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Sample records for hybrid coils based

  1. Remote maintenance of tandem mirror hybrid coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid Coils (superconducting coils with normal conducting inserts) are being employed with increasing frequency on Tandem Mirror Devices to obtain high field strengths. The normal conducting copper inserts are short lived in comparison to their encircling superconductors. It becomes desirable, therefore, to devise design features and maintenance procedures to replace the inner normal conducting coils without simultaneously replacing the longer lived (and significantly more costly) superconducting coils. The high neutron wall loadings require that the task be accomplished by remote control. The approach is to permanently mount the coil assemblies on track mounted carriages which serve, during machine operation merely as structural supports, but during maintenance procedures as moveable transport devices. The carriages incorporate all necessary provisions to facilitate remote maintenance operations and to adjust and align the coil assemblies with respect to adjacent machine components. The vacuum vessel is severed on both sides of the hybrid coil by means of a remote cutting machine. The entire coil is transported horizontally, normal to the machine axis to a nearby repair station. Prepositioned carriage mounted repair equipment at the repair station withdraws the damaged normal coil as a single entity and inserts a preassembled spare unit. The repaired hybrid coil is reassembled to the reactor. A cost and risk effective procedure has been evolved to maintain one of the more critical components of a Tandem Mirror Machine

  2. Extending the self-assembly of coiled-coil hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robson Marsden, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Of the various biomolecular building blocks in use in nature, coiled-coil forming peptides are amongst those with the most potential as building blocks for the synthetic self-assembly of nanostructures. Native coiled coils have the ability to function in, and influence, complex systems composed of

  3. Hybrid coils having an improved heat transfer capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid coil ( 11 ) employs a wire layer ( 22 ), a wire layer ( 23 ) adjacent the wire layer ( 22 ), and a wire layer ( 24 ) adjacent the wire layer ( 23 ). The hybrid coil ( 11 ) further employs a thermal conductive insulator ( 42 ) physically disposed within a space between the wire layer ( 22 )

  4. Hybrid equilibrium field coils for the ORNL TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J; Dory, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this study, we make a comparative study of the power supplies required by interior and exterior [to the toroidal field (TF) coils] equilibrium field coils that are separately appropriate for high-β, D-shaped plasmas in TNS. It is shown that the interior coils need power supplies that are an order of magnitude below those required by the exterior coils (while the latter case is much less difficult to build than the former). A hybrid EF coil concept is proposed that combines the interior and the exterior coils to retain their advantages in avoiding large interior coils while lowering the power supplied to the exterior coils by an order of magnitude

  5. CCHMM_PROF: a HMM-based coiled-coil predictor with evolutionary information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartoli, Lisa; Fariselli, Piero; Krogh, Anders

    2009-01-01

    tools are available for predicting coiled-coil domains in protein sequences, including those based on position-specific score matrices and machine learning methods. RESULTS: In this article, we introduce a hidden Markov model (CCHMM_PROF) that exploits the information contained in multiple sequence...... alignments (profiles) to predict coiled-coil regions. The new method discriminates coiled-coil sequences with an accuracy of 97% and achieves a true positive rate of 79% with only 1% of false positives. Furthermore, when predicting the location of coiled-coil segments in protein sequences, the method reaches...

  6. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2010-12-01

    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear by using a hybrid radiofrequency coil at 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Heo, Phil; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Gyu-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of the membranous structures of the inner ear has been limited to the detection of the normal fluid signal intensity within the bony labyrinth by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipped with a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnet. High-field (HF) MRI has been available for more than a decade, and numerous studies have documented its significant advantages over conventional MRI with regards to its use in basic scientific research and routine clinical assessments. No previous studies of the inner ear by using HF MRI have been reported, in part because high-quality resolution of mastoid pneumatization is challenging due to artifacts generated in the HF environment and insufficient performance of radiofrequency (RF) coils. Therefore, a hybrid RF coil with integrated circuitry was developed at 7 T and was targeted for anatomical imaging to achieve a high resolution image of the structure of the human inner ear, excluding the bony portion. The inner-ear's structure is composed of soft tissues containing hydrogen ions and includes the membranous labyrinth, endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space, and cochlear-vestibular nerves. Visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy was performed in-vivo with a custom-designed hybrid RF coil and a specific imaging protocol based on an interpolated breath-held examination sequence. The comparative signal intensity value at 30-mm away from the phantom side was 88% higher for the hybrid RF coil and 24% higher for the 8-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) coil than for the commercial birdcage coil. The optimized MRI protocol employed a hybrid RF coil because it enabled high-resolution imaging of the inner-ear's anatomy and accurate mapping of structures including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. These results indicate that 7 T MRI achieves high spatial resolution visualization of the inner-ear's anatomy. Therefore, MRI imaging using a hybrid RF coil at 7 T could provide a powerful tool for clinical investigations of petrous

  8. Sub-20 nm Stable Micelles Based on a Mixture of Coiled-Coils: A Platform for Controlled Ligand Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, JooChuan; Ma, Dan; Jung, Benson T; Keten, Sinan; Xu, Ting

    2017-11-13

    Ligand-functionalized, multivalent nanoparticles have been extensively studied for biomedical applications from imaging agents to drug delivery vehicles. However, the ligand cluster size is usually heterogeneous and the local valency is ill-defined. Here, we present a mixed micelle platform hierarchically self-assembled from a mixture of two amphiphilic 3-helix and 4-helix peptide-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipid hybrid conjugates. We demonstrate that the local multivalent ligand cluster size on the micelle surface can be controlled based on the coiled-coil oligomeric state. The oligomeric states of mixed peptide bundles were found to be in their individual native states. Similarly, mixed micelles indicate the orthogonal self-association of coiled-coil amphiphiles. Using differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence recovery spectroscopy, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we studied the distribution of coiled-coil bundles within the mixed micelles and observed migration of coiled-coils into nanodomains within the sub-20 nm mixed micelle. This report provides important insights into the assembly and formation of nanophase-separated micelles with precise control over the local multivalent state of ligands on the micelle surface.

  9. Design of an 18 Tesla, tandem mirror, fusion reactor, hybrid choke coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmer, J.F.; Agarwal, K.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.; Peck, S.D.; Burgeson, J.; Dalder, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid, part normal part superconducting 18-Tesla solenoid choke coil is designed for a tandem mirror fusion reactor. The present state of the art is represented by the 12-Tesla, superconducting NbSn coil. Future applications other than tandem mirror fusion devices needing high field solenoids might require hybrid magnets of the type described herein. The hybrid design was generated because of critical field performance limitations on present, practical superconducting wires. A hybrid design might be required (due to structural limits) even if the critical field were higher. Also, hybrids could be a cost-effective way of getting very high fields for certain applications. The 18-Tesla solenoid described is composed of an inner coil made of water-cooled, high-strength zirconium copper which generates 3 Tesla. A superconducting NbSn background coil contributes the remaining 15 Tesla. The focus of the design study was on the inner coil. Demonstration fabrication and testing was performed

  10. Control of tokamak plasma current and equilibrium with hybrid poloidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Ryuichi

    1982-01-01

    A control method with hybrid poloidal field system is considered, which comprehensively implements the control of plasma equilibrium and plasma current, those have been treated independently in Tokamak divices. Tokamak equilibrium requires the condition that the magnetic flux function value on plasma surface must be constant. From this, the current to be supplied to each coil is determined. Therefore, each coil current is the resultant of the component related to plasma current excitation and the component required for holding equilibrium. Here, it is intended to show a method by which the current to be supplied to each coil can easily be calculated by the introduction of hybrid control matrix. The text first considers the equilibrium of axi-symmetrical plasma and the equilibrium magnetic field outside plasma, next describes the determination of current using the above hybrid control matrix, and indicates an example of controlling Tokamak plasma current and equilibrium by the hybrid poloidal field coils. It also shows that the excitation of plasma current and the maintenance of plasma equilibrium can basically be available with a single power supply by the appropriate selection of the number of turns of each coil. These considerations determine the basic system configuration as well as decrease the installed capacity of power source for the poloidal field of a Tokamak fusion reactor. Finally, the actual configuration of the power source for hybrid poloidal field coils is shown for the above system. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. A hybrid optimization method for biplanar transverse gradient coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Feng; Tang Xin; Jin Zhe; Jiang Zhongde; Shen Yifei; Meng Bin; Zu Donglin; Wang Weimin

    2007-01-01

    The optimization of transverse gradient coils is one of the fundamental problems in designing magnetic resonance imaging gradient systems. A new approach is presented in this paper to optimize the transverse gradient coils' performance. First, in the traditional spherical harmonic target field method, high order coefficients, which are commonly ignored, are used in the first stage of the optimization process to give better homogeneity. Then, some cosine terms are introduced into the series expansion of stream function. These new terms provide simulated annealing optimization with new freedoms. Comparison between the traditional method and the optimized method shows that the inhomogeneity in the region of interest can be reduced from 5.03% to 1.39%, the coil efficiency increased from 3.83 to 6.31 mT m -1 A -1 and the minimum distance of these discrete coils raised from 1.54 to 3.16 mm

  12. A large stellarator based on modular coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, S.M.; Sharp, L.E.; Petersen, L.F.

    1979-06-01

    Although stellarators offer some considerable advantages over tokamaks, difficulties arise in designing large devices due, for instance, to poor plasma access as well as to constructional electromechanical and maintenance problems associated with continous helical windings. This paper describes a design for a fairly large device (major radius 2.1m), based on a set of discrete coil modules arranged in a toroidal configuration to provide the required closed magnetic surfaces, having gaps for unobstructed access to the plasma for diagnostics, etc, and allowing for easy removal for maintenance

  13. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Céspedes

    Full Text Available Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high α-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the α-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-γ by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the α-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes.

  14. Proto-CIRCUS tilted-coil tokamak–torsatron hybrid: Design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, A.W.; Doumet, M.; Hammond, K.C. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kornbluth, Y. [Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10033 (United States); Spong, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Sweeney, R. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Volpe, F.A., E-mail: fvolpe@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A tokamak-like device with tilted toroidal field (TF) coils needs less plasma current than a conventional tokamak. • Rotational transform is partly generated by external coils. Device can be considered a tokamak–torsatron hybrid. • We designed and constructed the first device of this type. • Tilted TF coils are interlinked to each other, which helps to reduce aspect ratio of plasma. • This is a six-coil generalization of CNT stellarator, also at Columbia University, which features two interlinked coils. - Abstract: We present the field-line modeling, design, and construction of a prototype circular-coil tokamak–torsatron hybrid called Proto-CIRCUS. The device has a major radius R = 16 cm and minor radius a < 5 cm. The six “toroidal field” coils are planar as in a tokamak, but they are tilted. This, combined with induced or driven plasma current, is expected to generate rotational transform, as seen in field-line tracing and equilibrium calculations. The device is expected to operate at lower plasma current than a tokamak of comparable size and magnetic field, which might have interesting implications for disruptions and steady-state operation. Additionally, the toroidal magnetic ripple is less pronounced than in an equivalent tokamak in which the coils are not tilted. The tilted coils are interlocked, resulting in a relatively low aspect ratio, and can be moved, both radially and in tilt angle, between discharges. This capability will be exploited for detailed comparisons between calculations and field-line mapping measurements. Such comparisons will reveal whether this relatively simple concept can generate the expected rotational transform.

  15. Differential Search Coils Based Magnetometers: Conditioning, Magnetic Sensitivity, Spatial Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofeeva Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental comparison of optimized search coils based magnetometers, operating either in the Flux mode or in the classical Lenz-Faraday mode, is presented. The improvements provided by the Flux mode in terms of bandwidth and measuring range of the sensor are detailed. Theory, SPICE model and measurements are in good agreement. The spatial resolution of the sensor is studied which is an important parameter for applications in non destructive evaluation. A general expression of the magnetic sensitivity of search coils sensors is derived. Solutions are proposed to design magnetometers with reduced weight and volume without degrading the magnetic sensitivity. An original differential search coil based magnetometer, made of coupled coils, operating in flux mode and connected to a differential transimpedance amplifier is proposed. It is shown that this structure is better in terms of volume occupancy than magnetometers using two separated coils without any degradation in magnetic sensitivity. Experimental results are in good agreement with calculations.

  16. CCBuilder: an interactive web-based tool for building, designing and assessing coiled-coil protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher W; Bruning, Marc; Ibarra, Amaurys Á; Bartlett, Gail J; Thomson, Andrew R; Sessions, Richard B; Brady, R Leo; Woolfson, Derek N

    2014-11-01

    The ability to accurately model protein structures at the atomistic level underpins efforts to understand protein folding, to engineer natural proteins predictably and to design proteins de novo. Homology-based methods are well established and produce impressive results. However, these are limited to structures presented by and resolved for natural proteins. Addressing this problem more widely and deriving truly ab initio models requires mathematical descriptions for protein folds; the means to decorate these with natural, engineered or de novo sequences; and methods to score the resulting models. We present CCBuilder, a web-based application that tackles the problem for a defined but large class of protein structure, the α-helical coiled coils. CCBuilder generates coiled-coil backbones, builds side chains onto these frameworks and provides a range of metrics to measure the quality of the models. Its straightforward graphical user interface provides broad functionality that allows users to build and assess models, in which helix geometry, coiled-coil architecture and topology and protein sequence can be varied rapidly. We demonstrate the utility of CCBuilder by assembling models for 653 coiled-coil structures from the PDB, which cover >96% of the known coiled-coil types, and by generating models for rarer and de novo coiled-coil structures. CCBuilder is freely available, without registration, at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/app/cc_builder/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. The impact of hybrid neurosurgeons on the outcomes of endovascular coiling for unruptured cerebral aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelis, Kimon; Gottlieb, Dan; Labropoulos, Nicos; Su, Yin; Tzoumakaris, Stavropoula; Jabbour, Pasqual; MacKenzie, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of combined practices on the outcomes of unruptured cerebral aneurysm coiling remains an issue of debate. We investigated the association of combined open and endovascular expertise with the outcomes of unruptured cerebral aneurysm coiling. Methods We performed a cohort study of 100% of Medicare fee-for-service claims data for elderly patients who underwent endovascular coiling for unruptured cerebral aneurysms from 2007 to 2012. In order to control for confounding we used propensity score conditioning, with mixed effects to account for clustering at the HRR level. Results During the study period, there were 11,716 patients, who underwent endovascular coiling for unruptured cerebral aneurysms, and met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1,186 (10.1%) underwent treatment by hybrid neurosurgeons, and 10,530 (89.9%) by proceduralists who performed only endovascular coiling. Multivariable regression analysis with propensity score adjustment demonstrated lack of association of combined practice with 1-year postoperative mortality (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58–1.23), discharge to rehabilitation (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.66–1.51), 30-day readmission rate (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.83–1.38) and length of stay (LOS) (adjusted difference, 0.41; 95% CI, −0.26 to 1.09). Higher procedural volume was independently associated with improved outcomes. Conclusions In a cohort of Medicare patients, we did not demonstrate a difference in mortality, discharge to rehabilitation, readmission rate, and LOS between hybrid neurosurgeons, and proceduralists only performing endovascular coiling. Funding Supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging (PO1- AG19783), the National Institutes of Health Common Fund (U01-AG046830), and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) of the NIH (Dartmouth Clinical and Translational Science Institute-UL1TR001086). The funders had no role in the design or execution of the study. PMID:26918479

  18. Voice coil based scanning probe microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Duchoň, V.; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), 332:1-7 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/241; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : SPM * Voice coil * Interferometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2012

  19. Thermal analysis of track based coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, K [American MAGLEV, Inc., Edgewater, FL (United States); Zowarka, R [CEM, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This document examines the temperature rise of coils embedded in a concrete matrix. The ultimate goal is to predict the steady state temperature of the coils subject to a repeated passage of vehicles at a regular interval. The primary concern is in maintaining a maximum temperature which is less than that which would compromise the integrity of the insulation used on the wires. Three techniques are used to examine the problem. First, an analytical approach is used to determine not only the immediate temperature rise of the wire material itself, but also a consevative estimate of the steady state temperature expected. Second, the equations are examined for a one dimensional transient profile of the temperature with time. Finally, a two dimensional steady state boundary element solution is employed to estimate the steady state temperature profile both within the coils and within the rail. In this two dimensional boundary element assessment, an iterative approach is employed to accurately model the heat transfer coefficient h which ultimately defines the steady state temperature. (orig.)

  20. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Céspedes, Nora; Habel, Catherine; Lopez-Perez, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Pla...

  1. MR-based conductivity imaging using multiple receiver coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonsung; Shin, Jaewook; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    To propose a signal combination method for MR-based tissue conductivity mapping using a standard clinical scanner with multiple receiver coils. The theory of the proposed method is presented with two practical approaches, a coil-specific approach and a subject-specific approach. Conductivity maps were reconstructed using the transceive phase of the combined signal. The sensitivities of the coefficients used for signal combination were analyzed and the method was compared with other signal combination methods. For validation, multiple receiver brain coils and multiple receiver breast coils were used in phantom, in vivo brain, and in vivo breast studies. The variation among the conductivity estimates was conductivity estimates. MR-based tissue conductivity mapping is feasible when using a standard clinical MR scanner with multiple receiver coils. The proposed method reduces systematic errors in phase-based conductivity mapping that can occur due to the inhomogeneous magnitude of the combined receive profile. Magn Reson Med 76:530-539, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Time-domain finite-difference/finite-element hybrid simulations of radio frequency coils in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shumin; Duyn, Jeff H

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid method that combines the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the finite-element time-domain (FETD) method is presented for simulating radio-frequency (RF) coils in magnetic resonance imaging. This method applies a high-fidelity FETD method to RF coils, while the human body is modeled with a low-cost FDTD method. Since the FDTD and the FETD methods are applied simultaneously, the dynamic interaction between RF coils and the human body is fully accounted for. In order to simplify the treatment of the highly irregular FDTD/FETD interface, composite elements are proposed. Two examples are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the hybrid method in high-field receive-and-transmit coil design. This approach is also applicable to general bio-electromagnetic simulations

  3. Structural design aspects of magnetic coils for a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1976-02-01

    The structural design aspects of a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor (LTPHR) are centered in the solenoidal adiabatic compression coil (ACC) which must support the high magnetic pulse forces that tend to expand the coil and separate the leads. The structural model is represented by the theory of elasticity solution to a thick-walled cylinder. Dynamic amplification (or attenuation) is considered by a shock spectrum technique. A composite material is postulated, where the conductor material for each strand is clad with a high-strength stainless steel with insulation considered. Yield strength (for isolated-pulse operation) and endurance limit (for repetitive-pulse operation) for the high-strength steel impose magnetic field strength constraints on the coil design. These constraints are combined in an overall energy balance calculation that includes neutronic considerations to determine an optimum ACC design. The computer code ENBAL was used to incorporate neutronic, electrical, and structural constraints into the overall energy balance of the LTPHR. The lead separation problem is solved by designing spaced clamps to hold the leads together over great distances

  4. Time-multiplexed amplification in a hybrid-less and coil-less Josephson parametric converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Chavez-Garcia, Jose M.; Brink, Markus; Keefe, George; Chow, Jerry M.

    2017-02-01

    Josephson parametric converters (JPCs) are superconducting devices capable of performing nondegenerate, three-wave mixing in the microwave domain without losses. One drawback limiting their use in scalable quantum architectures is the large footprint of the auxiliary circuit needed for their operation, in particular, the use of off-chip, bulky, broadband hybrids and magnetic coils. Here, we realize a JPC that eliminates the need for these bulky components. The pump drive and flux bias are applied in the Hybrid-Less, Coil-Less (HLCL) device through an on-chip, lossless, three-port power divider and an on-chip flux line, respectively. We show that the HLCL design considerably simplifies the circuit and reduces the footprint of the device while maintaining a comparable performance to state-of-the-art JPCs. Furthermore, we exploit the tunable bandwidth property of the JPC and the added capability of applying alternating currents to the flux line in order to switch the resonance frequencies of the device, hence demonstrating time-multiplexed amplification of microwave tones that are separated by more than the dynamical bandwidth of the amplifier. Such a measurement technique can potentially serve to perform a time-multiplexed, high-fidelity readout of superconducting qubits.

  5. Prediction of shape diameter undergoing coil embolization of saccular intracranial aneurysm treatment using a hybrid decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owasirikul, Wiwat; Tantivatana, Jaturon; Gansawat, Duangrat; Auethavekiat, Supatana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design a hybrid decision support system (HDSS) that could simulate the embolized coil selection pattern of the radiologists in aneurysms treatment. As the longest available length of the coils should be used in most cases, therefore only the shape diameter (SD) selection was modeled and varied. Ninety-eight aneurysms successfully treated by a radiologist with coil embolization were divided into two groups (86 for training and 12 randomly selected for validating). Eight aneurysms treated by another radiologist were also used to cross validate the proposed HDSS. The HDSS was developed using the classification and the linear regression methods (LRM). The dome and the width of an aneurysm were used as the system inputs. The system outputs were the SDs of the first three coils indexed according to the insertion order. The HDSS that consisted of Bagging classification and LRM achieved the highest accuracy for all cases. The errors were within 1 mm for the SD selection of the first two coils. For the third coil, the SD selection within 1 mm bound had 80 % accuracy. The experimental results indicated the feasibility of using the HDSS as the guidance for selecting the SDs of the first two coils. The selection of the third coil required more training data for the rarely used SD. Moreover, the cross validation with another radiologist showed the feasibility of using the proposed HDSS as the guidance, however further validation with more data is recommended.

  6. Immunogenicity of coiled-coil based drug-free macromolecular therapeutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kverka, Miloslav; Hartley, J.M.; Chu, T.W.; Yang, J.; Heidchen, R.; Kopeček, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2014), s. 5886-5896 ISSN 1616-0177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Grant - others:NIH(US) GM095606 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : coiled-coil * enantiomers * HPMA copolymer Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  7. A tokamak with nearly uniform coil stress based on virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, H.

