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Sample records for hybrid connectionist symbolic

  1. Natural language parsing in a hybrid connectionist-symbolic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-03-01

    Most connectionist parsers either cannot guarantee the correctness of their derivations or have to simulate a serial flow of control. In the first case, users have to restrict the tasks (e.g. parse less complex or shorter sentences) of the parser or they need to believe in the soundness of the result. In the second case, the resulting network has lost most of its attractivity because seriality needs to be hard-coded into the structure of the net. We here present a hybrid symbolic connectionist parser, which was designed to fulfill the following goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free grammar, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network. Our hybrid architecture consists of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. BrainC (Backtracking and Backpropagation in C) combines the well known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent the typical properties of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN- Workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. We discuss how BrainC reached its design goals and what results we observed.

  2. SKOPE A connectionist/symbolic architecture of spoken Korean processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Lee, Geunbae; Lee, Jong-Hyeok

    1995-01-01

    Spoken language processing requires speech and natural language integration. Moreover, spoken Korean calls for unique processing methodology due to its linguistic characteristics. This paper presents SKOPE, a connectionist/symbolic spoken Korean processing engine, which emphasizes that: 1) connectionist and symbolic techniques must be selectively applied according to their relative strength and weakness, and 2) the linguistic characteristics of Korean must be fully considered for phoneme recognition, speech and language integration, and morphological/syntactic processing. The design and implementation of SKOPE demonstrates how connectionist/symbolic hybrid architectures can be constructed for spoken agglutinative language processing. Also SKOPE presents many novel ideas for speech and language processing. The phoneme recognition, morphological analysis, and syntactic analysis experiments show that SKOPE is a viable approach for the spoken Korean processing.

  3. Symbolic Deductive Reasoning using Connectionist Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Horia Zaharia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we try to combine the possibility of symbolic deductive reasoning with the learning capability of the connectionist models. We introduce several algorithms for learning relations between concepts and finding paths in a transitive manner between learned concepts. An application that implements the proposed model is described and a number of case studies are presented.

  4. Reconstructing muscle activation during normal walking: a comparison of symbolic and connectionist machine learning techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Ben W.; Veltink, Peter H.; Rijkhoff, Nico J.M.; Rutten, Wim L.C.; Andrews, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    One symbolic (rule-based inductive learning) and one connectionist (neural network) machine learning technique were used to reconstruct muscle activation patterns from kinematic data measured during normal human walking at several speeds. The activation patterns (or desired outputs) consisted of sur

  5. Reconstructing muscle activation during normal walking: a comparison of symbolic and connectionist machine learning techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Ben W.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Rijkhoff, N.J.M.; Rijkhoff, Nico J.M.; Rutten, Wim; Andrews, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    One symbolic (rule-based inductive learning) and one connectionist (neural network) machine learning technique were used to reconstruct muscle activation patterns from kinematic data measured during normal human walking at several speeds. The activation patterns (or desired outputs) consisted of

  6. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  7. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  8. A connectionist computational model for epistemic and temporal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila Garcez, Artur S; Lamb, Luís C

    2006-07-01

    The importance of the efforts to bridge the gap between the connectionist and symbolic paradigms of artificial intelligence has been widely recognized. The merging of theory (background knowledge) and data learning (learning from examples) into neural-symbolic systems has indicated that such a learning system is more effective than purely symbolic or purely connectionist systems. Until recently, however, neural-symbolic systems were not able to fully represent, reason, and learn expressive languages other than classical propositional and fragments of first-order logic. In this article, we show that nonclassical logics, in particular propositional temporal logic and combinations of temporal and epistemic (modal) reasoning, can be effectively computed by artificial neural networks. We present the language of a connectionist temporal logic of knowledge (CTLK). We then present a temporal algorithm that translates CTLK theories into ensembles of neural networks and prove that the translation is correct. Finally, we apply CTLK to the muddy children puzzle, which has been widely used as a test-bed for distributed knowledge representation. We provide a complete solution to the puzzle with the use of simple neural networks, capable of reasoning about knowledge evolution in time and of knowledge acquisition through learning.

  9. A new hybrid jpeg image compression scheme using symbol reduction technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Bheshaj; Sinha, G R

    2012-01-01

    Lossy JPEG compression is a widely used compression technique. Normally the JPEG standard technique uses three process mapping reduces interpixel redundancy, quantization, which is lossy process and entropy encoding, which is considered lossless process. In this paper, a new technique has been proposed by combining the JPEG algorithm and Symbol Reduction Huffman technique for achieving more compression ratio. The symbols reduction technique reduces the number of symbols by combining together to form a new symbol. As a result of this technique the number of Huffman code to be generated also reduced. It is simple fast and easy to implement. The result shows that the performance of standard JPEG method can be improved by proposed method. This hybrid approach achieves about 20% more compression ratio than the Standard JPEG.

  10. Theoretical Relevance of Neuropsychological Data for Connectionist Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Iza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic information-processing paradigm in cognitive psychology has met a growing challenge from neural network models over the past two decades. While neuropsychological
    evidence has been of great utility to theories concerned with information processing, the real question is, whether the less rigid connectionist models provide valid, or enough, information
    concerning complex cognitive structures. In this work, we will discuss the theoretical implications that neuropsychological data posits for modelling cognitive systems.

  11. Connectionist perspectives on language learning, representation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanisse, Marc F; McClelland, James L

    2015-01-01

    The field of formal linguistics was founded on the premise that language is mentally represented as a deterministic symbolic grammar. While this approach has captured many important characteristics of the world's languages, it has also led to a tendency to focus theoretical questions on the correct formalization of grammatical rules while also de-emphasizing the role of learning and statistics in language development and processing. In this review we present a different approach to language research that has emerged from the parallel distributed processing or 'connectionist' enterprise. In the connectionist framework, mental operations are studied by simulating learning and processing within networks of artificial neurons. With that in mind, we discuss recent progress in connectionist models of auditory word recognition, reading, morphology, and syntactic processing. We argue that connectionist models can capture many important characteristics of how language is learned, represented, and processed, as well as providing new insights about the source of these behavioral patterns. Just as importantly, the networks naturally capture irregular (non-rule-like) patterns that are common within languages, something that has been difficult to reconcile with rule-based accounts of language without positing separate mechanisms for rules and exceptions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. High-Level Connectionist Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Cascaded Back-Propagaiion on dynamic onnecuonist networks Pro- ceedings of the Ninth Conference of the Cogniive Science Society. Seattle. a I I I1...Cybernetics. 3. J. B. Pollack. Language Acquisition via Strange Automata. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 4... Science Society. S. J. B. Pollack & J. A. Barnden. Conclusion. In Bamden, J. A. & Pollack, J. B. (Eds.) Advances in Connectionist and Neural Computational

  13. Learning in Structured Connectionist Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Garrison W. Cottrell. A Connectionist Approach to Word Sense Dis- ambiguation. PhD thesis, University of Rochester, 1985. [ Dennett , 1988] Daniel C. Dennett ...34Maxwell’s equations of thought," as Dennett [1988] observes: ... in between the mind as crystal and the mind as chaos lies the mind as gadget, an object...1985] W. Daniel Hillis. The Connection Machine. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1985. (Hinton, 1981a] Geoffrey Hinton. Implementing Semantic

  14. Rochester Connectionist Papers. 1979-1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    updated and improved version of the thesis account of recent neurolinguistic data. Fanty, M., "Context-free parsing in connectionist networks." TR 174...April 1982. Our first large program in the connectionist paradigm. It simulates a multi- layer network for recognizing line drawings of Origami figures...The program successfully deals with noise and simple occlusion and the thesis incorporates many key ideas on designing and running large models. Small

  15. Symbolic-numeric hybrid optimization for plant/controller integrated design in H_∞ loop-shaping design

    OpenAIRE

    Kanno, Masaaki; Hara, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a plant/controller design integration method for H_∞ loop-shaping design based on symbolic-numeric hybrid optimization. This approach firstly employs parametric polynomial spectral factorization to accomplish parametric optimization and derive an expression for the optimal cost. Owing to the obtained expression, sensitivity analysis of the achievable performance level with respect to plant parameters is amenable, which allows numerical optimization methods to seek the opti...

  16. Connectionist and diffusion models of reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, R; Van Zandt, T; McKoon, G

    1999-04-01

    Two connectionist frameworks, GRAIN (J. L. McClelland, 1993) and brain-state-in-a-box (J. A. Anderson, 1991), and R. Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model were evaluated using data from a signal detection task. Dependent variables included response probabilities, reaction times for correct and error responses, and shapes of reaction-time distributions. The diffusion model accounted for all aspects of the data, including error reaction times that had previously been a problem for all response-time models. The connectionist models accounted for many aspects of the data adequately, but each failed to a greater or lesser degree in important ways except for one model that was similar to the diffusion model. The findings advance the development of the diffusion model and show that the long tradition of reaction-time research and theory is a fertile domain for development and testing of connectionist assumptions about how decisions are generated over time.

  17. FAST SYMBOL-LEVEL SYNCHRONIZATION FOR TR-UWB SIGNALS USING DOUBLE HYBRID DS-TH SPREADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhuo; Ji Zhengnan; Zhang Shijie; Yin Hao

    2008-01-01

    A Transmitted Reference (TR) Ultra WideBand (UWB) signal with double hybrid Direct Sequence and Time Hopping (DS-TH) spreading is proposed and its symbol-level synchronization scheme is designed and analyzed. The proposed signaling format can significantly reduce the search space while reducing the spectral lines and eliminating inter-frame interference and multi-user interference. Detailed analysis of the proposed scheme is carried out. Synchronization performance of the proposed signaling format in multipath channel is derived and supported by computer simulation. The search step which is closely associated with the delay of data modulated pulses is analyzed. Using the TH code, the proposed signaling format and synchronization scheme especially works well in moderate and low data rate systems.

  18. Context-free parsing with connectionist networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanty, M. A.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a simple algorithm which converts any context-free grammar into a connectionist network which parses strings (of arbitrary but fixed maximum length) in the language defined by that grammar. The network is fast, O(n), and deterministicd. It consists of binary units which compute a simple function of their input. When the grammar is put in Chomsky normal form, O(n3) units needed to parse inputs of length up to n.

  19. Connectionist Models: Implications in Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ghaemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In language acquisition, ‘Emergentists’ claim that simple learning mechanisms, of the kind attested elsewhere in cognition, are sufficient to bring about the emergence of complex language
    representations (Gregg, 2003. Connectionist model is one of the models among others proposed by emergentists. This paper attempts to clarify the basic assumptions of this model, its advantages, and the criticisms leveled at it.

  20. Improved Statistical Speech Segmentation Using Connectionist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Salam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Speech segmentation is an important part for speech recognition, synthesizing and coding. Statistical based approach detects segmentation points via computing spectral distortion of the signal without prior knowledge of the acoustic information proved to be able to give good match, less omission but lot of insertion. These insertion points dropped segmentation accuracy. Approach: This study proposed a fusion method between statistical and connectionist approaches namely the divergence algorithm and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP with adaptive learning for segmentation of Malay connected digit with the aim to improve statistical approach via detection of insertion points. The neural network was optimized via trial and error in finding suitable parameters and speech time normalization methods. The best neural network classifier was then fusion with divergence algorithm to make segmentation. Results: The results of the experiments showed that the best neural network classifier used learning rate of value 1.0 and momentum rate of value 0.9 with data normalization based on zero-padded. The segmentation using fusion of statistical and connectionist was able to reduce insertion points up to 10.4% while maintaining match points above 99% and omission point below 0.7% within time tolerance of 0.09 second. Conclusion: The result of segmentation using the proposed fusion method indicated potential use of connectionist approach in improving continuous segmentation by statistical approach.

  1. A Hybrid of Bacterial Foraging and Modified Cuckoo Search Optimization for Pilot Symbol Design in MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manjith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern mobile telecommunication systems are using MIMO combined with OFDM, which is known as MIMO-OFDM systems, to provide robustness and higher spectrum efficiency. The major challenge in this scenario is to obtain an accurate channel estimation to detect information symbols, once the receiver must have the channel state information to equalize and process the received signal. Channel estimation is an essential task in MIMO-OFDM systems for coherent demodulation and data detection. Also designing pilot tones that affect the channel estimation performance is an important issue for these systems. For this reason, in this study we propose a Hybrid optimization algorithm (HBFOMCS based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm (MCS to optimize placement of the pilot tones that are used for Least Square (LS channel estimation in MIMO-OFDM systems. Simulation results show that designing pilot tones using the hybrid algorithm outperforms other considered placement strategies in terms of high system performance and low computational complexity.

  2. A connectionist approach to embodied conceptual metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Flusberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data has been gathered in support of the view that the mind is embodied and that cognition is grounded in sensory-motor processes. Some researchers have gone so far as to claim that this paradigm poses a serious challenge to central tenets of cognitive science, including the widely held view that the mind can be analyzed in terms of abstract computational principles. On the other hand, computational approaches to the study of mind have led to the development of specific models that help researchers understand complex cognitive processes at a level of detail that theories of embodied cognition (EC have sometimes lacked. Here we make the case that connectionist architectures in particular can illuminate many surprising results from the EC literature. These models can learn the statistical structure in their environments, providing an ideal framework for understanding how simple sensory-motor mechanisms could give rise to higher-level cognitive behavior over the course of learning. Crucially, they form overlapping, distributed representations, which have exactly the properties required by many embodied accounts of cognition. We illustrate this idea by extending an existing connectionist model of semantic cognition in order to simulate findings from the embodied conceptual metaphor literature. Specifically, we explore how the abstract domain of time may be structured by concrete experience with space (including experience with culturally-specific spatial and linguistic cues. We suggest that both EC researchers and connectionist modelers can benefit from an integrated approach to understanding these models and the empirical findings they seek to explain.

  3. Intrusion Detection Approach Using Connectionist Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui; LIU Yu-shu; DU Yan-hui

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the detection efficiency of rule-based expert systems, an intrusion detection approach using connectionist expert system is proposed. The approach converts the AND/OR nodes into the corresponding neurons, adopts the three-layered feed forward network with full interconnection between layers,translates the feature values into the continuous values belong to the interval [0, 1 ], shows the confidence degree about intrusion detection rules using the weight values of the neural networks and makes uncertain inference with sigmoid function. Compared with the rule-based expert system, the neural network expert system improves the inference efficiency.

  4. Two projects in theoretical neuroscience: A convolution-based metric for neural membrane potentials and a combinatorial connectionist semantic network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Garrett Nolan

    In this work, I present two projects that both contribute to the aim of discovering how intelligence manifests in the brain. The first project is a method for analyzing recorded neural signals, which takes the form of a convolution-based metric on neural membrane potential recordings. Relying only on integral and algebraic operations, the metric compares the timing and number of spikes within recordings as well as the recordings' subthreshold features: summarizing differences in these with a single "distance" between the recordings. Like van Rossum's (2001) metric for spike trains, the metric is based on a convolution operation that it performs on the input data. The kernel used for the convolution is carefully chosen such that it produces a desirable frequency space response and, unlike van Rossum's kernel, causes the metric to be first order both in differences between nearby spike times and in differences between same-time membrane potential values: an important trait. The second project is a combinatorial syntax method for connectionist semantic network encoding. Combinatorial syntax has been a point on which those who support a symbol-processing view of intelligent processing and those who favor a connectionist view have had difficulty seeing eye-to-eye. Symbol-processing theorists have persuasively argued that combinatorial syntax is necessary for certain intelligent mental operations, such as reasoning by analogy. Connectionists have focused on the versatility and adaptability offered by self-organizing networks of simple processing units. With this project, I show that there is a way to reconcile the two perspectives and to ascribe a combinatorial syntax to a connectionist network. The critical principle is to interpret nodes, or units, in the connectionist network as bound integrations of the interpretations for nodes that they share links with. Nodes need not correspond exactly to neurons and may correspond instead to distributed sets, or assemblies, of

  5. Encoding techniques for complex information structures in connectionist systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John; Srinivas, Kankanahalli

    1990-01-01

    Two general information encoding techniques called relative position encoding and pattern similarity association are presented. They are claimed to be a convenient basis for the connectionist implementation of complex, short term information processing of the sort needed in common sense reasoning, semantic/pragmatic interpretation of natural language utterances, and other types of high level cognitive processing. The relationships of the techniques to other connectionist information-structuring methods, and also to methods used in computers, are discussed in detail. The rich inter-relationships of these other connectionist and computer methods are also clarified. The particular, simple forms are discussed that the relative position encoding and pattern similarity association techniques take in the author's own connectionist system, called Conposit, in order to clarify some issues and to provide evidence that the techniques are indeed useful in practice.

  6. Connectionist natural language parsing with BrainC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-08-01

    A close examination of pure neural parsers shows that they either could not guarantee the correctness of their derivations or had to hard-code seriality into the structure of the net. The authors therefore decided to use a hybrid architecture, consisting of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. The system fulfills the following design goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free language, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network to increase the efficiency of the whole system. BrainC (backtracktacking and backpropagation in C) combines the well- known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent typical structures of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. The design of the system and then the results are discussed.

  7. Machine Learning for Information Retrieval: Neural Networks, Symbolic Learning, and Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of artificial-intelligence-based inductive learning techniques and their use in information science research. Three methods are discussed: the connectionist Hopfield network; the symbolic ID3/ID5R; evolution-based genetic algorithms. The knowledge representations and algorithms of these methods are examined in the context of…

  8. Machine Learning for Information Retrieval: Neural Networks, Symbolic Learning, and Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of artificial-intelligence-based inductive learning techniques and their use in information science research. Three methods are discussed: the connectionist Hopfield network; the symbolic ID3/ID5R; evolution-based genetic algorithms. The knowledge representations and algorithms of these methods are examined in the context of…

  9. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages’ lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns. PMID:27242575

  10. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  11. Dual-Coding Theory and Connectionist Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y Y

    1994-01-01

    We introduce the bilingual dual-coding theory as a model for bilingual mental representation. Based on this model, lexical selection neural networks are implemented for a connectionist transfer project in machine translation. This lexical selection approach has two advantages. First, it is learnable. Little human effort on knowledge engineering is required. Secondly, it is psycholinguistically well-founded.

  12. Transfer in a Connectionist Model of the Acquisition of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasser, M

    1995-01-01

    The morphological systems of natural languages are replete with examples of the same devices used for multiple purposes: (1) the same type of morphological process (for example, suffixation for both noun case and verb tense) and (2) identical morphemes (for example, the same suffix for English noun plural and possessive). These sorts of similarity would be expected to convey advantages on language learners in the form of transfer from one morphological category to another. Connectionist models of morphology acquisition have been faulted for their supposed inability to represent phonological similarity across morphological categories and hence to facilitate transfer. This paper describes a connectionist model of the acquisition of morphology which is shown to exhibit transfer of this type. The model treats the morphology acquisition problem as one of learning to map forms onto meanings and vice versa. As the network learns these mappings, it makes phonological generalizations which are embedded in connection w...

  13. Letting Structure Emerge: Connectionist and Dynamical Systems Approaches to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L.; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Noelle, David C.; Plaut, David C.; Rogers, Timothy T.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    Connectionist and dynamical systems approaches explain human thought, language and behavior in terms of the emergent consequences of a large number of simple non-cognitive processes. We view the entities that serve as the basis for structured probabilistic approaches as sometimes useful but often misleading abstractions that have no real basis in the actual processes that give rise to linguistic and cognitive abilities or the development of these abilities. While structured probabilistic approaches can be useful in determining what would be optimal under certain assumptions, we suggest that approaches such as the connectionist and dynamical systems approaches, which focus on explaining the mechanisms giving rise to cognition, will be essential in achieving a full understanding of cognition and development. PMID:20598626

  14. A recurrent connectionist model of person impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Labiouse, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Major findings in impression formation are reviewed and modeled from a connectionist perspective. The findings are in the areas of primacy and recency in impression formation, asymmetric diagnosticity of ability- and morality-related traits, increased recall for trait-inconsistent information, assimilation and contrast in priming, and discounting of trait inferences by situational information. The majority of these phenomena are illustrated with well-known experiments and simulated with an autoassociative network architecture with linear activation update and using the delta learning algorithm for adjusting the connection weights. All of the simulations successfully reproduced the empirical findings. Moreover, the proposed model is shown to be consistent with earlier algebraic models of impression formation (Anderson, 1981; Busemeyer, 1991; Hogarth and Einhorn, 1992). The discussion centers on how our model compares to other connectionist approaches to impression formation and how it may contribute to a more parsimonious and unified theory of person perception.

  15. A Workshop on High-Level Connectionist Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-11

    conferences other than Cogniive Science , and many of neural-network researchers and industrialists proceed without due consideration of the problems (and...the purpose of the workshop is to bring together computer- science oriented connectionist researchers who have addressed the problems. so as to...meeting on Graph Theory and Computer Science hosted by Frank Harary in April 1986, and TINLAP3 hosted by Yorick Wilks in January 1987. The Computing

  16. A connectionist framework for reasoning: Reasoning with examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, D. [Weizmann Inst. of Science (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    We present a connectionist architecture that supports almost instantaneous deductive and abductive reasoning. The deduction algorithm responds in few steps for single rule queries and in general, takes time that is linear with the number of rules in the query. The abduction algorithm produces an explanation in few steps and the best explanation in time linear with the size of the assumption set. The size of the network is polynomially related to the size of other representations of the domain, and may even be smaller. We base our connectionist model on Valiant`s Neuroidal model (Val94) and thus make minimal assumptions about the computing elements, which are assumed to be classical threshold elements with states. Within this model we develop a reasoning framework that utilizes a model-based approach to reasoning (KKS93; KR94b). In particular, we suggest to interpret the connectionist architecture as encoding examples of the domain we reason about and show how to perform various reasoning tasks with this interpretation. We then show that the representations used can be acquired efficiently from interactions with the environment and discuss how this learning process influences the reasoning performance of the network.

  17. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  18. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  19. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  20. [Connectionist models of social learning: a case of learning by observing a simple task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paignon, A; Desrichard, O; Bollon, T

    2004-03-01

    This article proposes a connectionist model of the social learning theory developed by Bandura (1977). The theory posits that an individual in an interactive situation is capable of learning new behaviours merely by observing them in others. Such learning is acquired through an initial phase in which the individual memorizes what he has observed (observation phase), followed by a second phase where he puts the recorded observations to use as a guide for adjusting his own behaviour (reproduction phase). We shall refer to the two above-mentioned phases to demonstrate that it is conceivable to simulate learning by observation otherwise than through the recording of perceived information using symbolic representation. To this end we shall rely on the formalism of ecological neuron networks (Parisi, Cecconi, & Nolfi, 1990) to implement an agent provided with the major processes identified as essential to learning through observation. The connectionist model so designed shall implement an agent capable of recording perceptive information and producing motor behaviours. The learning situation we selected associates an agent demonstrating goal-achievement behaviour and an observer agent learning the same behaviour by observation. Throughout the acquisition phase, the demonstrator supervises the observer's learning process based on association between spatial information (input) and behavioural information (output). Representation thus constructed then serves as an adjustment guide during the production phase, involving production by the observer of a sequence of actions which he compares to the representation stored in distributed form as constructed through observation. An initial simulation validates model architecture by confirming the requirement for both phases identified in the literature (Bandura, 1977) to simulate learning through observation. The representation constructed over the observation phase evidences acquisition of observed behaviours, although this phase

  1. Evolving Connectionist System Based Role Allocation for Robotic Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, L.; Song, Q.; Kasabov, N

    2008-01-01

    Robotic soccer is an intelligent system where a group of mobile robots are controlled to perform soccer play (http://www.fira.net). The allocation of a suitable role for each robot in a team is a key for the success of the play. The paper treats this issue as one of pattern classification, and solves it with an Evolving classification function (ECF), a special evolving connectionist system (ECOS). A robot's role is determined by and evolves with the states of system ( robots and target ) in r...

  2. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

  3. Connectionist Expert System to Diagnose Neck and Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thamarai Selvi

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A connectionist expert system (CES called BIONET aimed at assisting physicians in the diagnosis of diseases, such as neck and arm pain has been proposed. BIONET is an artificial network or connectionist network model capable of classifying diseases. Need for the development of CES for defence personnel has been discussed: BIONET is a feedforward three layer neural network with one hidden layer. The input, layer has been designated as stimulus layer, the hidden layer as receptor layer and output layer ag cortical layer. The sequential connections with spatial orientation have been maintained between stimulus layer and receptor layer for each specific factor. Parallel connections are established only at the cortical layer. Direct firing and facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms are adhered to the neurophysiology of human nervous system. An algorithm for training on BIONET is also given. BIONET is simulated on a digital computer with training samples of patients collected from various hospitals in Tamil Nadu to diagnose neck and arm pain,diseases for testing purpose.

  4. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  5. Connectionist modeling of developmental changes in infancy: approaches, challenges, and contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolayeva, Yevdokiya; Rakison, David H

    2014-01-01

    Connectionist models have been applied to many phenomena in infant development including perseveration, language learning, categorization, and causal perception. In this article, we discuss the benefits of connectionist networks for the advancement of theories of early development. In particular, connectionist models contribute novel testable predictions, instantiate the theorized mechanism of change, and create a unifying framework for understanding infant learning and development. We relate these benefits to the 2 primary approaches used in connectionist models of infant development. The first approach employs changes in neural processing as the basis for developmental changes, and the second employs changes in infants' experiences. The review sheds light on the unique hurdles faced by each approach as well as the challenges and solutions related to both, particularly with respect to the identification of critical model components, parameter specification, availability of empirical data, and model comparison. Finally, we discuss the future of modeling work as it relates to the study of development. We propose that connectionist networks stand to make a powerful contribution to the generation and revision of theories of early child development. Furthermore, insights from connectionist models of early development can improve the understanding of developmental changes throughout the life span.

  6. Evolving Connectionist System Based Role Allocation for Robotic Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Huang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic soccer is an intelligent system where a group of mobile robots are controlled to perform soccer play (http://www.fira.net. The allocation of a suitable role for each robot in a team is a key for the success of the play. The paper treats this issue as one of pattern classification, and solves it with an Evolving classification function (ECF, a special evolving connectionist system (ECOS. A robot's role is determined by and evolves with the states of system (robots and target in real time. The software and hardware platforms are set up for data collection and learning. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by the experimental studies.

  7. How can unity of content be obtained from the diversity of expression; from symbolism to connectionism How can unity of content be obtained from the diversity of expression; from symbolism to connectionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelino Poersch

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a symbolic paradigm, reading can be considered as an act of communication leading a reader to intentionally build in his mind, from the perception of printed symbols and from the aid of non-verbal elements, a substance of content similar to the one the writer wanted to express by means of a verbal written message. Nowadays we see that the strictness – typically signalized by the staticity of mental epresentations (symbols and the seriality of the information process (classical artificial intelligence – with which the symbolic paradigm explains the cognitive processes of the reading process in our mind clearly contrasts with the flexibility – characterized by the use of dynamic “ad hoc” configurations obtained by means of parallel distributed information among the interneural connections – with which the connectionist paradigm tries to explain the sequence of processes (hidden units in our brain interpolated between input and output data. In a connectionist paradigm, reading consists of constructing, in the brain of the reader, a network of synaptic connections as answers to individual stimuli and experiences. It follows that the new text built in the reader’s brain, even keeping the cultural unity, will show diversities reflecting the way each reader experiences the world. The diversity in communicative acts can more easily be noticed in a translating Adopting a symbolic paradigm, reading can be considered as an act of communication leading a reader to intentionally build in his mind, from the perception of printed symbols and from the aid of non-verbal elements, a substance of content similar to the one the writer wanted to express by means of a verbal written message. Nowadays we see that the strictness – typically signalized by the staticity of mental epresentations (symbols and the seriality of the information process (classical artificial intelligence – with which the symbolic paradigm explains the cognitive

  8. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  9. Indian Graphic Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Sarain

    1979-01-01

    Noting Indian tribes had invented ways to record facts and ideas, with graphic symbols that sometimes reached the complexity of hieroglyphs, this article illustrates and describes Indian symbols. (Author/RTS)

  10. Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia: Testing the Predictions of the Dual-Route and Connectionist Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phonological and surface subtypes of developmental dyslexia in light of competing predictions made by two computational models of single word reading, the Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC; Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) and Harm and Seidenberg's connectionist model (HS model; Harm & Seidenberg, 1999). The…

  11. Phonological Constraint Induction in a Connectionist Network: Learning OCP-Place Constraints from Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, John; Tupper, Paul; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem in computational language learning is that of inferring the content of well-formedness constraints from input data. In this article, we approach the constraint induction problem as the gradual adjustment of subsymbolic constraints in a connectionist network. In particular, we develop a multi-layer feed-forward network that…

  12. On the application of connectionist models for pattern recognition, robotics and computer vision: A technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijveld, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Connectionist modeis, commonly referred to as neural networks, are computing models in which large numbers of processing units are connected to each other with variable "weight". These weight values represent the "strength" of the connection between two units, which can be positive (excitatory, i.e.

  13. Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia: Testing the Predictions of the Dual-Route and Connectionist Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phonological and surface subtypes of developmental dyslexia in light of competing predictions made by two computational models of single word reading, the Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC; Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) and Harm and Seidenberg's connectionist model (HS model; Harm & Seidenberg, 1999). The…

  14. On the application of connectionist models for pattern recognition, robotics and computer vision: A technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijveld, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Connectionist modeis, commonly referred to as neural networks, are computing models in which large numbers of processing units are connected to each other with variable "weight". These weight values represent the "strength" of the connection between two units, which can be positive (excitatory, i.e.

