introduced digital signal processing systems that allow data acquisition in gamma spectrometry at high-input counting rates (several thousand pulses per second). In these systems, the signal digitization is performed immediately following the preamplification stage. This allows digital shaping and filtering of the signal which increases the number of possible combinations in signal shaping and as a consequence, optimizes the resolution as a function of the detector characteristics and the counting rate. Basic characteristic parameters of three digital signal processors that were recently introduced in the market have been studied and compared to those of an analog system. This study is carried out using a hyper-pure coaxial type germanium detector and 57 Co, 60 Co and 137 Cs radioactive sources. Performance parameters such as energy resolution, system throughput, and counting losses that are due to dead time and pile-up effects are presented and discussed

  20. Microcomputer-Based Digital Signal Processing Laboratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Jr., Rocco; Rao, S. Sathyanarayan

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system (Apple II microcomputer interfaced to flexible, custom-designed digital hardware) which can provide: (1) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) computation on real-time data with a video display of spectrum; (2) frequency synthesis experiments using the inverse FFT; and (3) real-time digital filtering experiments. (JN)

  1. Investigation of crack origin in hybrid components with twocolor digital Fresnel holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisson E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a two-color digital holographic interferometer. The set-up is devoted to the investigation of crack origin in hybrid industrial electronic components. Optical configuration and algorithms to recover the optical phase of two-color digitally encoded holograms are described. The method is based on a spatial-color-multiplexing scheme in which holographic reconstruction is performed using a spectral scanning algorithm. Experimental results exhibit in-plane and out-of-plane non uniform deformations that are the probable cause of the cracking of the component.

  2. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poikela, T; Plosila, J; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; Gaspari, M De; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Beuzekom, M van; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures

  3. Design and Testing of Digitally Manufactured Paraffin Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Hybrid Rocket Motors

    OpenAIRE

    McCulley, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the application of additive manufacturing techniques for fabricating hybrid rocket fuel grains composed of porous Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene impregnated with paraffin wax. The digitally manufactured ABS substrate provides mechanical support for the paraffin fuel material and serves as an additional fuel component. The embedded paraffin provides an enhanced fuel regression rate while having no detrimental effect on the thermodynamic burn properties of the fuel g...

  4. Enhancement of Twins Fetal ECG Signal Extraction Based on Hybrid Blind Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kareem Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ECG machines are noninvasive system used to measure the heartbeat signal. It’s very important to monitor the fetus ECG signals during pregnancy to check the heat activity and to detect any problem early before born, therefore the monitoring of ECG signals have clinical significance and importance. For multi-fetal pregnancy case the classical filtering algorithms are not sufficient to separate the ECG signals between mother and fetal. In this paper the mixture consists of mixing from three ECG signals, the first signal is the mother ECG (M-ECG signal, second signal the Fetal-1 ECG (F1-ECG, and third signal is the Fetal-2 ECG (F2-ECG, these signals are extracted based on modified blind source extraction (BSE techniques. The proposed work based on hybridization between two BSE techniques to ensure that the extracted signals separated well. The results demonstrate that the proposed work very efficiently to extract the useful ECG signals

  5. Illustration of decimation in digital signal processing (DSP) systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and engineering, especially in the areas of communication and medicine. ... This multirate DSP had been found useful in application like digital audio, video and even GSM technology. The work is implemented using MATLABTM software.

  6. Study of time-domain digital pulse shaping algorithms for nuclear signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Tuo Xianguo; Zhu Xing; Liu Yi; Zhou Wei; Lei Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    With the development on high-speed integrated circuit, fast high resolution sampling ADC and digital signal processors are replacing analog shaping amplifier circuit. This paper firstly presents the numerical analysis and simulation on R-C shaping circuit model and C-R shaping circuit model. Mathematic models are established based on 1 st order digital differential method and Kirchhoff Current Law in time domain, and a simulation and error evaluation experiment on an ideal digital signal are carried out with Excel VBA. A digital shaping test for a semiconductor X-ray detector in real time is also presented. Then a numerical analysis for Sallen-Key(S-K) low-pass filter circuit model is implemented based on the analysis of digital R-C and digital C-R shaping methods. By applying the 2 nd order non-homogeneous differential equation,the authors implement a digital Gaussian filter model for a standard exponential-decaying signal and a nuclear pulse signal. Finally, computer simulations and experimental tests are carried out and the results show the possibility of the digital pulse processing algorithms. (authors)

  7. 77 FR 9187 - Carriage of Digital Television Broadcast Signals: Amendment to the Commission's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Digital Television Broadcast Signals: Amendment to the Commission's Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications... native format (e.g., .doc, .xml, .ppt, searchable .pdf). Participants in this proceeding should... Commission adopted certain rules to protect consumers as the transition to digital television (DTV...

  8. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  9. The role of lossless systems in modern digital signal processing: a tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Doğanata, Zinnur

    1989-01-01

    A self-contained discussion of discrete-time lossless systems and their properties and relevance in digital signal processing is presented. The basic concept of losslessness is introduced, and several algebraic properties of lossless systems are studied. An understanding of these properties is crucial in order to exploit the rich usefulness of lossless systems in digital signal processing. Since lossless systems typically have many input and output terminals, a brief review of multiinput mult...

  10. Digital phonocardiographic experiments and signal processing in multidisciplinary fields of university education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Tamás; Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Modern measurement of physical signals is based on the use of sensors, electronic signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing carried out by dedicated software. The same signal chain is used in many devices such as home appliances, automotive electronics, medical instruments, and smartphones. Teaching the theoretical, experimental, and signal processing background must be an essential part of improving the standard of higher education, and it fits well to the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of physics and engineering too. In this paper, we show how digital phonocardiography can be used in university education as a universal, highly scalable, exciting, and inspiring laboratory practice and as a demonstration at various levels and complexity. We have developed open-source software templates in modern programming languages to support immediate use and to serve as a basis of further modifications using personal computers, tablets, and smartphones. (paper)

  11. Digital phonocardiographic experiments and signal processing in multidisciplinary fields of university education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tamás; Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltán

    2017-09-01

    Modern measurement of physical signals is based on the use of sensors, electronic signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing carried out by dedicated software. The same signal chain is used in many devices such as home appliances, automotive electronics, medical instruments, and smartphones. Teaching the theoretical, experimental, and signal processing background must be an essential part of improving the standard of higher education, and it fits well to the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of physics and engineering too. In this paper, we show how digital phonocardiography can be used in university education as a universal, highly scalable, exciting, and inspiring laboratory practice and as a demonstration at various levels and complexity. We have developed open-source software templates in modern programming languages to support immediate use and to serve as a basis of further modifications using personal computers, tablets, and smartphones.

  12. Digital signals processing using non-linear orthogonal transformation in frequency domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanichenko E.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress of computer technology in recent decades led to a wide introduction of methods of digital information processing practically in all fields of scientific research. In this case, among various applications of computing one of the most important places is occupied by digital processing systems signals (DSP that are used in data processing remote solution tasks of navigation of aerospace and marine objects, communications, radiophysics, digital optics and in a number of other applications. Digital Signal Processing (DSP is a dynamically developing an area that covers both technical and software tools. Related areas for digital signal processing are theory information, in particular, the theory of optimal signal reception and theory pattern recognition. In the first case, the main problem is signal extraction against a background of noise and interference of a different physical nature, and in the second - automatic recognition, i.e. classification and signal identification. In the digital processing of signals under a signal, we mean its mathematical description, i.e. a certain real function, containing information on the state or behavior of a physical system under an event that can be defined on a continuous or discrete space of time variation or spatial coordinates. In the broad sense, DSP systems mean a complex algorithmic, hardware and software. As a rule, systems contain specialized technical means of preliminary (or primary signal processing and special technical means for secondary processing of signals. Means of pretreatment are designed to process the original signals observed in general case against a background of random noise and interference of a different physical nature and represented in the form of discrete digital samples, for the purpose of detecting and selection (selection of the useful signal and evaluation characteristics of the detected signal. A new method of digital signal processing in the frequency

  13. An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the “hybrid equilibrium,” to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith’s Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory. PMID:26348617

  14. SCOTT: A time and amplitude digitizer ASIC for PMT signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, S.; Guilloux, F.; Anvar, S.; Chateau, F.; Delagnes, E.; Gautard, V.; Louis, F.; Monmarthe, E.; Le Provost, H.; Russo, S.; Schuller, J.-P.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Vallage, B.; Zonca, E.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2013-10-01

    SCOTT is an ASIC designed for the readout electronics of photomultiplier tubes developed for KM3NeT, the cubic-kilometer scale neutrino telescope in Mediterranean Sea. To digitize the PMT signals, the multi-time-over-threshold technique is used with up to 16 adjustable thresholds. Digital outputs of discriminators feed a circular sampling memory and a “first in first out” digital memory. A specific study has shown that five specifically chosen thresholds are suited to reach the required timing accuracy. A dedicated method based on the duration of the signal over a given threshold allows an equivalent timing precision at any charge. To verify that the KM3NeT requirements are fulfilled, this method is applied on PMT signals digitized by SCOTT.

  15. Analysis of pulse-shape discrimination techniques for BC501A using GHz digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooney, B.D.; Dinwiddie, D.R.; Nelson, M.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison study of pulse-shape analysis techniques was conducted for a BC501A scintillator using digital signal processing (DSP). In this study, output signals from a preamplifier were input directly into a 1 GHz analog-to-digital converter. The digitized data obtained with this method was post-processed for both pulse-height and pulse-shape information. Several different analysis techniques were evaluated for neutron and gamma-ray pulse-shape discrimination. It was surprising that one of the simplest and fastest techniques resulted in some of the best pulse-shape discrimination results. This technique, referred to here as the Integral Ratio technique, was able to effectively process several thousand detector pulses per second. This paper presents the results and findings of this study for various pulse-shape analysis techniques with digitized detector signals.

  16. Linear and Nonlinear Impairment Compensation in Coherent Optical Transmission with Digital Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has become one of the main enabling technologies for the physical layer of coherent optical communication networks. The DSP subsystems are used to implement several functionalities in the digital domain, from synchronization to channel equalization. Flexibility...... nonlinearity compensation, (II) spectral shaping, and (III) adaptive equalization. For (I), original contributions are presented to the study of the nonlinearity compensation (NLC) with digital backpropagation (DBP). Numerical and experimental performance investigations are shown for different application...... scenarios. Concerning (II), it is demonstrated how optical and electrical (digital) pulse shaping can be allied to improve the spectral confinement of a particular class of optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) signals that can be used as a building block for fast signaling single-carrier transceivers...

  17. An experimental digital consumer recorder for MPEG-coded video signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeijs, R.W.J.J.; With, de P.H.N.; Rijckaert, A.M.A.; Wong, C.

    1995-01-01

    The concept and real-time implementation of an experimental home-use digital recorder is presented, capable of recording MPEG-compressed video signals. The system has small recording mechanics based on the DVC standard and it uses MPEG compression for trick-mode signals as well

  18. Si(Li) x-ray spectrometer with signal processing system based on digital filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, Tamas

    1985-01-01

    A new signal processing system is under development at ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, based on digital filtering by a microprocessor. The advantages of the new method are summarized. Dead time can be decreased and the speed of signal processing can be increased. Computer simulations verified the theoretical conclusions. (D.Gy.)

  19. Double-staining chromogenic in situ hybridization as a useful alternative to split-signal fluorescence in situ hybridization in lymphoma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rijk, A.; Svenstroup-Poulsen, T.; Jones, M.

    2010-01-01

    within the reach of every pathology laboratory. Design and Methods Our study was initiated to determine the consistency between chromogenic in situ hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization, both using split-signal probes developed for the detection of chromosomal breaks. Five hundred...... and actual signal were compared to the original fluorescence hybridization results. In addition, hematoxylin background staining intensity and signal intensity of the double-staining chromogenic in situ hybridization procedure were analyzed. Results With respect to the presence or absence of chromosomal...

  20. A Hybrid Wavelet-Based Method for the Peak Detection of Photoplethysmography Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and the pulse rate can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG signals. However, the accuracy of the extraction is directly affected by the quality of the signal obtained and the peak of the signal identified; therefore, a hybrid wavelet-based method is proposed in this study. Firstly, we suppressed the partial motion artifacts and corrected the baseline drift by using a wavelet method based on the principle of wavelet multiresolution. And then, we designed a quadratic spline wavelet modulus maximum algorithm to identify the PPG peaks automatically. To evaluate this hybrid method, a reflective pulse oximeter was used to acquire ten subjects’ PPG signals under sitting, raising hand, and gently walking postures, and the peak recognition results on the raw signal and on the corrected signal were compared, respectively. The results showed that the hybrid method not only corrected the morphologies of the signal well but also optimized the peaks identification quality, subsequently elevating the measurement accuracy of SpO2 and the pulse rate. As a result, our hybrid wavelet-based method profoundly optimized the evaluation of respiratory function and heart rate variability analysis.

  1. A Hybrid Wavelet-Based Method for the Peak Detection of Photoplethysmography Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Jiang, Shanqing; Jiang, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Xiong, Wenji; Diao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    The noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and the pulse rate can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. However, the accuracy of the extraction is directly affected by the quality of the signal obtained and the peak of the signal identified; therefore, a hybrid wavelet-based method is proposed in this study. Firstly, we suppressed the partial motion artifacts and corrected the baseline drift by using a wavelet method based on the principle of wavelet multiresolution. And then, we designed a quadratic spline wavelet modulus maximum algorithm to identify the PPG peaks automatically. To evaluate this hybrid method, a reflective pulse oximeter was used to acquire ten subjects' PPG signals under sitting, raising hand, and gently walking postures, and the peak recognition results on the raw signal and on the corrected signal were compared, respectively. The results showed that the hybrid method not only corrected the morphologies of the signal well but also optimized the peaks identification quality, subsequently elevating the measurement accuracy of SpO 2 and the pulse rate. As a result, our hybrid wavelet-based method profoundly optimized the evaluation of respiratory function and heart rate variability analysis.

  2. A Hybrid Wavelet-Based Method for the Peak Detection of Photoplethysmography Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanqing; Jiang, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Xiong, Wenji

    2017-01-01

    The noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the pulse rate can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. However, the accuracy of the extraction is directly affected by the quality of the signal obtained and the peak of the signal identified; therefore, a hybrid wavelet-based method is proposed in this study. Firstly, we suppressed the partial motion artifacts and corrected the baseline drift by using a wavelet method based on the principle of wavelet multiresolution. And then, we designed a quadratic spline wavelet modulus maximum algorithm to identify the PPG peaks automatically. To evaluate this hybrid method, a reflective pulse oximeter was used to acquire ten subjects' PPG signals under sitting, raising hand, and gently walking postures, and the peak recognition results on the raw signal and on the corrected signal were compared, respectively. The results showed that the hybrid method not only corrected the morphologies of the signal well but also optimized the peaks identification quality, subsequently elevating the measurement accuracy of SpO2 and the pulse rate. As a result, our hybrid wavelet-based method profoundly optimized the evaluation of respiratory function and heart rate variability analysis. PMID:29250135

  3. HYBRID CHRIPTOGRAPHY STREAM CIPHER AND RSA ALGORITHM WITH DIGITAL SIGNATURE AS A KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lamudur Arta Sihombing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Confidentiality of data is very important in communication. Many cyber crimes that exploit security holes for entry and manipulation. To ensure the security and confidentiality of the data, required a certain technique to encrypt data or information called cryptography. It is one of the components that can not be ignored in building security. And this research aimed to analyze the hybrid cryptography with symmetric key by using a stream cipher algorithm and asymmetric key by using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman algorithm. The advantages of hybrid cryptography is the speed in processing data using a symmetric algorithm and easy transfer of key using asymmetric algorithm. This can increase the speed of transaction processing data. Stream Cipher Algorithm using the image digital signature as a keys, that will be secured by the RSA algorithm. So, the key for encryption and decryption are different. Blum Blum Shub methods used to generate keys for the value p, q on the RSA algorithm. It will be very difficult for a cryptanalyst to break the key. Analysis of hybrid cryptography stream cipher and RSA algorithms with digital signatures as a key, indicates that the size of the encrypted file is equal to the size of the plaintext, not to be larger or smaller so that the time required for encryption and decryption process is relatively fast.

  4. Fast modified signal-digit (MSD) multiplication technology and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, DeGui; He, Li-Ming; Wang, Na-Xin; Weng, Zhao-Heng

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, the carry-free property of modified-signed-digit (MSD) addition is analyzed with a space position logic encoding scheme. On this basis, MSD multiplication is discussed and a fast MSD multiplication system composed of optoelectronic logic technology and a multilayer optical interconnection architecture is propsed and studied. Finally, the effectivity of the fast MSD multiplication system is demostrated by using a 2X2 bit multiplication example and experimental results are given.

  5. Reconfigurable signal processor designs for advanced digital array radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Hernan; Zhang, Yan (Rockee); Yu, Xining

    2017-05-01

    The new challenges originated from Digital Array Radar (DAR) demands a new generation of reconfigurable backend processor in the system. The new FPGA devices can support much higher speed, more bandwidth and processing capabilities for the need of digital Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). This study focuses on using the latest Altera and Xilinx devices in an adaptive beamforming processor. The field reprogrammable RF devices from Analog Devices are used as analog front end transceivers. Different from other existing Software-Defined Radio transceivers on the market, this processor is designed for distributed adaptive beamforming in a networked environment. The following aspects of the novel radar processor will be presented: (1) A new system-on-chip architecture based on Altera's devices and adaptive processing module, especially for the adaptive beamforming and pulse compression, will be introduced, (2) Successful implementation of generation 2 serial RapidIO data links on FPGA, which supports VITA-49 radio packet format for large distributed DAR processing. (3) Demonstration of the feasibility and capabilities of the processor in a Micro-TCA based, SRIO switching backplane to support multichannel beamforming in real-time. (4) Application of this processor in ongoing radar system development projects, including OU's dual-polarized digital array radar, the planned new cylindrical array radars, and future airborne radars.

  6. Design and implementation of a multiband digital filter using FPGA to extract the ECG signal in the presence of different interference signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutabikh, Kamal; Aboukerdah, Nader

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a practical way to synthesize and filter an ECG signal in the presence of four types of interference signals: (1) those arising from power networks with a fundamental frequency of 50Hz, (2) those arising from respiration, having a frequency range from 0.05 to 0.5Hz, (3) muscle signals with a frequency of 25Hz, and (4) white noise present within the ECG signal band. This was done by implementing a multiband digital filter (seven bands) of type FIR Multiband Least Squares using a digital programmable device (Cyclone II EP2C70F896C6 FPGA, Altera), which was placed on an education and development board (DE2-70, Terasic). This filter was designed using the VHDL language in the Quartus II 9.1 design environment. The proposed method depends on Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizers (DDFS) designed to synthesize the ECG signal and various interference signals. So that the synthetic ECG specifications would be closer to actual ECG signals after filtering, we designed in a single multiband digital filter instead of using three separate digital filters LPF, HPF, BSF. Thus all interference signals were removed with a single digital filter. The multiband digital filter results were studied using a digital oscilloscope to characterize input and output signals in the presence of differing sinusoidal interference signals and white noise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass systems with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise ratio, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass systems. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise ratio estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication systems where the mapping from the signal-to-noise ratio to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many systems through digital computer simulation.

  8. Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    In the detection of particles using digital in-line holography, measurement accuracy is substantially influenced by the hologram processing method. In particular, a number of methods have been proposed to determine the out-of-plane particle depth (z location). However, due to the lack of consistent uncertainty characterization, it has been unclear which method is best suited to a given measurement problem. In this work, depth determination accuracies of seven particle detection methods, including a recently proposed hybrid method, are systematically investigated in terms of relative depth measurement errors and uncertainties. Both synthetic and experimental holograms of particle fields are considered at conditions relevant to particle sizing and tracking. While all methods display a range of particle conditions where they are most accurate, in general the hybrid method is shown to be the most robust with depth uncertainty less than twice the particle diameter over a wide range of particle field conditions.

  9. Digital generation of stochastic signals of arbitrary spectral shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Nishihara, H.; Spiekerman, G.

    1986-10-01

    For computer-simulation experiments in the development of noise monitoring systems three methods of generating ergodic Gaussian random noise with specified spectral properties have been investigated: digital filtering of white noise optimum symmetric FIR filters, a modified Rice formulation and an approximation of the Kac representation of noise. The proposed modified Rice formulation is a new noise generation method which is most efficient with regard to the computation time. By windowing subsequent Rice sequences a smooth noise record of any desired length can be produced. (author)

  10. Digital generation of stochastic signals of arbitrary spectral shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Nishihara, H.; Spiekerman, G.

    1986-01-01

    For computer-simulation experiments in the development of noise monitoring systems three methods of generating ergodic Gaussian random noise with specified spectral properties have been investigated: digital filtering of white noise with optimum symmetric FIR filters, a modified Rice formulation and an approximation of the Kac representation of noise. The proposed modified Rice formulation is a new noise generation method which is most efficient with regard to the computation time. By windowing subsequent Rice sequences a smooth noise record of any desired length can be produced. (author)

  11. Digitizing high frequency signals using serial analog memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coonrod, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    An online computer system has been developed as a replacement for oscilloscopes and cameras on the Tormac project. Up to 32 simultaneous waveforms are recorded at up to 2 MHz in analog shift registers, then digitized sequentially after the event into a small PDP-11 computer. Data and functions of data may be displayed or plotted locally, and then forwarded for storage at a larger, remote computer via a network arrangement. Advantages over scopes have been lower incremental cost (approximately $200/channel), less noise pickup, better resolution (less than 1%), and immediate presentation of data

  12. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  13. A Hybrid Soft-computing Method for Image Analysis of Digital Plantar Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjouyan, Javad; Khayat, Omid; Siahi, Mehdi; Mansouri, Ali Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Digital foot scanners have been developed in recent years to yield anthropometrists digital image of insole with pressure distribution and anthropometric information. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm containing gray level spatial correlation (GLSC) histogram and Shanbag entropy is presented for analysis of scanned foot images. An evolutionary algorithm is also employed to find the optimum parameters of GLSC and transform function of the membership values. Resulting binary images as the thresholded images are undergone anthropometric measurements taking in to account the scale factor of pixel size to metric scale. The proposed method is finally applied to plantar images obtained through scanning feet of randomly selected subjects by a foot scanner system as our experimental setup described in the paper. Running computation time and the effects of GLSC parameters are investigated in the simulation results. PMID:24083133

  14. A Hybrid Soft-computing Method for Image Analysis of Digital Plantar Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjouyan, Javad; Khayat, Omid; Siahi, Mehdi; Mansouri, Ali Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Digital foot scanners have been developed in recent years to yield anthropometrists digital image of insole with pressure distribution and anthropometric information. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm containing gray level spatial correlation (GLSC) histogram and Shanbag entropy is presented for analysis of scanned foot images. An evolutionary algorithm is also employed to find the optimum parameters of GLSC and transform function of the membership values. Resulting binary images as the thresholded images are undergone anthropometric measurements taking in to account the scale factor of pixel size to metric scale. The proposed method is finally applied to plantar images obtained through scanning feet of randomly selected subjects by a foot scanner system as our experimental setup described in the paper. Running computation time and the effects of GLSC parameters are investigated in the simulation results.

  15. A digital signal processor based rf control system for the TRIUMF ISAC RFQ prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.; Fang, S.; Laverty, M.

    1996-01-01

    A stand alone digital signal processor is used to control the RFQ prototype in the TRIUMF ISAC development program. The advantage of a digital control system over the traditional analogue system is that it offers the higher degree of flexibility necessary for a development system. For this application the system is designed to have the outward appearance of an analogue system, and uses dials, knobs, and switches as the operator interface. The digital signal processor is used as a feedback controller during CW rf operation, with the feedback gain parameters continually adjustable. It is also able to perform the same regulation during pulsed operation, with additional feedforward compensation for initial pulse on duration. Using a low cost analogue-to-digital converter with a sample rate of 100 kHz, a regulation bandwidth of 10 kHz is achieved. (author)

  16. Digital signal processing for wireless communication using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2016-01-01

    This book examines signal processing techniques used in wireless communication illustrated by using the Matlab program. The author discusses these techniques as they relate to Doppler spread; delay spread; Rayleigh and Rician channel modeling; rake receiver; diversity techniques; MIMO and OFDM -based transmission techniques; and array signal processing. Related topics such as detection theory, link budget, multiple access techniques, and spread spectrum are also covered.   ·         Illustrates signal processing techniques involved in wireless communication using Matlab ·         Discusses multiple access techniques such as Frequency division multiple access, Time division multiple access, and Code division multiple access ·         Covers band pass modulation techniques such as Binary phase shift keying, Differential phase shift keying, Quadrature phase shift keying, Binary frequency shift keying, Minimum shift keying, and Gaussian minimum shift keying.

  17. Double closed-loop resonant micro optic gyro using hybrid digital phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Zhang, Jianjie; Wang, Linglan; Jin, Zhonghe

    2015-06-15

    It is well-known that the closed-loop operation in optical gyros offers wider dynamic range and better linearity. By adding a stair-like digital serrodyne wave to a phase modulator can be used as a frequency shifter. The width of one stair in this stair-like digital serrodyne wave should be set equal to the optical transmission time in the resonator, which is relaxed in the hybrid digital phase modulation (HDPM) scheme. The physical mechanism for this relaxation is firstly indicated in this paper. Detailed theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the HDPM. Simulation and experimental results show that the width of one stair is not restricted by the optical transmission time, however, it should be optimized according to the rise time of the output of the digital-to-analogue converter. Based on the optimum parameters of the HDPM, a bias stability of 0.05°/s for the integration time of 400 seconds in 1 h has been carried out in an RMOG with a waveguide ring resonator with a length of 7.9 cm and a diameter of 2.5 cm.

  18. A Fast DCT Algorithm for Watermarking in Digital Signal Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete cosine transform (DCT has been an international standard in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG format to reduce the blocking effect in digital image compression. This paper proposes a fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT algorithm that utilizes the energy compactness and matrix sparseness properties in frequency domain to achieve higher computation performance. For a JPEG image of 8×8 block size in spatial domain, the algorithm decomposes the two-dimensional (2D DCT into one pair of one-dimensional (1D DCTs with transform computation in only 24 multiplications. The 2D spatial data is a linear combination of the base image obtained by the outer product of the column and row vectors of cosine functions so that inverse DCT is as efficient. Implementation of the FDCT algorithm shows that embedding a watermark image of 32 × 32 block pixel size in a 256 × 256 digital image can be completed in only 0.24 seconds and the extraction of watermark by inverse transform is within 0.21 seconds. The proposed FDCT algorithm is shown more efficient than many previous works in computation.

  19. Embedding supplemental data in a digital video signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    An MPEG-encoded video signal includes groups of pictures (GOPs), each GOP having an intraframe coded (I) picture and a series of predictively encoded (P) pictures and bidirectionally predictively encoded (B) pictures. Usually, the GOP structure IBBPBBP . . . is used. However, in order to embed a

  20. Embedding supplemental data in a digital video signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    An MPEG-encoded video signal includes groups of pictures (GOPs), each GOP having an intraframe coded (I) picture and a series of predictively encoded (P) pictures and bi-directionally predictively (B) pictures. Usually, the GOP structure IBBPBBP . . . is used. However, in order to embed a watermark

  1. Joint time frequency analysis in digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Flemming

    with this technique is that the resolution is limited because of distortion. To overcome the resolution limitations of the Fourier Spectogram, many new distributions have been developed. In spite of this the Fourier Spectogram is by far the prime method for the analysis of signals whose spectral content is varying...

  2. Digital Signal Processing Applied to the Modernization Of Polish Navy Sonars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marszal Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the equipment and digital signal processing methods used for modernizing the Polish Navy’s sonars. With the rapid advancement of electronic technologies and digital signal processing methods, electronic systems, including sonars, become obsolete very quickly. In the late 1990s a team of researchers of the Department of Marine Electronics Systems, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, began work on modernizing existing sonar systems for the Polish Navy. As part of the effort, a methodology of sonar modernization was implemented involving a complete replacement of existing electronic components with newly designed ones by using bespoke systems and methods of digital signal processing. Large and expensive systems of ultrasound transducers and their dipping and stabilisation systems underwent necessary repairs but were otherwise left unchanged. As a result, between 2001 and 2014 the Gdansk University of Technology helped to modernize 30 sonars of different types.

  3. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mourjopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed “jither” and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., ×4 resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  4. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourjopoulos John

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed "jither" and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  5. Development of FPGA-based digital signal processing system for radiation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pil Soo; Lee, Chun Sik; Lee, Ju Hahn

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an FPGA-based digital signal processing system that performs both online digital signal filtering and pulse-shape analysis for both particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Such functionalities were made possible by a state-of-the-art programmable logic device and system architectures employed. The system performance as measured, for example, in the system dead time and accuracy for pulse-height and rise-time determination, was evaluated with standard alpha- and gamma-ray sources using a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It is resulted that the present system has shown its potential application to various radiation-related fields such as particle identification, radiography, and radiation imaging. - Highlights: ► An FPGA-based digital processing system was developed for radiation spectroscopy. ► Our digital system has a 14-bit resolution and a 100-MHz sampling rate. ► The FPGA implements the online digital filtering and pulse-shape analysis. ► The pileup rejection is implemented in trigger logic before digital filtering process. ► Our digital system was verified in alpha-gamma measurements using a CsI detector

  6. Time resolution improvement of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Ishii, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Torshabi, A. Esmaili

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of our study on the timing performance of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using the technique of digital signal processing. The coincidence signals between a CdTe detector (15x15x1 mm 3 ) and a fast liquid scintillator detector were digitized by a fast digital oscilloscope and analyzed. In the analysis, digital versions of the elements of timing circuits, including pulse shaper and time discriminator, were created and a digital implementation of the Amplitude and Rise-time Compensation (ARC) mode of timing was performed. Owing to a very fine adjustment of the parameters of timing measurement, a good time resolution of less than 9.9 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of 150 keV was achieved. In the next step, a new method of time pickoff for improvement of timing resolution without loss in the detection efficiency of CdTe detectors was examined. In the method, signals from a CdTe detector are grouped by their rise-times and different procedures of time pickoff are applied to the signals of each group. Then, the time pickoffs are synchronized by compensating the fixed time offset, caused by the different time pickoff procedures. This method leads to an improved time resolution of ∼7.2 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of as low as 150 keV. The methods presented in this work are computationally fast enough to be used for online processing of data in an actual PET system.

  7. Digital signal processing for CdTe detectors using VXIbus data collection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Daiji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kurahashi, Tomohiko; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-07-01

    Recently fast signal digitizing technique has been developed, and signal waveforms with very short time periods can be obtained. In this paper, we analyzed each measured pulse which was digitized by an apparatus of this kind, and tried to improve an energy resolution of a CdTe semiconductor detector. The result of the energy resolution for {sup 137}Cs 662 keV photopeak was 13 keV. Also, we developed a fast data collection system based on VXIbus standard, and the counting rate on this system was obtained about 50 counts per second. (author)

  8. A new method of hybrid frequency hopping signals selection and blind parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoyu; Jiao, Wencheng; Sun, Huixian

    2018-04-01

    Frequency hopping communication is widely used in military communications at home and abroad. In the case of single-channel reception, it is scarce to process multiple frequency hopping signals both effectively and simultaneously. A method of hybrid FH signals selection and blind parameter estimation is proposed. The method makes use of spectral transformation, spectral entropy calculation and PRI transformation basic theory to realize the sorting and parameter estimation of the components in the hybrid frequency hopping signal. The simulation results show that this method can correctly classify the frequency hopping component signal, and the estimated error of the frequency hopping period is about 5% and the estimated error of the frequency hopping frequency is less than 1% when the SNR is 10dB. However, the performance of this method deteriorates seriously at low SNR.

  9. Emitter signal separation method based on multi-level digital channelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xun; Ping, Yifan; Wang, Sujun; Feng, Ying; Kuang, Yin; Yang, Xinquan

    2018-02-01

    To solve the problem of emitter separation under complex electromagnetic environment, a signal separation method based on multi-level digital channelization is proposed in this paper. A two-level structure which can divide signal into different channel is designed first, after that, the peaks of different channels are tracked using the track filter and the coincident signals in time domain are separated in time-frequency domain. Finally, the time domain waveforms of different signals are acquired by reverse transformation. The validness of the proposed method is proved by experiment.

  10. Lipid rafts generate digital-like signal transduction in cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N

    2012-06-01

    Lipid rafts are meso-scale (5-200 nm) cell membrane domains where signaling molecules assemble and function. However, due to their dynamic nature, it has been difficult to unravel the mechanism of signal transduction in lipid rafts. Recent advanced imaging techniques have revealed that signaling molecules are frequently, but transiently, recruited to rafts with the aid of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and/or lipid-lipid interactions. Individual signaling molecules within the raft are activated only for a short period of time. Immobilization of signaling molecules by cytoskeletal actin filaments and scaffold proteins may facilitate more efficient signal transmission from rafts. In this review, current opinions of how the transient nature of molecular interactions in rafts generates digital-like signal transduction in cell membranes, and the benefits this phenomenon provides, are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Digital Signal Processing for a Sliceable Transceiver for Optical Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; Wagner, Christoph; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Methods to upgrade the network infrastructure to cope with current traffic demands has attracted increasing research efforts. A promising alternative is signal slicing. Signal slicing aims at re-using low bandwidth equipment to satisfy high bandwidth traffic demands. This technique has been used...... also for implementing full signal path symmetry in real-time oscilloscopes to provide performance and signal fidelity (i.e. lower noise and jitter). In this paper the key digital signal processing (DSP) subsystems required to achieve signal slicing are surveyed. It also presents, for the first time...... penalty is reported for 10 Gbps. Power savings of the order of hundreds of Watts can be obtained when using signal slicing as an alternative to 10 Gbps implemented access networks....

  12. VLSI for High-Speed Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    particular, the design, layout and fab - rication of integrated circuits. The primary project for this grant has been the design and implementation of a...targeted at 33.36 dB, and PSNR (dB) Rate ( bpp ) the FRSBC algorithm, targeted at 0.5 bits/pixel, respec- Filter FDSBC FRSBC FDSBC FRSBC tively. The filter...to mean square error d by as shown in Fig. 6, is used, yielding a total of 16 subbands. 255’ The rates, in bits per pixel ( bpp ), and the peak signal

  13. Oversampling of digitized images. [effects on interpolation in signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, D.