    2002-01-01

    A novel tokamak concept with a new type of toroidal field (TF) coils and a central solenoid (CS) whose stress is much reduced to a theoretical limit determined by the virial theorem has been devised. Recently, we had developed a tokamak with force-balanced coils (FBCs) which are multi-pole helical hybrid coils combining TF coils and a CS coil. The combination reduces the net electromagnetic force in the direction of major radius. In this work, we have extended the FBC concept using the virial theorem. High-field coils should accordingly have same averaged principal stresses in all directions, whereas conventional FBC reduces stress in the toroidal direction only. Using a shell model, we have obtained the poloidal rotation number of helical coils which satisfy the uniform stress condition, and named the coil as virial-limited coil (VLC). VLC with circular cross section of aspect ratio A=2 reduces maximum stress to 60% compared with that of TF coils. In order to prove the advantage of VLC concept, we have designed a small VLC tokamak Todoroki-II. The plasma discharge in Todoroki-II will be presented. (author)

  8. A new type of coil structure called pan-shaped coil of wireless charging system based on magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Z. K.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Liang, L. H.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    The problem that misalignment between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil significantly impairs the transmission power and efficiency of the system has been attached more and more attention. In order to improve the uniformity of the magnetic field between the two coils to solve this problem, a new type of coil called pan-shaped coil is proposed. Three-dimension simulation models of the planar-core coil and the pan-shaped coil are established using Ansoft Maxwell software. The coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is obtained by simulating the magnetic field with the receiving coil misalignment or not. And the maximum percentage difference strength along the radial direction which is defined as the magnetic field uniformity factor is calculated. According to the simulation results of the two kinds of coil structures, it is found that the new type of coil structure can obviously improve the uniformity of the magnetic field, coupling coefficient and power transmission properties between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil.

  9. Research on Harmonic Characteristic of Electronic Current Transformer Based on the Rogowski Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Diqiu; Hu, Bei; Wang, Xufeng; Zhu, Mingdong; Wang, Liang; Lu, Wenxing

    2017-05-01

    The nonlinear load present in the power system will cause the distortion of AC sine wave and generate the harmonic, which havea severe impact on the accuracy of energy metering and reliability of relay protection. Tosatisfy the requirements of energy metering and relay protection for the new generation of intelligent substation, based on the working principle of Rogowski coil current transformer, mathematical model and transfer characteristics of Rogowski coil sensors were studied in this paper, and frequency response characteristics of Rogowski coil current transformer system were analysed. Finally, the frequency response characteristics of the Rogowski coil current transformer at 2 to 13 harmonics was simulated and experimented. Simulation and experiments show that Rogowski coil current transformer couldmeet 0.2 accuracy requirements of harmonic power measurement of power system, and measure the harmonic components of the grid reliably.

  10. A compact spin-exchange optical pumping system for 3He polarization based on a solenoid coil, a VBG laser diode, and a cosine theta RF coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungman; Kim, Jongyul; Moon, Myung Kook; Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Seung Wook; Ino, Takashi; Skoy, Vadim R.; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2013-02-01

    For use as a neutron spin polarizer or analyzer in the neutron beam lines of the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) nuclear research reactor, a 3He polarizer was designed based on both a compact solenoid coil and a VBG (volume Bragg grating) diode laser with a narrow spectral linewidth of 25 GHz. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal was measured and analyzed using both a built-in cosine radio-frequency (RF) coil and a pick-up coil. Using a neutron transmission measurement, we estimated the polarization ratio of the 3He cell as 18% for an optical pumping time of 8 hours.

  11. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up based on cos-theta coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    After successful testing of a 1 m long dipole mirror magnet and three dipole models based on two-layer Nb 3 Sn coils, Fermilab has started a Nb 3 Sn technology scale-up program using the dipole mirror design and the developed Nb 3 Sn coil fabrication technology based on the wind-and-react method. The scale-up will be performed in several steps starting from a 2 m long coil made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) strand. This will be followed by 4 m long Nb 3 Sn coils made of PIT and RRP strands that will be fabricated into dipole mirror magnets and tested. This paper presents a summary of Fermilab's wind-and-react short model program. It includes details on the 2 m and 4 m long, 2 layer Nb 3 Sn dipole mirror magnet design, mechanical structure, and fabrication infrastructure

  12. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up based on cos-theta coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Novitski, I.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    After successful testing of a 1 m long dipole mirror magnet and three dipole models based on two-layer Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, Fermilab has started a Nb{sub 3}Sn technology scale-up program using the dipole mirror design and the developed Nb{sub 3}Sn coil fabrication technology based on the wind-and-react method. The scale-up will be performed in several steps starting from a 2 m long coil made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) strand. This will be followed by 4 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils made of PIT and RRP strands that will be fabricated into dipole mirror magnets and tested. This paper presents a summary of Fermilab's wind-and-react short model program. It includes details on the 2 m and 4 m long, 2 layer Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole mirror magnet design, mechanical structure, and fabrication infrastructure.

  13. Interleaved EPI diffusion imaging using SPIRiT-based reconstruction with virtual coil compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zijing; Wang, Fuyixue; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhe; Dai, Erpeng; Yuan, Chun; Guo, Hua

    2018-03-01

    To develop a novel diffusion imaging reconstruction framework based on iterative self-consistent parallel imaging reconstruction (SPIRiT) for multishot interleaved echo planar imaging (iEPI), with computation acceleration by virtual coil compression. As a general approach for autocalibrating parallel imaging, SPIRiT improves the performance of traditional generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) methods in that the formulation with self-consistency is better conditioned, suggesting SPIRiT to be a better candidate in k-space-based reconstruction. In this study, a general SPIRiT framework is adopted to incorporate both coil sensitivity and phase variation information as virtual coils and then is applied to 2D navigated iEPI diffusion imaging. To reduce the reconstruction time when using a large number of coils and shots, a novel shot-coil compression method is proposed for computation acceleration in Cartesian sampling. Simulations and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Compared with the conventional coil compression, the shot-coil compression achieved higher compression rates with reduced errors. The simulation and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the SPIRiT-based reconstruction outperformed the existing method, realigned GRAPPA, and provided superior images with reduced artifacts. The SPIRiT-based reconstruction with virtual coil compression is a reliable method for high-resolution iEPI diffusion imaging. Magn Reson Med 79:1525-1531, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. A pilot study of planar coil based magnetic stimulation using acute hippocampal slice in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Kang, H K; Wang, M; Jo, J; Chung, E; Kim, S

    2017-07-01

    Micromagnetic stimulation using small-sized implantable coils has recently been studied. The main advantage of this method is that it can provide sustainable stimulation performance even if a fibrotic encapsulation layer is formed around the implanted coil by inflammation response, because indirectly induced currents are used to induce neural responses. In previous research, we optimized the geometrical and control parameters used in implantable magnetic stimulation. Based on those results, we fabricated the planar coil and studied the LTP effect in the hippocampal slice by two different magnetic stimulation protocols using the quadripulse stimulation (QPS) pattern. We found that direct magnetic stimulation (DMS) induced insignificant LTP effect and priming magnetic stimulation (PMS) occluded LTP effect after tetanic stimulation, when QPS patterned magnetic stimulation with 1 A current pulse was applied to the planar coil.

  15. 3-Coil resonance-based wireless power transfer system for implantable electronic

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a 3-coil resonance-based wireless power transfer (R-WPT) system using a single layer of inductor coil windings, in a pancake configuration, in order to obtain a compact system for implantable electronic applications. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements in terms of quality factor Q and power transfer efficiency (PTE), was done. Our proposed 3-coil scheme can achieve a high PTE with a resonance frequency of 2.46 MHz over a transfer distance of up to 30 mm, by using two 15-mm radius implant coils. The achieved experimental PTE is more than 85%at a 5 mm separation distance, and about 50% PTE at a distance of 20 mm. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. 3-Coil resonance-based wireless power transfer system for implantable electronic

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying; Buttner, Ulrich; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 3-coil resonance-based wireless power transfer (R-WPT) system using a single layer of inductor coil windings, in a pancake configuration, in order to obtain a compact system for implantable electronic applications. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements in terms of quality factor Q and power transfer efficiency (PTE), was done. Our proposed 3-coil scheme can achieve a high PTE with a resonance frequency of 2.46 MHz over a transfer distance of up to 30 mm, by using two 15-mm radius implant coils. The achieved experimental PTE is more than 85%at a 5 mm separation distance, and about 50% PTE at a distance of 20 mm. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Optimization of OH coil recharging scenario of quasi-steady operation in tokamak fusion reactor by lower hybrid wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, M.; Fujisawa, N.; Nishio, S.; Iida, H.

    1984-01-01

    Using simple physical model equations optimum plasma and rf parameters for an OH coil recharging scenario of quasi-steady operation in tokamak fusion reactors by lower hybrid wave current drive are studied. In this operation scenario, the minimization of the recharge time of OH coils or stored energy for it will be essential and can be realized by driving sufficient current without increasing the plasma temperature too much. Low density and broad spectrum are shown to be favorable for the minimization. In the case of FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor under design study in JAERI) baseline parameters, the minimum recharge time is 3-5 s/V s. (orig.)

  18. Open midplane designs based on sector coils in superconducting dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bruer, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effects of opening up the midplane in conventional sector coil dipoles, also known as cosè-designs. The open midplane design is a candidate for the higher luminosity upgrade for the LHC, and also for the future beta beam project at CERN, which has the heat deposition mainly concentrated in the midplane of the dipoles. By opening up the midplane, the major part of the spray particles can be avoided, allowing the use of strong superconductive magnets. The aim of this study is to maintain good field quality after a gap in the midplane has been inserted. Short sample field and the electromagnetic force distribution will also be presented for some solutions.

  19. Physical Modeling of the Polyfrequency Filter-Compensating Device Based on the Capacitor-Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrin, P. A.; Gusev, G. G.; Mikheev, D. V.; Shakirzianov, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of physical modeling and experimental study of the frequency characteristics of the polyfrequency filter-compensating device (PFCD) based on a capacitor-coil. The amplitude- frequency and phase-frequency characteristics of the physical PFCD model were constructed and its equivalent parameters were identified. The feasibility of a PFCD in the form of a single technical device with high technical and economic characteristics was experimentally proven. In the paper, recommendations for practical applications of the capacitor-coil-based PFCD are made and the advantages of the device over known standard passive filter-compensating devices are evaluated.

  20. The low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djamal, Mitra; Sanjaya, Edi; Islahudin; Ramli [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40116 (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40116 (Indonesia) and Department of Physics, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jl. Ir.H. Djuanda 95 Ciputat 15412 (Indonesia); MTs NW Nurul Iman Kembang Kerang, Jl. Raya Mataram - Lb.Lombok, NTB (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40116 (Indonesia) and Department of Physics,Universitas Negeri Padang, Jl. Prof. Hamka, Padang 25132 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-20

    Vibration like an earthquake is a phenomenon of physics. The characteristics of these vibrations can be used as an early warning system so as to reduce the loss or damage caused by earthquakes. In this paper, we introduced a new type of low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element that we have developed. Its working principle is based on position change of a seismic mass that put in front of a flat coil element. The flat coil is a part of a LC oscillator; therefore, the change of seismic mass position will change its resonance frequency. The results of measurements of low frequency vibration sensor in the direction of the x axis and y axis gives the frequency range between 0.2 to 1.0 Hz.

  1. Controller design and test results for a four axis HTS coil based Maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tong; Xing Huawei

    2007-01-01

    Controller design and experimental results are reported in this paper for a four axis high temperature superconductivity (HTS) coil based electromagnetic levitation (Maglev) system. The HTS coils are made of Bi2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes. It has been experimentally proved that the designed controller works satisfactorily, although the physical parameters of a HTS coil based electromagnet (HTSEM) vary significantly with the frequency of the input voltage. A performance comparison has also been made between the classical lead-lag compensator and the modern H ∼ loop-shaping controller. It becomes clear that robust control theories are capable of providing a controller with better performances, which is in a good agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, it implies that the particular parameter variation characteristics can be simply dealt with by the available robust control theories that are naturally existent in a HTSEM

  2. Controller design and test results for a four axis HTS coil based Maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tong [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: tzhou@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Xing Huawei [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-04-15

    Controller design and experimental results are reported in this paper for a four axis high temperature superconductivity (HTS) coil based electromagnetic levitation (Maglev) system. The HTS coils are made of Bi2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes. It has been experimentally proved that the designed controller works satisfactorily, although the physical parameters of a HTS coil based electromagnet (HTSEM) vary significantly with the frequency of the input voltage. A performance comparison has also been made between the classical lead-lag compensator and the modern H{sub {approx}} loop-shaping controller. It becomes clear that robust control theories are capable of providing a controller with better performances, which is in a good agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, it implies that the particular parameter variation characteristics can be simply dealt with by the available robust control theories that are naturally existent in a HTSEM.

  3. Design and optimization of a 3-coil resonance-based wireless power transfer system for biomedical implants

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a resonance-based wireless power transfer system using a single layer of inductor coil windings, in a pancake configuration, in order to obtain a compact system for implantable electronic applications. We theoretically analyzed the system and characterized it by measuring its inductance, self-resonant frequency, and quality factor Q. In our resonance-based wireless power transfer prototype, we proposed a 3-coil system, using two 15-mm radius implantable coils, with a resonance frequency of 6.76MHz. This system can effectively transfer power for a distance of up to 50mm. Moreover, our proposed 3-coil system can achieve a high Q-factor and has a comparable power transfer efficiency (PTE) to previously reported works about 3-coil and 4-coil systems. The experimental PTE can achieve 82.4% at a separation distance of 20mm and more than 10% PTE at a distance of 40mm.

  4. Design and optimization of a 3-coil resonance-based wireless power transfer system for biomedical implants

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying; Buttner, Ulrich; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a resonance-based wireless power transfer system using a single layer of inductor coil windings, in a pancake configuration, in order to obtain a compact system for implantable electronic applications. We theoretically analyzed the system and characterized it by measuring its inductance, self-resonant frequency, and quality factor Q. In our resonance-based wireless power transfer prototype, we proposed a 3-coil system, using two 15-mm radius implantable coils, with a resonance frequency of 6.76MHz. This system can effectively transfer power for a distance of up to 50mm. Moreover, our proposed 3-coil system can achieve a high Q-factor and has a comparable power transfer efficiency (PTE) to previously reported works about 3-coil and 4-coil systems. The experimental PTE can achieve 82.4% at a separation distance of 20mm and more than 10% PTE at a distance of 40mm.

  5. A harmonic coil measurement system based on a dynamic signal acquisition device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.X., E-mail: zhoujx@ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O. Box 918-9, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, L.; Yin, B.G.; Deng, C.D.; Kang, W.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Fu, S.N. [Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O. Box 918-9, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-12-21

    A new harmonic coil measurement system based on a dynamic signal acquisition device has been successfully developed to check the field quality of the quadrupole magnet for the CSNS/RCS, which operates at the 25 Hz excitation cycle with a DC bias. It was designed to acquire multiple channels of data with a wide dynamic range of input signals, which are typically generated by a harmonic coil and an encoder. A dedicated algorithm was developed in LabView code to identify over specified intervals, synchronized to the coil's rotation in the magnetic field. Through full integration of hardware and software, the traditional device (PDI 5025) is replaced successfully. This paper summarizes the characteristics of the system and presents the results of DC measurements.

  6. Simulation-based prediction of hot-rolled coil forced cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboonchi, Ahmad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154 (Iran); Hassanpour, Saeid [Rayan Tahlil Sepahan Co., Isfahan Science and Technology Town, Isfahan 84155 (Iran)

    2008-09-15

    Hot-rolled coils take a long time to cool under normal storehouse conditions due to their high mass. Hotter seasons will lead to even longer storage times and, thus, to shortage of space. Forced cooling methods such as water-immersion and water-spray can be employed to reduce hot-rolled coil cooling time. In this paper, a mathematical model of the thermal behavior of coils is developed to predict and to evaluate the results expected from employing these methods before any real changes can be made on the ground. The results obtained from the model were compared with those from various experiments to verify the model's accuracy. The cooling time was then computed based on changes effected in the boundary conditions appropriate to each of the forced cooling methods employed. Moreover, the savings in storage times were compared to identify the best cooling method. Predictions showed that water immersion at the beginning of cooling cycle was more effective and that the cycle should not exceed 1 h for cost efficiency considerations. When using nozzles to spray it was found that spraying water on end surfaces of coils would be the optimum option resulting in savings in time, water and energy, and with restricted temperature gradient. (author)

  7. Analytical Model of Coil Spring Damper Based on the Loading Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Gook; Park, Woong Ki [INNOSE TECH Co. LTD, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Furuya, Osamu [Tokyo City University, Tokyo (Japan); Kurabayashi, Hiroshi [Vibro-System, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The one way of solving such problems is to enhance and to develop an improved damping element used in base-isolation and response control system. A cost reduction of damper for a large scale structure is another important task to upgrade the total response control abilities in the near future. This study has examined a response control device using elastoplastic hysteresis damping of metal material. The proposed damper is designed to be coil spring element shape for a uniform stress of metal and for a reduction of low cyclic fatigue in large deformation to upgrade a repetitive strength during the earthquake motions. By using the metal material of SS400 general structural rolled steel, the corresponding cost issues of the damping element will be effectively reduced. The analytical of elasto-plastic coil spring damper (CSD) is introduced, and basic mechanical properties evaluated experimentally and analytically. This study has been examined the response control damper using elasto-plastic hysteresis characteristics of metal material. The paper described the design method of elasto-plastic coil spring damper, basic mechanical properties evaluated from loading test, and analytical model of damper are summarized. It was confirmed that the damping force and mechanical characteristics of elasto-plastic coil spring damper are almost satisfied the design specifications.

  8. Fatigue assessment of the ITER TF coil case based on JJ1 fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Takano, K.; Kudo, Y.; Tsutsumi, F.; Okuno, K.; Jong, C.

    2005-01-01

    The material of the TF coil case in the ITER requires to withstand cyclic electromagnetic forces applied up to 3 x 10 4 cycles at 4.2 K. A cryogenic stainless steel, JJ1, is used in high stress region of TF coil case. The fatigue characteristics (S-N curve) of JJ1 base metal and welded joint at 4.2 K has been measured. The fatigue strength of base metal and welded joint at 3 x 10 4 cycles are measured as 1032 and 848 MPa, respectively. The design S-N curve is derived from the measured data taking account of the safety factor of 20 for cycle-to-failure and 2 for fatigue strength, and it indicates that an equivalent alternating stress of the case should be kept less than 516 MPa for the base metal and 424 MPa for the welded joint at 3 x 10 4 cycles. It is demonstrated that the TF coil case has enough margins for the cyclic operation. It is also shown the welded joint should be located in low cyclic stress region because a residual stress affects the fatigue life

  9. Study on the Road Traffic Survey System Based on Micro-ferromagnetic Induction Coil Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic information is the basis of road traffic management and control. Due to the special design of the sensor coil and ferromagnetic core, traffic survey system which uses micro ferromagnetic inductive coil vehicle detector, not only has the features of small size, simple installation and little road surface damage, but also has the advantages of output signal strength, simple signal processing circuit and obvious characteristics for output waveform corresponding vehicle feature. Based on the introduction of the sensor working principle, the construction of hardware and signal processing circuit for the traffic survey system is described in detail in the paper. Combined with the characteristics of the sensor output waveform, adaptive nearest neighbor clustering RBF neural network algorithm used to classify the vehicles is proposed and verified by experimental method. The result has a high vehicle classification rate and demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  10. Vibration energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on flexible coil and liquid spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Tang, Y.; Shkel, A.; Kim, E. S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports an electromagnetic vibration-energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on liquid spring composed of ferrofluid. Cylinder magnet array formed by four disc NdFeB magnets is suspended by ferrofluid in a laser-machined acrylic tube which is wrapped by flexible planar coil fabricated with microfabrication process. The magnet array and coil are aligned automatically by the ferrofluid. Restoring force when the magnet array is deviated from the balance position is proportional to the deviated distance, which makes the ferrofluid work as a liquid spring obeying Hook's law. Experimental results show that the electromagnetic energy harvester occupying 1.8 cc and weighing 5 g has a resonant frequency of 16 Hz and generates an induced electromotive force of Vrms = 2.58 mV (delivering 79 nW power into matched load of 21 Ω) from 3 g acceleration at 16 Hz.

  11. Omnidirectional Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Rotary Transmitting Coil for Household Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjun Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An omnidirectional magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system based on rotary transmitting coil is presented. The proposed scheme can ease the variations of the transfer efficiency and output power caused by the deviation of transfer direction, and improve the unbalanced power distribution phenomenon between the receivers, which are still not fully achieved in current WPT systems. The modified coupled-mode model is built first to describe the non-rotary multi-receiver WPT system. The analysis indicates that the transfer efficiency and output power of the system can be expressed as functions of the deviation angle between the transmitting coil and receiving coil, which has a non-negligible influence on the system performances. Then, the modified high order coupled-mode model containing time-varying parameters about the deviation angle is derived for the proposed omnidirectional WPT system. Theoretical analysis and simulated results indicate that this system can transfer power to multiple receivers around the transmitter synchronously and evenly, which is very suitable for wireless charging for household appliances indoors. The scheme feasibility and theoretical analysis are verified by experimental results.

  12. Double tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jora, M.Z.; Nóbrega, J.A.; Rohwedder, J.J.R.; Pasquini, C.

    2015-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometer based on a quartz acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) monochromator operating in the 271–453 nm range, is described. The instrument was tailored to study the formation and evolution of electrothermal atomic cloud induced either by one or two tungsten coils. The spectrometer also includes a fast response programmable photomultiplier module for data acquisition, and a power supply capable of driving two parallel tungsten coils independently. The atomization cell herein described was manufactured in PTFE and presents a new design with reduced size. Synchronization between the instant of power delivering to start the atomization process and the detection was achieved, allowing for monitoring the atomization and thermal events synchronously and in real time. Absorption signals can be sampled at a rate of a few milliseconds, compatible with the fast phenomena that occur with electrothermal metallic atomizers. The instrument performance was preliminarily evaluated by monitoring the absorption of radiation of atomic clouds produced by standard solutions containing chromium or lead. Its quantitative performance was evaluated by using Cr aqueous solutions, resulting in detection limits as low as 0.24 μg L −1 , and a relative standard deviation of 3%. - Highlights: • The use of an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) as monochromator element in WC AAS is presented for the first time. • The system includes the possibility of using one or two parallel coils. • We propose a new atomization cell design, manufactured on PTFE with reduced size. • The temperature of the coils and the atomic clouds of Pb and Cr were observed synchronously with high temporal resolution

  13. Equilibrium field coil concepts for INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Brown, T.G.

    1981-08-01

    Methods are presented for reducing ampere-turn requirements in the EF coil system. It is shown that coil currents in an EF coil system external to the toroidal field coils can be substantially reduced by relaxing the triangularity of a D-shaped plasma. Further reductions are realized through a hybrid EF coil system using both internal and external coils. Equilibrium field coils for a poloidally asymmetric, single-null INTOR configuration are presented. It is shown that the shape of field lines in the plasma scrapeoff region and divertor channel improves as triangularity is reduced, but it does so at the possible expense of achievable stable beta values

  14. An EM Simulation-Based Design Flow for Custom-Built MR Coils Incorporating Signal and Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneff, Andreas; Eder, Michael; Hell, Erich; Ulrici, Johannes; Felder, Jorg; Rasche, Volker; Anders, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Developing custom-built MR coils is a cumbersome task, in which an a priori prediction of the coils' SNR performance, their sensitivity pattern, and their depth of penetration helps to greatly speed up the design process by reducing the required hardware manufacturing iterations. The simulation-based design flow presented in this paper takes the entire MR imaging process into account. That is, it includes all geometric and material properties of the coil and the phantom, the thermal noise as well as the target MR sequences. The proposed simulation-driven design flow is validated using a manufactured prototype coil, whose performance was optimized regarding its SNR performance, based on the presented design flow, by comparing the coil's measured performance against the simulated results. In these experiments, the mean and the standard deviation of the relative error between the simulated and measured coil sensitivity pattern were found to be and . Moreover, the peak deviation between the simulated and measured voxel SNR was found to be less than 4%, indicating that simulations are in good accordance with the measured results, validating the proposed software-based design approach.