  15. A Connectionist Model of Stimulus Class Formation with a Yes/No Procedure and Compound Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Angel E.; Chavez, Alvaro Torres

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed stimulus class formation in a human study and in a connectionist model (CM) with a yes/no procedure, using compound stimuli. In the human study, the participants were six female undergraduate students; the CM was a feed-forward back-propagation network. Two 3-member stimulus classes were trained with a similar procedure in both the…

  16. A hybrid system using symbolic and numeric knowledge for the semantic annotation of sulco-gyral anatomy in brain MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechouche, Ammar; Morandi, Xavier; Golbreich, Christine; Gibaud, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an interactive system for the semantic annotation of brain magnetic resonance images. The system uses both a numerical atlas and symbolic knowledge of brain anatomical structures depicted using the Semantic Web standards. This knowledge is combined with graphical data, automatically extracted from the images by imaging tools. The annotations of parts of gyri and sulci, in a region of interest, rely on constraint satisfaction problem solving and description logics inferences. The system is run on a client-server architecture, using Web services and including a sophisticated visualization tool. An evaluation of the system was done using normal (healthy) and pathological cases. The results obtained so far demonstrate that the system produces annotations with high precision and quality.

  17. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Wendling, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  18. Eight Auspicious Symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    "Eight auspicious" signs("Zhaxidajie" in Tibetan,"Astamangala" in Sanskrit) means"eight auspicious patterns". Intraditional Tibetan drawing, theseEight Auspicious Symbols are agroup of Buddhist lucky symbols thatappear on many Buddhist textiles,religious objects and paintings.Each symbol represents an aspectof Buddhist teaching and when theyappear together, their powers aremultiplied. "Eight auspicious" signsare the most common grouping:

  19. Symbolism in Araby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳

    2014-01-01

    Araby is one of the short stories in James Joyce’s collection, Dubliners. In this novel, the writer used lots of symbolic images to create a special and symbolic setting. This paper attempts to analyze the symbols in Araby which helps readers have a deeper and better understanding about the social background of that time and the main theme the writer wanted to express.

  20. Symbol: artefact and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2000-01-01

    In preparation of an analysis of product modelling in terms of communication, this report presents a brief analysis of symbols; that is, the entities by means of which communication takes place. Symbols are defined in such a way as to admit artefacts and models (the latter including linguistic...

  1. Symbolism in "The Egg"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤艳娟

    2007-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson is one of the most prominent writers in American literary history. This paper deals with the abundant symbolic meanings in his famous short story "The Egg". Symbolism makes a literary work profound. The various depressing fates awaiting the eggs simultaneously come true on the father and the son, exposing the unreality of the American dream for the poor to be rich.

  2. Symbol: artefact and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2000-01-01

    In preparation of an analysis of product modelling in terms of communication, this report presents a brief analysis of symbols; that is, the entities by means of which communication takes place. Symbols are defined in such a way as to admit artefacts and models (the latter including linguistic...

  3. Devnagari numeral recognition by combining decision of multiple connectionist classifiers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reena Bajaj; Lipika Dey; Santanu Chaudhury

    2002-02-01

    This paper is concerned with recognition of handwritten Devnagari numerals. The basic objective of the present work is to provide an efficient and reliable technique for recognition of handwritten numerals. Three different types of features have been used for classification of numerals. A multi-classifier connectionist architecture has been proposed for increasing reliability of the recognition results. Experimental results show that the technique is effective and reliable.

  4. Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...

  5. Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...

  6. Cognitive Dissonance and Affect: An Initial Test of a Connectionist Account

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Jordens; Frank Van Overwalle

    2005-01-01

    In their connectionist model of cognitive dissonance, Van Overwalle & Jordens (2002) put forward the hypothesis that positive affect increases behaviour-induced attitudes, while negative affect decreases attitudes. In this article, this hypothesised role of affect was tested for two well-known paradigms in the cognitive dissonance literature: free choice and induced compliance. For the free-choice paradigm, we replicated the findings in the difficult-high choice condition of Shultz, Lévei...

  7. Symbolic model checking APSL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanwei LIU; Ji WANG; Huowang CHEN; Xiaodong MA; Zhaofei WANG

    2009-01-01

    Property specification language (PSL) is a specification language which has been accepted as an industrial standard. In PSL, SEREs are used as additional formula constructs. In this paper, we present a variant of PSL, namely APSL, which replaces SEREs with finite automata. APSL and PSL are of the exactly same expressiveness. Then, we extend the LTL symbolic model checking algorithm to that of APSL, and then present a tableau based APSL verification technique, which can be easily implemented via the BDD based symbolic approach. Moreover, we implement an extension of NuSMV, and this adapted version supports symbolic model checking of APSL. Experimental results show that this variant of PSL can be efficiently verified. Henceforth, symbolic model checking PSL can be carried out by a transformation from PSL to APSL and symbolic model checking APSL.

  8. Bruce Springsteen as a symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The article explores how Bruce Springsteen and his music function as a symbol. The article first presents the Jungian theory of symbols and of music as symbol. The central argument of the article is that, by functioning symbolically, Springsteen has the potential to influence the psyche of his...... audience and to function as a psychological resource. While no claim is made to cover the entire symbolic potential of Springsteen and his music, three central themes are identified and discussed: a symbol of containment and support, a symbol of a father figure, and symbolic support to an emerging...

  9. Novel hybrid carrier tracking loop in the case of symbol rate sampling%符号速率采样条件下的新型复合载波跟踪环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运华; 田斌; 易克初; 于全; 孙德春

    2016-01-01

    For carrier synchronization in the case of symbol rate sampling and low signal to noise ratios (SNRs),a novel hybrid carrier tracking loop is proposed,and an intuitive method of determining loop parame-ters is also investigated.The carrier synchronous loop improves the estimated accuracy of the carrier frequency offset and the phase offset in low SNR environments through modifying the original symbol hard decision meth-od and adding sampling rate conversion blocks which enable the digital frequency-locked loop (FLL)and digital phase-locked loop (PLL)to operate under the condition of different rate sampling.The parameter determination method selects optimal parameters in the z-domain directly according to the stability and unit step response characteris-tics of the closed-loop systems.Simulation results confirm the feasibility of this algorithm in terms of determi-ning the parameters and indicate that the proposed carrier tracking loop achieves better synchronization perform-ance at relatively low SNRs.%针对低信噪比和符号速率采样条件下的载波同步问题,提出了一种新型的复合载波跟踪环,同时也给出了一种较直观的环路参数确定方法。该载波同步环改进了原有的符号硬判决算法,并通过引入采样速率变换模块使得数字锁频环(frequency-locked loop,FLL)和数字锁相环(phase-locked loop,PLL)工作在不同采样速率条件下,来提高在低信噪比环境中载波频偏和相偏的估计精度。该参数确定方法是在 z 域中,直接根据闭环系统的稳定性和单位阶跃响应特性来选择最优的参数。仿真结果表明,该参数确定方法具有很好的可行性,且所提出的载波跟踪环在较低信噪比条件下能获得良好的同步性能。

  10. The symbolism of zombie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine BOUDOU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show why the zombie can be presented as a justifiable object of search for the symbolic communication. The zombie exists as symbol because the word the leading to a qualification became of current usage, what allows a widened communication. The diversity of the interpretations that he makes possible testifies of its ambivalence. That he is defined as a symbol or as a metaphor we shall see that, far from being that a lasted fad, the zombie is rich in different senses.

  11. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  12. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  13. [Symbolism on "natural" in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2011-01-01

    The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural.

  14. Symbols: historic and current uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Emilee

    2008-01-01

    From hieroglyphs to barcodes, symbols have been used throughout history. Symbols can be observed on traffic signs, warning signs that are affixed to building fronts, doors of public restrooms to show gender-specific usage, and caution signs on caustic or poisonous chemicals; even Braille, a system of writing and printing for the blind, is a symbol form. This article includes a brief discussion on the psychology of symbols, history of symbols, symbols used by alchemists and pharmacists, and the current use of symbols.

  15. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  16. Do current connectionist learning models account for reading development in different languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Florian; Ziegler, Johannes C; Perry, Conrad; Wimmer, Heinz; Zorzi, Marco

    2004-04-01

    Learning to read a relatively irregular orthography, such as English, is harder and takes longer than learning to read a relatively regular orthography, such as German. At the end of grade 1, the difference in reading performance on a simple set of words and nonwords is quite dramatic. Whereas children using regular orthographies are already close to ceiling, English children read only about 40% of the words and nonwords correctly. It takes almost 4 years for English children to come close to the reading level of their German peers. In the present study, we investigated to what extent recent connectionist learning models are capable of simulating this cross-language learning rate effect as measured by nonword decoding accuracy. We implemented German and English versions of two major connectionist reading models, Plaut et al.'s (Plaut, D. C., McClelland, J. L., Seidenberg, M. S., & Patterson, K. (1996). Understanding normal and impaired word reading: computational principles in quasi-regular domains. Psychological Review, 103, 56-115) parallel distributed model and Zorzi et al.'s (Zorzi, M., Houghton, G., & Butterworth, B. (1998a). Two routes or one in reading aloud? A connectionist dual-process model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1131-1161); two-layer associative network. While both models predicted an overall advantage for the more regular orthography (i.e. German over English), they failed to predict that the difference between children learning to read regular versus irregular orthographies is larger earlier on. Further investigations showed that the two-layer network could be brought to simulate the cross-language learning rate effect when cross-language differences in teaching methods (phonics versus whole-word approach) were taken into account. The present work thus shows that in order to adequately capture the pattern of reading acquisition displayed by children, current connectionist models must not only be

  17. A Connectionist Modeling Approach to Rapid Analysis of Emergent Social Cognition Properties in Large-Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Traditional modeling methodologies, such as those based on rule-based agent modeling, are exhibiting limitations in application to rich behavioral scenarios, especially when applied to large population aggregates. Here, we propose a new modeling methodology based on a well-known "connectionist approach," and articulate its pertinence in new applications of interest. This methodology is designed to address challenges such as speed of model development, model customization, model reuse across disparate geographic/cultural regions, and rapid and incremental updates to models over time.

  18. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  19. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  20. SYMBOLICS IN NATIONAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gadzhinayev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Features of national culture as component of culture of ethnos, and as phenomenon of social and historical and cultural life of the people are defined in the article.National artist of force of space felt in all that was for it considerable in nature and in creations of a man. Human it is learned through natural, natural through the human. Animals, birds, plants personify forces of nature, serve as the symbols connecting people with space.It was manysets of various symbols, magic signs in the dwelling andhouse furniture, which subsequently some have lost initial magic value, having given way, mainly, to esthetic appointment. Ornaments of embroideries and jewelry, ornamental compositions and elements of symbols of other nationalities show it. Every ensemble of art have the semantic loading designating the age characteristic and a social standing.Results of the work can be used as information for the tourist organizations, in esthetics, cultural science, culture ecology.

  1. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  2. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  3. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  4. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  5. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: implications from connectionist modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Rie; Hartono, Pitoyo; Abe, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (Learning Network for Tonal Schema, LeNTS) was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical 'scale' sensitivity early and 'harmony' sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a) the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b) the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and

  6. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: Implications from connectionist modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMatsunaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (LeNTS was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical ‘scale’ sensitivity early and ‘harmony’ sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and (c the learning principles of schema acquisition may be culturally invariant while the acquired tonal schemas are varied with exposed culture-specific music.

  7. Does the PMSP Connectionist Model of Single Word Reading Learn to Read in the Same Way as a Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daisy; Plaut, David; Funnell, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    The Plaut, McClelland, Seidenberg and Patterson (1996) connectionist model of reading was evaluated at two points early in its training against reading data collected from British children on two occasions during their first year of literacy instruction. First, the network's non-word reading was poor relative to word reading when compared with the…

  8. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  9. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here, w

  10. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  11. Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠杰

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. This paper researches the symbolism in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter from the aspect of the symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter.

  12. Numerical and symbolic scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art and results and also includes articles pointing to future developments. Most of the articles center around the theme of linear partial differential equations. Major aspects are fast solvers in elastoplasticity, symbolic analysis for boundary problems, symbolic treatment of operators, computer algebra, and finite element methods, a symbolic approach to finite difference schemes, cylindrical algebraic decomposition and local Fourier analysis, and white noise analysis for stochastic partial differential equations. Further numerical-symbolic topics range from

  13. Symbols in the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琰

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbols in the book"The Great Gatsby" which include some particular places, objects, characters, settings and actions. These symbols are considered to have values different from what they are symbolized and most of them are connected to the theme of the novel-the corruption of the American dream.

  14. On Symbolism in Winesburg, Ohio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海萍

    2005-01-01

    As a writing technique, symbolism has a great tradition in American literature, and it plays an important role in Winesburg, Ohio.The author in this thesis attempts to analyze Winesburg, Ohio by exploring its symbolism through an analysis of the major symbols.

  15. Symbolic rewriting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Weispfenning, Volker; Grabmeier, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Symbolic rewriting techniques are methods for deriving consequences from systems of equations, and are of great use when investigating the structure of the solutions. Such techniques appear in many important areas of research within computer algebra: • the Knuth-Bendix completion for groups, monoids and general term-rewriting systems, • the Buchberger algorithm for Gröbner bases, • the Ritt-Wu characteristic set method for ordinary differential equations, and • the Riquier-Janet method for partial differential equations. This volume contains invited and contributed papers to the Symbolic Rewriting Techniques workshop, which was held at the Centro Stefano Franscini in Ascona, Switzerland, from April 30 to May 4, 1995. That workshop brought together 40 researchers from various areas of rewriting techniques, the main goal being the investigation of common threads and methods. Following the workshops, each contribution was formally refereed and 14 papers were selected for publication.

  16. Symbolism in French literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pack

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available To talk of Symbolism in French literature may be ambiguous, as two different categories of writers have been grouped under this generic term: the symbolists stricto sensu, such as Moréas or Viélé-Griffin, who were mostly minor poets, and some great figures of French literature. The aim of this article is to show that, although Symbolism as an organized movement did not produce any important contribution, the nineteenth century witnessed indeed the emergence of a new trend, common to several poets who were inclined to do away with the heritage of the classical school. These poets - of whom Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud and Mallarmé are the most renowned, although they did not really associate with the symbolist school, created individualistic poetry of the foremost rank.

  17. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......, namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  18. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  19. Symbolic play and language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Edna; Geva, Ronny

    2015-02-01

    Symbolic play and language are known to be highly interrelated, but the developmental process involved in this relationship is not clear. Three hypothetical paths were postulated to explore how play and language drive each other: (1) direct paths, whereby initiation of basic forms in symbolic action or babbling, will be directly related to all later emerging language and motor outputs; (2) an indirect interactive path, whereby basic forms in symbolic action will be associated with more complex forms in symbolic play, as well as with babbling, and babbling mediates the relationship between symbolic play and speech; and (3) a dual path, whereby basic forms in symbolic play will be associated with basic forms of language, and complex forms of symbolic play will be associated with complex forms of language. We micro-coded 288 symbolic vignettes gathered during a yearlong prospective bi-weekly examination (N=14; from 6 to 18 months of age). Results showed that the age of initiation of single-object symbolic play correlates strongly with the age of initiation of later-emerging symbolic and vocal outputs; its frequency at initiation is correlated with frequency at initiation of babbling, later-emerging speech, and multi-object play in initiation. Results support the notion that a single-object play relates to the development of other symbolic forms via a direct relationship and an indirect relationship, rather than a dual-path hypothesis.

  20. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  1. Are effects of emotion expression on trait impressions mediated by babyfaceness? Evidence from connectionist modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2007-05-01

    Two studies provided evidence that bolsters the Marsh, Adams, and Kleck hypothesis that the morphology of certain emotion expressions reflects an evolved adaptation to mimic babies or mature adults. Study 1 found differences in emotion expressions' resemblance to babies using objective indices of babyfaceness provided by connectionist models that are impervious to overlapping cultural stereotypes about babies and the emotions. Study 2 not only replicated parallels between impressions of certain emotions and babies versus adults but also showed that objective indices of babyfaceness partially mediated impressions of the emotion expressions. babyface effects were independent of strong effects of attractiveness, and babyfaceness did not mediate impressions of happy expressions, to which the evolutionary hypothesis would not apply.

  2. Trait impressions as overgeneralized responses to adaptively significant facial qualities: evidence from connectionist modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Mignault, Alain; Andreoletti, Carrie

    2003-01-01

    Connectionist modeling experiments tested anomalous-face and baby-face overgeneralization hypotheses proposed to explain consensual trait impressions of faces. Activation of a neural network unit trained to respond to anomalous faces predicted impressions of normal adult faces varying in attractiveness as well as several elderly stereotypes. Activation of a neural network unit trained to respond to babies' faces predicted impressions of adults varying in babyfaceness as well as 1 elderly stereotype. Thus, similarities of normal adult faces to anomalous faces or babies' faces contribute to impressions of them quite apart from knowledge of overlapping social stereotypes. The evolutionary importance of appropriate responses to unfit individuals or babies is presumed to produce a strong response preparedness that is overgeneralized to faces resembling the unfit or babies.

  3. OXlearn: a new MATLAB-based simulation tool for connectionist models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Nicolas; Westermann, Gert

    2009-11-01

    OXlearn is a free, platform-independent MATLAB toolbox in which standard connectionist neural network models can be set up, run, and analyzed by means of a user-friendly graphical interface. Due to its seamless integration with the MATLAB programming environment, the inner workings of the simulation tool can be easily inspected and/or extended using native MATLAB commands or components. This combination of usability, transparency, and extendability makes OXlearn an efficient tool for the implementation of basic research projects or the prototyping of more complex research endeavors, as well as for teaching. Both the MATLAB toolbox and a compiled version that does not require access to MATLAB can be downloaded from http://psych.brookes.ac.uk/oxlearn/.

  4. Connectionist interpretation of the association between cognitive dissonance and attention switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takao

    2014-12-01

    A novel connectionist model accounting for cognitive dissonance is described, in which the concepts of self and attention switching are considered. The model is composed of a unit corresponding to self, a bistable pair comprising two units relevant to two dissonant cognitions, and links whose weights correspond to cognitive evaluations. The model makes it possible to use mathematical formulas to represent the cognitive-dissonance process. Analysis reveals that the model fits experimental data of major paradigms in cognitive dissonance theory. The model shows that attention switching, which is produced by internal and external stimuli, causes building-up of cognitive dissonance and retardation of its reduction. The psychological phenomenon of selective exposure is interpreted on the basis of the operation of the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Overcoming catastrophic interference in connectionist networks using Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Srivastava

    Full Text Available Connectionist models of memory storage have been studied for many years, and aim to provide insight into potential mechanisms of memory storage by the brain. A problem faced by these systems is that as the number of items to be stored increases across a finite set of neurons/synapses, the cumulative changes in synaptic weight eventually lead to a sudden and dramatic loss of the stored information (catastrophic interference, CI as the previous changes in synaptic weight are effectively lost. This effect does not occur in the brain, where information loss is gradual. Various attempts have been made to overcome the effects of CI, but these generally use schemes that impose restrictions on the system or its inputs rather than allowing the system to intrinsically cope with increasing storage demands. We show here that catastrophic interference occurs as a result of interference among patterns that lead to catastrophic effects when the number of patterns stored exceeds a critical limit. However, when Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is combined with the Hebb-Hopfield model, the model attains the ability to eliminate CI. This approach differs from previous orthogonalisation schemes used in connectionist networks which essentially reflect sparse coding of the input. Here CI is avoided in a network of a fixed size without setting limits on the rate or number of patterns encoded, and without separating encoding and retrieval, thus offering the advantage of allowing associations between incoming and stored patterns. PACS Nos.: 87.10.+e, 87.18.Bb, 87.18.Sn, 87.19.La.

  6. Symbolic functions from neural computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Paul

    2012-07-28

    Is thought computation over ideas? Turing, and many cognitive scientists since, have assumed so, and formulated computational systems in which meaningful concepts are encoded by symbols which are the objects of computation. Cognition has been carved into parts, each a function defined over such symbols. This paper reports on a research program aimed at computing these symbolic functions without computing over the symbols. Symbols are encoded as patterns of numerical activation over multiple abstract neurons, each neuron simultaneously contributing to the encoding of multiple symbols. Computation is carried out over the numerical activation values of such neurons, which individually have no conceptual meaning. This is massively parallel numerical computation operating within a continuous computational medium. The paper presents an axiomatic framework for such a computational account of cognition, including a number of formal results. Within the framework, a class of recursive symbolic functions can be computed. Formal languages defined by symbolic rewrite rules can also be specified, the subsymbolic computations producing symbolic outputs that simultaneously display central properties of both facets of human language: universal symbolic grammatical competence and statistical, imperfect performance.

  7. Anthropologists as symbols: Geertz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bošković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clifford Geertz (1926-2006 was certainly one of the most influential anthropologists in the last decades of the 20th century, even though some of his former students (like Rabinow in Slyomovics 2010 claim that he was not very accessible as a person, and that sometimes he did not even care for his students. Somewhat paradoxically, Geertz´s influence on anthropology and related disciplines remained notable even after his death. This paper analyzes interest in aspects of his work over the last decade, as an indicator of transforming a personality into a global cultural symbol.

  8. Mathematical symbol hypothesis recognition with rejection option

    OpenAIRE

    Julca-Aguilar, Frank; Hirata, Nina,; Viard-Gaudin, Christian; Mouchère, Harold; Medjkoune, Sofiane

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the context of handwritten mathematical expressions recognition, a first step consist on grouping strokes (segmentation) to form symbol hypotheses: groups of strokes that might represent a symbol. Then, the symbol recognition step needs to cope with the identification of wrong segmented symbols (false hypotheses). However, previous works on symbol recognition consider only correctly segmented symbols. In this work, we focus on the problem of mathematical symbol reco...

  9. Symbolism in To the Lighthouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项谊

    2013-01-01

    To the Lighthouse, a masterpiece of Virginia Woolf, is filled with various symbols which add special color to this novel. In this novel, the author puts new concept of novel writing to probe the deeper level of human psychology. She uses symbolism to reveal the inner characteristic of the heroes. Through analyzing the symbolic traits of the main characters, this paper tries to re-veal the author’s exploration of the interior difference between men and women.

  10. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  11. Language, Culture and Symbolic Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Theis, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    As Ernst Cassierer introduced in his “Philosophie der symbolischen Formen” in 1923, he specifically mentioned “language” as well as a way of symbolic forms. In 1991, the self declared “researcher on human sciences”, Norbert Elias, published his work called “The Symbol Theory” where he mainly writes about language as an application of symbolic forms and symbols. Elias does not make any reference to Cassirer at all, but states that languages are a part of a civilization process and part of cult...

  12. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Attitude Change. Part 1, Connectionist Models and Simulations of Cognitive Dissonance: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...

  13. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Attitude Change. Part 1, Connectionist Models and Simulations of Cognitive Dissonance: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...

  14. How Symbolic Experience Shapes Children's Symbolic Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Emily E.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiments asked whether children with dual-symbolic experience (e.g., unimodal bilingual and bimodal) develop a preference for words like monolingual children (Namy & Waxman, 1998). In Experiment 1, ninety-five 18- and 24-month-olds, with monolingual, unimodal bilingual, or bimodal symbolic experience, were tested in their…

  15. The analysis of control trajectories using symbolic and database computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This final report comprises the formal semi-annual status reports for this grant for the periods June 30-December 31, 1993, January 1-June 30, 1994, and June 1-December 31, 1994. The research supported by this grant is broadly concerned with the symbolic computation, mixed numeric-symbolic computation, and database computation of trajectories of dynamical systems, especially control systems. A review of work during the report period covers: trajectories and approximating series, the Cayley algebra of trees, actions of differential operators, geometrically stable integration algorithms, hybrid systems, trajectory stores, PTool, and other activities. A list of publications written during the report period is attached.

  16. Symbolic Time Separation of Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amon, Tod; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    We extend the TSE~\\cite{Hulgaard95} timing analysis algorithm into the symbolic domain, that is, we allow symbolic variables to be used to specify unknown parameters of the model (essentially, unknown delays) and verification algorithms which are capable of identifying not just failure or success...

  17. The Symbolism Of Chemical Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2005-01-01

    A question about the historical origin of equal sign and double arrow symbolism in balanced chemical equation is raised. The study shows that Marshall proposed the symbolism in 1902, which includes the use of currently favored double barb for equilibrium reactions.

  18. Sotho fertility symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional beliefs and mythical folklore of the Sotho-Tswana ethnic tribes of South Africa. Their ritual practices are predominantly concerned with the weather, the vicissitudes of the seasonal cycle, and, especially the rain-making powers of certain individuals. It is well known that rain, in all civilizations, is a symbol of fertility. Thus, adolescent girls and young women, as mediators of the association between water and fertility, can be relied upon to bring the clouds and torrential downpours. The characteristic Sesotho explanation that babies come from the river is clearly an allusion to the water of the womb, and the river is generally recognized as a methaphor of the womb. Also, the onset of menarche involves rituals having to do with the drawing and pouring of water, another clear allusion to the beginning of fertility.

  19. SYMBOLIC VERSOR COMPRESSION ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongbo

    2009-01-01

    In an inner-product space, an invertible vector generates a reflection with re-spect to a hyperplane, and the Clifford product of several invertible vectors, called a versor in Clifford algebra, generates the composition of the corresponding reflections, which is an orthogonal transformation. Given a versor in a Clifford algebra, finding another sequence of invertible vectors of strictly shorter length but whose Clifford product still equals the input versor, is called versor compression. Geometrically, versor compression is equivalent to decomposing an orthogoual transformation into a shorter sequence of reflections. This paper proposes a simple algorithm of compressing versors of symbolic form in Clifford algebra. The algorithm is based on computing the intersections of lines with planes in the corresponding Grassmann-Cayley algebra, and is complete in the case of Euclidean or Minkowski inner-product space.

  20. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...... them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply...

  1. Shanahan on symbolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago.

  2. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply......Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...

  3. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  4. Symbols of Pearl in The Scarlet letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiqing

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates The Scatet Letter with the help of analyzing the symbolic meanings of Pearl. In this article, the author attempts to propose the symbols of Pearl from four aspects: the function of the letter, the symbol of Hester's distillation of instinct;the symbol of freedom; the symbol of consummation. From the interpretation of the symbols of Pearl, it has been proved that Pearl becomes Hawthorne' s best vehicle to convey his attitudes toward Puritanism.

  5. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  6. Symbols of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeshda Komarowa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial arts, including sculpture, exist in the material sphere of culture and model the spatial aspects of the universe by themselves…Dmitri Budazhabe's sculpture appeared to link the epochs of the old oriental cultures to the modern life. His works are decorative objects and at the same time the rite symbols, which contain deep aspects of the Buddhism.The sculptures and vessels for incense bravely model the interior space and simultaneously play a leading part in it. They are maid artistically and first of all evoke peaceful feelings. The small steam of the incense smoke, coming out of special channels, continues to create the environment even beyond the vessel, involving the observer in the rite. The oriental images invite us to make philosophical conclusions and to search for eternal truth…Dmitri Budazhabe's works are performed in bronze moulding.Together with exotic forms, each sculpture has particular meaning. Thus the names sound lyrical and romantic: «The Treasure that Fulfils Wishes», «Sarasvati (The Goddess of the Morning Star», «The Warrior of Shambala» etc. Flexible sculptural bodies, plastic compositional decor and fleshy bulging forms recall melodies of the mysterious East and the eternal secret of the hidden symbols, that one's curious mind aspires to reveal.Dmitri Budazhabe's works are often designed for Buddhist temples, made by special request and used for rites. At the moment the author is finishing the work, which he considers to be of great moral importance: it is a 2 meter sculpture of Buddha for Dazan. When watching his work the sense of time disappears… There is no past; presence merges with future–only Aspiration for perfection moves the author's hands.

  7. Infants' teleological and belief inference: a recurrent connectionist approach to their minimal representational and computational requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overwalle, Frank

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the minimal representational and processing requirements for teleological and mentalistic inferences. These inferences are already present in 6- to 12-month-old infants when they judge the goals of moving agents like inanimate shapes, without any cue about human body motion. This precludes the mirror system as a potential explanation for these early inferences. I propose a recurrent connectionist network that represents a spatial grid in which objects are moving along trajectories that avoid potential obstacles. This network can simulate young infants' (a) teleological sensitivity to goals and obstacles blocking these goals, as well as their (b) mentalizing sensitivity, like attributing to an individual a false belief that differs from the child's reality. The model demonstrates how infants choose the most rational or efficient way through the grid towards the goal, a rational choice that emerges from prior familiarization with and generalization from trajectories and situational obstacles. In addition, mentalizing is accomplished by explicitly representing in the network an individual who watches (or not) where an object moves and keeping track of this individual's experiences and knowledge. This model helps to clarify that these rudimentary characteristics seem to be essential ingredients for an early teleological and mentalizing system. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A connectionist model of the retreat from verb argument structure overgeneralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Blything, Ryan P

    2016-11-01

    A central question in language acquisition is how children build linguistic representations that allow them to generalize verbs from one construction to another (e.g., The boy gave a present to the girl → The boy gave the girl a present), whilst appropriately constraining those generalizations to avoid non-adultlike errors (e.g., I said no to her → *I said her no). Although a consensus is emerging that learners solve this problem using both statistical and semantics-based learning procedures (e.g., entrenchment, pre-emption, and semantic verb class formation), there currently exist few - if any - proposals for a learning model that combines these mechanisms. The present study used a connectionist model to test an account that argues for competition between constructions based on (a) verb-in construction frequency, (b) relevance of constructions for the speaker's intended message, and (c) fit between the fine-grained semantic properties of individual verbs and individual constructions. The model was able not only (a) to simulate the overall pattern of overgeneralization-then-retreat, but also (b) to use the semantics of novel verbs to predict their argument structure privileges (just as real learners do), and

  9. Meaningful questions: The acquisition of auxiliary inversion in a connectionist model of sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Hartmut; Chang, Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Nativist theories have argued that language involves syntactic principles which are unlearnable from the input children receive. A paradigm case of these innate principles is the structure dependence of auxiliary inversion in complex polar questions (Chomsky, 1968, 1975, 1980). Computational approaches have focused on the properties of the input in explaining how children acquire these questions. In contrast, we argue that messages are structured in a way that supports structure dependence in syntax. We demonstrate this approach within a connectionist model of sentence production (Chang, 2009) which learned to generate a range of complex polar questions from a structured message without positive exemplars in the input. The model also generated different types of error in development that were similar in magnitude to those in children (e.g., auxiliary doubling, Ambridge, Rowland, & Pine, 2008; Crain & Nakayama, 1987). Through model comparisons we trace how meaning constraints and linguistic experience interact during the acquisition of auxiliary inversion. Our results suggest that auxiliary inversion rules in English can be acquired without innate syntactic principles, as long as it is assumed that speakers who ask complex questions express messages that are structured into multiple propositions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonword reading: comparing dual-route cascaded and connectionist dual-process models with human data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Stephen C; Coltheart, Max; Palethorpe, Sallyanne; Castles, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Two prominent dual-route computational models of reading aloud are the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model, and the connectionist dual-process plus (CDP+) model. While sharing similarly designed lexical routes, the two models differ greatly in their respective nonlexical route architecture, such that they often differ on nonword pronunciation. Neither model has been appropriately tested for nonword reading pronunciation accuracy to date. We argue that empirical data on the nonword reading pronunciation of people is the ideal benchmark for testing. Data were gathered from 45 Australian-English-speaking psychology undergraduates reading aloud 412 nonwords. To provide contrast between the models, the nonwords were chosen specifically because DRC and CDP+ disagree on their pronunciation. Both models failed to accurately match the experiment data, and both have deficiencies in nonword reading performance. However, the CDP+ model performed significantly worse than the DRC model. CDP++, the recent successor to CDP+, had improved performance over CDP+, but was also significantly worse than DRC. In addition to highlighting performance shortcomings in each model, the variety of nonword responses given by participants points to a need for models that can account for this variety.