    1976-01-01

    Oversampling is defined as sampling with a device whose characteristic width is greater than the interval between samples. This paper shows why oversampling should be avoided and discusses the limitations in data processing if circumstances dictate that oversampling cannot be circumvented. Principally, oversampling should not be used to provide interpolating data points. Rather, the time spent oversampling should be used to obtain more signal with less relative error, and the Sampling Theorem should be employed to provide any desired interpolated values. The concepts are applicable to single-element and multielement detectors.

  14. Real Time Phase Noise Meter Based on a Digital Signal Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, Leopoldo; D'Arco, Mauro; Greenhall, Charles A.; Schiano Lo Morille, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    A digital signal-processing meter for phase noise measurement on sinusoidal signals is dealt with. It enlists a special hardware architecture, made up of a core digital signal processor connected to a data acquisition board, and takes advantage of a quadrature demodulation-based measurement scheme, already proposed by the authors. Thanks to an efficient measurement process and an optimized implementation of its fundamental stages, the proposed meter succeeds in exploiting all hardware resources in such an effective way as to gain high performance and real-time operation. For input frequencies up to some hundreds of kilohertz, the meter is capable both of updating phase noise power spectrum while seamlessly capturing the analyzed signal into its memory, and granting as good frequency resolution as few units of hertz.

  15. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  16. Development of a compact and cost effective multi-input digital signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish-Molla, Sahar; Chin, Kenrick; Prestwich, William V.; Byun, Soo Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A prototype digital signal processing system (DSP) was developed using a microcontroller interfaced with a 12-bit sampling ADC, which offers a considerably inexpensive solution for processing multiple detectors with high throughput. After digitization of the incoming pulses, in order to maximize the output counting rate, a simple algorithm was employed for pulse height analysis. Moreover, an algorithm aiming at the real-time pulse pile-up deconvolution was implemented. The system was tested using a NaI(Tl) detector in comparison with a traditional analogue and commercial digital systems for a variety of count rates. The performance of the prototype system was consistently superior to the analogue and the commercial digital systems up to the input count rate of 61 kcps while was slightly inferior to the commercial digital system but still superior to the analogue system in the higher input rates. Considering overall cost, size and flexibility, this custom made multi-input digital signal processing system (MMI-DSP) was the best reliable choice for the purpose of the 2D microdosimetric data collection, or for any measurement in which simultaneous multi-data collection is required.

  17. A High Density Low Cost Digital Signal Processing Module for Large Scale Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Walby, Mark D.; Breus, Dimitry; Harris, Jackson T.; Grudberg, Peter M.; Warburton, William K.

    2013-06-01

    A 32-channel digital spectrometer PIXIE-32 is being developed for nuclear physics or other radiation detection applications requiring digital signal processing with large number of channels at relatively low cost. A single PIXIE-32 provides spectrometry and waveform acquisition for 32 input signals per module whereas multiple modules can be combined into larger systems. It is based on the PCI Express standard which allows data transfer rates to the host computer of up to 800 MB/s. Each of the 32 channels in a PIXIE-32 module accepts signals directly from a detector preamplifier or photomultiplier. Digitally controlled offsets can be individually adjusted for each channel. Signals are digitized in 12-bit, 50 MHz multi-channel ADCs. Triggering, pile-up inspection and filtering of the data stream are performed in real time, and pulse heights and other event data are calculated on an event-by event basis. The hardware architecture, internal and external triggering features, and the spectrometry and waveform acquisition capability of the PIXIE- 32 as well as its capability to distribute clock and triggers among multiple modules, are presented. (authors)

  18. A Dual Digital Signal Processor VME Board for Instrumentation and Control Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Musson

    2001-01-01

    A Dual Digital Signal Processing VME Board is being developed for the CEBAF Beam Current Monitor system at Jefferson Lab. It is a versatile general-purpose digital signal processing board using an open architecture, which allows for adaptation to various applications. The base design uses two independent Texas Instrument (TI) TMS320C6711, which are 900 MFLOPS floating-point digital signal processors (DSP). Applications that require a fixed point DSP can be implemented by replacing the baseline DSP with the pin-for-pin compatible TMS320C6211. Both parallel and serial protocols have been implemented for communicating with off board devices. The initial implementation makes use of TI Multi-channel Serial protocol and VME bus protocol. Other communication protocols can be implemented by reprogramming the FPGA. Each DSP is equipped with FLASH PROM and SDRAM for program and data storage. Additionally, each DSP has 16 bits of digital I/O, two digital analog converters, and two analog to digital converters. Dual 160 pins mezzanine connectors provide expansion capability without design modifications. The mezzanine interface conforms to the TI Expansion Daughter Card Interface standard. The design can be manufactured with a reduced chip set without redesigning the printed circuit board. For example, it can be implemented as a single-channel DSP with no analog I/O. The board supports JTAG 1149 boundary scan to facilitate testing, debugging, and programming. It is fully programmable using software development tools such as TI Code Composer Studio and a JTAG emulator such as Spectrum Digital DS510PP-PLUS. Using these tools allows one program the flash memory and FPGA through the JTAG ports, thus eliminating the need for a separate ROM/FPGA programmer. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

  19. Over-the-air in-band full-duplex system with hybrid RF optical and baseband digital self-interference cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhao; Li, Longsheng; Bi, Meihua; Xiao, Shilin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid analog optical self-interference cancellation (OSIC) and baseband digital SIC (DSIC) system for over-the-air in-band full-duplex (IBFD) wireless communication. Analog OSIC system is based on optical delay line, electro-absorption modulation lasers (EMLs) and balanced photodetector (BPD), which has the properties of high adjusting precision and broad processing bandwidth. With the help of baseband DSIC, the cancellation depth limitation of OSIC can be mitigated so as to achieve deeper total SIC depth. Experimental results show about 20-dB depth by OSIC and 10-dB more depth by DSIC over 1GHz broad baseband, so that the signal of interest (SOI) overlapped by wideband self-interference (SI) signal is better recovered compared to the IBFD system with OSIC or DSIC only. The hybrid of OSIC and DSIC takes advantages of the merits of optical devices and digital processors to achieve deep cancellation depth over broad bandwidth.

  20. Feasibility of Johnson Noise Thermometry based on Digital Signal Processing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Yang Mo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation strategy of noise thermometry based on a digital signal processing technique and demonstrates its feasibilities. A key factor in its development is how to extract the small thermal noise signal from other noises, for example, random noise from amplifiers and continuous electromagnetic interference from the environment. The proposed system consists of two identical amplifiers and uses a cross correlation function to cancel the random noise of the amplifiers. Then, the external interference noises are eliminated by discriminating the difference in the peaks between the thermal signal and external noise. The gain of the amplifiers is estimated by injecting an already known pilot signal. The experimental simulation results of signal processing methods have demonstrated that the proposed approach is an effective method in eliminating an external noise signal and performing gain correction for development of the thermometry

  1. Improved signal processing approaches in an offline simulation of a hybrid brain–computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clemens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Kaiser, Vera; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Neuper, Christa

    2012-01-01

    In a conventional brain–computer interface (BCI) system, users perform mental tasks that yield specific patterns of brain activity. A pattern recognition system determines which brain activity pattern a user is producing and thereby infers the user’s mental task, allowing users to send messages or commands through brain activity alone. Unfortunately, despite extensive research to improve classification accuracy, BCIs almost always exhibit errors, which are sometimes so severe that effective communication is impossible. We recently introduced a new idea to improve accuracy, especially for users with poor performance. In an offline simulation of a “hybrid” BCI, subjects performed two mental tasks independently and then simultaneously. This hybrid BCI could use two different types of brain signals common in BCIs – event-related desynchronization (ERD) and steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs). This study suggested that such a hybrid BCI is feasible. Here, we re-analyzed the data from our initial study. We explored eight different signal processing methods that aimed to improve classification and further assess both the causes and the extent of the benefits of the hybrid condition. Most analyses showed that the improved methods described here yielded a statistically significant improvement over our initial study. Some of these improvements could be relevant to conventional BCIs as well. Moreover, the number of illiterates could be reduced with the hybrid condition. Results are also discussed in terms of dual task interference and relevance to protocol design in hybrid BCIs. PMID:20153371

  2. Enhancement of the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system using digital technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo; Park, H. Y.; Suh, Y. S.; Kim, D. Hoon; Huh, S.; Sung, S. H.; Jang, G. S.; Ryoo, S. G.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, D. Hyun; Park, H. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, J. P.; Park, C. H.; Kim, M. S.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system which can be used in the inspection equipment to assess the integrity of the reactor vessel by enhancing the performance of the ultrasonic signal processing system. Main activities of this study divided into three categories such as the development of the circuits for generating ultrasonic signal and receiving the signal from the inspection equipment, the development of signal processing algorithm and H/W of the data processing system, and the development of the specification for application programs and system S/W for the analysis and evaluation computer. The results of main activities are as follows 1) the design of the ultrasonic detector and the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system by using the investigation of the state-of-the-art technology in the inside and outside of the country. 2) the development of H/W and S/W of the data processing system based on the results. Especially, the H/W of the data processing system, which have both advantages of digital and analog controls through the real-time digital signal processing, was developed using the DSP which can process the digital signal in the real-time, and was developed not only firmware of the data processing system in order for the peripherals but also the test algorithm of specimen for the calibration. The application programs and the system S/W of the analysis/evaluation computer were developed. Developed equipment was verified by the performance test. Based on developed prototype for the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system, the localization of the overall ultrasonic inspection equipment for nuclear industries would be expected through the further studies of the H/W establishment of real applications, developing the S/W specification of the analysis computer. (author)

  3. A phase-equalized digital multirate filter for 50 Hz signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainio, O. [Tampere University of Technology, Signal Processing Laboratory, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A new multistage digital filter is proposed for 50 Hz line frequency signal processing in zero-crossing detectors and synchronous power systems. The purpose of the filter is to extract the fundamental sinusoidal signal from noise and impulsive disturbances so that the output is accurately in phase with the primary input signal. This is accomplished with a cascade of a median filter, a linear-phase FIR filter, and a phase corrector. A 10 kHz output timing resolution is achieved by up-sampling with a customized interpolation filter. (orig.) 15 refs.

  4. Full-field wrist pulse signal acquisition and analysis by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Su, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Xiaohai; Gao, Zeren; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    Pulse diagnosis is an essential part in four basic diagnostic methods (inspection, listening, inquiring and palpation) in traditional Chinese medicine, which depends on longtime training and rich experience, so computerized pulse acquisition has been proposed and studied to ensure the objectivity. To imitate the process that doctors using three fingertips with different pressures to feel fluctuations in certain areas containing three acupoints, we established a five dimensional pulse signal acquisition system adopting a non-contacting optical metrology method, 3D digital image correlation, to record the full-field displacements of skin fluctuations under different pressures. The system realizes real-time full-field vibration mode observation with 10 FPS. The maximum sample frequency is 472 Hz for detailed post-processing. After acquisition, the signals are analyzed according to the amplitude, pressure, and pulse wave velocity. The proposed system provides a novel optical approach for digitalizing pulse diagnosis and massive pulse signal data acquisition for various types of patients.

  5. A longitudinal multi-bunch feedback system using parallel digital signal processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, L.; Fox, J.D.; Olsen, J.J.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.

    1994-01-01

    A programmable longitudinal feedback system based on four AT ampersand T 1610 digital signal processors has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R ampersand D program. This longitudinal quick prototype is a proof of concept for the PEP-II system and implements full-speed bunch-by-bunch signal processing for storage rings with bunch spacings of 4 ns. The design incorporates a phase-detector-based front end that digitizes the oscillation phases of bunches at the 250 MHz crossing rate, four programmable signal processors that compute correction signals, and a 250-MHz hold buffer/kicker driver stage that applies correction signals back on the beam. The design implements a general-purpose, table-driven downsampler that allows the system to be operated at several accelerator facilities. The hardware architecture of the signal processing is described, and the software algorithms used in the feedback signal computation are discussed. The system configuration used for tests at the LBL Advanced Light Source is presented

  6. Opportunistic beam training with hybrid analog/digital codebooks for mmWave systems

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2016-02-25

    © 2015 IEEE. Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is one solution to provide more spectrum than available at lower carrier frequencies. To provide sufficient link budget, mmWave systems will use beamforming with large antenna arrays at both the transmitter and receiver. Training these large arrays using conventional approaches taken at lower carrier frequencies, however, results in high overhead. In this paper, we propose a beam training algorithm that efficiently designs the beamforming vectors with low training overhead. Exploiting mmWave channel reciprocity, the proposed algorithm relaxes the need for an explicit feedback channel, and opportunistically terminates the training process when a desired quality of service is achieved. To construct the training beamforming vectors, a new multi-resolution codebook is developed for hybrid analog/digital architectures. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a comparable rate to that obtained by exhaustive search solutions while requiring lower training overhead when compared to prior work.

  7. Opportunistic beam training with hybrid analog/digital codebooks for mmWave systems

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.; Alkhateeb, Ahmed; Heath, Robert W.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is one solution to provide more spectrum than available at lower carrier frequencies. To provide sufficient link budget, mmWave systems will use beamforming with large antenna arrays at both the transmitter and receiver. Training these large arrays using conventional approaches taken at lower carrier frequencies, however, results in high overhead. In this paper, we propose a beam training algorithm that efficiently designs the beamforming vectors with low training overhead. Exploiting mmWave channel reciprocity, the proposed algorithm relaxes the need for an explicit feedback channel, and opportunistically terminates the training process when a desired quality of service is achieved. To construct the training beamforming vectors, a new multi-resolution codebook is developed for hybrid analog/digital architectures. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a comparable rate to that obtained by exhaustive search solutions while requiring lower training overhead when compared to prior work.

  8. Single-shot dual-wavelength in-line and off-axis hybrid digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-01

    We propose an in-line and off-axis hybrid holographic real-time imaging technique. The in-line and off-axis digital holograms are generated simultaneously by two lasers with different wavelengths, and they are recorded using a color camera with a single shot. The reconstruction is carried using an iterative algorithm in which the initial input is designed to include the intensity of the in-line hologram and the approximate phase distributions obtained from the off-axis hologram. In this way, the complex field in the object plane and the output by the iterative procedure can produce higher quality amplitude and phase images compared to traditional iterative phase retrieval. The performance of the technique has been demonstrated by acquiring the amplitude and phase images of a green lacewing's wing and a living moon jellyfish.

  9. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional Class-A, Class-B, and Class-AB amplifiers, Class-D amplifier, also known as switching amplifier, employs pulse width modulation (PWM technology and solid-state switching devices, capable of achieving much higher efficiency. However, PWM-based switching amplifier is usually designed for low-voltage application, offering a maximum output voltage of several hundred Volts. Therefore, a step-up transformer is indispensably adopted in PWM-based Class-D amplifier to produce high-voltage output. In this paper, a switching amplifier without step-up transformer is developed based on digital pulse step modulation (PSM and hybrid multilevel converter. Under the control of input signal, cascaded power converters with separate DC sources operate in PSM switch mode to directly generate high-voltage and high-power output. The relevant topological structure, operating principle, and design scheme are introduced. Finally, a prototype system is built, which can provide power up to 1400 Watts and peak voltage up to ±1700 Volts. And the performance, including efficiency, linearity, and distortion, is evaluated by experimental tests.

  10. A hybrid filtering method based on a novel empirical mode decomposition for friction signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhan, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    During a measurement, the measured signal usually contains noise. To remove the noise and preserve the important feature of the signal, we introduce a hybrid filtering method that uses a new intrinsic mode function (NIMF) and a modified Hausdorff distance. The NIMF is defined as the difference between the noisy signal and each intrinsic mode function (IMF), which is obtained by empirical mode decomposition (EMD), ensemble EMD, complementary ensemble EMD, or complete ensemble EMD with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN). The relevant mode selecting is based on the similarity between the first NIMF and the rest of the NIMFs. With this filtering method, the EMD and improved versions are used to filter the simulation and friction signals. The friction signal between an airplane tire and the runaway is recorded during a simulated airplane touchdown and features spikes of various amplitudes and noise. The filtering effectiveness of the four hybrid filtering methods are compared and discussed. The results show that the filtering method based on CEEMDAN outperforms other signal filtering methods. (paper)

  11. Digital nonlinearity compensation in high-capacity optical communication systems considering signal spectral broadening effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhua; Karanov, Boris; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Liga, Gabriele; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-10-11

    Nyquist-spaced transmission and digital signal processing have proved effective in maximising the spectral efficiency and reach of optical communication systems. In these systems, Kerr nonlinearity determines the performance limits, and leads to spectral broadening of the signals propagating in the fibre. Although digital nonlinearity compensation was validated to be promising for mitigating Kerr nonlinearities, the impact of spectral broadening on nonlinearity compensation has never been quantified. In this paper, the performance of multi-channel digital back-propagation (MC-DBP) for compensating fibre nonlinearities in Nyquist-spaced optical communication systems is investigated, when the effect of signal spectral broadening is considered. It is found that accounting for the spectral broadening effect is crucial for achieving the best performance of DBP in both single-channel and multi-channel communication systems, independent of modulation formats used. For multi-channel systems, the degradation of DBP performance due to neglecting the spectral broadening effect in the compensation is more significant for outer channels. Our work also quantified the minimum bandwidths of optical receivers and signal processing devices to ensure the optimal compensation of deterministic nonlinear distortions.

  12. Hybrid phase retrieval algorithm for solving the twin image problem in in-line digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Fucai; Wang, Yunxin

    2010-10-01

    For the reconstruction in the in-line digital holography, there are three terms overlapping with each other on the image plane, named the zero order term, the real image and the twin image respectively. The unwanted twin image degrades the real image seriously. A hybrid phase retrieval algorithm is presented to address this problem, which combines the advantages of two popular phase retrieval algorithms. One is the improved version of the universal iterative algorithm (UIA), called the phase flipping-based UIA (PFB-UIA). The key point of this algorithm is to flip the phase of the object iteratively. It is proved that the PFB-UIA is able to find the support of the complicated object. Another one is the Fienup algorithm, which is a kind of well-developed algorithm and uses the support of the object as the constraint among the iteration procedure. Thus, by following the Fienup algorithm immediately after the PFB-UIA, it is possible to produce the amplitude and the phase distributions of the object with high fidelity. The primary simulated results showed that the proposed algorithm is powerful for solving the twin image problem in the in-line digital holography.

  13. Digital timing: sampling frequency, anti-aliasing filter and signal interpolation filter dependence on timing resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sanghee; Grazioso, Ron; Zhang Nan; Aykac, Mehmet; Schmand, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of our study is to investigate how the performance of digital timing methods is affected by sampling rate, anti-aliasing and signal interpolation filters. We used the Nyquist sampling theorem to address some basic questions such as what will be the minimum sampling frequencies? How accurate will the signal interpolation be? How do we validate the timing measurements? The preferred sampling rate would be as low as possible, considering the high cost and power consumption of high-speed analog-to-digital converters. However, when the sampling rate is too low, due to the aliasing effect, some artifacts are produced in the timing resolution estimations; the shape of the timing profile is distorted and the FWHM values of the profile fluctuate as the source location changes. Anti-aliasing filters are required in this case to avoid the artifacts, but the timing is degraded as a result. When the sampling rate is marginally over the Nyquist rate, a proper signal interpolation is important. A sharp roll-off (higher order) filter is required to separate the baseband signal from its replicates to avoid the aliasing, but in return the computation will be higher. We demonstrated the analysis through a digital timing study using fast LSO scintillation crystals as used in time-of-flight PET scanners. From the study, we observed that there is no significant timing resolution degradation down to 1.3 Ghz sampling frequency, and the computation requirement for the signal interpolation is reasonably low. A so-called sliding test is proposed as a validation tool checking constant timing resolution behavior of a given timing pick-off method regardless of the source location change. Lastly, the performance comparison for several digital timing methods is also shown.

  14. Influence of Wilbraham-Gibbs Phenomenon on Digital Stochastic Measurement of EEG Signal Over an Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement methods, based on the approach named Digital Stochastic Measurement, have been introduced, and several prototype and small-series commercial instruments have been developed based on these methods. These methods have been mostly investigated for various types of stationary signals, but also for non-stationary signals. This paper presents, analyzes and discusses digital stochastic measurement of electroencephalography (EEG signal in the time domain, emphasizing the problem of influence of the Wilbraham-Gibbs phenomenon. The increase of measurement error, related to the Wilbraham-Gibbs phenomenon, is found. If the EEG signal is measured and measurement interval is 20 ms wide, the average maximal error relative to the range of input signal is 16.84 %. If the measurement interval is extended to 2s, the average maximal error relative to the range of input signal is significantly lowered - down to 1.37 %. Absolute errors are compared with the error limit recommended by Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML and with the quantization steps of the advanced EEG instruments with 24-bit A/D conversion

  15. Preserving privacy of online digital physiological signals using blind and reversible steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Hung-Jr; Lin, Bor-Sing; Huang, Chien-Hung; Chiang, Pei-Ying; Lei, Chin-Laung

    2017-11-01

    Physiological signals such as electrocardiograms (ECG) and electromyograms (EMG) are widely used to diagnose diseases. Presently, the Internet offers numerous cloud storage services which enable digital physiological signals to be uploaded for convenient access and use. Numerous online databases of medical signals have been built. The data in them must be processed in a manner that preserves patients' confidentiality. A reversible error-correcting-coding strategy will be adopted to transform digital physiological signals into a new bit-stream that uses a matrix in which is embedded the Hamming code to pass secret messages or private information. The shared keys are the matrix and the version of the Hamming code. An online open database, the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, was used to test the proposed algorithms. The time-complexity, capacity and robustness are evaluated. Comparisons of several evaluations subject to related work are also proposed. This work proposes a reversible, low-payload steganographic scheme for preserving the privacy of physiological signals. An (n,  m)-hamming code is used to insert (n - m) secret bits into n bits of a cover signal. The number of embedded bits per modification is higher than in comparable methods, and the computational power is efficient and the scheme is secure. Unlike other Hamming-code based schemes, the proposed scheme is both reversible and blind. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative study of chaotic and white noise signals in digital watermarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Aidan; Keating, John G.; Pitas, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    Digital watermarking is an ever increasing and important discipline, especially in the modern electronically-driven world. Watermarking aims to embed a piece of information into digital documents which their owner can use to prove that the document is theirs, at a later stage. In this paper, performance analysis of watermarking schemes is performed on white noise sequences and chaotic sequences for the purpose of watermark generation. Pseudorandom sequences are compared with chaotic sequences generated from the chaotic skew tent map. In particular, analysis is performed on highpass signals generated from both these watermark generation schemes, along with analysis on lowpass watermarks and white noise watermarks. This analysis focuses on the watermarked images after they have been subjected to common image distortion attacks. It is shown that signals generated from highpass chaotic signals have superior performance than highpass noise signals, in the presence of such attacks. It is also shown that watermarks generated from lowpass chaotic signals have superior performance over the other signal types analysed

  17. Experimental demonstration of a format-flexible single-carrier coherent receiver using data-aided digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Molle, Lutz; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja

    2012-12-17

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of data-aided digital signal processing for format-flexible coherent reception of different 28-GBd PDM and 4D modulated signals in WDM transmission experiments over up to 7680 km SSMF by using the same resource-efficient digital signal processing algorithms for the equalization of all formats. Stable and regular performance in the nonlinear transmission regime is confirmed.

  18. Digital broadcasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hyeong

    1999-06-01

    This book contains twelve chapters, which deals with digitization of broadcast signal such as digital open, digitization of video signal and sound signal digitization of broadcasting equipment like DTPP and digital VTR, digitization of equipment to transmit such as digital STL, digital FPU and digital SNG, digitization of transmit about digital TV transmit and radio transmit, digital broadcasting system on necessity and advantage, digital broadcasting system abroad and Korea, digital broadcasting of outline, advantage of digital TV, ripple effect of digital broadcasting and consideration of digital broadcasting, ground wave digital broadcasting of DVB-T in Europe DTV in U.S.A and ISDB-T in Japan, HDTV broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital TV broadcasting in Korea, digital radio broadcasting and new broadcasting service.

  19. A Hybrid Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm for an Adaptive Traffic Signal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid algorithm that combines Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC and Genetic Algorithms (GAs and its application on a traffic signal system. FLCs have been widely used in many applications in diverse areas, such as control system, pattern recognition, signal processing, and forecasting. They are, essentially, rule-based systems, in which the definition of these rules and fuzzy membership functions is generally based on verbally formulated rules that overlap through the parameter space. They have a great influence over the performance of the system. On the other hand, the Genetic Algorithm is a metaheuristic that provides a robust search in complex spaces. In this work, it has been used to adapt the decision rules of FLCs that define an intelligent traffic signal system, obtaining a higher performance than a classical FLC-based control. The simulation results yielded by the hybrid algorithm show an improvement of up to 34% in the performance with respect to a standard traffic signal controller, Conventional Traffic Signal Controller (CTC, and up to 31% in the comparison with a traditional logic controller, FLC.

  20. Front-end data reduction of diagnostic signals by real-time digital filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasche, D.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Harmeyer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements on a fusion plasma with high resolution in space, time and signal amplitude involve handling large amounts of data. In the design of the soft-X-ray pinhole camera diagnostic for JET (100 detectors in 2 cameras) a new approach to this problem was found. The analogue-to-digital conversion is performed continuously at the highest sample rate of 200 kHz, lower sample rates (10 kHz, 1 kHz, 100 Hz) are obtained by real-time digital filters which calculate weighted averages over consecutive samples and are undersampled at their outputs to reduce the data rate. At any time, the signals from all detectors are available at all possible data rates in ring buffers. The appropriate data rate can always be recorded on demand. (author)

  1. Key technology research of nuclear signal digitized pulse shaping in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Wang Min; Zhou Wei; Zhu Xing; Liu Yi; Chen Bao; Lu Baoping; Yue Aizhong; Qin Li; He Xuxin

    2014-01-01

    The computer simulation and analysis were carried out for the ideal nuclear pulse signal and the actual detector output signals, and the determination method of digital trapezoidal shape parameter for different nuclear pulse shaping time was summarized. At high count rate measurement occasion, the effective count rate is increased, some pile-up pulses are eliminated and the accumulation of dead time of the system is reduced. Meanwhile, Si-PIN semiconductor detector performance was tested by 256 points and 512 points digital triangle forming methods and the analog circuit forming methods for comparative tests. Test results show that the pulse forming treatment method increases the count rate performance and the resolution of detector. (authors)

  2. Upregulation of transmitter release probability improves a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into neuronal digital spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Action potentials at the neurons and graded signals at the synapses are primary codes in the brain. In terms of their functional interaction, the studies were focused on the influence of presynaptic spike patterns on synaptic activities. How the synapse dynamics quantitatively regulates the encoding of postsynaptic digital spikes remains unclear. We investigated this question at unitary glutamatergic synapses on cortical GABAergic neurons, especially the quantitative influences of release probability on synapse dynamics and neuronal encoding. Glutamate release probability and synaptic strength are proportionally upregulated by presynaptic sequential spikes. The upregulation of release probability and the efficiency of probability-driven synaptic facilitation are strengthened by elevating presynaptic spike frequency and Ca2+. The upregulation of release probability improves spike capacity and timing precision at postsynaptic neuron. These results suggest that the upregulation of presynaptic glutamate release facilitates a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into digital spikes in postsynaptic neurons, i.e., a functional compatibility between presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. PMID:22852823

  3. Operation and performance of a longitudinal feedback system using digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teytelman, D.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.

    1994-01-01

    A programmable longitudinal feedback system using a parallel array of AT ampersand T 1610 digital signal processors has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R ampersand D program. This system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (LBL) and implements full speed bunch by bunch signal processing for storage rings with bunch spacing of 4ns. Open and closed loop results showing the action of the feedback system are presented, and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. A unified PC-based software environment for the feedback system operation is also described

  4. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [for multilevel digital communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    Multilevel amplitude-shift-keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, and the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems are discussed. A technique is presented for extracting symbol sync from an MASK or QASK signal. The scheme is a generalization of the data transition tracking loop used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop was analyzed in terms of its mean-squared jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  5. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Vacri, A. di; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, ********************M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-06-01

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the value for decay in Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter.

  6. Depth of quantization in signals of the digital X-ray television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthan, J.

    1989-01-01

    The technological realization of image acquisition and processing in digital X-ray television in methodical dependence on the image-forming purpose places particular requirements in signal quantization. By evaluation of experimental results with simultaneous modification of a special calculation method an optimum quantization stage is ascertained with method-relevant quantization characteristic. In addition to consideration made so far in this field a self-contained solution is presented with inclusion of vision physiology and information gain. (author)

  7. Universal Michelson Gires-Tournois interferometer optical interleaver based on digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Yang, Xiaowei

    2010-03-01

    Optical interleavers based on Michelson Gires-Tournois interferometer (MGTI) with arbitrary cascaded reflectors for symmetrical or asymmetrical periodic frequency response with arbitrary duty cycles are defined as universal MGTI optical interleaver (UMGTIOI). It can significantly enhance flexibility and applicability of optical networks. A novel and simple method based on digital signal processing is proposed for the design of UMGTIOI. Different kinds of design examples are given to confirm effectiveness of the method.

  8. Volatile-Mediated within-Plant Signaling in Hybrid Aspen: Required for Systemic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D

    2017-04-01

    Plant volatiles play crucial roles in signaling between plants and their associated community members, but their role in within-plant signaling remains largely unexplored, particularly under field conditions. Using a system comprising the hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) and the specialized herbivorous leaf beetle (Phratora laticollis) and, combining field, greenhouse and laboratory experiments, we examined whether local damage triggered systemic responses in undamaged branches that lack vascular connection to the damaged branches, and to what extent this was caused by airborne volatile signals versus internal signals. An experiment tracing dye through the vasculature of saplings revealed no downward movement of the dye from upper to lower branches, suggesting a lack of vascular connectivity among branches. However, we found under both field and laboratory conditions that herbivore feeding on upper branches elicited volatile emissions by undamaged lower branches. Greenhouse experiments manipulating air contact between damaged and undamaged branches showed that systemic induction of volatiles was almost eliminated when air contact was interrupted. Our findings clearly demonstrate that herbivore-induced volatiles overcome vascular constraints and mediate within-plant signaling. Further, we found that volatile signaling led to induction of different classes of volatiles under field and environment controlled conditions, with a weaker response observed in the field. This difference not only reflects the dose- and time-dependent nature of volatile signaling, but also points out that future studies should focus more on field observations to better understand the ecological role of volatile-mediated within-plant signaling.

  9. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  10. Application of adaptive digital signal processing to speech enhancement for the hearing impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabries, D M; Christiansen, R W; Brey, R H; Robinette, M S; Harris, R W

    1987-01-01

    A major complaint of individuals with normal hearing and hearing impairments is a reduced ability to understand speech in a noisy environment. This paper describes the concept of adaptive noise cancelling for removing noise from corrupted speech signals. Application of adaptive digital signal processing has long been known and is described from a historical as well as technical perspective. The Widrow-Hoff LMS (least mean square) algorithm developed in 1959 forms the introduction to modern adaptive signal processing. This method uses a "primary" input which consists of the desired speech signal corrupted with noise and a second "reference" signal which is used to estimate the primary noise signal. By subtracting the adaptively filtered estimate of the noise, the desired speech signal is obtained. Recent developments in the field as they relate to noise cancellation are described. These developments include more computationally efficient algorithms as well as algorithms that exhibit improved learning performance. A second method for removing noise from speech, for use when no independent reference for the noise exists, is referred to as single channel noise suppression. Both adaptive and spectral subtraction techniques have been applied to this problem--often with the result of decreased speech intelligibility. Current techniques applied to this problem are described, including signal processing techniques that offer promise in the noise suppression application.

  11. A fast continuous magnetic field measurement system based on digital signal processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, G.V.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Kotelnikov, S.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; /Fermilab; Maroussov, V.; /Purdue U.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Orris, D.; /Fermilab; Poukhov,; Prakoshyn, F.; /Dubna, JINR; Schlabach, P.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    In order to study dynamic effects in accelerator magnets, such as the decay of the magnetic field during the dwell at injection and the rapid so-called ''snapback'' during the first few seconds of the resumption of the energy ramp, a fast continuous harmonics measurement system was required. A new magnetic field measurement system, based on the use of digital signal processors (DSP) and Analog to Digital (A/D) converters, was developed and prototyped at Fermilab. This system uses Pentek 6102 16 bit A/D converters and the Pentek 4288 DSP board with the SHARC ADSP-2106 family digital signal processor. It was designed to acquire multiple channels of data with a wide dynamic range of input signals, which are typically generated by a rotating coil probe. Data acquisition is performed under a RTOS, whereas processing and visualization are performed under a host computer. Firmware code was developed for the DSP to perform fast continuous readout of the A/D FIFO memory and integration over specified intervals, synchronized to the probe's rotation in the magnetic field. C, C++ and Java code was written to control the data acquisition devices and to process a continuous stream of data. The paper summarizes the characteristics of the system and presents the results of initial tests and measurements.

  12. FIPSER: Performance study of a readout concept with few digitization levels for fast signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limyansky, B., E-mail: brent.limyansky@gatech.edu [School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Reese, R., E-mail: bobbeyreese@gmail.com [School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Cressler, J.D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Otte, A.N.; Taboada, I. [School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Ulusoy, C. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States)

    2016-11-21

    We discuss the performance of a readout system, Fixed Pulse Shape Efficient Readout (FIPSER), to digitize signals from detectors with a fixed pulse shape. In this study we are mainly interested in the readout of fast photon detectors like photomultipliers or Silicon photomultipliers. But the concept can be equally applied to the digitization of other detector signals. FIPSER is based on the flash analog to digital converter (FADC) concept, but has the potential to lower costs and power consumption by using an order of magnitude fewer discrete voltage levels. Performance is bolstered by combining the discretized signal with the knowledge of the underlying pulse shape. Simulated FIPSER data was reconstructed with two independent methods. One using a maximum likelihood method and the other using a modified χ{sup 2} test. Both methods show that utilizing 12 discrete voltage levels with a sampling rate of 4 samples per full width half maximum (FWHM) of the pulse achieves an amplitude resolution that is better than the Poisson limit for photon-counting experiments. The time resolution achieved in this configuration ranges between 0.02 and 0.16 FWHM and depends on the pulse amplitude. In a situation where the waveform is composed of two consecutive pulses the pulses can be separated if they are at least 0.05–0.30 FWHM apart with an amplitude resolution that is better than 20%.