  15. Adsorption of iodine from COIL waste gas on soaked coal-based activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping

    2014-04-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has wide application prospects in military, industrial and medical treatment fields as a second generation gas chemical laser to follow the first HF/DF chemical laser. However, a COIL releases large amounts of gas, such as helium, oxygen, chlorine and iodine. Chlorides have a serious corrosive effect on the system, especially iodine vapor crystallization, which seriously endangers the normal use of vacuum systems, and radioactive methyl iodide, which is hazardous to operators and pollutes the environment. The use of soaked coal-based activated carbon as an adsorbent for removing methyl iodine is proposed, while it is proposed that coal-based activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for removing stable iodine. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues are less than 0.5 μg ml-1 after the adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing stable iodine is more than 1000. Using this method can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, satisfy the requirements for engineering applications, and also be applied to other nuclear power plant flue gas treatments.

  16. Large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner based on voice coil actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Sihai; Chen, Wei; Yang, Minghui; Fu, Wen

    2011-10-01

    A large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner with an in-house ingenious deflection angle detecting system is developed based on voice coil actuators direct driving mechanism. The specially designed voice coil actuators make the steering mirror moving at a sufficiently large angle. Frequency sweep method based on virtual instruments is employed to achieve the natural frequency of the laser scanner. The response shows that the performance of the laser scanner is limited by the mechanical resonances. The closed-loop controller based on mathematical model is used to reduce the oscillation of the laser scanner at resonance frequency. To design a qualified controller, the model of the laser scanner is set up. The transfer function of the model is identified with MATLAB according to the tested data. After introducing of the controller, the nonlinearity decreases from 13.75% to 2.67% at 50 Hz. The laser scanner also has other advantages such as large deflection mirror, small mechanical structure, and high scanning speed.

  17. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class.

  18. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class

  19. Hybrid friction diffusion bonding of 316L stainless steel tube-to-tube sheet joints for coil-wound heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneklaus, Nils; Cionea, Cristian; Reuven, Rony; Frazer, David; Hosemann, Peter; Peterson, Per F. [Dept of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Hybrid friction diffusion bonding (HFDB) is a solid-state bonding process first introduced by Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht to join aluminum tube-to-tube sheet joints of Coil-wound heat exchangers (CWHE). This study describes how HFDB was successfully used to manufacture 316L test samples simulating tube-to-tube sheet joints of stainless steel CWHE for molten salt coolants as foreseen in several advanced nuclear- and thermal solar power plants. Engineering parameters of the test sample fabrication are presented and results from subsequent non-destructive vacuum decay leak testing and destructive tensile pull-out testing are discussed. The bonded areas of successfully fabricated samples as characterized by tube rupture during pull-out tensile testing, were further investigated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy including electron backscatter diffraction.

  20. Creep life prediction of super heater coils used in coal based thermal power plants subjected to fly ash erosion and oxide scale formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Kushwaha, Shashank

    2018-04-01

    Super heater coils of the coal based thermal power plants and subjected to severe operating conditions from both steam side and gas side. Formation of oxide scale due to prolonged service lead to temperature raise of the tube and erosion due to fly ash present in the combusted gases leads to tube thinning. Both these factors lead to creep rupture of the coils much before the designed service life. Failure of super heater coils during service of the boiler leads to power loss and huge monitory loss to the power plants. An attempt is made to model the creep damage caused to the super heater coils using heat transfer analysis tube thinning due to erosive wear of the tubes. Combined effects of these parameters are taken into consideration to predict the life of the super heater coils. This model may be used to estimate the life of the coils operating under the severe operating conditions to prevent the unexpected failure of the coils.

  1. A Missile-Borne Angular Velocity Sensor Based on Triaxial Electromagnetic Induction Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to solve the problem of the limited measuring range for angular motion parameters of high-speed rotating projectiles in the field of guidance and control, a self-adaptive measurement method for angular motion parameters based on the electromagnetic induction principle is proposed. First, a framework with type bent “I-shape” is used to design triaxial coils in a mutually orthogonal way. Under the condition of high rotational speed of a projectile, the induction signal of the projectile moving across a geomagnetic field is acquired by using coils. Second, the frequency of the pulse signal is adjusted self-adaptively. Angular velocity and angular displacement are calculated in the form of periodic pulse counting and pulse accumulation, respectively. Finally, on the basis of that principle prototype of the sensor is researched and developed, performance of measuring angular motion parameters are tested on the sensor by semi-physical and physical simulation experiments, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the sensor has a wide measuring range of angular velocity from 1 rps to 100 rps with a measurement error of less than 0.3%, and the angular displacement measurement error is lower than 0.2°. The proposed method satisfies measurement requirements for high-speed rotating projectiles with an extremely high dynamic range of rotational speed and high precision, and has definite value to engineering applications in the fields of attitude determination and geomagnetic navigation.

  2. Graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Tae Kim, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator is designed based on an asymmetric double-electrode plasmonic waveguide structure. The photonic device consists of a monolayer graphene, a thin metal strip, and a thin dielectric layer that is inserted between the grapheme and the metal strip. By electrically tuning the graphene’s refractive index, the propagation loss of the hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode in the proposed graphene-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide is switchable, and hence the intensity of the guided modes is modulated. The highest modulation depth is observed at the graphene’s epsilon-near-zero region. The device characteristics are characterized over the entire C-band (1.530–1.565 μm). (paper)

  3. Development of sine/cosine coil based on cross-section modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Takahiro; Kondoh, Junji; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Shimada, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    New type sine and cosine coils whose areas of cross sections vary as sine and cosine are proposed. The measurements of current position by the new coils showed their availability. Traditional sine or cosine coil is wound with a pitch which varies as sine or cosine. However these coils have a problem of manufacturing, i.e. it is not easy to wind wire exactly with a pitch of sine or cosine. This new modulation, i.e. varying cross section, provides handy and accurate measurements of the current position. (author)

  4. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  5. Empirical component model to predict the overall performance of heating coils: Calibrations and tests based on manufacturer catalogue data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruivo, Celestino R.; Angrisani, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An empirical model for predicting the performance of heating coils is presented. • Low and high heating capacity cases are used for calibration. • Versions based on several effectiveness correlations are tested. • Catalogue data are considered in approach testing. • The approach is a suitable component model to be used in dynamic simulation tools. - Abstract: A simplified methodology for predicting the overall behaviour of heating coils is presented in this paper. The coil performance is predicted by the ε-NTU method. Usually manufacturers do not provide information about the overall thermal resistance or the geometric details that are required either for the device selection or to apply known empirical correlations for the estimation of the involved thermal resistances. In the present work, heating capacity tables from the manufacturer catalogue are used to calibrate simplified approaches based on the classical theory of heat exchangers, namely the effectiveness method. Only two reference operating cases are required to calibrate each approach. The validity of the simplified approaches is investigated for a relatively high number of operating cases, listed in the technical catalogue of a manufacturer. Four types of coils of three sizes of air handling units are considered. A comparison is conducted between the heating coil capacities provided by the methodology and the values given by the manufacturer catalogue. The results show that several of the proposed approaches are suitable component models to be integrated in dynamic simulation tools of air conditioning systems such as TRNSYS or EnergyPlus

  6. Acceleration of calculation of nuclear heating distributions in ITER toroidal field coils using hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Polunovskiy, Eduard; Loughlin, Michael J.; Grove, Robert E.; Sawan, Mohamed E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Assess the detailed distribution of the nuclear heating among the components of the ITER toroidal field coils. • Utilize the FW-CADIS method to dramatically accelerate the calculation of detailed nuclear analysis. • Compare the efficiency and reliability of the FW-CADIS method and the MCNP weight window generator. - Abstract: Because the superconductivity of the ITER toroidal field coils (TFC) must be protected against local overheating, detailed spatial distribution of the TFC nuclear heating is needed to assess the acceptability of the designs of the blanket, vacuum vessel (VV), and VV thermal shield. Accurate Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions of the TFC nuclear heating are challenged by the small volumes of the tally segmentations and by the thick layers of shielding provided by the blanket and VV. To speed up the MCNP calculation of the nuclear heating distribution in different segments of the coil casing, ground insulation, and winding packs of the ITER TFC, the ITER Organization (IO) used the MCNP weight window generator (WWG). The maximum relative uncertainty of the tallies in this calculation was 82.7%. In this work, this MCNP calculation was repeated using variance reduction parameters generated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) code and both MCNP calculations were compared in terms of computational efficiency and reliability. Even though the ADVANTG MCNP calculation used less than one-sixth of the computational resources of the IO calculation, the relative uncertainties of all the tallies in the ADVANTG MCNP calculation were less than 6.1%. The nuclear heating results of the two calculations were significantly different by factors between 1.5 and 2.3 in some of the segments of the furthest winding pack turn from the plasma neutron source. Even though the nuclear heating in this turn may not affect the ITER design because it is much smaller than the nuclear heating in the

  7. Acceleration of calculation of nuclear heating distributions in ITER toroidal field coils using hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M., E-mail: ibrahimam@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Polunovskiy, Eduard; Loughlin, Michael J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon Sur Verdon, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Grove, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Sawan, Mohamed E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Assess the detailed distribution of the nuclear heating among the components of the ITER toroidal field coils. • Utilize the FW-CADIS method to dramatically accelerate the calculation of detailed nuclear analysis. • Compare the efficiency and reliability of the FW-CADIS method and the MCNP weight window generator. - Abstract: Because the superconductivity of the ITER toroidal field coils (TFC) must be protected against local overheating, detailed spatial distribution of the TFC nuclear heating is needed to assess the acceptability of the designs of the blanket, vacuum vessel (VV), and VV thermal shield. Accurate Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions of the TFC nuclear heating are challenged by the small volumes of the tally segmentations and by the thick layers of shielding provided by the blanket and VV. To speed up the MCNP calculation of the nuclear heating distribution in different segments of the coil casing, ground insulation, and winding packs of the ITER TFC, the ITER Organization (IO) used the MCNP weight window generator (WWG). The maximum relative uncertainty of the tallies in this calculation was 82.7%. In this work, this MCNP calculation was repeated using variance reduction parameters generated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) code and both MCNP calculations were compared in terms of computational efficiency and reliability. Even though the ADVANTG MCNP calculation used less than one-sixth of the computational resources of the IO calculation, the relative uncertainties of all the tallies in the ADVANTG MCNP calculation were less than 6.1%. The nuclear heating results of the two calculations were significantly different by factors between 1.5 and 2.3 in some of the segments of the furthest winding pack turn from the plasma neutron source. Even though the nuclear heating in this turn may not affect the ITER design because it is much smaller than the nuclear heating in the

  8. An innovative design for using flexible printed coils for magnetostrictive-based longitudinal guided wave sensors in steel strand inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, P W; Liu, X C; Wang, X J; Liu, Z H; Wu, B; He, C F

    2011-01-01

    Magnetostrictive sensors (MsSs) that can excite and receive guided waves are commonly used in detecting defects that may occur in cables and strands for supporting heavy structures. A conventional MsS has a hard sensing coil that is wound onto a bobbin with electric wires to generate the necessary dynamic magnetic field to excite the desired guided waves. This tailor-made hard coil is usually bulky and is not flexible enough to fit steel strands of various sizes. The conventional MsS also cannot be mounted to any steel strand that does not have a free end to allow the bobbin to pass through the structure of the tested strand. Such inflexibilities limit the use of conventional MsSs in practical situations. To solve these limitations, an innovative type of coil, called a flexible printed coil (FPC), which is made out of flexible printed film, has been designed to replace the inflexible hard coil. The flexible structure of the FPC ensures that the new MsS can be easily installed on and removed from steel strands with different diameters and without free ends. Moreover, the FPC-based MsS can be wrapped into multiple layers due to its thin and flexible design. Although multi-layer FPC creates a minor asymmetry in the dynamic magnetic field, the results of finite element analysis and experiments confirm that the longitudinal guided waves excited by a FPC-based MsS are comparable to those excited by a conventional hard coil MsS. No significant reduction in defect inspection performance was found; in fact, further advantages were identified when using the FPC-based MsS. When acting as the transmitter, the innovative FPC-based MsS can cover a longer inspection length of strand. When acting as the receiver, the FPC-based MsS is more sensitive to smaller defects that are impossible to detect using a hard coil MsS. Hence, the multi-layer FPC-based MsS has great potential for replacing the conventional hard coil MsS because of its convenient installation, and ease of fitting to

  9. A FEM-Experimental Approach for the Development of a Conceptual Linear Actuator Based on Tendril’s Free Coiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cortese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the vastness of the plant species, certain living systems show tendril structures whose motion is of particular interest for biomimetic engineers. Tendrils sense and coil around suitable grips, and by shortening in length, they erect the remaining plant body. To achieve contraction, tendrils rotate along their main axis and shift from a linear to a double-spring geometry. This phenomenon is denoted as the free-coiling phase. In this work, with the aim of understanding the fundamentals of the mechanics behind the free coiling, a reverse-engineering approach based on the finite element method was firstly applied. The model consisted of an elongated cylinder with suitable material properties, boundary, and loading conditions, in order to reproduce the kinematics of the tendril. The simulation succeeded in mimicking coiling faithfully and was therefore used to validate a tentative linear actuator model based on the plant’s working principle. More in detail, exploiting shape memory alloy materials to obtain large reversible deformations, the main tendril features were implemented into a nickel-titanium spring-based testing model. The results of the experimental tests confirmed the feasibility of the idea in terms of both functioning principles and actual performance. It can be concluded that the final set-up can be used as a base for a prototype design of a new kind of a linear actuator.

  10. Implementation and operation of VAX-based data acquisition system for the large coil task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Blair, E.T.; Greenwood, D.E.; Munro, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The VAX-based data acquisition system for the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a second generation system that evolved from a PDP-11/60-based system used in the two-coil test and facility shakedown. The VAX 11/780 processor has been interfaced through a CAMAC fiber-optic byte serial highway to five existing LSI-11/23 frontend processors through dataway access port (DAP) modules. The VAX CAMAC interface has permitted the addition of analog input channels for the refrigeration system and analog and digital outputs to drive display devices. Software utilities are provided to operate the data acquisition hardware, maintain data base files, and display data. Graphical display of data is accomplished through the use of VAX IDL (Interactive Data Language), which provides device-independent data presentation. Output from IDL is available for Tektronix displays and has been extended to generate TKF and Versaplot graphics metafiles for hardcopy output to Versatec printer/plotters. In addition, a Sension display system is available for graphical display of real-time data in the form of strip chart and tabular displays. This paper describes the hardware and software design of the system and the operation of the system during the full-array testing sequence

  11. A novel voice coil motor-driven compliant micropositioning stage based on flexure mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jiangkun; Tian, Yanling; Li, Zheng; Wang, Fujun; Cai, Kunhai

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a 2-degrees of freedom flexure-based micropositioning stage with a flexible decoupling mechanism. The stage is composed of an upper planar stage and four vertical support links to improve the out-of-plane stiffness. The moving platform is driven by two voice coil motors, and thus it has the capability of large working stroke. The upper stage is connected with the base through six double parallel four-bar linkages mechanisms, which are orthogonally arranged to implement the motion decoupling in the x and y directions. The vertical support links with serially connected hook joints are utilized to guarantee good planar motion with heavy-loads. The static stiffness and the dynamic resonant frequencies are obtained based on the theoretical analyses. Finite element analysis is used to investigate the characteristics of the developed stage. Experiments are carried out to validate the established models and the performance of the developed stage. It is noted that the developed stage has the capability of translational motion stroke of 1.8 mm and 1.78 mm in working axes. The maximum coupling errors in the x and y directions are 0.65% and 0.82%, respectively, and the motion resolution is less than 200 nm. The experimental results show that the developed stage has good capability for trajectory tracking.

  12. Supporting device for Toroidal coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the response of a toroidal coil supporting device upon earthquakes and improve the earthquake proofness in a tokamak type thermonuclear device. Constitution: Structural materials having large longitudinal modulus and enduring great stresses, for example, stainless steels are used as the toroidal coil supporting legs and heat insulating structural materials are embedded in a nuclear reactor base mats below the supporting legs. Furthermore, heat insulating concretes are spiked around the heat insulating structural materials to prevent the intrusion of heat to the toroidal coils. The toroidal coils are kept at cryogenic state and superconductive state for the conductors. In this way, the period of proper vibrations of the toroidal coils and the toroidal coil supporting structures can be shortened thereby decreasing the seismic response. Furthermore, since the strength of the supporting legs is increased, the earthquake proofness of the coils can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. An assessment of heat transfer models of water flow in helically coiled tubes based on selected experimental datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Junli; Ma, Haifu; Yang, Zijiang; Shan, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A review of heat transfer characteristics for water flow in helically coiled tubes are conducted. •An assessment of heat transfer models under different heat transfer modes in helically coiled tubes are performed. •This work could provide references for the use of the correlations and for further studies. -- Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the heat transfer models under different heat transfer modes for water flow in helically coiled tubes based on the compiled datasets from the reviewed literatures. For single phase flow, most of the correlations of the heat transfer coefficient can fit well to the experiments. The correlations of Xin-Ebadian, Dravid and Kalb-Seader for laminar flow and those of Seban-McLaughlim, Mori-Nakayama, Xin-Ebadian, Hardik, Rogers-Mayhew, Mikaila-Poskas and El-Genk-Schriener for turbulent flow are recommended. For flow boiling heat transfer, Steiner-Taborek correlation could be utilized to predict the boiling heat transfer coefficients in helically coiled tubes for a relatively wide range of parameters. For dryout quality, the correlations of Hwang et al. and Santini et al. give relatively better predictions than others. However, more accurate correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient and dryout quality need to be developed based on further investigations with wider parameter ranges in the future. The present work could provide references for the investigators for future uses of those correlations and for performing further investigations on the heat transfer characteristics of water flow in helically coiled tubes.

  14. Hybrid employment recommendation algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoquan; Lin, Yubei; Zhang, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the real-time application of collaborative filtering employment recommendation algorithm (CF), a clustering collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm (CCF) is developed, which applies hierarchical clustering to CF and narrows the query range of neighbour items. In addition, to solve the cold-start problem of content-based recommendation algorithm (CB), a content-based algorithm with users’ information (CBUI) is introduced for job recommendation. Furthermore, a hybrid recommendation algorithm (HRA) which combines CCF and CBUI algorithms is proposed, and implemented on Spark platform. The experimental results show that HRA can overcome the problems of cold start and data sparsity, and achieve good recommendation accuracy and scalability for employment recommendation.

  15. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  16. Optimal energy management for a flywheel-based hybrid vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and design of an optimal Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for a flywheel-based hybrid vehicle, that does not use any electrical motor/generator, or a battery, for its hybrid functionalities. The hybrid drive train consists of only low-cost components, such as a

  17. Structured Light-Based Motion Tracking in the Limited View of an MR Head Coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikshøj, M.; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Conradsen, Knut

    2013-01-01

    A markerless motion tracking (MT) system developed for use in PET brain imaging has been tested in the limited field of view (FOV) of the MR head coil from the Siemens Biograph mMR. The system is a 3D surface scanner that uses structured light (SL) to create point cloud reconstructions of the fac......A markerless motion tracking (MT) system developed for use in PET brain imaging has been tested in the limited field of view (FOV) of the MR head coil from the Siemens Biograph mMR. The system is a 3D surface scanner that uses structured light (SL) to create point cloud reconstructions...

  18. Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun

    2015-03-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories

  19. Tough hybrid ceramic-based material with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuqi; Kagawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a tough and strong hybrid ceramic material consisting of platelet-like zirconium compounds and metal. A mixture of boron carbide and excess zirconium powder was heated to 1900 °C using a liquid-phase reaction sintering technique to produce a platelet-like ZrB 2 -based hybrid ceramic bonded by a thin zirconium layer. The platelet-like ZrB 2 grains were randomly present in the as-sintered hybrid ceramic. Relative to non-hybrid ceramics, the fracture toughness and flexural strength of the hybrid ceramic increased by approximately 2-fold.

  20. Rule-based energy management strategies for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2007-01-01

    Int. J. of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (IJEHV), The highest control layer of a (hybrid) vehicular drive train is termed the Energy Management Strategy (EMS). In this paper an overview of different control methods is given and a new rule-based EMS is introduced based on the combination of Rule-Based

  1. Research of Measurement Circuits for High Voltage Current Transformer Based on Rogowski Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bing

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electronic current transformer plays an irreplaceable position in the field of relay protection and current measurement of the power system. Rogowski coils are used as sensor parts, and in order to improve the measurement accuracy and reliability, the circuits at the high voltage system are introduced and improved in this paper, including the analog integral element, the filtering circuit and the phase shift circuit. Simulations results proved the reliability and accuracy of the improved circuits.