  11. Cognitive Dissonance and Affect: An Initial Test of a Connectionist Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Jordens

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In their connectionist model of cognitive dissonance, Van Overwalle & Jordens (2002 put forward the hypothesis that positive affect increases behaviour-induced attitudes, while negative affect decreases attitudes. In this article, this hypothesised role of affect was tested for two well-known paradigms in the cognitive dissonance literature: free choice and induced compliance. For the free-choice paradigm, we replicated the findings in the difficult-high choice condition of Shultz, Léveillé, and Lepper (1999 and additionally induced negative mood. As predicted, negative mood resulted in a more negative attitude compared to no mood induction. For the induced compliance paradigm, we replicated the Linder, Cooper, and Jones (1967 dissonance and reinforcement findings and additionally induced opposite mood in the nochoice (reinforcement conditions. Specifically, we induced positive mood in the low reward condition and negative mood in the high reward condition. Again as predicted, positive mood increased the attitude and negative mood decreased the attitude, resulting in an elimination of the reinforcement effect.

  12. Prognostics of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells stack using an ensemble of constraints based connectionist networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Kamran; Gouriveau, Rafael; Zerhouni, Noureddine; Hissel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is considered the most versatile among available fuel cell technologies, which qualify for diverse applications. However, the large-scale industrial deployment of PEMFCs is limited due to their short life span and high exploitation costs. Therefore, ensuring fuel cell service for a long duration is of vital importance, which has led to Prognostics and Health Management of fuel cells. More precisely, prognostics of PEMFC is major area of focus nowadays, which aims at identifying degradation of PEMFC stack at early stages and estimating its Remaining Useful Life (RUL) for life cycle management. This paper presents a data-driven approach for prognostics of PEMFC stack using an ensemble of constraint based Summation Wavelet- Extreme Learning Machine (SW-ELM) models. This development aim at improving the robustness and applicability of prognostics of PEMFC for an online application, with limited learning data. The proposed approach is applied to real data from two different PEMFC stacks and compared with ensembles of well known connectionist algorithms. The results comparison on long-term prognostics of both PEMFC stacks validates our proposition.

  13. Social Symbolic Work in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    ‘the good organisation’ may offer a supportive organisational framework for social symbolic work, thus promoting regional development in peripheral and poorly developed regions. Exploring what qualifies as a ‘good organisation’, the paper identifies three key elements: management, motivation......This paper reports on a research project that explores social symbolic work. The social symbolic work in question seeks to introduce education in entrepreneurship into the school curriculum in a remote part of Greenland – in order to contribute to regional development. The paper investigates how...

  14. Liturgical singing as ritual symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenie Calitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liturgical singing is more than text and melody; it is also symbol and ritual. It is part of the ensemble of rituals within the worship service. As a ritual symbol, it is closely connected to the culture or subculture where it is conducted. Meaning is not only immanent in the text (lyrics, but assigned on a continuous base and differs from culture to culture. As a ritual symbol, liturgical singing does not only point to another reality, but presents the other reality within the cultural context of the worship service; within ritual the music and melody are more important than text and lyrics. Liturgical singing as a ritual symbol is never static, but in a continuous process of change.

  15. From Continuous Dynamics to Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    This article deals with mathematical models of discrete, identifiable, `symbolic' events in neural and cognitive dynamics. These dynamical symbols are the supposed correlates of identifiable motor action patterns, from phoneme utterances to restaurant visits. In the first main part of the article, models of dynamical symbols offered by dynamical systems theory are reviewed: attractors, bifurcations, spatial segregation and boundary formation, and several others. In the second main part, the concept of transient attractor (TA) is offered as yet another mathematical model of dynamical symbols. TAs share with ordinary attractors a basic property, namely, local phase space contraction. However, a TA can disappear almost as soon as it is created, which could (not very rigorously) be interpreted as a bifurcation induced by quickly changing control parameters. Such `fast bifurcation sequences' standardly occur in neural and cognitive dynamics.

  16. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathanael Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skilfful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  17. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathaniel Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skillful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  18. PARADIGM FOR CONTEMPORARY SYMBOLIC REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Korableva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Civilization development in its concrete historical specificity is embodied in symbolic forms that require interpretation and understanding of its meaning. Info communication symbolic reality sets new parameters of self-determination rights, creates a new type of information behavior. Adequate entry into the modern social context requires analysis of the basic concepts of symbolic reality of human existence, and its contemporary sound. The dialectical materialist methodology allows us to investigate human immersion in contradictive meanings of the era, the skills of interaction with the increased flow of information, the ability to determine information needs and use this information right way as well as the ability to analyze this information. Scientific novelty is reflected in axiological evolutionary approach to the analysis of reproduction in the sign and symbol of the spiritual and the practical forms of human multidimensional realities of their existence in their specific historical context. Conclusions: 1 Persons' immersion into the space of cultural and historical symbolic processes determines the content of their socialization which is a process of self-identification in the symbolic reality, the process of entering the subject-shaped field of human culture; 2 An adequate model of signs and symbols reflects the diversity of information flows, that is the synthesis of a specific objective and true knowledge, its interpretation and value. Herewith, a lot of interpretations, pluralism and diversity of axiological points of view to understanding objective reality are obvious; 3 The use of signs becomes like a code or the language for communication between people. The interpretation of clip-culture determines the adequacy and efficiency of action based on the identified meanings and values of diverse information and communication symbolic reality.

  19. Symbol Recognition using Spatial Relations

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Lamiroy, Bart; Wendling, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a method for symbol recognition based on the spatio-structural description of a 'vocabulary' of extracted visual elementary parts. It is applied to symbols in electrical wiring diagrams. The method consists of first identifying vocabulary elements into different groups based on their types (e.g., circle, corner ). We then compute spatial relations between the possible pairs of labelled vocabulary types which are further used as a basis for bui...

  20. Symbols of a cosmic order

    CERN Document Server

    Madjid, F Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The world runs on communicated sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role...

  1. Transfer of conflict and cooperation from experienced games to new games: A connectionist model of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas eSpiliopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether, and if so how, learning can be transfered from previously experienced games to novel games has recently attracted the attention of the experimental game theory literature. Existing research presumes that learning operates over actions, beliefs or decision rules. This study instead uses a connectionist approach that learns a direct mapping from game payoffs to a probability distribution over own actions. Learning is operationalized as a backpropagation rule that adjusts the weights of feedforward neural networks in the direction of increasing the probability of an agent playing a myopic best response to the last game played. One advantage of this approach is that it expands the scope of the model to any possible nxn normal-form game allowing for a comprehensive model of transfer of learning. Agents are exposed to games drawn from one of seven classes of games with significantly different strategic characteristics and then forced to play games from previously unseen classes. I find significant transfer of learning, i.e., behavior that is path-dependent, or conditional on the previously seen games. Cooperation is more pronounced in new games when agents are previously exposed to games where the incentive to cooperate is stronger than the incentive to compete, i.e., when individual incentives are aligned. Prior exposure to Prisoner's dilemma, zero-sum and discoordination games led to a significant decrease in realized payoffs for all the game classes under investigation. A distinction is made between superficial and deep transfer of learning both---the former is driven by superficial payoff similarities between games, the latter by differences in the incentive structures or strategic implications of the games. I examine whether agents learn to play the Nash equilibria of games, how they select amongst multiple equilibria, and whether they transfer Nash equilibrium behavior to unseen games. Sufficient exposure to a

  2. A connectionist-geostatistical approach for classification of deformation types in ice surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz-Weiss, L. R.; Herzfeld, U. C.; Hale, R. G.; Hunke, E. C.; Bobeck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation is a class of highly non-linear geophysical processes from which one can infer other geophysical variables in a dynamical system. For example, in an ice-dynamic model, deformation is related to velocity, basal sliding, surface elevation changes, and the stress field at the surface as well as internal to a glacier. While many of these variables cannot be observed, deformation state can be an observable variable, because deformation in glaciers (once a viscosity threshold is exceeded) manifests itself in crevasses.Given the amount of information that can be inferred from observing surface deformation, an automated method for classifying surface imagery becomes increasingly desirable. In this paper a Neural Network is used to recognize classes of crevasse types over the Bering Bagley Glacier System (BBGS) during a surge (2011-2013-?). A surge is a spatially and temporally highly variable and rapid acceleration of the glacier. Therefore, many different crevasse types occur in a short time frame and in close proximity, and these crevasse fields hold information on the geophysical processes of the surge.The connectionist-geostatistical approach uses directional experimental (discrete) variograms to parameterize images into a form that the Neural Network can recognize. Recognizing that each surge wave results in different crevasse types and that environmental conditions affect the appearance in imagery, we have developed a semi-automated pre-training software to adapt the Neural Net to chaining conditions.The method is applied to airborne and satellite imagery to classify surge crevasses from the BBGS surge. This method works well for classifying spatially repetitive images such as the crevasses over Bering Glacier. We expand the network for less repetitive images in order to analyze imagery collected over the Arctic sea ice, to assess the percentage of deformed ice for model calibration.

  3. Input and Age-Dependent Variation in Second Language Learning: A Connectionist Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janciauskas, Marius; Chang, Franklin

    2017-07-26

    Language learning requires linguistic input, but several studies have found that knowledge of second language (L2) rules does not seem to improve with more language exposure (e.g., Johnson & Newport, 1989). One reason for this is that previous studies did not factor out variation due to the different rules tested. To examine this issue, we reanalyzed grammaticality judgment scores in Flege, Yeni-Komshian, and Liu's (1999) study of L2 learners using rule-related predictors and found that, in addition to the overall drop in performance due to a sensitive period, L2 knowledge increased with years of input. Knowledge of different grammar rules was negatively associated with input frequency of those rules. To better understand these effects, we modeled the results using a connectionist model that was trained using Korean as a first language (L1) and then English as an L2. To explain the sensitive period in L2 learning, the model's learning rate was reduced in an age-related manner. By assigning different learning rates for syntax and lexical learning, we were able to model the difference between early and late L2 learners in input sensitivity. The model's learning mechanism allowed transfer between the L1 and L2, and this helped to explain the differences between different rules in the grammaticality judgment task. This work demonstrates that an L1 model of learning and processing can be adapted to provide an explicit account of how the input and the sensitive period interact in L2 learning. © 2017 The Authors. Cognitive Science - A Multidisciplinary Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Why does brain damage impair memory? A connectionist model of object recognition memory in perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2006-11-22

    Object recognition is the canonical test of declarative memory, the type of memory putatively impaired after damage to the temporal lobes. Studies of object recognition memory have helped elucidate the anatomical structures involved in declarative memory, indicating a critical role for perirhinal cortex. We offer a mechanistic account of the effects of perirhinal cortex damage on object recognition memory, based on the assumption that perirhinal cortex stores representations of the conjunctions of visual features possessed by complex objects. Such representations are proposed to play an important role in memory when it is difficult to solve a task using representations of only individual visual features of stimuli, thought to be stored in regions of the ventral visual stream caudal to perirhinal cortex. The account is instantiated in a connectionist model, in which development of object representations with visual experience provides a mechanism for judgment of previous occurrence. We present simulations addressing the following empirical findings: (1) that impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex (modeled by removing the "perirhinal cortex" layer of the network) are exacerbated by lengthening the delay between presentation of to-be-remembered items and test, (2) that such impairments are also exacerbated by lengthening the list of to-be-remembered items, and (3) that impairments are revealed only when stimuli are trial unique rather than repeatedly presented. This study shows that it may be possible to account for object recognition impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex within a hierarchical, representational framework, in which complex conjunctive representations in perirhinal cortex play a critical role.

  5. Symbols of a cosmic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  6. The Core Method: Connectionist Model Generation for First-Order Logic Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, S.; Hitzler, P.; Hölldobler, S.; Witzel, A.; Hammer, B.; Hitzler, P.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge based artificial networks networks have been applied quite successfully to propositional knowledge representation and reasoning tasks. However, as soon as these tasks are extended to structured objects and structure-sensitive processes it is not obvious at all how neural symbolic systems s

  7. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  8. On the Symbolic Verification of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how to analyze a timed system symbolically. That is, given a symbolic representation of a set of (timed) states (as an expression), we describe how to determine an expression that represents the set of states that can be reached either by firing a discrete transition...... or by advancing time. These operations are used to determine the set of reachable states symbolically. We also show how to symbolically determine the set of states that can reach a given set of states (i.e., a backwards step), thus making it possible to verify TCTL-formulae symbolically. The analysis is fully...... symbolic in the sense that both the discrete and the continuous part of the state space are represented symbolically. Furthermore, both the synchronous and asynchronous concurrent composition of timed systems can be performed symbolically. The symbolic representations are given as formulae expressed...

  9. The mathematica guidebook for symbolics

    CERN Document Server

    Trott, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mathematica is today's most advanced technical computing system. It features a rich programming environment, two-and three-dimensional graphics capabilities and hundreds of sophisticated, powerful programming and mathematical functions using state-of-the-art algorithms. Combined with a user-friendly interface, and a complete mathematical typesetting system, Mathematica offers an intuitive easy-to-handle environment of great power and utility. "The Mathematica GuideBook for Symbolics" (code and text fully tailored for Mathematica 5.1) deals with Mathematica's symbolic mathematical capabilities. Structural and mathematical operations on single and systems of polynomials are fundamental to many symbolic calculations and they are covered in considerable detail. The solution of equations and differential equations, as well as the classical calculus operations (differentiation, integration, summation, series expansion, limits) are exhaustively treated. Generalized functions and their uses are discussed. In addition...

  10. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider...... primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical format of a mechanical and a formal world view. Such views become imposed on the domains addressed by means of mathematics and formal languages. Through such impositions symbolic power of mathematics becomes exercised. The idea that mathematics...... describes as it prioritises is discussed with reference to robotting and surveillance. In general, the symbolic power of mathematics and formal languages is summarised through the observations: that mathematics treats parts and properties as autonomous, that it dismembers what it addresses and destroys...

  11. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  12. Recognizing Cultural Image and Symbol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 崔春燕

    2008-01-01

    When we live in a particular country.we automatically become exposed and accustomed to a range of images and symbol embedded in songs and pictures,places and customs.These images and symbols include famous people in the culture,and architectural and landscape features such as the White House in Washington and the White Cliffs of Dover.Familiarity with these images helps students to feel more confident and to become fluent.In this sense.some points will be covered.

  13. Symbolic Dynamics of Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J. W.; Dickens, P. M.

    2003-12-01

    Symbolic dynamics1 is the study of sequences of symbols belonging to a discrete set of elements, the most commmon example being a sequence of ones and zeroes. Often the set of symbols is derived from a timeseries of a continuous variable through the introduction of a partition function--a process called symbolization. Symbolic dynamics has been used widely in the physical sciences; a geophysical example being the application of C1 and C2 complexity2 to hourly precipitation station data3. The C1 and C2 complexities are computed by examining subsequences--or words--of fixed length L in the limit of large values of L. Recent advances in information theory have led to techniques focused on the growth rate of the Shannon entropy and its asymptotic behavior in the limit of long words--levels of entropy convergence4. The result is a set of measures one can use to quantify the amount of memory stored in the sequence, whether or not an observer is able to synchronize to the sequence, and with what confidence it may be predicted. These techniques may also be used to uncover periodic behavior in the sequence. We are currently applying complexity theory and levels of entropy convergence to gridpoint timeseries from the NCAR/NCEP 50-year reanalysis5. Topics to be discussed include: a brief introduction to symbolic dynamics; a description of the partition function/symbolization strategy; a discussion of C1 and C2 complexity and entropy convergence rates and their utility; and example applications of these techniques to NCAR/NCEP 50-reanalyses gridpoint timeseries, resulting in maps of C1 and C2 complexities and entropy convergence rates. Finally, we will discuss how these results may be used to validate climate models. 1{Hao, Bai-Lin, Elementary Symbolic Dynamics and Chaos in Dissipative Systems, Wold Scientific, Singapore (1989)} 2{d'Alessandro, G. and Politi, A., Phys. Rev. Lett., 64, 1609-1612 (1990).} 3{Elsner, J. and Tsonis, A., J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 400-405 (1993).} 4

  14. Made to Symbolize: Intentionality and Children's Early Understanding of Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Tanya

    2005-01-01

    This experiment tested whether children's insight into a difficult symbolic relation could be increased by explicitly emphasizing the intentionality surrounding the artifact's creation and use. Specifically, I explicitly emphasized (a) the adult's intent to communicate information via the artifact and (b) the artifact's intentional origins and…

  15. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  16. Transfer of conflict and cooperation from experienced games to new games: a connectionist model of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether, and if so how, learning can be transfered from previously experienced games to novel games has recently attracted the attention of the experimental game theory literature. Existing research presumes that learning operates over actions, beliefs or decision rules. This study instead uses a connectionist approach that learns a direct mapping from game payoffs to a probability distribution over own actions. Learning is operationalized as a backpropagation rule that adjusts the weights of feedforward neural networks in the direction of increasing the probability of an agent playing a myopic best response to the last game played. One advantage of this approach is that it expands the scope of the model to any possible n × n normal-form game allowing for a comprehensive model of transfer of learning. Agents are exposed to games drawn from one of seven classes of games with significantly different strategic characteristics and then forced to play games from previously unseen classes. I find significant transfer of learning, i.e., behavior that is path-dependent, or conditional on the previously seen games. Cooperation is more pronounced in new games when agents are previously exposed to games where the incentive to cooperate is stronger than the incentive to compete, i.e., when individual incentives are aligned. Prior exposure to Prisoner's dilemma, zero-sum and discoordination games led to a significant decrease in realized payoffs for all the game classes under investigation. A distinction is made between superficial and deep transfer of learning both—the former is driven by superficial payoff similarities between games, the latter by differences in the incentive structures or strategic implications of the games. I examine whether agents learn to play the Nash equilibria of games, how they select amongst multiple equilibria, and whether they transfer Nash equilibrium behavior to unseen games. Sufficient exposure to a strategically heterogeneous

  17. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider pr...

  18. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  19. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  20. Allegories and Symbols in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Victor I.; Cavazos, Lionel J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript describes how counselors can facilitate self-awareness in clients and counselors-in-training through the use of metaphors. The use of metaphors and others symbols provide a creative, non-intrusive, and non-confrontational approach to counseling. Examples of stories and fables used during counseling sessions and instructional…

  1. Symbolism of Colors in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚

    2013-01-01

    There are so many words to convey different colors in English. We should pay attention to not only their basic mean-ing, but also their deeply symbolized meaning. They express different meaning owing to different cultures. In western society, col-ors have their exotic symbolized meaning. This is a permanent cultural phenomenon. In the thesis, the author discusses the sym-bolic meaning of five basic colors:red, white, black, yellow and green, and the background of the symbolic meaning of each col-or.Color is very close to people’s life. It is important for people to understand the world. Colors not only have physical character, but also have rich intension and stretchy meanings. People of different nations often have different feeling about the same color as a result of their different cultural and historical background. So colors show differences between different cultures. The author dis-cusses seven main reasons that lead to the differences of colors’symbolic meaning between Chinese and western culture, such as different political systems, different historic vicissitudes, different cultural tradition and custom, different habits of thinking and way of expressing, different natural environments and living standards, different mentality, different emotion. These words are used frequently and have plenty of sentiment. What should pay more attention to is that because of the differences between differ-ent nationalities and cultural background, or different social classes, each color has its special meaning. It is active in terms of lin-guistics. That endows color words with associative meaning.

  2. O paradigma conexionista aplicado às pesquisas em linguagem The connectionist paradigm applied to language researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marafiga Wiethan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo trata da Teoria Conexionista e suas vertentes e de como este modelo teórico pode contribuir para a prática fonoaudiológica. O objetivo do trabalho foi reunir e discutir diversos estudos sobre a teoria conexionista aplicada à aprendizagem da linguagem, com o intuito de promover uma reflexão sobre as contribuições que esta teoria pode trazer à prática fonoaudiológica. A partir disso, verificou-se que os estudos baseados na teoria conexionista relacionados à Fonoaudiologia são predominantes na área de aquisição e terapia da linguagem, processamento auditivo e de leitura. Porém, os mesmos são escassos e pouco aplicados. Além disso, não há uma relação direta com as técnicas que podem ser utilizadas, mas sim com a análise da evolução terapêutica, especialmente na interpretação de como se dá o processo de aprendizagem da língua falada e/ou escrita.The study deals with the Connectionist Theory and its branches, and how this theoretical model can contribute to the speech and language practice. This was aimed to collect and discuss several studies on the Connectionist Theory applied to language acquisition aiming at promoting the reflection on the contributions that this theory may bring out to speech and language therapy. It was found that the studies based on the connectionist theory related to speech and language therapy are prevalent in the area of language acquisition and language therapy, auditory and reading processing. However, they are scarce and little applied. Moreover, there is no direct relation between this theory and the techniques that can be used, but yes, with the analysis of therapeutic outcome, especially with the interpretation of how the process concerning learning the spoken and written language is carried out.

  3. Slew Timer For Symbol Display Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paul A.

    1993-01-01

    Slew-length timer generates delay and, at end of delay, signal indicating end of one of slews of electron beam in cathode-ray-tube display driven by symbol generator. End-of-slew signal constitutes "permission" for symbol generator to begin drawing next symbol segment.

  4. Symbol recognition with kernel density matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Kun

    2006-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to similarity assessment for graphic symbols. Symbols are represented as 2D kernel densities and their similarity is measured by the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Symbol orientation is found by gradient-based angle searching or independent component analysis. Experimental results show the outstanding performance of this approach in various situations.

  5. Symbolic computation for evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, P.; Yang, QP; Salleh; Jones, BE

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of symbolic computation, the integration of symbolic and numeric methods is increasingly applied in various applications. This paper proposed the use of symbolic computation for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. The general method and procedure are discussed, and its great potential and powerful features for measurement uncertainty evaluation has been demonstrated through examples.

  6. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as...

  7. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  8. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  9. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic ...

  10. How Universal Are Universal Symbols? An Estimation of Cross-Cultural Adoption of Universal Healthcare Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy Lo, Chih-Wei; Yien, Huey-Wen; Chen, I-Ping

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of universal health symbol usage and to analyze the factors influencing the adoption of those symbols in Taiwan. Universal symbols are an important innovative tool for health facility wayfinding systems. Hablamos Juntos, a universal healthcare symbol system developed in the United States, is a thoughtful, well-designed, and thoroughly tested symbol system that facilitates communication across languages and cultures. We designed a questionnaire to test how well the selected graphic symbols were understood by Taiwanese participants and determined factors related to successful symbol decoding, including participant-related factors, stimulation factors, and the interaction between stimulation and participants. Additionally, we further established a design principle for future development of localized healthcare symbols. (1) Eleven symbols were identified as highly comprehensible and effective symbols that can be directly adopted in Taiwanese healthcare settings. Sixteen symbols were deemed incomprehensible or confusing and thus had to be redesigned. Finally, 14 were identified as relatively incomprehensible and could thus be redesigned and then have their effectiveness evaluated again. (2) Three factors were found to influence the participants' differing levels of comprehension of the Hablamos Juntos symbols. In order to prevent the three aforementioned factors from causing difficulty in interpreting symbols, we suggest that the local symbol designers should (1) use more iconic images, (2) carefully evaluate the indexical and symbolic meaning of graphic symbols, and (3) collect the consensus of Taiwanese people with different educational backgrounds. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. [Man as a symbolic animal--symptoms as symbolic interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J

    1991-12-10

    This is an article about views of human nature. In western medicine man is conceived mainly as a biological being, a mammal. Philosophical-ontological questions about man's nature are answered implicitly in clinical practice. They are not, however, reflected explicitly. In this article it is argued that symptoms are primarily human experience. To understand these experiences and their expressions, it is necessary to understand man as an "animal symbolicum", a term introduced by the German philosopher Ernst Cassirer. Language is the most specific expression of man's symbolic activities, and symptoms are expressed verbally. Speech is part of social interaction--we, as human beings, have "the power of speech". This way of thinking is illustrated by clinical examples, and an alternative medical practice, homeopathy, is analyzed as a special means of symbolic interaction.

  12. The origins of Japanese national symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtan’ko M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of constructivism, the image of national and ethnical identity – the image of a nation as an “imaginary political community” – supposes the inclusion of the specially created symbolic signs, which are recognized by the whole community in general. First of all, these signs encompass national symbols. This article is dedicated to revealing specific aspects of forming of such national symbols as the flag and the anthem of Japan. Analyzing these symbols through the prism of political culture, the authors indicate the stable continuity in symbolism of national tradition modern expression within the historical constituent of Japan.

  13. Bioeconomy, Moral Friction and Symbolic Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    ‘symbolic’, treaties aimed at protecting the body are symbols with great impact. Similarly, the material preparation of body parts as tradable grafts involves symbolic work and this symbolism is an essential part of making a ‘market’. I argue that instances of ‘symbolic law’ can reflect situations in which...... several competing agendas are at play and to understand the effects, we therefore need to investigate empirically what emerges through this friction between competing governmental ambitions. My discussion is based on studies of tissue exchange in Europe and seeks to integrate theories of symbolic law...

  14. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... - could be exposed to sexualised violence. Another example is that therapy and other forms of help do not draw on critical perspectives on gender conditions. Rather, frequently and in essencialising approaches to concepts of femininity and masculinity, they individualise or over...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  15. Symbolic dynamics and hyperbolic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Coornaert, Michel

    1993-01-01

    Gromov's theory of hyperbolic groups have had a big impact in combinatorial group theory and has deep connections with many branches of mathematics suchdifferential geometry, representation theory, ergodic theory and dynamical systems. This book is an elaboration on some ideas of Gromov on hyperbolic spaces and hyperbolic groups in relation with symbolic dynamics. Particular attention is paid to the dynamical system defined by the action of a hyperbolic group on its boundary. The boundary is most oftenchaotic both as a topological space and as a dynamical system, and a description of this boundary and the action is given in terms of subshifts of finite type. The book is self-contained and includes two introductory chapters, one on Gromov's hyperbolic geometry and the other one on symbolic dynamics. It is intended for students and researchers in geometry and in dynamical systems, and can be used asthe basis for a graduate course on these subjects.

  16. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  17. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  18. Colour Symbols in Mari Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Glukhova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a system of colour symbols in Mari folk songs based on the results of a multifold investigation. The research was carried out with the help of a complex technique applied to 2100 songs from different song collections. Mari colour symbols have never before been the object of research. The process of investigation included several steps. The most important of these was the semantic analysis that helped to discern 2000 mentions of four main spectre colours as well as white, black, silver, and golden. Quantitative data evaluation singled out a dominant group by a dichotomous method, applying the principle of simple majority employed in mathematical statistics. The same technique divided the other colour symbols into complementary, auxiliary, and insignificant groups. The results of an investigation into ethnic symbology are also shown graphically. The main reconstructed meanings of colour in the analysed songs denote such emotions as joy, wonder, astonishment, grief, melancholy, some aesthetic ideals, ethical vices, as well as people’s character and appearance.

  19. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  20. VULTURES: EXEGESIS OF A SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Andreoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the different cultures and historical periods, vultures have been considered both impure or sacred. But, since they usually do not prey upon living animals, their symbolic dimension, associated to the idea of purification, is present in many myths, religions, burial praxis of ancient populations and remains in some religions today.In the ancient Mediterranean civilizations, they have been carved in some of the most ancient bas-reliefs of the history by stone age people; were sacred to Egyptians, who even took them as symbol of gods; in the classical times they were supposed to be all feminine and breed by parthenogenesis, and therefore appreciated by some early Christian authors, who came to comparing them even to the Virgin Mary; they have been studied and described by ancient scientists, naturalists, philosophers, playwrights; involved in many of the most enduring Greek and Roman myths and legends; many parts of their body were considered as a medicine or even a talisman for happiness; and they were so proverbial for Romans to become even one of the symbols of the founding of Rome itself.But they were also so fragile that perfumes, myrrh and pomegranates were supposed to be lethal for them ….

  1. Combining Explicit and Symbolic Approaches for Better On-the-Fly LTL Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Duret-Lutz, Alexandre; Poitrenaud, Denis; Thierry-Mieg, Yann

    2011-01-01

    We present two new hybrid techniques that replace the synchronized product used in the automata-theoretic approach for LTL model checking. The proposed products are explicit graphs of aggregates (symbolic sets of states) that can be interpreted as B\\"uchi automata. These hybrid approaches allow on the one hand to use classical emptiness-check algorithms and build the graph on-the-fly, and on the other hand, to have a compact encoding of the state space thanks to the symbolic representation of the aggregates. The Symbolic Observation Product assumes a globally stuttering property (e.g., LTL \\ X) to aggregate states. The Self-Loop Aggregation Product} does not require the property to be globally stuttering (i.e., it can tackle full LTL), but dynamically detects and exploits a form of stuttering where possible. Our experiments show that these two variants, while incomparable with each other, can outperform other existing approaches.