  13. A fast continuous magnetic field measurement system based on digital signal processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, G.V.; Carcagno, R.; DiMarco, J.; Kotelnikov, S.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; Maroussov, V.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Orris, D.; Poukhov, O.; Prakoshyn, F.; Schlabach, P.; Tompkins, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In order to study dynamic effects in accelerator magnets, such as the decay of the magnetic field during the dwell at injection and the rapid so-called ''snapback'' during the first few seconds of the resumption of the energy ramp, a fast continuous harmonics measurement system was required. A new magnetic field measurement system, based on the use of digital signal processors (DSP) and Analog to Digital (A/D) converters, was developed and prototyped at Fermilab. This system uses Pentek 6102 16 bit A/D converters and the Pentek 4288 DSP board with the SHARC ADSP-2106 family digital signal processor. It was designed to acquire multiple channels of data with a wide dynamic range of input signals, which are typically generated by a rotating coil probe. Data acquisition is performed under a RTOS, whereas processing and visualization are performed under a host computer. Firmware code was developed for the DSP to perform fast continuous readout of the A/D FIFO memory and integration over specified intervals, synchronized to the probe's rotation in the magnetic field. C, C++ and Java code was written to control the data acquisition devices and to process a continuous stream of data. The paper summarizes the characteristics of the system and presents the results of initial tests and measurements

  14. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J.; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  15. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-06

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-12-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5kHz and the scan frequency was 40kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2mM trityl OX63 in water, 15 N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5G partially-resolved proton

  17. Hybrid Scheduling/Signal-Level Coordination in the Downlink of Multi-Cloud Radio-Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    results suggest that the proposed hybrid scheduling strategy provides appreciable gain as compared to the scheduling-level coordinated networks, with a negligible degradation to signal-level coordination.

  18. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Longman

    Full Text Available Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km, representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001 and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02. Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness.

  19. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao, E-mail: htyu@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lu, Meili [School of Informational Technology and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin 300222 (China); Che, Yanqiu [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin 300222 (China)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance.

  20. Electrochemical detection of C-reactive protein using Copper nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction amplifying signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjun; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Jinjin; Wang, Junchun; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2017-12-15

    In this study, a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) is described. In design, Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were used for signal tag and hybridization chain reaction (HCR)amplified output signal. The immunosensor fabrication involved three steps: (i) primary antibodies (Ab 1 ) were immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs); (ii) the sandwich-type structure formation contained "primary antibodies-antigen-secondary antibodies conjugated with primer (Ab 2 -S 0 )"; and (iii) long DNA concatemers intercalating amounts of Cu NPs was linked to the sandwich-type structure via hybridization reaction. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to record the response signal of the immunosensor in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Under optimal conditions, the anodic peak currents of Cu NPs at the peak potential of about 0.08V(VS.SCE) were linear with the logarithm of CRP concentration in the range of 1.0 fg mL -1 to 100 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.33 fg mL -1 (at signal/noise [S/N] = 3). In addition, the practical application of immunosensor was evaluated by analyzing CRP in real human serum samples, the recoveries obtained were within 95.3%-103.8%, indicating the immunosensor possessed potential application ability for practical disease diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Lu, Meili; Che, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance

  2. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Lu, Meili; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Che, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance.

  3. Integration of analog and digital instrumentation and control systems in hybrid control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    he IAEA's activities in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management are aimed at increasing Member State capabilities in utilizing good engineering and management practices as developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports the improvement of nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational license renewal, and the modernization of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems of plants. The issue of the integration of analog and digital I and C systems in hybrid control rooms was suggested by the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) at its meetings in 2003 and 2005. The subject was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2006-2009. The purpose of this report is to help nuclear utilities in planning control room and other human system interface (HSI) changes, making appropriate use of modern technologies. These technologies would aid in managing ageing and obsolescence, and facilitate improvements in plant performance and safety. This report covers a broad spectrum of potential changes to the control room ranging from the replacement of a few obsolete components with newer digital devices to a fully computerized control room. New digital technologies offer significant opportunities to improve access to and presentation of information to the user, e.g. operators, maintenance staff and management. However, this technology should be used prudently. In some cases, modernization is undertaken to resolve ageing and obsolescence or to meet regulatory requirements for license renewal. The integration of new technologies during main control room (MCR) modernizations should be performed cautiously and all affected aspects of plant maintenance, and operation should be carefully considered, paying particular attention to the human factors elements of these aspects. This report describes a

  4. Camera-based ratiometric fluorescence transduction of nucleic acid hybridization with reagentless signal amplification on a paper-based platform using immobilized quantum dots as donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2014-10-21

    Paper-based diagnostic assays are gaining increasing popularity for their potential application in resource-limited settings and for point-of-care screening. Achievement of high sensitivity with precision and accuracy can be challenging when using paper substrates. Herein, we implement the red-green-blue color palette of a digital camera for quantitative ratiometric transduction of nucleic acid hybridization on a paper-based platform using immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A nonenzymatic and reagentless means of signal enhancement for QD-FRET assays on paper substrates is based on the use of dry paper substrates for data acquisition. This approach offered at least a 10-fold higher assay sensitivity and at least a 10-fold lower limit of detection (LOD) as compared to hydrated paper substrates. The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to assemble a transduction interface that consisted of immobilized QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) served as donors with Cy3 as an acceptor. A hybridization event that brought the Cy3 acceptor dye in close proximity to the surface of immobilized gQDs was responsible for a FRET-sensitized emission from the acceptor dye, which served as an analytical signal. A hand-held UV lamp was used as an excitation source and ratiometric analysis using an iPad camera was possible by a relative intensity analysis of the red (Cy3 photoluminescence (PL)) and green (gQD PL) color channels of the digital camera. For digital imaging using an iPad camera, the LOD of the assay in a sandwich format was 450 fmol with a dynamic range spanning 2 orders of magnitude, while an epifluorescence microscope detection platform offered a LOD of 30 fmol and a dynamic range spanning 3 orders of magnitude. The selectivity of the hybridization assay was demonstrated by detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism at a contrast ratio of 60:1. This work provides an

  5. Low-Latency Digital Signal Processing for Feedback and Feedforward in Quantum Computing and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathé, Yves; Kurpiers, Philipp; Karg, Thomas; Lang, Christian; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Akin, Abdulkadir; Krinner, Sebastian; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Quantum computing architectures rely on classical electronics for control and readout. Employing classical electronics in a feedback loop with the quantum system allows us to stabilize states, correct errors, and realize specific feedforward-based quantum computing and communication schemes such as deterministic quantum teleportation. These feedback and feedforward operations are required to be fast compared to the coherence time of the quantum system to minimize the probability of errors. We present a field-programmable-gate-array-based digital signal processing system capable of real-time quadrature demodulation, a determination of the qubit state, and a generation of state-dependent feedback trigger signals. The feedback trigger is generated with a latency of 110 ns with respect to the timing of the analog input signal. We characterize the performance of the system for an active qubit initialization protocol based on the dispersive readout of a superconducting qubit and discuss potential applications in feedback and feedforward algorithms.

  6. Operation and performance of a longitudinal damping system using parallel digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.

    1994-06-01

    A programmable longitudinal feedback system based on four AT ampersand T 1610 digital signal processors has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R ampersand D program. This Longitudinal Quick Prototype is a proof of concept for the PEP-II system and implements full speed bunch-by-bunch signal processing for storage rings with bunch spacings of 4 ns. The design implements, via software, a general purpose feedback controller which allows the system to be operated at several accelerator facilities. The system configuration used for tests at the LBL Advanced Light Source is described. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented, and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of injection transients and analysis of open loop bunch motion

  7. Detection of coherent beam-beam modes with digitized beam position monitor signals

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; White, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations in the Fermilab Tevatron collider is described. It is based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier-analyzed offline with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, band-limited noise is applied to the beam for about 1 s. This excitation does not adversely affect the circulating beams even at high luminosities. The device has a response time of a few seconds, a frequency resolution of $1.6\\times 10^{-5}$ in fractional tune, and it is sensitive to oscillation amplitudes of 60 nm. It complements Schottky detectors as a diagnostic tool for tunes, tune spreads, and beam-beam effects. Measurements of coherent mode spectra are presented and compared with models of beam-beam oscillations.

  8. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  9. First images of a digital autoradiography system based on a Medipix2 hybrid silicon pixel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo

    2003-06-21

    We present the first images of beta autoradiography obtained with the high-resolution hybrid pixel detector consisting of the Medipix2 single photon counting read-out chip bump-bonded to a 300 microm thick silicon pixel detector. This room temperature system has 256 x 256 square pixels of 55 microm pitch (total sensitive area of 14 x 14 mm2), with a double threshold discriminator and a 13-bit counter in each pixel. It is read out via a dedicated electronic interface and control software, also developed in the framework of the European Medipix2 Collaboration. Digital beta autoradiograms of 14C microscale standard strips (containing separate bands of increasing specific activity in the range 0.0038-32.9 kBq g(-1)) indicate system linearity down to a total background noise of 1.8 x 10(-3) counts mm(-2) s(-1). The minimum detectable activity is estimated to be 0.012 Bq for 36,000 s exposure and 0.023 Bq for 10,800 s exposure. The measured minimum detection threshold is less than 1600 electrons (equivalent to about 6 keV Si). This real-time system for beta autoradiography offers lower pixel pitch and higher sensitive area than the previous Medipix1-based system. It has a 14C sensitivity better than that of micro channel plate based systems, which, however, shows higher spatial resolution and sensitive area.

  10. Digital signal processing for velocity measurements in dynamical material's behaviour studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlaminck, Julien; Luc, Jerome; Chanal, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we describe different configurations of optical fiber interferometers (types Michelson and Mach-Zehnder) used to measure velocities during dynamical material's behaviour studies. We detail the algorithms of processing developed and optimized to improve the performance of these interferometers especially in terms of time and frequency resolutions. Three methods of analysis of interferometric signals were studied. For Michelson interferometers, the time-frequency analysis of signals by Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is compared to a time-frequency analysis by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The results have shown that the CWT was more suitable than the STFT for signals with low signal-to-noise, and low velocity and high acceleration areas. For Mach- Zehnder interferometers, the measurement is carried out by analyzing the phase shift between three interferometric signals (Triature processing). These three methods of digital signal processing were evaluated, their measurement uncertainties estimated, and their restrictions or operational limitations specified from experimental results performed on a pulsed power machine. (authors)

  11. Digital Signal Processing Applications and Implementation for Accelerators Digital Notch Filter with Programmable Delay and Betatron Phase Adjustment for the PS, SPS and LHC Transverse Dampers

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, V

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC project and the modifications of the SPS as its injector, I present the concept of global digital signal processing applied to a particle accelerator, using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. The approach of global digital synthesis implements in numerical form the architecture of a system, from the start up of a project and the very beginning of the signal flow. It takes into account both the known parameters and the future evolution, whenever possible. Due to the increased performance requirements of today's projects, the CAE design methodology becomes more and more necessary to handle successfully the added complexity and speed of modern electronic circuits. Simulation is performed both for behavioural analysis, to ensure conformity to functional requirements, and for time signal analysis (speed requirements). The digital notch filter with programmable delay for the SPS Transverse Damper is now fully operational with fixed target and LHC-type beams circulating in t...

  12. Re-configurable digital receiver for optically envelope detected half cycle BPSK and MSK radio-on-fiber signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Prince, Kamau; Zibar, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We present the first known integration of a digital receiver into optically envelope detection radio-on-fiber systems. We also present a re-configurable scheme for two different types of optically envelope detected wireless signals while keeping the complexity of used optical components low. Our...... novel digital receiver consists of a digital signal processing unit integrating functions such as filtering, peak-powers detection, symbol synchronization and signal demodulation for optically envelope detected half-cycle binary phase-shift-keying and minimum-shift-keying signals. Furthermore, radio......-frequency signal down-conversion is not required in our proposed approach; simplifying evens more the optical receiver front-end. We experimentally demonstrate error-free optical transmission (bit-error rate corresponding to 10−3 related to FEC-compatible levels) for both 416.6 Mbit/s half-cycle binary phase...

  13. AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction Mediated Signal Transmission between Two DNA Origami Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Sarah; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-10-23

    Signal transfer is central to the controlled exchange of information in biology and advanced technologies. Therefore, the development of reliable, long-range signal transfer systems for artificial nanoscale assemblies is of great scientific interest. We have designed such a system for the signal transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins, one of which is immobilized at specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures, are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Upon addition of a designed initiator, the initiation signal is efficiently transferred more than 200 nm from a specific location on one origami structure to an end point on another origami structure. The system shows no significant loss of signal when crossing from one nanostructure to another and, therefore, has the potential to be applied to larger multi-component DNA assemblies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.

    2015-01-01

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76 Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the Q value for 0νββ decay in 76 Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter

  15. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M. [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M. [Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A. M. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS, and Gran Sasso Science Institute, GSSI, Assergi (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2015-06-09

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the Q value for 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter.

  16. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Zavarise, P. [LNGS, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-06-15

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The GERDA Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10% at the Q value for 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter. (orig.)

  17. The effects of advanced digital signal processing concepts on VLSIC/VHSIC design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, C.

    Implementations of sophisticated mathematical techniques in advanced digital signal processors can significantly improve performance. Future VLSI and VHSI circuit designs must include the practical realization of these algorithms. A structured design approach is described and illustrated with examples from a RNS FIR filter processor development project. The CAE hardware and software required to support tasks of this complexity are also discussed. An EWS is recommended for controlling essential functions such as logic optimization, simulation and verification. The total IC design system is illustrated with the implementation of a new high performance algorithm for computing complex magnitude.

  18. Detection of interference phase by digital computation of quadrature signals in homodyne laser interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řeřucha, Šimon; Buchta, Zdeněk; Šarbort, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2012), s. 14095-14112 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MPO FR-TI2/705; GA MPO FR-TI1/241; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0054 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : digital signal processing * homodyne detection * laser interferometry * optical metrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2012

  19. Seismic qualification using digital signal processing/modal testing and finite element techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steedman, J.B.; Edelstein, A.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic procedure in which digital signal processing, modal testing and finite element techniques can be used to seismically qualify Class IE equipment for use in nuclear generating stations is presented. A new method was also developed in which measured transmissibility functions and Fourier transformation techniques were combined to compute instrument response spectra. As an illustrative example of the qualification method, the paper follows the qualification of a safety related Class IE Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Control Panel subjected to both seismic and hydrodynamic loading conditions

  20. Digital system for acquiring signals from photodiode arrays. No. Program Element 2317-08-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, M.; Meric, B.

    1981-01-01

    A model of circuit allowing the digitization and the memorization of signals coming from linear arrays of photodiodes have been realized. The authors first recall the organization and present in the second part some test results on experimental sites. The model consists of 1 - an acquisition, memorization and visualization card (AMV card) for the data from RETICON 121 photodiode strips, 2 - a series transfer card for the memorized data, and 3 - an interface and multiplexing card associated with a system using a 6800 microprocessor allowing the management of eight acquisition cards [fr

  1. POSITION CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR BASED ON DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin GENÇER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motors (BLDC have been used widely high performance control systems which are depended on to development of power electronic and control technology. In these motors to fed commutated supply, the control of position without oscilation has been required. In this study, position control of BLDC with digital signal processing has been implemented by a proportional-derivative (PD controller because of its simple structure. It has been seen that the controller which is proposed from simulation and experimental studies, has a quick dynamic responce with nonoscillation.

  2. Experimental verification of preset time count rate meters based on adaptive digital signal processing algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental verifications of two optimized adaptive digital signal processing algorithms implemented in two pre set time count rate meters were per formed ac cording to appropriate standards. The random pulse generator realized using a personal computer, was used as an artificial radiation source for preliminary system tests and performance evaluations of the pro posed algorithms. Then measurement results for background radiation levels were obtained. Finally, measurements with a natural radiation source radioisotope 90Sr-90Y, were carried out. Measurement results, con ducted without and with radio isotopes for the specified errors of 10% and 5% showed to agree well with theoretical predictions.

  3. Digital signal processors for cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Stephan; Drury, Owen B.; Bechstein, Sylke; Hennig, Wolfgang; Momayezi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing fast digital signal processors (DSPs) to read out superconducting high-resolution X-ray detectors with on-line pulse processing. For superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector read-out, the DSPs offer online filtering, rise time discrimination and pile-up rejection. Compared to analog pulse processing, DSP readout somewhat degrades the detector resolution, but improves the spectral purity of the detector response. We discuss DSP performance with our 9-channel STJ array for synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  4. Fast realization of nonrecursive digital filters with limits on signal delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, M. A.; Bondarenko, N. N.

    1983-07-01

    Attention is given to the problem of achieving a fast realization of nonrecursive digital filters with the aim of reducing signal delay. It is shown that a realization wherein the impulse characteristic of the filter is divided into blocks satisfies the delay requirements and is almost as economical in terms of the number of multiplications as conventional fast convolution. In addition, the block method leads to a reduction in the needed size of the memory and in the number of additions; the short-convolution procedure is substantially simplified. Finally, the block method facilitates the paralleling of computations owing to the simple transfers between subfilters.

  5. Innovation Online Teaching Module Plus Digital Engineering Kit with Proteus Software through Hybrid Learning Method to Improve Student Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholis, Nur; Syariffuddien Zuhrie, Muhamad; Rahmadian, Reza

    2018-04-01

    Demands the competence (competence) needs of the industry today is a competent workforce to the field of work. However, during this lecture material Digital Engineering (Especially Digital Electronics Basics and Digital Circuit Basics) is limited to the delivery of verbal form of lectures (classical method) is dominated by the Lecturer (Teacher Centered). Though the subject of Digital Engineering requires learning tools and is required understanding of electronic circuits, digital electronics and high logic circuits so that learners can apply in the world of work. One effort to make it happen is by creating an online teaching module and educational aids (Kit) with the help of Proteus software that can improve the skills of learners. This study aims to innovate online teaching modules plus kits in Proteus-assisted digital engineering courses through hybrid learning approaches to improve the skills of learners. The process of innovation is done by considering the skills and mastery of the technology of students (students) Department of Electrical Engineering - Faculty of Engineering – Universitas Negeri Surabaya to produce quality graduates Use of online module plus Proteus software assisted kit through hybrid learning approach. In general, aims to obtain adequate results with affordable cost of investment, user friendly, attractive and interactive (easily adapted to the development of Information and Communication Technology). With the right design, implementation and operation, both in the form of software both in the form of Online Teaching Module, offline teaching module, Kit (Educational Viewer), and e-learning learning content (both online and off line), the use of the three tools of the expenditure will be able to adjust the standard needs of Information and Communication Technology world, both nationally and internationally.

  6. Higher order spectra and their use in digital communication signal estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayci, Cihat

    1995-03-01

    This thesis compared the detection ability of the spectrogram, the 1-1/2D instantaneous power spectrum (l-1/2D(sub ips)), the bispectrum, and outer product (dyadic) representation for digitally modulated signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Four detection schemes were tried on noise free BPSK, QPSK, FSK, and OOK signals using different transform lengths. After determining the optimum transform length, each test signal is corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. Different SNR levels were used to determine the lowest SNR level at which the message or the modulation type could be extracted. The optimal transform length was found to be the symbol duration when processing BPSK, OOK, and FSK via the spectrogram, the 1-1/2D(sub ips) or the bispectrum method. The best transform size for QPSK was half of the symbol length. For the outer product (dyadic) spectral representation, the best transform size was four times larger than the symbol length. For all processing techniques, with the exception of the other product representation, the minimum detectable SNR is about 15 dB for BPSK, FSK, and OOK signals and about 20 dB for QPSK signals. For the outer product spectral method, these values tend to be about 10 dB lower.

  7. Digital signal processing and spectral analysis for scientists concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, Silvia Maria

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the basics of processing and spectral analysis of monovariate discrete-time signals. The approach is practical, the aim being to acquaint the reader with the indications for and drawbacks of the various methods and to highlight possible misuses. The book is rich in original ideas, visualized in new and illuminating ways, and is structured so that parts can be skipped without loss of continuity. Many examples are included, based on synthetic data and real measurements from the fields of physics, biology, medicine, macroeconomics etc., and a complete set of MATLAB exercises requiring no previous experience of programming is provided. Prior advanced mathematical skills are not needed in order to understand the contents: a good command of basic mathematical analysis is sufficient. Where more advanced mathematical tools are necessary, they are included in an Appendix and presented in an easy-to-follow way. With this book, digital signal processing leaves the domain of engineering to address the ne...

  8. Advanced digital signal processing for short haul optical fiber transmission beyond 100G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Significant increase of intra and inter data center traffic has been expected by the rapid spread of various network applications like SNS, IoT, mobile and cloud computing, and the needs for ultra-high speed and cost-effective short- to medium-reach optical fiber links beyond 100-Gbit/s is becoming larger and larger. Such high-speed links typically use multilevel modulation to lower signaling speed, which in turn face serious challenges in limited loss budget and waveform distortion tolerance. One of the promising techniques to overcome them is the use of advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and we review various DSP applications for short-to-medium reach applications.

  9. Digital Signal Processing Based on a Clustering Algorithm for Ir/Au TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, N.; Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Hiramoto, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, cryogenic microcalorimeters using their superconducting transition edge have been under development for possible application to the research for astronomical X-ray observations. To improve the energy resolution of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES), several correction methods have been developed. Among them, a clustering method based on digital signal processing has recently been proposed. In this paper, we applied the clustering method to Ir/Au bilayer TES. This method resulted in almost a 10% improvement in the energy resolution. Conversely, from the point of view of imaging X-ray spectroscopy, we applied the clustering method to pixellated Ir/Au-TES devices. We will thus show how a clustering method which sorts signals by their shapes is also useful for position identification

  10. Real time implementation of a linear predictive coding algorithm on digital signal processor DSP32C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.M.; Usman, S.R.; Fatima, S.

    2002-01-01

    Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) has been widely used in speech coding. However, due to its high bit rate. PCM has severe limitations in application where high spectral efficiency is desired, for example, in mobile communication, CD quality broadcasting system etc. These limitation have motivated research in bit rate reduction techniques. Linear predictive coding (LPC) is one of the most powerful complex techniques for bit rate reduction. With the introduction of powerful digital signal processors (DSP) it is possible to implement the complex LPC algorithm in real time. In this paper we present a real time implementation of the LPC algorithm on AT and T's DSP32C at a sampling frequency of 8192 HZ. Application of the LPC algorithm on two speech signals is discussed. Using this implementation , a bit rate reduction of 1:3 is achieved for better than tool quality speech, while a reduction of 1.16 is possible for speech quality required in military applications. (author)

  11. Digital Signal Processing and Generation for a DC Current Transformer for Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorzetti, Silvia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The thesis topic, digital signal processing and generation for a DC current transformer, focuses on the most fundamental beam diagnostics in the field of particle accelerators, the measurement of the beam intensity, or beam current. The technology of a DC current transformer (DCCT) is well known, and used in many areas, including particle accelerator beam instrumentation, as non-invasive (shunt-free) method to monitor the DC current in a conducting wire, or in our case, the current of charged particles travelling inside an evacuated metal pipe. So far, custom and commercial DCCTs are entirely based on analog technologies and signal processing, which makes them inflexible, sensitive to component aging, and difficult to maintain and calibrate.

  12. An electromagnetic signals monitoring and analysis wireless platform employing personal digital assistants and pattern analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninos, K.; Georgiadis, P.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2010-05-01

    This study presents the design and development of a mobile wireless platform to be used for monitoring and analysis of seismic events and related electromagnetic (EM) signals, employing Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). A prototype custom-developed application was deployed on a 3G enabled PDA that could connect to the FTP server of the Institute of Geodynamics of the National Observatory of Athens and receive and display EM signals at 4 receiver frequencies (3 KHz (E-W, N-S), 10 KHz (E-W, N-S), 41 MHz and 46 MHz). Signals may originate from any one of the 16 field-stations located around the Greek territory. Employing continuous recordings of EM signals gathered from January 2003 till December 2007, a Support Vector Machines (SVM)-based classification system was designed to distinguish EM precursor signals within noisy background. EM-signals corresponding to recordings preceding major seismic events (Ms≥5R) were segmented, by an experienced scientist, and five features (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, and a wavelet based feature), derived from the EM-signals were calculated. These features were used to train the SVM-based classification scheme. The performance of the system was evaluated by the exhaustive search and leave-one-out methods giving 87.2% overall classification accuracy, in correctly identifying EM precursor signals within noisy background employing all calculated features. Due to the insufficient processing power of the PDAs, this task was performed on a typical desktop computer. This optimal trained context of the SVM classifier was then integrated in the PDA based application rendering the platform capable to discriminate between EM precursor signals and noise. System's efficiency was evaluated by an expert who reviewed 1/ multiple EM-signals, up to 18 days prior to corresponding past seismic events, and 2/ the possible EM-activity of a specific region employing the trained SVM classifier. Additionally, the proposed architecture can form a

  13. Digital signal processing applied to crystal identification in Positron Emission Tomography dedicated to small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Rejean; Viscogliosi, Nicolas; Semmaoui, Hicham; Belanger, Francois; Lemieux, Francois; Tetrault, Marc-Andre; Michaud, Jean-Baptiste; Berard, Philippe; Cadorette, Jules; Pepin, Catherine M.; Lecomte, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of all-digital electronic architecture in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners, enables new paradigms to be explored for extracting relevant information from the detector signals, such as energy, time and crystal identification. The LabPET TM small animal scanner, which implements free-running 45-MHz sampling directly at the output of the charge sensitive preamplifiers, provides an excellent platform to test such advanced digital algorithms. A real-time identification method, based on an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) scheme, was tested for discriminating between LYSO (t r ∼40 ns) and LGSO (t r ∼65 ns) scintillators in phoswich detectors, coupled to a single Avalanche Photodiode (APD). Even with a low energy threshold of 250 keV applied individually, error rates 10%, typically with conventional analog pulse shape discrimination techniques. Such digital crystal identification techniques can be readily implemented with phoswich detectors for improving spatial resolution in PET, either by increasing crystal pixellization or by mitigating parallax errors through depth-of-interaction determination. It also allows to reduce the event rate presented to the real-time coincidence engine by applying a low energy limit at the crystal granularity and rejecting more Compton photons

  14. Digital signal processing applied to crystal identification in Positron Emission Tomography dedicated to small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Rejean [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada)]. E-mail: Rejean.Fontaine@Usherbrooke.ca; Viscogliosi, Nicolas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Semmaoui, Hicham [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Belanger, Francois [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Lemieux, Francois [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Tetrault, Marc-Andre [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Michaud, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Berard, Philippe [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Cadorette, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Pepin, Catherine M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Lecomte, Roger [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    The recent introduction of all-digital electronic architecture in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners, enables new paradigms to be explored for extracting relevant information from the detector signals, such as energy, time and crystal identification. The LabPET{sup TM} small animal scanner, which implements free-running 45-MHz sampling directly at the output of the charge sensitive preamplifiers, provides an excellent platform to test such advanced digital algorithms. A real-time identification method, based on an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) scheme, was tested for discriminating between LYSO (t{sub r}{approx}40 ns) and LGSO (t{sub r}{approx}65 ns) scintillators in phoswich detectors, coupled to a single Avalanche Photodiode (APD). Even with a low energy threshold of 250 keV applied individually, error rates<4% can be achieved, as compared to >10%, typically with conventional analog pulse shape discrimination techniques. Such digital crystal identification techniques can be readily implemented with phoswich detectors for improving spatial resolution in PET, either by increasing crystal pixellization or by mitigating parallax errors through depth-of-interaction determination. It also allows to reduce the event rate presented to the real-time coincidence engine by applying a low energy limit at the crystal granularity and rejecting more Compton photons.

  15. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  16. Front-end data reduction of diagnostic signals by real-time digital filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasche, D.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Harmeyer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements on a fusion plasma with high resolution in space, time and signal amplitude involve handling large amounts of data. In the design of the soft-X-ray pinhole camera diagnostic for JET (100 detectors in 2 cameras) a new approach to this problem was found. The analogue-to-digital conversion is performed continuously at the highest sample rate of 200 kHz, lower sample rates (10 kHz, 1 kHz, 100 Hz) are obtained by real-time digital filters which calculate weighted averages over consecutive samples and are undersampled at their outputs to reduce the data rate. At any time, the signals from all detectors are available at all possible data rates in ring buffers. Thus the appropriate data rate can always be recorded on demand (preprogrammed or triggered by the experiment). With this system a reduction of the raw data by a factor of up to 2000 (typically 200) is possible without severe loss of information

  17. A SystemC-Based Design Methodology for Digital Signal Processing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haubelt

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms are of big importance in many embedded systems. Due to complexity reasons and due to the restrictions imposed on the implementations, new design methodologies are needed. In this paper, we present a SystemC-based solution supporting automatic design space exploration, automatic performance evaluation, as well as automatic system generation for mixed hardware/software solutions mapped onto FPGA-based platforms. Our proposed hardware/software codesign approach is based on a SystemC-based library called SysteMoC that permits the expression of different models of computation well known in the domain of digital signal processing. It combines the advantages of executability and analyzability of many important models of computation that can be expressed in SysteMoC. We will use the example of an MPEG-4 decoder throughout this paper to introduce our novel methodology. Results from a five-dimensional design space exploration and from automatically mapping parts of the MPEG-4 decoder onto a Xilinx FPGA platform will demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. A mutation in Ihh that causes digit abnormalities alters its signalling capacity and range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Hu, Jianxin; Stricker, Sigmar; Cheung, Martin; Ma, Gang; Law, Kit Fong; Witte, Florian; Briscoe, James; Mundlos, Stefan; He, Lin; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Chan, Danny

    2009-04-30

    Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) was the first recorded disorder of the autosomal dominant Mendelian trait in humans, characterized by shortened or absent middle phalanges in digits. It is associated with heterozygous missense mutations in indian hedgehog (IHH). Hedgehog proteins are important morphogens for a wide range of developmental processes. The capacity and range of signalling is thought to be regulated by its interaction with the receptor PTCH1 and antagonist HIP1. Here we show that a BDA1 mutation (E95K) in Ihh impairs the interaction of IHH with PTCH1 and HIP1. This is consistent with a recent paper showing that BDA1 mutations cluster in a calcium-binding site essential for the interaction with its receptor and cell-surface partners. Furthermore, we show that in a mouse model that recapitulates the E95K mutation, there is a change in the potency and range of signalling. The mice have digit abnormalities consistent with the human disorder.

  19. The IceCube data acquisition system: Signal capture, digitization,and timestamping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The IceCube Collaboration; Matis, Howard

    2009-03-02

    IceCube is a km-scale neutrino observatory under construction at the South Pole with sensors both in the deep ice (InIce) and on the surface (IceTop). The sensors, called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), detect, digitize and timestamp the signals from optical Cherenkov-radiation photons. The DOM Main Board (MB) data acquisition subsystem is connected to the central DAQ in the IceCube Laboratory (ICL) by a single twisted copper wire-pair and transmits packetized data on demand. Time calibration ismaintained throughout the array by regular transmission to the DOMs of precisely timed analog signals, synchronized to a central GPS-disciplined clock. The design goals and consequent features, functional capabilities, and initial performance of the DOM MB, and the operation of a combined array of DOMs as a system, are described here. Experience with the first InIce strings and the IceTop stations indicates that the system design and performance goals have been achieved.

  20. Combination of digital signal processing methods towards an improved analysis algorithm for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Makris, John P.

    2013-04-01

    In Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is of great importance to reveal valuable information from the recorded SHM data that could be used to predict or indicate structural fault or damage in a building. In this work a combination of digital signal processing methods, namely FFT along with Wavelet Transform is applied, together with a proposed algorithm to study frequency dispersion, in order to depict non-linear characteristics of SHM data collected in two university buildings under natural or anthropogenic excitation. The selected buildings are of great importance from civil protection point of view, as there are the premises of a public higher education institute, undergoing high use, stress, visit from academic staff and students. The SHM data are collected from two neighboring buildings that have different age (4 and 18 years old respectively). Proposed digital signal processing methods are applied to the data, presenting a comparison of the structural behavior of both buildings in response to seismic activity, weather conditions and man-made activity. Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled «Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC) » and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek National Fund.

  1. Dynamic strain analysis of structures employing digital signal processing, storage and display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, P K; Misra, V M; Kumar, Surendra

    1975-01-01

    A multi-channel digital technique has been adopted for analysing wave patterns of stresses and strains in structures, particularly under dynamic conditions. This technique provides adequate signal to noise discrimination and high sensitivity for very small (few milli-volts) and slow varying signals (few Hz to 100 Hz.), and A-D conversion accompined by live display during the course of data gathering and computer compatible output. This system also provides fast response because of inherent 50 MHz digitising speed and a large dynamic range of 1024 discrete signal steps. The signals can be suitably fed to the A-D converter (50 MHz) or can be analysed employing frequency modulation techniques and time mode operation of the analyser. The data can be gathered in the field on cassette tapes and replayed in the laboratory for detailed analysis. This technique would provide a versatile system for dynamic analysis of structures under varying conditions. e.g. structures in nuclear power systems, such as testing of end fittings, calandria, vibration testing and measurements exploying pressure transducers.

  2. Dynamic strain analysis of structures employing digital signal processing, storage and display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, P.K.; Misra, V.M.; Kumar, Surendra

    1975-01-01

    A multi-channel digital technique has been adopted for analysing wave patterns of stresses and strains in structures, particularly under dynamic conditions. This technique provides adequate signal to noise discrimination and high sensitivity for very small (few milli-volts) and slow varying signals (few Hz to 100 Hz.), A-D conversion accompined by live display during the course of data gathering and computer compatible output. This system also provides fast response because of inherent 50 MHz digitising speed and a large dynamic range of 1024 discrete signal steps. The signals can be suitably fed to the A-D converter (50 MHz) or can be analysed employing frequency modulation techniques and time mode operation of the analyser. The data can be gathered in the field on cassette tapes and replayed in the laboratory for detailed analysis. This technique would provide a versatile system for dynamic analysis of structures under varying conditions. e.g. structures in nuclear power systems, such as testing of end fittings, calandria, vibration testing and measurements exploying pressure transducers. (author)

  3. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH Signal Analysis Using Automated Generated Projection Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH tests provide promising molecular imaging biomarkers to more accurately and reliably detect and diagnose cancers and genetic disorders. Since current manual FISH signal analysis is low-efficient and inconsistent, which limits its clinical utility, developing automated FISH image scanning systems and computer-aided detection (CAD schemes has been attracting research interests. To acquire high-resolution FISH images in a multi-spectral scanning mode, a huge amount of image data with the stack of the multiple three-dimensional (3-D image slices is generated from a single specimen. Automated preprocessing these scanned images to eliminate the non-useful and redundant data is important to make the automated FISH tests acceptable in clinical applications. In this study, a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system was applied to scan four specimen slides with FISH-probed chromosome X. A CAD scheme was developed to detect analyzable interphase cells and map the multiple imaging slices recorded FISH-probed signals into the 2-D projection images. CAD scheme was then applied to each projection image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm, identify FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform, and compute the ratios between the normal and abnormal cells. To assess CAD performance, the FISH-probed signals were also independently visually detected by an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots in four testing samples. The study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH signal analysis that applying a CAD scheme to the automated generated 2-D projection images.