  2. Yield performance and stability of CMS-based triticale hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Jonathan; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2015-02-01

    CMS-based triticale hybrids showed only marginal midparent heterosis for grain yield and lower dynamic yield stability compared to inbred lines. Hybrids of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) are expected to possess outstanding yield performance and increased dynamic yield stability. The objectives of the present study were to (1) examine the optimum choice of the biometrical model to compare yield stability of hybrids versus lines, (2) investigate whether hybrids exhibit a more pronounced grain yield performance and yield stability, and (3) study optimal strategies to predict yield stability of hybrids. Thirteen female and seven male parental lines and their 91 factorial hybrids as well as 30 commercial lines were evaluated for grain yield in up to 20 environments. Hybrids were produced using a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-inducing cytoplasm that originated from Triticumtimopheevii Zhuk. We found that the choice of the biometrical model can cause contrasting results and concluded that a group-by-environment interaction term should be added to the model when estimating stability variance of hybrids and lines. midparent heterosis for grain yield was on average 3 % with a range from -15.0 to 11.5 %. No hybrid outperformed the best inbred line. Hybrids had, on average, lower dynamic yield stability compared to the inbred lines. Grain yield performance of hybrids could be predicted based on midparent values and general combining ability (GCA)-predicted values. In contrast, stability variance of hybrids could be predicted only based on GCA-predicted values. We speculated that negative effects of the used CMS cytoplasm might be the reason for the low performance and yield stability of the hybrids. For this purpose a detailed study on the reasons for the drawback of the currently existing CMS system in triticale is urgently required comprising also the search of potentially alternative hybridization systems.

  3. Feasible approach of contactless power transfer technology combined with HTS coils based on electromagnetic resonance coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo; Hwang, Si Dole

    2013-01-01

    The contactless power transfer (CPT) systems have been recently gaining popularity widely since it is an available option to realize the power delivery and storage with connector-free devices across a large air gap. Especially, the CPT with electromagnetic resonance coupling method is possible to exchange energy within 2 m efficiently. However, the power transfer efficiency of CPT in commercialized products has been limited because the impedance matching of coupled coils is sensitive. As a reasonable approach, we combined the CPT system with HTS wire technology and called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Since the superconducting coils have an enough current density, the superconducting antenna and receiver coils at CPT system have a merit to deliver and receive a mass amount of electric energy. In this paper, we present the feasibility of the SUCPT system and examine the transmission properties of SUCPT phenomenon between room temperature and very low temperature at 77 K as long as the receiver is within 1.0 m distance.

  4. Superconducting coil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    The protection system is based on a two-phase construction program. Phase I is the development of a reliable hardwired relay control system with a digital loop utilizing firmware and a microprocessor controller. Phase II is an expansion of the digital loop to include many heretofore unmonitored coil variables. These new monitored variables will be utilized to establish early quench detection and to formulate confirmation techniques of the quench detection mechanism. Established quench detection methods are discussed and a new approach to quench detection is presented. The new circuit is insensitive to external pulsed magnetic fields and the associated induced voltages. Reliability aspects of the coil protection system are discussed with respect to shutdowns of superconducting coil systems. Redundance and digital system methods are presented as related topics

  5. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

  6. Microemulsion based hybrid biofuels using glycerol monooleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Plaban; Konwar, Lakhya Jyoti; Deka, Dhanapati

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel quality of GMO based MHBFs. • Effect of externally added monoglyceride surfactant (GMO) on fuel characteristics of MHBF. • Structural and dynamic behaviors of GMO based MHBFs. • Can offer strong candidature for future biofuel industry. - Abstract: The present investigation aims to highlighten the effect of monoglyceride surfactant (GMO) on structure and dynamic behavior and other fuel characteristics of microemulsion based hybrid biofuels (MHBFs). Fuel quality of MHBFs formulated using purified GMO (>90%), which was prepared by esterification of glycerol, was investigated in the study. Phase behaviors, droplet size distribution, number of droplets present in the system, average droplet size and average length of surface active agents were studied as a part of structural investigations of the GMO based MHBFs. Diffusion coefficient, energy barrier to droplet coalescence and rate of coalescence of droplets were also investigated for the formulated MHBFs. The number of droplets, length of surface active agent and the diffusion co-efficient were in the ranges of 1.87 × 10"2"1–5.66 × 10"2"1/m"3, 0.92–1.07 nm and 1.00 × 10"−"1"1–1.79 × 10"−"1"1 m"2/s, respectively. The rate of droplet coalescence was obtained in the range 2.77 × 10"−"4–8.78 × 10"−"4 times the collision factor. MHBFs incorporating the glycerol derived bio-based nonionic surfactant GMO exhibited viscosity of 4.12 mm"2/s (at 40 °C), gross calorific value (GCV) of 39.17 MJ/kg and pour point of −7 °C.

  7. Design and modelling of a SMES coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Weijia; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A, E-mail: wy215@cam.ac.u [EPEC Superconductivity group, Engineering Department, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    The design of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil wound by coated conductors has been presented. Based on an existing model for coated conductor pancake coils, this paper analysed the magnetic field and current density distribution of the coil at two different operation temperatures, 77K and 22K. A comparison table of the critical currents and AC losses at these two temperatures has been presented. Several steps to improve the transport current of the coil have been suggested as well.

  8. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Benmansour, K.; Boucherit, M. S.; Tadjine, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  10. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  11. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  12. Computer-based data acquisition system in the Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.S.; Layman, L.R.; Million, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of computers for data acquisition and control is of paramount importance on large-scale fusion experiments because they feature the ability to acquire data from a large number of sensors at various sample rates and provide for flexible data interpretation, presentation, reduction, and analysis. In the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/60 host computer with the DEC RSX-11M operating system coordinates the activities of five DEC LSI-11/23 front-end processors (FEPs) via direct memory access (DMA) communication links. This provides host control of scheduled data acquisition and FEP event-triggered data collection tasks. Four of the five FEPs have no operating system

  13. Direct current force sensing device based on compressive spring, permanent magnet, and coil-wound magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Or, Siu Wing; Ho, S L

    2013-12-01

    A force sensing device capable of sensing dc (or static) compressive forces is developed based on a NAS106N stainless steel compressive spring, a sintered NdFeB permanent magnet, and a coil-wound Tb(0.3)Dy(0.7)Fe(1.92)/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 magnetostrictive∕piezoelectric laminate. The dc compressive force sensing in the device is evaluated theoretically and experimentally and is found to originate from a unique force-induced, position-dependent, current-driven dc magnetoelectric effect. The sensitivity of the device can be increased by increasing the spring constant of the compressive spring, the size of the permanent magnet, and/or the driving current for the coil-wound laminate. Devices of low-force (20 N) and high-force (200 N) types, showing high output voltages of 262 and 128 mV peak, respectively, are demonstrated at a low driving current of 100 mA peak by using different combinations of compressive spring and permanent magnet.

  14. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-11-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  15. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Lawson, J.E.; Persing, R.G.; Senko, T.R.; Woolley, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new coil protection system (CPS) is being developed to replace the existing TFTR magnetic coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPS, when installed in October of 1988, will permit operation up to the actual coil stress limits parameters in real-time. The computation will be done in a microprocessor based Coil Protection Calculator (CPC) currently under construction at PPL. THe new CPC will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates. The CPC will provide real-time estimates of critical coil and bus temperatures and stresses based on real-time redundant measurements of coil currents, coil cooling water inlet temperature, and plasma current. The critical parameter calculations are compared to prespecified limits. If these limits are reached or exceeded, protection action will be initiated to a hard wired control system (HCS), which will shut down the power supplies. The CPC consists of a redundant VME based microprocessor system which will sample all input data and compute all stress quantities every ten milliseconds. Thermal calculations will be approximated every 10ms with an exact solution occurring every second. The CPC features continuous cross-checking of redundant input signal, automatic detection of internal failure modes, monitoring and recording of calculated results, and a quick, functional verification of performance via an internal test system. (author)

  16. HydroCoil as an adjuvant to bare platinum coil treatment of 100 cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, Noel F.; Berentei, Zsolt; Brennan, Paul R.; Thornton, John

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The overall safety of the HydroCoil, an expansile hybrid hydrogel-platinum coil, is unknown. We report a prospective observational study of our first 100 cerebral aneurysms treated with HydroCoils, focusing on safety and initial efficacy.Methods Indications, procedural complications, clinical and angiographic outcomes were recorded. Packing density, number of coils deployed and angiographic results were compared with those in a matched control group of 100 aneurysms treated solely with bare platinum coils. HydroCoil complication rates were compared to bare platinum coil rates at our institution and in published series. Results Adjuvant HydroCoil treatment led to increased mean percentage aneurysm filling compared to controls (50 ± 21% versus 27 ± 13%, P < 0.001). Immediate posttreatment angiographic results showed significantly (P < 0.001) more complete occlusions and fewer incomplete (<95%) occlusions compared to controls. Intermediate follow-up angiograms (median 7.5 months) in 63 aneurysms showed a trend towards fewer incomplete occlusions with HydroCoil treatment. There were significantly fewer major recurrences with HydroCoil treatment compared to the control treatment (9.5% versus 22.6%, P 0.046). In the adjuvant HydroCoil group, major recurrent aneurysms had significantly less percentage volume packing with HydroCoils than non-recurrent aneurysms (50.3 ± 5.0% versus 65.3 ± 18.0%, P = 0.04). There was a 12% procedural complication rate, 6% procedural morbidity and 1% mortality rate, similar to institutional and reported bare platinum coil complication rates.Conclusion HydroCoils can be safely deployed with a similar complication rate to bare platinum coils. They result in improved aneurysm filling. Intermediate follow-up angiography showed significantly fewer major recurrences. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm initial improved stability. (orig.)

  17. Flow pattern-based mass and heat transfer and frictional drag of gas-non-Newtonian liquid flow in helical coil: two- and three-phase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandlam, Anil Kumar; Das, Chiranjib; Majumder, Subrata Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Investigation of wall-liquid mass transfer and heat transfer phenomena with gas-Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in vertically helical coil reactor have been reported in this article. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various dynamic and geometric parameters on mass and heat transfer coefficients in the helical coil reactor. The flow pattern-based heat and mass transfer phenomena in the helical coil reactor are highlighted at different operating conditions. The study covered a wide range of geometric parameters such as diameter of the tube ( d t ), diameter of the coil ( D c ), diameter of the particle ( d p ), pitch difference ( p/D c ) and concentrations of non-Newtonian liquid. The correlation models for the heat and mass transfer coefficient based on the flow pattern are developed which may be useful in process scale-up of the helical coil reactor for industrial application. The frictional drag coefficient was also estimated and analyzed by mass transfer phenomena based on the electrochemical method.

  18. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  19. Modeling of twisted and coiled polymer (TCP) muscle based on phenomenological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Farzad; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-12-01

    Twisted and coiled polymers (TCP) muscles are linear actuators that respond to change in temperature. Exploiting high negative coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and helical geometry give them a significant ability to change length in a limited temperature range. Several applications and experimental data of these materials have been demonstrated in the last few years. To use these actuators in robotics and control system applications, a mathematical model for predicting their behavior is essential. In this work, a practical and accurate phenomenological model for estimating the displacement of TCP muscles, as a function of the load as well as input electrical current, is proposed. The problem is broken down into two parts, i.e. modeling of the electro-thermal and then the thermo-elastic behavior of the muscles. For the first part, a differential equation, with changing electrical resistance term, is derived. Next, by using a temperature-dependent modulus of elasticity and CTE as well as taking the geometry of the muscles into account, an expression for displacement is derived. Experimental data for different loads and actuation current levels are used for verifying the model and investigating its accuracy. The result shows a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results for all loads.

  20. A personal-computer-based package for interactive assessment of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and poloidal field coil design in axisymmetric toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, W.P.; Steiner, D.

    1989-01-01

    A personal-computer (PC)-based calculational approach assesses magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and poloidal field (PF) coil arrangement in a highly interactive mode, well suited for tokamak scoping studies. The system developed involves a two-step process: the MHD equilibrium is calculated and then a PF coil arrangement, consistent with the equilibrium is determined in an interactive design environment. In this paper the approach is used to examine four distinctly different toroidal configurations: the STARFIRE rector, a spherical torus (ST), the Big Dee, and an elongated tokamak. In these applications the PC-based results are benchmarked against those of a mainframe code for STARFIRE, ST, and Big Dee. The equilibrium and PF coil arrangement calculations obtained with the PC approach agree within a few percent with those obtained with the mainframe code

  1. Design and Fabrication of the KSTAR Poloidal Field Coil Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. K.; Choi, C. H.; Sa, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    The KSTAR magnet system consists of 16 toroidal field(TF) coils. 4 pairs of central solenoid(CS) coils, and 3 pairs of outer poloidal field(PF) coils. The TF coils are encased in a structure to enhance mechanical stability. The CS coil structure is supported on top of the TF coil structure and supplies a vertical compression of 15 MN to prevent lateral movement due to a repulsive force between the CS coils. The PF coil system is vertically symmetry to the machine mid-plane and consists of 6 coils and 80 support structures(i.e, 16 for PF5, 32 for PF6 and 32 fort PF7). All PF coil structures should absorb the thermal contraction difference between TF coil structure and PF coils due to cool down and endure the vertical and radial magnetic forces due to current charging. In order to satisfy these structural requirements. the PF5 coil structure is designed base on hinges and both of PF6 and PF7 coil structures based on flexible plates. The PF coil structures are assembled on the TF coil structure with an individual basement that is welded on the TF coil structure

  2. Mapping of the prostate in endorectal coil-based MRI/MRSI and CT: A deformable registration and validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, J.; Xing, L.; Hunjan, S.; Dumoulin, C.; Levin, J.; Lo, A.; Watkins, R.; Rohling, K.; Giaquinto, R.; Kim, D.; Spielman, D.; Daniel, B.

    2004-01-01

    The endorectal coil is being increasingly used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to obtain anatomic and metabolic images of the prostate with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In practice, however, the use of endorectal probe inevitably distorts the prostate and other soft tissue organs, making the analysis and the use of the acquired image data in treatment planning difficult. The purpose of this work is to develop a deformable image registration algorithm to map the MRI/MRSI information obtained using an endorectal probe onto CT images and to verify the accuracy of the registration by phantom and patient studies. A mapping procedure involved using a thin plate spline (TPS) transformation was implemented to establish voxel-to-voxel correspondence between a reference image and a floating image with deformation. An elastic phantom with a number of implanted fiducial markers was designed for the validation of the quality of the registration. Radiographic images of the phantom were obtained before and after a series of intentionally introduced distortions. After mapping the distorted phantom to the original one, the displacements of the implanted markers were measured with respect to their ideal positions and the mean error was calculated. In patient studies, CT images of three prostate patients were acquired, followed by 3 Tesla (3 T) MR images with a rigid endorectal coil. Registration quality was estimated by the centroid position displacement and image coincidence index (CI). Phantom and patient studies show that TPS-based registration has achieved significantly higher accuracy than the previously reported method based on a rigid-body transformation and scaling. The technique should be useful to map the MR spectroscopic dataset acquired with ER probe onto the treatment planning CT dataset to guide radiotherapy planning

  3. Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid free space optical (FSO)/ radio frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data rate wireless back haul.We present and analyze a switching based transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with FSO link enjoying a higher priority. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with FSO only scenario.

  4. Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid free space optical (FSO)/ radio frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data rate wireless back haul.We present and analyze a switching based transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with FSO link enjoying a higher priority. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with FSO only scenario.

  5. MR-based measurements and simulations of the magnetic field created by a realistic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil and stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, Stefano; Petrov, Petar I; Neggers, Sebastian F W; Luijten, Peter R; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging technique that allows non-invasive neurostimulation. However, the correct validation of electromagnetic models of typical TMS coils and the correct assessment of the incident TMS field (B TMS ) produced by standard TMS stimulators are still lacking. Such a validation can be performed by mapping B TMS produced by a realistic TMS setup. In this study, we show that MRI can provide precise quantification of the magnetic field produced by a realistic TMS coil and a clinically used TMS stimulator in the region in which neurostimulation occurs. Measurements of the phase accumulation created by TMS pulses applied during a tailored MR sequence were performed in a phantom. Dedicated hardware was developed to synchronize a typical, clinically used, TMS setup with a 3-T MR scanner. For comparison purposes, electromagnetic simulations of B TMS were performed. MR-based measurements allow the mapping and quantification of B TMS starting 2.5 cm from the TMS coil. For closer regions, the intra-voxel dephasing induced by B TMS prohibits TMS field measurements. For 1% TMS output, the maximum measured value was ~0.1 mT. Simulations reflect quantitatively the experimental data. These measurements can be used to validate electromagnetic models of TMS coils, to guide TMS coil positioning, and for dosimetry and quality assessment of concurrent TMS-MRI studies without the need for crude methods, such as motor threshold, for stimulation dose determination. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Performance evaluation of matrix gradient coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Schultz, Gerrit; Testud, Frederik; Welz, Anna Masako; Weber, Hans; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new performance measure of a matrix coil (also known as multi-coil) from the perspective of efficient, local, non-linear encoding without explicitly considering target encoding fields. An optimization problem based on a joint optimization for the non-linear encoding fields is formulated. Based on the derived objective function, a figure of merit of a matrix coil is defined, which is a generalization of a previously known resistive figure of merit for traditional gradient coils. A cylindrical matrix coil design with a high number of elements is used to illustrate the proposed performance measure. The results are analyzed to reveal novel features of matrix coil designs, which allowed us to optimize coil parameters, such as number of coil elements. A comparison to a scaled, existing multi-coil is also provided to demonstrate the use of the proposed performance parameter. The assessment of a matrix gradient coil profits from using a single performance parameter that takes the local encoding performance of the coil into account in relation to the dissipated power.

  7. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  8. The ITER magnets: Preparation for full size construction based on the results of the model coil programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, M.

    2003-01-01

    The ITER magnets are long-lead time items and the preparation of their construction is the subject of a major and coordinated effort of the ITER International Team and Participant Teams. The results of the ITER model coil programme constitute the basis and the main source of data for the preparation of the technical specifications for the procurement of the ITER magnets. A review of the salient results of the ITER model coil programme is given and the significance of these results for the preparation of full size industrial production is explained. The model coil programme has confirmed the validity of the design and the manufacturer's ability to produce the coils with the required quality level. The programme has also allowed the optimisation of the conductor design and the identification of further development which would lead to cost reductions of the toroidal field coil case. (author)

  9. Simulation Research of Magnetically-coupled Resonant Wireless Power Transfer System with Single Intermediate Coil Resonator Based on S Parameters Using ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ANSYS can be a powerful tool to simulate the process of energy exchange in magnetically-coupled resonant wireless power transfer system. In this work, the MCR-WPT system with single intermediate coil resonator is simulated and researched based on scattering parameters using ANSYS Electromagnetics. The change rule of power transfer efficiency is reflected intuitively through the scattering parameters. A new method of calculating the coupling coefficient is proposed. A cascaded 2-port network model using scattering parameters is adopted to research the efficiency of transmission. By changing the relative position and the number of turns of the intermediate coil, we find some factors affecting the efficiency of transmission. Methods and principles of designing the MCR-WPT system with single intermediate coil resonator are obtained. And these methods have practical value with design and optimization of system efficiency.

  10. Conception of Brownian coil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiayuan

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a conception of Brownian coil. Brownian coil is a tiny coil with the same size of pollen. Once immersed into designed magnetic field and liquid, the coil will be moved and deformed macroscopically, due to the microscopic thermodynamic molecular collisions. Such deformation and movement will change the magnetic flux through the coil, by which an ElectroMotive Force (EMF) is produced. In this work, Brownian heat exchanger and Brownian generator are further designed to tran...

  11. From micelles to fibers: balancing self-assembling and random coiling domains in pH-responsive silk-collagen-like protein-based polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beun, L.H.; Storm, I.M.; Werten, M.W.T.; Wolf, de F.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Vries, de R.J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the self-assembly of genetically engineered protein-based triblock copolymers consisting of a central pH-responsive silk-like middle block (SHn, where SH is a silk-like octapeptide, (GA)3GH and n is the number of repeats) flanked by hydrophilic random coil outer blocks (C2). Our previous

  12. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Acero, José F.; Martínez-Lauranchet, Jaime; Probst, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize...

  13. Four signature motifs define the first class of structurally related large coiled-coil proteins in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Iris

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and yeast proteins containing long coiled-coil domains are involved in attaching other proteins to the large, solid-state components of the cell. One subgroup of long coiled-coil proteins are the nuclear lamins, which are involved in attaching chromatin to the nuclear envelope and have recently been implicated in inherited human diseases. In contrast to other eukaryotes, long coiled-coil proteins have been barely investigated in plants. Results We have searched the completed Arabidopsis genome and have identified a family of structurally related long coiled-coil proteins. Filament-like plant proteins (FPP were identified by sequence similarity to a tomato cDNA that encodes a coiled-coil protein which interacts with the nuclear envelope-associated protein, MAF1. The FPP family is defined by four novel unique sequence motifs and by two clusters of long coiled-coil domains separated by a non-coiled-coil linker. All family members are expressed in a variety of Arabidopsis tissues. A homolog sharing the structural features was identified in the monocot rice, indicating conservation among angiosperms. Conclusion Except for myosins, this is the first characterization of a family of long coiled-coil proteins in plants. The tomato homolog of the FPP family binds in a yeast two-hybrid assay to a nuclear envelope-associated protein. This might suggest that FPP family members function in nuclear envelope biology. Because the full Arabidopsis genome does not appear to contain genes for lamins, it is of interest to investigate other long coiled-coil proteins, which might functionally replace lamins in the plant kingdom.

  14. Quinoline-Based Hybrid Compounds with Antimalarial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhamla Nqoro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of quinoline-based compounds for the treatment of malaria infections is hampered by drug resistance. Drug resistance has led to the combination of quinolines with other classes of antimalarials resulting in enhanced therapeutic outcomes. However, the combination of antimalarials is limited by drug-drug interactions. In order to overcome the aforementioned factors, several researchers have reported hybrid compounds prepared by reacting quinoline-based compounds with other compounds via selected functionalities. This review will focus on the currently reported quinoline-based hybrid compounds and their preclinical studies.

  15. Light programmable organic transistor memory device based on hybrid dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaochen; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2013-09-01

    We have fabricated the transistor memory devices based on SiO2 and polystyrene (PS) hybrid dielectric. The trap states densities with different semiconductors have been investigated and a maximum 160V memory window between programming and erasing is realized. For DNTT based transistor, the trapped electron density is limited by the number of mobile electrons in semiconductor. The charge transport mechanism is verified by light induced Vth shift effect. Furthermore, in order to meet the low operating power requirement of portable electronic devices, we fabricated the organic memory transistor based on AlOx/self-assembly monolayer (SAM)/PS hybrid dielectric, the effective capacitance of hybrid dielectric is 210 nF cm-2 and the transistor can reach saturation state at -3V gate bias. The memory window in transfer I-V curve is around 1V under +/-5V programming and erasing bias.