  2. Connectionist models of language processing and the training of listening skills with the aid of multimedia software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Hulstijn

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of recent developments in cognitive science, juxtaposing two schools of thought, symbolism and connectionism. It is argued that both connectionism and symbolism are relevant for second language learning. A simple software tool for listening comprehension is then des

  3. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Hester M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the homonym problem for human gene symbols is shown to be substantial (33% of the genes in our combined thesaurus had one or more ambiguous symbols, not only because one symbol can refer to multiple genes, but also because a gene symbol can have many non-gene meanings. A test set of 52,529 Medline abstracts, containing 690 ambiguous human gene symbols taken from OMIM, was automatically generated. Overall accuracy of the disambiguation algorithm was up to 92.7% on the test set. Conclusion The ambiguity of human gene symbols is substantial, not only because one symbol may denote multiple genes but particularly because many symbols have other, non-gene meanings. The proposed disambiguation approach resolves most ambiguities in our test set with high accuracy, including the important gene/not a gene decisions. The algorithm is fast and scalable, enabling gene-symbol disambiguation in massive text mining applications.

  4. Ordinality and the nature of symbolic numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2013-10-23

    The view that representations of symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers are closely tied to one another is widespread. However, the link between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers is almost always inferred from cardinal processing tasks. In the current work, we show that considering ordinality instead points to striking differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers. Human behavioral and neural data show that ordinal processing of symbolic numbers (Are three Indo-Arabic numerals in numerical order?) is distinct from symbolic cardinal processing (Which of two numerals represents the greater quantity?) and nonsymbolic number processing (ordinal and cardinal judgments of dot-arrays). Behaviorally, distance-effects were reversed when assessing ordinality in symbolic numbers, but canonical distance-effects were observed for cardinal judgments of symbolic numbers and all nonsymbolic judgments. At the neural level, symbolic number-ordering was the only numerical task that did not show number-specific activity (greater than control) in the intraparietal sulcus. Only activity in left premotor cortex was specifically associated with symbolic number-ordering. For nonsymbolic numbers, activation in cognitive-control areas during ordinal processing and a high degree of overlap between ordinal and cardinal processing networks indicate that nonsymbolic ordinality is assessed via iterative cardinality judgments. This contrasts with a striking lack of neural overlap between ordinal and cardinal judgments anywhere in the brain for symbolic numbers, suggesting that symbolic number processing varies substantially with computational context. Ordinal processing sheds light on key differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing both behaviorally and in the brain. Ordinality may prove important for understanding the power of representing numbers symbolically.

  5. From Signs to Symbols, from Symbols to Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Erkkilä

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the relationship between music and language is first considered theoretically. Here the ideas and concepts are mainly derived from psychoanalytical theory as well as from its reformulations. A theory on the (early forms of thinking is presented in which the author grounds the different types of meaning included both in music and language - without forgetting the unique features of them. Upon this, the differences and similarities between music therapy and psychotherapy are considered. It is suggested that instead of many unique characteristics of the therapies, the differences are not necessarily fundamental, and further, both of them have some advantages and shortcomings that can be associated with language - some way or another. After the theory part, the role of free improvisation in the music psychotherapy is considered. The author describes the process "from signs to symbols, from symbols to words" where improvisation in music psychotherapy process can play an important role. Here the role of improvisation analysis is emphasized. A specific "graphic notation" method, developed at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, is presented. Through an example, based on the utilization of this method, the author illustrates what kind of meanings it is possible to "extract" by aid of it. Some suggestions for the clinical interpretations are also made.

  6. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  7. Integrated speech and morphological processing in a connectionist continuous speech understanding for Korean

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Lee, Geunbae; Lee, Jong-Hyeok

    1996-01-01

    A new tightly coupled speech and natural language integration model is presented for a TDNN-based continuous possibly large vocabulary speech recognition system for Korean. Unlike popular n-best techniques developed for integrating mainly HMM-based speech recognition and natural language processing in a {\\em word level}, which is obviously inadequate for morphologically complex agglutinative languages, our model constructs a spoken language system based on a {\\em morpheme-level} speech and language integration. With this integration scheme, the spoken Korean processing engine (SKOPE) is designed and implemented using a TDNN-based diphone recognition module integrated with a Viterbi-based lexical decoding and symbolic phonological/morphological co-analysis. Our experiment results show that the speaker-dependent continuous can be achieved with over 80.6\\% success rate directly from speech inputs for the middle-level vocabularies.

  8. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning.

  9. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  10. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  11. Natural Symbols in The Bluest Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慧慧

    2014-01-01

    The Bluest Eye abounds in natural symbols, which bear profound symbolic meaning. This paper aims to explore and in-terpret these natural symbols, including the four seasons, the marigolds, and the dandelions, which construct the setting of the sto-ry, and reveal the theme of the novel-cutting the root of one’s own culture can be devastating and one has to cherish one’s own cultural heritage.

  12. Medical Symbols in Practice: Myths vs Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shraddha; Dsouza, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background: The caduceus is the popular symbol of medicine. However, premier health organizations and regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization and the Medical Council of India use a different symbol- the rod of Asclepius in their logo. There is an increasing awareness and recognition that the caduceus is a false symbol and has no historical substantiation as an emblem of medicine. Many academic and health institutions in the western hemisphere have changed their logo as a consequence. There are other symbols of medicine which are similarly misunderstood. Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge of common medical symbols among doctors and medical students. Materials and Methods: Three hundred doctors and medical students were assessed on their knowledge about the Rx symbol, the Red Cross emblem and the true representative emblem of medicine. Logos and emblems of elite medical colleges and medical associations were also studied. Results: Only 6% of doctors were aware that the Rod of Asclepius is the true symbol of healing. Knowledge of the significance of the Rx symbol and the origin of the Red Cross emblem was 55% and 39 %. Conclusion: There is very little awareness about the rod of Asclepius and most institutions have adopted a logo based on the caduceus. Awareness of the true origins and the symbolism of the emblems is lacking in the medical fraternity. PMID:25302242

  13. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLandy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity—the capacity for symbolic reasoning—as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures.

  14. Symbolic Values in Steinbeck's Short Stories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤英

    2003-01-01

    The essay will analyze the symbols created by Steinbeck and disclose the meaning of the most widely used symbols John Steinbeck resorted toin some of his short stories. These interpretations of the symbols may reveal to readers an utterly different system of values. The author will explore those stories that are relevant from this point of view. This paper will highlight,emphasize and interpret different symbols presented in his stories too. And the author will give a possible way of tackling of Steinbeck short stories.

  15. A perceptual account of symbolic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Allen, Colin; Zednik, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People can be taught to manipulate symbols according to formal mathematical and logical rules. Cognitive scientists have traditionally viewed this capacity-the capacity for symbolic reasoning-as grounded in the ability to internally represent numbers, logical relationships, and mathematical rules in an abstract, amodal fashion. We present an alternative view, portraying symbolic reasoning as a special kind of embodied reasoning in which arithmetic and logical formulae, externally represented as notations, serve as targets for powerful perceptual and sensorimotor systems. Although symbolic reasoning often conforms to abstract mathematical principles, it is typically implemented by perceptual and sensorimotor engagement with concrete environmental structures.

  16. Building fire zone model with symbolic mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武红梅; 郜冶; 周允基

    2009-01-01

    To apply the fire modelling for the fire engineer with symbolic mathematics,the key equations of a zone model were demonstrated. There were thirteen variables with nine constraints,so only four ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were required to solve. A typical fire modelling with two-room structure was studied. Accordingly,the source terms included in the ODEs were simplified and modelled,and the fourth Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with symbolic mathematics. Then a zone model could be used with symbolic mathematics. It is proposed that symbolic mathematics is possible for use by fire engineer.

  17. Design of analog circuits through symbolic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhfakh, Mourad; V Fernández, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic analyzers have the potential to offer knowledge to sophomores as well as practitioners of analog circuit design. Actually, they are an essential complement to numerical simulators, since they provide insight into circuit behavior which numerical analyzers do not provide. Symbolic analysis of electronic circuits addresses the generation of symbolic expressions for the parameters that describe the performance of linear and nonlinear circuits in three domains: DC, AC and time; some or all the circuit parameters can be kept as symbols. Due to the fact that these expressions remain va

  18. Inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yagang [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Box 235, Baoding, Hebei 071003 (China); Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); E-mail: ygzhg@163.com; Wang Changjiang [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); Zhou Zhong [Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)

    2006-04-01

    The inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. The symbolic sequences bear three characteristics. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. By using transfer probability of Markov chain (MC), we obtain analytic expressions of generating functions in four probabilities stochastic wander model, which can be applied to all 4-symbolic systems. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to study some properties of DNA sequences.

  19. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  20. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  1. Symbolic trephinations and population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Szathmáry

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sample examined consists of 19 skulls with symbolic trephinations and 86 skulls without trepanations dated from the X century. Skulls were all excavated in the Great Hungarian Plain in the Carpathian Basin, which was occupied by the Hungarian conquerors at the end of the IX century. The variations of 12 cranial dimensions of the trephined skulls were investigated and compared to the skulls without trepanations after performing a discriminant analysis. The classification results evince that the variability of non-trephined skulls shows a more homogeneous and a more characteristic picture of their own group than the trephined samples, which corresponds to the notion, formed by archaeological evidence and written historical sources, of a both ethnically and socially differing population of the Hungarian conquerors. According to historical research, a part of the population was of Finno-Ugric origin, while the military leading layer of society can be brought into connection with Turkic ethnic groups. All the same, individuals dug up with rich grave furniture and supposed to belong to this upper stratum of society are primarily characterized by the custom of symbolic trephination, and, as our results demonstrate, craniologically they seem to be more heterogeneous.

  2. Honorary authorship and symbolic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2017-03-01

    This paper invokes the conceptual framework of Bourdieu to analyse the mechanisms, which help to maintain inappropriate authorship practices and the functions these practices may serve. Bourdieu's social theory with its emphasis on mechanisms of domination can be applied to the academic field, too, where competition is omnipresent, control mechanisms of authorship are loose, and the result of performance assessment can be a matter of symbolic life and death for the researchers. This results in a problem of game-theoretic nature, where researchers' behaviour will be determined more by the logic of competition, than by individual character or motives. From this follows that changing this practice requires institutionalized mechanisms, and change cannot be expected from simply appealing to researchers' individual conscience. The article aims at showing that academic capital (administrative power, seniority) is translated into honorary authorship. With little control, undetected honorary authorship gives the appearance of possessing intellectual capital (scientific merit). In this way a dominant position is made to be seen as natural result of intellectual ability or scientific merit, which makes it more acceptable to those in dominated positions. The final conclusion of this paper is that undemocratic authorship decisions and authorship based performance assessment together are a form of symbolic violence.

  3. Data science and symbolic AI: Synergies, challenges and opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-06-02

    Symbolic approaches to artificial intelligence represent things within a domain of knowledge through physical symbols, combine symbols into symbol expressions, and manipulate symbols and symbol expressions through inference processes. While a large part of Data Science relies on statistics and applies statistical approaches to artificial intelligence, there is an increasing potential for successfully applying symbolic approaches as well. Symbolic representations and symbolic inference are close to human cognitive representations and therefore comprehensible and interpretable; they are widely used to represent data and metadata, and their specific semantic content must be taken into account for analysis of such information; and human communication largely relies on symbols, making symbolic representations a crucial part in the analysis of natural language. Here we discuss the role symbolic representations and inference can play in Data Science, highlight the research challenges from the perspective of the data scientist, and argue that symbolic methods should become a crucial component of the data scientists’ toolbox.

  4. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  5. Symbolism in Korean martial art Taekwondo

    OpenAIRE

    Seménková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Thesubjectofthis thesis Symbolism in Koreanmartial art Taekwondoistheanalysisofsymbolsappearing in thetwolargestTaekwondoFederations - ITF and WTF. Thefirst part introducesrelevantsemiotictheories, historical background, the emergence oftaekwondo and itsfederations and a shortbiographyofCh'oeHonghŭi - oneofthe most importantfiguresassociatedwiththismartial art. Theextensive second part presents a closerlook on symbolism, language and visualsigns and theirdevelopment in the most commonstyles: ...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated...

  7. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  8. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  9. Democracy and the Symbolic Constitution of Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindahl, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, this paper argues that the continuities and discontinuities characterizing the passage from medieval politics to modern democracy can best be understood by reference to political power's symbolic structure. For the one, political power,

  10. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.

    2016-12-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  11. Symbolic reduction of block diagrams using FORMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C. F.; Swigert, P.

    1968-01-01

    Two computer programs - one written in FORMAC to generate the desired symbolic expressions, the other in FORTRAN 4 to numerically evaluate the expressions are announced. The FORTRAN program accepts the symbolic punched output from the FORMAC program in either unexpanded or expanded form. It numerically evaluates the expressions.

  12. On Symbolism of A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Ling

    2015-01-01

    The success of a novel mainly lies in its characters and themes.The use of a lot of symbols and images is a tool which can better highlight the major theme of the novel as well as the protagonists' inner world.This article mainly analyzes symbolism integrated with the skill of contrast used on nature and some supporting characters in the novel.

  13. On Symbolism of A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui; Ling

    2015-01-01

    The success of a novel mainly lies in its characters and themes.The use of a lot of symbols and images is a tool which can better highlight the major theme of the novel as well as the protagonists’ inner world.This article mainly analyzes symbolism integrated with the skill of contrast used on nature and some supporting characters in the novel.

  14. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally o

  15. Original Symbols in Episode Four of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Ulysses is considered to be the masterpiece of James Joyce's literary accomplishments.Many symbols are applied in this novel,of which the implied meanings are obscure but significant.This paper is intended to make a detailed analysis of the original symbols in the fourth episode of Ulysses.

  16. Original Symbols in Episode Four of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Ulysses is considered to be the masterpiece of James Joyce’s literary accomplishments.Many symbols are applied in this novel,of which the implied meanings are obscure but significant.This paper is intended to make a detailed analysis of the original symbols in the fourth episode of Ulysses.

  17. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  18. Symbol of Support: The Pink Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Arleen C.; Lewis, Max W.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that the 1995 American Counseling Association convention presents a moral dilemma for members who support the use of antidiscrimination legislation to protect the rights of gays, lesbians, and bisexual individuals. Uses historic metaphor, based on symbols used during Nazi extermination, to explore strategic symbolic acts in support of a…

  19. The Sound-Symbolic System of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Shoko

    This study explores sound-symbolic, or mimetic, words in the Japanese language, the majority of which are never entered in Japanese dictionaries, and which may not be fully understood in all their nuances by native speakers. The extensiveness of the sound-symbolic system is related to the semantic under-differentiation of Japanese verbs. An…

  20. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  1. 'promoted' or 'demoted'?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... thought process which takes place by indicating how a symbol (a word or an ... The scope of this research is within the field of symbols as religious phenomena. ..... between the forms and the content is secondary in nature.

  2. The Symbolic Independence From Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Muraro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Muraro’s article begins from the philosophical question of the ‘unthought’, and asks how our very image of thought is transformed when the thinking subject is a woman, and her thought is specifically linked to the experience of a body. On the basis of a feminist interrogation of sexual difference which reveals the forms of violence inherent in certain claims to universality, Muraro tries to develop a thinking of politics which would rest on its symbolic distance or independence from power. Through readings of Freud, Macbeth, Saint Paul and women’s narratives, Muraro investigates the dangers borne by the fusion of power and politics and explores the ways in which they could be disjoined.

  3. Symbolic walk in regular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G.

    2015-01-01

    We find that a symbolic walk (SW)—performed by a walker with memory given by a Bernoulli shift—is able to distinguish between the random or chaotic topology of a given network. We show this result by means of studying the undirected baker network, which is defined by following the Ulam approach for the baker transformation in order to introduce the effect of deterministic chaos into its structure. The chaotic topology is revealed through the central role played by the nodes associated with the positions corresponding to the shortest periodic orbits of the generating map. They are the overwhelmingly most visited nodes in the limit cycles at which the SW asymptotically arrives. Our findings contribute to linking deterministic chaotic dynamics with the properties of networks constructed using the Ulam approach.

  4. Objective Symbols in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2013-01-01

      The novel Lord of the Flies was published in 1954, since then, a lot of praise, including the honor of the Nobel Prize in literature, was given to the novel and its author. The magic of the novel lies in something under the surface meaning of the novel it⁃self. With symbolism as a main figurative device, there are various symbols in this novel. Symbol, in literature, is a thing that refers or suggests something more than its literal meaning. In this novel, a lot of symbols are employed, some of them are obvious, others are obscure. This paper will focus on the objective symbols, the things and the people that can be seen by our eyes.

  5. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  6. Dorsoventral and Proximodistal Hippocampal Processing Account for the Influences of Sleep and Context on Memory (Reconsolidation: A Connectionist Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lines

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The context in which learning occurs is sufficient to reconsolidate stored memories and neuronal reactivation may be crucial to memory consolidation during sleep. The mechanisms of context-dependent and sleep-dependent memory (reconsolidation are unknown but involve the hippocampus. We simulated memory (reconsolidation using a connectionist model of the hippocampus that explicitly accounted for its dorsoventral organization and for CA1 proximodistal processing. Replicating human and rodent (reconsolidation studies yielded the following results. (1 Semantic overlap between memory items and extraneous learning was necessary to explain experimental data and depended crucially on the recurrent networks of dorsal but not ventral CA3. (2 Stimulus-free, sleep-induced internal reactivations of memory patterns produced heterogeneous recruitment of memory items and protected memories from subsequent interference. These simulations further suggested that the decrease in memory resilience when subjects were not allowed to sleep following learning was primarily due to extraneous learning. (3 Partial exposure to the learning context during simulated sleep (i.e., targeted memory reactivation uniformly increased memory item reactivation and enhanced subsequent recall. Altogether, these results show that the dorsoventral and proximodistal organization of the hippocampus may be important components of the neural mechanisms for context-based and sleep-based memory (reconsolidations.

  7. Neuropsychology and Cognitive Neuroscience in the fMRI Era: A Recapitulation of Localizationist and Connectionist Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterer, Matthew J; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-09-21

    We highlight the past 25 years of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the impact to the field of the introduction in 1992 of functional MRI (fMRI). We reviewed the past 25 years of literature in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the relation and interplay of fMRI studies and studies utilizing the "lesion method" in human participants with focal brain damage. Our review highlights the state of localist/connectionist research debates in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology circa 1992, and details how the introduction of fMRI into the field at that time catalyzed a new wave of efforts to map complex human behavior to specific brain regions. This, in turn, eventually evolved into many studies that focused on networks and connections between brain areas, culminating in recent years with large-scale investigations such as the Human Connectome Project. We argue that throughout the past 25 years, neuropsychology-and more precisely, the "lesion method" in humans-has continued to play a critical role in arbitrating conclusions and theories derived from inferred patterns of local brain activity or wide-spread connectivity from functional imaging approaches. We conclude by highlighting the future for neuropsychology in the context of an increasingly complex methodological armamentarium. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Exploring the impact of plasticity-related recovery after brain damage in a connectionist model of single-word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Stephen R; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2005-03-01

    The effect of retraining a damaged connectionist model of single-word reading was investigated with the aim of establishing whether plasticity-related changes occurring during the recovery process can contribute to our understanding of the pattern of dissociations found in brain-damaged patients. In particular, we sought to reproduce the strong frequency x consistency interactions found in surface dyslexia. A replication of Plaut, McClelland, Seidenberg, and Patterson's (1996) model of word reading was damaged and then retrained, using a standard backpropagation algorithm. Immediately after damage, there was only a small frequency x consistency interaction. Retraining the damaged model crystallized out these small differences into a strong dissociation, very similar to the pattern found in surface dyslexic patients. What is more, the percentage of regularization errors, always high in surface dyslexics, increased greatly over the retraining period, moving from under 10% to over 80% in some simulations. These results suggest that the performance patterns of brain-damaged patients can owe as much to the substantial changes in the pattern of connectivity occurring during recovery as to the original premorbid structure. This finding is discussed in relation to the traditional cognitive neuropsychological assumptions of subtractivity and transparency.

  9. SYMBOL AND LOGO. THE WAY IN WHICH YOUNG PEOPLE IN KRAKOW PERCEIVE SYMBOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbols are essential elements of each culture. Thanks to them the meaning is created and tradition is kept alive. Advertising and marketing specialist quite often use the meanings of the symbols to create trademarks. In this way specialists refer to the assotiations rooted in the tradition.In my article I am trying to answer following questions: Has logo become symbol? Has logo taken over all the function of the symbol? Can we tell the difference between the meaning of the advertisement and the cultural meaning? I also want to find out, what people understand through the meaning of the symbol. Therfore I have conducted the survey among the high school students and the customers of three banks of Krakow. My researches have shown that most young people find it difficult to define the meaning of the symbol. Moreover high school students cannot show the difference between the symbol and the trade mark.

  10. RGST - Rat Gene Symbol Tracker, a database for defining official rat gene symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståhl Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The names of genes are central in describing their function and relationship. However, gene symbols are often a subject of controversy. In addition, the discovery of mammalian genes is now so rapid that a proper use of gene symbol nomenclature rules tends to be overlooked. This is currently the situation in the rat and there is a need for a cohesive and unifying overview of all rat gene symbols in use. Based on the experiences in rat gene symbol curation that we have gained from running the "Ratmap" rat genome database, we have now developed a database that unifies different rat gene naming attempts with the accepted rat gene symbol nomenclature rules. Description This paper presents a newly developed database known as RGST (Rat Gene Symbol Tracker. The database contains rat gene symbols from three major sources: the Rat Genome Database (RGD, Ensembl, and NCBI-Gene. All rat symbols are compared with official symbols from orthologous human genes as specified by the Human Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC. Based on the outcome of the comparisons, a rat gene symbol may be selected. Rat symbols that do not match a human ortholog undergo a strict procedure of comparisons between the different rat gene sources as well as with the Mouse Genome Database (MGD. For each rat gene this procedure results in an unambiguous gene designation. The designation is presented as a status level that accompanies every rat gene symbol suggested in the database. The status level describes both how a rat symbol was selected, and its validity. Conclusion This database fulfils the important need of unifying rat gene symbols into an automatic and cohesive nomenclature system. The RGST database is available directly from the RatMap home page: http://ratmap.org.

  11. A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Mitsuo; Cavalcanti, Diego; Gheyi, Rohit; Iyoda, Juliano; dAmorim, Marcelo; Prudencio, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of constraints is a major obstacle for constraint-based software verification. Automatic constraint solvers are fundamentally incomplete: input constraints often build on some undecidable theory or some theory the solver does not support. This paper proposes and evaluates several randomized solvers to address this issue. We compare the effectiveness of a symbolic solver (CVC3), a random solver, three hybrid solvers (i.e., mix of random and symbolic), and two heuristic search solvers. We evaluate the solvers on two benchmarks: one consisting of manually generated constraints and another generated with a concolic execution of 8 subjects. In addition to fully decidable constraints, the benchmarks include constraints with non-linear integer arithmetic, integer modulo and division, bitwise arithmetic, and floating-point arithmetic. As expected symbolic solving (in particular, CVC3) subsumes the other solvers for the concolic execution of subjects that only generate decidable constraints. For the remaining subjects the solvers are complementary.

  12. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Munyangeyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although the flower symbolism has social connotations, it is mainly associated with economic references. As flowers are an essential precursor to fruits, they are inevitably a source of expectations and hence foster a set of hopes and dreams, which can ultimately lead to excitement or disappointment.Through a discourse analysis based on factional narratives, this article explores the parameters through which the symbolism of bifaceted meaning of flowers fictionalises a space that refers to the social reality. This association between the fictional world and social reference has highlighted that writing can profoundly be a means of representing social events through the rhetoric of symbolism. Through a sociological reading approach, this paper aims to analyse how the symbolism of flowers informs the rhetoric of disenchantment that can foster a content-based pedagogy in language learning where silencing practices engender imagery to exercise the freedom of expression.

  13. On The Evolutionary Origin of Symbolic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouchy, Paul; D’Eleuterio, Gabriele M. T.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Lipson, Hod

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of symbolic communication is often cited as a critical step in the evolution of Homo sapiens, language, and human-level cognition. It is a widely held assumption that humans are the only species that possess natural symbolic communication schemes, although a variety of other species can be taught to use symbols. The origin of symbolic communication remains a controversial open problem, obfuscated by the lack of a fossil record. Here we demonstrate an unbroken evolutionary pathway from a population of initially noncommunicating robots to the spontaneous emergence of symbolic communication. Robots evolve in a simulated world and are supplied with only a single channel of communication. When their ability to reproduce is motivated by the need to find a mate, robots evolve indexical communication schemes from initially noncommunicating populations in 99% of all experiments. Furthermore, 9% of the populations evolve a symbolic communication scheme allowing pairs of robots to exchange information about two independent spatial dimensions over a one-dimensional channel, thereby increasing their chance of reproduction. These results suggest that the ability for symbolic communication could have emerged spontaneously under natural selection, without requiring cognitive preadaptations or preexisting iconic communication schemes as previously conjectured.

  14. On The Evolutionary Origin of Symbolic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouchy, Paul; D’Eleuterio, Gabriele M. T.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Lipson, Hod

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of symbolic communication is often cited as a critical step in the evolution of Homo sapiens, language, and human-level cognition. It is a widely held assumption that humans are the only species that possess natural symbolic communication schemes, although a variety of other species can be taught to use symbols. The origin of symbolic communication remains a controversial open problem, obfuscated by the lack of a fossil record. Here we demonstrate an unbroken evolutionary pathway from a population of initially noncommunicating robots to the spontaneous emergence of symbolic communication. Robots evolve in a simulated world and are supplied with only a single channel of communication. When their ability to reproduce is motivated by the need to find a mate, robots evolve indexical communication schemes from initially noncommunicating populations in 99% of all experiments. Furthermore, 9% of the populations evolve a symbolic communication scheme allowing pairs of robots to exchange information about two independent spatial dimensions over a one-dimensional channel, thereby increasing their chance of reproduction. These results suggest that the ability for symbolic communication could have emerged spontaneously under natural selection, without requiring cognitive preadaptations or preexisting iconic communication schemes as previously conjectured. PMID:27721422

  15. Reflections on the clinical implications of symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Barros, Elias M; da Rocha Barros, Elizabeth L

    2011-08-01

    We start by stressing the idea that the process itself of constructing the symbol in its different components and its vicissitudes is centrally important to contemporary psychoanalysis as symbols are essential for thinking and for storing emotional experiences in our memory and for conveying our affects to others and to ourselves. Our implicit idea is that internal attacks are not directed only at the internal objects, but also include attacks on the structure or forms of the mental representations before and while they become constituted in symbols. It is by this means that destructive impulses invade the processes of symbolic construction. Symbols can lose their plasticity and thus silence the emotions and therefore cut off the patient from their meanings. Our clinical material allows us to increase our understanding of how the formal qualities of symbols operate in mental life, and how they can interfere in the capacity to work through emotional experiences. Finally, our reflections based on the analysis of a patient with difficulty in relating with the meanings of the symbols he produced will highlight the importance of the analyst's reverie along the process of formulating an interpretation. This paper is also part of a development in the study of the process of reverie.

  16. Symbols and schemas in emotional eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols....... Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic...

  17. The Employment of Symbolism in The Dubliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅

    2013-01-01

    The Dubliners is a famous novel by the eminent Irish novelist James Joyce. This book collection begins with new-born life and ends with death. The unity of form and content symbolizes the life process of a human being—from birth to death, there⁃fore we can say that Dubliners is the image of a human being. In this collection, Joyce employs several kinds of symbolic method and symbols play a very important role in the implied meanings of these short stories.

  18. Toeplitz Operators with Essentially Radial Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C. Raimondo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For Topelitz operators with radial symbols on the disk, there are important results that characterize boundedness, compactness, and its relation to the Berezin transform. The notion of essentially radial symbol is a natural extension, in the context of multiply-connected domains, of the notion of radial symbol on the disk. In this paper we analyze the relationship between the boundary behavior of the Berezin transform and the compactness of when ∈2(Ω is essentially radial and Ω is multiply-connected domains.

  19. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...

  20. The Symbolism in the Moby Dick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷

    2012-01-01

    Moby Dick,written by Herman Melville,is considered to be one of the greatest American Novels and a treasure of world literature.In this book,Melville uses a lot of symbols.If the readers do not understand the symbolism of this book,they will have many difficulties to grasp the complex theme of it.Here,I'd like to analyze the symbolism of the some main characters and objects,simply to help readers understand the themes:the concepts of class and social status,good and evil,the existence of God and the struggl...

  1. Boosting Wigner's nj-symbols

    CERN Document Server

    Speziale, Simone

    2016-01-01

    We study the SL(2,C) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appearing in the lorentzian EPRL spin foam amplitudes for loop quantum gravity. We show how the amplitudes decompose into SU(2) nj-symbols at the vertices and integrals over boosts at the edges. The integrals define edge amplitudes that can be evaluated analytically using and adapting results in the literature, leading to a pure state sum model formulation. This procedure introduces virtual representations which, in a manner reminiscent to virtual momenta in Feynman amplitudes, are off-shell of the simplicity constraints present in the theory, but with the integrands that peak at the on-shell values. We point out some properties of the edge amplitudes which are helpful for numerical and analytical evaluations of spin foam amplitudes, and suggest among other things a simpler model useful for calculations of certain lowest order amplitudes. As an application, we estimate the large spin scaling behaviour of the simpler model, on a closed foam with all 4-valent edg...

  2. Boosting Wigner's nj-symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Simone

    2017-03-01

    We study the SL (2 ,ℂ ) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appearing in the Lorentzian EPRL spin foam amplitudes for loop quantum gravity. We show how the amplitudes decompose into SU(2) nj- symbols at the vertices and integrals over boosts at the edges. The integrals define edge amplitudes that can be evaluated analytically using and adapting results in the literature, leading to a pure state sum model formulation. This procedure introduces virtual representations which, in a manner reminiscent of virtual momenta in Feynman amplitudes, are off-shell of the simplicity constraints present in the theory, but with the integrands that peak at the on-shell values. We point out some properties of the edge amplitudes which are helpful for numerical and analytical evaluations of spin foam amplitudes, and suggest among other things a simpler model useful for calculations of certain lowest order amplitudes. As an application, we estimate the large spin scaling behaviour of the simpler model, on a closed foam with all 4-valent edges and Euler characteristic χ , to be Nχ -5 E +V /2. The paper contains a review and an extension of the results on SL (2 ,ℂ ) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients among unitary representations of the principal series that can be useful beyond their application to quantum gravity considered here.