  4. Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination With Ne-213 Liquid Scintillator By Using Digital Signal Processing Combined With Similarity Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardiyanto

    2008-01-01

    Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination with a NE-213 Liquid Scintillator by Using Digital Signal Processing Combined with Similarity Method. Measurement of mixed neutron-gamma radiation is difficult because a nuclear detector is usually sensitive to both radiations. A new attempt of neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination for a NE-213 liquid scintillator is presented by using digital signal processing combined with an off-line similarity method. The output pulse shapes are digitized with a high speed digital oscilloscope. The n-γ discrimination is done by calculating the index of each pulse shape, which is determined by the similarity method, and then fusing it with its corresponding pulse height. Preliminary results demonstrate good separation of neutron and gamma-ray signals from a NE-213 scintillator with a simple digital system. The results were better than those with a conventional rise time method. Figure of Merit is used to determine the quality of discrimination. The figure of merit of the discrimination using digital signal processing combined with off-line similarity method are 1.9; 1.7; 1.1; 1.1; and 0.8; on the other hand by using conventional method the rise time are 0.9; 0.9; 0.9; 0.7; and 0.4 for the equivalent electron energy of 800; 278; 139; 69; and 30 keV. (author)

  5. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilka, Gila Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  6. A digital-signal-processor-based optical tomographic system for dynamic imaging of joint diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Joseph M.

    Over the last decade, optical tomography (OT) has emerged as viable biomedical imaging modality. Various imaging systems have been developed that are employed in preclinical as well as clinical studies, mostly targeting breast imaging, brain imaging, and cancer related studies. Of particular interest are so-called dynamic imaging studies where one attempts to image changes in optical properties and/or physiological parameters as they occur during a system perturbation. To successfully perform dynamic imaging studies, great effort is put towards system development that offers increasingly enhanced signal-to-noise performance at ever shorter data acquisition times, thus capturing high fidelity tomographic data within narrower time periods. Towards this goal, I have developed in this thesis a dynamic optical tomography system that is, unlike currently available analog instrumentation, based on digital data acquisition and filtering techniques. At the core of this instrument is a digital signal processor (DSP) that collects, collates, and processes the digitized data set. Complementary protocols between the DSP and a complex programmable logic device synchronizes the sampling process and organizes data flow. Instrument control is implemented through a comprehensive graphical user interface which integrates automated calibration, data acquisition, and signal post-processing. Real-time data is generated at frame rates as high as 140 Hz. An extensive dynamic range (˜190 dB) accommodates a wide scope of measurement geometries and tissue types. Performance analysis demonstrates very low system noise (˜1 pW rms noise equivalent power), excellent signal precision (˜0.04%--0.2%) and long term system stability (˜1% over 40 min). Experiments on tissue phantoms validate spatial and temporal accuracy of the system. As a potential new application of dynamic optical imaging I present the first application of this method to use vascular hemodynamics as a means of characterizing

  7. Fractal Communication System Using Digital Signal Processing Starter Kit (DSK TMS320c6713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsyad Ramadhan Darlis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Wornell and Oppenheim did research on a modulation which is formed by using wavelet theory. In some other studies, proved that this modulation can survive on a few channels and has reliability in some applications. Because of this modulation using the concept of fractal, then it is called as fractalmodulation. Fractal modulation is formed by inserting information signal into fractal signals that are selffractal similary. This modulation technique has the potential to replace the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, which is currently used on some of the latest telecommunication technologies. The purpose of this research is to implement the fractal communication system using Digital Signal Processing Starter Kit (DSK TMS320C6713 without using AWGN and Rayleigh channel in order to obtain the ideal performance of the system. From the simulation results using MATLAB7.4. it appears that this communication system has good performance on some channels than any other communication systems. While in terms of implementation by using (DSK via TMS320C6713 Code Composer Studio (CCS, it can be concluded that thefractal communication system has a better execution time on some tests.

  8. Fast digitization and discrimination of prompt neutron and photon signals using a novel silicon carbide detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon W. Blackburn; James T. Johnson; Scott M. Watson; David L. Chichester; James L. Jones; Frank H. Ruddy; John G. Seidel; Robert W. Flammang

    2007-01-01

    Current requirements of some Homeland Security active interrogation projects for the detection of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) necessitate the development of faster inspection and acquisition capabilities. In order to do so, fast detectors which can operate during and shortly after intense interrogation radiation flashes are being developed. Novel silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor Schottky diodes have been utilized as robust neutron and photon detectors in both pulsed photon and pulsed neutron fields and are being integrated into active inspection environments to allow exploitation of both prompt and delayed emissions. These detectors have demonstrated the capability of detecting both photon and neutron events during intense photon flashes typical of an active inspection environment. Beyond the inherent insensitivity of SiC to gamma radiation, fast digitization and processing has demonstrated that pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in combination with amplitude discrimination can further suppress unwanted gamma signals and extract fast neutron signatures. Usable neutron signals have been extracted from mixed radiation fields where the background has exceeded the signals of interest by >1000:1

  9. A molecular-sized optical logic circuit for digital modulation of a fluorescence signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Karin; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Fluorescence measurement allows simultaneous detection of multiple molecular species by using spectrally distinct fluorescence probes. However, due to the broad spectra of fluorescence emission, the multiplicity of fluorescence measurement is generally limited. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method to digitally modulate fluorescence output signals with a molecular-sized optical logic circuit by using optical control of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The circuit receives a set of optical inputs represented with different light wavelengths, and then it switches high and low fluorescence intensity from a reporting molecule according to the result of the logic operation. By using combinational optical inputs in readout of fluorescence signals, the number of biomolecular species that can be identified is increased. To implement the FRET-based circuits, we designed two types of basic elements, YES and NOT switches. An YES switch produces a high-level output intensity when receiving a designated light wavelength input and a low-level intensity without the light irradiation. A NOT switch operates inversely to the YES switch. In experiments, we investigated the operation of the YES and NOT switches that receive a 532-nm light input and modulate the fluorescence intensity of Alexa Fluor 488. The experimental result demonstrates that the switches can modulate fluorescence signals according to the optical input.

  10. Use of higher order signal moments and high speed digital sampling technique for neutron flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baers, L. B.; Gutierrez, T. Rivero; Mendoza, R. A. Carrillo; Santana, G. Jimenez

    1993-08-01

    The second (conventional variance or Campbell signal), the third, and the modified fourth order central signal moments associated with the amplified and filtered currents from two electrodes of an ex-core neutron sensitive fission detector were measured versus the reactor power of the 1-MW TRIGA reactor in Mexico City. Two channels of a high-speed (400-MHz) multiplexing data sampler and an analog-to-digital converter with 12-b resolution and 1-Mword buffer memory were used. The data were further retrieved into a PC, and estimates for autocorrelation and cross-correlation moments up to the fifth order, coherence, skewness, excess, etc., quantities were calculated offline. Five-mode operation of the detector was achieved, including conventional counting rates and currents in agreement with theory and the authors' previous results with analog techniques. The signals are proportional to the neutron flux and reactor power in some flux ranges. The suppression of background noise is improved and the lower limit of the measurement range is extended as the order of moment is increased, in agreement with theory.

  11. An all digital phase locked loop for synchronization of a sinusoidal signal embedded in white Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. P.; Gupta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    An all digital phase locked loop which tracks the phase of the incoming sinusoidal signal once per carrier cycle is proposed. The different elements and their functions and the phase lock operation are explained in detail. The nonlinear difference equations which govern the operation of the digital loop when the incoming signal is embedded in white Gaussian noise are derived, and a suitable model is specified. The performance of the digital loop is considered for the synchronization of a sinusoidal signal. For this, the noise term is suitably modelled which allows specification of the output probabilities for the two level quantizer in the loop at any given phase error. The loop filter considered increases the probability of proper phase correction. The phase error states in modulo two-pi forms a finite state Markov chain which enables the calculation of steady state probabilities, RMS phase error, transient response and mean time for cycle skipping.

  12. Electrical characteristics of hybrid detector based Gd2O2S:Tb-Selenium for digital radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang-Sik; Park, Ji-Koon; Choi, Jang-Yong; Cha, Byung-Yul; Cho, Sung-Ho; Nam, Sang-Hee

    2005-01-01

    Fine Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb powders were synthesized by using a solution-combustion method for a high-resolution digital X-ray imaging detector. The PL spectrum showed that the phosphor was fully crystallized and that the Tb 3+ ions substituted well for the Gd 3+ sites. To investigate the X-ray response of the phosphor, a uniform Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb film was grown using a screen-printing method. The X-ray sensitivities of the 100 μm-Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb/30 μm -Se and 200 μm -Se detector were 470 and 420 pC/cm 2 /mR, respectively, at an electric field of 10 V/μm. The results of the study suggest that the hybrid detector has a significant potential in the application of digital radiography and fluoroscopy systems

  13. Motion-free hybrid design laser beam propagation analyzer using a digital micromirror device and a variable focus liquid lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Riza, Nabeel A

    2010-06-01

    To the best of our knowledge, we propose the first motion-free laser beam propagation analyzer with a hybrid design using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and a liquid electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL). Unlike prior analyzers that require profiling the beam at multiple locations along the light propagation axis, the proposed analyzer profiles the beam at the same plane for multiple values of the ECVFL focal length, thus eliminating beam profiler assembly motion. In addition to measuring standard Gaussian beam parameters, the analyzer can also be used to measure the M(2) beam propagation parameter of a multimode beam. Proof-of-concept beam parameter measurements with the proposed analyzer are successfully conducted for a 633 nm laser beam. Given the all-digital nature of the DMD-based profiling and all-analog motion-free nature of the ECVFL beam focus control, the proposed analyzer versus prior art promises better repeatability, speed, and reliability.

  14. Radiation hybrid mapping of genes in the lithium-sensitive wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, A R; Karkera, J D; Detera-Wadleigh, S D

    1999-09-01

    Lithium, an effective drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder, has been proposed to disrupt the Wnt signaling pathway. To facilitate analysis of the possible involvement of elements of the Wnt pathway in human bipolar disorder, a high resolution radiation hybrid mapping (RHM) of these genes was performed. A fine physical location has been obtained for Wnt 7A, frizzled 3, 4 and 5, dishevelled 1, 2 and 3, GSK3beta, axin, alpha-catenin, the Armadillo repeat-containing genes (delta-catenin and ARVCF), and a frizzled-like protein (frpHE) using the Stanford Human Genome Center (SHGC) G3 panel. Most of these genes were previously mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Frizzled 4, axin and frpHE did not have a previous chromosomal assignment and were linked by RHM to chromosome markers, SHGC-35131 at 11q22.1, NIB1488 at 16p13.3 and D7S2919 at 7p15.2, respectively. Interestingly, some of these genes were found to map within potential regions underlying susceptibility to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as well as disorders of neurodevelopmental origin. This alternative approach of establishing the precise location of selected genetic components of a candidate pathway and determining if they map within previously defined susceptibility loci should help to identify plausible candidate genes that warrant further analysis through association and mutational scanning.

  15. A hybrid BCI web browser based on EEG and EOG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenghong He; Tianyou Yu; Zhenghui Gu; Yuanqing Li

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we propose a new web browser based on a hybrid brain computer interface (BCI) combining electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculography (EOG) signals. Specifically, the user can control the horizontal movement of the mouse by imagining left/right hand motion, and control the vertical movement of the mouse, select/reject a target, or input text in an edit box by blinking eyes in synchrony with the flashes of the corresponding buttons on the GUI. Based on mouse control, target selection and text input, the user can open a web page of interest, select an intended target in the web and read the page content. An online experiment was conducted involving five healthy subjects. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Digital signal processing reveals circadian baseline oscillation in majority of mammalian genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A Ptitsyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian periodicity has been described for gene expression in the hypothalamus and multiple peripheral tissues. It is accepted that 10%-15% of all genes oscillate in a daily rhythm, regulated by an intrinsic molecular clock. Statistical analyses of periodicity are limited by the small size of datasets and high levels of stochastic noise. Here, we propose a new approach applying digital signal processing algorithms separately to each group of genes oscillating in the same phase. Combined with the statistical tests for periodicity, this method identifies circadian baseline oscillation in almost 100% of all expressed genes. Consequently, circadian oscillation in gene expression should be evaluated in any study related to biological pathways. Changes in gene expression caused by mutations or regulation of environmental factors (such as photic stimuli or feeding should be considered in the context of changes in the amplitude and phase of genetic oscillations.

  17. [Digital signal processing of a novel neuron discharge model stimulation strategy for cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiwei; Xu, Yuejin; Miu, Jichang; Zhou, Linghong; Xiao, Zhongju

    2012-10-01

    To apply the classic leakage integrate-and-fire models, based on the mechanism of the generation of physiological auditory stimulation, in the information processing coding of cochlear implants to improve the auditory result. The results of algorithm simulation in digital signal processor (DSP) were imported into Matlab for a comparative analysis. Compared with CIS coding, the algorithm of membrane potential integrate-and-fire (MPIF) allowed more natural pulse discharge in a pseudo-random manner to better fit the physiological structures. The MPIF algorithm can effectively solve the problem of the dynamic structure of the delivered auditory information sequence issued in the auditory center and allowed integration of the stimulating pulses and time coding to ensure the coherence and relevance of the stimulating pulse time.

  18. Low-complexity camera digital signal imaging for video document projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shih-Chang; Tsai, Po-Shien

    2011-04-01

    We present high-performance and low-complexity algorithms for real-time camera imaging applications. The main functions of the proposed camera digital signal processing (DSP) involve color interpolation, white balance, adaptive binary processing, auto gain control, and edge and color enhancement for video projection systems. A series of simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve good image quality while keeping computation cost and memory requirements low. On the basis of the proposed algorithms, the cost-effective hardware core is developed using Verilog HDL. The prototype chip has been verified with one low-cost programmable device. The real-time camera system can achieve 1270 × 792 resolution with the combination of extra components and can demonstrate each DSP function.

  19. A new ion detector array and digital-signal-processor-based interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstaff, D.P.; McGinnity, T.M.; Forbes, D.M.; Birkinshaw, K.; Lawton, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    A new one-dimensional ion detector array on a silicon chip has been developed for use in mass spectrometry. It is much smaller and simpler than electro-optical arrays currently in use and in addition has a higher resolution and a zero noise level. The array consists of a one-dimensional array of metal strips (electrodes) with a pitch of 25 μm on the top surface of a silicon chip, each electrode having its own charge pulse sensor, 8-bit counter and control/interface circuitry. The chip is mounted on a ceramic substrate and is preceded by a micro-channel plate electron multiplier. Chips are butted to give a longer array. Test results show a stable operating region. A digital-signal-processor-based interface is described, which controls the mode of operation and reads the accumulated array data at the maximum rate to avoid counter overflow. (author)

  20. A new ion detector array and digital-signal-processor-based interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langstaff, D.P.; McGinnity, T.M.; Forbes, D.M.; Birkinshaw, K. (University Coll. of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Lawton, M.W. (University of Wales Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-04-01

    A new one-dimensional ion detector array on a silicon chip has been developed for use in mass spectrometry. It is much smaller and simpler than electro-optical arrays currently in use and in addition has a higher resolution and a zero noise level. The array consists of a one-dimensional array of metal strips (electrodes) with a pitch of 25 [mu]m on the top surface of a silicon chip, each electrode having its own charge pulse sensor, 8-bit counter and control/interface circuitry. The chip is mounted on a ceramic substrate and is preceded by a micro-channel plate electron multiplier. Chips are butted to give a longer array. Test results show a stable operating region. A digital-signal-processor-based interface is described, which controls the mode of operation and reads the accumulated array data at the maximum rate to avoid counter overflow. (author).

  1. Signal processing for high granularity calorimeter: amplification, filtering, memorization and digitalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, L; Manen, S; Gay, P, E-mail: royer@clermont.in2p3.f [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2010-12-15

    A very-front-end electronics dedicated to high granularity calorimeters has been designed and its performance measured. This electronics performs the amplification of the charge delivered by the detector thanks to a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier. The dynamic range is improved using a bandpass filter based on a Gated Integrator. Studying its weighting function, we show that this filter is more efficient than standard CRRC shaper, thanks to the integration time which can be expand near the bunch interval time, whereas the peaking time of the CRRC shaper is limited to pile-up consideration. Moreover, the Gated Integrator performs intrinsically the analog memorization of the signal before its delayed digital conversion. The analog-to-digital conversion is performed through a 12-bit cyclic ADC specifically developed for this application. The very-front-end channel has been fabricated using a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. Measurements show a global non-linearity better than 0.1%. The Equivalent Noise Charge at the input of the channel is evaluated to 1.8 fC, compare to the maximum input charge of 10 pC. The power consumption of the complete channel is limited to 6.5 mW.

  2. Virtual instrumentation technique used in the nuclear digital signal processing system design: Energy and time measurement tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechousek, J.; Prochazka, R.; Prochazka, V.; Frydrych, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this report, computer-based digital signal processing system with a 200 MS s -1 sampling digitizer is presented. Virtual instrumentation technique is used to easily develop a system which provides spectroscopy measurements such as amplitude and time signal analysis, with the time-of-flight facility. Several test measurements were performed to determine the characteristics of a system. The presented system may find its application in the coincidence measurement since the system is usable for different types of detectors and sensitive to decay lifetimes from tens of nanoseconds to seconds.

  3. Some important aspects of the amplitude, charge and shape analog signals digitization in nuclear physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, Z.

    1995-01-01

    One of the fundamental reasons of the special requirements concerning analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) used in nuclear experimental physics, especially in nuclear spectroscopy, in comparison to the conventional ADC's is a fact that they are utilized for continuous distribution measurements which are the nuclear radiation spectra. The ADC's used for distribution registration in form of amplitude or charge histogram spectra should have the differential linearity of two orders of magnitude better than that for conventional ADC's. Moreover, the problem of achievement the acceptable differential linearity (as well as stability) in nuclear spectroscopy is much more complicated because high resolution and high speed of the converters are also required. The first requirement comes out from application of semiconductor detectors, the second one comes from the statistical character of the nuclear processes, as well as, a necessity of collection of huge amount of nuclear data - often in a short time. In this report the influence of the specific needs of the nuclear experiments on the conversion methods selection and construction principles of the pulse ADC's is analyzed. Focus is taken on these ADC's which are used mainly to digital amplitude and charge detector signals measurements in nuclear spectroscopy. Based on the chosen examples of different types of ADC's it is shown how to obtain the required metrological parameters by using enlarged converter's structures and proper choice of the electronics components. In addition, a problem of the detector signals shape measurements in particle physics using the high speed flash ADC's is also discussed. (author). 196 refs, 99 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Optimal design of RTCs in digital circuit fault self-repair based on global signal optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Junbin; Cai Jinyan; Meng Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Since digital circuits have been widely and thoroughly applied in various fields, electronic systems are increasingly more complicated and require greater reliability. Faults may occur in elec-tronic systems in complicated environments. If immediate field repairs are not made on the faults, elec-tronic systems will not run normally, and this will lead to serious losses. The traditional method for improving system reliability based on redundant fault-tolerant technique has been unable to meet the requirements. Therefore, on the basis of (evolvable hardware)-based and (reparation balance technology)-based electronic circuit fault self-repair strategy proposed in our preliminary work, the optimal design of rectification circuits (RTCs) in electronic circuit fault self-repair based on global sig-nal optimization is deeply researched in this paper. First of all, the basic theory of RTC optimal design based on global signal optimization is proposed. Secondly, relevant considerations and suitable ranges are analyzed. Then, the basic flow of RTC optimal design is researched. Eventually, a typical circuit is selected for simulation verification, and detailed simulated analysis is made on five circumstances that occur during RTC evolution. The simulation results prove that compared with the conventional design method based RTC, the global signal optimization design method based RTC is lower in hardware cost, faster in circuit evolution, higher in convergent precision, and higher in circuit evolution success rate. Therefore, the global signal optimization based RTC optimal design method applied in the elec-tronic circuit fault self-repair technology is proven to be feasible, effective, and advantageous.

  5. Groping for Quantitative Digital 3-D Image Analysis: An Approach to Quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in Thick Tissue Sections of Prostate Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Rodenacker

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In molecular pathology numerical chromosome aberrations have been found to be decisive for the prognosis of malignancy in tumours. The existence of such aberrations can be detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The gain or loss of certain base sequences in the desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA can be estimated by counting the number of FISH signals per cell nucleus. The quantitative evaluation of such events is a necessary condition for a prospective use in diagnostic pathology. To avoid occlusions of signals, the cell nucleus has to be analyzed in three dimensions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is the means to obtain series of optical thin sections from fluorescence stained or marked material to fulfill the conditions mentioned above. A graphical user interface (GUI to a software package for display, inspection, count and (semi‐automatic analysis of 3‐D images for pathologists is outlined including the underlying methods of 3‐D image interaction and segmentation developed. The preparative methods are briefly described. Main emphasis is given to the methodical questions of computer‐aided analysis of large 3‐D image data sets for pathologists. Several automated analysis steps can be performed for segmentation and succeeding quantification. However tumour material is in contrast to isolated or cultured cells even for visual inspection, a difficult material. For the present a fully automated digital image analysis of 3‐D data is not in sight. A semi‐automatic segmentation method is thus presented here.

  6. Small-Signal Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid Distributed Generation Systems in Presence of Ultracapacitor and Tie-Line Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents small-signal analysis of isolated as well as interconnected autonomous hybrid distributed generation system for sudden variation in load demand, wind speed and solar radiation. The hybrid systems comprise of different renewable energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic (PV) fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage devices such as flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitors (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and interconnection of hybrid systems through tie-line is incorporated into the system for improved performance. A comparative assessment of deviation of frequency profile for different hybrid systems in the presence of different storage system combinations is carried out graphically as well as in terms of the performance index (PI), ie integral square error (ISE). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements of the deviation in frequency profiles in the presence of the ultracapacitors (UC) as compared to other energy storage elements.

  7. Oligonucleotide PIK3CA/Chromosome 3 Dual in Situ Hybridization Automated Assay with Improved Signals, One-Hour Hybridization, and No Use of Blocking DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Hubbard, Antony; Baca-Parkinson, Leslie; Stanislaw, Stacey; Vladich, Frank; Robida, Mark D; Grille, James G; Maxwell, Daniel; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen; Carroll, William; Gardner, Tracie; Clements, June; Singh, Shalini; Tang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The PIK3CA gene at chromosome 3q26.32 was found to be amplified in up to 45% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The strong correlation between PIK3CA amplification and increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activities suggested that PIK3CA gene copy number is a potential predictive biomarker for PI3K inhibitors. Currently, all microscopic assessments of PIK3CA and chromosome 3 (CHR3) copy numbers use fluorescence in situ hybridization. PIK3CA probes are derived from bacterial artificial chromosomes whereas CHR3 probes are derived mainly from the plasmid pHS05. These manual fluorescence in situ hybridization assays mandate 12- to 18-hour hybridization and use of blocking DNA from human sources. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization studies provide limited morphologic assessment and suffer from signal decay. We developed an oligonucleotide-based bright-field in situ hybridization assay that overcomes these shortcomings. This assay requires only a 1-hour hybridization with no need for blocking DNA followed by indirect chromogenic detection. Oligonucleotide probes produced discrete and uniform CHR3 stains superior to those from the pHS05 plasmid. This assay achieved successful staining in 100% of the 195 lung squamous cell carcinoma resections and in 94% of the 33 fine-needle aspirates. This robust automated bright-field dual in situ hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection of PIK3CA and CHR3 centromere provides a potential clinical diagnostic method to assess PIK3CA gene abnormality in lung tumors. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ternary Surface Monolayers for Ultrasensitive (Zeptomole) Amperometric Detection of Nucleic-Acid Hybridization without Signal Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A.; Wang, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of co-assembled thiolated capture probe (SHCP) mercaptohexanol (MCH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmole (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU E. coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP/TMB) system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to non-specific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration ‘backfillers’ that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrices. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety and forensic analysis. PMID:20883023

  9. Ternary surface monolayers for ultrasensitive (zeptomole) amperometric detection of nucleic acid hybridization without signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A; Wang, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.

  10. Robustness of digitally modulated signal features against variation in HF noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mobien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High frequency (HF band has both military and civilian uses. It can be used either as a primary or backup communication link. Automatic modulation classification (AMC is of an utmost importance in this band for the purpose of communications monitoring; e.g., signal intelligence and spectrum management. A widely used method for AMC is based on pattern recognition (PR. Such a method has two main steps: feature extraction and classification. The first step is generally performed in the presence of channel noise. Recent studies show that HF noise could be modeled by Gaussian or bi-kappa distributions, depending on day-time. Therefore, it is anticipated that change in noise model will have impact on features extraction stage. In this article, we investigate the robustness of well known digitally modulated signal features against variation in HF noise. Specifically, we consider temporal time domain (TTD features, higher order cumulants (HOC, and wavelet based features. In addition, we propose new features extracted from the constellation diagram and evaluate their robustness against the change in noise model. This study is targeting 2PSK, 4PSK, 8PSK, 16QAM, 32QAM, and 64QAM modulations, as they are commonly used in HF communications.

  11. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M; Pandola, L; Zavarise, P; Volynets, O

    2011-01-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  12. An SVM classifier to separate false signals from microcalcifications in digital mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzani, Armando; Bollini, Dante; Brancaccio, Rosa; Campanini, Renato; Riccardi, Alessandro; Romani, Davide [Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Lanconelli, Nico [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, and INFN, Bologna (Italy). E-mail: nico.lanconelli@bo.infn.it; Bevilacqua, Alessandro [Department of Electronics, Computer Science and Systems, University of Bologna, and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using an SVM (support vector machine) classifier in our automatic system for the detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammograms. SVM is a technique for pattern recognition which relies on the statistical learning theory. It minimizes a function of two terms: the number of misclassified vectors of the training set and a term regarding the generalization classifier capability. We compare the SVM classifier with an MLP (multi-layer perceptron) in the false-positive reduction phase of our detection scheme: a detected signal is considered either microcalcification or false signal, according to the value of a set of its features. The SVM classifier gets slightly better results than the MLP one (Az value of 0.963 against 0.958) in the presence of a high number of training data; the improvement becomes much more evident (Az value of 0.952 against 0.918) in training sets of reduced size. Finally, the setting of the SVM classifier is much easier than the MLP one. (author)

  13. GELATIO: a general framework for modular digital analysis of high-purity Ge detector signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Pandola, L.; Zavarise, P.; Volynets, O.

    2011-08-01

    GELATIO is a new software framework for advanced data analysis and digital signal processing developed for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. The framework is tailored to handle the full analysis flow of signals recorded by high purity Ge detectors and photo-multipliers from the veto counters. It is designed to support a multi-channel modular and flexible analysis, widely customizable by the user either via human-readable initialization files or via a graphical interface. The framework organizes the data into a multi-level structure, from the raw data up to the condensed analysis parameters, and includes tools and utilities to handle the data stream between the different levels. GELATIO is implemented in C++. It relies upon ROOT and its extension TAM, which provides compatibility with PROOF, enabling the software to run in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. It was tested on different platforms and benchmarked in several GERDA-related applications. A stable version is presently available for the GERDA Collaboration and it is used to provide the reference analysis of the experiment data.

  14. Climate Signals: An On-Line Digital Platform for Mapping Climate Change Impacts in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate Signals is an on-line digital platform for cataloging and mapping the impacts of climate change. The CS platform specifies and details the chains of connections between greenhouse gas emissions and individual climate events. Currently in open-beta release, the platform is designed to to engage and serve the general public, news media, and policy-makers, particularly in real-time during extreme climate events. Climate Signals consists of a curated relational database of events and their links to climate change, a mapping engine, and a gallery of climate change monitors offering real-time data. For each event in the database, an infographic engine provides a custom attribution "tree" that illustrates the connections to climate change. In addition, links to key contextual resources are aggregated and curated for each event. All event records are fully annotated with detailed source citations and corresponding hyper links. The system of attribution used to link events to climate change in real-time is detailed here. This open-beta release is offered for public user testing and engagement. Launched in May 2016, the operation of this platform offers lessons for public engagement in climate change impacts.

  15. A comparative study of the energy resolution achievable with digital signal processors in x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, A.; Zambusi, M.; Ripamonti, G.

    1996-01-01

    Interest for digital processing of signals from radiation detectors is subject to a growing attention due to its intrinsic adaptivity, easiness of calibration, etc. This work compares two digital processing methods: a multiple-delay-line (DL) N filter and a least-mean-squares (LMS) adaptive filter for applications in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The signal pulse, as appears at the output of a proper analog conditioning circuit, is digitized; the samples undergo a digital filtering procedure. Both digital filters take advantage of the possibility of synthesizing the best possible weighting function with respect to the actual noise conditions. A noticeable improvement of more than 10% in energy resolution has been achieved with both systems with respect to state-of-the-art systems based on analog circuitry. In particular, the two digital processors are shown to be the best choice respectively; for on-line use with critical ballistic deficit conditions and for very-high-resolution spectroscopy systems, ultimately limited by 1/f noise

  16. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  17. Iterative Signal Processing for Mitigation of Analog-to-Digital Converter Clipping Distortion in Multiband OFDMA Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Allén

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern wideband communication receivers, the large input-signal dynamics is a fundamental problem. Unintentional signal clipping occurs, if the receiver front-end with the analog-to-digital interface cannot respond to rapidly varying conditions. This paper discusses digital postprocessing compensation of such unintentional clipping in multiband OFDMA receivers. The proposed method iteratively mitigates the clipping distortion by exploiting the symbol decisions. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated with various computer simulations and also verified by concrete laboratory measurements with commercially available analog-to-digital hardware. It is shown that the clipping compensation algorithm implemented in a turbo decoding OFDM receiver is able to remove almost all the clipping distortion even under significant clipping in fading channel circumstances. That is to say, it is possible to nearly recover the receiver performance to the level, which would be achieved in the equivalent nonclipped situation.

  18. 37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty fee for secondary... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...

  19. First Tests of a New Fast Waveform Digitizer for PMT Signal Read-out from Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelc, A. M.; Canci, N.; Cavanna, F.; Cortopassi, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Mini, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Romboli, A.; Segreto, E.; Acciarri, R.

    A new generation Waveform Digitizer board as been recently made available on the market by CAEN. The new board CAEN V1751 with 8 Channels per board, 10 bit, 1 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer (or 4 channel, 10 bit, 2 GS/s Flash ADC Waveform Digitizer -Dual Edge Sampling mode) with threshold and Auto-Trigger capabilities provides an ideal (relatively low-cost) solution for reading signals from liquid Argon detectors for Dark Matter search equipped with an array of PMTs for the detection of scintillation light. The board was extensively used in real experimental conditions to test its usefulness for possible future uses and to compare it with a state of the art digital oscilloscope. As results, PMT Signal sampling at 1 or 2 GS/s is appropriate for the reconstruction of the fast component of the signal scintillation in Argon (characteristic time of about 4 ns) and the extended dynamic range, after a small customization, allows for the detection of signals in the range of energy needed. The bandwidth is found to be adequate and the intrinsic noise is very low.

  20. Dependable Digitally-Assisted Mixed-Signal IPs Based on Integrated Self-Test & Self-Calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Wan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous SoC devices, including sensors, analogue and mixed-signal front-end circuits and the availability of massive digital processing capability, are being increasingly used in safety-critical applications like in the automotive, medical, and the security arena. Already a significant amount

  1. Experiment on Synchronous Timing Signal Detection from ISDB-T Terrestrial Digital TV Signal with Application to Autonomous Distributed ITS-IVC Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Yoshio; Kumagai, Taichi; Takemoto, Atsushi; Fujii, Takeo; Ito, Kenji; Suzuki, Noriyoshi

    A novel timing synchronizing scheme is proposed for use in inter-vehicle communication (IVC) with an autonomous distributed intelligent transport system (ITS). The scheme determines the timing of packet signal transmission in the IVC network and employs the guard interval (GI) timing in the orthogonal frequency divisional multiplexing (OFDM) signal currently used for terrestrial broadcasts in the Japanese digital television system (ISDB-T). This signal is used because it is expected that the automotive market will demand the capability for cars to receive terrestrial digital TV broadcasts in the near future. The use of broadcasts by automobiles presupposes that the on-board receivers are capable of accurately detecting the GI timing data in an extremely low carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) condition regardless of a severe multipath environment which will introduce broad scatter in signal arrival times. Therefore, we analyzed actual broadcast signals received in a moving vehicle in a field experiment and showed that the GI timing signal is detected with the desired accuracy even in the case of extremely low-CNR environments. Some considerations were also given about how to use these findings.

  2. [Oligonucleotide derivatives in the nucleic acid hybridization analysis. II. Isothermal signal amplification in process of DNA analysis by minisequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, E V; Khomiakova, E A; Pyshnaia; Bragin, A G; Vedernikov, V E; Pyshnyĭ, D V

    2010-01-01

    The isothermal amplification of reporter signal via limited probe extension (minisequencing) upon hybridization of nucleic acids has been studied. The intensity of reporter signal has been shown to increase due to enzymatic labeling of multiple probes upon consecutive hybridization with one DNA template both in homophase and heterophase assays using various kinds of detection signal: radioisotope label, fluorescent label, and enzyme-linked assay. The kinetic scheme of the process has been proposed and kinetic parameters for each step have been determined. The signal intensity has been shown to correlate with physicochemical characteristics of both complexes: probe/DNA and product/DNA. The maximum intensity has been observed at minimal difference between the thermodynamic stability of these complexes, provided the reaction temperature has been adjusted near their melting temperature values; rising or lowering the reaction temperature reduces the amount of reporting product. The signal intensity has been shown to decrease significantly upon hybridization with the DNA template containing single-nucleotide mismatches. Limited probe extension assay is useful not only for detection of DNA template but also for its quantitative characterization.