  16. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  17. Multicoil2: predicting coiled coils and their oligomerization states from sequence in the twilight zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Trigg

    Full Text Available The alpha-helical coiled coil can adopt a variety of topologies, among the most common of which are parallel and antiparallel dimers and trimers. We present Multicoil2, an algorithm that predicts both the location and oligomerization state (two versus three helices of coiled coils in protein sequences. Multicoil2 combines the pairwise correlations of the previous Multicoil method with the flexibility of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs in a Markov Random Field (MRF. The resulting algorithm integrates sequence features, including pairwise interactions, through multinomial logistic regression to devise an optimized scoring function for distinguishing dimer, trimer and non-coiled-coil oligomerization states; this scoring function is used to produce Markov Random Field potentials that incorporate pairwise correlations localized in sequence. Multicoil2 significantly improves both coiled-coil detection and dimer versus trimer state prediction over the original Multicoil algorithm retrained on a newly-constructed database of coiled-coil sequences. The new database, comprised of 2,105 sequences containing 124,088 residues, includes reliable structural annotations based on experimental data in the literature. Notably, the enhanced performance of Multicoil2 is evident when tested in stringent leave-family-out cross-validation on the new database, reflecting expected performance on challenging new prediction targets that have minimal sequence similarity to known coiled-coil families. The Multicoil2 program and training database are available for download from http://multicoil2.csail.mit.edu.

  18. Large coil test facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.; Mann, T.L.

    1978-02-01

    In the development of a superconducting toroidal field (TF) magnet for The Next Step (TNS) tokamak reactor, several different TF coils, about half TNS size, will be built and tested to permit selection of a design and fabrication procedure for full-scale TNS coils. A conceptual design has been completed for a facility to test D-shaped TF coils, 2.5 x 3.5-m bore, operating at 4-6 K, cooled either by boiling helium or by forced-flow supercritical helium. Up to six coils can be accommodated in a toroidal array housed in a single vacuum tank. The principal components and systems in the facility are an 11-m vacuum tank, a test stand providing structural support and service connections for the coils, a liquid nitrogen system, a system providing helium both as saturated liquid and at supercritical pressure, coils to produce a pulsed vertical field at any selected test coil position, coil power supplies, process instrumentation and control, coil diagnostics, and a data acquisition and handling system. The test stand structure is composed of a central bucking post, a base structure, and two horizontal torque rings. The coils are bolted to the bucking post, which transmits all gravity loads to the base structure. The torque ring structure, consisting of beams between adjacent coils, acts with the bucking structure to react all the magnetic loads that occur when the coils are energized. Liquid helium is used to cool the test stand structure to 5 K to minimize heat conduction to the coils. Liquid nitrogen is used to precool gaseous helium during system cooldown and to provide thermal radiation shielding

  19. PC-based package for interactive assessment of MHD equilibrium and poloidal field coil design in axisymmetric toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    In the assessment of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and Poloidal Field Coil (PFC) arrangement for toroidal axisymmetric geometry, the Grad-Shafranov equation must be solved, either analytically or numerically. Existing numerical tools have been developed primarily for mainframe usage and can prove cumbersome for screening assessments and parametric evaluations. The objective of this thesis was to develop a personal computer (PC)-based calculational tool for assessing MHD/PFC problems in a highly interactive mode, well suited for scoping studies. The approach adopted involves a two-step process: first the MHD equilibrium is calculated and then the PFC arrangement, consistent with the equilibrium, is determined in an interactive design environment. The PC-based system developed consists of two programs: (1) PCEQ, which solve the MHD equilibrium problem and (2) PFDE-SIGN, which is employed to arrive at a PFC arrangement. PCEQ provides an output file including, but not limited to, the following: poloidal beta, total beta, safety factors, q, on axis and on edge. PCEQ plots the following contours and/or profiles: flux, pressure and toroidal current density, safety factor, and ratio of plasma toroidal field to vacuum field

  20. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.

  1. A Survey on Evolutionary Algorithm Based Hybrid Intelligence in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advance in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other types of omics technologies during the past decades, a tremendous amount of data related to molecular biology has been produced. It is becoming a big challenge for the bioinformatists to analyze and interpret these data with conventional intelligent techniques, for example, support vector machines. Recently, the hybrid intelligent methods, which integrate several standard intelligent approaches, are becoming more and more popular due to their robustness and efficiency. Specifically, the hybrid intelligent approaches based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs are widely used in various fields due to the efficiency and robustness of EAs. In this review, we give an introduction about the applications of hybrid intelligent methods, in particular those based on evolutionary algorithm, in bioinformatics. In particular, we focus on their applications to three common problems that arise in bioinformatics, that is, feature selection, parameter estimation, and reconstruction of biological networks.

  2. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  3. Water cooling coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Ito, Y; Kazawa, Y

    1975-02-05

    Object: To provide a water cooling coil in a toroidal nuclear fusion device, in which coil is formed into a small-size in section so as not to increase dimensions, weight or the like of machineries including the coil. Structure: A conductor arranged as an outermost layer of a multiple-wind water cooling coil comprises a hollow conductor, which is directly cooled by fluid, and as a consequence, a solid conductor disposed interiorly thereof is cooled indirectly.

  4. A study of effects on size and coils turns based on signal distribution on impedance plane diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Mahmood Dollah; Abdul Nassir Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A differential type eddy current probe is used to detect defects that exist in the heat exchanger tube. Every probes produced have their own size and frequency values depending on the purpose and functionality of the probe. In this study a probe is fabricated by winding wire in solenoid shape. When current flows through it, magnetic field is produced surrounding it. In this study, effects of two probe parameters namely numbers of coil, N and the diameter of the copper wire, d were investigated. Diameters of copper wire chosen were 0.10 mm, 0.12 mm and 0.13 mm. These wire were wound around the body probe with diameter of 15 mm. For each wire diameter, the wire is wound with numbers of wound of 30, 50 and 70. The fabricated probes will be tested on the Stainless Steel 304 calibration tube with the nominal outside diameter of 19.07 mm and thickness of 1.24 mm. It contains seven artificial defects that are purposely introduced in accordance to ASME V Article 8. Performance of the probe were evaluated based on the separation angle of signals obtained from 100 % wall lost and that obtained from a 20 % of side drill hole defect. The probe was used in conjunction with a special instrument known as RD Tech MS 5800. This special instrument is specifically used for data recording and storing as well as for analysing signals obtained during the test. (author)

  5. A hybrid agent-based approach for modeling microbiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zaiyi; Sloot, Peter M A; Tay, Joc Cing

    2008-11-21

    Models for systems biology commonly adopt Differential Equations or Agent-Based modeling approaches for simulating the processes as a whole. Models based on differential equations presuppose phenomenological intracellular behavioral mechanisms, while models based on Multi-Agent approach often use directly translated, and quantitatively less precise if-then logical rule constructs. We propose an extendible systems model based on a hybrid agent-based approach where biological cells are modeled as individuals (agents) while molecules are represented by quantities. This hybridization in entity representation entails a combined modeling strategy with agent-based behavioral rules and differential equations, thereby balancing the requirements of extendible model granularity with computational tractability. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach with models of chemotaxis involving an assay of 10(3) cells and 1.2x10(6) molecules. The model produces cell migration patterns that are comparable to laboratory observations.

  6. A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qiye; Zhang Huaiwu; Yang Qinghui; Long Yang; Jing Yulan; Lin Yuan; Chen Zhi; Zhang Peixin

    2012-01-01

    A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber (MA) in the microwave band was designed, fabricated and characterized. The hybrid MA was realized by incorporating a VO 2 film into the conventional resonant MA. By thermally triggering the insulator-metal phase transition of the VO 2 film, the impedance match condition was broken and a deep amplitude modulation of about 63.3% to the electromagnetic wave absorption was achieved. A moderate blue-shift of the resonance frequency was observed which is promising for practical applications. This VO 2 -based MA exhibits many advantages such as strong tunability, frequency agility, simple fabrication and ease of scaling to the terahertz band. (paper)

  7. MAS Based Event-Triggered Hybrid Control for Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on an advanced control for autonomous microgrids. In order to improve the performance regarding security and stability, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is proposed based on multi-agents structure. Moreover, corresponding to the multi-mode and the hybrid...... haracteristics of microgrids, an event-triggered hybrid control, including three kinds of switching controls, is designed to intelligently reconstruct operation mode when the security stability assessment indexes or the constraint conditions are violated. The validity of proposed control scheme is demonstrated...

  8. Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan

    Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.

  9. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  10. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teodoro

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Development of bio-hybrid material based on. Salmonella Typhimurium and layered double hydroxides. Slah Hidouri .... the LDH with co-precipitation synthesis method was successfully done according the study given by Hidouri et al. (2011), Abdelkader et al. (2011), Hidouri et ...

  11. Silane-based hybrid materials for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Jansen, J.A.; Holder, S.J.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation of different hybrid silane materials is presented and their possible use in biomedical applications is discussed. The first example describes the development of biocompatible coatings based on sol-gel silicates, which can be used as a protective coating for implantable

  12. Two new inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on inorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fields such as catalysis, pharmacology, medicine, nan- otechnology, and molecular ... such POM-based hybrid materials: (a) organic ligands graft onto POMs directly; .... average value of 6.028, close to the ideal value of 6 for MoVI. The bond ...

  13. DNA hybridization sensor based on pentacene thin film transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Jha, Sandeep Kumar; Chand, Rohit; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2011-01-15

    A DNA hybridization sensor using pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs) is an excellent candidate for disposable sensor applications due to their low-cost fabrication process and fast detection. We fabricated pentacene TFTs on glass substrate for the sensing of DNA hybridization. The ss-DNA (polyA/polyT) or ds-DNA (polyA/polyT hybrid) were immobilized directly on the surface of the pentacene, producing a dramatic change in the electrical properties of the devices. The electrical characteristics of devices were studied as a function of DNA immobilization, single-stranded vs. double-stranded DNA, DNA length and concentration. The TFT device was further tested for detection of λ-phage genomic DNA using probe hybridization. Based on these results, we propose that a "label-free" detection technique for DNA hybridization is possible through direct measurement of electrical properties of DNA-immobilized pentacene TFTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly accelerated acquisition and homogeneous image reconstruction with rotating RF coil array at 7T-A phantom based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyan; Zuo, Zhentao; Jin, Jin; Xue, Rong; Trakic, Adnan; Weber, Ewald; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2014-03-01

    Parallel imaging (PI) is widely used for imaging acceleration by means of coil spatial sensitivities associated with phased array coils (PACs). By employing a time-division multiplexing technique, a single-channel rotating radiofrequency coil (RRFC) provides an alternative method to reduce scan time. Strategically combining these two concepts could provide enhanced acceleration and efficiency. In this work, the imaging acceleration ability and homogeneous image reconstruction strategy of 4-element rotating radiofrequency coil array (RRFCA) was numerically investigated and experimental validated at 7T with a homogeneous phantom. Each coil of RRFCA was capable of acquiring a large number of sensitivity profiles, leading to a better acceleration performance illustrated by the improved geometry-maps that have lower maximum values and more uniform distributions compared to 4- and 8-element stationary arrays. A reconstruction algorithm, rotating SENSitivity Encoding (rotating SENSE), was proposed to provide image reconstruction. Additionally, by optimally choosing the angular sampling positions and transmit profiles under the rotating scheme, phantom images could be faithfully reconstructed. The results indicate that, the proposed technique is able to provide homogeneous reconstructions with overall higher and more uniform signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) distributions at high reduction factors. It is hoped that, by employing the high imaging acceleration and homogeneous imaging reconstruction ability of RRFCA, the proposed method will facilitate human imaging for ultra high field MRI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NCSX Trim Coil Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish, M.; Brooks, A.; Rushinski, J.; Upcavage, R.

    2009-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure

  16. Single acquisition electrical property mapping based on relative coil sensitivities: A proof-of-concept demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.P.; Sodickson, D.K.; Ipek, O.; Collins, C.M.; Gruetter, R.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeAll methods presented to date to map both conductivity and permittivity rely on multiple acquisitions to compute quantitatively the magnitude of radiofrequency transmit fields, B-1(+). In this work, we propose a method to compute both conductivity and permittivity based solely on relative

  17. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  18. Evaluation of an image-based tracking workflow using a passive marker and resonant micro-coil fiducials for automatic image plane alignment in interventional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, M; Breton, E; Cuvillon, L; Pan, L; Lorenz, C H; de Mathelin, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an original workflow is presented for MR image plane alignment based on tracking in real-time MR images. A test device consisting of two resonant micro-coils and a passive marker is proposed for detection using image-based algorithms. Micro-coils allow for automated initialization of the object detection in dedicated low flip angle projection images; then the passive marker is tracked in clinical real-time MR images, with alternation between two oblique orthogonal image planes along the test device axis; in case the passive marker is lost in real-time images, the workflow is reinitialized. The proposed workflow was designed to minimize dedicated acquisition time to a single dedicated acquisition in the ideal case (no reinitialization required). First experiments have shown promising results for test-device tracking precision, with a mean position error of 0.79 mm and a mean orientation error of 0.24°.

  19. Biomaterials Made from Coiled-Coil Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conticello, Vincent; Hughes, Spencer; Modlin, Charles

    The development of biomaterials designed for specific applications is an important objective in personalized medicine. While the breadth and prominence of biomaterials have increased exponentially over the past decades, critical challenges remain to be addressed, particularly in the development of biomaterials that exhibit highly specific functions. These functional properties are often encoded within the molecular structure of the component molecules. Proteins, as a consequence of their structural specificity, represent useful substrates for the construction of functional biomaterials through rational design. This chapter provides an in-depth survey of biomaterials constructed from coiled-coils, one of the best-understood protein structural motifs. We discuss the utility of this structurally diverse and functionally tunable class of proteins for the creation of novel biomaterials. This discussion illustrates the progress that has been made in the development of coiled-coil biomaterials by showcasing studies that bridge the gap between the academic science and potential technological impact.

  20. Novel hybrid materials based on the vanadium oxide nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabrodina, G.S., E-mail: kudgs@mail.ru [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Makarov, S.G.; Kremlev, K.V. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Yunin, P.A.; Gusev, S.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603087 (Russian Federation); Kaverin, B.S.; Kaverina, L.B. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ketkov, S.Yu. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flat and curved vanadium oxide nanobelts have been synthesized. • Hybrid material was prepared via decoration of flexible nanobelts with zinc phthalocyanine. • Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures were carried out. - Abstract: Novel hybrid materials based on zinc phthalocyanine and nanostructured vanadium oxides have attracted extensive attention for the development of academic research and innovative industrial applications such as flexible electronics, optical sensors and heterogeneous catalysts. Vanadium oxides nanobelts were synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O gel with surfactants (TBAB, CTAB) used as structure-directing agents, where CTAB – cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, TBAB – tetrabutylammonium bromide. Hybrid materials were prepared decoration of (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flexible nanobelts with cationic zinc phthalocyanine by the ion-exchange route. Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures of the (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (TBA){sub 0.16}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanobelts and zinc phthalocyanine exchange product were carried out. The hybrid materials based on the nanostructured vanadium oxide and zinc phthalocyanine were tested as photocatalysts for oxidation of citronellol and 2-mercaptoethanol by dioxygen.

  1. Fusion--fission hybrid reactors based on the laser solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Taussig, R.T.; Quimby, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion-fission reactors, based on the laser solenoid concept, can be much smaller in scale than their pure fusion counterparts, with moderate first-wall loading and rapid breeding capabilities (1 to 3 tonnes/yr), and can be designed successfully on the basis of classical plasma transport properties and free-streaming end-loss. Preliminary design information is presented for such systems, including the first wall, pulse coil, blanket, superconductors, laser optics, and power supplies, accounting for the desired reactor performance and other physics and engineering constraints. Self-consistent point designs for first and second generation reactors are discussed which illustrate the reactor size, performance, component parameters, and the level of technological development required

  2. Extending a Hybrid Tag-Based Recommender System with Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    extension for a hybrid tag-based recommender system, which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags. The semantic extension aims at discovering tag relations which are not considered in basic syntax similarity. With the goal of generating more semantically grounded recommendations......, the proposal extends a hybrid tag-based recommender system with a semantic factor, which looks for tag relations in different semantic sources. In order to evaluate the benefits acquired with the semantic extension, we have compared the new findings with results from a previous experiment involving 38 people......Tagging activity has been recently identified as a potential source of knowledge about personal interests, preferences, goals, and other attributes known from user models. Tags themselves can be therefore used for finding personalized recommendations of items. This paper proposes a semantic...

  3. Graphene-based transparent electrodes for hybrid solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene: poly (styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene electrode. The solar cells based on graphene electrodes, especially those doped with HNO3, has comparable performance to the reference devices using commercial indium tin oxide (ITO. Our work suggests that graphene-based transparent electrode is a promising candidate to replace ITO.

  4. The hybrid reactor project based on the straight field line mirror concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Hagnestål, A.; Källne, J.; Anglart, H.

    2012-01-01

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with “semi-poor” plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Q r = P fis /P fus >>1. The upper bound on Q r is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Q r ≈150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of k eff =0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement T e ≈10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q≈0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as

  5. The hybrid reactor project based on the straight field line mirror concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Hagnestâl, A.; Källne, J.; Anglart, H.

    2012-06-01

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with "semi-poor" plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Qr = Pfis/Pfus>>1. The upper bound on Qr is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Qr≈150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of keff=0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement Te≈10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q≈0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as a discussion on

  6. A Hybrid Architecture for Vision-Based Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serdar Güzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new obstacle avoidance method using a single monocular vision camera as the only sensor which is called as Hybrid Architecture. This architecture integrates a high performance appearance-based obstacle detection method into an optical flow-based navigation system. The hybrid architecture was designed and implemented to run both methods simultaneously and is able to combine the results of each method using a novel arbitration mechanism. The proposed strategy successfully fused two different vision-based obstacle avoidance methods using this arbitration mechanism in order to permit a safer obstacle avoidance system. Accordingly, to establish the adequacy of the design of the obstacle avoidance system, a series of experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed architecture, and the results prove that its performance is somewhat better than the conventional optical flow-based architecture. Especially, the robot employing Hybrid Architecture avoids lateral obstacles in a more smooth and robust manner than when using the conventional optical flow-based technique.

  7. Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Ågren, O.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.

  8. Airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and multi-pole magnets towards enhanced power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, the airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and trajectory matching multi-pole magnets was investigated. The magnets were aligned in an alternatively magnetized formation of 6 magnets to explore enhanced power density. In particular, the magnet array was positioned in parallel to the trajectory of the tip coil within its tip deflection span. The finite element simulations of the magnetic flux density and induced voltages at an open circuit condition were studied to find the maximum number of alternatively magnetized magnets that was required for the proposed energy harvester. Experimental results showed that the energy harvester with a pair of 6 alternatively magnetized linear magnet arrays was able to generate an induced voltage (V o ) of 20 V, with an open circuit condition, and 475 mW, under a 30 Ω optimal resistance load operating with the wind speed (U) at 7 m/s and a natural bending frequency of 3.54 Hz. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic energy harvester with a single magnet moving through a coil, the proposed energy harvester, containing multi-pole magnets and parallel array motion, enables the moving coil to accumulate a stronger magnetic flux in each period of the swinging motion. In addition to the comparison made with the airfoil-based piezoelectric energy harvester of the same size, our proposed electromagnetic energy harvester generates 11 times more power output, which is more suitable for high-power-density energy harvesting applications at regions with low environmental frequency.

  9. Hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization and its application to hybrid rocket motors for manned lunar landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Design reliability and robustness are getting increasingly important for the general design of aerospace systems with many inherently uncertain design parameters. This paper presents a hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO method developed from probability theory and interval theory. Most of the uncertain design parameters which have sufficient information or experimental data are classified as random variables using probability theory, while the others are defined as interval variables with interval theory. Then a hybrid uncertainty analysis method based on Monte Carlo simulation and Taylor series interval analysis is developed to obtain the uncertainty propagation from the design parameters to system responses. Three design optimization strategies, including deterministic design optimization (DDO, probabilistic UDO and hybrid UDO, are applied to the conceptual design of a hybrid rocket motor (HRM used as the ascent propulsion system in Apollo lunar module. By comparison, the hybrid UDO is a feasible method and can be effectively applied to the general design of aerospace systems.

  10. Hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization and its application to hybrid rocket motors for manned lunar landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hao; Tian Hui; Cai Guobiao

    2017-01-01

    Design reliability and robustness are getting increasingly important for the general design of aerospace systems with many inherently uncertain design parameters. This paper presents a hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO) method developed from probability theory and interval theory. Most of the uncertain design parameters which have sufficient information or experimental data are classified as random variables using probability theory, while the others are defined as interval variables with interval theory. Then a hybrid uncertainty analysis method based on Monte Carlo simulation and Taylor series interval analysis is developed to obtain the uncer-tainty propagation from the design parameters to system responses. Three design optimization strategies, including deterministic design optimization (DDO), probabilistic UDO and hybrid UDO, are applied to the conceptual design of a hybrid rocket motor (HRM) used as the ascent propulsion system in Apollo lunar module. By comparison, the hybrid UDO is a feasible method and can be effectively applied to the general design of aerospace systems.

  11. Superconducting magnetic coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1996-06-11

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  12. PET attenuation correction for rigid MR Tx/Rx coils from 176Lu background activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Christoph W.; Kaltsas, Theodoris; Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Jürgen; Rota Kops, Elena; Tellmann, Lutz; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Herzog, Hans; Shah, N. Jon

    2018-02-01

    One challenge for PET-MR hybrid imaging is the correction for attenuation of the 511 keV annihilation radiation by the required RF transmit and/or RF receive coils. Although there are strategies for building PET transparent Tx/Rx coils, such optimised coils still cause significant attenuation of the annihilation radiation leading to artefacts and biases in the reconstructed activity concentrations. We present a straightforward method to measure the attenuation of Tx/Rx coils in simultaneous MR-PET imaging based on the natural 176Lu background contained in the scintillator of the PET detector without the requirement of an external CT scanner or PET scanner with transmission source. The method was evaluated on a prototype 3T MR-BrainPET produced by Siemens Healthcare GmbH, both with phantom studies and with true emission images from patient/volunteer examinations. Furthermore, the count rate stability of the PET scanner and the x-ray properties of the Tx/Rx head coil were investigated. Even without energy extrapolation from the two dominant γ energies of 176Lu to 511 keV, the presented method for attenuation correction, based on the measurement of 176Lu background attenuation, shows slightly better performance than the coil attenuation correction currently used. The coil attenuation correction currently used is based on an external transmission scan with rotating 68Ge sources acquired on a Siemens ECAT HR  +  PET scanner. However, the main advantage of the presented approach is its straightforwardness and ready availability without the need for additional accessories.

  13. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  14. The JET divertor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.