  3. Category-specific visual agnosia: lesion to semantic memory versus extra-lesional variables in a case study and a connectionist model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, E; Giusiano, B

    2003-12-01

    There is a current debate on the causes of category-specific agnosia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of lesional and extra-lesional variables on object recognition. Extra-lesional variables, such as visual complexity or familiarity, are factors that influence recognition. Using a connectionist model based on study, we provide evidence that extra-lesional variables can yield dissociations in the recognition rate of different categories. Furthermore, it is shown that lesional and extra-lesional variables can interact (p agnosia might thus result from complex interactions.

  4. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  5. Symbolic Tensor Calculus -- Functional and Dynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Woszczyna, A; Czaja, W; Golda, Z A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly discuss the dynamic and functional approach to computer symbolic tensor analysis. The ccgrg package for Wolfram Language/Mathematica is used to illustrate this approach. Some examples of applications are attached.

  6. Victimisation and Relations of Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  7. Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.

  8. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media...

  9. The Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德平

    2009-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is Fitzgerald's finest novel, which was published in 1925, and Eliot considered it "to be the first step that America has taken since Henry James". It is a sensitive and symbolic treatment of themes of contemporary life related with irony and pathos to the legendry of "American dream". In this novel, Fitzgerald used many techniques: the controlled and detached point of view, the crafted structure and symbolism, all these distinguish The Great Gatsby from the style of his earlier works.However, in this paper Ⅰ want to present my ideas of the symbolism in The Great Gatsby. During my pressntation, Ⅰ have quoted some materials from critics to support my arguments. In the conclusion part, Ⅰ also repeat my own opinion: the significant symbolism made The Great Garry the "small" masterpiece of American literature

  10. Three-Distance Sequences with Three Symbols

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAMOTO, Kuniko

    2003-01-01

    We will show that every $3$ dimensional cutting sequence is a three-distance sequence, and there are uncountable many periodic or aperiodic three-distance sequences (with $3$-symbols) which are not $3$ dimensional cutting sequences.

  11. Unpacking Symbolic Equations in Introductory Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Torigoe, Eugene T

    2015-01-01

    Symbolic equations are one of the many representations used in the discipline of physics. Understanding these representations is important for students because they are how students access knowledge in physics. In this paper I build off of the work by Redish and Kuo, which described the cultural differences between how math is used in math class and physics class, and the work by Fredlund et al, which described the importance of unpacking representations for physics student. I will describe how differences in the goals of numeric and symbolic problem solving lead to different set of affordances. In particular, the inability to distinguish variables, knowns, and unknowns in symbolic problem solving is a benefit when describing a generalized physical system. I also present evidence that observed errors when trying to solve symbolic problems are due to students acting on inappropriate cues associated with numeric problem solving.

  12. Victimisation and Relations of Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  13. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  14. Symbolic and non symbolic numerical representation in adults with and without developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Tamar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question whether Developmental Dyscalculia (DD; a deficit in the ability to process numerical information is the result of deficiencies in the non symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., a group of dots or in the symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., Arabic numerals has been debated in scientific literature. It is accepted that the non symbolic system is divided into two different ranges, the subitizing range (i.e., quantities from 1-4 which is processed automatically and quickly, and the counting range (i.e., quantities larger than 4 which is an attention demanding procedure and is therefore processed serially and slowly. However, so far no study has tested the automaticity of symbolic and non symbolic representation in DD participants separately for the subitizing and the counting ranges. Methods DD and control participants undergo a novel version of the Stroop task, i.e., the Enumeration Stroop. They were presented with a random series of between one and nine written digits, and were asked to name either the relevant written digit (in the symbolic task or the relevant quantity of digits (in the non symbolic task while ignoring the irrelevant aspect. Result DD participants, unlike the control group, didn't show any congruency effect in the subitizing range of the non symbolic task. Conclusion These findings suggest that DD may be impaired in the ability to process symbolic numerical information or in the ability to automatically associate the two systems (i.e., the symbolic vs. the non symbolic. Additionally DD have deficiencies in the non symbolic counting range.

  15. Symbolism in Hills Like White Elephants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢倩

    2014-01-01

    Hills Like White Elephants tells a story that happens in a small pub, where the protagonists are waiting for the train to Madrid in order to do the abortion.The thesis highlights the “iceberg theory”which is embodied everywhere in the text. By analyzing the the symbolism in the title, the names and the environment,the charm of the symbolism is well reflected.

  16. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  17. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, and show how it can be applied for efficient verification of open (incomplete) programs. The focus is on an Algol-like programming language which contains the core ingredients of imperative and functional languages, especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment.By using symbolic values instead of...

  18. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Gijs; Pol,, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recur...

  19. Symbolism and Advertising in Pop Art

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The premise of the written work on the subject of Symbolism and Advertising in Pop Art is to reveal that the thread of symbolism, in advertisement and other forms of media, whether it be ancient or contemporary, has been an intrinsic part of all artworks to date and that historically, movements in socio-economic structures of societies and their relative consumerism have been a catalyst in the direction of representational art works. I will first approach the conce...

  20. [The wounded body, knowledge and art symbolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Jorda, Gloria

    2011-02-01

    A brief tour through all art periods, analyzing and searching, to determine the meaning and symbolism of the wound in each period. To study the relationship and symbolism art / body / wound, is a vast and complex task. Can be approached from every angle imaginable. Different disciplines such as anthropology history and philosophy medicine, and now the art, we have provided different interpretations about the meaning representation and wounded human body through the centuries.

  1. Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof

    CERN Document Server

    Agler, David

    2012-01-01

    Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Symbolic Logic: Syntax, Semantics, and Proof introduces students to the fundamental concepts, techniques, and topics involved in deductive reasoning. Agler guides students through the basics of symbolic logic by explaining the essentials of two classical systems, propositional and predicate logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into

  2. A symbol-by-symbol decoding algorithm of 3GPP MBMS Raptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongxin; Sun, Xiangran; Yang, Zhanxin; Niu, Lipi

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a symbol-by-symbol decoding algorithm of 3GPP MBMS Raptor. We redefine the initial matrix of 3GPP MBMS Raptor, and add some ancillary information to help make up for destruction of linear relationship in matrix caused by advanced Gauss elimination in 3GPP MBMS Raptor. So we can realize a correct decoding by symbolby- symbol, while 3GPP can not. The proposed algorithm is adapted to an erasure channel with large symbols, low code rate, big time delay or high error probability , and it can greatly improve decoding efficiency.

  3. Symbolic Analysis of Concurrent Programs with Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of multi-core and multi-processor computing is causing a paradigm shift from inherently sequential to highly concurrent and parallel applications. Certain thread interleavings, data input values, or combinations of both often cause errors in the system. Systematic verification techniques such as explicit state model checking and symbolic execution are extensively used to detect errors in such systems [7, 9]. Explicit state model checking enumerates possible thread schedules and input data values of a program in order to check for errors [3, 9]. To partially mitigate the state space explosion from data input values, symbolic execution techniques substitute data input values with symbolic values [5, 7, 6]. Explicit state model checking and symbolic execution techniques used in conjunction with exhaustive search techniques such as depth-first search are unable to detect errors in medium to large-sized concurrent programs because the number of behaviors caused by data and thread non-determinism is extremely large. We present an overview of abstraction-guided symbolic execution for concurrent programs that detects errors manifested by a combination of thread schedules and data values [8]. The technique generates a set of key program locations relevant in testing the reachability of the target locations. The symbolic execution is then guided along these locations in an attempt to generate a feasible execution path to the error state. This allows the execution to focus in parts of the behavior space more likely to contain an error.

  4. Expanding the Role of Connectionism in SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how connectionism might expand its role in second language acquisition (SLA) theory by showing how some symbolic models of bilingual and second language lexical memory can be reduced to a biologically realistic (i.e., neurally plausible) connectionist model. This integration or hybridization of the two models follows the…

  5. Expanding the Role of Connectionism in SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how connectionism might expand its role in second language acquisition (SLA) theory by showing how some symbolic models of bilingual and second language lexical memory can be reduced to a biologically realistic (i.e., neurally plausible) connectionist model. This integration or hybridization of the two models follows the…

  6. Symbolic Power in European Diplomacy: The Struggle Between National Foreign Services and the EU's External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    -capital, that is, its monopoly of symbolic power and this explains the counter-strategies adopted by national foreign services. The struggles to define the ‘genuine’ diplomat reveal a rupture in the European diplomatic field, pointing towards a transformation of European statehood and the emergence of a hybrid...

  7. 7 CFR 28.525 - Symbols and code numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols and code numbers. 28.525 Section 28.525... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Symbols and Code Numbers Used in Recording Cotton Classification § 28.525 Symbols and code numbers. For administrative convenience, the symbols...

  8. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  9. Online medical symbol recognition using a Tablet PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Amlan; Hu, Qian; Boykin, Stanley; Clark, Cheryl; Fish, Randy; Jones, Stephen; Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a scheme to enhance the usability of a Tablet PC's handwriting recognition system by including medical symbols that are not a part of the Tablet PC's symbol library. The goal of this work is to make handwriting recognition more useful for medical professionals accustomed to using medical symbols in medical records. To demonstrate that this new symbol recognition module is robust and expandable, we report results on both a medical symbol set and an expanded symbol test set which includes selected mathematical symbols.

  10. Mathematical Definitions of Point, Line and Area Symbols in Cartography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenzhan; ZHONG Yexun; PENG Yueying; ZHENG Hongbo

    2003-01-01

    The line cartographic symbol located on the boundary and the point cartographic symbol located by single point are the main body and stress of the map. The cartographic symbols are divided into point, line and area symbol in cartography and traditional educational books, but up to now there is only qualitative description about the three kinds of symbols, there are not the mathematical definitions of point, line and area symbols. This paper tries to solve the problem. The authors propose the mathematical definition about point,line and area cartographic symbol according to the theory of topology and expound their dependence relation.

  11. Double symbolic joint entropy in nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenpo; Wang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Symbolizations, the base of symbolic dynamic analysis, are classified as global static and local dynamic approaches which are combined by joint entropy in our works for nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis. Two global static methods, symbolic transformations of Wessel N. symbolic entropy and base-scale entropy, and two local ones, namely symbolizations of permutation and differential entropy, constitute four double symbolic joint entropies that have accurate complexity detections in chaotic models, logistic and Henon map series. In nonlinear dynamical analysis of different kinds of heart rate variability, heartbeats of healthy young have higher complexity than those of the healthy elderly, and congestive heart failure (CHF) patients are lowest in heartbeats' joint entropy values. Each individual symbolic entropy is improved by double symbolic joint entropy among which the combination of base-scale and differential symbolizations have best complexity analysis. Test results prove that double symbolic joint entropy is feasible in nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis.

  12. 论东坡符号%On Symbols of Dongpo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清泉

    2012-01-01

    东坡的符号化主要借助典型化、抽象化、现实化手段实现。东坡符号具有三大特征:多重象征、文人情结和品牌效应。从对象上划分,可以分为东坡物质符号、东坡非物质符号;从生态上划分,可以分为东坡原生态符号、东坡衍生态符号;从形态上划分,可以分为东坡语言符号、东坡肖像符号、东坡遗址符号、东坡书画符号、东坡数字符号。%Symbolization of Dongpo is realized by using typification, abstraction and actualization. Symbols of Dongpo has three characters: multiple-cultural symbolization,complex of Chinese literati and brand effects. In terms of objects, symbols of Dongpo can be divided into material symbols and nonmaterial symbols. In terms of ecology, symbols of Dongpo can be divided into original symbols and derivative symbols. From the perspective of form, symbols of Dongpo can be divided into linguis- tic symbols, image symbols relics symbols, painting symbols, and number symbols.

  13. Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cañizares, Danilka; Reigosa Crespo, Vivian; González Alemañy, Eduardo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a general deficit in magnitude representations or a specific deficit in the connection of symbolic representations with the corresponding analogous magnitudes. DD was diagnosed using a timed arithmetic task. The experimental magnitude comparison tasks were presented in non-symbolic and symbolic formats. DD and typically developing (TD) children showed similar numerical distance and size congruity effects. However, DD children performed significantly slower in the symbolic task. These results are consistent with the access deficit hypothesis, according to which DD children's deficits are caused by difficulties accessing magnitude information from numerical symbols rather than in processing numerosities per se.

  14. The Semiotic Perspectives of the Symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Radvánszky

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse l’ouvrage de Tzvetan Todorov intitulé Théories du symbole, qui présente l’histoire des théories du symbole. Evaluant les conclusions en matière de sciences littéraires de l’entreprise de Todorov, l’étude relève les lacunes de cette histoire et les insuffisances de la méthode sémiotique choisie. L’auteur suspecte l’œuvre de Todorov de véhiculer en plusieurs endroits les marques de la néorhétorique du XXe siècle et cherche à mettre en évidence les conséquences de cette corrélation qui touche à la méthodologie de l’œuvre.This paper analyses Tzvetan Todorov’s Theories of the Symbol, which describes the history of the theories of the symbol. Considering the literary achievements of Todorov’s undertaking, the essay reflects on the shortcomings of the history of the symbol presented and the inadequacy of the chosen semiotic method. The author assumes that Todorov’s book adopts the views of the 20th century neo-rhetorics on several points, and she intends to point out some basic consequences of this correlation that relate to the methodology of the book.

  15. On the symbolism of the white coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2014-12-01

    The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry.

  16. Effects of Non-Symbolic Approximate Number Practice on Symbolic Numerical Abilities in Pakistani Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanum, Saeeda; Hanif, Rubina; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Berteletti, Ilaria; Hyde, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Current theories of numerical cognition posit that uniquely human symbolic number abilities connect to an early developing cognitive system for representing approximate numerical magnitudes, the approximate number system (ANS). In support of this proposal, recent laboratory-based training experiments with U.S. children show enhanced performance on symbolic addition after brief practice comparing or adding arrays of dots without counting: tasks that engage the ANS. Here we explore the nature and generality of this effect through two brief training experiments. In Experiment 1, elementary school children in Pakistan practiced either a non-symbolic numerical addition task or a line-length addition task with no numerical content, and then were tested on symbolic addition. After training, children in the numerical training group completed the symbolic addition test faster than children in the line length training group, suggesting a causal role of brief, non-symbolic numerical training on exact, symbolic addition. These findings replicate and extend the core findings of a recent U.S. laboratory-based study to non-Western children tested in a school setting, attesting to the robustness and generalizability of the observed training effects. Experiment 2 tested whether ANS training would also enhance the consistency of performance on a symbolic number line task. Over several analyses of the data there was some evidence that approximate number training enhanced symbolic number line placements relative to control conditions. Together, the findings suggest that engagement of the ANS through brief training procedures enhances children's immediate attention to number and engagement with symbolic number tasks. PMID:27764117

  17. Personalized Map Symbol Design Mechanism Based on Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The personalization and intelligence of map service ultimately reflects in their symbol design. By establishing conceptual models of personalized map symbols, a theoretical discussion of the symbols is launched from a perspective which both human perceptions and logistic comprehension are considered in this paper, thus to help analyzing the relationship among geographic objects, map symbols and the interpretation of users and exploring the design basis of personalized map symbol. According to some key points such as relevant linguistic theories, the interpretation of the symbol contexts and symbolic statement syntax, design strategies of personalized map symbols is parsed. Thus, methods and processes of personalized map symbol design are proposed accordingly, following by experiments which could verify the hypothesis.

  18. The Symbolic Characters in The Discus Thrower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian-ming

    2004-01-01

    The Discus Thrower by Richard Selzer is symbolic in characterization. The nameless patient in "Rom 542" stands for an everyman in his society. His blindness shows that he is a man in darkness. And darkness is upon the face of the modern society. His legless condition shows that he has lost his freedom of action in the so-called land of liberty. His ironic words imply his indignation at his adverse fortune. The crack of the broken plate symbolizes a hope for the span-new life. The doctor-narrator represents a common toiler who supports the society. The head nurse represents a ruler in the modern western world. The symbolic meanings reflect the author's careful observation and meditation on the existent society.

  19. Use of symbolic computation in robotics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vira, Naren; Tunstel, Edward

    1992-01-01

    An application of symbolic computation in robotics education is described. A software package is presented which combines generality, user interaction, and user-friendliness with the systematic usage of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence techniques. The software utilizes MACSYMA, a LISP-based symbolic algebra language, to automatically generate closed-form expressions representing forward and inverse kinematics solutions, the Jacobian transformation matrices, robot pose error-compensation models equations, and Lagrange dynamics formulation for N degree-of-freedom, open chain robotic manipulators. The goal of such a package is to aid faculty and students in the robotics course by removing burdensome tasks of mathematical manipulations. The software package has been successfully tested for its accuracy using commercially available robots.

  20. Second International workshop Geometry and Symbolic Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Paweł; Geometry and its Applications

    2014-01-01

    This volume has been divided into two parts: Geometry and Applications. The geometry portion of the book relates primarily to geometric flows, laminations, integral formulae, geometry of vector fields on Lie groups, and osculation; the articles in the applications portion concern some particular problems of the theory of dynamical systems, including mathematical problems of liquid flows and a study of cycles for non-dynamical systems. This Work is based on the second international workshop entitled "Geometry and Symbolic Computations," held on May 15-18, 2013 at the University of Haifa and is dedicated to modeling (using symbolic calculations) in differential geometry and its applications in fields such as computer science, tomography, and mechanics. It is intended to create a forum for students and researchers in pure and applied geometry to promote discussion of modern state-of-the-art in geometric modeling using symbolic programs such as Maple™ and Mathematica®, as well as presentation of new results. ...

  1. Importance of Language Symbols in Mass Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦庠

    2013-01-01

    Language symbols fall into two categories: audible language and inaudible language; both of them are necessities in the process of mass communication. During the process, any deviations in languages, audible or inaudible, will lead to mistakes in communication, affect the communication effect or even give rise to malfunction of communication. Scientific and reasonable understanding of the importance of language symbols in mass communication is an approach to fully understand the communication process and communication means, and to improve the communication efficiency. Only through the right understanding of the importance of language symbols in mass communication, can we master correctly the communication process, improve communication efficiency, enhance the communication capability of communicators and grow to be the most outstanding communication professionals.

  2. Symbolic conceptions: the idea of the third.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Warren

    2007-11-01

    The idea of the third which appears in Jung's concepts of the transcendent function and the coniunctio also occurs in several psychoanalytic theories concerning the emergence of reflective and symbolic thought in childhood development (defined here as the development of 'imaginal capacity'). Noting the way this process is often conceived in terms of the metaphor of sexual intercourse leading to 'conception', this paper suggests that such images need to be understood as symbolic conceptions of the meaning-making functions of the human mind. This leads to a different view of psychoanalytic theories that attempt to account for the development of imaginal capacity in terms of the Oedipus complex. It is suggested that a) these functions must be operative in the mind before the Oedipal situation can become meaningful and b) that psychoanalytic theories are themselves symbolic conceptions which, like mythological narratives, seek to communicate and comprehend psychic reality through imaginal forms.

  3. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media......It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...

  4. Stroke Symbol Generation Software for Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Tripathi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the stroke symbol generation software developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for fighter aircraft. This paper covers the working principle of head-up-display, overview of target hardware on which the developed software has been integrated and tested, software architecture, hardware software interfaces and design details of stroke symbol generation software. The paper also covers the issues related to stroke symbol quality which were encountered by the design team and the details about how the issues were resolved during integration and test phase.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.153-156, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4257

  5. Metaphors and Symbols in The Bluest Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雯淇

    2015-01-01

    Toni Morrison as a great African-American writer produces many perfect novels. In her novels the shining points not only lie in the internal full-bodied black cultural tradition, but also lie in the absorption of the black folk oral literature and a great number of African myth and legend. She also gets influences from the skill of the Western Magical Realism of which the most important things are the use of metaphors and symbols. There are a lot of extremely profound symbolic images in Toni Morrison’s novels. The Bluest Eye is the typical representation of these shining points. Above all, there is a great significance to analyze the symbolic images for achieving a deeper understanding of Toni Morrison ’s novels.

  6. [The symbolic power of bodily secretions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2002-01-10

    Are ethical and political questions discussed more in aesthetic than in social terms? Political debates in contemporary art are often expressed through the use of symbolic power structures that are related to bodily secretions and products. By visualizing the less delicate parts of the organic body, contemporary artists focus on the vulnerability of the human body and its illness and pain. If human suffering is aestheticized: is this a question of form or a question of creating a cultural cover-up? Bodily secretions are associated with a range of complex social and cultural meanings and symbols. Metaphors related to body products may function as markers of ethnic, religious, social and sexual differences. In postmodern cultural criticism, the symbolic power of body metaphors is of great importance.

  7. Saccadic compression of symbolic numerical magnitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    Full Text Available Stimuli flashed briefly around the time of saccadic eye movements are subject to complex distortions: compression of space and time; underestimate of numerosity. Here we show that saccadic distortions extend to abstract quantities, affecting the representation of symbolic numerical magnitude. Subjects consistently underestimated the results of rapidly computed mental additions and subtractions, when the operands were briefly displayed before a saccade. However, the recognition of the number symbols was unimpaired. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a common, abstract metric encoding magnitude along multiple dimensions. They suggest that a surprising link exists between the preparation of action and the representation of abstract quantities.

  8. Usage of Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓斌

    2008-01-01

    F.Scott Fitzgerald.the famous American novelist in the 20th century,is known as the spokesman and laureate of the"Jazz Age"American.whose works give us an accurate picture of the American twenties:the prosperity of economy and the moral absence.Written in 1925.The Great Gatsby is one of the great literary documents of Fitzgerald's period,which wins many favorable praises.Fitzgerald has adopted plenty of symbols to reflect the theme of the times and the value of America in his outstanding representative works,and this thesis tries to analyze their symbolic meaning and significance.

  9. Symbolic Analysis of OTRAs-Based Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new nullor-based model to describe the behavior of Operational Transresistance Amplifiers (OTRAs is introduced.The new model is composed of four nullors and three grounded resistors. As a consequence, standard nodal analysiscan be applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal characteristics of OTRA-based analog circuits, and the nullorbasedOTRAs model can be used in CAD tools. In this manner, the fully-symbolic transfer functions of severalapplication circuits, such as filters and oscillators can easily be approximated.

  10. ENHANCING THE SYMBOLIC ANALYSIS OF ANALOG CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tlelo-Cuautle

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A new symbollc-method is introduced to enhance the calculation of symbolic expressions of analog circults. First, the analog circuit is transformed to a nullor equivalent circuit. Second, a new method is introduced to the formulation of a compact system of equations (CSES. Third, a new method is introduced to the solution of theCSES, by avoiding multiplications by zero to Improve the evaluation of determlnants. Flnally, two eXamples are given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods to calculate fully symbolic transfer functions.

  11. Alexithymia and symbolic function in the obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, G; Bull, R H; Kiely, M C

    1988-01-01

    Based on recent literature in which obesity is considered a psychosomatic disease, the authors present results of a study attempting to identify the degree of alexithymia and symbolic function inhibition in two overweight groups (moderately and morbidly obese) and compare the results with a normal-weight control group. The sample was composed of 95 subjects divided into three groups. The results revealed that the two obese groups were generally more alexithymic and had a higher degree of symbolic function inhibition than normal-weight controls. Nevertheless, the two alexithymia measures used in this study disclosed inconsistent results. The data are discussed in terms of etiological, methodological and treatment implications.

  12. Dommere og religiøse symboler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtug, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Om politiske kontroverser, der angår religiøse symboler i det offentlige rum i Danmark, og den måde, hvorpå idéer, der undfanges på den nationalistiske højrefløj......Om politiske kontroverser, der angår religiøse symboler i det offentlige rum i Danmark, og den måde, hvorpå idéer, der undfanges på den nationalistiske højrefløj...

  13. Symbolic superalgebra manipulations using common lisp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.

    1990-09-01

    We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie superalgebra. Using the results of our previous paper, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula in the general framework of the Z 2 graded algebras. The parameters are defined as Grassmann or even and treated symbolically. It is possible to perform calculations on finite super Poisson algebras. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.

  14. An Analysis of the Symbolic Colors in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kai-lin

    2016-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorn is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. He is skillful at the using of symbolism in his works, especially in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorn is a writer with art talent, who uses differ-ent colors to enhance the artistic effects of The scarlet Letter. Colors emerging on the most occasions are used as a mayor form of symbolism to reflect the character’s feelings, personalities and fates. This paper aims to elaborate the usage of colors as a form of symbolism in three parts:the symbolic meaning of red, the symbolic meaning of black, and the symbolic meaning of grey.

  15. Children’s Non-symbolic, Symbolic Addition and Their Mapping Capacity at 4–7 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of non-symbolic and symbolic addition capacities in children and the mapping ability between these two. We assessed 106 4- to 7-year-old children and found that 4-year-olds were able to do non-symbolic addition but not symbolic addition. Five-year-olds and older were able to do symbolic addition and their performance in symbolic addition exceeded non-symbolic addition in grade 1 (approximate age 7. These results suggested non-symbolic addition ability emerges earlier and is less affected by formal mathematical education than symbolic addition. Meanwhile, we tested children’s bi-directional mapping ability using a novel task and found that children were able to map between symbolic and non-symbolic representations of number at age 5. Their ability in mapping non-symbolic to symbolic number became more proficient in grade 1 (approximate age 7. This suggests children at age 7 have developed a relatively mature symbolic representation system.

  16. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  17. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Kant

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recursive parity game solving algorithm by Zielonka for symbolic parity games. We use Multi-valued Decision Diagrams (MDDs to represent sets and relations, thus enabling the tools to deal with very large systems. The transition relation is partitioned based on the structure of the specification, which allows for efficient manipulation of the MDDs. We performed two case studies on modular specifications, that demonstrate that the new method has better time and memory performance than existing PBES based tools and can be faster (but slightly less memory efficient than the symbolic model checker NuSMV.

  18. Mandala Symbolism in the Theology of Bonaventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Ewert

    1971-01-01

    Bonaventure's symbols of the circle, centre, cross, and journey are analyzed from the perspective of the mandala, as it has been explored in the research of C.G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Guiseppe Tucci." Three photographs are included. (Author/SP)

  19. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  20. [The collective unconscious: from image to symbol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, E

    1995-01-01

    With the help of clinical examples, the author tries to show how the therapeutic process works in Jung's theory of Unconscious: in the course of transference, the Unconscious generates Images which are coming from the Archetypes of Collective Unconscious. The interpretation of these Images and dreamer's associations trough transference, leads the patient to elaborate Symbols as carriers of a new sense for himself.

  1. Assessing levels of consciousness with symbolic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, UnCheol; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A

    2015-02-13

    'Covert consciousness' is a state in which consciousness is present without the capacity for behavioural response, and it can occur in patients with intraoperative awareness or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. To detect and prevent this undesirable state, it is critical to develop a reliable neurobiological assessment of an individual's level of consciousness that is independent of behaviour. One such approach that shows potential is measuring surrogates of cortical communication in the brain using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is practicable in clinical application, but involves many fundamental signal processing problems, including signal-to-noise ratio and high dimensional complexity. Symbolic analysis of EEG can mitigate these problems, improving the measurement of brain connectivity and the ability to successfully assess levels of consciousness. In this article, we review the problem of covert consciousness, basic neurobiological principles of consciousness, current methods of measuring brain connectivity and the advantages of symbolic processing, with a focus on symbolic transfer entropy (STE). Finally, we discuss recent advances and clinical applications of STE and other symbolic analyses to assess levels of consciousness. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  3. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; Pol, van de Jaco

    2014-01-01

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improv

  4. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  5. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations.

  6. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., F—medium brown, R—reddish brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed, and G—green....

  7. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... red, K—variegated, M—mixed color, V—greenish, and G—green....

  8. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  9. Driving Symbolic Consumption through Imagined Vertical Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David

    Drawing on theories of embodied cognition and compensatory consumption, we provide evidence that merely imagining oneself moving upward or downward affects preference for symbolic products. Altogether, two studies show that magining taking an elevator down, as opposed to up, decreases self-worth ...

  10. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    , especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones, we generalize the standard notions of regular-language and automata representations...

  11. Symbolic Computing in Probabilistic and Stochastic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marcin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim is to present recent developments in applications of symbolic computing in probabilistic and stochastic analysis, and this is done using the example of the well-known MAPLE system. The key theoretical methods discussed are (i analytical derivations, (ii the classical Monte-Carlo simulation approach, (iii the stochastic perturbation technique, as well as (iv some semi-analytical approaches. It is demonstrated in particular how to engage the basic symbolic tools implemented in any system to derive the basic equations for the stochastic perturbation technique and how to make an efficient implementation of the semi-analytical methods using an automatic differentiation and integration provided by the computer algebra program itself. The second important illustration is probabilistic extension of the finite element and finite difference methods coded in MAPLE, showing how to solve boundary value problems with random parameters in the environment of symbolic computing. The response function method belongs to the third group, where interference of classical deterministic software with the non-linear fitting numerical techniques available in various symbolic environments is displayed. We recover in this context the probabilistic structural response in engineering systems and show how to solve partial differential equations including Gaussian randomness in their coefficients.

  12. Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr

    2008-09-26

    In this paper we derive a formula for the rank of the self-commutator of hyponormal block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) via the classical Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.

  13. Block Toeplitz operators with rational symbols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung [Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Young [Department of Mathematics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ishwang@skku.edu, E-mail: wylee@math.snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-09

    In this paper we show that the hyponormality of block Toeplitz operators T{sub {phi}} with matrix-valued rational symbols {phi} in L{sup {infinity}}(C{sup nxn}) is completely determined by the tangential Hermite-Fejer interpolation problem.