  3. Cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon: A novel efficient signal translator for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pan; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    Due to its unique features such as high sensitivity, homogeneous format, and independence on fluorescent intensity, fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay has become a hotspot of study in oligonucleotide-based bioassays. However, until now most FA probes require carefully customized structure designs, and thus are neither generalizable for different sensing systems nor effective to obtain sufficient signal response. To address this issue, a cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was successfully engineered for signal amplified FA bioassay, via combining the unique stable structure of molecular beacon and the large molecular mass of streptavidin. Compared with single DNA strand probe or conventional molecular beacon, the DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon exhibited a much higher FA value, which was potential to obtain high signal-background ratio in sensing process. As proof-of-principle, this novel DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was further applied for FA bioassay using DNAzyme-Pb(2+) as a model sensing system. This FA assay approach could selectively detect as low as 0.5nM Pb(2+) in buffer solution, and also be successful for real samples analysis with good recovery values. Compatible with most of oligonucleotide probes' designs and enzyme-based signal amplification strategies, the molecular beacon can serve as a novel signal translator to expand the application prospect of FA technology in various bioassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Tayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints.

  5. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muhammad N.; Alginahi, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints. PMID:25254247

  6. Hybrid digital-analog video transmission in wireless multicast and multiple-input multiple-output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Lin, Xiaocheng; Fan, Nianfei; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless video multicast has become one of the key technologies in wireless applications. But the main challenge of conventional wireless video multicast, i.e., the cliff effect, remains unsolved. To overcome the cliff effect, a hybrid digital-analog (HDA) video transmission framework based on SoftCast, which transmits the digital bitstream with the quantization residuals, is proposed. With an effective power allocation algorithm and appropriate parameter settings, the residual gains can be maximized; meanwhile, the digital bitstream can assure transmission of a basic video to the multicast receiver group. In the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, since nonuniform noise interference on different antennas can be regarded as the cliff effect problem, ParCast, which is a variation of SoftCast, is also applied to video transmission to solve it. The HDA scheme with corresponding power allocation algorithms is also applied to improve video performance. Simulations show that the proposed HDA scheme can overcome the cliff effect completely with the transmission of residuals. What is more, it outperforms the compared WSVC scheme by more than 2 dB when transmitting under the same bandwidth, and it can further improve performance by nearly 8 dB in MIMO when compared with the ParCast scheme.

  7. A New Built-in Self Test Scheme for Phase-Locked Loops Using Internal Digital Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youbean; Kim, Kicheol; Kim, Incheol; Kang, Sungho

    Testing PLLs (phase-locked loops) is becoming an important issue that affects both time-to-market and production cost of electronic systems. Though a PLL is the most common mixed-signal building block, it is very difficult to test due to internal analog blocks and signals. In this paper, we propose a new PLL BIST (built-in self test) using the distorted frequency detector that uses only internal digital signals. The proposed BIST does not need to load any analog nodes of the PLL. Therefore, it provides an efficient defect-oriented structural test scheme, reduced area overhead, and improved test quality compared with previous approaches.

  8. A GI Proposal to Display ECG Digital Signals Wirelessly Real-time Transmitted onto a Remote PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Corneliu Rosu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensors, as wireless communication system, comply the 7-layer model Open Systems Interconnection (OSI. In this paper, a point-to-point transmission model was used. The ECG signal is transmitted from the Router Sensor (RS to an end Coordinator Node (CN plugged-in to the laptop via USB port; RS acquires ECG signal in analogical mode, and is also responsible with sampling, quantization and sending it wirelessly direct to CN. The distance between RS and CN is a single-hop transmission, and does not exceed the range of the XBeeS2Pro transceivers. The communication protocol is ZigBee. Remote viewing of the transmitted signal is performed on a Graphical Interface (GI written under MATLAB, after the signal has been digitized; the choice of MATLAB was motivated by future developments. Particular aspects will be highlighted, so that the reader to be edified about the results obtained during laboratory experiments. Recording demonstrate that the purpose exposed in title has been reached: Direct link in Real-Time was established, and the digital ECG signal received is reconstituted accurately on MATLAB GI; signal received on laptop is compared with the analog signal displayed on oscilloscope.

  9. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods

  10. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing Based on FPGAs for Electronic Skin Implementation †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enabling touch-sensing capability would help appliances understand interaction behaviors with their surroundings. Many recent studies are focusing on the development of electronic skin because of its necessity in various application domains, namely autonomous artificial intelligence (e.g., robots, biomedical instrumentation, and replacement prosthetic devices. An essential task of the electronic skin system is to locally process the tactile data and send structured information either to mimic human skin or to respond to the application demands. The electronic skin must be fabricated together with an embedded electronic system which has the role of acquiring the tactile data, processing, and extracting structured information. On the other hand, processing tactile data requires efficient methods to extract meaningful information from raw sensor data. Machine learning represents an effective method for data analysis in many domains: it has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in processing tactile sensor data. In this framework, this paper presents the implementation of digital signal processing based on FPGAs for tactile data processing. It provides the implementation of a tensorial kernel function for a machine learning approach. Implementation results are assessed by highlighting the FPGA resource utilization and power consumption. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed implementation when real-time classification of input touch modalities are targeted.

  11. Design and evaluation of an architecture for a digital signal processor for instrumentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Ronald D.; Kaneshiro, Ronald T.; Konstantinides, Konstantinos

    1990-03-01

    The authors present the design and evaluation of an architecture for a monolithic, programmable, floating-point digital signal processor (DSP) for instrumentation applications. An investigation of the most commonly used algorithms in instrumentation led to a design that satisfies the requirements for high computational and I/O (input/output) throughput. In the arithmetic unit, a 16- x 16-bit multiplier and a 32-bit accumulator provide the capability for single-cycle multiply/accumulate operations, and three format adjusters automatically adjust the data format for increased accuracy and dynamic range. An on-chip I/O unit is capable of handling data block transfers through a direct memory access port and real-time data streams through a pair of parallel I/O ports. I/O operations and program execution are performed in parallel. In addition, the processor includes two data memories with independent addressing units, a microsequencer with instruction RAM, and multiplexers for internal data redirection. The authors also present the structure and implementation of a design environment suitable for the algorithmic, behavioral, and timing simulation of a complete DSP system. Various benchmarking results are reported.

  12. Direct RNA detection without nucleic acid purification and PCR: Combining sandwich hybridization with signal amplification based on branched hybridization chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-05-15

    We have developed a convenient, robust and low-cost RNA detection system suitable for high-throughput applications. This system uses a highly specific sandwich hybridization to capture target RNA directly onto solid support, followed by on-site signal amplification via 2-dimensional, branched hybridizing chain polymerization through toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction. The assay uses SYBR Green to detect targets at concentrations as low as 1 pM, without involving nucleic acid purification or any enzymatic reaction, using ordinary oligonucleotides without modification or labeling. The system was demonstrated in the detection of malaria RNA in blood and GAPDH gene expression in cell lysate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Phenomenology Study on Dental Faculty Preparedness for Using Technology in Face-to-Face, Hybrid Courses, and Online Course to Reach Digital Native Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Leila Helene

    2018-01-01

    The exponential growth of online and hybrid education is most pressing and rapidly changing, increasing the need for faculty development programs for the traditional and online educator (Herman, 2012; Quinn & Kennedy-Clark, 2015). The students of today are referred to as the digital native student (DNS; Akcayir, Dundar, & Akcayir, 2016).…

  14. Study on Construction of a Medical X-Ray Direct Digital Radiography System and Hybrid Preprocessing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a medical X-ray direct digital radiography (DDR system based on a CCD (charge-coupled devices camera. For the original images captured from X-ray exposure, computer first executes image flat-field correction and image gamma correction, and then carries out image contrast enhancement. A hybrid image contrast enhancement algorithm which is based on sharp frequency localization-contourlet transform (SFL-CT and contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE, is proposed and verified by the clinical DDR images. Experimental results show that, for the medical X-ray DDR images, the proposed comprehensive preprocessing algorithm can not only greatly enhance the contrast and detail information, but also improve the resolution capability of DDR system.

  15. Novel ultra-wideband photonic signal generation and transmission featuring digital signal processing bit error rate measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal.......We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal....

  16. A Hybrid Semi-Digital Transimpedance Amplifier With Noise Cancellation Technique for Nanopore-Based DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Lun; Jiang, Haowei; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew A

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, nanopores have been a promising technology for next generation deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing. Here, we present a hybrid semi-digital transimpedance amplifier (HSD-TIA) to sense the minute current signatures introduced by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) translocating through a nanopore, while discharging the baseline current using a semi-digital feedback loop. The amplifier achieves fast settling by adaptively tuning a DC compensation current when a step input is detected. A noise cancellation technique reduces the total input-referred current noise caused by the parasitic input capacitance. Measurement results show the performance of the amplifier with 31.6 M Ω mid-band gain, 950 kHz bandwidth, and 8.5 fA/ √Hz input-referred current noise, a 2× noise reduction due to the noise cancellation technique. The settling response is demonstrated by observing the insertion of a protein nanopore in a lipid bilayer. Using the nanopore, the HSD-TIA was able to measure ssDNA translocation events.

  17. AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction-Mediated Signal Transmission Between two DNA Origami Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmig, Sarah Wendelbo; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins - of which one is immobilized in specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures - are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force...... microscopy (AFM). Upon addition of a designed initiator, the initiation signal is efficiently transferred >200 nm from a specific location on one origami structure to an end point on another origami structure. The system shows no significant loss of signal when crossing from one nanostructure to another...

  18. Integrated Optimization of Speed Profiles and Power Split for a Tram with Hybrid Energy Storage Systems on a Signalized Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A tram with on-board hybrid energy storage systems based on batteries and supercapacitors is a new option for the urban traffic system. This configuration enables the tram to operate in both catenary zones and catenary-free zones, and the storage of regenerative braking energy for later usage. This paper presents a multiple phases integrated optimization (MPIO method for the coordination of speed profiles and power split considering the signal control strategy. The objective is to minimize the equivalent total energy consumption of all the power sources, which includes both the energy from the traction substation and energy storage systems. The constraints contain running time, variable gradients and curves, speed limits, power balance and signal time at some intersections. The integrated optimization problem is formulated as a multiple phases model based on the characters of the signalized route. An integrated calculation framework, using hp-adaptive pseudospectral method, is proposed for the integrated optimization problem. The effectiveness of the method is verified under fixed time signal (FTS control strategy and tram priority signal (TPS control strategy. Illustrative results show that this method can be successfully applied for trams with hybrid energy storage systems to improve their energy efficiency.

  19. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain fluorescence in situ hybridization-chromogenic in situ hybridization DNA probe split signal in the clonality assessment of lymphoproliferative processes on cytological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Pio; Sosa Fernandez, Laura Virginia; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Ronga, Valentina; Genesio, Rita; Salatiello, Maria; Picardi, Marco; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo; Vigliar, Elena

    2012-12-25

    The human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) locus at chromosome 14q32 is frequently involved in different translocations of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and the detection of any breakage involving the IGH locus should identify a B-cell NHL. The split-signal IGH fluorescence in situ hybridization-chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH-CISH) DNA probe is a mixture of 2 fluorochrome-labeled DNAs: a green one that binds the telomeric segment and a red one that binds the centromeric segment, both on the IGH breakpoint. In the current study, the authors tested the capability of the IGH FISH-CISH DNA probe to detect IGH translocations and diagnose B-cell lymphoproliferative processes on cytological samples. Fifty cytological specimens from cases of lymphoproliferative processes were tested using the split-signal IGH FISH-CISH DNA probe and the results were compared with light-chain assessment by flow cytometry (FC), IGH status was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinicohistological data. The signal score produced comparable results on FISH and CISH analysis and detected 29 positive, 15 negative, and 6 inadequate cases; there were 29 true-positive cases (66%), 9 true-negative cases (20%), 6 false-negative cases (14%), and no false-positive cases (0%). Comparing the sensitivity of the IGH FISH-CISH DNA split probe with FC and PCR, the highest sensitivity was obtained by FC, followed by FISH-CISH and PCR. The split-signal IGH FISH-CISH DNA probe is effective in detecting any translocation involving the IGH locus. This probe can be used on different samples from different B-cell lymphoproliferative processes, although it is not useful for classifying specific entities. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2012;. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  20. High-Speed Data Acquisition and Digital Signal Processing System for PET Imaging Techniques Applied to Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. D.; Benlloch, J. M.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, Ch. W.; Pavon, N.; Sebastia, A.

    2004-06-01

    This paper is framed into the Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) project, whose aim is to develop an innovative gamma ray sensor for early breast cancer diagnosis. Currently, breast cancer is detected using low-energy X-ray screening. However, functional imaging techniques such as PET/FDG could be employed to detect breast cancer and track disease changes with greater sensitivity. Furthermore, a small and less expensive PET camera can be utilized minimizing main problems of whole body PET. To accomplish these objectives, we are developing a new gamma ray sensor based on a newly released photodetector. However, a dedicated PEM detector requires an adequate data acquisition (DAQ) and processing system. The characterization of gamma events needs a free-running analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with sampling rates of more than 50 Ms/s and must achieve event count rates up to 10 MHz. Moreover, comprehensive data processing must be carried out to obtain event parameters necessary for performing the image reconstruction. A new generation digital signal processor (DSP) has been used to comply with these requirements. This device enables us to manage the DAQ system at up to 80 Ms/s and to execute intensive calculi over the detector signals. This paper describes our designed DAQ and processing architecture whose main features are: very high-speed data conversion, multichannel synchronized acquisition with zero dead time, a digital triggering scheme, and high throughput of data with an extensive optimization of the signal processing algorithms.

  1. Digital DC-Reconstruction of AC-Coupled Electrophysiological Signals with a Single Inverting Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abächerli, Roger; Isaksen, Jonas; Schmid, Ramun

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of digital electrocardiographs, high-pass filters have been necessary for successful analog-to-digital conversion with a reasonable amplitude resolution. On the other hand, such high-pass filters may distort the diagnostically significant ST-segment of the ECG, which can...

  2. Use of Digital Signal Processors (DSP) in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetto, D.

    1988-01-01

    The FDDP - Fast Digital Data Processor - is a modular system for executing parallel digital processing algorithms to perform programmable trigger decisions or programmable on-line data reduction. Typical application involve zero suppression and pulse shape analysis. The characteristics of the system are: modularity, expandability and flexibility. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  3. An accurate and simple large signal model of HEMT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing

    1989-01-01

    A large-signal model of discrete HEMTs (high-electron-mobility transistors) has been developed. It is simple and suitable for SPICE simulation of hybrid digital ICs. The model parameters are extracted by using computer programs and data provided by the manufacturer. Based on this model, a hybrid...

  4. Digital signal integrity and stability in the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Goringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, D R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Johansen, M; Kluge, E E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Moa, T; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, V J O; Prieur, D P F; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stockton, M C; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system with the goal of identifying high-pT objects and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters within an overall latency of 2.5 microseconds. This trigger system is composed of the Preprocessor which digitises about 7200 analogue input channels and two digital processors to identify high-pT signatures and to calculate the energy sums. The digital part consists of multi-stage, pipelined custom-built modules. The high demands on connectivity between the initial analogue stage and digital part and between the custom-built modules are presented. Furthermore the techniques to establish timing regimes and verify connectivity and stable operation of these digital links will be described.

  5. Reconfigurable L-band Radar Transceiver using Digital Signal Synthesis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal, builds upon the extensive research and digital radar design that has been successfully completed during the Phase I contract. Key innovations...

  6. Digital Semaphore: Technical Feasibility of QR Code Optical Signaling for Fleet Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Standards (http://www.iso.org) JIS Japanese Industrial Standard JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group (digital image format; http://www.jpeg.org) LED...Denso Wave corporation in the 1990s for the Japanese automotive manufacturing industry. See Appendix A for full details. Reed-Solomon Error...eliminates camera blur induced by the shutter, providing clear images at extremely high frame rates. Thusly, digital cinema cameras are more suitable

  7. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....

  8. Superconductor Digital-RF Receiver Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhanov, Oleg A.; Kirichenko, Dmitri; Vernik, Igor V.; Filippov, Timur V.; Kirichenko, Alexander; Webber, Robert; Dotsenko, Vladimir; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Tang, Jia Cao; Sahu, Anubhav; Shevchenko, Pavel; Miller, Robert; Kaplan, Steven B.; Sarwana, Saad; Gupta, Deepnarayan

    Digital superconductor electronics has been experiencing rapid maturation with the emergence of smaller-scale, lower-cost communications applications which became the major technology drivers. These applications are primarily in the area of wireless communications, radar, and surveillance as well as in imaging and sensor systems. In these areas, the fundamental advantages of superconductivity translate into system benefits through novel Digital-RF architectures with direct digitization of wide band, high frequency radio frequency (RF) signals. At the same time the availability of relatively small 4K cryocoolers has lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled digital electronic systems. Recently, we have achieved a major breakthrough in the development, demonstration, and successful delivery of the cryocooled superconductor digital-RF receivers directly digitizing signals in a broad range from kilohertz to gigahertz. These essentially hybrid-technology systems combine a variety of superconductor and semiconductor technologies packaged with two-stage commercial cryocoolers: cryogenic Nb mixed-signal and digital circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, room-temperature amplifiers, FPGA processing and control circuitry. The demonstrated cryocooled digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals in X-band and performing signal acquisition in HF to L-band at ˜30GHz clock frequencies.

  9. Tests of variable-band multilayers designed for investigating optimal signal-to-noise vs artifact signal ratios in Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography (DDSA) imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyers, D.; Ho, A.; Li, Q.; Piestrup, M.; Rice, M.; Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, various design techniques were applied to investigate the feasibility of controlling the bandwidth and bandshape profiles of tungsten/boron-carbon (W/B 4 C) and tungsten/silicon (W/Si) multilayers for optimizing their performance in synchrotron radiation based angiographical imaging systems at 33 keV. Varied parameters included alternative spacing geometries, material thickness ratios, and numbers of layer pairs. Planar optics with nominal design reflectivities of 30%--94% and bandwidths ranging from 0.6%--10% were designed at the Stanford Radiation Laboratory, fabricated by the Ovonic Synthetic Materials Company, and characterized on Beam Line 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, in this paper we report selected results of these tests and review the possible use of the multilayers for determining optimal signal to noise vs. artifact signal ratios in practical Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography systems

  10. Mixed-Signal Architectures for High-Efficiency and Low-Distortion Digital Audio Processing and Power Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Terreni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the algorithmic and architectural design of digital input power audio amplifiers. A modelling platform, based on a meet-in-the-middle approach between top-down and bottom-up design strategies, allows a fast but still accurate exploration of the mixed-signal design space. Different amplifier architectures are configured and compared to find optimal trade-offs among different cost-functions: low distortion, high efficiency, low circuit complexity and low sensitivity to parameter changes. A novel amplifier architecture is derived; its prototype implements digital processing IP macrocells (oversampler, interpolating filter, PWM cross-point deriver, noise shaper, multilevel PWM modulator, dead time compensator on a single low-complexity FPGA while off-chip components are used only for the power output stage (LC filter and power MOS bridge; no heatsink is required. The resulting digital input amplifier features a power efficiency higher than 90% and a total harmonic distortion down to 0.13% at power levels of tens of Watts. Discussions towards the full-silicon integration of the mixed-signal amplifier in embedded devices, using BCD technology and targeting power levels of few Watts, are also reported.

  11. Dramatically improved RNA in situ hybridization signals using LNA-modified probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Nielsen, Peter Stein; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2005-01-01

    . This increases the thermal stability of hybrids formed with RNA. The LNA-based probes detect specific RNAs in fixed yeast cells with an efficiency far better than conventional DNA oligonucleotide probes of the same sequence. Using this probe design, we were also able to detect poly(A)+ RNA accumulation within......In situ detection of RNA by hybridization with complementary probes is a powerful technique. Probe design is a critical parameter in successful target detection. We have evaluated the efficiency of fluorescent DNA oligonucleotides modified to contain locked nucleic acid (LNA) residues...

  12. Comparison of the analog and digital pulse-shaping methods in signal processing in nuclear detections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnabi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe the potential applications of the new improved digital techniques and provide a meaningful figure of merit for the comparison of the analog and digital methods. The experimental operation of a typical digital pulse shaper used in a spectrometer with the 23 Na source and a Ge y-ray detector is discussed. The effect of different imposed dead time on the counted pulses is investigated. It is noticed that nuclear events distribution in all ranges of dead time does not obey Poisson's law and deviation from this distribution depends on the counting rate. For a given dead time, deviation from this distribution increases linearly by increasing imposed dead time. For a fixed dead time, when counting rate increases deviation from Poisson's distribution law increases accordingly, and vice versa. (Author)

  13. A Human Error Analysis with Physiological Signals during Utilizing Digital Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, Yeon Ju; Shin, Kwang Hyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The introduction of advanced MCR is accompanied with lots of changes and different forms and features through the virtue of new digital technologies. There are various kinds of digital devices such as flat panel displays, touch screens, and so on. The characteristics of these digital devices give many chances to the interface management, and can be integrated into a compact single workstation in an advanced MCR so that workers can operate the plant with minimum burden during any operating condition. However, these devices may introduce new types of human errors, and thus we need a means to evaluate and prevent such error, especially those related to the digital devices. Human errors have been retrospectively assessed for accident reviews and quantitatively evaluated through HRA for PSA. However, the ergonomic verification and validation is an important process to defend all human error potential in the NPP design. HRA is a crucial part of a PSA, and helps in preparing a countermeasure for design by drawing potential human error items that affect the overall safety of NPPs. Various HRA techniques are available however: they reveal shortages of the HMI design in the digital era. - HRA techniques depend on PSFs: this means that the scope dealing with human factors is previously limited, and thus all attributes of new digital devices may not be considered in HRA. - The data used to HRA are not close to the evaluation items. So, human error analysis is not easy to apply to design by several individual experiments and cases. - The results of HRA are not statistically meaningful because accidents including human errors in NPPs are rare and have been estimated as having an extremely low probability

  14. The development of a digital signal processing and plotting package to support testing of hazardous and radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.; Lattier, C.N.; Hankinson, M.; Cannone, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Federal regulations allow package designers to use analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing to support certification of packages used to transport hazardous or radioactive materials. In recent years, many certified packages were subjected to a combination of analysis and testing. A major part of evaluating structural or thermal package response is the collection, reduction and presentation of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, has developed a comprehensive analysis and plotting package (known as KAPP) that performs digital signal processing of both transient structural and thermal data integrated with a comprehensive plotting package designed to support radioactive material package testing

  15. Optical Flow in a Smart Sensor Based on Hybrid Analog-Digital Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Agís, Rodrigo; Ros, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations) using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip). Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane) and digital (NIOS II) processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane) stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II) stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system’s performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains. PMID:22319283

  16. Optical Flow in a Smart Sensor Based on Hybrid Analog-Digital Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guzmán

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip. Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane and digital (NIOS II processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system’s performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains.

  17. A Digital Signal Processor for Doppler Radar Sensing of Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    shows a small spike halfway each heartbeat. This is known as the dicrotic notch , which signifies a sudden drop in pressure after systolic contraction...It is caused by a small reflux flow of blood back into the aortic valve and coronary vessels. This dicrotic notch in the heart signal is clipped...signal, and amax was the maximum amplitude of the signal in the specified window. The user could set the factor k, and it determined the threshold at

  18. Design and Implementation of a linear-phase equalizer in digital audio signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slump, Cornelis H.; van Asma, C.G.M.; Barels, J.K.P.; Barels, J.K.P.; Brunink, W.J.A; Drenth, F.B.; Pol, J.V.; Schouten, D.S.; Samsom, M.M.; Samsom, M.M.; Herrmann, O.E.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution presents the four phases of a project aiming at the realization in VLSI of a digital audio equalizer with a linear phase characteristic. The first step includes the identification of the system requirements, based on experience and (psycho-acoustical) literature. Secondly, the

  19. Development of an experimental device based on the digitalization of the signal and dedicated to the characterization of fission fragments and prompt neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varapai, N.

    2006-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of the digital technique for nuclear measurements. This new technique is based on the digitalization of the signals from the detectors and has several advantages. This technique allows us to extract the maximum amount of information contained in the signal shape. In the case of an ionization chamber this signal contains the necessary information on the particle kinetic energy, emission angle and mass. This method has been implemented for measurements of promptly emitted fission neutrons in coincidence with fission fragments from 252 Cf(sf). A double Frisch-grid ionization chamber is used as fission fragment detector. The promptly emitted neutrons are detected by a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. This work displays how delicate analysis of the digitalized signals permitted us to infer the mass and kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments as well as the neutron energy spectrum and multiplicity. The outline of this thesis is as follows: Chapter 2 gives an overview of the experimental tools used in this work. Chapter 3 explains the analysis procedure of the digitalized anode signal from an ionization chamber. Chapter 4 gives a detailed explanation of the analysis procedure of the digitalized signal from a neutron detector. In Chapter 5 the analysis procedure of the fission fragment events in coincidence with neutrons is given

  20. Advanced signal separation and recovery algorithms for digital x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Imbaby I.; El-Tokhy, Mohamed S.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is widely used for in-situ applications for samples analysis. Therefore, spectrum drawing and assessment of x-ray spectroscopy with high accuracy is the main scope of this paper. A Silicon Lithium Si(Li) detector that cooled with a nitrogen is used for signal extraction. The resolution of the ADC is 12 bits. Also, the sampling rate of ADC is 5 MHz. Hence, different algorithms are implemented. These algorithms were run on a personal computer with Intel core TM i5-3470 CPU and 3.20 GHz. These algorithms are signal preprocessing, signal separation and recovery algorithms, and spectrum drawing algorithm. Moreover, statistical measurements are used for evaluation of these algorithms. Signal preprocessing based on DC-offset correction and signal de-noising is performed. DC-offset correction was done by using minimum value of radiation signal. However, signal de-noising was implemented using fourth order finite impulse response (FIR) filter, linear phase least-square FIR filter, complex wavelet transforms (CWT) and Kalman filter methods. We noticed that Kalman filter achieves large peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and lower error than other methods. However, CWT takes much longer execution time. Moreover, three different algorithms that allow correction of x-ray signal overlapping are presented. These algorithms are 1D non-derivative peak search algorithm, second derivative peak search algorithm and extrema algorithm. Additionally, the effect of signal separation and recovery algorithms on spectrum drawing is measured. Comparison between these algorithms is introduced. The obtained results confirm that second derivative peak search algorithm as well as extrema algorithm have very small error in comparison with 1D non-derivative peak search algorithm. However, the second derivative peak search algorithm takes much longer execution time. Therefore, extrema algorithm introduces better results over other algorithms. It has the advantage of recovering and

  1. An online hybrid brain-computer interface combining multiple physiological signals for webpage browse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Chen; Zhongpeng Wang; Feng He; Jiajia Yang; Hongzhi Qi; Peng Zhou; Baikun Wan; Dong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The hybrid brain computer interface (hBCI) could provide higher information transfer rate than did the classical BCIs. It included more than one brain-computer or human-machine interact paradigms, such as the combination of the P300 and SSVEP paradigms. Research firstly constructed independent subsystems of three different paradigms and tested each of them with online experiments. Then we constructed a serial hybrid BCI system which combined these paradigms to achieve the functions of typing letters, moving and clicking cursor, and switching among them for the purpose of browsing webpages. Five subjects were involved in this study. They all successfully realized these functions in the online tests. The subjects could achieve an accuracy above 90% after training, which met the requirement in operating the system efficiently. The results demonstrated that it was an efficient system capable of robustness, which provided an approach for the clinic application.

  2. Digital signal processing for the Johnson noise thermometry: a time series analysis of the Johnson noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byung Soo; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chong Eun; Kwon, Kee Choon; David, E. H.; Kisner, R.A.

    2004-06-01

    In this report, we first proved that a random signal obtained by taking the sum of a set of signal frequency signals generates a continuous Markov process. We used this random signal to simulate the Johnson noise and verified that the Johnson noise thermometry can be used to improve the measurements of the reactor coolant temperature within an accuracy of below 0.14%. Secondly, by using this random signal we determined the optimal sampling rate when the frequency band of the Johnson noise signal is given. Also the results of our examination on how good the linearity of the Johnson noise is and how large the relative error of the temperature could become when the temperature increases are described. Thirdly, the results of our analysis on a set of the Johnson noise signal blocks taken from a simple electric circuit are described. We showed that the properties of the continuous Markov process are satisfied even when some channel noises are present. Finally, we describe the algorithm we devised to handle the problem of the time lag in the long-term average or the moving average in a transient state. The algorithm is based on the Haar wavelet and is to estimate the transient temperature that has much smaller time delay. We have shown that the algorithm can track the transient temperature successfully

  3. Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.

  4. Branched-DNA signal amplification combined with paper chromatography hybridization assay and used in hepatitis B virus DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, F.Z.; Liu, L.X.; Wang, W.Q.; Sun, S. H.; Liu, L.B.

    2002-01-01

    Nucleic acids detection method is vital to the clinical pathogen diagnosis. The established method can be classified into target direct amplification and signal amplification format according to the target DNA or RNA being directly amplified or not. Those methods have advantages and disadvantages respectively in the clinical application. In the United States of American, branched-DNA as a strong signal amplifier is broadly used in the quantification of the nucleic acids. To gain satisfied sensitivity, some expensive label molecular and instruments should be adopted. Personnel should be special trained to perform. Hence, those can't be widely carried out in the Third World. To avoid those disadvantages, we used the branched-DNA amplifier in the paper chromatography hybridization assay. Methods: Branched DNA signal amplifier and series of probes complementary to the nucleic acid sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been synthesized. HBV-DNA or it's capture probe were immobilized on the high flow nitrocellulose strip. Having loaded at one end of the strip in turn, probes or HBV-DNA in the hybridization solution migrate to the opposite end of the strip by capillary forces and hybridizes to the immobilized DNA. The branched-DNA signal amplifier and probe labeled with biotin or 32P were then loaded. Through streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (SA-AP) conjugate and NBT/BCIP ( the specific chromogenic substrate of AP) or autoradiography, the result can be visualized by color reaction or image production on the X-ray film. Results: The sensitivity of this HBV-DNA detection method used probe labeled with biotin and 32P are 1ng and 10pg. The method using the probe labeled with biotin is simple and rapid (2h) without depending on special instruments, it also avoids the pollution of EtBr which can lead to tumor. And the method using the probe labeled with 32P is simple and sensitive, with the exception of long time autoradiography and the inconvenient isotopic disposal

  5. Robust 9-QAM digital recovery for spectrum shaped coherent QPSK signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Bo; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    division multiplexing (NWDM). The final equalized signal is detected by maximum likelihood sequence decision (MLSD) for data bit-error-ratio (BER) measurement. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) tolerance is improved by 0.5 dB at a BER of 1x10-3 compared to constant modulus algorithm (CMA) plus post......We propose 9-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (9-QAM) data recovery for polarization multiplexing-quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) signal in presence of strong filtering to approach Nyquist bandwidth. The decision-directed least radius distance (DD-LRD) algorithm for blind equalization...

  6. CMOS time-to-digital converters for mixed-mode signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth review of the principles, architectures and design techniques of CMOS time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The classification of TDCs is introduced. It is followed by the examination of the parameters quantifying the performance of TDCs. Sampling TDCs including direct-counter TDCs, tapped delay-line TDCs, pulse-shrinking delay-line TDCs, cyclic pulse-shrinking TDCs, direct-counter TDCs with interpolation, vernier TDCs, flash TDCs, successive approximation TDCs an...

  7. [Improved detection of the pulse oximeter signal with a digital nerve block in patients in poor health status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoví de Armas, L; Espinaco Valdés, J; Jiménez Paneque, R E; Costa Hidalgo, T; Vallongo Menéndez, M B

    2008-10-01

    To demonstrate the efficacy of a digital nerve block for improving pulse oximetry in conditions of low tissue perfusion. A randomized single-blind study of adult patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia for conditions characterized by hypoperfusion. Patients were assigned to a control group or an experimental group. The experimental group received a digital nerve block in the middle finger of the left hand; a sensor was then placed on the finger for between 120 and 300 minutes. Age, sex, diagnosis, total observation time (TOT), percentage of time with no pulse oximeter signal (NoPO), and percentage of time with an unstable pulse oximeter signal (UnstPO) were recorded. Each patient was questioned between 16 and 24 hours after surgery and was examined for flushing, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, pain, and ecchymosis. The chi2 test was used to compare dichotomized or nominal variables and the t test was used to compare age, TOT, NoPO, and UnstPO. Values of P<.05 were considered statistically significant in both cases. Fifty patients were randomized to each group. A total of 82 patients remained in the study (control group=42, experimental group=40). There were no significant between-group differences in diagnoses or TOT. The mean values for NoPO and UnstPO were higher in the control group than in the experimental group (11.1% vs 4.4% and 35.9% vs 15.7%, respectively; P<.001). A digital nerve block can be used to prevent pulse oximetry failures in conditions of low peripheral perfusion.

  8. Digital Tracking Array for FM Signals Based on Off-The-Shelf Wireless Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edmund, Hui K

    2007-01-01

    ... a 2.4 GHz frequency modulation (FM) video signal from an unmanned air vehicle. The tracking is done using a monopulse technique Various numbers of elements were simulated to access the pattern coverage...

  9. The DECMU: a digital device for delayed analysis of multi-frequency eddy current signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, Michel.