    1989-01-01

    The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)

  15. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  16. Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier Based On Nefclass Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gliwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents hybrid neuro-fuzzy classifier, based on NEFCLASS model, which wasmodified. The presented classifier was compared to popular classifiers – neural networks andk-nearest neighbours. Efficiency of modifications in classifier was compared with methodsused in original model NEFCLASS (learning methods. Accuracy of classifier was testedusing 3 datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository: iris, wine and breast cancer wisconsin.Moreover, influence of ensemble classification methods on classification accuracy waspresented.

  17. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  18. Biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates that are suitable for biomedical applications is presented in this review. Since these types of biomaterials offer many significant and exciting possibilities for hard tissue regeneration, this subject belongs to a rapidly expanding area of biomedical research. Through successful combinations of the desired properties of matrix materials with those of fillers (in such systems, calcium orthophosphates might play either role), innovative bone graft biomaterials can be designed. Various types of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates, either those already in use or being investigated for biomedical applications, are extensively discussed. Many different formulations, in terms of the material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties as well as both in vitro and in vivo characteristics, have already been proposed. Among the others, the nanostructurally controlled biocomposites, those containing nanodimensional compounds, biomimetically fabricated formulations with collagen, chitin and/or gelatin as well as various functionally graded structures seem to be the most promising candidates for clinical applications. The specific advantages of using biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates in the selected applications are highlighted. As the way from the laboratory to the hospital is a long one, and the prospective biomedical candidates have to meet many different necessities, this review also examines the critical issues and scientific challenges that require further research and development. PMID:23507726

  19. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  20. Examining the Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers via Physics Based Polymer Models and Polarized X-Ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Adam; Sunday, Daniel; Windover, Donald; Liman, Christopher; Bowen, Alec; Khaira, Gurdaman; de Pablo, Juan; Delongchamp, Dean; Kline, R. Joseph

    Photovoltaics, flexible electronics, and stimuli-responsive materials all require enhanced methodology to examine their nanoscale molecular orientation. The mechanical, electronic, optical, and transport properties of devices made from these materials are all a function of this orientation. The polymer chains in these materials are best modeled as semi-flexible to rigid rods. Characterizing the rigidity and molecular orientation of these polymers non-invasively is currently being pursued by using polarized resonant soft X-ray scattering (P-RSoXS). In this presentation, we show recent work on implementing such a characterization process using a rod-coil block copolymer system in the rigid-rod limit. We first demonstrate how we have used physics based models such as self-consistent field theory (SCFT) in non-polarized RSoXS work to fit scattering profiles for thin film coil-coil PS- b-PMMA block copolymer systems. We then show by using a wormlike chain partition function in the SCFT formulism to model the rigid-rod block, the methodology can be used there as well to extract the molecular orientation of the rod block from a simulated P-RSoXS experiment. The results from the work show the potential of the technique to extract thermodynamic and morphological sample information.

  1. Design and manufacture of a D-shape coil-based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2nd generation HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangmin, E-mail: kwangmin81@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo; Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Seokho [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju 780-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Yoon-Su; Oh, Yunsang [Vector Fields Korea Inc., Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The authors designed and fabricated a D-shape coil based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. • The toroid-type magnet consisted of 30 D-shape double pancake coil (DDC)s. The total length of the wire was 2.32 km. • The conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. • The maximum cooling temperature of reactor magnet is 5.5 K. • The inductance was 408 mH in the steady-state condition (300 A operating). - Abstract: This paper describes the design specifications and performance of a real toroid-type high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The target inductance of the HTS DC reactor was 400 mH. The expected operating temperature was under 20 K. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. Performances of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor were analyzed through experiments conducted under the steady-state and charge conditions. The fundamental design specifications and the data obtained from this research will be applied to the design of a commercial-type HTS DC reactor.

  2. A single-layer flat-coil-oscillator (SFCO)-based super-broadband position sensor for nano-scale-resolution seismometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgyan, Samvel [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia)], E-mail: gevs_sam@web.am; Gevorgyan, Vardan [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia); International Scientific-Educational Center, National Academy of Sciences, 24-D Marshal Baghramyan av., Yerevan 0019 (Armenia); Karapetyan, Gagik [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia)

    2008-05-15

    A new class super-broadband, nano-scale-resolution position sensor is tested. It is used as an additional sensor in seismograph. It enables to extend the band and enhance the sensitivity of the available technique by at least an order of magnitude. It allows transferring of mechanical vibrations of constructions and buildings, with amplitudes over 1 nm, into detectable signal in a frequency range starting practically from quasi-static movements. It is based on detection of position changes of a vibrating normal-metallic plate placed near the flat coil-being used as a pick-up in a stable tunnel diode oscillator. Frequency of the oscillator is used as a detecting parameter, and the measuring effect is determined by a distortion of the MHz-range testing field configuration near a coil by a vibrating plate, leading to magnetic inductance changes of the coil, with a resolution {approx}10 pH. This results in changes of oscillator frequency. We discuss test data of such a position sensor, installed in a Russian SM-3 seismometer, as an additional pick-up component, showing its advantages compared to traditional techniques. We also discuss the future of such a novel sensor involving substitution of a metallic coil by a superconductive one and replacement of a tunnel diode by an S/I/S hetero-structure-as much less-powered active element in the oscillator, compared to tunnel diode. These may strongly improve the stability of oscillators, and therefore enhance the resolution of seismic techniques.

  3. Field evaluation of the bio-efficacy of three pyrethroid based coils against wild populations of anthropophilic mosquitoes in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandala Msangi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to assess the feeding inhibition and repellency effect of three brands of mosquito coils in experimental huts (East African design. Evaluated products were all pyrethroid-based mosquito coils - Kiboko; , Total; and Risasi; . Mosfly (0.1% D-allethrin was a positive control. Indoor resting behavior, feeding inhibition and induced exophily were measured as responses of burnt coil smoke in huts. Materials and methods: Resting mosquitoes were collected inside the huts, in window traps and verandah traps using mechanical aspirators. Identified to species level and sex. Results: A total of 1460 mosquitoes were collected, 58.9% (n=860 were Anopheles gambiae s.l while 41.1% (n=600 Culex quinquefasciatus. Indoor resting mosquitoes in all treated huts were significantly reduced than in negative control (DF=4, F=18.6, P < 0.001. Species found to rest indoors were not statistical different between the positive control (Mosfly coil and other three treated huts (DF=3, F=1.068, P=0.408. Cx.quinquefasciatus had significantly higher induced exophily in all treatments comparing to An.gambiae s.l (DF=1, F=5.34, P=0.050. Comparison between species (An.gambiae s.l and Cx. quinquefasciatus for the feeding inhibition among treated huts was not statistically significant (DF=1, F=0.062, P=0.810. Conclusion: Introduction of several personal protection measures will be ideal to supplement the existing gap in reducing the man vector contacts hence lowering the disease transmission.

  4. Diagnostics of a negative hydrogen ion source based on a planar-coil inductively-driven discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishev, Stiliyan St.; Shivarova, Antonia P.; Iordanov, Dimitar I.; Todorov, Dimitar T.; Demerdzhiev, Angel P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent activity on a volume-production negative-hydrogen-ion source with the design of a matrix of small-radius discharges inductively driven by a planar coil is reported. A single discharge of the matrix has been studied by employing probe-and laser-photodetachment diagnostics. The measurements have been carried out in the first - small-size - chamber of a two-chamber discharge vessel, with rf power introduced by a planar coil positioned on its front wall. The measured profiles of the negative ion density show strong axial dependence, with two maxima located at the positions corresponding to the maxima of the dc potential, where the maxima of the electron density are also located. The first maximum is in the vicinity of the rf power input and the second one is close to the interface between the two chambers of the discharge vessel.

  5. Monitoring of beer fermentation based on hybrid electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Zaborowski, Michał; Prokaryn, Piotr; Ciosek, Patrycja

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of biotechnological processes, including fermentation is extremely important because of the rapidly occurring changes in the composition of the samples during the production. In the case of beer, the analysis of physicochemical parameters allows for the determination of the stage of fermentation process and the control of its possible perturbations. As a tool to control the beer production process a sensor array can be used, composed of potentiometric and voltammetric sensors (so-called hybrid Electronic Tongue, h-ET). The aim of this study is to apply electronic tongue system to distinguish samples obtained during alcoholic fermentation. The samples originate from batch of homemade beer fermentation and from two stages of the process: fermentation reaction and maturation of beer. The applied sensor array consists of 10 miniaturized ion-selective electrodes (potentiometric ET) and silicon based 3-electrode voltammetric transducers (voltammetric ET). The obtained results were processed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). For potentiometric data, voltammetric data, and combined potentiometric and voltammetric data, comparison of the classification ability was conducted based on Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), sensitivity, specificity, and coefficient F calculation. It is shown, that in the contrast to the separately used techniques, the developed hybrid system allowed for a better characterization of the beer samples. Data fusion in hybrid ET enables to obtain better results both in qualitative analysis (RMSE, specificity, sensitivity) and in quantitative analysis (RMSE, R(2), a, b). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrafast Dynamic Pressure Sensors Based on Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanbiao; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Congwei; Wang, Peng; Hu, Weida; Li, Xinming; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Xu, Hejun; Luo, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-19

    Mechanical flexible electronic skin has been focused on sensing various physical parameters, such as pressure and temperature. The studies of material design and array-accessible devices are the building blocks of strain sensors for subtle pressure sensing. Here, we report a new and facile preparation of a graphene hybrid structure with an ultrafast dynamic pressure response. Graphene oxide nanosheets are used as a surfactant to prevent graphene restacking in aqueous solution. This graphene hybrid structure exhibits a frequency-independent pressure resistive sensing property. Exceeding natural skin, such pressure sensors, can provide transient responses from static up to 10 000 Hz dynamic frequencies. Integrated by the controlling system, the array-accessible sensors can manipulate a robot arm and self-rectify the temperature of a heating blanket. This may pave a path toward the future application of graphene-based wearable electronics.

  7. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  8. Active internal corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Cottingham, J.; Dahl, P.

    1986-01-01

    Trim or corrector coils to correct main magnet field errors and provide higher multipole fields for beam optics purposes are a standard feature of superconducting magnet accelerator systems. This paper describes some of the design and construction features of powered internal trim coils and a sampling of the test results obtained

  9. Compact stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  10. Liquid rope coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    A thin stream or rope of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a steadily rotating helical coil. Tabletop laboratory experiments in combination with a numerical model for slender liquid ropes reveal that finite-amplitude coiling can occur in four distinct regimes

  11. Mechanical design of a high field common coil magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Caspi, S; Dietderich, D R; Gourlay, S A; Gupta, R; McInturff, A; Millos, G; Scanlan, R M

    1999-01-01

    A common coil design for high field 2-in-1 accelerator magnets has been previously presented as a "conductor-friendly" option for high field magnets applicable for a Very Large Hadron Collider. This paper presents the mechanical design for a 14 tesla 2-in-1 dipole based on the common coil design approach. The magnet will use a high current density Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor. The design addresses mechanical issues particular to the common coil geometry: horizontal support against coil edges, vertical preload on coil faces, end loading and support, and coil stresses and strains. The magnet is the second in a series of racetrack coil magnets that will provide experimental verification of the common coil design approach. (9 refs).

  12. Molecular basis of coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Barbara; Bjelic, Saša; Honnappa, Srinivas; Jawhari, Hatim; Jaussi, Rolf; Payapilly, Aishwarya; Jowitt, Thomas; Steinmetz, Michel O; Kammerer, Richard A

    2010-11-16

    Coiled coils are extensively and successfully used nowadays to rationally design multistranded structures for applications, including basic research, biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, and medicine. The wide range of applications as well as the important functions these structures play in almost all biological processes highlight the need for a detailed understanding of the factors that control coiled-coil folding and oligomerization. Here, we address the important and unresolved question why the presence of particular oligomerization-state determinants within a coiled coil does frequently not correlate with its topology. We found an unexpected, general link between coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity and trigger sequences, elements that are indispensable for coiled-coil formation. By using the archetype coiled-coil domain of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 as a model system, we show that well-established trimer-specific oligomerization-state determinants switch the peptide's topology from a dimer to a trimer only when inserted into the trigger sequence. We successfully confirmed our results in two other, unrelated coiled-coil dimers, ATF1 and cortexillin-1. We furthermore show that multiple topology determinants can coexist in the same trigger sequence, revealing a delicate balance of the resulting oligomerization state by position-dependent forces. Our experimental results should significantly improve the prediction of the oligomerization state of coiled coils. They therefore should have major implications for the rational design of coiled coils and consequently many applications using these popular oligomerization domains.

  13. Development of hybrid artificial intelligent based handover decision algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Aibinu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of seamless handover remains a mirage despite the plethora of existing handover algorithms. The underlying factor responsible for this has been traced to the Handover decision module in the Handover process. Hence, in this paper, the development of novel hybrid artificial intelligent handover decision algorithm has been developed. The developed model is made up of hybrid of Artificial Neural Network (ANN based prediction model and Fuzzy Logic. On accessing the network, the Received Signal Strength (RSS was acquired over a period of time to form a time series data. The data was then fed to the newly proposed k-step ahead ANN-based RSS prediction system for estimation of prediction model coefficients. The synaptic weights and adaptive coefficients of the trained ANN was then used to compute the k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction model coefficients. The predicted RSS value was later codified as Fuzzy sets and in conjunction with other measured network parameters were fed into the Fuzzy logic controller in order to finalize handover decision process. The performance of the newly developed k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction algorithm was evaluated using simulated and real data acquired from available mobile communication networks. Results obtained in both cases shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of predicting ahead the RSS value to about ±0.0002 dB. Also, the cascaded effect of the complete handover decision module was also evaluated. Results obtained show that the newly proposed hybrid approach was able to reduce ping-pong effect associated with other handover techniques.

  14. Large coil task and results of testing US coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    The United States, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland have collaborated since 1978 in development of superconducting toroidal field coils for fusion reactor applications. The United States provided a test facility nd three coils; the other participants, one coil each. All coils have the same interface dimensions and performance requirements (stable at 8 T), but internal design was decided by each team. Two US coil teams chose bath-cooled NbTi, 10-kA conductors. One developed a Nb 3 Sn conductor, cooled by internal flow, rated at 18 kA. All US coils have diagnostic instrumentation and imbedded heaters that enable stability tests and simulated nuclear heating experiments. In single-coil tests, each coil operated at full current in self-field (6.4 T). In six-coil tests that began in July 1986, one US coil and the Japanese coil hve been successfully operated at full current at 8 T. The other coils have operated as background coils while awaiting their turn as test coil. Coil tests have been informative and results gratifying. The facility has capably supported coil testing and its operation has provided information that will be useful in designing future fusion systems. Coil capabilities beyond nominal design points will be determined

  15. Magnetic resonance dacryocystography: comparison between conventional surface coils and microscopic coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Junior, Luiz de; Wolosker, Angela Maria Borri; Borri, Maria Lucia; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo; Hartmann, Luiz Guilherme de Carvalho; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Castro, Claudio Campi de

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging has been utilized in the evaluation of the lacrimal apparatus with some advantages over conventional dacryocystography. The present study was aimed at acquiring high resolution images utilizing microscopic coils for evaluating typical structures of the lacrimal apparatus as compared with the findings observed with conventional surface coils. Materials and methods: Five asymptomatic volunteers with no history of epiphora were submitted to high-field magnetic resonance imaging with microscopic and conventional surface coils, and STIR sequence after instillation of saline solution. The definition of normal anatomic structures of lacrimal apparatuses was compared utilizing conventional and microscopic surface coils. Based on a consensual scoring system, the mean values for each structure were calculated by two observers. Results: In 90% of cases, higher scores were attributed to images acquired with the microscopic coil. On average, a 1.17 point increase was observed in the scoring of anatomic structures imaged with the microscopic coil. Additionally, a subjective improvement was observed in the signal-to-noise ratio with the microscopic coil. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance dacryocystography with microscopic coils is the appropriate method for evaluating the lacrimal apparatus, providing images with better quality as compared with those acquired with conventional surface coils. (author)

  16. Commercial applications for COIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  17. Open coil traction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2012-01-01

    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement.

  18. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  19. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Herbert-Acero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel framework for the aerodynamic design and optimization of blades for small horizontal axis wind turbines (WT. The framework is based on a state-of-the-art blade element momentum model, which is complemented with the XFOIL 6.96 software in order to provide an estimate of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of small WT (SWT rotors for a wide range of operational conditions. The design variables are (1 the airfoil shape at the different blade span positions and the radial variation of the geometrical variables of (2 chord length, (3 twist angle, and (4 thickness along the blade span. A wind tunnel validation study of optimized rotors based on the NACA 4-digit airfoil series is presented. Based on the experimental data, improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, the cut-in wind speed, and the amount of material used during the manufacturing process were achieved. Recommendations for the aerodynamic design of SWT rotors are provided based on field experience.

  20. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Zhaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lu, Houbing [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Chen, Lian [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jin, Ge, E-mail: goldjin@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  1. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  2. A Probability-Based Hybrid User Model for Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information communication technology, the available information or knowledge is exponentially increased, and this causes the well-known information overload phenomenon. This problem is more serious in product design corporations because over half of the valuable design time is consumed in knowledge acquisition, which highly extends the design cycle and weakens the competitiveness. Therefore, the recommender systems become very important in the domain of product domain. This research presents a probability-based hybrid user model, which is a combination of collaborative filtering and content-based filtering. This hybrid model utilizes user ratings and item topics or classes, which are available in the domain of product design, to predict the knowledge requirement. The comprehensive analysis of the experimental results shows that the proposed method gains better performance in most of the parameter settings. This work contributes a probability-based method to the community for implement recommender system when only user ratings and item topics are available.

  3. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  4. Event-triggered hybrid control based on multi-Agent systems for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-xia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on a multi-agent system based event-triggered hybrid control for intelligently restructuring the operating mode of an microgrid (MG) to ensure the energy supply with high security, stability and cost effectiveness. Due to the microgrid is composed of different types...... of distributed energy resources, thus it is typical hybrid dynamic network. Considering the complex hybrid behaviors, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is firstly constructed based on multi-agent sys-tem, then, the hybrid model of the microgrid is built by using differential hybrid Petri...

  5. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem...... and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how students incorporate networked and digital technologies into their group work and into the study places...... they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic’ groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking’. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan’ groups of students in the other...

  6. Physiological Studies on Pea Tendrils. IV. Flavonoids and Contact Coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1967-01-01

    Pea tendrils contain high concentrations of flavonoids, mainly quercetin-triglucosyl-p-coumarate (QGC). QGC is most abundant near the highly responsive apex of the tendril, and least abundant at the base. After mechanical stimulation, and during coiling of the tendril, the QGC titer drops to about 30% of its original value. The kinetics of flavonoid disappearance are significantly correlated with the kinetics of coiling. Aqueous extracts of unstimulated pea tendrils or 10 μm QGC inhibit contact coiling of excised tendrils. Extracts of coiled tendrils do not. The evidence indicates a possible regulatory role for flavonoids in contact coiling. PMID:16656581

  7. A periodic table of coiled-coil protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutevelis, Efrosini; Woolfson, Derek N

    2009-01-23

    Coiled coils are protein structure domains with two or more alpha-helices packed together via interlacing of side chains known as knob-into-hole packing. We analysed and classified a large set of coiled-coil structures using a combination of automated and manual methods. This led to a systematic classification that we termed a "periodic table of coiled coils," which we have made available at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccplus/search/periodic_table. In this table, coiled-coil assemblies are arranged in columns with increasing numbers of alpha-helices and in rows of increased complexity. The table provides a framework for understanding possibilities in and limits on coiled-coil structures and a basis for future prediction, engineering and design studies.

  8. Hybrid perturbation methods based on statistical time series models

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Juan Félix; San-Martín, Montserrat; Pérez, Iván; López, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a new methodology for orbit propagation, the hybrid perturbation theory, based on the combination of an integration method and a prediction technique. The former, which can be a numerical, analytical or semianalytical theory, generates an initial approximation that contains some inaccuracies derived from the fact that, in order to simplify the expressions and subsequent computations, not all the involved forces are taken into account and only low-order terms are considered, not to mention the fact that mathematical models of perturbations not always reproduce physical phenomena with absolute precision. The prediction technique, which can be based on either statistical time series models or computational intelligence methods, is aimed at modelling and reproducing missing dynamics in the previously integrated approximation. This combination results in the precision improvement of conventional numerical, analytical and semianalytical theories for determining the position and velocity of any artificial satellite or space debris object. In order to validate this methodology, we present a family of three hybrid orbit propagators formed by the combination of three different orders of approximation of an analytical theory and a statistical time series model, and analyse their capability to process the effect produced by the flattening of the Earth. The three considered analytical components are the integration of the Kepler problem, a first-order and a second-order analytical theories, whereas the prediction technique is the same in the three cases, namely an additive Holt-Winters method.

  9. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dongyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.

  11. LHC bending magnet coil

    CERN Multimedia

    A short test version of coil of wire used for the LHC dipole magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair.

  12. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  13. Correcting coils in end magnets of accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. P. Kassab

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical investigation of the correcting coils behavior used to homogenize the field distribution of the race-track microtron accelerator end magnets. These end magnets belong to the second stage of the 30.0 MeV cw electron accelerator under construction at IFUSP, the race-track microtron booster, in which the beam energy is raised from 1.97 to 5.1 MeV. The correcting coils are attached to the pole faces and are based on the inhomogeneities of the magnetic field measured. The performance of these coils, when operating the end magnets with currents that differ by ±10% from the one used in the mappings that originated the coils copper leads, is presented. For one of the magnets, adjusting conveniently the current of the correcting coils makes it possible to homogenize field distributions of different intensities, once their shapes are practically identical to those that originated the coils. For the other one, the shapes are changed and the coils are less efficient. This is related to intrinsic factors that determine the inhomogeneities. However, we obtained uniformity of 0.001% in both cases.