  14. Guns as a Symbol of American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹

    2011-01-01

    Due to continuous gun violence, Americans' crazy love for guns has always been attacked home and abroad. Americans' passion for guns derives from individualism through the development of American history. They consider guns as a means to guarantee independence and freedom, and therefore as a symbol of American individualism.

  15. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... or variegated, G—green, GL—light green, and GD—dark green....

  16. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Schijvenaars (Bob); B. Mons (Barend); M. Weeber (Marc); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); H.M. Wain (Hester); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. RESULTS: We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that

  17. Efficient Loop Navigation for Symbolic Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Obdrzalek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Symbolic execution is a successful and very popular technique used in software verification and testing. A key limitation of symbolic execution is in dealing with code containing loops. The problem is that even a single loop can generate a huge number of different symbolic execution paths, corresponding to different number of loop iterations and taking various paths through the loop. We introduce a technique which, given a start location above some loops and a target location anywhere below these loops, returns a feasible path between these two locations, if such a path exists. The technique infers a collection of constraint systems from the program and uses them to steer the symbolic execution towards the target. On reaching a loop it iteratively solves the appropriate constraint system to find out which path through this loop to take, or, alternatively, whether to continue below the loop. To construct the constraint systems we express the values of variables modified in a loop as functions of the number of ...

  18. Synthesized size-sound sound symbolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Hagoort, P.; Dingemanse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of sound symbolism have shown that people can associate sound and meaning in consistent ways when presented with maximally contrastive stimulus pairs of nonwords such as bouba/kiki (rounded/sharp) or mil/mal (small/big). Recent work has shown the effect extends to antonymic words from natura

  19. Evaluation of Sight, Sound, Symbol Instructional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, Michael C.; Slaichert, William M.

    Evaluated was the Sight-Sound-Symbol (S-S-S) method of teaching basic reading skills with four groups of 16 trainable mentally retarded children. The method involved use of a musical keyboard to teach children to identify numbers, letters, colors, and shapes. Groups either received individual S-S-S instruction for 10 minutes daily, received S-S-S…

  20. The Roles of Symbols in Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贻红

    2015-01-01

    In Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte portrays the love story between Catherine and Heathcliff whose sincere love is killed for their different social status and only prevails beyond the real world. The roles of symbols in revealing this theme will be traced in this article.

  1. Symbols and dynamics in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariani, P

    2001-01-01

    The work of physicist and theoretical biologist Howard Pattee has focused on the roles that symbols and dynamics play in biological systems. Symbols, as discrete functional switching-states, are seen at the heart of all biological systems in the form of genetic codes, and at the core of all neural systems in the form of informational mechanisms that switch behavior. They also appear in one form or another in all epistemic systems, from informational processes embedded in primitive organisms to individual human beings to public scientific models. Over its course, Pattee's work has explored (1) the physical basis of informational functions (dynamical vs. rule-based descriptions, switching mechanisms, memory, symbols), (2) the functional organization of the observer (measurement, computation), (3) the means by which information can be embedded in biological organisms for purposes of self-construction and representation (as codes, modeling relations, memory, symbols), and (4) the processes by which new structures and functions can emerge over time. We discuss how these concepts can be applied to a high-level understanding of the brain. Biological organisms constantly reproduce themselves as well as their relations with their environs. The brain similarly can be seen as a self-producing, self-regenerating neural signaling system and as an adaptive informational system that interacts with its surrounds in order to steer behavior.

  2. Reflection in psychoanalysis: on symbols and metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enckell, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor.

  3. Myth and symbol in nursing theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, F Beryl

    2005-07-01

    Nursing theories are like myths, in that they contain symbolic representations that tell a story about nursing, and these stories represent or explain nursing's image, worldview, beliefs, and practices. Five theories are analyzed to identify the myths that they represent. It is proposed that uncovering the myth in nursing theories will help to communicate nursing brands that convey the essence and value of nursing.

  4. 169 DIFFERENT RITUAL SYMBOLS IN IGBO TRADITIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study of history, which ritual-symbolism is a part of , on basic to human science and, also that meaning .... It captures and mediates the experiment of any given reality. The pictures ... In the depiction of natural happenings, plants and animals.

  5. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  6. Mandala Symbolism in the Theology of Bonaventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Ewert

    1971-01-01

    Bonaventure's symbols of the circle, centre, cross, and journey are analyzed from the perspective of the mandala, as it has been explored in the research of C.G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Guiseppe Tucci." Three photographs are included. (Author/SP)

  7. Decision of numerical problems with symbolic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kashirsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods for numerical decision of linear systems guarantee successful results only for good systems. Decision of bad systems (bad conditional, singular is already problem. This paper describes using symbol methods for decision of bad conditional and singular systems.

  8. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols. We have prescribed distinctive...-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and items on which taxes and duties have been collected to support the...

  9. A Symbolic Formulation for Analytical Compliance Analysis and Synthesis of Flexure Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-Jun; Shi, Hongliang; Yu, Jingjun

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a symbolic formulation for analytical compliance analysis and synthesis of flexure mechanisms with serial, parallel, or hybrid topologies. Our approach is based on the screw theory that characterizes flexure deformations with motion twists and loadings with force wrenches. In this work, we first derive a symbolic formulation of the compliance and stiffness matrices for commonly used flexure elements, flexure joints, and simple chains. Elements of these matrices are all explicit functions of flexure parameters. To analyze a general flexure mechanism, we subdivide it into multiple structural modules, which we identify as serial, parallel, or hybrid chains. We then analyze each module with the known flexure structures in the library. At last, we use a bottom-up approach to obtain the compliance/stiffness matrix for the overall mechanism. This is done by taking appropriate coordinate transformation of twists and wrenches in space. Four practical examples are provided to demonstrate the approach. A numerical example is employed to compare analytical compliance models against a finite element model. The results show that the errors are sufficiently small (2%, compared with finite element (FE) model), if the range of motion is limited to linear deformations. This work provides a systematical approach for compliance analysis and synthesis of general flexure mechanisms. The symbolic formulation enables subsequent design tasks, such as compliance synthesis or sensitivity analysis.

  10. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as Medical Symbols: Part I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Touraj Nayernouri

    2010-01-01

      In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine...

  11. MINING NUCLEAR TRANSIENT DATA THROUGH SYMBOLIC CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego MAndelli; Tunc Aldemir; Alper Yilmaz; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies generate enormous amounts of data for a very large number of simulations. The data contain temporal information of both the state variables of the simulator and the temporal status of specific systems/components. In order to measure system performances, limitations and resilience, such data need to be carefully analyzed with the objective of discovering the correlations between sequence/timing of events and system dynamics. A first approach toward discovering these correlations from data generated by DPRA methodologies has been performed by organizing scenarios into groups using classification or clustering based algorithms. The identification of the correlations between system dynamics and timing/sequencing of events is performed by observing the temporal distribution of these events in each group of scenarios. Instead of performing “a posteriori” analysis of these correlations, this paper shows how it is possible to identify the correlations implicitly by performing a symbolic conversion of both continuous (temporal profiles of simulator state variables) and discrete (status of systems and components) data. Symbolic conversion is performed for each simulation by properly quantizing both continuous and discrete data and then converting them as a series of symbols. After merging both series together, a temporal phrase is obtained. This phrase preserves duration, coincidence and sequence of both continuous and discrete data in a uniform and consistent manner. In this paper it is also shown that by using specific distance measures, it is still possible to post-process such symbolic data using clustering and classification techniques but in considerably less time since the memory needed to store the data is greatly reduced by the symbolic conversion.

  12. Symbolism in Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一婷; 徐水乃

    2013-01-01

    In Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway uses symbolism to portray the traits of the main characters in his stories. Many symbols are used to enable the reader to have a better look and an easier understanding of what the book is about. The use of symbolism in his books provides deeper meaning like a lesson. Overal , Hemingway tends to place symbols, leaving the reader to look deeper into the obvious plot of the play.

  13. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  14. Young Children's Symbol Use: Common Principles and Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    1998-01-01

    Reviews selected literature on child development about children's symbol use in performance of spatial and mathematical tasks. Describes the musical development of a child over a period of 16 months and shows how principles of symbol use from outside music can guide interpretations of children's symbol acquisition. (CMK)

  15. Symbol and its Origin in the Poetry of Nima Yooshij

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Yahaghi

    2011-08-01

    In this article, by examining symbols in Nima’s poem, it is clarified that most of his symbols are innovative and personal. Of course, even his most subjective and personal symbols originate from the observable and objective world and the environment of the poet.

  16. The Symbolic Meanings of “Flowering Judas”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the short story “Flowering Judas”, Katherine Anne Porter employed the writing technique - symbolism. Among others, “Flowering Judas” is the most important symbolic image. This paper tries to analyze the symbolic meanings of “Flowering Judas”, so that the readers can understand the theme of the this story much better.

  17. The Symbolic Meanings of “Flowering Judas”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian; Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the short story"Flowering Judas",Katherine Anne Porter employed the writing technique—symbolism.Among others,"Flowering Judas"is the most important symbolic image.This paper tries to analyze the symbolic meanings of"Flowering Judas",so that the readers can understand the theme of the this story much better.

  18. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are...

  19. Simple and robust symbol rate estimation method for digital coherent optical receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Sheng; Xia, Wenjuan; Shang, Jin; Ke, Changjian; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming

    2016-05-01

    A novel symbol rate estimation (SRE) technique utilizing the clock tone (CT) obtained by Godard timing recovery algorithm is proposed. By this technique, the known sampling rate of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in digital coherent optical receivers can used as a reference to directly determine the unknown signal symbol rate. The impact of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) on the CT magnitude can be mitigated by using the hybrid correlation function (HCF) consisting of both auto-correlation function (ACF) and cross-correlation function (XCF) of the received signal spectrum, while the chromatic dispersion (CD) impact can be mitigated by adaptive CD compensation techniques. This technique is simple, accurate, applicable to advanced modulation formats commonly used, and robust to various link impairments. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented to validate this technique.

  20. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  1. Connectionist Modelling and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a detailed, technical introduction to the state of cognitive science research, in particular the rise of the "new cognitive science," especially artificial neural net (ANN) models. Explains one influential ANN model and describes diverse applications and their implications for education. (EV)

  2. Different Symbolic Meaning of Color in Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟维维; 裘瑜; 陈佳颖

    2013-01-01

    Colors are embodied with different meanings and symbols in different countries. Not only should we understand their basic and literal meanings, but also we should focus on their deep contents in symbolic meanings, because their symbolic meanings vary from culture to culture. The differences in the symbol of colors are due to different cultures and history back-grounds as well as aesthetic psychology. This paper, mainly based on the Chinese and western culture, approaches the symbols of colors represented in the two different cultures through analyzing the different understanding of colors, which can help us under-stand culture difference in colors better during intercultural com-munication.

  3. Bridging the Gap between Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Processing: How Could Human Being Acquire Language?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuo Ohsuga

    2006-01-01

    Information plays various roles for supporting human activity. Its basic role is to describe objects in the world. Form of representation is first decided, then method of its processing can be defined on its basis. Thus an information processing paradigm is defined. As human activity gets more and more complicated, information also becomes more and more sophisticated. Form of representation and processing method become the more complicated. Sometime in human history symbolic language has been developed. It facilitated representation of things. With the progress of language, information became the more sophisticated one. Development of variety of paradigms became possible by means of language. Each of which has a specific scope of applications There is a lot of information, however, that cannot be captured by symbolic language. Representation and processing of information unable to be symbolized, that is, non-symbolic information processing paradigm is very different from any of symbolic information processing paradigms. These two groups of paradigms divide the whole information world. Most applications have been done within either one of them so far. Progress of human activity requires a paradigm with a larger scope. If any of existing single paradigms cannot satisfy this requirement, a new paradigm must be developed. Integration of different paradigms is becoming a very important approach. However conversion between paradigms is necessary for the purpose and conversion between substantially different paradigms, such as between symbol processing and non-symbol processing,is very difficult. Bridging the gap between these two paradigms is becoming an important issue and is attracting much interest of researchers. Discovery and data mining is one of such issues. There is an interest in the more basic question such as "how could human being acquire language?" To discuss these issues is the major objective of this talk.

  4. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Felicitas Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS, which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  5. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia F; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  6. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  7. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  8. Conformant Planning via Symbolic Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; 10.1613/jair.774

    2011-01-01

    We tackle the problem of planning in nondeterministic domains, by presenting a new approach to conformant planning. Conformant planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions that is guaranteed to achieve the goal despite the nondeterminism of the domain. Our approach is based on the representation of the planning domain as a finite state automaton. We use Symbolic Model Checking techniques, in particular Binary Decision Diagrams, to compactly represent and efficiently search the automaton. In this paper we make the following contributions. First, we present a general planning algorithm for conformant planning, which applies to fully nondeterministic domains, with uncertainty in the initial condition and in action effects. The algorithm is based on a breadth-first, backward search, and returns conformant plans of minimal length, if a solution to the planning problem exists, otherwise it terminates concluding that the problem admits no conformant solution. Second, we provide a symbolic representation ...

  9. Prediction of Dynamical Systems by Symbolic Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Quade, Markus; Shafi, Kamran; Niven, Robert K; Noack, Bernd R

    2016-01-01

    We study the modeling and prediction of dynamical systems based on conventional models derived from measurements. Such algorithms are highly desirable in situations where the underlying dynamics are hard to model from physical principles or simplified models need to be found. We focus on symbolic regression methods as a part of machine learning. These algorithms are capable of learning an analytically tractable model from data, a highly valuable property. Symbolic regression methods can be considered as generalized regression methods. We investigate two particular algorithms, the so-called fast function extraction which is a generalized linear regression algorithm, and genetic programming which is a very general method. Both are able to combine functions in a certain way such that a good model for the prediction of the temporal evolution of a dynamical system can be identified. We illustrate the algorithms by finding a prediction for the evolution of a harmonic oscillator based on measurements, by detecting a...

  10. Symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    This paper aims to summarize the existing evidence for the symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Chimpanzees can represent, to some extent, both the cardinal and the ordinal aspect of number. Through the medium of Arabic numerals we compared working memory in humans and chimpanzees using the same apparatus and following the same procedure. Three young chimpanzees outperformed human adults in memorizing briefly presented numerals. However, we found that chimpanzees were less proficient at a variety of other cognitive tasks including imitation, cross-modal matching, symmetry of symbols and referents, and one-to-one correspondence. In sum, chimpanzees do not possess human-like capabilities for representation at an abstract level. The present paper will discuss the constraints of the number concept in chimpanzees, and illuminate some unique features of human cognition.

  11. Central differences, Euler numbers and symbolic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I relate some coefficients encountered when computing the functional determinants on spheres to the central differentials of nothing. In doing this I use some historic works, in particular transcribing the elegant symbolic formalism of Jeffery (1861) into central difference form which has computational advantages for Euler numbers, as discovered by Shovelton (1915). I derive sum rules for these, and for the central differentials, the proof of which involves an interesting expression for powers of sech x as multiple derivatives. I present a more general, symbolic treatment of central difference calculus which allows known, and unknown, things to be obtained in an elegant and compact fashion gaining, at no cost, the expansion of the powers of the inverse sinh, a basic central function. Systematic use is made of the operator 2 asinh(D/2). Umbral calculus is employed to compress the operator formalism. For example the orthogonality/completeness of the factorial numbers, of the first and second kinds, translates, ...

  12. The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B

    1978-10-20

    Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people.

  13. The symbolism and myth surrounding nurses' uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M

    This article addresses nurses' uniform from the perspective of the symbolic, myth, legend and competing discourse. The analysis touches upon why nurses working with people who have learning disabilities discarded the nurses' uniform and why other nurses may consider doing so, particularly if suitable alternatives exist. The analysis draws from various areas of nursing practice, including the nursing of disabled people, elderly people and people with learning disabilities. Nurses' uniform is revealed as a totem of considerable potency such that to wear a uniform in just any setting or context has to be cautioned. The practicalities of protective clothing are addressed. A differentiation is drawn between uniform and protective clothing such that much of the undesirable symbolism associated with uniform may be discarded with a consequent enhancement of the image of the nurse.

  14. Symbolic derivation of potential based constitutive equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Tan, H. Q.

    1990-05-01

    Structural alloys used in high temperature applications exhibit complex thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time dependent and hereditary, as the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but on the thermomechanical history. Derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) which describe this high temperature material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved, and error-prone, thus intelligent application of symbolic systems to facilitate this tedious processes can be of significant benefit. Here a computerized package, running under MACSYMA, capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models, in analytical form (involving tensors, partial differentiation, invariants, and the like) is presented. Special purpose utility algorithms are designed and implemented to perform partial differentiation (chain rule), tensor manipulation, case distinction and simplification. Four constitutive theories reported in the literature are utilized to verify implementation accuracy. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.

  15. Minimal Braid in Applied Symbolic Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成; 张亚刚; 彭守礼

    2003-01-01

    Based on the minimal braid assumption, three-dimensional periodic flows of a dynamical system are reconstructed in the case of unimodal map, and their topological structures are compared with those of the periodic orbits of the Rossler system in phase space through the numerical experiment. The numerical results justify the validity of the minimal braid assumption which provides a suspension from one-dimensional symbolic dynamics in the Poincare section to the knots of three-dimensional periodic flows.

  16. Scalable hardware verification with symbolic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bertacco, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    An innovative presentation of the theory of disjoint support decomposition, presenting novel results and algorithms, plus original and up-to-date techniques in formal verificationProvides an overview of current verification techniques, and unveils the inner workings of symbolic simulationFocuses on new techniques that narrow the performance gap between the complexity of digital systems and the limited ability to verify themAddresses key topics in need of future research.

  17. Improving the Tools of Symbolic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER OR ’iNIZATIONI Of applicable) USARDSG(UK) ERO DAJA45-85-c-0014 k...UPCPEANV WOPKJ.VG SESSION ON LEA.RNING :E’WSL 86 283-4/02/2986 (260 pages) Aor 25.9 COMPTE RENDUS DE LA jOURNEE FR%;ANCALSE SUp L ’ APPRENTISSAGE JFA 86 5

  18. A Bayesian classifier for symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat, Sabine; Tabbone, Salvatore; Nourrissier, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    URL : http://www.buyans.com/POL/UploadedFile/134_9977.pdf; International audience; We present in this paper an original adaptation of Bayesian networks to symbol recognition problem. More precisely, a descriptor combination method, which enables to improve significantly the recognition rate compared to the recognition rates obtained by each descriptor, is presented. In this perspective, we use a simple Bayesian classifier, called naive Bayes. In fact, probabilistic graphical models, more spec...

  19. DYNAMICS OF SYMBOLS AS TRANSCULTURAL POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Vagner de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reflecting on the poetic possibilities of productions that take the encounter of cultures as compositional element to discuss issues beyond the limits of literature and culture. Thus, we sought to demonstrate the dynamics of cross-cultural symbolic systems through the political play A Revolta da Casa dos Ídolos (1978 by Pepetela in order to propose new understandings of the social reality in contemporary Angola.

  20. [Origin of three symbols in medicine and surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza-Villaseñor, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Humans use many ways to communicate with fellow humans. Symbols have been one of these ways. Shamans probably used these in the beginning and adopted other distinctive symbols as they were introduced. The origin, the reason and use of three symbols in medicine and surgery are discussed. Some symbols currently remain the same and others have been modified or have disappeared. The oldest of these three symbols is the staff of Aesculapius, related to the Greek god of medicine and health. Since the 19th century, in some countries the symbol of the medical profession has become the caduceus, but the staff is the natural symbol. The second symbol is the barber pole that was created at the beginning of the Middle Ages. This was the means to locate the office and shop of a barber/surgeon in towns, cities and battlefields. On the other hand, the surgeon made use of the emblem of the union, trade or fraternity to which he belonged, accompanied by the bowl for bloodletting. The third symbol is the wearing of long and short robes that distinguished graduate surgeons from a medical school and the so-called barber/surgeons. Symbols facilitate the manner in which to identify the origin or trade of many working people. Some symbols currently remain and others have either been modified or are obsolete, losing their relationship with surgery and medicine.

  1. Mapping Equivalence for Symbolic Sequences: Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Processing of symbolic sequences represented by mapping of symbolic data into numerical signals is commonly used in various applications. It is a particularly popular approach in genomic and proteomic sequence analysis. Numerous mappings of symbolic sequences have been proposed for various applications. It is unclear however whether the processing of symbolic data provides an artifact of the numerical mapping or is an inherent property of the symbolic data. This issue has been long ignored in the engineering and scientific literature. It is possible that many of the results obtained in symbolic signal processing could be a byproduct of the mapping and might not shed any light on the underlying properties embedded in the data. Moreover, in many applications, conflicting conclusions may arise due to the choice of the mapping used for numerical representation of symbolic data. In this paper, we present a novel framework for the analysis of the equivalence of the mappings used for numerical representation of symb...

  2. Symbolic legacies of slavery in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin O. Thompson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusses on the commemoration and symbolic functions of the slavery past in the Americas, with a particular focus on Guyana. Author explains that while symbolic representations of the legacies of slavery increased in the Americas since the 1960s, the nationalist government under Forbes Burnham since 1970 went further in using the slavery past as its ideological foundation. He discusses how this relates to Guyana's history and ethnic development of 2 main, often opposed groups of African- and Indian-descended groups, calling on their respective slavery or indenture past in emphasizing their national significance. He further describes slavery-related symbolic representations promoted under Burnham, specifically the 1763 slave revolt led by Cuffy, presented as first anticolonial rebellion aimed at liberation, and as a precursor to the PNC government, and other slave rebellions and rebels, such as led by Damon in 1834. He points out how some Indian-Guyanese found that Indian heroes were sidelined in relation to these. Author then describes how the annual commemoration of Emancipation Day continues to refer to the martyrdom of these slave rebels, along with other discursive connections, such as regarding reparations. He also pays attention to the activities of nongovernmental organizations in Guyana up to the present in commemorating the slavery past, often with broader African diaspora connections.

  3. Snake and staff symbolism, and healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2002-07-01

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake emblem of Asklepios, or as the double-snake emblem (caduceus) of Hermes. The mythological basis for this symbolism is reviewed. The Asklepian emblem has been associated with health care since the 5th century BC, when Asklepios became accepted by the Greeks as the god of healing. Whether he was also an historical figure as healer in earlier ages is less certain. The origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists of antiquity. In classical times it became the herald's wand of Hermes, messenger of the gods who guided departed souls to the underworld, and was seen as protector of travellers, shepherds and merchants. In the latter capacity Hermes also conveyed a negative connotation as protector of thieves. During the Middle Ages the caduceus became a symbol of the healing sciences (pharmacy and alchemy in particular), and today, although mythologically incorrect, it is in common usage in the health care field.

  4. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; Lapalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  5. Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Haynie

    Full Text Available The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These "sound symbolic" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting "smallness" or "nearness" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting "largeness" or "distance" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of "smallness" and "proximity" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.

  6. Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior.

  7. Learning Fault-tolerant Speech Parsing with SCREEN

    CERN Document Server

    Wermter, S; Wermter, Stefan; Weber, Volker

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach and a system SCREEN for fault-tolerant speech parsing. SCREEEN stands for Symbolic Connectionist Robust EnterprisE for Natural language. Speech parsing describes the syntactic and semantic analysis of spontaneous spoken language. The general approach is based on incremental immediate flat analysis, learning of syntactic and semantic speech parsing, parallel integration of current hypotheses, and the consideration of various forms of speech related errors. The goal for this approach is to explore the parallel interactions between various knowledge sources for learning incremental fault-tolerant speech parsing. This approach is examined in a system SCREEN using various hybrid connectionist techniques. Hybrid connectionist techniques are examined because of their promising properties of inherent fault tolerance, learning, gradedness and parallel constraint integration. The input for SCREEN is hypotheses about recognized words of a spoken utterance potentially analyzed by a spe...

  8. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  9. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran MinhHai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1 estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2 symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically.

  10. Heart of darkness: a symbolic study Heart of darkness: a symbolic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Gonçalves

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I intend to conduct a study of the symbolic meaning of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness by isolating and interpreting a net of symbols, which is very deftly manipulated by its author for the creation of a short, but superb, artistic expression of his appraisal of man's option for a tragic existence. In the process of this essay I shall examine the following symbolic elements: setting and characters. I shall endeavor to establish meanings for the river, forest, town, etc. As to characters, I shall concentrate on Kurtz's, but I shall also point out important differences and similarities between his character and those of the savages, of Marlow and of the Intended. I shall use other texts written by Conrad in order to supply further evidence for interpretations offered to elements of Heart of Darkness. In this paper, I intend to conduct a study of the symbolic meaning of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness by isolating and interpreting a net of symbols, which is very deftly manipulated by its author for the creation of a short, but superb, artistic expression of his appraisal of man's option for a tragic existence. In the process of this essay I shall examine the following symbolic elements: setting and characters. I shall endeavor to establish meanings for the river, forest, town, etc. As to characters, I shall concentrate on Kurtz's, but I shall also point out important differences and similarities between his character and those of the savages, of Marlow and of the Intended. I shall use other texts written by Conrad in order to supply further evidence for interpretations offered to elements of Heart of Darkness.

  11. Symbolic attitude and reverie: problems of symbolization in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovensiepen, Gustav

    2002-04-01

    In comparison to the 1970s and 1980s, we now treat more children and adolescents who, because they have had traumatic experiences of violence, child abuse, deprivation or chronic physical illness, are not able to adequately use their symbolizing function. The question is which qualities and which analytical attitude we should and can offer in analysis to help a child regain his or her capacity to symbolize, irrespective of how poorly developed or blocked this capacity may be. In contrast to Jung and some Jungians, the author argues that although the transcendent function is a 'natural process' and hence archetypally grounded as Jung maintained, the transcendent function does not work spontaneously. Rather it requires a matrix based on the child's earliest relationship, which can later be re-enacted in treatment. Jung's general concept of a 'symbolic attitude' can be complemented and focused in a specific way through the use of Bion's concept of 'reverie', which contributes in a fundamental way to symbol formation within the transference/countertransference. This idea is illustrated by clinical material from a nine-year-old boy who suffered from a severe congenital intestinal disease and was blocked in his capacity to symbolize. From the perspective of treatment technique, the author shows how the drawing of 'comic book' narratives in a reciprocal exchange was brought into the treatment. The drawings evolved in a way that he understood as a modified form of active imagination with children. The drawing process helped the boy gradually to develop a symbolic space in the therapy and to contain a psychic space in his mind.

  12. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  13. Violência simbólica no campo da saúde: relato de um caso de cura espiritual em um espaço terapêutico híbrido Symbolic violence in the health field: reporting a case of spiritual cure in a hybrid therapeutic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Franco Puttini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available À luz da teoria social de Pierre Bourdieu, saliento a violência simbólica concebida das relações de forças entre agentes e práticas médicas e religiosas no interior de uma instituição filantrópica voltada à assistência à saúde de portadores de deficiências múltiplas. Do trabalho etnográfico, descrevo detalhes do acordo entre administradores religiosos espíritas e profissionais de saúde durante a implementação de um projeto que incluía especificamente assistência espiritual. Um caso de cura aparece como bem simbólico e sobre ele concorreram duas versões explicativas sobre a abrupta recuperação do paciente assistido durante meses na UTI por caquexia: a versão religiosa, que entendeu a reabilitação como cura espiritual, e a versão médica, que compreendeu o restabelecimento do paciente como resultado das atividades e gerência médica.In light of Pierre Bourdieu's theory, I highlight the symbolic violence derived from the relations of forces between medical and religious agents and practices inside a philanthropic institution that provides healthcare for patients suffering from multiple deficiencies. Concerning the ethnographic work, I describe details of the agreement between spiritualistic religious administrators and health professionals during the development of a project that included spiritualistic assistance. A cure case emerges as a symbolic asset and there were two versions to explain the recovery of the patient, who had been under ICU treatment for a long time: the religious version, which understood the rehabilitation as spiritual cure, and the medical version, which understood it as the result of the medical activities and management.

  14. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  15. Symbolism in Franco-German Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Delori, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    International audience; On September 4th, 2013, French President François Hollande and German President Joachim Gauck visited Oradour-sur-Glane, a French martyr village of the Second World War whose population was massacred by an SS division during the Liberation. During the ceremony, the two heads of state stood together in silent commemoration, holding each other’s hand. By so doing, they reproduced a symbolic gesture which had resonated strongly in 1984, that of President François Mitterra...

  16. Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1994-12-01

    Form symbolism using squares and circles can aid recall. In Experiment 1, subjects saw 20 words, each presented in a circle or a square. Words like SOFT and MOTHER were presented in circles in the "congruent" condition, whereas the same words were presented in squares in the "incongruent" condition. Two experiments revealed that words in the congruent condition were more likely to be recalled. A comparison of the conditions with a baseline condition, in which 20 listed words were not closely related to either of the shapes, suggests that the effect was more likely due to facilitation produced by the congruent condition than to inhibition from the incongruent condition.

  17. Principal symbol of Euler-Lagrange operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatibene, L.; Garruto, S.

    2016-07-01

    We shall introduce the principal symbol for quite a general class of (quasi linear) Euler-Lagrange operators and use them to characterise well-posed initial value problems in gauge covariant field theories. We shall clarify how constraints can arise in covariant Lagrangian theories by extending the standard treatment in GR and without resorting to Hamiltonian formalism. Finally as an example of application, we sketch a quantisation procedure based on what is done in LQG by framing it in a more general context which applies to general gauge covariant field theories.

  18. Symbolic computation of Appell polynomials using Maple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alkahby

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the symbolic computation of Appell polynomials using the computer algebra system Maple. After describing the traditional approach of constructing Appell polynomials, the paper examines the operator method of constructing the same Appell polynomials. The operator approach enables us to express the Appell polynomial as Bessel function whose coefficients are Euler and Bernuolli numbers. We have also constructed algorithms using Maple to compute Appell polynomials based on the methods we have described. The achievement is the construction of Appell polynomials for any function of bounded variation.