    1981-08-01

    A delayed data analysis system has been realized by the CEA and Intercontrole for in-service inspection of steam generators of nuclear plants by multifrequency eddy current testing. This device allows, out of the plant, adjustment during switching of the probes, graph recording and analysis for defect signal qualification. The equipment contains an analog mixing device, as IC3FA multi-frequency appartus, but has in addition a memory allowing data cycling and signal isolation for adjustment or analysis [fr

  10. Decoding Speech With Integrated Hybrid Signals Recorded From the Human Ventral Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ibayashi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of speech communication for locked-in patients by means of brain computer interfaces (BCIs is currently an important area of active research. Among the neural signals obtained from intracranial recordings, single/multi-unit activity (SUA/MUA, local field potential (LFP, and electrocorticography (ECoG are good candidates for an input signal for BCIs. However, the question of which signal or which combination of the three signal modalities is best suited for decoding speech production remains unverified. In order to record SUA, LFP, and ECoG simultaneously from a highly localized area of human ventral sensorimotor cortex (vSMC, we fabricated an electrode the size of which was 7 by 13 mm containing sparsely arranged microneedle and conventional macro contacts. We determined which signal modality is the most capable of decoding speech production, and tested if the combination of these signals could improve the decoding accuracy of spoken phonemes. Feature vectors were constructed from spike frequency obtained from SUAs and event-related spectral perturbation derived from ECoG and LFP signals, then input to the decoder. The results showed that the decoding accuracy for five spoken vowels was highest when features from multiple signals were combined and optimized for each subject, and reached 59% when averaged across all six subjects. This result suggests that multi-scale signals convey complementary information for speech articulation. The current study demonstrated that simultaneous recording of multi-scale neuronal activities could raise decoding accuracy even though the recording area is limited to a small portion of cortex, which is advantageous for future implementation of speech-assisting BCIs.

  11. Influence of the position of the foot on MRI signal in the deep digital flexor tendon and collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint in the standing horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, M; Zwingenberger, A

    2009-05-01

    Hyperintense signal is sometimes observed in ligaments and tendons of the equine foot on standing magnetic resonance examination without associated changes in size and shape. In such cases, the presence of a true lesion or an artifact should be considered. A change in position of a ligament or tendon relative to the magnetic field can induce increased signal intensity due to the magic angle effect. To assess if positional rotation of the foot in the solar plane could be responsible for artifactual changes in signal intensity in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint and in the deep digital flexor tendon. Six isolated equine feet were imaged with a standing equine magnetic resonance system in 9 different positions with different degrees of rotation in the solar plane. Rotation of the limb induced a linear hyperintense signal on all feet at the palmar aspect of one of the lobes of the deep digital flexor tendon and at the dorsal aspect of the other lobe. Changes in signal intensity in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint occurred with rotation of the limb only in those feet where mediolateral hoof imbalance was present. The position and conformation of the foot influence the signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon and in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint. The significance of increased signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon and in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint should be interpreted with regard to the position and the conformation of the foot.

  12. Hybrid Scheduling/Signal-Level Coordination in the Downlink of Multi-Cloud Radio-Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-03-28

    In the context of resource allocation in cloud- radio access networks, recent studies assume either signal-level or scheduling-level coordination. This paper, instead, considers a hybrid level of coordination for the scheduling problem in the downlink of a multi-cloud radio- access network, so as to benefit from both scheduling policies. Consider a multi-cloud radio access network, where each cloud is connected to several base-stations (BSs) via high capacity links, and therefore allows joint signal processing between them. Across the multiple clouds, however, only scheduling-level coordination is permitted, as it requires a lower level of backhaul communication. The frame structure of every BS is composed of various time/frequency blocks, called power- zones (PZs), and kept at fixed power level. The paper addresses the problem of maximizing a network-wide utility by associating users to clouds and scheduling them to the PZs, under the practical constraints that each user is scheduled, at most, to a single cloud, but possibly to many BSs within the cloud, and can be served by one or more distinct PZs within the BSs\\' frame. The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by constructing the conflict graph. The scheduling problem is, then, shown to be equivalent to a maximum- weight independent set problem in the constructed graph, in which each vertex symbolizes an association of cloud, user, BS and PZ, with a weight representing the utility of that association. Simulation results suggest that the proposed hybrid scheduling strategy provides appreciable gain as compared to the scheduling-level coordinated networks, with a negligible degradation to signal-level coordination.

  13. Proportional-integral controller based small-signal analysis of hybrid distributed generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We aim to minimize the deviation of frequency in an integrated energy resources like offshore wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage elements like flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). → Further ultracapacitor (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and proportional-integral (PI) controller is addressed in order to achieve improvements in the deviation of frequency profiles. → A comparative assessment of frequency deviation for different hybrid systems is also carried out in the presence of high voltage direct current (HVDC) link and high voltage alternating current (HVAC) line. → In the study both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements in frequency deviation profiles with use of ultracapacitor (UC) as energy storage element. -- Abstract: The large band variation in the wind speed and unpredictable solar radiation causes remarkable fluctuations of output power in offshore wind and photovoltaic system respectively, which leads to large deviation in the system frequency. In this context, to minimize the deviation in frequency, this paper presents integration of different energy resources like offshore wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage elements like flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitor (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and proportional-integral (PI) controller is addressed in order to achieve improvements in the deviation of frequency profiles. A comparative assessment of frequency deviation for different hybrid systems is also carried out in the presence of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link and high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) line. Frequency deviation for different isolated hybrid systems are presented graphically as well as in terms of

  14. Enzymatic Amplification of DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecular Beacon Signaling in Nucleic Acid Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jacroux, Thomas; Rieck, Daniel C.; Cui, Rong; Ouyang, Yexin; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2012-01-01

    A rapid assay operable under isothermal or non-isothermal conditions is described wherein the sensitivity of a typical molecular beacon (MB) system is improved by utilizing thermostable RNase H to enzymatically cleave an MB comprised of a DNA stem and RNA loop (R/D-MB). Upon hybridization of the R/D-MB to target DNA, there was a modest increase in fluorescence intensity (~5.7x above background) due to an opening of the probe and concomitant reduction in the Förster resonance energy transfer e...

  15. Dual beam vidicon digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A vidicon waveform digitizer which can simultaneously digitize two independent signals has been developed. Either transient or repetitive waveforms can be digitized with this system. A dual beam oscilloscope is used as the signal input device. The light from the oscilloscope traces is optically coupled to a television camera, where the signals are temporarily stored prior to digitizing

  16. Time signal distribution in communication networks based on synchronous digital hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Atsushi; Kihara, Masami

    1993-01-01

    A new method that uses round-trip paths to accurately measure transmission delay for time synchronization is proposed. The performance of the method in Synchronous Digital Hierarchy networks is discussed. The feature of this method is that it separately measures the initial round trip path delay and the variations in round-trip path delay. The delay generated in SDH equipment is determined by measuring the initial round-trip path delay. In an experiment with actual SDH equipment, the error of initial delay measurement was suppressed to 30ns.

  17. Optical data exchange of m-QAM signals using a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide: proposal and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian

    2014-10-06

    We present modulation-format-transparent data exchange for m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (m-QAM) signals using a single silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide which offers tight light confinement and enhanced nonlinearity. By exploiting the parametric depletion effect of non-degenerate four-wave mixing (ND-FWM) process in the slot waveguide, we simulate low-power (exchange of 640 Gbaud (2.56 Tbit/s) optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) 16-QAM and 640 Gbaud (3.84 Tbit/s) OTDM 64-QAM signals and characterize the operation performance in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM) and bit-error rate (BER). The calculated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalties of data exchange are negligible for 2.56 Tbit/s 16-QAM signals and less than 2 dB for 3.84 Tbit/s 64-QAM signals at a BER of 2e-3. For a given pump power of 9 mW, the operation performance dependence on the waveguide length is studied, showing an optimized waveguide length of ~17 mm. For a given waveguide length of 17 mm, the SNR penalty of data exchange, at a BER of 2e-3, is kept below 4 dB when varying input pump power from 8.4 to 9.8 mW for 2.56 Tbit/s 16-QAM and from 8.9 to 9.2 mW for 3.84 Tbit/s 64-QAM. In addition, data exchange running at low speed (e.g. 20 Gbaud) and data exchange taking into account waveguide propagation loss are also analyzed with favorable operation performance.

  18. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Puga, Manuel; Salazar, Abby Stephanie; Aguilar, Leocundo; Gaxiola-Pacheco, Carelia; Licea, Guillermo

    2015-12-02

    The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs). This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs) over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  19. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castañón–Puga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs. This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  20. EnVision+, a new dextran polymer-based signal enhancement technique for in situ hybridization (ISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedorn, K H; Goldmann, T; Henne, C; Kühl, H; Vollmer, E

    2001-09-01

    Seventy paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens and condylomata were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) by conventional in situ hybridization (ISH) and ISH with subsequent signal amplification. Signal amplification was performed either by a commercial biotinyl-tyramide-based detection system [GenPoint (GP)] or by the novel two-layer dextran polymer visualization system EnVision+ (EV), in which both EV-horseradish peroxidase (EV-HRP) and EV-alkaline phosphatase (EV-AP) were applied. We could demonstrate for the first time, that EV in combination with preceding ISH results in a considerable increase in signal intensity and sensitivity without loss of specificity compared to conventional ISH. Compared to GP, EV revealed a somewhat lower sensitivity, as measured by determination of the integrated optical density (IOD) of the positively stained cells. However, EV is easier to perform, requires a shorter assay time, and does not raise the background problems that may be encountered with biotinyl-tyramide-based amplification systems. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:1067-1071, 2001)

  1. The front-end analog and digital signal processing electronics for the drift chambers of the Stanford Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, G.M.; Freytag, D.R.; Fox, J.; Olsen, J.; Paffrath, L.; Yim, A.; Honma, A.

    1990-10-01

    The front-end signal processing electronics for the drift-chambers of the Stanford Large Detector (SLD) at the Stanford Linear Collider is described. The system is implemented with printed-circuit boards which are shaped for direct mounting on the detector. Typically, a motherboard comprises 64 channels of transimpedance amplification and analog waveform sampling, A/D conversion, and associated control and readout circuitry. The loaded motherboard thus forms a processor which records low-level wave forms from 64 detector channels and transforms the information into a 64 k-byte serial data stream. In addition, the package performs calibration functions, measures leakage currents on the wires, and generates wire hit patterns for triggering purposes. The construction and operation of the electronic circuits utilizing monolithic, hybridized, and programmable components are discussed

  2. A study on hybrid split-spectrum processing technique for enhanced reliability in ultrasonic signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Koo, Kil Mo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Kim, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters, and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several engineering materials. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the Sequency spectrum of the received signal by using Gaussian bandpass filters. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental-evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm. which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented.

  3. A Study on Hybrid Split-Spectrum Processing Technique for Enhanced Reliability in Ultrasonic Signal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, H.; Koo, K. M.; Kim, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Many signal-processing techniques have been found to be useful in ultrasonic and nondestructive evaluation. Among the most popular techniques are signal averaging, spatial compounding, matched filters and homomorphic processing. One of the significant new process is split-spectrum processing(SSP), which can be equally useful in signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) improvement and grain characterization in several specimens. The purpose of this paper is to explore the utility of SSP in ultrasonic NDE. A wide variety of engineering problems are reviewed, and suggestions for implementation of the technique are provided. SSP uses the frequency-dependent response of the interfering coherent noise produced by unresolvable scatters in the resolution range cell of a transducer. It is implemented by splitting the frequency spectrum of the received signal by using gaussian bandpass filter. The theoretical basis for the potential of SSP for grain characterization in SUS 304 material is discussed, and some experimental evidence for the feasibility of the approach is presented. Results of SNR enhancement in signals obtained from real four samples of SUS 304. The influence of various processing parameters on the performance of the processing technique is also discussed. The minimization algorithm, which provides an excellent SNR enhancement when used either in conjunction with other SSP algorithms like polarity-check or by itself, is also presented

  4. Development of a system based in a digital signal processor (DSP) for a simulator of power regulation in a reactor: first stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez R, J.S.; Perez C, B.

    2002-01-01

    The first stage of the development of a digital system based on a DSP is presented which forms part of an hybrid simulator for the power regulation in am model of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA reactor type. The DSP performs the regulation, using a Mandami type algorithm of diffuse control. In the algorithm, the universe of the output variable is discretized for performing in an unique stage the aggregation functions and dis-diffusization. (Author)

  5. 76 FR 38306 - Digital Television Signals Pursuant to the Satellite Home Viewer Extension and Reauthorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... contact Cathy Williams on (202) 418-2918 or via e-mail to: cathy.williams@fcc.gov mailto: cathy.williams... strength that a household received. The information gathered as part of the Grade B signal strength tests... written records of test results will be made after testing and predicting the strength of a television...

  6. Digital signal processing in ultrasonic based navigation system for mobile robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stączek Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for estimating the coordinates of automated guided vehicles (AGV was presented in this article. Ultrasonic waves for distance measurement were applied. Used hardware was characterised, as well as signal processing algorithms. The system was tested on wheeled mobile robot in model 2D environment. The results of working range and errors of position estimation were discussed.

  7. Parallel feedback active noise control of MRI acoustic noise with signal decomposition using hybrid RLS-NLMS adaptive algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Anshuman; Krishna Vemuri, Sri Hari; Panahi, Issa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a cost-effective adaptive feedback Active Noise Control (FANC) method for controlling functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) acoustic noise by decomposing it into dominant periodic components and residual random components. Periodicity of fMRI acoustic noise is exploited by using linear prediction (LP) filtering to achieve signal decomposition. A hybrid combination of adaptive filters-Recursive Least Squares (RLS) and Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS) are then used to effectively control each component separately. Performance of the proposed FANC system is analyzed and Noise attenuation levels (NAL) up to 32.27 dB obtained by simulation are presented which confirm the effectiveness of the proposed FANC method.

  8. An effective coded excitation scheme based on a predistorted FM signal and an optimized digital filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanasis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a coded excitation imaging system based on a predistorted FM excitation and a digital compression filter designed for medical ultrasonic applications, in order to preserve both axial resolution and contrast. In radars, optimal Chebyshev windows efficiently weight a nearly...... as with pulse excitation (about 1.5 lambda), depending on the filter design criteria. The axial sidelobes are below -40 dB, which is the noise level of the measuring imaging system. The proposed excitation/compression scheme shows good overall performance and stability to the frequency shift due to attenuation...... be removed by weighting. We show that by using a predistorted chirp with amplitude or phase shaping for amplitude ripple reduction and a correlation filter that accounts for the transducer's natural frequency weighting, output sidelobe levels of -35 to -40 dB are directly obtained. When an optimized filter...

  9. Hybrid image and signal processing III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 23, 24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Tescher, Andrew G.

    1992-07-01

    The present conference discusses the optical Gabor and wavelet transforms for image analysis, image segmentation via optical wavelets, semidifferential invariants, object labeling via convolution, tactile pattern recognition with complex linear morphology, a hybrid six-degree-of-freedom tracking system, and a hazard detection/avoidance sensor for NASA planetary landers. Also discussed are layered optical processing architectures, optoelectronic wide-world personality ROMs for high-speed control, a GaAs-based photorefractive time-integrating correlator, multispectral lossy data compression using vector quantization, broad vector quantization for transform image coding, and a mixed vendor computer architecture for precision image analysis. (For individual items see A93-27933 to A93-27940)

  10. A high-speed digital signal processor for atmospheric radar, part 7.3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnahan, J. W.; Woodard, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Model SP-320 device is a monolithic realization of a complex general purpose signal processor, incorporating such features as a 32-bit ALU, a 16-bit x 16-bit combinatorial multiplier, and a 16-bit barrel shifter. The SP-320 is designed to operate as a slave processor to a host general purpose computer in applications such as coherent integration of a radar return signal in multiple ranges, or dedicated FFT processing. Presently available is an I/O module conforming to the Intel Multichannel interface standard; other I/O modules will be designed to meet specific user requirements. The main processor board includes input and output FIFO (First In First Out) memories, both with depths of 4096 W, to permit asynchronous operation between the source of data and the host computer. This design permits burst data rates in excess of 5 MW/s.

  11. IIR digital filter design for powerline noise cancellation of ECG signal using arduino platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatillah, Akif; Ataulkarim

    2017-05-01

    Powerline noise has been one of significant noises of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal measurement. This noise is characterized by a sinusoidal signal which has 50 Hz of noise and 0.3 mV of maximum amplitude. This paper describes the design of IIR Notch filter design to reject a 50 Hz power line noise. IIR filter coefficients were calculated using pole placement method with three variations of band stop cut off frequencies of (49-51)Hz, (48 - 52)Hz, and (47 - 53)Hz. The algorithm and coefficients of filter were embedded to Arduino DUE (ARM 32 bit microcontroller). IIR notch filter designed has been able to reject power line noise with average square of error value of 0.225 on (49-51) Hz filter design and 0.2831 on (48 - 52)Hz filter design.

  12. Digital mammography: Signal-extraction strategies for computer-aided detection of microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.P.; Doi, K.; Metz, C.E.; Vyborny, C.J.; Lam, K.L.; Schmidt, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors found that the structured background of a mammogram can be removed effectively by either a difference-image technique (using a matched filter in combination with a median filter, a contrast-reversal filter, or a box-rim filter) or a visual response filter alone. Locally adaptive gray-level thresholding and region-growing techniques can then be employed to extract microcalcifications from the processed image. Signals are further distinguished from noise or artifacts by their size, contrast, and clustering properties. The authors studied the dependence of the detectability of microcalcifications on the various signal-extraction strategies. Potential application of the computer-aided system to mammography is assessed by its performance on clinical mammograms

  13. Band extension in digital methods of transfer function determination – signal conditioners asymmetry error corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Staroszczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. In the paper, the calibrating method for error correction in transfer function determination with the use of DSP has been proposed. The correction limits/eliminates influence of transfer function input/output signal conditioners on the estimated transfer functions in the investigated object. The method exploits frequency domain conditioning paths descriptor found during training observation made on the known reference object.[b]Keywords[/b]: transfer function, band extension, error correction, phase errors

  14. Digital signal processing for a thermal neutron detector using ZnS(Ag):{sup 6}LiF scintillating layers read out with WLS fibers and SiPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosset, J.-B., E-mail: jean-baptiste.mosset@psi.ch; Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Hildebrandt, M.; Schlumpf, N.

    2016-07-11

    We present a digital signal processing system based on a photon counting approach which we developed for a thermal neutron detector consisting of ZnS(Ag):{sup 6}LiF scintillating layers read out with WLS fibers and SiPMs. Three digital filters have been evaluated: a moving sum, a moving sum after differentiation and a digital CR-RC{sup 4} filter. The performances of the detector with these filters are presented. A full analog signal processing using a CR-RC{sup 4} filter has been emulated digitally. The detector performance obtained with this analog approach is compared with the one obtained with the best performing digital approach. - Highlights: • Application of digital signal processing for a SiPM-based ZnS:6LiF neutron detector. • Optimisation of detector performances with 3 different digital filters. • Comparison with detector performances with a full analog signal processing.

  15. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Tae, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  16. Large Signal Stabilization of Hybrid AC/DC Micro-Grids Using Nonlinear Robust Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pejmanfar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust nonlinear integrated controller to improve stability of hybrid AC/DC micro-grids under islanding mode. The proposed controller includes two independent controllers where each one is responsible to control one part of the system. First controller will improve the stability of input DC/DC converter. Using this controller, the voltage of DC bus is fully stabilized such that when a large disturbance occurs, its voltage will become constant without any significant dynamic. The necessity of DC bus regulation which has not been considered in previous studies, is imminent as it not only improves voltage stability of the micro-grid but also protects consumers which are directly connected to the DC bus, against voltage variations. Frequency stability of the micro-grid is provided by the second proposed controller which is applied to output DC/AC converter of the micro-grid. Adaptive method is used to make the controllers proposed in this paper, robust. Duty cycle of converters switches are adjusted such that voltage and frequency of the micro-grid are set on the desired value in minimum possible time under transient disturbances and uncertainty of the loads as well as micro-sources characteristics.

  17. Spindle disturbances in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells induced by mobile communication frequency range signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Thorsten; Münter, Klaus; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schmid, Ernst

    2008-12-01

    The production of spindle disturbances in FC2 cells, a human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cell line, by non-ionizing radiation was studied using an electromagnetic field with a field strength of 90 V/m at a frequency of 835 MHz. Due to the given experimental conditions slide flask cultures were exposed at room temperature in a microTEM (transversal electromagnetic field) cell, which allows optimal experimental conditions for small samples of biological material. Numerical calculations suggest that specific absorption rates of up to 60 mW/kg are reached for maximum field exposure. All exposure field parameters--either measured or calculable--are precisely defined and, for the first time, traceable to the standards of the SI system of physical units. Compared with co-incident negative controls, the results of two independently performed experiments suggest that exposure periods of time from 0.5 to 2 h with an electric field strength of 90 V/m are spindle acting agents as predominately indicated by the appearance of spindle disturbances at the ana- and telophase stages (especially lagging and non-disjunction of single chromosomes) of cell divisions. The spindle disturbances do not change the fraction of mitotic cells with increasing exposure time up to 2 h. Due to the applied experimental conditions an influence of temperature as a confounder parameter for spindle disturbances can be excluded.

  18. Enhanced signaling scheme with admission control in the hybrid optical wireless (HOW) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Yu, Hao; Wessing, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    that it can support stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we describe and evaluate a resource management framework designed for the HOW networks. There are two parts in the resource management framework The first part is the Enhanced MPCP (E-MPCP) scheme aiming at improving signaling...... dropping probability depend on several factors. These factors include the frame duration, the traffic load and the total number of shared users. The results also highlight that our proposed system achieves significant improvements over the traditional approach in terms of user QoS guarantee and network...

  19. Feedback correction of injection errors using digital signal-processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Sereno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient transfer of electron beams from one accelerator to another is important for 3rd-generation light sources that operate using top-up. In top-up mode, a constant amount of charge is injected at regular intervals into the storage ring to replenish beam lost primarily due to Touschek scattering. Top-up therefore requires that the complex of injector accelerators that fill the storage ring transport beam with a minimum amount of loss. Injection can be a source of significant beam loss if not carefully controlled. In this note we describe a method of processing injection transient signals produced by beam-position monitors and using the processed data in feedback. Feedback control using the technique described here has been incorporated in the Advanced Photon Source (APS booster synchrotron to correct injection transients.

  20. An efficient digital signal processing method for RRNS-based DS-CDMA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Olsovsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an efficient method for achieving low power and high speed in advanced Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple-Access (DS-CDMA wireless communication systems based on the Residue Number System (RNS. A modified algorithm for multiuser DS-CDMA signal generation in MATLAB is proposed and investigated. The most important characteristics of the generated PN code are also presented. Subsequently, a DS-CDMA system based on the combination of the RNS or the so-called Redundant Residue Number System (RRNS is proposed. The enhanced method using a spectrally efficient 8-PSK data modulation scheme to improve the bandwidth efficiency for RRNS-based DS-CDMA systems is presented. By using the C-measure (complexity measure of the error detection function, it is possible to estimate the size of the circuit. Error detection function in RRNSs can be efficiently implemented by LookUp Table (LUT cascades.

  1. Digital Signal Processing. A review of DSP formalism, algorithms and networks for the beam instrumentation workshop, Vancouver, Canada, October 4, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linscott, I.

    1995-01-01

    The formalism of Digital Signal Processing (DSP), is reviewed with the objective of providing a framework for understanding the utility of DSP techniques for Beam Instrumentation and developiong criteria for assessing the merits of DSP applications. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Criteria for the use of digital signal processors in the control technique of the COSY particle accelerator using the example of the MOTOROLA DSP56000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, U.

    1989-11-01

    On the Cooler Synchrotron project (COSY), the beam measurement data and their processing are collected digitally. From the requirements for quick computing time (real time operation) and exact results, the use of digital signal processors is intended. The digital signal processor DSP 56000 from MOTOROLA was selected as the test object. The DSP 56000 has a development environment which makes it possible to test it on an IBM-PC AT. Tests are carried out which show that the simulation program corresponds to the functions and processes of the DSP 56000. The above-mentioned applications program calculates a 'fast Fourier transform' (FFT). This program is used to judge the speed of calculation and the accuracy of calculation of the signal processor. The algorithm used by the FFT program is explained. In order to judge the results of the DSP 56000, a comparison is made with the equivalent FORTRAN FFT. The results which the DSP gives on the ADM and the Fortran program are compared and assessed. The speed of calculation of the DSP 56000 is determined and is judged in comparison with the manufacturer's data for other digital signal processors. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Detection Of Cracks In Composite Materials Using Hybrid Non-Destructive Testing Method Based On Vibro-Thermography And Time-Frequency Analysis Of Ultrasonic Excitation Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopowicz Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the publication is to determine the possibility of diagnosing damage in composite materials using vibrio-thermography and frequency analysis and time-frequency of excitation signal. In order to verify the proposed method experiments were performed on a sample of the composite made in the technology of pressing prepregs. Analysis of the recorded signals and the thermograms were performed in MatLab environment. Hybrid non-destructive testing method based on thermogram and appropriate signal processing algorithm clearly showed damage in the sample composite material.

  4. Digital and analog communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  5. A DEMODULATOR OF PWM SIGNALS GENERATED FOR A DIGITAL ACCELEROMETER IS DEVELOPED USING A MICROCONTROLLER UN DEMODULADOR DE SEÑALES PWM GENERADAS POR UN ACELERÓMETRO DIGITAL ES DESARROLLADO USANDO UN MICROCONTROLADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pérez Lobato

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a microcontroller to demodulate two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM signals which are being generated by a digital accelerometer, to obtain their pulse widths and transmit them serially to a parallel port of a general purpose computer.Esta publicación presenta el uso de un microcontrolador para demodular dos señales PWM que están siendo generadas por un acelerómetro digital, obtener sus anchos y enviarlas en forma serial al puerto paralelo de un computador de propósitos generales.

  6. Ihh and PTH1R signaling in limb mesenchyme is required for proper segmentation and subsequent formation and growth of digit bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Densmore, Michael; Fan, Yi; Lanske, Beate

    2016-02-01

    Digit formation is a process, which requires the proper segmentation, formation and growth of phalangeal bones and is precisely regulated by several important factors. One such factor is Ihh, a gene linked to BDA1 and distal symphalangism in humans. In existing mouse models, mutations in Ihh have been shown to cause multiple synostosis in the digits but lead to perinatal lethality. To better study the exact biological and pathological events which occur in these fused digits, we used a more viable Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl) model in which Cre recombinase is expressed during mesenchymal condensation in the earliest limb buds at E9.5 dpc and found that mutant digits continuously fuse postnatally until phalanges are finally replaced by an unsegmented "one-stick bone". Mutant mice displayed osteocalcin-positive mature osteoblasts, but had reduced proliferation and abnormal osteogenesis. Because of the close interaction between Ihh and PTHrP during endochondral ossification, we also examined the digits of Prx1-Cre;PTH1R(fl/fl) mice, where the receptor for PTHrP was conditionally deleted. Surprisingly, we found PTH1R deletion caused symphalangism, demonstrating another novel function of PTH1R signaling in digit formation. We characterized the symphalangism process whereby initial cartilaginous fusion prevented epiphyseal growth plate formation, resulting in resorption and replacement of the remaining cartilage by bony tissue. Chondrocyte differentiation displayed abnormal directionality in both mutants. Lastly, Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl);Jansen Tg mice, in which a constitutively active PTH1R allele was introduced into Ihh mutants, were established to address the possible involvement of PTH1R signaling in Ihh mutant digits. These rescue mice failed to show significantly improved phenotype, suggesting that PTH1R signaling in chondrocytes is not sufficient to restore digit formation. Our results demonstrate that Ihh and PTH1R signaling in limb mesenchyme are both essential to regulate

  7. #digital_disruption @amnesty international: from digital to networked to hybrid activism - A case study of the meaning and adoption of digital activism in changing 20th century civil society organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Özkula, Suay Melisa

    2017-01-01

    Like many organisations in the 21st century, longstanding civil society organisations are facing new challenges in adapting to the digital age. This thesis addresses those concerns through an exploration of the social meaning and contextualised effects of digital activism at case study Amnesty International. It provides a socio-cultural account of AI and a conceptual perspective on digital activism as part of Amnesty's digitalisation processes. It explores existing concerns around the tension...

  8. Bio-inspired digital signal processing for fast radionuclide mixture identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, M.; Bichler, O.; Thiam, C.; Bobin, C.; Lourenço, V.

    2015-05-01

    Countries are trying to equip their public transportation infrastructure with fixed radiation portals and detectors to detect radiological threat. Current works usually focus on neutron detection, which could be useless in the case of dirty bomb that would not use fissile material. Another approach, such as gamma dose rate variation monitoring is a good indication of the presence of radionuclide. However, some legitimate products emit large quantities of natural gamma rays; environment also emits gamma rays naturally. They can lead to false detections. Moreover, such radio-activity could be used to hide a threat such as material to make a dirty bomb. Consequently, radionuclide identification is a requirement and is traditionally performed by gamma spectrometry using unique spectral signature of each radionuclide. These approaches require high-resolution detectors, sufficient integration time to get enough statistics and large computing capacities for data analysis. High-resolution detectors are fragile and costly, making them bad candidates for large scale homeland security applications. Plastic scintillator and NaI detectors fit with such applications but their resolution makes identification difficult, especially radionuclides mixes. This paper proposes an original signal processing strategy based on artificial spiking neural networks to enable fast radionuclide identification at low count rate and for mixture. It presents results obtained for different challenging mixtures of radionuclides using a NaI scintillator. Results show that a correct identification is performed with less than hundred counts and no false identification is reported, enabling quick identification of a moving threat in a public transportation. Further work will focus on using plastic scintillators.

  9. Hybrid EEG—Eye Tracker: Automatic Identification and Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from Electroencephalographic Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik M. Naeem Mannan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of eye movement and blink artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG recording makes the analysis of EEG data more difficult and could result in mislead findings. Efficient removal of these artifacts from EEG data is an essential step in improving classification accuracy to develop the brain-computer interface (BCI. In this paper, we proposed an automatic framework based on independent component analysis (ICA and system identification to identify and remove ocular artifacts from EEG data by using hybrid EEG and eye tracker system. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using experimental and standard EEG datasets. The proposed algorithm not only removes the ocular artifacts from artifactual zone but also preserves the neuronal activity related EEG signals in non-artifactual zone. The comparison with the two state-of-the-art techniques namely ADJUST based ICA and REGICA reveals the significant improved performance of the proposed algorithm for removing eye movement and blink artifacts from EEG data. Additionally, results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve lower relative error and higher mutual information values between corrected EEG and artifact-free EEG data.

  10. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway tips the balance between apoptosis and reprograming of cell fusion hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluis, Frederic; Pedone, Elisa; Pepe, Stefano; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2010-11-01

    Cell-cell fusion contributes to cell differentiation and developmental processes. We have previously showed that activation of Wnt/β-catenin enhances somatic cell reprograming after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated fusion. Here, we show that neural stem cells and ESCs can fuse spontaneously in cocultures, although with very low efficiency (about 2%), as the hybrids undergo apoptosis. In contrast, when Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ESCs and leads to accumulation of low amounts of β-catenin in the nucleus, activated ESCs can reprogram somatic cells with very high efficiency after spontaneous fusion. Furthermore, we also show that different levels of β-catenin accumulation in the ESC nuclei can modulate cell proliferation, although in our experimental setting, cell proliferation does not modulate the reprograming efficiency per se. Overall, the present study provides evidence that spontaneous fusion occurs, while the survival of the reprogramed clones is strictly dependent on induction of a Wnt-mediated reprograming pathway. Copyright © 2010 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Analysis of the imaging performance in indirect digital mammography detectors by linear systems and signal detection models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaparinos, P.; Kalyvas, N.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of imaging performance in digital mammography, using indirect detector instrumentation, by combining the Linear Cascaded Systems (LCS) theory and the Signal Detection Theory (SDT). Observer performance was assessed, by examining frequently employed detectors, consisting of phosphor-based X-ray converters (granular Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb and structural CsI:Tl), coupled with the recently introduced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. By applying combinations of various irradiation conditions (filter-target and exposure levels at 28 kV) on imaging detectors, our study aimed to find the optimum system set-up for digital mammography. For this purpose, the signal to noise transfer properties of the medical imaging detectors were examined for breast carcinoma detectability. Methods: An analytical model was applied to calculate X-ray interactions within software breast phantoms and detective media. Modeling involved: (a) three X-ray spectra used in digital mammography: 28 kV Mo/Mo (Mo: 0.030 mm), 28 kV Rh/Rh (Rh: 0.025 mm) and 28 kV W/Rh (Rh: 0.060 mm) at different entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) of 3 mGy and 5 mGy, (b) a 5 cm thick Perspex software phantom incorporating a small Ca lesion of varying size (0.1–1 cm), and (c) two 200 μm thick phosphor-based X-ray converters (Gd2O2S:Tb, CsI:Tl), coupled to a CMOS based detector of 22.5 μm pixel size. Results: Best (lowest) contrast threshold (CT) values were obtained with the combination: (i) W/Rh target-filter, (ii) 5 mGy (ESAK), and (iii) CsI:Tl-CMOS detector. For lesion diameter 0.5 cm the CT was found improved, in comparison to other anode/filter combinations, approximately 42% than Rh/Rh and 55% than Mo/Mo, for small sized carcinoma (0.1 cm) and approximately 50% than Rh/Rh and 125% than Mo/Mo, for big sized carcinoma (1 cm), considering 5 mGy X-ray beam. By decreasing lesion diameter and thickness, a limiting CT (100%) was occurred for size

  12. Nonlinear digital signal processing in mental health: characterization of major depression using instantaneous entropy measures of heartbeat dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Garcia, Ronald G; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo P; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear digital signal processing methods that address system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of pathologies. More specifically, nonlinear measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression (MD). In this study, we propose the use of instantaneous measures of entropy, namely the inhomogeneous point-process approximate entropy (ipApEn) and the inhomogeneous point-process sample entropy (ipSampEn), to describe a novel characterization of MD patients undergoing affective elicitation. Because these measures are built within a nonlinear point-process model, they allow for the assessment of complexity in cardiovascular dynamics at each moment in time. Heartbeat dynamics were characterized from 48 healthy controls and 48 patients with MD while emotionally elicited through either neutral or arousing audiovisual stimuli. Experimental results coming from the arousing tasks show that ipApEn measures are able to instantaneously track heartbeat complexity as well as discern between healthy subjects and MD patients. Conversely, standard heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed in both time and frequency domains did not show any statistical significance. We conclude that measures of entropy based on nonlinear point-process models might contribute to devising useful computational tools for care in mental health.