  14. Three-Dimensional Printing Based Hybrid Manufacturing of Microfluidic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapan, Yunus; Hasan, Muhammad Noman; Shen, Richang; Gurkan, Umut A

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic platforms offer revolutionary and practical solutions to challenging problems in biology and medicine. Even though traditional micro/nanofabrication technologies expedited the emergence of the microfluidics field, recent advances in advanced additive manufacturing hold significant potential for single-step, stand-alone microfluidic device fabrication. One such technology, which holds a significant promise for next generation microsystem fabrication is three-dimensional (3D) printing. Presently, building 3D printed stand-alone microfluidic devices with fully embedded microchannels for applications in biology and medicine has the following challenges: (i) limitations in achievable design complexity, (ii) need for a wider variety of transparent materials, (iii) limited z-resolution, (iv) absence of extremely smooth surface finish, and (v) limitations in precision fabrication of hollow and void sections with extremely high surface area to volume ratio. We developed a new way to fabricate stand-alone microfluidic devices with integrated manifolds and embedded microchannels by utilizing a 3D printing and laser micromachined lamination based hybrid manufacturing approach. In this new fabrication method, we exploit the minimized fabrication steps enabled by 3D printing, and reduced assembly complexities facilitated by laser micromachined lamination method. The new hybrid fabrication method enables key features for advanced microfluidic system architecture: (i) increased design complexity in 3D, (ii) improved control over microflow behavior in all three directions and in multiple layers, (iii) transverse multilayer flow and precisely integrated flow distribution, and (iv) enhanced transparency for high resolution imaging and analysis. Hybrid manufacturing approaches hold great potential in advancing microfluidic device fabrication in terms of standardization, fast production, and user-independent manufacturing.

  15. On modular stellarator reactor coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, F.; Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.

    1985-01-01

    Modular twisted coils are discussed which produce magnetic fields of the Advanced Stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS type. Reducing the number coils/FP offers advantage for maintenance of coils, but increases the magnetic ripple and B m /B o . Computation of force densities within the coils of ASR and ASB yield local maximum values of about 80 and 180 MN/m 3 , respectively. A system of mutual coil support is being developed. Twisted coils in helical arrangement provide a reactor-sized HELIAC system. In order to reduce the magnetic ripple, a large number of 14 coils/FP in special arrangement is used

  16. Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results.

  17. Bioinspired Nanocellulose Based Hybrid Materials With Novel Interfacial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keten, Sinan

    This talk will overview a simulation-based approach to enhancing the mechanical properties of nanocomposites by utilizing cellulose - the most abundant and renewable structural biopolymer found on our planet. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) exhibit outstanding mechanical properties exceeding that of Kevlar, serving as reinforcing domains in nature's toughest hierarchical nanocomposites such as wood. Yet, weak interfaces at the surfaces of CNCs have so far made it impossible to scale these inherent properties to macroscopic systems. In this work, I will discuss how surface functionalization of CNCs influences their properties in their self-assembled films and nanocomposites with engineered polymer matrices . Specifically, the role of ion exchange based surface modifications and polymer conjugation will be discussed, where atomistic and coarse-grained simulations will reveal new insights into how superior mechanical properties can potentially be attained by hybrid constructs.

  18. Skull defect reconstruction based on a new hybrid level set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziqun; Zhang, Ran; Song, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Skull defect reconstruction is an important aspect of surgical repair. Historically, a skull defect prosthesis was created by the mirroring technique, surface fitting, or formed templates. These methods are not based on the anatomy of the individual patient's skull, and therefore, the prosthesis cannot precisely correct the defect. This study presented a new hybrid level set model, taking into account both the global optimization region information and the local accuracy edge information, while avoiding re-initialization during the evolution of the level set function. Based on the new method, a skull defect was reconstructed, and the skull prosthesis was produced by rapid prototyping technology. This resulted in a skull defect prosthesis that well matched the skull defect with excellent individual adaptation.

  19. Practical aspects of 13C surface receive coils with active decoupling and tuning circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Mohr, Johan Jacob; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2012-01-01

    is based on application-specified coil profile and includes impedance matching and balancing circuits. Active decoupling is implemented in order to minimize the influence of the receiving coil on the homogeneity of the transmit-coil field. Measurement results for a coil prototype are presented, including...

  20. TFTR toroidal field coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.E.; Punchard, W.F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The design of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Toroidal Field (TF) magnetic coils is described. The TF coil is a 44-turn, spiral-wound, two-pancake, water-cooled configuration which, at a coil current of 73.3 kiloamperes, produces a 5.2-Tesla field at a major radius of 2.48 meters. The magnetic coils are installed in titanium cases, which transmit the loads generated in the coils to the adjacent supporting structure. The TFTR utilizes 20 of these coils, positioned radially at 18 0 intervals, to provide the required toroidal field. Because it is very highly loaded and subject to tight volume constraints within the machine, the coil presents unique design problems. The TF coil requirements are summarized, the coil configuration is described, and the problems highlighted which have been encountered thus far in the coil design effort, together with the development tests which have been undertaken to verify the design

  1. NCSX Toroidal Field Coil Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish M; Rushinski J; Myatt L; Brooks A; Dahlgren F; Chrzanowski J; Reiersen W; Freudenberg K.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is an experimental device whose design and construction is underway at the Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The primary coil systems for the NCSX device consist of the twisted plasma-shaping Modular Coils, the Poloidal Field Coils, and the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils. The TF Coils are D-shaped coils wound from hollow copper conductor, and vacuum impregnated with a glass-epoxy resin system. There are 18 identical, equally spaced TF coils providing 1/R field at the plasma. They operate within a cryostat, and are cooled by LN2, nominally, to 80K. Wedge shaped castings are assembled to the inboard face of these coils, so that inward radial loads are reacted via the nesting of each of the coils against their adjacent partners. This paper outlines the TF Coil design methodology, reviews the analysis results, and summarizes how the design and analysis support the design requirements

  2. Analysis and design of permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing based on hybrid factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, hybrid factor is proposed for hybrid magnetic bearing. The hybrid factor is defined as the ratio of the force produced by the permanent magnet and the forces produced by the permanent magnet and current in hybrid magnetic bearing. It is deduced from a certain radial hybrid magnetic bearing using its important parameters such as the current stiffness and displacement stiffness at first and then the dynamic model of magnetically suspended rotor system is established. The relationship between structural parameters and control system parameters is analyzed based on the hybrid factor. Some influencing factors of hybrid factor in hybrid magnetic bearing, such as the size of the permanent magnet, length of air gap, and area of the stator poles, are analyzed in this article. It can be concluded that larger hybrid factor can be caused by the smaller power loss according to the definition of hybrid factor mentioned above. Meanwhile, the hybrid factor has a maximum value, which is related to control system parameters such as proportional factor expect for structural parameters. Finally, the design steps of parameters of hybrid magnetic bearing can be concluded.

  3. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Woolley, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new coil protection calculator (CPC) is presented in this paper. It is now being developed for TFTR's magnetic field coils will replace the existing coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPC will permit operation up to the actual coil limits by accurately and continuously computing coil parameters in real-time. The improvement will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates

  4. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part II: symmetric MSE coil arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    A globally optimal superconducting magnet coil design procedure based on the Minimum Stored Energy (MSE) current density map is outlined. The method has the ability to arrange coils in a manner that generates a strong and homogeneous axial magnetic field over a predefined region, and ensures the stray field external to the assembly and peak magnetic field at the wires are in acceptable ranges. The outlined strategy of allocating coils within a given domain suggests that coils should be placed around the perimeter of the domain with adjacent coils possessing alternating winding directions for optimum performance. The underlying current density maps from which the coils themselves are derived are unique, and optimized to possess minimal stored energy. Therefore, the method produces magnet designs with the lowest possible overall stored energy. Optimal coil layouts are provided for unshielded and shielded short bore symmetric superconducting magnets.

  5. Integrated PET/MR breast cancer imaging: Attenuation correction and implementation of a 16-channel RF coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehmigen, Mark, E-mail: mark.oehmigen@uni-due.de; Lindemann, Maike E. [High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147 (Germany); Lanz, Titus [Rapid Biomedical GmbH, Rimpar 97222 (Germany); Kinner, Sonja [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147 (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147, Germany and Erwin L. Hahn Institute for MR Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This study aims to develop, implement, and evaluate a 16-channel radiofrequency (RF) coil for integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging of breast cancer. The RF coil is designed for optimized MR imaging performance and PET transparency and attenuation correction (AC) is applied for accurate PET quantification. Methods: A 16-channel breast array RF coil was designed for integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging of breast cancer lesions. The RF coil features a lightweight rigid design and is positioned with a spacer at a defined position on the patient table of an integrated PET/MR system. Attenuation correction is performed by generating and applying a dedicated 3D CT-based template attenuation map. Reposition accuracy of the RF coil on the system patient table while using the positioning frame was tested in repeated measurements using MR-visible markers. The MR, PET, and PET/MR imaging performances were systematically evaluated using modular breast phantoms. Attenuation correction of the RF coil was evaluated with difference measurements of the active breast phantoms filled with radiotracer in the PET detector with and without the RF coil in place, serving as a standard of reference measurement. The overall PET/MR imaging performance and PET quantification accuracy of the new 16-channel RF coil and its AC were then evaluated in first clinical examinations on ten patients with local breast cancer. Results: The RF breast array coil provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio and signal homogeneity across the volume of the breast phantoms in MR imaging and visualizes small structures in the phantoms down to 0.4 mm in plane. Difference measurements with PET revealed a global loss and thus attenuation of counts by 13% (mean value across the whole phantom volume) when the RF coil is placed in the PET detector. Local attenuation ranging from 0% in the middle of the phantoms up to 24% was detected in the peripheral regions of the phantoms at

  6. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Aviles, A; Diaz Pineda, A [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Coacalco. Av. 16 de Septiembre 54, Col. Cabecera Municipal. C.P. 55700 (Mexico); Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G [Instituto Politecnico Nacional. ESIME-SEPI. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' Edificio 5, 30 Piso, Colonia Lindavista. Gustavo A. Madero. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Durodola, J F [School of Technology, Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Beltran Fernandez, J A, E-mail: alelunaav@hotmail.com, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.com, E-mail: jdurodola@brookes.ac.uk

    2011-07-19

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200x20x5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm x 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm x 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  7. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Avilés, A.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Durodola, J. F.; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G.; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G.; Beltrán Fernández, J. A.; Díaz Pineda, A.

    2011-07-01

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200×20×5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm × 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm × 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  8. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Aviles, A; Diaz Pineda, A; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Durodola, J F; Beltran Fernandez, J A

    2011-01-01

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200x20x5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm x 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm x 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  9. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  10. A handy motion driven hybrid energy harvester: dual Halbach array based electromagnetic and triboelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salauddin, M; Park, J Y

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have proposed and experimentally validated of hybrid electromagnetic and triboelectric energy harvester using dual Halbach magnets array excited by human handy motion. Hybrid electromagnetic (EM) and triboelectric (TE) generator that can deliver an output performance much higher than that of the individual energy-harvesting unit due to the combination operation of EM and TE mechanisms under the same mechanical movements. A Halbach array concentrates the magnetic flux lines on one side of the array while suppressing the flux lines on the other side. Dual Halbach array allows the concentrated magnetic flux lines to interact with the same coil in a way where maximum flux linkage occurs. When an external mechanical vibration is applied to the hybrid structure in the axial direction of the harvester, the suspended mass (two sided dual-Halbach-array frame) starts to oscillate within the magnetic springs and TEG part. Therefore, the TEG part, the Al film and microstructure PDMS film are collected into full contact with each other, generating triboelectric charges due to the various triboelectricities between them. A prototype of the hybrid harvester has been fabricated and tested. The EMG is capable of delivering maximum 11.5mW peak power at 32.5Ω matching load resistance and the TEG delivering 88μW peak power at 10MΩ load resistance. (paper)

  11. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  12. A hybrid joint based controller for an upper extremity exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Hakeem Deboucha, Abdel; Azraai Mohd Razman, Mohd; Aziz Jaafar, Abdul; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton. The Euler-Lagrange formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. The human model is based on anthropometrical measurements of the upper limb. The proportional-derivative (PD) computed torque control (CTC) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives specifically in rehabilitating the elbow and shoulder joints along the sagittal plane. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the PD-CTC to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. It was found that the AFC- PD-CTC performs well against the disturbances introduced into the system whilst achieving acceptable trajectory tracking as compared to the conventional PD-CTC control architecture.

  13. A hybrid joint based controller for an upper extremity exoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin, Ismail Mohd; Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P.P. Abdul; Deboucha, Abdel Hakeem; Razman, Mohd Azraai Mohd; Jaafar, Abdul Aziz; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton. The Euler-Lagrange formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. The human model is based on anthropometrical measurements of the upper limb. The proportional-derivative (PD) computed torque control (CTC) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives specifically in rehabilitating the elbow and shoulder joints along the sagittal plane. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the PD-CTC to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. It was found that the AFC- PD-CTC performs well against the disturbances introduced into the system whilst achieving acceptable trajectory tracking as compared to the conventional PD-CTC control architecture. (paper)

  14. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  15. Efficient Vaccine Distribution Based on a Hybrid Compartmental Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Yu

    Full Text Available To effectively and efficiently reduce the morbidity and mortality that may be caused by outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, it is very important for public health agencies to make informed decisions for controlling the spread of the disease. Such decisions must incorporate various kinds of intervention strategies, such as vaccinations, school closures and border restrictions. Recently, researchers have paid increased attention to searching for effective vaccine distribution strategies for reducing the effects of pandemic outbreaks when resources are limited. Most of the existing research work has been focused on how to design an effective age-structured epidemic model and to select a suitable vaccine distribution strategy to prevent the propagation of an infectious virus. Models that evaluate age structure effects are common, but models that additionally evaluate geographical effects are less common. In this paper, we propose a new SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious šC recovered model, named the hybrid SEIR-V model (HSEIR-V, which considers not only the dynamics of infection prevalence in several age-specific host populations, but also seeks to characterize the dynamics by which a virus spreads in various geographic districts. Several vaccination strategies such as different kinds of vaccine coverage, different vaccine releasing times and different vaccine deployment methods are incorporated into the HSEIR-V compartmental model. We also design four hybrid vaccination distribution strategies (based on population size, contact pattern matrix, infection rate and infectious risk for controlling the spread of viral infections. Based on data from the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza epidemic, we evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed HSEIR-V model and study the effects of different types of human behaviour in responding to epidemics.

  16. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  17. Graphene-based hybrid for enantioselective sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Alpaydin, Sabri; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-01-15

    Chirality is a major field of research of chemical biology and is essential in pharmacology. Accordingly, approaches for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound are of great interest. We report on an efficient and generic enantioselective sensor that is achieved by coupling reduced graphene oxide with γ-cyclodextrin (rGO/γ-CD). The enantioselective sensing capability of the resulting structure was operated in both electrical and optical mode for of tryptophan enantiomers (D-/L-Trp). In this sense, voltammetric and photoluminescence measurements were conducted and the experimental results were compared to molecular docking method. We gain insight into the occurring recognition mechanism with selectivity toward D- and L-Trp as shown in voltammetric, photoluminescence and molecular docking responses. As an enantioselective solid phase on an electrochemical transducer, thanks to the different dimensional interaction of enantiomers with hybrid material, a discrepancy occurs in the Gibbs free energy leading to a difference in oxidation peak potential as observed in electrochemical measurements. The optical sensing principle is based on the energy transfer phenomenon that occurs between photoexcited D-/L-Trp enantiomers and rGO/γ-CD giving rise to an enantioselective photoluminescence quenching due to the tendency of chiral enantiomers to form complexes with γ-CD in different molecular orientations as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. The approach, which is the first demonstration of applicability of molecular docking to show both enantioselective electrochemical and photoluminescence quenching capabilities of a graphene-related hybrid material, is truly new and may have broad interest in combination of experimental and computational methods for enantiosensing of chiral molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. COMPASS magnetic field coils and structure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, R.T.; Booth, J.A.; Hayward, R.J.; Keogh, P.; Pratt, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    COMPASS is a new experimental toroidal assembly of compact design and with a wide range of physics objectives. It is required to operate either as a Tokamak or as a Reversed Field Pinch with interchangeable circular and dee-section vacuum vessels. The Toroidal field is produced by 16 rectangular coils of 4 turns with tapered conductors on the inside which nest together to form a vault to resist the centering forces. The coils are designed to produce a maximum field on axis of 2.1T which requires a current of 91 kA per turn. Two central solenoids and five pairs of coils symmetrically positioned above and below the machine equator provide the poloidal field. Both coil systems are supported form a mechanical support structure which surrounds the machine. This is primarily designed to resist out-of-plane forces on the TF coils but also acts as the base support for the PF coils and vacuum vessels. An illustration of the COMPASS Load Assembly is given and shows the D-shaped vacuum vessel, the major components and the various field windings

  19. Embroidered Coils for Magnetic Resonance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Newton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is a widely used technique for medical and materials imaging. Even though the objects being imaged are often irregularly shaped, suitable coils permitting the measurement of the radio-frequency signal in these systems are usually made of solid copper. One problem often encountered is how to ensure the coils are both in close proximity and conformal to the object being imaged. Whilst embroidered conductive threads have previously been used as antennae in mobile telecommunications applications, they have not previously been reported for use within magnetic resonance. In this paper we show that an embroidered single loop coil can be used in a commercial unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance system as an alternative to a solid copper. Data is presented showing the determination of both longitudinal (T1 and effective transverse (T2eff relaxation times for a flat fabric coil and the same coil conformed to an 8 cm diameter cylinder. We thereby demonstrate the principles required for the wider use of fabric based conformal coils within nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Hybrid Integrated Silicon Microfluidic Platform for Fluorescence Based Biodetection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Darveau

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The desideratum to develop a fully integrated Lab-on-a-chip device capable ofrapid specimen detection for high throughput in-situ biomedical diagnoses and Point-of-Care testing applications has called for the integration of some of the novel technologiessuch as the microfluidics, microphotonics, immunoproteomics and Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS. In the present work, a silicon based microfluidic device hasbeen developed for carrying out fluorescence based immunoassay. By hybrid attachment ofthe microfluidic device with a Spectrometer-on-chip, the feasibility of synthesizing anintegrated Lab-on-a-chip type device for fluorescence based biosensing has beendemonstrated. Biodetection using the microfluidic device has been carried out usingantigen sheep IgG and Alexafluor-647 tagged antibody particles and the experimentalresults prove that silicon is a compatible material for the present application given thevarious advantages it offers such as cost-effectiveness, ease of bulk microfabrication,superior surface affinity to biomolecules, ease of disposability of the device etc., and is thussuitable for fabricating Lab-on-a-chip type devices.

  1. Shaking table test and dynamic response analysis of 3-D component base isolation system using multi-layer rubber bearings and coil springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fujimoto, Shigeru [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of the effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Isolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. Two base isolation test systems with different characteristics were fabricated and static and dynamic characteristics were measured by static loading and free vibration tests. One which consists of ball bearings and air springs was installed on the test bed to observe the dynamic response under natural earthquake motion. The effect of base isolation system has been observed under several earthquakes. Three-dimensional response and effect of base isolation of another system using multi-layer-rubber-bearings and coil springs has been investigated under various large earthquake motions by shaking table test. This report describes the results of the shaking table tests and dynamic response analysis. (author)

  2. Hybrid crystals of cuprates and iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dai; Cong-Cong, Le; Xian-Xin, Wu; Jiang-Ping, Hu

    2016-07-01

    We propose two possible new compounds, Ba2CuO2Fe2As2 and K2CuO2Fe2Se2, which hybridize the building blocks of two high temperature superconductors, cuprates and iron-based superconductors. These compounds consist of square CuO2 layers and antifluorite-type Fe2 X 2 (X = As, Se) layers separated by Ba/K. The calculations of binding energies and phonon spectra indicate that they are dynamically stable, which ensures that they may be experimentally synthesized. The Fermi surfaces and electronic structures of the two compounds inherit the characteristics of both cuprates and iron-based superconductors. These compounds can be superconductors with intriguing physical properties to help to determine the pairing mechanisms of high T c superconductivity. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 1190020 and 11334012), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07000000).

  3. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  4. Spiral Gradient Coil Design for Use in Cylindrical MRI Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaohui; Xin, Xuegang; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2018-04-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging, the stream function based method is commonly used in the design of gradient coils. However, this method can be prone to errors associated with the discretization of continuous current density and wire connections. In this paper, we propose a novel gradient coil design scheme that works directly in the wire space, avoiding the system errors that may appear in the stream function approaches. Specifically, the gradient coil pattern is described with dedicated spiral functions adjusted to allow the coil to produce the required field gradients in the imaging area, minimal stray field, and other engineering terms. The performance of a designed spiral gradient coil was compared with its stream-function counterpart. The numerical evaluation shows that when compared with the conventional solution, the inductance and resistance was reduced by 20.9 and 10.5%, respectively. The overall coil performance (evaluated by the figure of merit (FoM)) was improved up to 26.5% for the x -gradient coil design; for the z-gradient coil design, the inductance and resistance were reduced by 15.1 and 6.7% respectively, and the FoM was increased by 17.7%. In addition, by directly controlling the wire distributions, the spiral gradient coil design was much sparser than conventional coils.

  5. Hybrid modelling framework by using mathematics-based and information-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, J; Kim, J; Elnashai, A

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics-based computational mechanics involves idealization in going from the observed behaviour of a system into mathematical equations representing the underlying mechanics of that behaviour. Idealization may lead mathematical models that exclude certain aspects of the complex behaviour that may be significant. An alternative approach is data-centric modelling that constitutes a fundamental shift from mathematical equations to data that contain the required information about the underlying mechanics. However, purely data-centric methods often fail for infrequent events and large state changes. In this article, a new hybrid modelling framework is proposed to improve accuracy in simulation of real-world systems. In the hybrid framework, a mathematical model is complemented by information-based components. The role of informational components is to model aspects which the mathematical model leaves out. The missing aspects are extracted and identified through Autoprogressive Algorithms. The proposed hybrid modelling framework has a wide range of potential applications for natural and engineered systems. The potential of the hybrid methodology is illustrated through modelling highly pinched hysteretic behaviour of beam-to-column connections in steel frames.

  6. Template-based fabrication of nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zuxin; Liu Haidong; Schultz, Isabel; Wu Wenhao; Naugle, D G; Lyuksyutov, I

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and structure characterization of ordered nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are reported. Arrays of TiO 2 nanotubes were first deposited into the pores of AAO membranes by a sol-gel technique. Co nanowires were then electrochemically deposited into the TiO 2 nanotubes to form the nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed a high nanowire filling factor and a clean interface between the Co nanowire and the TiO 2 nanotube. Application of these hybrids to the fabrication of ordered nanowire arrays with highly controllable geometric parameters is discussed

  7. A Novel Hybrid Mental Spelling Application Based on Eye Tracking and SSVEP-Based BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Stawicki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs-based Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs, as well as eyetracking devices, provide a pathway for re-establishing communication for people with severe disabilities. We fused these control techniques into a novel eyetracking/SSVEP hybrid system, which utilizes eye tracking for initial rough selection and the SSVEP technology for fine target activation. Based on our previous studies, only four stimuli were used for the SSVEP aspect, granting sufficient control for most BCI users. As Eye tracking data is not used for activation of letters, false positives due to inappropriate dwell times are avoided. This novel approach combines the high speed of eye tracking systems and the high classification accuracies of low target SSVEP-based BCIs, leading to an optimal combination of both methods. We evaluated accuracy and speed of the proposed hybrid system with a 30-target spelling application implementing all three control approaches (pure eye tracking, SSVEP and the hybrid system with 32 participants. Although the highest information transfer rates (ITRs were achieved with pure eye tracking, a considerable amount of subjects was not able to gain sufficient control over the stand-alone eye-tracking device or the pure SSVEP system (78.13% and 75% of the participants reached reliable control, respectively. In this respect, the proposed hybrid was most universal (over 90% of users achieved reliable control, and outperformed the pure SSVEP system in terms of speed and user friendliness. The presented hybrid system might offer communication to a wider range of users in comparison to the standard techniques.