  19. MIMESIS OR THE FRUITION OF SYMBOLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Feron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mimesis seems to be coextensive to history of philosophy, and its re-visitation – from the perspective of a critical anthropology – should lead to the deconstruction of certain myths that structure metaphysics since Plato; among others, the stigma of the reproduction of a legitimate origin. Considering the work of Hans Blumenberg, this paper considers the possibility of an anthropology developed from the perspective of a symbolical dynamics that, from organic to imaginary, from unconscious to analytics of intellect, allows modern reason to understand its own exercise as a play, beyond any kind of anguish.

  20. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  1. Categorical Design Departure and Symbolic Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Previous research has tended to assume that the role of product form design in the early stages of technology lifecycles is to decrease the cognitive distance between the new product and previous designs within the given product category. This paper will contrast this tendency in the literature...... by showing how product form design can impact the selection of dominant technological designs within industries by enhancing the symbolic attributes of products. A longitudinal case study was carried out of the establishment of a new dominant technological architecture in the hearing aid industry...

  2. The role of sound symbolism in language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen; Walker, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Certain correspondences between the sound and meaning of words can be observed in subsets of the vocabulary. These sound-symbolic relationships have been suggested to result in easier language acquisition, but previous studies have explicitly tested effects of sound symbolism on learning category distinctions but not on word learning. In 2 word learning experiments, we varied the extent to which phonological properties related to a rounded-angular shape distinction and we distinguished learning of categories from learning of individual words. We found that sound symbolism resulted in an advantage for learning categories of sound-shape mappings but did not assist in learning individual word meanings. These results are consistent with the limited presence of sound symbolism in natural language. The results also provide a reinterpretation of the role of sound symbolism in language learning and language origins and a greater specification of the conditions under which sound symbolism proves advantageous for learning.

  3. Automatic Generation of Symbolic Model for Parameterized Synchronous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wen Xu

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of making the verification of parameterized system more general and easier, in this paper, a new and intuitive language PSL (Parameterized-system Specification Language) is proposed to specify a class of parameterized synchronous systems. From a PSL script, an automatic method is proposed to generate a constraint-based symbolic model. The model can concisely symbolically represent the collections of global states by counting the number of processes in a given state. Moreover, a theorem has been proved that there is a simulation relation between the original system and its symbolic model. Since the abstract and symbolic techniques are exploited in the symbolic model, state-explosion problem in traditional verification methods is efficiently avoided. Based on the proposed symbolic model, a reachability analysis procedure is implemented using ANSI C++ on UNIX platform. Thus, a complete tool for verifying the parameterized synchronous systems is obtained and tested for some cases. The experimental results show that the method is satisfactory.

  4. Symbolic Exchange and Simulation-- the Symbolic Logic in Postmodern Consumer Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly illustrated the features of postmodern consumer society.Focusing on sign value, the author mainly explained the French social theorist Jean Baudrillard’s important theories on consumer society-- symbolic exchange and simulation.Though abstract and hard to understand, his theories lend us a wholly new and critical perspective to observe and understand the presentsociety and its changing culture.

  5. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  6. The name of the son. Fatherhood, motherhood and symbolic competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tania Zittoun conceptions on uses of cultural elements as symbolic resources for psychological development are presented. Such uses of symbolic resources are examined through a study of the procedure of choosing first names during the transition to parenthood. The notion of symbolic competencies, as the abilities to use cultural elements as resources for thinking, action and a healthy development, is discussed. 

  7. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  8. From mythology to psychology: Identifying archetypal symbols in movies

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Boladeras, Marta; Català Mallofré, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Mattias; Ivonin, Leonid; Huang-Ming, Chang

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the theory of archetype, which explains the connection between ancient myths and the human mind. Based on the assumption that archetypes are in the deepest level of human mind, we propose that archetypal symbolism is a kind of knowledge that supports the cognitive process for creating subjective world-view towards the physical world we live in. According to archetypal symbolism, we conducted an empirical study to identify archetypal symbols in modern movies. A ne...

  9. Is the Dragon a Suitable Symbol for China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梦雨

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently there has been a heated discussion on whether we should continue to use the dragon as the symbol for our China.Some claim that the dragon is no longer a suitable symbol for China. Whereas others don’t think so. A professor Wu in Shanghai who holds the view that the dragon is no good a symbol gives the following reasons.Firstly,the dragon is an evil

  10. Symbolism and rationality in the politics of psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Psychoactive substances take on many symbolic meanings, and thus the politics of psychoactive substances has featured symbolic elements, or value-based rationality, alongside and often dominating instrumental rationality. Drawing particularly on the work of Joseph Gusfield and Nordic scholars, the chapter considers the symbolic dimension in the politics of substance use, even in Nordic countries celebrated for their societal commitment to knowledge-based policymaking, and its effects on the interplay of science and policy.

  11. Symbolism In Ernest Hemingways The Old Man And The Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandamali K. P. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Masterful writers use literary devices and techniques in a unique way to exemplify their mastery in writing. In American literature Ernest Hemingways novel The old man and the sea is a worthy symbolic novel which conveys the ability of the author to employ symbols to give literary value of the text .The objective of this work is to explore the symbols used in the novel to decode these symbols and identify the various interpretations that they stand for. This work divides into four chapters. The first chapter deals with aestheticism in general and tells about the common stylistic devices in literature such as simile metaphor irony and so on. The second chapter makes the connection with the concept of symbol and some theories that are related to symbols such as Langers Theory Whitehead Theory Fryes Theory and Saussures Theory. The third chapter gives the general overview about American literature and the major works of Ernest Hemingway focusing on his masterpiece The old man and the sea and its literary analysis while the forth chapter stands for the symbols used in the novel and their interpretations This work aims at showing the interest of Hemingway for symbols and his intention to represent themes behind the use of symbols in The old man and the sea.

  12. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols, part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-01-01

    This is the first of two articles reviewing the history of medical symbols. In this first article I have briefly reviewed the evolution of the Greek god, Asclepius, (and his Roman counterpart Aesculapius) with the single serpent entwined around a wooden rod as a symbol of western medicine and have alluded to the misplaced adoption of the Caduceus of the Greek god Hermes (and his Roman counterpart Mercury) with its double entwined serpents as an alternative symbol. In the second part of this article (to be published later), I have made a tentative suggestion of why the Simorgh might be adopted as an Eastern or an Asian symbol for medicine.

  13. SYMBOL-RATE ESTIMATION BASED ON TEMPLATE MATCHING RULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Chunhui; Wei Ping; Xiao Xianci

    2006-01-01

    For non-cooperative communication, the symbol-rate estimation of digital communication signal is an important problem to be solved. In this letter, A new algorithm for the symbol-rate estimation of single-tone digitally modulated signal (i.e. MPSK/QAM) is proposed. Firstly a section from the received signal is cut as the template, and then the signal is matched sectionwise by making use of the signal selfsimilarity. So a signal containing the information of symbol jumping is got, and the symbol-rate can be estimated by DFT (Discrete Fourier Transformation). The validity of the new method has been verified by experiments.

  14. On the Symbolism in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The symbolism in Hawthorne’s short stories is very typical. This paper mainly discusses the use of symbolism in his Young Goodman Brown with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the whole story. Its title, the protagonist ’s name, color of brown, pink, and black, some images such as characters, surroundings and the plot of the whole story have abundant sym-bolic implication. By analyzing the story and the writing methods of symbolism, we can see the theme of Hawthorne ’s stories clearly. Hawthorne reveals that“Evil is the nature of mankind”by the use of these images.

  15. Exploring the Development of Symbolic Function of Consciousness: A Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov A.M.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes studying method which developed the symbolic function mind. It is defined as a functional unit providing the solution of problems by understanding and expression of the reality of the subject-subject relationship using symbols. The symbol understood as a cultural form of presen- tation of subjective reality, mediating the relationship and interaction between two or more subjects. The symbol consists of sense-perception of form and meaning, expressing a subjective reality. The structure of the symbolic function includes the following components: generation and implementation plan, the transformation of symbolic forms, the awareness of the antinomic character, character interpretation. Investigation techiques was developed in accordance with the principles of construction of experimental-genetic method. Empirical criteria for evaluating the level of its development was based on the structure of the symbolic function, and developed a system of assistance for the realization of symbolic meaning. The method allows determine the dynamics and conditions for the development of the symbolic function, its genetic makeup, as well as the form and content of cooperation with con- temporaries.

  16. The physics of symbols: bridging the epistemic cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, H H

    2001-01-01

    Evolution requires the genotype-phenotype distinction, a primeval epistemic cut that separates energy-degenerate, rate-independent genetic symbols from the rate-dependent dynamics of construction that they control. This symbol-matter or subject-object distinction occurs at all higher levels where symbols are related to a referent by an arbitrary code. The converse of control is measurement in which a rate-dependent dynamical state is coded into quiescent symbols. Non-integrable constraints are one necessary condition for bridging the epistemic cut by measurement, control, and coding. Additional properties of heteropolymer constraints are necessary for biological evolution.

  17. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex back‐ grounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  18. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  19. Symbolics in control design: prospects and research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The symbolic processor is targeted as a novel basic service in computer aided control system design. Basic symbolic tools are exemplified. A design process model is formulated for control design, with subsets manipulator, tools, target and goals. It is argued, that symbolic processing will give...... substantial contributions to future design environments, as it provides flexibility of representation not possible with traditional numerics. Based on the design process, views on research issues in the incorporation of symbolic processing into traditional numerical design environments are given...

  20. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.

  1. The iconicity of picture communication symbols for rural Zulu children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Lize; Alant, Erna

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the iconicity of selected Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) for rural Zulu ten-year-olds. Participants were presented with copies of a commercially available communication overlay without glosses. They were required to match a symbol with each of 36 spoken Zulu labels. With both strict and lenient scoring criteria applied, 2.8% and 11.1% (respectively) of the symbols on the communication overlay emerged as iconic for participants. It was further established that the position of symbols on the overlay, the total frequency of selection of symbols, and gender did not influence results. An analysis of errors revealed that for some symbols many of the participants agreed on a single specific label, be it the target label or a non-target label; while for other symbols there were either many possible labels, or none. The term distinctiveness was coined to describe how well defined or specific were the evoked meanings triggered by a symbol in the viewers' minds. Results suggest that participants did not make maximum use of the information provided by arrows in the symbols. This finding could be ascribed to the opaqueness of arrows and participants' lack of previous experience with these conventional cues in pictures, as well as the traditional oral nature of the Zulu culture.

  2. SEARCH FOR WORKERS AS SYMBOLIC CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yurevich Alasheev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The labour market is seen as a field of symbolic exchange where the main actors are employers and job applicants, whereas the objects of exchange are workplaces and professional competence of employees. The analysis is based on the observed behavioural practices and verbal expressions. An attempt has been made to consider the area of interaction between employers and jobseekers as a field of symbolic production and consumption and to describe methods of construction and perception of representations in the labour market. The analysis of several interviews has revealed significant characteristics of the image of an employee, the employer’s expectations and the specificity of perception of a job applicant.Search and recruitment is a communication process which forms an image of the profession. The use of various search channels imposes restrictions on the construction of the image of a required worker by the employer and determines the specificity of perception of the vacancy by job applicants.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-3

  3. Symbolic convergence and the hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 469C Bukit Timah Road, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Brossmann, Brent [Tim Russert Department of Communication and Theatre Arts, O' Malley Center Room 59, John Carroll University, 20700 North Park Boulevard, Cleveland, OH 44118 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This article documents that the hydrogen economy continues to attract significant attention among politicians, the media, and some academics. We believe that an explanation lies in the way that the hydrogen economy fulfills psychological and cultural needs related to a future world where energy is abundant, cheap, and pollution-free, a 'fantasy' that manifests itself with the idea that society can continue to operate without limits imposed by population growth and the destruction of the environment. The article begins by explaining its research methodology consisting of two literature reviews, research interviews of energy experts, and the application of symbolic convergence theory, a general communications theory about the construction of rhetorical fantasies. We then identify a host of socio-technical challenges to explain why the creation of a hydrogen economy would present immense (and possibly intractable) obstacles, an argument supplemented by our research interviews. Next, we employ symbolic convergence theory to identify five prevalent fantasy themes and rhetorical visions - independence, patriotism, progress, democratization, and inevitability - in academic and public discussions in favor of the hydrogen economy. We conclude by offering implications for scholarship relating to energy policy more broadly. (author)

  4. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  5. Persian Gardens: Meanings, Symbolism, and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahmoudi Farahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it. In this sense, the architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. This paper aims to investigate the patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. This paper seeks to explore Persian gardens in terms of their geometric structure, irrigation system, network construction and pavilions alongside design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony. In the second stage, the paper investigates the fundamental symbols and their philosophy in the creation of Persian gardens and in relation to the architecture and design.

  6. Symbolic Implementation of Connectors in BIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Basu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BIP is a component framework for constructing systems by superposing three layers of modeling: Behavior, Interaction, and Priority. Behavior is represented by labeled transition systems communicating through ports. Interactions are sets of ports. A synchronization between components is possible through the interactions specified by a set of connectors. When several interactions are possible, priorities allow to restrict the non-determinism by choosing an interaction, which is maximal according to some given strict partial order. The BIP component framework has been implemented in a language and a tool-set. The execution of a BIP program is driven by a dedicated engine, which has access to the set of connectors and priority model of the program. A key performance issue is the computation of the set of possible interactions of the BIP program from a given state. Currently, the choice of the interaction to be executed involves a costly exploration of enumerative representations for connectors. This leads to a considerable overhead in execution times. In this paper, we propose a symbolic implementation of the execution model of BIP, which drastically reduces this overhead. The symbolic implementation is based on computing boolean representation for components, connectors, and priorities with an existing BDD package.

  7. Prediction of dynamical systems by symbolic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Markus; Abel, Markus; Shafi, Kamran; Niven, Robert K.; Noack, Bernd R.

    2016-07-01

    We study the modeling and prediction of dynamical systems based on conventional models derived from measurements. Such algorithms are highly desirable in situations where the underlying dynamics are hard to model from physical principles or simplified models need to be found. We focus on symbolic regression methods as a part of machine learning. These algorithms are capable of learning an analytically tractable model from data, a highly valuable property. Symbolic regression methods can be considered as generalized regression methods. We investigate two particular algorithms, the so-called fast function extraction which is a generalized linear regression algorithm, and genetic programming which is a very general method. Both are able to combine functions in a certain way such that a good model for the prediction of the temporal evolution of a dynamical system can be identified. We illustrate the algorithms by finding a prediction for the evolution of a harmonic oscillator based on measurements, by detecting an arriving front in an excitable system, and as a real-world application, the prediction of solar power production based on energy production observations at a given site together with the weather forecast.

  8. Linking somatic and symbolic representation in semantic memory: the dynamic multilevel reactivation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Peelle, Jonathan E; Garcia, Amanda; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2016-08-01

    Biological plausibility is an essential constraint for any viable model of semantic memory. Yet, we have only the most rudimentary understanding of how the human brain conducts abstract symbolic transformations that underlie word and object meaning. Neuroscience has evolved a sophisticated arsenal of techniques for elucidating the architecture of conceptual representation. Nevertheless, theoretical convergence remains elusive. Here we describe several contrastive approaches to the organization of semantic knowledge, and in turn we offer our own perspective on two recurring questions in semantic memory research: (1) to what extent are conceptual representations mediated by sensorimotor knowledge (i.e., to what degree is semantic memory embodied)? (2) How might an embodied semantic system represent abstract concepts such as modularity, symbol, or proposition? To address these questions, we review the merits of sensorimotor (i.e., embodied) and amodal (i.e., disembodied) semantic theories and address the neurobiological constraints underlying each. We conclude that the shortcomings of both perspectives in their extreme forms necessitate a hybrid middle ground. We accordingly propose the Dynamic Multilevel Reactivation Framework-an integrative model predicated upon flexible interplay between sensorimotor and amodal symbolic representations mediated by multiple cortical hubs. We discuss applications of the dynamic multilevel reactivation framework to abstract and concrete concept representation and describe how a multidimensional conceptual topography based on emotion, sensation, and magnitude can successfully frame a semantic space containing meanings for both abstract and concrete words. The consideration of 'abstract conceptual features' does not diminish the role of logical and/or executive processing in activating, manipulating and using information stored in conceptual representations. Rather, it proposes that the materials upon which these processes operate

  9. Hybrid Communication System Based on OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hybrid architecture between terrestrial and satellite networks based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is employed here. In hybrid architecture, the users will be able to avail the services through the terrestrial networks as well as the satellite networks. The users located in urban areas will be served by the existing terrestrial mobile networks and similarly the one located in rural areas will be provided services through the satellite networks. The technique which is used to achieve this objective is called Pre-FFT adaptive beamforming also called time domain beamforming. When the data is received at the satellite end, the Pre-FFT adaptive beamforming extracts the desired user data from the interferer user by applying the complex weights to the received symbol. The weight for the next symbol is then updated by Least Mean Square (LMS algorithm and then is applied to it. This process is carried out till all the desired user data is extracted.

  10. The European Union’s Institutionalisation of Symbols and Myths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    “The paper examines the formal institutionalisation of symbols and myths by EU institutions such as the Commission, Parliament and Council. It asks the question: What roles does the EU institutionalisation of symbols and myths play in the processes of European integration? The paper argues...

  11. Hyperbolic lattice-point counting and modular symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Petridis, Yiannis; Risager, Morten S.

    2009-01-01

    For a cocompact group $\\G$ of $\\slr$ we fix a real non-zero harmonic 1-form $\\alpha$. We study the asymptotics of the hyperbolic lattice-counting problem for $\\G$ under restrictions imposed by the modular symbols $\\modsym{\\gamma}{\\a}$. We prove that the normalized values of the modular symbols...

  12. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols; part II. Simurgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-05-01

    In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine. In this, the second part, I shall describe the evolution of the myth of the Simurgh and discuss the medical relevance of this bird in Iranian history.

  13. Meta-Modeling by Symbolic Regression and Pareto Simulated Annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinstra, E.; Rennen, G.; Teeuwen, G.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a new approach to Symbolic Regression.Other publications on Symbolic Regression use Genetic Programming.This paper describes an alternative method based on Pareto Simulated Annealing.Our method is based on linear regression for the estimation of constants.Interval arithm

  14. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  15. "La Orquesta": Symbolic Performance in a Multilingual Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in second language socialization (SLS) often examine those interactions relating to a learner's integration within a target community. Kramsch and Whiteside (2008) noted the importance of "symbolic competence" in this integration. Symbolic competence, defined as the ability to access contextually relevant social and political…

  16. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether different religious (mythological) worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. ...

  17. Symbolic Interactionism and Ethnomethodology: A Perspective on Qualitiative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, John; Daley, Patrick J.

    Methods employed in social science research must be true to the phenomena under investigation. Both symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology take everyday life as their fundamental premise. Symbolic interactionism, based primarily on the work of George Herbert Mead, is the peculiar and distinctive character of interaction as it takes place…

  18. "They Mean Something More!" Teaching about Symbols Using Balanced Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Bernens-Kinkead, Donna J.; Loudermilk, Liesl S.; Newsom, Gladys I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the election of 1796, buttons, slogans, and, most importantly, symbols have become a mainstay of the American election system. The log cabin symbolized the childhoods of Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln; the sun represented hope on Barack Obama's 2008 presidential election posters. Many people without formal instruction in what symbols…

  19. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, where concrete values are replaced with symbolic ones. In this way, we can compactly...

  20. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  1. Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

  2. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  3. 281 Igbo Symbols: Developing Aesthetic Values on the Igbo Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethical code. The symbols in Igbo land are of the ethical codes of ... generation next. Ndi Igbo are ... quantity of values procured by the younger generation determines the level of ... Therefore, it is very important to assess the young ones orientations ... is, their knowledge of Igbo symbols will be a mark of identity in the macro ...

  4. Imagery and Symbolism in Tess of the D’Ubervilles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Gengmei; Zhou Juntao

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive use of images and symbols is an outstanding feature in Thomas Hardy’s novel, Tess of the D’Urbervilles. This paper makes an exploration about various images and symbols in the novel to help the reader have a better understanding of the protagonist’s destiny.

  5. School Reform in Chicago: A Study of Structures and Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; Guba, Gloria J.

    1995-01-01

    The structures and symbols of the Chicago (Illinois) school reform movement were explored through a case study in one Chicago elementary school. Changes were built on a framework of organizational symbols and metaphors of the building as a home, the school as a family, and the principal as leader. (SLD)

  6. Signal- and Symbol-based Representations in Computer Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Felsberg, Michael

    We discuss problems of signal-- and symbol based representations in terms of three dilemmas which are faced in the design of each vision system. Signal- and symbol-based representations are opposite ends of a spectrum of conceivable design decisions caught at opposite sides of the dilemmas. We make...

  7. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  8. Hand-Held Ultrasonic Instrument for Reading Matrix Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kula, John P.; Gurney, John W.; Lior, Ephraim D.

    2008-01-01

    A hand-held instrument that would include an ultrasonic camera has been proposed as an efficient means of reading matrix symbols. The proposed instrument could be operated without mechanical raster scanning. All electronic functions from excitation of ultrasonic pulses through final digital processing for decoding matrix symbols would be performed by dedicated circuitry within the single, compact instrument housing.

  9. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign language documents and symbols. 232.306 Section 232.306 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be...

  10. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  11. A Symbolic Measure of Authoritarianism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, H. Wayne

    1970-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the personality dimension of authoritarianism can be measured by means of symbols just as well as it is currently measured by Adorno's verbal F-scale. Pilot study confirms symbolic test of intolerance of ambiguity resulted in positive correlation. (Author/DB)

  12. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called [Formula: see text]-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics.

  13. Extracting Symbolic Rules for Medical Diagnosis Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Neural networks (NNs) have been successfully applied to solve a variety of application problems involving classification and function approximation. Although backpropagation NNs generally predict better than decision trees do for pattern classification problems, they are often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions cannot be explained as those of decision trees. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge from trained NNs for the users to gain a better understanding of how the networks solve the problems. An algorithm is proposed and implemented to extract symbolic rules for medical diagnosis problem. Empirical study on three benchmarks classification problems, such as breast cancer, diabetes, and lenses demonstrates that the proposed algorithm generates high quality rules from NNs comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy.

  14. Generation of hierarchically correlated multivariate symbolic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tumminello, Mi; Mantegna, R N

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to generate multivariate series of symbols from a finite alphabet with a given hierarchical structure of similarities. The target hierarchical structure of similarities is arbitrary, for instance the one obtained by some hierarchical clustering procedure as applied to an empirical matrix of Hamming distances. The algorithm can be interpreted as the finite alphabet equivalent of the recently introduced hierarchically nested factor model (M. Tumminello et al. EPL 78 (3) 30006 (2007)). The algorithm is based on a generating mechanism that is different from the one used in the mutation rate approach. We apply the proposed methodology for investigating the relationship between the bootstrap value associated with a node of a phylogeny and the probability of finding that node in the true phylogeny.

  15. A difference ring theory for symbolic summation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A summation framework is developed that enhances Karr's difference field approach. It covers not only indefinite nested sums and products in terms of transcendental extensions, but it can treat, e.g., nested products defined over roots of unity. The theory of the so-called RΠΣ⁎-extensions is supplemented by algorithms that support the construction of such difference rings automatically and that assist in the task to tackle symbolic summation problems. Algorithms are presented that solve parameterized telescoping equations, and more generally parameterized first-order difference equations, in the given difference ring. As a consequence, one obtains algorithms for the summation paradigms of telescoping and Zeilberger's creative telescoping. With this difference ring theory one gets a rigorous summation machinery that has been applied to numerous challenging problems coming, e.g., from combinatorics and particle physics. PMID:26726284

  16. Symbolic feature detection for image understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sinem; Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent

    2014-03-01

    In this study we propose a model-driven codebook generation method used to assign probability scores to pixels in order to represent underlying local shapes they reside in. In the first version of the symbol library we limited ourselves to photometric and similarity transformations applied on eight prototypical shapes of flat plateau , ramp, valley, ridge, circular and elliptic respectively pit and hill and used randomized decision forest as the statistical classifier to compute shape class ambiguity of each pixel. We achieved90% accuracy in identification of known objects from alternate views, however, we could not outperform texture, global and local shape methods, but only color-based method in recognition of unknown objects. We present a progress plan to be accomplished as a future work to improve the proposed approach further.

  17. Proximity measures in symbolic data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Nieddu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Authors consider the general problem of similarity and dissimilarity measures in Symbolic Data Analysis. First of all they examine the classical definitions of elementary event, assertion object, hierarchical dependences and logical dependences. Then they consider some well-known measures of similarity and dissimilarity between two objects (Sokal-Michener, Roger-Tanimoto, Sokal-Sneath, Dice-Czekanowski-Sorenson, Russel-Rao. For resemblance measures based on aggregation functions, the authors consider the proposal of Gowda-Diday, De Baets et al., Malerba et al., Vladutu et al., and Ichino-Iyaghuchi. A paragraph is dedicated to the general algebraic structure; particularly to intervals and vector lattices in Banach space.

  18. Symbolism and discovery: eclipses in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Ian

    2016-09-28

    There is a fascinating tradition of depicting solar eclipses in Western art, although these representations have changed over time. Eclipses have often been an important feature of Christian iconography, but valued as much for their biblical significance as for the splendour of the physical event. However, as Western culture passed through the Renaissance and Enlightenment the depictions of eclipses came to reflect new astronomical knowledge and a thirst for rational learning well beyond the confines of the church and other elites. Artists also played a surprisingly important role in helping scientists in the nineteenth century understand and record the full phenomena of an eclipse, even as the advent of photography also came to solve a number of scientific puzzles. In the most recent century, artists have responded to eclipses with symbolism, abstraction and playfulness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  19. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  20. What’s the problem with symbolic religious establishment? The alienation and symbolic equality accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    Debates about politics and religion in political philosophy have for a long time assumed that religious establishment is problematic. Only recently has political philosophers started to discuss this again. One result of these new discussions is a more nuanced conception of religious establishment...... establishment are problematic. In this paper I articulate and discuss two accounts sometimes invoked but not systematically formulated or discussed in the literature for why even symbolic forms of establishment are problematic, namely what I call the alienation account and the symbolic equality account. I argue...... that these two accounts are importantly different, since they have different implications and face different problems. The chapter articulates and explores the axiological assumptions and normative principles underlying the two accounts. This investigation raises a number of challenges that critics of religious...

  1. [symbol: see text]Caspofungin and [symbol: see text]voriconazole for fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Systemic fungal infections are difficult to treat and often fatal. Established treatment options include conventional amphotericin B or one of its lipid-based or liposomal formulations, or a triazole antifungal such as fluconazole or itraconazole. [symbol: see text]Caspofungin (Cancidas--Merck Sharp & Dohme) and [symbol: see text]voriconazole (Vfend--Pfizer) are two new antifungals for severe infections caused by Candida spp. (invasive candidiasis) and Aspergillus spp. (invasive aspergillosis). Caspofungin is the first licensed echinocandin antifungal, while voriconazole is a triazole. Promotional claims for caspofungin include that it "provides an effective, yet less toxic, alternative to amphotericin B" while voriconazole is claimed to offer "significantly improved survival in invasive aspergillosis compared with amphotericin B". Here we consider the place of caspofungin and voriconazole in managing patients with severe fungal infections.

  2. Mental symbols and genetic symbols: Analogies between theoretical perspectives in biology and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenay, C

    1995-12-01

    A striking parallel may be drawn between the historical succession of explanatory theories of life and explanatory theories of cognitive phenomena. In both domains independently, approaches to understanding the problem of adaptation spawned the concept of formal representation: in biology the representation of hereditary characters by genes, and in psychology the symbolic representation of mental contents by computational states. Molecular biology and classical cognitivism now share the same problem of the origin of language (genetic code and language of thought) and the assignment of content to manipulated symbols. Such isomorphism of the problems and their modes of resolution could provide grounds for criticism of the naive way in which biology is used to solve the difficulties encountered in psychology, as in the teleological approach to intentionality. On the other hand, acceptance of the analogy implies that any solution or major revision in one domain should be able to inspire equivalent solutions or revisions in the other.

  3. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Malan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether different religious (mythological worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs. Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, the issue is even more complex, as alternate modernities lead to a symbolic multiverse, with individuals living in a social multiverse.Keyowrds: mythology; Weltanschauung; worldview; symbolic universe; states of consciousness; altered states of consciousness; alternative states of consciousness; symbolic multiverse; social multiverse

  4. Asymptotics of 6j and 10j symbols

    CERN Document Server

    Freidel, L; Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that the building blocks for state sum models of quantum gravity is given by 6j and 10j symbols. In this work we study the asymptotics of these symbols by using their expressions as group integrals. We carefully describe the measure involved in terms of invariant variables and develop new technics in order to study their asymptotics. Using these technics we recover the Ponzano-Regge formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. We show how the asymptotics of the various Lorentzian $6j$-symbols can be obtained by the same methods. Finally we compute the asymptotic expansion of the 10j symbol which is shown to be non-oscillating in agreement with a recent result of Baez et al. We discuss the physical origin of these behavior and a way to modify the Barrett-Crane model to cure this disease.

  5. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.

  6. Symbolic Exchange and Simulation —— the Symbolic Logic in Postmodern Consumer Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly illustrated the features of postmodern consumer society.Focusing on sign value,the author mainly explained the French social theorist Jean Baudrillard’s important theories on consumer society——symbolic exchange and simulation.Though abstract and hard to understand,his theories lend us a wholly new and critical perspective to observe and understand the present society and its changing culture.

  7. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  8. A practical approach for writer-dependent symbol recognition using a writer-independent symbol recognizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J; Zeleznik, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer. Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison. Each classifier consists of a set of weak learners, one of which is based on a writer-independent handwriting recognizer. During online recognition, we also use the n-best list of the writer-independent recognizer to prune the set of possible symbols and thus reduce the number of required binary classifications. In this paper, we describe the geometric and statistical features used in our recognizer and our all-pairs classification algorithm. We also present the results of experiments that quantify the effect incorporating a writer-independent recognition engine into a writer-dependent recognizer has on accuracy, speed, and user training time.