  13. Dealing with the problem of non-specific in situ mRNA hybridization signals associated with plant tissues undergoing programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokela Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In situ hybridization is a general molecular method typically used for the localization of mRNA transcripts in plants. The method provides a valuable tool to unravel the connection between gene expression and anatomy, especially in species such as pines which show large genome size and shortage of sequence information. Results In the present study, expression of the catalase gene (CAT related to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the polyamine metabolism related genes, diamine oxidase (DAO and arginine decarboxylase (ADC, were localized in developing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seeds. In addition to specific signals from target mRNAs, the probes continually hybridized non-specifically in the embryo surrounding region (ESR of the megagametophyte tissue, in the remnants of the degenerated suspensors as well as in the cells of the nucellar layers, i.e. tissues exposed to cell death processes and extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during Scots pine seed development. Conclusions In plants, cell death is an integral part of both development and defence, and hence it is a common phenomenon in all stages of the life cycle. Our results suggest that extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during cell death processes can be a considerable source of non-specific signals in traditional in situ mRNA hybridization. Thus, the visualization of potential nucleic acid fragmentation simultaneously with the in situ mRNA hybridization assay may be necessary to ensure the correct interpretation of the signals in the case of non-specific hybridization of probes in plant tissues.

  14. Using LabVIEW for the design and control of digital signal processing systems. Simulation of the ultra slow extraction at COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrichs, G.; Rongen, H.; Jamal, R.

    1994-01-01

    For the ultraslow extraction system of the COler SYnchrotron COSY a direct digital synthesis system is being developed. LabVIEW from National Instruments has been chosen as a tool for the simulation of the digital signal processing algorithms as well as the generation of test sequences. In order to generate adjustable band-limited noise centered at a carrier frequency, alternative algorithms have been studied. LabVIEW permits the interactive variation of relevant system parameters by means of a graphical language in order to study the quality of the frequency band limitation as a function of noise parameters, digital accuracy and frequency range and to generate test sequences by means of a real-time function generator. Advantages and limitations of LabVIEW for such applications are discussed. ((orig.))

  15. Digital Signal Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    modems, audio systems and video game terminals, to cite a few. Their use is growing ... For example, the systems used to reserve railway tickets is on-line as the ... Many scientific instruments today use DSPs to enhance their performance and.

  16. The effect of aging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues on the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry signals in cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuovo, Allison J; Garofalo, Michela; Mikhail, Alexandria; Nicol, Alcina F; Vianna-Andrade, Cecilia; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2013-09-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are widely used in biomedical research but little is known about the effect of the age of the block or unstained slides on the in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry signal. We compared the in situ-based and immunohistochemistry-based signals for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia samples that ranged from 0 to 15 years of age. There was a progressive and statistically significant decrease in the strength of the p16 signal when comparing tissues prepared from recent unstained slides (0 to 1 y old, mean score of 92%) to those of intermediate age (5 to 7 y old, mean score of 49%) to old unstained slides (cut 13 to 15 y ago, mean score of 10%). Equivalent, progressive, and significant decreases in the intensity of the signals for microRNAs, CD45, and human papillomavirus DNA were seen in tissues stored on slides from 5 to 7 years and 13 to 15 years, respectively. However, the diminution of signal was much less, although still statistically significant, if the sections from the 13- to 15-year-old paraffin blocks were prepared in 2012. The data likely does not represent degradation of the targets as extraction of several microRNA from the old blocks showed no detectable degradation, despite the markedly weakened in situ hybridization signal. It is concluded that in situ-based signal for DNA, microRNAs, and proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues are significantly reduced over time, especially when stored long term on glass slides which, in turn, can lead to a significant underestimation of the amount and presence of the nucleic acid or protein target.

  17. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  18. Whole-slide imaging is a robust alternative to traditional fluorescent microscopy for fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging using break-apart DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Camille; Guérin, Maxime; Frenois, François-Xavier; Thuries, Valérie; Jalabert, Laurence; Brousset, Pierre; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2013-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization is an indispensable technique used in routine pathology and for theranostic purposes. Because fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques require sophisticated microscopic workstations and long procedures of image acquisition with sometimes subjective and poorly reproducible results, we decided to test a whole-slide imaging system as an alternative approach. In this study, we used the latest generation of Pannoramic 250 Flash digital microscopes (P250 Flash digital microscopes; 3DHISTECH, Budapest, Hungary) to digitize fluorescence in situ hybridization slides of diffuse large B cells lymphoma cases for detecting MYC rearrangement. The P250 Flash digital microscope was found to be precise with better definition of split signals in cells containing MYC rearrangement with fewer truncated signals as compared to traditional fluorescence microscopy. This digital technique is easier thanks to the preview function, which allows almost immediate identification of the tumor area, and the panning and zooming functionalities as well as a shorter acquisition time. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using the digital technique appeared to be more reproducible between pathologists. Finally, the digital technique also allowed prolonged conservation of photos. In conclusion, whole-slide imaging technologies represent rapid, robust, and highly sensitive methods for interpreting fluorescence in situ hybridization slides with break-apart probes. In addition, these techniques offer an easier way to interpret the signals and allow definitive storage of the images for pathology expert networks or e-learning databases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. IAEA technical meeting on integrating analog and digital instrumentation and control systems in hybrid main control rooms at nuclear power plants. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    that digital technology offers are needed to increase cost-effective electricity production. As an integral part of the I and C modernization program at a nuclear power plant, the control room and other human-system interfaces (HSIs) will also be modernized. To support safe and effective operation, it is critical to specify, design, implement, operate, and maintain, as well as train for, the control room and HSI changes to take advantage of human cognitive processing abilities. This consideration of human factors is essential to increase performance and to reduce the likelihood of human errors. The plant I and C and HSI modifications can affect personnel in various ways. They can impact the role of personnel, the tasks to be performed, the way tasks are performed, and the knowledge, skills and training required of personnel. As part of modernization, HSIs are becoming more computer-based, incorporating features such as soft controls and computerized procedures, touch-screen interfaces, sit-down workstations, and large-screen overview displays. As computer-based technologies are integrated into control rooms that were largely based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The potential benefits of implementing digital technology include more efficient operations and maintenance, leading to improved power plant availability and safety through the avoidance of transients, forced outages, and unnecessary shutdowns. The potential benefits also include increased efficiency and power output as well as reduced operating costs. New digital systems provide the opportunity to give personnel information they did not have with conventional systems. The importance of these issues has led the IAEA to organize (in conjunction with AECL) an international forum for presentations and discussions on the potential benefits and challenges related to the integration of Analog and Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems in Hybrid Main Control Rooms. Many of these

  20. Method and apparatus for digitally based high speed x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1997-01-01

    A high speed, digitally based, signal processing system which accepts input data from a detector-preamplifier and produces a spectral analysis of the x-rays illuminating the detector. The system achieves high throughputs at low cost by dividing the required digital processing steps between a ''hardwired'' processor implemented in combinatorial digital logic, which detects the presence of the x-ray signals in the digitized data stream and extracts filtered estimates of their amplitudes, and a programmable digital signal processing computer, which refines the filtered amplitude estimates and bins them to produce the desired spectral analysis. One set of algorithms allow this hybrid system to match the resolution of analog systems while operating at much higher data rates. A second set of algorithms implemented in the processor allow the system to be self calibrating as well. The same processor also handles the interface to an external control computer. 19 figs

  1. The yeast three-hybrid system as an experimental platform to identify proteins interacting with small signaling molecules in plant cells: Potential and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eCottier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical genetics is a powerful scientific strategy that utilizes small bioactive molecules as experimental tools to unravel biological processes. Bioactive compounds occurring in nature represent an enormous diversity of structures that can be used to dissect functions of biological systems. Once the bioactivity of a natural or synthetic compound has been critically evaluated the challenge remains to identify its molecular target and mode of action, which usually is a time consuming and labor-intensive process. To facilitate this task, we decided to implement the yeast three-hybrid (Y3H technology as a general experimental platform to scan the whole Arabidopsis proteome for targets of small signaling molecules. The Y3H technology is based on the yeast two-hybrid system and allows direct cloning of proteins that interact in vivo with a synthetic hybrid ligand, which comprises the biologically active molecule of interest covalently linked to methotrexate (Mtx. In yeast nucleus the hybrid ligand connects two fusion proteins: the Mtx part binding to dihydrofolate reductase fused to a DNA binding domain (encoded in the yeast strain, and the bioactive molecule part binding to its potential protein target fused to a DNA activating domain (encoded on a cDNA expression vector. During cDNA library screening, the formation of this ternary, transcriptional activator complex leads to reporter gene activation in yeast cells, and thereby allows selection of the putative targets of small bioactive molecules of interest. Here we present the strategy and experimental details for construction and application of a Y3H platform, including chemical synthesis of different hybrid ligands, construction of suitable cDNA libraries, the choice of yeast strains, and appropriate screening conditions. Based on the results obtained and the current literature we discussed the perspectives and limitations of the Y3H approach for identifying targets of small bioactive molecules.

  2. Fast transient digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, F.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display

  3. Important nonurgent imaging findings: use of a hybrid digital and administrative support tool for facilitating clinician communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evan; Sanger, Joseph; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    A departmental tool that provides a digital/administrative solution for communication of important imaging findings was evaluated. The tool allows the radiologist to click a button to mark an examination for ordering physician follow-up with subsequent fax and confirmation. The tool's log was reviewed. Of 466 entries; 99.4% were successfully faxed with phone confirmation. Most common reasons for usage were lung nodule/mass (29.2%) and osseous fracture (12.4%). Subsequent clinical action was documented in 41.0% of entries. Our data show the reliability of the tool in assisting the communication of findings, as well as providing documentation of notification, with minimal workflow disruption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A rigorous analysis of digital pre-emphasis and DAC resolution for interleaved DAC Nyquist-WDM signal generation in high-speed coherent optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2018-02-01

    The Nyquist spectral shaping techniques facilitate a promising solution to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) and further reduce the cost-per-bit in high-speed wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. Hypothetically, any Nyquist WDM signals with arbitrary shapes can be generated by the use of the digital signal processing (DSP) based electrical filters (E-filter). Nonetheless, in actual 100G/ 200G coherent systems, the performance as well as DSP complexity are increasingly restricted by cost and power consumption. Henceforward it is indispensable to optimize DSP to accomplish the preferred performance at the least complexity. In this paper, we systematically investigated the minimum requirements and challenges of Nyquist WDM signal generation, particularly for higher-order modulation formats, including 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or 64QAM. A variety of interrelated parameters, such as channel spacing and roll-off factor, have been evaluated to optimize the requirements of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) resolution and transmitter E-filter bandwidth. The impact of spectral pre-emphasis has been predominantly enhanced via the proposed interleaved DAC architecture by at least 4%, and hence reducing the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 by over 0.45 dB at a channel spacing of 1.05 symbol rate and an optimized roll-off factor of 0.1. Furthermore, the requirements of sampling rate for different types of super-Gaussian E-filters are discussed for 64QAM Nyquist WDM transmission systems. Finally, the impact of the non-50% duty cycle error between sub-DACs upon the quality of the generated signals for the interleaved DAC structure has been analyzed.

  5. Advances in hybrid optics physical sensors for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2010-04-01

    Highlighted are novel innovations in hybrid optical design physical sensors for extreme environments. Various hybrid design compositions are proposed that are suited for a particular sensor application. Examples includes combining freespace (wireless) and fiber-optics (wired) for gas turbine sensing and combining single crystal and sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials for robust extreme environment Coefficent of Thermal Expansion (CTE) matched frontend probe design. Sensor signal processing also includes the hybrid theme where for example Black-Body radiation thermometry (pyrometry) is combined with laser interferometry to provide extreme temperature measurements. The hybrid theme also operates on the optical device level where a digital optical device such as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is combined with an analog optical device such as an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal Length Lens (ECVFL) to deliver a smart and compressive Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging sensor for remote scene and object shape capture including both ambient light (passive) mode and active laser targeting and receive processing. Within a device level, the hybrid theme also operates via combined analog and digital control such as within a wavelength-coded variable optical delay line. These powerful hybrid design optical sensors have numerous applications in engineering and science applications from the military to the commercial/industrial sectors.

  6. Double-labeled donor probe can enhance the signal of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in detection of nucleic acid hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yukio; Kondo, Satoshi; Sase, Ichiro; Suga, Takayuki; Mise, Kazuyuki; Furusawa, Iwao; Kawakami, Shigeki; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2000-01-01

    A set of fluorescently-labeled DNA probes that hybridize with the target RNA and produce fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals can be utilized for the detection of specific RNA. We have developed probe sets to detect and discriminate single-strand RNA molecules of plant viral genome, and sought a method to improve the FRET signals to handle in vivo applications. Consequently, we found that a double-labeled donor probe labeled with Bodipy dye yielded a remarkable increase in fluorescence intensity compared to a single-labeled donor probe used in an ordinary FRET. This double-labeled donor system can be easily applied to improve various FRET probes since the dependence upon sequence and label position in enhancement is not as strict. Furthermore this method could be applied to other nucleic acid substances, such as oligo RNA and phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (S-oligos) to enhance FRET signal. Although the double-labeled donor probes labeled with a variety of fluorophores had unexpected properties (strange UV-visible absorption spectra, decrease of intensity and decay of donor fluorescence) compared with single-labeled ones, they had no relation to FRET enhancement. This signal amplification mechanism cannot be explained simply based on our current results and knowledge of FRET. Yet it is possible to utilize this double-labeled donor system in various applications of FRET as a simple signal-enhancement method. PMID:11121494

  7. Voltammetric paracetamole sensor using a gold electrode made from a digital versatile disc chip and modified with a hybrid material consisting of carbon nanotubes and copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshvar, Leili; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Tarahomi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    A composite consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) was prepared by a chemical reduction method, and its structure characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy and FT-IR spectrometry. The hybrid composite was deposited on the surface of a disposable gold electrode that was manufactured from a commercial digital versatile gold disc by a drop casting method. The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards oxidation of paracetamole (PA). The calibration plot (with current typically measured at 0.41 V vs. Ag/AgCl) is linear in the 0.5 to 80 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is as low as 10 nM. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of PA in spiked water and tablet samples where it gave recoveries ranging between 95.25 and 100.5 %. (author)

  8. Optical and digital GaAs technologies for signal-processing applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-18, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendett, Mark P.; Butler, Daniel H., Jr.; Prabhakar, Arati; Yang, Andrew

    1990-10-01

    Practical problems that need to be solved for the introduction of optical modules into processing systems are reviewed. Some papers deal with the state of the art in such key devices as Bragg cells, spatial light modulators, and fast CCDs. Issues unique to optical packaging are also highlightened. New architectures to enable real-time operations are demonstrated, and optical interconnects for parallel processors are discussed. Particular attention is given to the status and operational advantages of government-sponsored efforts to upgrade existing military systems with digital GaAs signal processors and the state of the art in computer-aided design and advanced system architectures.

  9. The Tomato Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein regulates the abcission zone competence to respond to ethylene signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tomato Hybrid Proline-Rich Protein (THyPRP) gene was specifically expressed in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) flower abscission zone (FAZ), and its stable antisense silencing under the control of an abscission zone (AZ)-specific promoter, Tomato Abscission Polygalacturonase4,significantly inh...

  10. A digital strategy for manometer dynamic enhancement. [for wind tunnel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Application of digital signal processing techniques to improve the non-linear dynamic characteristics of a sonar-type mercury manometer is described. The dynamic enhancement strategy quasi-linearizes the manometer characteristics and improves the effective bandwidth in the context of a wind-tunnel pressure regulation system. Model identification data and real-time hybrid simulation data demonstrate feasibility of approach.

  11. Targeting NF-kB signaling with polymeric hybrid micelles that co-deliver siRNA and dexamethasone for arthritis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Jiang, Hao; Li, Yan; Chen, Wenfei; Li, Hanmei; Peng, Ke; Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Xun

    2017-04-01

    The transcription factor NF-kB plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Here we attempt to slow arthritis progression by co-delivering the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and small-interfering RNA targeting NF-kB p65 using our previously developed polymeric hybrid micelle system. These micelles contain two similar amphiphilic copolymers: polycaprolactone-polyethylenimine (PCL-PEI) and polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PCL-PEG). The hybrid micelles loaded with Dex and siRNA effectively inhibited NF-kB signaling in murine macrophages more efficiently than micelles containing either Dex or siRNA on their own. In addition, the co-delivery system was able to switch macrophages from the M1 to M2 state. Injecting hybrid micelles containing Dex and siRNA into mice with collagen-induced arthritis led the therapeutic agents to accumulate in inflamed joints and reduce inflammation, without damaging renal or liver function. Thus, blocking NF-kB activation in inflammatory tissue using micelle-based co-delivery may provide a new approach for treating inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Compact lidar system using laser diode, binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode-based receiver controlled by a digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Antoni; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the practical limits of a lidar system based on the use of a laser diode, random binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode (APD)-based photereceiver, combined with the control and computing power of the digital signal processors (DSP) currently available. The target is to design a compact portable lidar system made all in semiconductor technology, with a low-power demand and an easy configuration of the system, allowing change in some of its features through software. Unlike many prior works, we emphasize the use of APDs instead of photomultiplier tubes to detect the return signal and the application of the system to measure not only hard targets, but also medium-range aerosols and clouds. We have developed an experimental prototype to evaluate the behavior of the system under different environmental conditions. Experimental results provided by the prototype are presented and discussed.

  13. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lixia; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Jinglei; Chang, Jiang; Xia, Lunguo; Jiang, Lingyong; Wang, Xiuhui; Lin, Kaili; Fang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods]) were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), cementum attachment protein (CAP), and cementum protein (CEMP) as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and β-catenin, which are the key genes of canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, the stimulatory effect on ALP activity and osteogenic and cementogenic gene expression, including that of ALP, OCN, CAP, CEMP, and Runx2 of mnHA bioceramics could be repressed by canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf1 (Dkk1). The results suggested that the HA bioceramics with mnHA could act as promising grafts for periodontal tissue regeneration. PMID:26648716

  14. High-density digital links optimization of signal integrity and noise performance of the high-density digital links of the ATLAS-TRT readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, M.

    2000-02-01

    The TRT - Transition Radiation Tracker - is a sub detector of the particle detector ATLAS - A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS. About 420,000 detecting elements are distributed over 22 m3. They produce each second approximately 20 Tbit of data, which has to be transferred from the front-end electronics inside the detector to the back-end electronics outside the detector for further processing. The task of this thesis is to guarantee the integrity of the signals and the electromagnetic compatibility inside the TRT as well as to the aggressive surroundings. The electromagnetic environment of particle detectors in high-energy physics adds special constraints to the high data rates and the high complexity: high sensibility of the detecting elements and their pre amplifiers, confined space, limited material budget, a radioactive environment, and high static magnetic fields. Thus many industrial standard measures have to be abandoned. Special design is essential to compensate this disadvantage. (author)

  15. High-Density Digital Links Optimization of Signal Integrity and Noise Performance of the High-Density Digital Links of the ATLAS-TRT Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, M

    2000-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a sub detector of the particle detector ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS). About 420,000 detecting elements are distributed over 22 m3. They produce each second approximately 20 Tbit of data which has to be transferred from the front-end electronics inside the detector to the back-end electronics outside the detector for further processing. The task of this thesis is to guarantee the integrity of the signals and the electromagnetic compatibility inside the TRT as well as to the aggressive surroundings. The electromagnetic environment of particle detectors in high-energy physics adds special constraints to the high data rates and the high complexity: high sensibility of the detecting elements and their pre amplifiers, confined space, limited material budget, a radioactive environment, and high static magnetic fields. Thus many industrial standard measures have to be abandoned. Special design is essential to compensate this disadvantage.

  16. SUPERSENSITIVE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION BY TYRAMIDE SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION AND NANOGOLD SILVER STAINING: THE CONTRIBUTION OF AUTOMETALLOGRAPHY AND CATALYZED REPORTER DEPOSITION TO THE REJUVENATION OF IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUBBS,R.R.PETTAY,J.GROGAN,T.CHEUNG,A.L.M.POWELL,R.D.HAINFELD,J.HAUSER-KRONBERGER,C.HACKER,G.W.

    2002-04-17

    It is peculiar that in situ hybridization (ISH), a technique with many similarities to immunohistochemistry (IHC), has not enjoyed the phenomenal growth in both basic research and clinical applications as has its sister technique IHC. Since the late 1970s, when immunoperoxidase techniques began to be applied to routine diagnostic material and to numerous research applications, there has been a natural evolution of the IHC procedure. Namely, only a few primary antibodies were available commercially at the onset, and only one indirect and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique detection systems were in place. With the advent of avidin-biotin detection systems and monoclonal antibodies, and a viable commercial market, extraordinary growth of the procedure's applications in clinical research and diagnostic pathology occurred during the subsequent two decades. Today, IHC is automated and widely used for research purposes and, to a large extent, has become a routine diagnostic ''special stain'' in most clinical laboratories. During the same period, ISH enjoyed very little growth in both research and diagnostic applications. What has accounted for this lack of maturation of the technique? The success of IHC is part of the reason measuring a gene's encoded protein routinely and inexpensively, particularly as automation evolved, rendered IHC a more viable choice in many instances. Inherent comparative sensitivity of the procedures has also clearly been a factor. Unfortunately, the chromogenic procedures in place are often insufficiently sensitive to detect the relatively low amounts of DNA and RNA levels at which the clinical utility is to be found.

  17. Mixed-signal early vision chip with embedded image and programming memories and digital I/O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linan-Cembrano, Gustavo; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel; Dominguez-Castro, Rafael; Espejo, Servando

    2003-04-01

    From a system level perspective, this paper presents a 128x128 flexible and reconfigurable Focal-Plane Analog Programmable Array Processor, which has been designed as a single chip in a 0.35μm standard digital 1P-5M CMOS technology. The core processing array has been designed to achieve high-speed of operation and large-enough accuracy (~7bit) with low power consumption. The chip includes on-chip program memory to allow for the execution of complex, sequential and/or bifurcation flow image processing algorithms. It also includes the structures and circuits needed to guarantee its embedding into conventional digital hosting systems: external data interchange and control are completely digital. The chip contains close to four million transistors, 90% of them working in analog mode. The chip features up to 330GOPs (Giga Operations per second), and uses the power supply (180GOP/Joule) and the silicon area (3.8 GOPS/mm2) efficiently, as it is able to maintain VGA processing throughputs of 100Frames/s with about 15 basic image processing tasks on each frame.

  18. δ-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-01-01

    δ-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen 2,5 ]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G i/o proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G q/11 scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the Gβγ scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  19. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Eisinger, Daniela A., E-mail: eisinger@pharmtox.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  20. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    a given device to help formulate exercise prescriptions and other operational considerations. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) laboratory and NSBRI-funded researchers by developing and implementing well-validated computational models of exercises with advanced exercise device concepts. This report focuses specifically on lower-body resistance exercises performed with the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) device as a deliverable to the AEC Project.

  1. Digital transmitter for data bus communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proch, G. E. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved digital transmitter for transmitting serial pulse code modulation (pcm) data at high bit rates over a transmission line is disclosed. When not transmitting, the transmitter features a high output impedance which prevents the transmitter from loading the transmission line. The pcm input is supplied to a logic control circuit which produces two discrete logic level signals which are supplied to an amplifier. The amplifier, which is transformer coupled to the output isolation circuitry, converts the discrete logic level signals to two high current level, ground isolated signals in the secondary windings of the coupling transformer. The latter signals are employed as inputs to the isolation circuitry which includes two series transistor pairs operating into a hybrid transformer functioning to isolate the transmitter circuitry from the transmission line.

  2. A Fastbus module for trigger applications based on a digital signal processor and on programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaiotto, P.; Colavita, A.; Fratnik, F.; Lanceri, L.; Udine Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The new generation of DSP microprocessors based on RISC and Harvard-like architectures can conveniently take the place of specially built processors in fast trigger circuits for high-energy physics experiments. Presently available programmable gate arrays are well matched to them in speed and contribute to simplify the design of trigger circuits. Using these components, we designed and constructed a Fastbus module. We describe an application for the total-energy trigger of DELPHI, performing the readout of digitized calorimeter trigger data and some simple computations in less than 3 μs. (orig.)

  3. Design and implementation of an electrocardiographical signal acquisition and digital processing system orientated to the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braceli, Agustín Iriart; Morani, Jorge Exequiel

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the design, technical aspects and implementation of a device capable of acquiring electrocardiograph signals; visualize them in real time over a graphic liquid crystal display (GLCD), and the storage of these ECG registers on a SD memory card. It also details a noise suppression algorithm using the Wavelet Transform. This system was specially developed to cover some bankruptcy that presents actual Holters or ECG regarding the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias. The contribution of this work is settled on its portability and low production cost. The filtering method used provides an ECG signal without any significant noise and appropriate to the diagnosis of cardiac pathologies.

  4. Design and implementation of an electrocardiographical signal acquisition and digital processing system orientated to the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart Braceli, Agustín; Exequiel Morani, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the design, technical aspects and implementation of a device capable of acquiring electrocardiograph signals; visualize them in real time over a graphic liquid crystal display (GLCD), and the storage of these ECG registers on a SD memory card. It also details a noise suppression algorithm using the Wavelet Transform. This system was specially developed to cover some bankruptcy that presents actual Holters or ECG regarding the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias. The contribution of this work is settled on its portability and low production cost. The filtering method used provides an ECG signal without any significant noise and appropriate to the diagnosis of cardiac pathologies.

  5. Digital Imaging. Chapter 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clunie, D. [CoreLab Partners, Princeton (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The original means of recording X ray images was a photographic plate. Nowadays, all medical imaging modalities provide for digital acquisition, though globally, the use of radiographic film is still widespread. Many modalities are fundamentally digital in that they require image reconstruction from quantified digital signals, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  6. A standardized way to select, evaluate, and test an analog-to-digital converter for ultrawide bandwidth radiofrequency signals based on user's needs, ideal, published,and actual specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Daniel Y.; Rowe, Neil C.

    2012-06-01

    The most important adverse impact on the Electronic Warfare (EW) simulation is that the number of signal sources that can be tested simultaneously is relatively small. When the number of signal sources increases, the analog hardware, complexity and costs grow by the order of N2, since the number of connections among N components is O(N*N) and the signal communication is bi-directional. To solve this problem, digitization of the signal is suggested. In digitizing a radiofrequency signal, an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is widely used. Most research studies on ADCs are conducted from designer/test engineers' perspective. Some research studies are conducted from market's perspective. This paper presents a generic way to select, evaluate and test ultra high bandwidth COTS ADCs and generate requirements for digitizing continuous time signals from the perspective of user's needs. Based on user's needs, as well as vendor's published, ideal and actual specifications, a decision can be made in selecting a proper ADC for an application. To support our arguments and illustrate the methodology, we evaluate a Tektronix TADC-1000, an 8-bit and 12 gigasamples per second ADC. This project is funded by JEWEL lab, NAWCWD at Point Mugu, CA.

  7. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellites.

  8. Illustration Watermarking for Digital Images: An Investigation of Hierarchical Signal Inheritances for Nested Object-based Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-23

    approach for signal-level watermark inheritance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Steganography , Image Fusion, Data Mining, Image ...189, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006 [V Block-Luminance and Blue Channel LSB Wet Paper Code Image Watermarking, accepte publication in: Proceedings of...SPIE Electronic Imaging , Security, Steganography , and Wa- termarking of Multimedia Contents IX, 2007 Interaction with a project from German Science

  9. A hybrid Constraint Programming/Mixed Integer Programming framework for the preventive signaling maintenance crew scheduling problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pour, Shahrzad M.; Drake, John H.; Ejlertsen, Lena Secher

    2017-01-01

    A railway signaling system is a complex and interdependent system which should ensure the safe operation of trains. We introduce and address a mixed integer optimisation model for the preventive signal maintenance crew scheduling problem in the Danish railway system. The problem contains many...... to feed as ‘warm start’ solutions to a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) solver for further optimisation. We apply the CP/MIP framework to a section of the Danish rail network and benchmark our results against both direct application of a MIP solver and modelling the problem as a Constraint Optimisation...

  10. Hybrid modeling of the crosstalk between signaling and transcriptional networks using ordinary differential equations and multi-valued logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faiz M; Schmitz, Ulf; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Engelmann, David; Pützer, Brigitte M; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio

    2014-01-01

    A decade of successful results indicates that systems biology is the appropriate approach to investigate the regulation of complex biochemical networks involving transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. It becomes mandatory when dealing with highly interconnected biochemical networks, composed of hundreds of compounds, or when networks are enriched in non-linear motifs like feedback and feedforward loops. An emerging dilemma is to conciliate models of massive networks and the adequate description of non-linear dynamics in a suitable modeling framework. Boolean networks are an ideal representation of massive networks that are humble in terms of computational complexity and data demand. However, they are inappropriate when dealing with nested feedback/feedforward loops, structural motifs common in biochemical networks. On the other hand, models of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) cope well with these loops, but they require enormous amounts of quantitative data for a full characterization of the model. Here we propose hybrid models, composed of ODE and logical sub-modules, as a strategy to handle large scale, non-linear biochemical networks that include transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. We illustrate the construction of this kind of models using as example a regulatory network centered on E2F1, a transcription factor involved in cancer. The hybrid modeling approach proposed is a good compromise between quantitative/qualitative accuracy and scalability when considering large biochemical networks with a small highly interconnected core, and module of transcriptionally regulated genes that are not part of critical regulatory loops. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics, Systems Biology & Clinical Implications. Guest Editor: Yudong Cai. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Single Event Upset Analysis: On-orbit performance of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Digital Signal Processor Memory aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqiang; Choutko, Vitaly; Xiao, Liyi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the collection of error data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Digital Signal Processors (DSP), on-orbit Single Event Upsets (SEUs) of the DSP program memory are analyzed. The daily error distribution and time intervals between errors are calculated to evaluate the reliability of the system. The particle density distribution of International Space Station (ISS) orbit is presented and the effects from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the geomagnetic poles are analyzed. The impact of solar events on the DSP program memory is carried out combining data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation (MC). From the analysis and simulation results, it is concluded that the area corresponding to the SAA is the main source of errors on the ISS orbit. Solar events can also cause errors on DSP program memory, but the effect depends on the on-orbit particle density.

  12. Design and characterization of a mixed-signal PCB for digital-to-analog conversion in a modular and scalable infrared scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Jacob

    Infra-red (IR) sensors have proven instrumental in a wide variety of fields from military to industrial applications. The proliferation of IR sensors has spawned an intense push for technologies that can test and calibrate the multitudes of IR sensors. One such technology, IR scene projection (IRSP), provides an inexpensive and safe method for the testing of IR sensor devices. Previous efforts have been conducted to develop IRSPs based on super-lattice light emitting diodes (SLEDS). A single-color 512x512 SLEDs system has been developed, produced, and tested as documented in Corey Lange's Master's thesis, and a GOMAC paper by Rodney McGee [1][2]. Current efforts are being undergone to develop a two-color 512x512 SLEDs system designated (TCSA). The following thesis discusses the design and implementation of a custom printed circuit board (PCB), known as the FMC 4DAC, that contains both analog and digital signals. Utilizing two 16-bit digital-to-analog converters (DAC) the purpose of the board is to provide four analog current output channels for driving the TCSA system to a maximum frame rate of 1 kHz. In addition, the board supports a scalable TCSA system architecture. Several copies of the board can be run in parallel to achieve a range of analog channels between 4 and 32.

  13. Research on control law accelerator of digital signal process chip TMS320F28035 for real-time data acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangle; Zhang, Xueyi; Sun, Shengli; Wang, Xudong

    2017-08-01

    TI C2000 series digital signal process (DSP) chip has been widely used in electrical engineering, measurement and control, communications and other professional fields, DSP TMS320F28035 is one of the most representative of a kind. When using the DSP program, need data acquisition and data processing, and if the use of common mode C or assembly language programming, the program sequence, analogue-to-digital (AD) converter cannot be real-time acquisition, often missing a lot of data. The control low accelerator (CLA) processor can run in parallel with the main central processing unit (CPU), and the frequency is consistent with the main CPU, and has the function of floating point operations. Therefore, the CLA coprocessor is used in the program, and the CLA kernel is responsible for data processing. The main CPU is responsible for the AD conversion. The advantage of this method is to reduce the time of data processing and realize the real-time performance of data acquisition.

  14. A low-cost, high-performance, digital signal processor-based lock-in amplifier capable of measuring multiple frequency sweeps simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnaillon, Maximiliano Osvaldo; Bonetto, Fabian Jose

    2005-01-01

    A high-performance digital lock-in amplifier implemented in a low-cost digital signal processor (DSP) board is described. This lock in is capable of measuring simultaneously multiple frequencies that change in time as frequency sweeps (chirps). The used 32-bit DSP has enough computing power to generate N=3 simultaneous reference signals and accurately measure the N=3 responses, operating as three lock ins connected in parallel to a linear system. The lock in stores the measured values in memory until they are downloaded to the a personal computer (PC). The lock in works in stand-alone mode and can be programmed and configured through the PC serial port. Downsampling and multiple filter stages were used in order to obtain a sharp roll off and a long time constant in the filters. This makes measurements possible in presence of high-noise levels. Before each measurement, the lock in performs an autocalibration that measures the frequency response of analog output and input circuitry in order to compensate for the departure from ideal operation. Improvements from previous lock-in implementations allow measuring the frequency response of a system in a short time. Furthermore, the proposed implementation can measure how the frequency response changes with time, a characteristic that is very important in our biotechnological application. The number of simultaneous components that the lock in can generate and measure can be extended, without reprogramming, by only using other DSPs of the same family that are code compatible and work at higher clock frequencies

  15. A low-cost, high-performance, digital signal processor-based lock-in amplifier capable of measuring multiple frequency sweeps simultaneously

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnaillon, Maximiliano Osvaldo; Bonetto, Fabian Jose [Laboratorio de Cavitacion y Biotecnologia, San Carlos de Bariloche (8400) (Argentina)

    2005-02-01

    A high-performance digital lock-in amplifier implemented in a low-cost digital signal processor (DSP) board is described. This lock in is capable of measuring simultaneously multiple frequencies that change in time as frequency sweeps (chirps). The used 32-bit DSP has enough computing power to generate N=3 simultaneous reference signals and accurately measure the N=3 responses, operating as three lock ins connected in parallel to a linear system. The lock in stores the measured values in memory until they are downloaded to the a personal computer (PC). The lock in works in stand-alone mode and can be programmed and configured through the PC serial port. Downsampling and multiple filter stages were used in order to obtain a sharp roll off and a long time constant in the filters. This makes measurements possible in presence of high-noise levels. Before each measurement, the lock in performs an autocalibration that measures the frequency response of analog output and input circuitry in order to compensate for the departure from ideal operation. Improvements from previous lock-in implementations allow measuring the frequency response of a system in a short time. Furthermore, the proposed implementation can measure how the frequency response changes with time, a characteristic that is very important in our biotechnological application. The number of simultaneous components that the lock in can generate and measure can be extended, without reprogramming, by only using other DSPs of the same family that are code compatible and work at higher clock frequencies.