  9. Toeplitz Operators with Quasihomogeneous Symbols on the Bergman Space of the Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    symbols on the Bergman space of the unit ball equals a Toeplitz operator with quasihomogeneous symbols. We also characterize finite-rank semicommutators or commutators of two Toeplitz operators with quasihomogeneous symbols.

  10. Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

  11. Actions of symbolic dynamical systems on $C^*$-algebras II. Simplicity of $C^*$-symbolic crossed products and some examples

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kengo

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced a notion of $C^*$-symbolic dynamical system in [K. Matsumoto: Actions of symbolic dynamical systems on $C^*$-algebras, to appear in J. Reine Angew. Math.], that is a finite family of endomorphisms of a $C^*$-algebra with some conditions. The endomorphisms are indexed by symbols and yield both a subshift and a $C^*$-algebra of a Hilbert $C^*$-bimodule. The associated $C^*$-algebra with the $C^*$-symbolic dynamical system is regarded as a crossed product by the subshift. We will study a simplicity condition of the $C^*$-algebras of the $C^*$-symbolic dynamical systems. Some examples such as irrational rotation Cuntz-Krieger algebras will be studied.

  12. Graphic Symbol Recognition using Graph Based Signature and Bayesian Network Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Brouard, Thierry; Ramel, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for recognition of complex graphic symbols in technical documents. Graphic symbol recognition is a well known challenge in the field of document image analysis and is at heart of most graphic recognition systems. Our method uses structural approach for symbol representation and statistical classifier for symbol recognition. In our system we represent symbols by their graph based signatures: a graphic symbol is vectorized and is converted to an attributed relational g...

  13. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYMBOLIC APPROACHES IN URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULAKH I. V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The low level of expression and personalization of mass architecture of the second half of the twentieth century connected with the spread of industrial technology and even to a greater extent with mechanistic traditionally functional relation to the average person as, abstract consumer architecture. The condition out of the critical situation is focusing on matters aesthetic, artistic understanding and harmonious image creation environment. The problem of increasing architectural and artistic level of architectural and urban planning solutions to overcome the monotony of planning and development, creating aesthetically expressive urban environment does not lose relevance over the past decades. Understanding and acceptance of enigma and dynamic development of cities encourage architects to find new design techniques that are able to provide in the future a reasonable possibility of forming artistic and aesthetic image of the modern city. Purpose. Define and systematize the principles of symbolization architectural and planning images; propose methods symbolism in the architectural planning of image of the urban environment. Conclusion based on analysis of the enhanced concept symbolizing the image of Architecture and Planning, the place, role and symbolization trends at all levels of the urban environment - planning, three-dimensional and improvement of urban areas; first identified the main stages and levels of symbolization (analohyzatsyya, schematization and alehoryzatsiya, their features and characteristics, formulated the basic principles of symbolization architectural and planning of image, namely the principles of communication between figurative analogies, transformation of subsequent circuits, switching allegorical groupings and metamorfizm ultimate goal – symbol birth .

  14. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  15. Sandplay in Jungian analysis: matter and symbolic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellana, Franco; Donfrancesco, Antonietta

    2005-06-01

    Jung described a way of thinking, tied to sensations and feelings, that is a thought connected to the body. Again in The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Jung (1954) speaks of the symbol as a 'live body', corpus et anima. If the mind cannot credit itself with the discomfort that manifests through the body, this is a sign of a separation between mind and body. A consequence of all this is the literalization of the discomfort which makes it impossible to have a symbolic dimension. Therapy activates a process in which the patient can move from a stage of separation to a possible connection between mind and body, resulting in changes in the level of communication and of awareness. The mind opens itself to symbolization and the body becomes a field for a common language. From our reflections we have come to ascertain that we can speak of analysis only when an imaginary space is achieved, an intermediate space between the patient and the analyst, a space that is created from the intertwining of the symbolic capability of the patient with that of the analyst. Focusing our attention on the use of sandplay in analytic therapy, we know that one puts in the sand box objects that are marks of our psyche, visible traits that contain actions, corporeal movements and feelings. When one focuses on the overall representation built, one can go beyond the literal image and the analyst, keeping alive the image through his symbolic capability, opens the possibility of a dialogue with the symbolic dimension. The imagination as a symbolic thought is the humus that allows the analyst to maintain the intermediate symbolic level open by activating a symbolic process within the dialectic of the analysis.

  16. Uniform approximation from symbol calculus on a spherical phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Liang, E-mail: liangyu@wigner.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    We use symbol correspondence and quantum normal form theory to develop a more general method for finding uniform asymptotic approximations. We then apply this method to derive a result we announced in an earlier paper, namely the uniform approximation of the 6j-symbol in terms of the rotation matrices. The derivation is based on the Stratonovich-Weyl symbol correspondence between matrix operators and functions on a spherical phase space. The resulting approximation depends on a canonical, or area-preserving, map between two pairs of intersecting level sets on the spherical phase space. (paper)

  17. Symbolic dynamics of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Jie

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the symbolic dynamics analysis was used to analyze the complexity of normal heartbeat signal (NSR), Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) signals. By calculating the information entropy value of symbolic sequences, the complexities were quantified. Based on different information entropy values, NSR, VT and VF signals were distinguished with satisfactory results. The study showed that a sudden drop of symbolic sequence’s entropy value indicated that the patients most likely entered the episode of ventricular tachycardia and this was a crucial episode for the clinical treatment of patients. It had important clinical significance for the automatic diagnosis.

  18. The Symbolism of Colour in the Modern German Youth Slang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shavlovska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most interesting for the research group of words – colour definitions – in the modern German youth slang. Different peoples created definite symbols of colours, still existing nowadays. Even at present time the problem of colour symbolism is one of the most significant while studying the interrelation between the colour and the psychic of a person. Youth is the most progressive, emotional and creative group of the society, that is why the study of such phenomenon as colour symbolism as the example of youth slang – is especially important for the modern linguocultural study and social linguistics.

  19. Equivalence of the Symbol Grounding and Quantum System Identification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fields

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive. The quantum system identification problem is the problem of relating observational outcomes to specific collections of physical degrees of freedom, i.e., to specific Hilbert spaces. It is shown that with reasonable physical assumptions these problems are equivalent. As the quantum system identification problem is demonstrably unsolvable by finite means, the symbol grounding problem is similarly unsolvable.

  20. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  1. SymboL. Et symbolspråk for Symbo

    OpenAIRE

    Nilssen, Kai-Even

    2007-01-01

    Dette er en hovedoppgave I dag er elektronisk post en naturlig måte å kommunisere på. Dessverre er det enkelte brukergrupper som ikke kan utnytte denne teknologien. Vårt fokus er barn i alderen 4-8 år. Symbo prosjektet tar sikte på å gi disse brukerne muligheten til nettopp dette. Målet med dette prosjektet er å lage et symbolbasert språk kalt SymboL. Dette er en samling symboler som gjennom bruk gir et begrenset ordforråd, setningsoppbygning og grammatikk. SymboL skal så benyttes i e...

  2. Sarawak Bamboo Craft: Symbolism and Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mohd Zaihidee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human beings and their environment has stirred reactions between nature and the development of mind and actions that can be discussed using interdisciplinary approaches such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, in understanding human thinking and behavior. A psychological approach is intended to evaluate the individual choices and needs in society. A sociological approach details the various patterns in the social organization. An anthropological approach is tied with culture and belief to fulfil human needs which are based on their habitat, while a historical approach looks at the development which is related to the past. Dimensions of experiences, order and logic, selective elaboration and expressions are used to analyze the bamboo craft of Iban, Melanau and Bidayuh societies in Sarawak long-houses. The existence of constitutive, moral, expressive and cognitive symbols has been interpreted based on a theoretical framework that has been developed by Langer Art Theory, Parsons Social Theory and Kaplan Culture Theory. The values and meaning formed are interpreted to understand matters related to the lives of villagers and the finding suggests that bamboo craft expresses the multi-ethnic mind and character in the socio-culture of long- houses in Sarawak.

  3. Smoking and symbolism: children, communication and cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugkåsa, J; Kennedy, O; Barton, M; Abaunza, P S; Treacy, M P; Knox, B

    2001-04-01

    Health promotion, with its concern with empowerment and autonomy, must recognize the agency of its target population. Based on 85 in-depth interviews with 10- to 11-year-old children throughout Northern Ireland, this paper argues that it is necessary to focus on the social relations of children if we are to understand and prevent childhood smoking. Addressing the complex issue of childhood agency, it is argued that regardless of various restrictions to their choices, children can act intentionally in constructing their identities. Instead of viewing the smoking children as communicating with the adult world, we focus on smoking as negotiation of status within the children's culture. Such negotiations utilize symbolism derived from and shared with the 'adult world'. It is important that those analyzing children's lives understand children's ideas and behaviour on their own terms. We must make sure that the very concepts in which the children's experiences are put are appropriate ones. It is suggested that the metaphor 'rite of passage' and terminology such as peer 'pressure' versus adult 'influence', commonly used to analyse the children's smoking behaviour, may actually conceal important aspects of childhood agency.

  4. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  5. Graphic Symbol Recognition using Graph Based Signature and Bayesian Network Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Ramel, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for recognition of complex graphic symbols in technical documents. Graphic symbol recognition is a well known challenge in the field of document image analysis and is at heart of most graphic recognition systems. Our method uses structural approach for symbol representation and statistical classifier for symbol recognition. In our system we represent symbols by their graph based signatures: a graphic symbol is vectorized and is converted to an attributed relational graph, which is used for computing a feature vector for the symbol. This signature corresponds to geometry and topology of the symbol. We learn a Bayesian network to encode joint probability distribution of symbol signatures and use it in a supervised learning scenario for graphic symbol recognition. We have evaluated our method on synthetically deformed and degraded images of pre-segmented 2D architectural and electronic symbols from GREC databases and have obtained encouraging recognition rates.

  6. A research on metamorphosis of symbols in Tahere Saffarzade’s poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Modarresi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSymbolization or symbolic language is an ancient and effective way to communicate among people. Understanding this symbolic language has shown new aspects of symbols in different literary works. In Europe it has formed a new doctrine of symbolism. Symbolism in Persian literature has not been as strong as Europe, but it can be seen in even oldest literary works of mythology. In mythological stories, symbols usually appear as unnatural people or objects. The best example of these symbols in Persian literature are mythologic symbols of Shahname by Ferdowsi like Rostam, Keikhosrow, Fereidun, Zahak and objects like Seven episodes of Rostam and Esfandiar and so on. In modern era of literature of Iran symbolism and symbolic literary language has been used a lot because of political and social causes. This various use of symbolism among contemporary writers has formed new symbols and also some metamorphosis of older symbols with new meanings. In a brief look, we can mention these causes to spread large use of symbolism in contemporary literature: A:  Suffocation and despotism of Pahlavi regime and its negative effect on literatureB:  Affection from world known doctrines line symbolismC:  Creation of ambiguity and deepening older meanings of symbolism to create new symbols from older onesD:  Enriching meaning and creation of polyphony of literature arts by symbolism (Khosravi Shakib, 1387:  p.148Tahere Safarzade is one of the well-known poets of contemporary literature in symbolism which faced a new world by using symbols in a new and creative way. SAFFARZADEH uses multiple objects and characters to symbolism in her poems like mythological or ritual or even ordinary characters. Symbols in her poems that vary in meaning sometimes from a partial to full metamorphosis. In this Research we try to clarify symbolism of these characters and their metamorphosis concerning the majority of use of symbols in her work and understanding her literary

  7. Symbolic BDD and ADD Algorithms for Energy Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Maoz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy games, which model quantitative consumption of a limited resource, e.g., time or energy, play a central role in quantitative models for reactive systems. Reactive synthesis constructs a controller which satisfies a given specification, if one exists. For energy games a synthesized controller ensures to satisfy not only the safety constraints of the specification but also the quantitative constraints expressed in the energy game. A symbolic algorithm for energy games, recently presented by Chatterjee et al., is symbolic in its representation of quantitative values but concrete in the representation of game states and transitions. In this paper we present an algorithm that is symbolic both in the quantitative values and in the underlying game representation. We have implemented our algorithm using two different symbolic representations for reactive games, Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD and Algebraic Decision Diagrams (ADD. We investigate the commonalities and differences of the two implementations and compare their running times on specifications of energy games.

  8. Advanced symbolic analysis for VLSI systems methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guoyong; Tlelo Cuautle, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the recent advances in symbolic analysis techniques for design automation of nanometer VLSI systems. The presentation is organized in parts of fundamentals, basic implementation methods and applications for VLSI design. Topics emphasized include  statistical timing and crosstalk analysis, statistical and parallel analysis, performance bound analysis and behavioral modeling for analog integrated circuits . Among the recent advances, the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based approaches are studied in depth. The BDD-based hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches, have essentially broken the analog circuit size barrier. In particular, this book   • Provides an overview of classical symbolic analysis methods and a comprehensive presentation on the modern  BDD-based symbolic analysis techniques; • Describes detailed implementation strategies for BDD-based algorithms, including the principles of zero-suppression, variable ordering and canonical reduction; • Int...

  9. Anomaly Detection and Diagnosis Algorithms for Discrete Symbols

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that arise...

  10. The interpretation of The Vagrants from the perspective of symbolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鸣

    2012-01-01

    The Vagrant,centers on the Cultural Revolution topic and has brought us great shock.This article will explain this novel from the perspective of symbolism to help readers to better under stand this novel.

  11. A Non-Parametric Spatial Independence Test Using Symbolic Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Hernández, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we construct a new, simple, consistent and powerful test forspatial independence, called the SG test, by using symbolic dynamics and symbolic entropyas a measure of spatial dependence. We also give a standard asymptotic distribution of anaffine transformation of the symbolic entropy under the null hypothesis of independencein the spatial process. The test statistic and its standard limit distribution, with theproposed symbolization, are invariant to any monotonuous transformation of the data.The test applies to discrete or continuous distributions. Given that the test is based onentropy measures, it avoids smoothed nonparametric estimation. We include a MonteCarlo study of our test, together with the well-known Moran’s I, the SBDS (de Graaffet al, 2001 and (Brett and Pinkse, 1997 non parametric test, in order to illustrate ourapproach.

  12. Circle of Life——Symbolism in The Winter's Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇雨

    2007-01-01

    This essay tries to illustrate Winter's Tale's symbolic meaning about human life.It draws conclusion that Shakespeare's plan is to combine the natural rule of seasonal cycle with the life circle of human world.

  13. Sound symbolism facilitates word learning in 14-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association.

  14. Approximately bisimilar symbolic models for nonlinear control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pola, Giordano; Tabuada, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Control systems are usually modeled by differential equations describing how physical phenomena can be influenced by certain control parameters or inputs. Although these models are very powerful when dealing with physical phenomena, they are less suitable to describe software and hardware interfacing the physical world. For this reason there is a growing interest in describing control systems through symbolic models that are abstract descriptions of the continuous dynamics, where each ``symbol'' corresponds to an ``aggregate'' of states in the continuous model. Since these symbolic models are of the same nature of the models used in computer science to describe software and hardware, they provide a unified language to study problems of control in which software and hardware interact with the physical world. Furthermore the use of symbolic models enables one to leverage techniques from supervisory control and algorithms from game theory for controller synthesis purposes. In this paper we show that every increm...

  15. synergy of uli symbols and textiles: an exploration in textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NKEM

    Textile is the entire above but means more than cloths and garments. ... Also in automotive industries textile products are used in the production .... piece is highly symbolic which borders on global issues where hunger and starvation, natural.

  16. A STUDY OF SYMBOLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI BALAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an anthropological, exploratory study of the microsocial world of public transport. Our research focuses on the symbolic relations that are being established (verbally or nonverbally between urban transport travellers that do not know each other and the consequences these relations create. Modern urban configuration forces large numbers of individuals to share public space every day. When this space becomes restrictive, symbolic relations and interpersonal behaviors such as territoriality and personal space management become clearer. Due to overcrowding, public transport is the scene of one of the most restrictive public spaces in a city. The challenge was to observe and interpret daily, casual behaviors through a sociological and psychological scheme, following the methodological tradition established by Erving Goffman and the other symbolic interactionists. Finally, our study generates a number of hypotheses and explanatory models for common practices and behaviors in trams and metros regarded from a symbolic perspective.

  17. Exact and approximate probabilistic symbolic execution for nondeterministic programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable...

  18. Symbolism in Araby from the Perspective of New Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左姗

    2016-01-01

    James Joyce (1882-1941) was a great Irish novelist and best known for pioneering new narrative techniques,especially stream-of-consciousness. Araby, one of the stories in his masterpiece Dubliners, portraits a little boy's experience from the beginning infatuation with his friend Mangan's sister to the final visit to Araby, a bazaar which marks the broken of his romantic illusion. In the present thesis, the author is going to investigate Araby through New Criticism approach and emphasis are put on analyzing symbols. Symbolic imagery is rich in"Araby" and what seemingly ordinary images containing profound symbolic significance. Through the analysis of the symbolic meanings in characters, settings, and objects, as well as their stylistic effects, readers are able to have a better understanding of the subject's significance and artistic value.

  19. Dynamics analysis on neural firing patterns by symbolic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhi-Ying; Lu Qi-Shao

    2007-01-01

    Neural firing patterns are investigated by using symbolic dynamics. Bifurcation behaviour of the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuronal model is simulated with the external stimuli gradually decreasing, and various firing activities with different topological structures are orderly numbered. Through constructing first-return maps of interspike intervals, all firing patterns are described and identified by symbolic expressions. On the basis of ordering rules of symbolic sequences, the corresponding relation between parameters and firing patterns is established, which will be helpful for encoding neural information. Moreover, using the operation rule of * product, generation mechanisms and intrinsic configurations of periodic patterns can be distinguished in detail. Results show that the symbolic approach is a powerful tool to study neural firing activities. In particular, such a coarse-grained way can be generalized in neural electrophysiological experiments to extract much valuable information from complicated experimental data.

  20. Complex trauma, dissociation, and the use of symbolism in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spermon, Deborah; Gibney, Paul; Darlington, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    As therapists are confronted with clients who have childhood histories of severe interpersonal trauma, the challenge is to understand how this trauma affects individuals developmentally and how healing might be facilitated. This article explores how integration might be understood in the context of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. It is proposed that the symbolic function is central both to the fracturing of selfhood due to early trauma and to its resolution. The article provides a detailed discussion of symbolism and therapeutic possibilities for the use of symbolism as an adjunct to therapy with sufferers of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. It is argued that symbols provide a potentially powerful means of assisting reintegration and that this can be used within a range of therapeutic traditions, including cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, psychopharmacological, and neurophysiological approaches. The work of the first author in this regard is illustrated by means of a case study.

  1. What five symbols of American culture do you not know?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏敏

    2012-01-01

    The five symbols of American culture are the same as the epitome of American culture,and knowing it is well as knowing American culture.The position of The United States on the world means that its culture always affected our country’s economy,culture and society.And how can we rightly make full use of the culture shock and penetration from American culture? The key is that we must understand the essence of American culture.And understand what symbolic meaning of each symbol culture embodied can help us comprehensively understand the essence of American culture.Therefore,knowing the five symbols have the profound significance and realistic value.

  2. Dynamic Obfuscation Algorithm based on Demand-Driven Symbolic Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic code obfuscation technique increases the difficulty of dynamically reverse by the runtime confusion. Path explosion directly affects the efficiency and accuracy of dynamic symbolic analysis. Because of the defect, this paper presents a novel algorithm DDD (Demand-Driven Dynamic Obfuscation Algorithm by using the demand-driven theory of symbolic analysis. First, create a large number of invalid paths to mislead the result of symbolic analysis. Second, according to the demand-driven theory, create a specific execution path to protect the security of software. The design and implementation of the algorithm is based on the current popular and mature SMT (satisfiability model theory, and the experimental effects are tested by Z3 - the SMT solver and Pex - the symbolic execution test tools. The experimental results prove that the algorithm enhance the security of the program.

  3. Symbolic Uses of the Berlin Wall, 1961-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines samples from public discourse during the period 1961-1989, which reveal several different symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall. Suggests these differences reflect the never-completed struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. (KEH)

  4. A STUDY OF SYMBOLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei B LAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an anthropological, exploratory study of the microsocial world of public transport. Our research focuses on the symbolic relations that are being established (verbally or nonverbally between urban transport travellers that do not know each other and the consequences these relations create. Modern urban configuration forces large numbers of individuals to share public space every day. When this space becomes restrictive, symbolic relations and interpersonal behaviors such as territoriality and personal space management become clearer. Due to overcrowding, public transport is the scene of one of the most restrictive public spaces in a city. The challenge was to observe and interpret daily, casual behaviors through a sociological and psychological scheme, following the methodological tradition established by Erving Goffman and the other symbolic interactionists. Finally, our study generates a number of hypotheses and explanatory models for common practices and behaviors in trams and metros regarded from a symbolic perspective.

  5. Red, black or white? The dawn of colour symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petru

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the use of the pigments in the Paleolithic is presented, and some ideas of the symbolic meaning of colours are suggested. The colour red might have been a symbol of transformation, and as such, it was used in burials and for painting the Venus figurines. In the Slovenian Paleolithic, there is scant evidence of importance of colour and only a few finds of stones used for the grinding of the red pigment have been found.

  6. Signal- and Symbol-based Representations in Computer Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Felsberg, Michael

    We discuss problems of signal-- and symbol based representations in terms of three dilemmas which are faced in the design of each vision system. Signal- and symbol-based representations are opposite ends of a spectrum of conceivable design decisions caught at opposite sides of the dilemmas. We make...... inherent problems explicit and describe potential design decisions for artificial visual systems to deal with the dilemmas....

  7. A novel symbol overlapping FFH-OCDMA system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengbin Shen(沈成彬); Chen Wu(吴琛); Jinhui Yu(于金辉); Ge Fan(范戈)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A novel symbol overlapping optical fast frequency-hop code-division multiple access(FFH-OCDMA)sys-tem is proposed,and its bit error rate(BER)performance is investigated under consideration of avalanchephotonic diode(APD)noise auid thermal noise.An experimental symbol overlapping(SO)FFH-OCDMAtestbed is developed and some experimental results axe given.The theoretical and experimental resultsshow that the system is apt to implement and has larger throughput.

  8. Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Linda Kay

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that

  9. Symbolic calculus for Toeplitz operators with half-forms

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the use of half-form bundles in the symbolic calculus of Berezin-Toeplitz operators on Kahler manifolds. We state the Bohr-Sommerfeld conditions and relate them to the functional calculus of Toeplitz operators, a trace formula and the characteristic classes in deformation quantization. We also develop the symbolic calculus of Lagrangian sections, with the crucial estimate of the subprincipal terms.

  10. A Memory-Process Model of Symbolic Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-01

    p AD/A-004 331 A MEMORY- PROCESS MODEL OF SYMBOLIC ASSIMILATION William C. Mann Carnegie-Mellon University Prepared for...performing all of the tasksj. ■ - -- —-■■■--■’- - . — ^ - - - - - - - "’ " A MEMORY- PROCESS MODEL OF SYMBOLIC ASSIMILATION William C. Minn...This contrasts with process models of human perception which m st receive their stimulus information one whole stimulus at a time. The system is

  11. Binary Disassembly Block Coverage by Symbolic Execution vs. Recursive Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    logical connectives, variables, quantifiers, functions and predicate symbols [dMB09]. Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems are examples of these...Nikolaj Bjorner. Satisfiability Modulo Theories: An Appetizer. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 23–36, 2009. [Eag08] Chris Eagle. The IDA Pro...problem in symbolic execution-driven test generation for programs. In 19th IEEE Asian Test Symposium, pages 59–64, 2010. [KLMK10] Jae-Jin Kim, Seok- Young

  12. Symbols of one-loop integrals from mixed Tate motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2011-11-01

    We use a result on mixed Tate motives due to Goncharov [1] to show that the symbol of an arbitrary one-loop 2 m-gon integral in 2 m dimensions may be read off directly from its Feynman parameterization. The algorithm proceeds via recursion in m seeded by the well-known box integrals in four dimensions. As a simple application of this method we write down the symbol of a three-mass hexagon integral in six dimensions.

  13. Different approaches of symbolic dynamics to quantify heart rate complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysarz, Dirk; Porta, Alberto; Montano, Nicola; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of symbolic dynamics applied to physiological time series is able to retrieve information about dynamical properties of the underlying system that cannot be gained with standard methods like e.g. spectral analysis. Different approaches for the transformation of the original time series to the symbolic time series have been proposed. Yet the differences between the approaches are unknown. In this study three different transformation methods are investigated: (1) symbolization according to the deviation from the average time series, (2) symbolization according to several equidistant levels between the minimum and maximum of the time series, (3) binary symbolization of the first derivative of the time series. Each method was applied to the cardiac interbeat interval series RR(i) and its difference ΔRR(I) of 17 healthy subjects obtained during head-up tilt testing. The symbolic dynamics of each method is analyzed by means of the occurrence of short sequences ('words') of length 3. The occurrence of words is grouped according to words without variations of the symbols (0V%), words with one variation (1V%), two like variations (2LV%) and two unlike variations (2UV%). Linear regression analysis showed that for method 1 0V%, 1V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle. For method 2 0V%, 2LV% and 2UV% changed with increasing tilt angle and method 3 showed changes for 0V% and 1V%. In conclusion, all methods are capable of reflecting changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system during head-up tilt. All methods show that even the analysis of very short symbolic sequences is capable of tracking changes of the cardiac autonomic regulation during head-up tilt testing.

  14. Natural Symbolism Used in A Farewell to Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of natural symbols are used in Hemingway’s masterpiece A Farewell to Arms, such as rain, water, seasons, etc. This can avoid the description of the acute feeling of the characters, and thus give the readers the freedom to delve into the deep-est part of the character’s emotion. The use of natural symbolism contributes a lot to his“iceberg principle”.

  15. Symbolism in the Old Man and the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小慧

    2013-01-01

    The Old Man and the Sea is Hemingway’s masterpiece,and it is also a classical works in the history of literature. The adoption of symbolism is the most striking feature in the Old Man and the Sea. The essay will analyze its symbolism thoroughly through some aspects such as the leading character,the boy and the Shakes,aiming at helping the reader to get a better understanding of Ernest Hemingway’s masterpiece.

  16. Symbolic Images of Figures in The Red Badge of Courage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓俊

    2014-01-01

    Crane’s most well-known work, The Red Badge of Courage, is commonly believed to be the first great novel of the American Civil War, largely because of its vivid and detailed description of the experience of warfare. This paper conveys figure images symbolize that human life is insignificant in an indifferent universe in the novel, which are perfect symbolic images distin-guish Crane as a forerunner of modernistic writers.

  17. A New Symbol Synchronization Scheme for Cyclic Prefix Based Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Yu-jun; TENG Yong; YIN Chang-chuan; HAO Jian-jun; YUE Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    This contribution proposes a new symbol synchronization scheme for cyclic prefix based modulation systems, which is disclosed in Ref.[16]. The proposed algorithm involves two steps. By using short-time Fourier transform, ISI-free intervals are estimated from time-frequency spectrum of the received signal, and then an optimum symbol start time is obtained. Computer simulation results show that the algorithm is very robust, and outperforms those based upon time-domain correlations.

  18. Symbolic extensions applied to multiscale structure of genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downarowicz, Tomasz; Travisany, Dante; Montecino, Martin; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    A genome of a living organism consists of a long string of symbols over a finite alphabet carrying critical information for the organism. This includes its ability to control post natal growth, homeostasis, adaptation to changes in the surrounding environment, or to biochemically respond at the cellular level to various specific regulatory signals. In this sense, a genome represents a symbolic encoding of a highly organized system of information whose functioning may be revealed as a natural multilayer structure in terms of complexity and prominence. In this paper we use the mathematical theory of symbolic extensions as a framework to shed light onto how this multilayer organization is reflected in the symbolic coding of the genome. The distribution of data in an element of a standard symbolic extension of a dynamical system has a specific form: the symbolic sequence is divided into several subsequences (which we call layers) encoding the dynamics on various "scales". We propose that a similar structure resides within the genomes, building our analogy on some of the most recent findings in the field of regulation of genomic DNA functioning.

  19. ROBOTRAN: a powerful symbolic gnerator of multibody models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Docquier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The computational efficiency of symbolic generation was at the root of the emergence of symbolic multibody programs in the eighties. At present, it remains an attractive feature of it since the exponential increase in modern computer performances naturally provides the opportunity to investigate larger systems and more sophisticated models for which real-time computation is a real asset. Nowadays, in the context of mechatronic multibody systems, another interesting feature of the symbolic approach appears when dealing with enlarged multibody models, i.e. including electrical actuators, hydraulic devices, pneumatic suspensions, etc. and requiring specific analyses like control and optimization. Indeed, since symbolic multibody programs clearly distinguish the modeling phase from the analysis process, extracting the symbolic model, as well as some precious ingredients like analytical sensitivities, in order to export it towards any suitable environment (for control or optimization purposes is quite straightforward. Symbolic multibody model portability is thus very attractive for the analysis of mechatronic applications. In this context, the main features and recent developments of the ROBOTRAN software developed at the Université catholique de Louvain (Belgium are reviewed in this paper and illustrated via three multibody applications which highlight its capabilities for dealing with very large systems and coping with multiphysics issues.

  20. Comprehensibility of universal healthcare symbols for wayfinding in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghae; Dazkir, Sibel Seda; Paik, Hae Sun; Coskun, Aykut

    2014-07-01

    Healthcare facilities are often complex and overwhelming for visitors, and wayfinding in healthcare facilities can be challenging. As there is an increasing number of global citizens who travel to seek medical care in another country, it is critical to make wayfinding easy for visitors who are not familiar with the language in a foreign country. Among many wayfinding aids, symbols are helpful for those visitors who have limited ability to understand written language. This study tested universal healthcare symbols in the United States, South Korea, and Turkey to compare the comprehension of symbols cross-country and identify predictors of the correct comprehension. To explore statistically significant relationships between symbol comprehension and countries, Pearson's Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and ANOVA were conducted. The test results showed that ten symbols among 14 tested have significant relationship with countries. Results of this study demonstrate that symbol comprehension can be varied significantly in different countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.