  16. Digital voltmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohannes Kamadi; Soekarno.

    1976-01-01

    The electrical voltage measuring equipment with digital display has been made. This equipment uses four digits display with single polarity measurement and integrating system. Pulses from the oscillator will be counted and converted to the staircase voltages, and compared to the voltage measured. When the balance is already achieved, the pulse will appear at the comparator circuit. This pulse will be used to trigger univibrator circuit. The univibrator output is used as signal for stopping the counting, and when reading time T already stops, the counting system will be reset. (authors)

  17. Plasmon-modulated bistable four-wave mixing signals from a metal nanoparticle-monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Xiao-Long; Ma, Jin-Hong; Xu, Si-Qin; Kuang, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Shan; Xiao, Si; He, Meng-Dong; Kim, Nam-Chol; Luo, Jian-Hua; Chen, Li-Qun

    2018-06-01

    We present a study for the impact of exciton-phonon and exciton-plasmon interactions on bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in a metal nanoparticle (MNP)-monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator hybrid system. Via tracing the FWM response we predict that, depending on the excitation conditions and the system parameters, such a system exhibits ‘U-shaped’ bistable FWM signals. We also map out bistability phase diagrams within the system’s parameter space. Especially, we show that compared with the exciton-phonon interaction, a strong exciton-plasmon interaction plays a dominant role in the generation of optical bistability, and the bistable region will be greatly broadened by shortening the distance between the MNP and the monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator. In the weak exciton-plasmon coupling regime, the impact of exciton-phonon interaction on optical bistability will become obvious. The scheme proposed may be used for building optical switches and logic-gate devices for optical computing and quantum information processing.

  18. Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tanja Y; Medhurst, Annette L; Waisfisz, Quinten; Zhi, Yu; Herterich, Sabine; Hoehn, Holger; Gross, Hans J; Joenje, Hans; Hoatlin, Maureen E; Mathew, Christopher G; Huber, Pia A J

    2003-10-01

    Mutations in one of at least eight different genes cause bone marrow failure, chromosome instability, and predisposition to cancer associated with the rare genetic syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). The cloning of seven genes has provided the tools to study the molecular pathway disrupted in Fanconi anemia patients. The structure of the genes and their gene products provided few clues to their functional role. We report here the use of 3 FA proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG, as "baits" in the hunt for interactors to obtain clues for FA protein functions. Using five different human cDNA libraries we screened 36.5x10(6) clones with the technique of the yeast two-hybrid system. We identified 69 proteins which have not previously been linked to the FA pathway as direct interactors of FANCA, FANCC, or FANCG. Most of these proteins are associated with four functional classes including transcription regulation (21 proteins), signaling (13 proteins), oxidative metabolism (10 proteins), and intracellular transport (11 proteins). Interaction with 6 proteins, DAXX, Ran, IkappaBgamma, USP14, and the previously reported SNX5 and FAZF, was additionally confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and/or colocalization studies. Taken together, our data strongly support the hypothesis that FA proteins are functionally involved in several complex cellular pathways including transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

  19. Plasmon-modulated bistable four-wave mixing signals from a metal nanoparticle-monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Xiao-Long; Ma, Jin-Hong; Xu, Si-Qin; Kuang, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Shan; Xiao, Si; He, Meng-Dong; Kim, Nam-Chol; Luo, Jian-Hua; Chen, Li-Qun

    2018-06-22

    We present a study for the impact of exciton-phonon and exciton-plasmon interactions on bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in a metal nanoparticle (MNP)-monolayer MoS 2 nanoresonator hybrid system. Via tracing the FWM response we predict that, depending on the excitation conditions and the system parameters, such a system exhibits 'U-shaped' bistable FWM signals. We also map out bistability phase diagrams within the system's parameter space. Especially, we show that compared with the exciton-phonon interaction, a strong exciton-plasmon interaction plays a dominant role in the generation of optical bistability, and the bistable region will be greatly broadened by shortening the distance between the MNP and the monolayer MoS 2 nanoresonator. In the weak exciton-plasmon coupling regime, the impact of exciton-phonon interaction on optical bistability will become obvious. The scheme proposed may be used for building optical switches and logic-gate devices for optical computing and quantum information processing.

  20. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao LX

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lixia Mao,1,* Jiaqiang Liu,1,* Jinglei Zhao,1 Jiang Chang,2 Lunguo Xia,1 Lingyong Jiang,1 Xiuhui Wang,2 Kaili Lin,2,3 Bing Fang11Center of Craniofacial Orthodontics, Department of Oral and Cranio-maxillofacial Science, Top Priority Clinical Medical Center of Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning, Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, School of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods] were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin (OCN, cementum attachment protein (CAP, and cementum protein (CEMP as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor

  1. Digital dewaxing of Raman signals: discrimination between nevi and melanoma spectra obtained from paraffin-embedded skin biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Gobinet, Cyril; Vrabie, Valeriu; Huez, Regis; Manfait, Michel; Piot, Olivier

    2009-05-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most severe tumor affecting the skin and accounts for three quarters of all skin cancer deaths. Raman spectroscopy is a promising nondestructive tool that has been increasingly used for characterization of the molecular features of cancerous tissues. Different multivariate statistical analysis techniques are used in order to extract relevant information that can be considered as functional spectroscopic descriptors of a particular pathology. Paraffin embedding (waxing) is a highly efficient process used to conserve biopsies in tumor banks for several years. However, the use of non-dewaxed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for Raman spectroscopic investigations remains very restricted, limiting the development of the technique as a routine analytical tool for biomedical purposes. This is due to the highly intense signal of paraffin, which masks important vibrations of the biological tissues. In addition to being time consuming and chemical intensive, chemical dewaxing methods are not efficient and they leave traces of the paraffin in tissues, which affects the Raman signal. In the present study, we use independent component analysis (ICA) on Raman spectral images collected on melanoma and nevus samples. The sources obtained from these images are then used to eliminate, using non-negativity constrained least squares (NCLS), the paraffin contribution from each individual spectrum of the spectral images of nevi and melanomas. Corrected spectra of both types of lesion are then compared and classified into dendrograms using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  2. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  3. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  4. THE NOISE IMMUNITY OF THE DIGITAL DEMODULATOR MFM-AM SIGNAL USED IN DATA COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL WITH AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE AGAINST A NON-GAUSSIAN NOISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Senyavskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the robustness of the digital demodulator of the signal with the lowest frequency shift keying at a subcarrier frequency with respect to non-Gaussian interference type of atmospheric, industrial noise and interfering frequency -and phase-shift keyed signals. This type of demodulator is used for the transmission of navigation data in the systems of air traffic control with automatic dependent surveillance.

  5. Development of Digital Signal Processing with FPGAs for the Readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stärz, Steffen; Zuber, K

    2010-01-01

    The Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN in Geneva is supposed to be equipped with advanced readout electronics for the operation at High Luminosity LHC. In this diploma thesis the aspect of fast serial data transmission and data processing to be used for the communication between different readout modules and data storage buffers of the trigger shall be further developed. Furthermore, the main focus is put on first preparation of the detector raw data with regard to a signal correction using a FIR filter. It is aimed at a most efficient, most resource economising and minimal latency causing solution that allows to process the huge amount of upcoming detector raw data in real time. Therefore a via UDP/IP reconfigurable prototype of a 5-stage FIR filter with Gigabit Ethernet Interface was implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. The performance reached is fully within the the requirements for the upgraded calorimeter readout of ATLAS.

  6. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  7. Targeting the Treponemal Microbiome of Digital Dermatitis Infections by High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analyses and Comparison with Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Foix Bretó, Antoni; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Modern pyrosequencing technology allows for a more comprehensive approach than traditional Sanger sequencing for elucidating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of treponemes in digital dermatitis lesions by using deep sequencing of the V...

  8. Visualization of mcr mRNA in a methanogen by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe and two-pass tyramide signal amplification (two-pass TSA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kengo; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Harada, Hideki

    2006-09-01

    Two-pass tyramide signal amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization (two-pass TSA-FISH) with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled oligonucleotide probe was applied to detect prokaryotic mRNA. In this study, mRNA of a key enzyme for methanogenesis, methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr), in Methanococcus vannielii was targeted. Applicability of mRNA-targeted probes to in situ hybridization was verified by Clone-FISH. It was observed that sensitivity of two-pass TSA-FISH was significantly higher than that of TSA-FISH, which was further increased by the addition of dextran sulphate in TSA working solution. Signals from two-pass TSA-FISH were more reliable compared to the weak, spotty signals yielded by TSA-FISH.

  9. Digital watermark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Maver

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to different criteria. A digital watermark can be categorised as visible or invisible and as robust or fragile. In contrast to the visible watermark where a visible pattern or image is embedded into the original image, the invisible watermark does not change the visual appearance of the image. The existence of such a watermark can be determined only through a watermark ex¬traction or detection algorithm. The robust watermark is used for copyright protection, while the fragile watermark is designed for authentication and integrity verification of multimedia content. A watermark must be detectable or extractable to be useful. In some watermarking schemes, a watermark can be extracted in its exact form, in other cases, we can detect only whether a specific given watermarking signal is present in an image. Digital libraries, through which cultural institutions will make multimedia contents available, should support a wide range of service models for intellectual property protection, where digital watermarking may play an important role.

  10. Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xinming; Lai Chaojen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 ''Rachel,'' Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement

  11. Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinming; Lai Chaojen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 ''Rachel,'' Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement factor was 1.89 for

  12. Transverse digital damper system for the Fermilab anti-proton recycler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, N.; Crisp, J.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A transverse damping system is used in the Recycler at Fermilab to damp beam instabilities which arise from large beam intensities with electron cooling. Initial tests of electron cooling demonstrated beam loss due to transverse beam motion when the beam was cooled past the beam density threshold. The transverse damper system consists of two horizontal and two vertical pickups whose signals are amplified and passed into an analog hybrid to generate a difference signal from each pickup. The difference signals are input to a custom digital damper board which digitizes the analog signals at 212mhz, performs digital processing of the signals inside a large Altera Stratix II FPGA, then provides analog output at 212mhz via digital to analog converters. The digital damper output is sent to amplifiers which drive one horizontal and one vertical kicker. An initial prototype digital damper board has been successfully used in the Recycler for over six months. Currently, work is underway to replace the prototype board with an upgraded VME version

  13. Iterative Multiuser Equalization for Subconnected Hybrid mmWave Massive MIMO Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magueta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter waves and massive MIMO are a promising combination to achieve the multi-Gb/s required by future 5G wireless systems. However, fully digital architectures are not feasible due to hardware limitations, which means that there is a need to design signal processing techniques for hybrid analog-digital architectures. In this manuscript, we propose a hybrid iterative block multiuser equalizer for subconnected millimeter wave massive MIMO systems. The low complexity user-terminals employ pure-analog random precoders, each with a single RF chain. For the base station, a subconnected hybrid analog-digital equalizer is designed to remove multiuser interference. The hybrid equalizer is optimized using the average bit-error-rate as a metric. Due to the coupling between the RF chains in the optimization problem, the computation of the optimal solutions is too complex. To address this problem, we compute the analog part of the equalizer sequentially over the RF chains using a dictionary built from the array response vectors. The proposed subconnected hybrid iterative multiuser equalizer is compared with a recently proposed fully connected approach. The results show that the performance of the proposed scheme is close to the fully connected hybrid approach counterpart after just a few iterations.

  14. HPV E6/E7 RNA in situ hybridization signal patterns as biomarkers of three-tier cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Evans

    Full Text Available Cervical lesion grading is critical for effective patient management. A three-tier classification (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 1, 2 or 3 based on H&E slide review is widely used. However, for reasons of considerable inter-observer variation in CIN grade assignment and for want of a biomarker validating a three-fold stratification, CAP-ASCCP LAST consensus guidelines recommend a two-tier system: low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL or HSIL. In this study, high-risk HPV E6/E7 and p16 mRNA expression patterns in eighty-six CIN lesions were investigated by RNAscope chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Specimens were also screened by immunohistochemistry for p16INK4a (clone E6H4, and by tyramide-based CISH for HPV DNA. HPV genotyping was performed by GP5+/6+ PCR combined with cycle-sequencing. Abundant high-risk HPV RNA CISH signals were detected in 26/32 (81.3% CIN 1, 22/22 (100% CIN 2 and in 32/32 (100% CIN 3 lesions. CIN 1 staining patterns were typified (67.7% specimens by abundant diffusely staining nuclei in the upper epithelial layers; CIN 2 lesions mostly (66.7% showed a combination of superficial diffuse-stained nuclei and multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelium; CIN 3 lesions were characterized (87.5% by multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelial thickness and absence/scarcity of diffusely staining nuclei (trend across CIN grades: P<0.0001. These data are consistent with productive phase HPV infections exemplifying CIN 1, transformative phase infections CIN 3, whereas CIN 2 shows both productive and transformative phase elements. Three-tier data correlation was not found for the other assays examined. The dual discernment of diffuse and/or dot-like signals together with the assay's high sensitivity for HPV support the use of HPV E6/E7 RNA CISH as an adjunct test for deciding lesion grade when CIN 2 grading may be beneficial (e

  15. HPV E6/E7 RNA In Situ Hybridization Signal Patterns as Biomarkers of Three-Tier Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark F.; Peng, Zhihua; Clark, Kelli M.; Adamson, Christine S.-C.; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Xingyong; Wang, Hongwei; Luo, Yuling; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lesion grading is critical for effective patient management. A three-tier classification (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 1, 2 or 3) based on H&E slide review is widely used. However, for reasons of considerable inter-observer variation in CIN grade assignment and for want of a biomarker validating a three-fold stratification, CAP-ASCCP LAST consensus guidelines recommend a two-tier system: low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL or HSIL). In this study, high-risk HPV E6/E7 and p16 mRNA expression patterns in eighty-six CIN lesions were investigated by RNAscope chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Specimens were also screened by immunohistochemistry for p16INK4a (clone E6H4), and by tyramide-based CISH for HPV DNA. HPV genotyping was performed by GP5+/6+ PCR combined with cycle-sequencing. Abundant high-risk HPV RNA CISH signals were detected in 26/32 (81.3%) CIN 1, 22/22 (100%) CIN 2 and in 32/32 (100%) CIN 3 lesions. CIN 1 staining patterns were typified (67.7% specimens) by abundant diffusely staining nuclei in the upper epithelial layers; CIN 2 lesions mostly (66.7%) showed a combination of superficial diffuse-stained nuclei and multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelium; CIN 3 lesions were characterized (87.5%) by multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelial thickness and absence/scarcity of diffusely staining nuclei (trend across CIN grades: PHPV infections exemplifying CIN 1, transformative phase infections CIN 3, whereas CIN 2 shows both productive and transformative phase elements. Three-tier data correlation was not found for the other assays examined. The dual discernment of diffuse and/or dot-like signals together with the assay’s high sensitivity for HPV support the use of HPV E6/E7 RNA CISH as an adjunct test for deciding lesion grade when CIN 2 grading may be beneficial (e.g. among young women) or when ‘LSIL vs. HSIL’ assignment is

  16. Self-catalytic growth of unmodified gold nanoparticles as conductive bridges mediated gap-electrical signal transduction for DNA hybridization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Nie, Huagui; Wu, Zhan; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Lijie; Xu, Xiangju; Huang, Shaoming

    2014-01-21

    A simple and sensitive gap-electrical biosensor based on self-catalytic growth of unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as conductive bridges has been developed for amplifying DNA hybridization events. In this strategy, the signal amplification degree of such conductive bridges is closely related to the variation of the glucose oxidase (GOx)-like catalytic activity of AuNPs upon interaction with single- and double-stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA), respectively. In the presence of target DNA, the obtained dsDNA product cannot adsorb onto the surface of AuNPs due to electrostatic interaction, which makes the unmodified AuNPs exhibit excellent GOx-like catalytic activity. Such catalytic activity can enlarge the diameters of AuNPs in the glucose and HAuCl4 solution and result in a connection between most of the AuNPs and a conductive gold film formation with a dramatically increased conductance. For the control sample, the catalytic activity sites of AuNPs are fully blocked by ssDNA due to the noncovalent interaction between nucleotide bases and AuNPs. Thus, the growth of the assembled AuNPs will not happen and the conductance between microelectrodes will be not changed. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the developed strategy exhibited a sensitive response to target DNA with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, this strategy was also demonstrated to provide excellent differentiation ability for single-nucleotide polymorphism. Such performances indicated the great potential of this label-free electrical strategy for clinical diagnostics and genetic analysis under real biological sample separation.

  17. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  18. A comparison between the first-fit settings of two multichannel digital signal-processing strategies: music quality ratings and speech-in-noise scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul; Searchfield, Grant; Coad, Gavin

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which level-dependent hearing aid digital signal-processing strategy (DSP) participants preferred when listening to music and/or performing a speech-in-noise task. Two receiver-in-the-ear hearing aids were compared: one using 32-channel adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) and the other wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) incorporating dual fast (4 channel) and slow (15 channel) processing. The manufacturers' first-fit settings based on participants' audiograms were used in both cases. Results were obtained from 18 participants on a quick speech-in-noise (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette, Gudmundsen, Revit, & Banerjee, 2004) task and for 3 music listening conditions (classical, jazz, and rock). Participants preferred the quality of music and performed better at the QuickSIN task using the hearing aids with ADRO processing. A potential reason for the better performance of the ADRO hearing aids was less fluctuation in output with change in sound dynamics. ADRO processing has advantages for both music quality and speech recognition in noise over the multichannel WDRC processing that was used in the study. Further evaluations of which DSP aspects contribute to listener preference are required.

  19. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  20. A novel technique for determination of two dimensional signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor of an antiscatter grid in digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøtthellen, Jacob; Konst, Bente; Abildgaard, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: to present a new and simplified method for pixel-wise determination of the signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor KSNR of an antiscatter grid, when used with a digital imaging system. The method was based on approximations of published formulas. The simplified estimate of K2SNR may be used as a decision tool for whether or not to use an antiscatter grid. Methods: the primary transmission of the grid Tp was determined with and without a phantom present using a pattern of beam stops. The Bucky factor B was measured with and without a phantom present. Hence K2SNR maps were created based on Tp and B. A formula was developed to calculate K2SNR from the measured Bs without using the measured Tp. The formula was applied on two exposures of anthropomorphic phantoms, adult legs and baby chest, and on two homogeneous poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) phantoms, 5 cm and 10 cm thick. The results from anthropomorphic phantoms were compared to those based on the beam stop method. The results for the PMMA-phantoms were compared to a study that used a contrast-detail phantom. Results: 2D maps of K2SNR over the entire adult legs and baby chest phantoms were created. The maps indicate that it is advantageous to use the antiscatter grid for imaging of the adult legs. For baby chest imaging the antiscatter grid is not recommended if only the lung regions are of interest. The K2SNR maps based on the new method correspond to those from the beam stop method, and the K2SNR from the homogenous phantoms arising from two different approaches also agreed well with each other. Conclusion: a method to measure 2D K2SNR associated with grid use in digital radiography system was developed and validated. The proposed method requires four exposures and use of a simple formula. It is fast and provides adequate estimates for K2SNR.

  1. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  2. A novel method, digital genome scanning detects KRAS gene amplification in gastric cancers: involvement of overexpressed wild-type KRAS in downstream signaling and cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagihara Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting the general population worldwide. Aberrant activation of KRAS is a key factor in the development of many types of tumor, however, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. We have developed a novel quantitative method of analysis of DNA copy number, termed digital genome scanning (DGS, which is based on the enumeration of short restriction fragments, and does not involve PCR or hybridization. In the current study, we used DGS to survey copy-number alterations in gastric cancer cells. Methods DGS of gastric cancer cell lines was performed using the sequences of 5000 to 15000 restriction fragments. We screened 20 gastric cancer cell lines and 86 primary gastric tumors for KRAS amplification by quantitative PCR, and investigated KRAS amplification at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels by mutational analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, GTP-RAS pull-down assay and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of KRAS knock-down on the activation of p44/42 MAP kinase and AKT and on cell growth were examined by immunoblot and colorimetric assay, respectively. Results DGS analysis of the HSC45 gastric cancer cell line revealed the amplification of a 500-kb region on chromosome 12p12.1, which contains the KRAS gene locus. Amplification of the KRAS locus was detected in 15% (3/20 of gastric cancer cell lines (8–18-fold amplification and 4.7% (4/86 of primary gastric tumors (8–50-fold amplification. KRAS mutations were identified in two of the three cell lines in which KRAS was amplified, but were not detected in any of the primary tumors. Overexpression of KRAS protein correlated directly with increased KRAS copy number. The level of GTP-bound KRAS was elevated following serum stimulation in cells with amplified wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with amplified mutant KRAS. Knock-down of KRAS in gastric cancer cells that carried amplified wild

  3. A novel method, digital genome scanning detects KRAS gene amplification in gastric cancers: involvement of overexpressed wild-type KRAS in downstream signaling and cancer cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Hiroaki; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Fujita, Masahiro; Hosokawa, Masao; Kusano, Masanobu; Sabau, Sorin Vasile; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Tokino, Takashi; Toyota, Minoru; Aoki, Fumio; Akashi, Hirofumi; Maruyama, Reo; Sasaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Idogawa, Masashi; Kashima, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting the general population worldwide. Aberrant activation of KRAS is a key factor in the development of many types of tumor, however, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. We have developed a novel quantitative method of analysis of DNA copy number, termed digital genome scanning (DGS), which is based on the enumeration of short restriction fragments, and does not involve PCR or hybridization. In the current study, we used DGS to survey copy-number alterations in gastric cancer cells. DGS of gastric cancer cell lines was performed using the sequences of 5000 to 15000 restriction fragments. We screened 20 gastric cancer cell lines and 86 primary gastric tumors for KRAS amplification by quantitative PCR, and investigated KRAS amplification at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels by mutational analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, GTP-RAS pull-down assay and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of KRAS knock-down on the activation of p44/42 MAP kinase and AKT and on cell growth were examined by immunoblot and colorimetric assay, respectively. DGS analysis of the HSC45 gastric cancer cell line revealed the amplification of a 500-kb region on chromosome 12p12.1, which contains the KRAS gene locus. Amplification of the KRAS locus was detected in 15% (3/20) of gastric cancer cell lines (8–18-fold amplification) and 4.7% (4/86) of primary gastric tumors (8–50-fold amplification). KRAS mutations were identified in two of the three cell lines in which KRAS was amplified, but were not detected in any of the primary tumors. Overexpression of KRAS protein correlated directly with increased KRAS copy number. The level of GTP-bound KRAS was elevated following serum stimulation in cells with amplified wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with amplified mutant KRAS. Knock-down of KRAS in gastric cancer cells that carried amplified wild-type KRAS resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and

  4. Investigating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis by a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rasmussen, Marianne; Capion, Nynne

    , and the current view on this disease points towards a complicated etiology involving co-infection of more than one, and probably multiple species belonging to the genus Treponema. Still, the pathogenic role of each of the digital dermatitis-associated phylotypes remains unclear. The aim of this investigation...... was to obtain a better understanding of digital dermatitis in general, including possible predisposing skin alternations and the role of the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus. Finally, we wanted to determine if any Treponema phylotypes could be singled out as having a particularly prominent role in the etiology...

  5. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  6. Insights into signal transduction by a hybrid FixL: Denaturation study of on and off states of a multi-domain oxygen sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Wellinson G; Gondim, Ana C S; Costa, Pedro Mikael da Silva; Gilles-Gonzalez, Marie-Alda; Lopes, Luiz G F; Carepo, Marta S P; Sousa, Eduardo H S

    2017-07-01

    FixL from Rhizobium etli (ReFixL) is a hybrid oxygen sensor protein. Signal transduction in ReFixL is effected by a switch off of the kinase activity on binding of an oxygen molecule to ferrous heme iron in another domain. Cyanide can also inhibit the kinase activity upon binding to the heme iron in the ferric state. The unfolding by urea of the purified full-length ReFixL in both active pentacoordinate form, met-FixL(Fe III ) and inactive cyanomet-FixL (Fe III -CN - ) form was monitored by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The CD and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy revealed two states during unfolding, whereas fluorescence spectroscopy identified a three-state unfolding mechanism. The unfolding mechanism was not altered for the active compared to the inactive state; however, differences in the ΔG H2O were observed. According to the CD results, compared to cyanomet-FixL, met-FixL was more stable towards chemical denaturation by urea (7.2 vs 4.8kJmol -1 ). By contrast, electronic spectroscopy monitoring of the Soret band showed cyanomet-FixL to be more stable than met-FixL (18.5 versus 36.2kJmol -1 ). For the three-state mechanism exhibited by fluorescence, the ΔG H2O for both denaturation steps were higher for the active-state met-FixL than for cyanomet-FixL. The overall stability of met-FixL is higher in comparison to cyanomet-FixL suggesting a more compact protein in the active form. Nonetheless, hydrogen bonding by bound cyanide in the inactive state promotes the stability of the heme domain. This work supports a model of signal transduction by FixL that is likely shared by other heme-based sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of hybrid token-CDMA MAC system using cross-layer information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liu, I-S

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid MAC scheme is capable to implement in either ad hoc or wireless mesh networks (WMN). For WMN configuration, stations are served as access networks utilizing non-mobile relaying nodes to provide wireless backbone services for nomadic users... University and a PhD degree from University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. His research interests are in the general areas of adaptive signal processing, digital and wireless communications and data networks. Co-author: Professor Hong-Jun Xu...

  8. Digital control in LLRF system for CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Fu, Xiaoliang; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Wang, Chuan

    2016-05-21

    As a driven accelerator, the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron is designed by China Institute of Atomic Energy for the Beijing Radio Ion-beam Facility project. The cyclotron RF system is designed to use two RF power sources of 100 kW to drive two half-wavelength cavities respectively. Two Dee accelerating electrodes are kept separately from each other inside the cyclotron, while their accelerating voltages are maintained in phase by the efforts of LLRF control. An analog–digital hybrid LLRF system has been developed to achieve cavity tuning control, dee voltage amplitude and phase stabilization etc. The analog subsystems designs are focused on RF signal up/down conversion, tuning control, and dee voltage regulation. The digital system provides an RF signal source, aligns the cavity phases and maintains a Finite State Machine. The digital parts combine with the analog functions to provide the LLRF control. A brief system hardware introduction will be given in this paper, followed by the review of several major characteristics of the digital control in the 100 MeV cyclotron LLRF system. The commissioning is also introduced, and most of the optimization during the process was done by changing the digital parts.

  9. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  10. Digital Pulser for Characterization and Diagnostic of Digital Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, V.T.

    2013-01-01

    The concept and the realization of the digital pulser are presented. The digital pulser is implemented as a functional block of a digital spectrometer. The digital pulser provides noise free and distortion free measurement of the inherent electronic noise of the entire spectroscopy system. The digital pulser is introduced at the end of the signal processing chain and allows separate evaluation of the individual spectroscopy blocks. It offers the ability to characterize and diagnose problems of the digital pulse height analysers by grounding their inputs. The digital pulser does not interfere with the processing of the detector signals and does not contribute to the dead time and the pulse pile-up of the system. The digital pulser peaks are not affected by the presence of detector pulses and are stored in a separate histogram memory leaving the detector spectrum undistorted. (author)

  11. Digital Photonic Receivers for Wireless and Wireline Optical Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    services. The experimental demonstration supported the following transmissions systems: a baseband, 5 Gbps, intensity modulation system employing a directly modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a baseband 20 Gbps non-return-to-zero quadrature phase-shift keying (NRZ-QPSK) system...... receivers in hybrid wireless and wireline optical fiber transmission links. Furthermore, the digital signal processing framework presented in this thesis can be extended to design probabilistic-based digital photonic receivers that can find applications in cognitive heterogeneous reconfigurable optical...

  12. Digital pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L. F.; Preston, J.; Pozzi, S.; Flaska, M.; Neal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) has been utilised for about 40 years as a method to obtain estimates for dose in mixed neutron and photon fields. Digitizers that operate close to GHz are currently available at a reasonable cost, and they can be used to directly sample signals from photomultiplier tubes. This permits one to perform digital PSD rather than the traditional, and well-established, analogous techniques. One issue that complicates PSD for neutrons in mixed fields is that the light output characteristics of typical scintillators available for PSD, such as BC501A, vary as a function of energy deposited in the detector. This behaviour is more easily accommodated with digital processing of signals than with analogous signal processing. Results illustrate the effectiveness of digital PSD. (authors)

  13. Software development and its description for Geoid determination based on Spherical-Cap-Harmonics Modelling using digital-zenith camera and gravimetric measurements hybrid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, K.; Jaeger, R.; Balodis, J.; Kaminskis, J.

    2017-10-01

    Over several years the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (GGI) was engaged in the design and development of a digital zenith camera. At the moment the camera developments are finished and tests by field measurements are done. In order to check these data and to use them for geoid model determination DFHRS (Digital Finite element Height reference surface (HRS)) v4.3. software is used. It is based on parametric modelling of the HRS as a continous polynomial surface. The HRS, providing the local Geoid height N, is a necessary geodetic infrastructure for a GNSS-based determination of physcial heights H from ellipsoidal GNSS heights h, by H=h-N. The research and this publication is dealing with the inclusion of the data of observed vertical deflections from digital zenith camera into the mathematical model of the DFHRS approach and software v4.3. A first target was to test out and validate the mathematical model and software, using additionally real data of the above mentioned zenith camera observations of deflections of the vertical. A second concern of the research was to analyze the results and the improvement of the Latvian quasi-geoid computation compared to the previous version HRS computed without zenith camera based deflections of the vertical. The further development of the mathematical model and software concerns the use of spherical-cap-harmonics as the designed carrier function for the DFHRS v.5. It enables - in the sense of the strict integrated geodesy approach, holding also for geodetic network adjustment - both a full gravity field and a geoid and quasi-geoid determination. In addition, it allows the inclusion of gravimetric measurements, together with deflections of the vertical from digital-zenith cameras, and all other types of observations. The theoretical description of the updated version of DFHRS software and methods are discussed in this publication.

  14. Practical digital electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, Will

    2013-01-01

    Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians covers topics on analog and digital signals, logic gates, combinational logic, and Karnaugh mapping. The book discusses the characteristics and types of logic families; sequential systems including latch, bistable circuits, counters and shift registers; Schmitt triggers and multivibrators; and MSI combinational logic systems. Display devices, including LED, LCD and dot matrix display; analog and digital conversion; and examples of and equipment for digital fault finding are also considered. The book concludes by providing answers to the questions

  15. Digital setup for Doppler broadening spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, J; Vlcek, M; Prochazka, I

    2011-01-01

    New digital spectrometer for measurement of the Doppler shift of annihilation photons was developed and tested in this work. Digital spectrometer uses a fast 12-bit digitizer for direct sampling of signals from HPGe detectors. Analysis of sampled waveforms is performed off-line in software. Performance of the new digital setup was compared with its traditional analogue counterpart. Superior energy resolution was achieved in the digital setup. Moreover, the digital setup allows for a better control of the shape of detector signals. This enables to eliminate undesired signals damaged by pile-up effects or by ballistic deficit.

  16. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  18. A self-starting hybrid optoelectronic oscillator generating ultra low jitter 10-GHz optical pulses and low phase noise electrical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating ultra low noise 15-ps-wide pulses at 10 GHz. It is based on a hybrid optoelectronic oscillator comprising a fiber extended cavity mode-locked diode laser which injection locks a self-oscillating heterojunction bipolar...

  19. PV-Diesel Hybrid SCADA Experiment Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, Alex; Durand, S.; Emrich, Carol; Ventre, G.; Wilson, W.; Acosta, R.

    1999-01-01

    The essential features of an experimental network for renewable power system satellite based supervisory, control and data acquisition (SCADA) are communication links, controllers, diagnostic equipment and a hybrid power system. Required components for implementing the network consist of two satellite ground stations, to satellite modems, two 486 PCs, two telephone receivers, two telephone modems, two analog telephone lines, one digital telephone line, a hybrid-power system equipped with controller and a satellite spacecraft. In the technology verification experiment (TVE) conducted by Savannah State University and Florida Solar Energy Center, the renewable energy hybrid system is the Apex-1000 Mini-Hybrid which is equipped with NGC3188 for user interface and remote control and the NGC2010 for monitoring and basic control tasks. This power system is connected to a satellite modem via a smart interface, RS232. Commands are sent to the power system control unit through a control PC designed as PC1. PC1 is thus connected to a satellite model through RS232. A second PC, designated PC2, the diagnostic PC is connected to both satellite modems via separate analog telephone lines for checking modems'health. PC2 is also connected to PC1 via a telephone line. Due to the unavailability of a second ground station for the ACTS, one ground station is used to serve both the sending and receiving functions in this experiment. Signal is sent from the control PC to the Hybrid system at a frequency f(sub 1), different from f(sub 2), the signal from the hybrid system to the control PC. f(sub l) and f(sub 2) are sufficiently separated to avoid interference.

  20. Compact digital NTSC TV signal transmission system using SM optical fibers and its application to operating status monitoring for laser cutting machine; Digital gazo shingo no kan`igata hikari fiber denso system to sono laser cutter no dosa jotai kanshi eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, H. [NEC Shizuoka, Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan); Rabou, N. [University of Helwan, (Egypt); Ikeda, H.; Shimodaira, Y.; Yoshida, H. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a compact bandwidth-compressed digital NTSC picture code transmission system in which circuit configurations are simplified and made inexpensive. The bandwidth of digital NTSC picture codes is compressed in accordance with subjective evaluation, and so the sampling rate is set at 8.13 MHz (2.28 times fsc) and the quantizing level at 5 bits. The frame bits for detecting the frames of picture elements me generated by alternately generating 1 and 0 when the frames are specified. The proposed system is constructed using edge- emitting LED`s (ELED`s) and single- mode (SM) fibers for transmitting digital NTSC picture codes w m to easily distribute video signals from a video camera to video monitors. The transmitter was 80 times 100mm in size, 120 g in weight, and 1000mw in power dissipation. The receiver was 55 times 120 mm in size, 100g in weight, and 800mw in power dissipation. Using the compact bandwidth-compressed digital NTSC picture code transmission system a shot of the working pice in the laser cutting machine, as an example, was satisfactorily transmitted via SM optical fibers without noses. 18 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.