  8. Eccentric Coil Test Facility (ECTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, P.B.; Walstrom, P.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design of a facility for testing superconducting coils under some conditions peculiar to tokamak systems is given. A primary element of the proposed facility is a large 25 MJ background solenoid. Discussions of the mechanical structure, the stress distribution and the thermal stability for this coil are included. The systems for controlling the facility and diagnosing test coil behavior are also described

  9. Modular coils: a promising toroidal-reactor-coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.; Furth, H.P.; Johnson, J.L.; Ludescher, C.; Weimer, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    The concept of modular coils originated from a need to find reactor-relevant stellarator windings, but its usefulness can be extended to provide an externally applied, additional rotational transform in tokamaks. Considerations of (1) basic principles of modular coils, (2) types of coils, (3) types of configurations (general, helically symmetric, helically asymmetric, with magnetic well, with magnetic hill), (4) types of rotational transform profile, and (5) structure and origin of ripples are given. These results show that modular coils can offer a wide range of vacuum magnetic field configurations, some of which cannot be obtained with the classical stellarator or torsatron coil configuration

  10. Fifty years of coiled-coils and alpha-helical bundles: a close relationship between sequence and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, David A D; Fraser, R D Bruce; Squire, John M

    2008-09-01

    alpha-Helical coiled coils are remarkable for the diversity of related conformations that they adopt in both fibrous and globular proteins, and for the range of functions that they exhibit. The coiled coils are based on a heptad (7-residue), hendecad (11-residue) or a related quasi-repeat of apolar residues in the sequences of the alpha-helical regions involved. Most of these, however, display one or more sequence discontinuities known as stutters or stammers. The resulting coiled coils vary in length, in the number of chains participating, in the relative polarity of the contributing alpha-helical regions (parallel or antiparallel), and in the pitch length and handedness of the supercoil (left- or right-handed). Functionally, the concept that a coiled coil can act only as a static rod is no longer valid, and the range of roles that these structures have now been shown to exhibit has expanded rapidly in recent years. An important development has been the recognition that the delightful simplicity that exists between sequence and structure, and between structure and function, allows coiled coils with specialized features to be designed de novo.

  11. Split coil made of (RE)BCO pancake coils for IC(B) anisotropy measurements of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolek, L; Pardo, E; Gömöry, F; Šouc, J; Pitel, J

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the I c (B) anisotropy is standard characterization of superconducting tapes, wires or cables. This contribution presents a split coil consisting on two superconducting pancake coils in order to generate the magnetic field necessary for this kind of measurement. Both coils were made using (RE)BCO – based second generation (2G) coated conductor tape with cross section 0.1 mm × 12 mm. The individual turns of the tape were insulated by a fiberglass tape without impregnation. These coils have identical inner and outer diameter and number of turns. Their inner and outer diameters are 50 mm and 80 mm, respectively, and they have 62 turns. The length of conductor in each coil is approximately 13 m. The distance between both pancake coils is 22 mm. Individual coils and the complete split coil were characterized in liquid nitrogen bath. Their parameters, like the critical currents, E(I) characteristics and magnetic field of complete split coil, were measured and interpreted. The split coil can be used up to magnetic fields of 210 mT. The length between the potential taps on the sample can be up to 20 mm, while the magnetic field decrease is lower than 1% on this length.

  12. Hybrid method based on embedded coupled simulation of vortex particles in grid based solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, Nikolai

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents a novel hybrid approach developed to improve the resolution of concentrated vortices in computational fluid mechanics. The method is based on combination of a grid based and the grid free computational vortex (CVM) methods. The large scale flow structures are simulated on the grid whereas the concentrated structures are modeled using CVM. Due to this combination the advantages of both methods are strengthened whereas the disadvantages are diminished. The procedure of the separation of small concentrated vortices from the large scale ones is based on LES filtering idea. The flow dynamics is governed by two coupled transport equations taking two-way interaction between large and fine structures into account. The fine structures are mapped back to the grid if their size grows due to diffusion. Algorithmic aspects of the hybrid method are discussed. Advantages of the new approach are illustrated on some simple two dimensional canonical flows containing concentrated vortices.

  13. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  14. Li-Ion, Ultra-capacitor Based Hybrid Energy Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daboussi, Zaher; Paryani, Anil; Khalil, Gus; Catherino, Henry; Gargies, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-capacitors in multi kilo-farad ranges are now starting to be considered as alternatives or complimentary to batteries for products ranging from toys to hybrid vehicles as well as for space applications...

  15. Li-Ion, Ultra-capacitor Based Hybrid Energy Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daboussi, Zaher; Paryani, Anil; Khalil, Gus; Catherino, Henry; Gargies, Sonya

    2007-01-01

    .... To determine the optimum utilization of ultra-capacitors in applications where high power density and high energy density are required, an optimized Li-Ion/Ultra-capacitor Hybrid Energy Module (HEM...

  16. Disturbance observer-based adaptive sliding mode hybrid projective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayub Khan

    2018-04-21

    Apr 21, 2018 ... systems, the effect of external disturbances, energy fluc- tuation and other such ...... When we apply the above proposed strategy to achieve hybrid projective ..... ory and intelligent control (Springer, 2016) pp. 681–. 697.

  17. Three-dimensional hybrid networks based on aspartic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Keywords. Aspartic acid; hybrid compounds; nickel aspartate; lead aspartate; achiral frameworks. ..... and coordinated to water molecules as well as car- .... (b) Dan M 2004 J. Mol. Struct. ... Sheldrick G M 1994 SADABS: Siemens area detector.

  18. Mass Optimization of Battery/Supercapacitors Hybrid Systems Based on a Linear Programming Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Benoit; Labbe, Julien

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that, on a specific launcher-type mission profile, a 40% gain of mass is expected using a battery/supercapacitors active hybridization instead of a single battery solution. This result is based on the use of a linear programming optimization approach to perform the mass optimization of the hybrid power supply solution.

  19. Optimization of Coil Element Configurations for a Matrix Gradient Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroboth, Stefan; Layton, Kelvin J; Jia, Feng; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jurgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, matrix gradient coils (also termed multi-coils or multi-coil arrays) were introduced for imaging and B 0 shimming with 24, 48, and even 84 coil elements. However, in imaging applications, providing one amplifier per coil element is not always feasible due to high cost and technical complexity. In this simulation study, we show that an 84-channel matrix gradient coil (head insert for brain imaging) is able to create a wide variety of field shapes even if the number of amplifiers is reduced. An optimization algorithm was implemented that obtains groups of coil elements, such that a desired target field can be created by driving each group with an amplifier. This limits the number of amplifiers to the number of coil element groups. Simulated annealing is used due to the NP-hard combinatorial nature of the given problem. A spherical harmonic basis set up to the full third order within a sphere of 20-cm diameter in the center of the coil was investigated as target fields. We show that the median normalized least squares error for all target fields is below approximately 5% for 12 or more amplifiers. At the same time, the dissipated power stays within reasonable limits. With a relatively small set of amplifiers, switches can be used to sequentially generate spherical harmonics up to third order. The costs associated with a matrix gradient coil can be lowered, which increases the practical utility of matrix gradient coils.

  20. A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

  1. Multifunctional Graphene-based Hybrid Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju

    Intense research in renewable energy is stimulated by global demand of electric energy. Electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems namely, supercapacitors and batteries, represent the most efficient and environmentally benign technologies. Moreover, controlled nanoscaled architectures and surface chemistry of electrochemical electrodes is enabling emergent next-generation efficient devices approaching theoretical limit of energy and power densities. This talk will present our recent activities to advance design, development and deployment of composition, morphology and microstructure controlled two- and three-dimensional graphene-based hybrids architectures. They are chemically and molecularly bridged with carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers, transition metal oxides and mesoproprous silicon wrapped with graphene nanosheets as engineered electrodes for supercapacitor cathodes and battery anodes. They showed significant enhancement in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, interfacial capacitance, charging-discharging rate and cyclability. We will also present fundamental physical-chemical interfacial processes (ion transfer kinetics and diffusion), imaging electroactive sites, and topography at electrode/electrolyte interface governing underlying electrochemical mechanisms via scanning electrochemical microscopy. KY NSF EPSCoR.

  2. A Viola-Jones based hybrid face detection framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas M.; Broussard, Randy; Schultz, Robert; Rakvic, Ryan; Ngo, Hau

    2013-12-01

    Improvements in face detection performance would benefit many applications. The OpenCV library implements a standard solution, the Viola-Jones detector, with a statistically boosted rejection cascade of binary classifiers. Empirical evidence has shown that Viola-Jones underdetects in some instances. This research shows that a truncated cascade augmented by a neural network could recover these undetected faces. A hybrid framework is constructed, with a truncated Viola-Jones cascade followed by an artificial neural network, used to refine the face decision. Optimally, a truncation stage that captured all faces and allowed the neural network to remove the false alarms is selected. A feedforward backpropagation network with one hidden layer is trained to discriminate faces based upon the thresholding (detection) values of intermediate stages of the full rejection cascade. A clustering algorithm is used as a precursor to the neural network, to group significant overlappings. Evaluated on the CMU/VASC Image Database, comparison with an unmodified OpenCV approach shows: (1) a 37% increase in detection rates if constrained by the requirement of no increase in false alarms, (2) a 48% increase in detection rates if some additional false alarms are tolerated, and (3) an 82% reduction in false alarms with no reduction in detection rates. These results demonstrate improved face detection and could address the need for such improvement in various applications.

  3. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Case Based Reasoning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The success of a CBR system largely depen ds on an effective retrieval of useful prior case for the problem. Nearest neighbor and induction are the main CBR retrieval algorithms. Each of them can be more suitable in different situations. Integrated the two retrieval algorithms can catch the advantages of both of them. But, they still have some limitations facing the induction retrieval algorithm when dealing with a noisy data, a large number of irrelevant features, and different types of data. This research utilizes a hybrid approach using genetic algorithms (GAs) to case-based induction retrieval of the integrated nearest neighbor - induction algorithm in an attempt to overcome these limitations and increase the overall classification accuracy. GAs can be used to optimize the search space of all the possible subsets of the features set. It can deal with the irrelevant and noisy features while still achieving a significant improvement of the retrieval accuracy. Therefore, the proposed CBR-GA introduces an effective general purpose retrieval algorithm that can improve the performance of CBR systems. It can be applied in many application areas. CBR-GA has proven its success when applied for different problems in real-life

  4. Oxindole based oxadiazole hybrid analogs: Novel α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Imran, Syahrul; Rahim, Fazal; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    Inhibition of α-glucosidase is an effective strategy for controlling post-prandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. Beside these α-glucosidase inhibitors has been also used as anti-obesity and anti-viral drugs. Keeping in view the greater importance of α-glucosidase inhibitors here in this study we are presenting oxindole based oxadiazoles hybrid analogs (1-20) synthesis, characterized by different spectroscopic techniques including 1 H NMR and EI-MS and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. All compounds were found potent inhibitors for the enzyme with IC 50 values ranging between 1.25 ± 0.05 and 268.36 ± 4.22 µM when compared with the standard drug acarbose having IC 50 value 895.09 ± 2.04 µM. Our study identifies novel series of potent α-glucosidase inhibitors and further investigation on this may led to the lead compounds. A structure activity relationship has been established for all compounds. The interactions of the active compounds and enzyme active site were established with the help of molecular docking studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song

    2010-01-01

    A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R 1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R 1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R 1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems

  6. Hybrid Video Coding Based on Bidimensional Matching Pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Granai

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid video coding combines together two stages: first, motion estimation and compensation predict each frame from the neighboring frames, then the prediction error is coded, reducing the correlation in the spatial domain. In this work, we focus on the latter stage, presenting a scheme that profits from some of the features introduced by the standard H.264/AVC for motion estimation and replaces the transform in the spatial domain. The prediction error is so coded using the matching pursuit algorithm which decomposes the signal over an appositely designed bidimensional, anisotropic, redundant dictionary. Comparisons are made among the proposed technique, H.264, and a DCT-based coding scheme. Moreover, we introduce fast techniques for atom selection, which exploit the spatial localization of the atoms. An adaptive coding scheme aimed at optimizing the resource allocation is also presented, together with a rate-distortion study for the matching pursuit algorithm. Results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the standard DCT, especially at very low bit rates.

  7. Hybrid network defense model based on fuzzy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2014-01-01

    With sustained and rapid developments in the field of information technology, the issue of network security has become increasingly prominent. The theme of this study is network data security, with the test subject being a classified and sensitive network laboratory that belongs to the academic network. The analysis is based on the deficiencies and potential risks of the network's existing defense technology, characteristics of cyber attacks, and network security technologies. Subsequently, a distributed network security architecture using the technology of an intrusion prevention system is designed and implemented. In this paper, first, the overall design approach is presented. This design is used as the basis to establish a network defense model, an improvement over the traditional single-technology model that addresses the latter's inadequacies. Next, a distributed network security architecture is implemented, comprising a hybrid firewall, intrusion detection, virtual honeynet projects, and connectivity and interactivity between these three components. Finally, the proposed security system is tested. A statistical analysis of the test results verifies the feasibility and reliability of the proposed architecture. The findings of this study will potentially provide new ideas and stimuli for future designs of network security architecture.

  8. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  9. [Development of RF coil of permanent magnet mini-magnetic resonance imager and mouse imaging experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shulian; Xie, Huantong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Guangxin; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Shiyu

    2014-10-01

    In the development of radio frequency (RF) coils for better quality of the mini-type permanent magnetic resonance imager for using in the small animal imaging, the solenoid RF coil has a special advantage for permanent magnetic system based on analyses of various types.of RF coils. However, it is not satisfied for imaging if the RF coils are directly used. By theoretical analyses of the magnetic field properties produced from the solenoid coil, the research direction was determined by careful studies to raise further the uniformity of the magnetic field coil, receiving coil sensitivity for signals and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The method had certain advantages and avoided some shortcomings of the other different coil types, such as, birdcage coil, saddle shaped coil and phased array coil by using the alloy materials (from our own patent). The RF coils were designed, developed and made for keeled applicable to permanent magnet-type magnetic resonance imager, multi-coil combination-type, single-channel overall RF receiving coil, and applied for a patent. Mounted on three instruments (25 mm aperture, with main magnetic field strength of 0.5 T or 1.5 T, and 50 mm aperture, with main magnetic field strength of 0.48 T), we performed experiments with mice, rats, and nude mice bearing tumors. The experimental results indicated that the RF receiving coil was fully applicable to the permanent magnet-type imaging system.

  10. Mechanical behavior of the ATLAS B0 model coil

    CERN Document Server

    Foussat, A; Acerbi, E; Alessandria, F; Berthier, R; Broggi, F; Daël, A; Dudarev, A; Mayri, C; Miele, P; Reytier, M; Rossi, L; Sorbi, M; Sun, Z; ten Kate, H H J; Vanenkov, I; Volpini, G

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS B0 model coil has been developed and constructed to verify the design parameters and the manufacture techniques of the Barrel Toroid coils (BT) that are under construction for the ATLAS Detector. Essential for successful operation is the mechanical behavior of the superconducting coil and its support structure. In the ATLAS magnet test facility, a magnetic mirror is used to reproduce in the model coil the electromagnetic forces of the BT coils when assembled in the final Barrel Toroid magnet system. The model coil is extensively equipped with mechanical instrumentation to monitor stresses and force levels as well as contraction during a cooling down and excitation up to nominal current. The installed set up of strain gauges, position sensors and capacitive force transducers is presented. Moreover the first mechanical results in terms of expected main stress, strain and deformation values are presented based on detailed mechanical analysis of the design. (7 refs).

  11. Reactivation of Open Coil Springs: A Novel Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Open coil springs are commonly used in orthodontic practice to create space for a palatally or lingually blocked out tooth. However, very often the clinician encounters a situation where the inter-bracket span is very less and the open coil spring is not long enough to open the required space needed for alignment. In such situations, the clinician needs to remove the arch wire and reinserts a longer coil spring. A new simple and cost-effective technique describes an intraoral reactivation of an open coil spring without the need for removal of the base archwire with the additional benefit of preventing unwanted forces to the adjacent teeth.

  12. A Trichosporonales genome tree based on 27 haploid and three evolutionarily conserved 'natural' hybrid genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Masako; Sriswasdi, Sira; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Sugita, Takashi; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2018-01-01

    To construct a backbone tree consisting of basidiomycetous yeasts, draft genome sequences from 25 species of Trichosporonales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) were generated. In addition to the hybrid genomes of Trichosporon coremiiforme and Trichosporon ovoides that we described previously, we identified an interspecies hybrid genome in Cutaneotrichosporon mucoides (formerly Trichosporon mucoides). This hybrid genome had a gene retention rate of ~55%, and its closest haploid relative was Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis. After constructing the C. mucoides subgenomes, we generated a phylogenetic tree using genome data from the 27 haploid species and the subgenome data from the three hybrid genome species. It was a high-quality tree with 100% bootstrap support for all of the branches. The genome-based tree provided superior resolution compared with previous multi-gene analyses. Although our backbone tree does not include all Trichosporonales genera (e.g. Cryptotrichosporon), it will be valuable for future analyses of genome data. Interest in interspecies hybrid fungal genomes has recently increased because they may provide a basis for new technologies. The three Trichosporonales hybrid genomes described in this study are different from well-characterized hybrid genomes (e.g. those of Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces bayanus) because these hybridization events probably occurred in the distant evolutionary past. Hence, they will be useful for studying genome stability following hybridization and speciation events. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: natsel@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  14. CCBuilder 2.0: Powerful and accessible coiled-coil modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher W; Woolfson, Derek N

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of user-friendly and accessible computational tools for biomolecular modeling would expand the reach and application of biomolecular engineering and design. For protein modeling, one key challenge is to reduce the complexities of 3D protein folds to sets of parametric equations that nonetheless capture the salient features of these structures accurately. At present, this is possible for a subset of proteins, namely, repeat proteins. The α-helical coiled coil provides one such example, which represents ≈ 3-5% of all known protein-encoding regions of DNA. Coiled coils are bundles of α helices that can be described by a small set of structural parameters. Here we describe how this parametric description can be implemented in an easy-to-use web application, called CCBuilder 2.0, for modeling and optimizing both α-helical coiled coils and polyproline-based collagen triple helices. This has many applications from providing models to aid molecular replacement for X-ray crystallography, in silico model building and engineering of natural and designed protein assemblies, and through to the creation of completely de novo "dark matter" protein structures. CCBuilder 2.0 is available as a web-based application, the code for which is open-source and can be downloaded freely. http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccbuilder2. We have created CCBuilder 2.0, an easy to use web-based application that can model structures for a whole class of proteins, the α-helical coiled coil, which is estimated to account for 3-5% of all proteins in nature. CCBuilder 2.0 will be of use to a large number of protein scientists engaged in fundamental studies, such as protein structure determination, through to more-applied research including designing and engineering novel proteins that have potential applications in biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  15. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.

    1992-08-01

    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  16. Helical-tokamak hybridization concepts for compact configuration exploration and MHD stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Arimoto, H.; Baba, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Ozeki, H.; Shoji, T.; Mikhailov, M.I.

    2010-11-01

    To search for low-aspect-ratio torus systems, a lot of exotic confinement concepts are proposed so far historically. One of the authors previously proposed the tokamak-helical hybrid called TOKASTAR (Tokamak-Stellarator Hybrid) to improve the magnetic local shear near the bad curvature region. This is characterized by simple and compact coil systems with enough divertor space relevant to reactor designs. Based on this TOKASTAR concept, a toroidal mode number N=2 C (compact) -TOKASTAR machine (R - 35 mm) was constructed. The rotational transform of this compact helical configuration is rather small to confine hot ions, but can be utilized as a compact electron plasma machine for multi-purposes. The C-TOKASTAR has a pair of spherically winding helical coils and a pair of poloidal coils. Existence of magnetic surface and electron confinement property in C-TOKASTAR device were investigated by an electron-emission impedance method. Calculation of the particle orbit also supports that closed magnetic surface is formed in the cases that the ratio between poloidal and helical coil current is appropriate. Another aspect of the research using TOKASTAR configuration includes the evaluation of the effect of the outboard helical field application to tokamak plasmas. It is considered that outboard helical field has roles to assist the initiation of plasma current, to improve MHD stability, and so on. To check these roles, we made TOKASTAR-2 machine (R - 0.12 m, B - 1 kG) with ohmic heating central coil, eight toroidal field coils, a pair of vertical field coils and two outboard helical field coil segments. The electron cyclotron heating plasma start-up and plasma current disruption control experiments might be expected in this machine. Calculation of magnetic field line tracing has revealed that magnetic surface can be formed using additional outer helical coils. (author)

  17. Thermal and hydraulic analyses of TFTR cooling water system and magnetic field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.Y.

    1975-10-01

    The TFTR toroidal field coils, ohmic heating, hybrid and equilibrium field coils are cooled by water from the machine area cooling water system. The system has the following major equipment and capacities: flow rate of 3600 gpm; ballast tank volume of 5500 gal; pumps of 70.4 m head; chiller refrigeration rating of 3300 tons and connecting pipe of 45.7 cm I.D. The performance of the closed loop system was analyzed and found to be adequate for the thermal loads. The field coils were analyzed with detailed thermal and hydraulic models, including a simulation of the complete water cooling loop. Under the nominal operating mode of one second of toroidal field flat top time and 300 seconds of pulse cycle time, the maximum temperature for the TF coils is 53 0 C; for the OH coils 46 0 C and for the EF coils 39 0 C, which are well below the coil design limit of 120 0 C. The maximum TF coil coolant temperature is 33 0 C which is below the coolant design limit of 100 0 C. The overall pressure loss of the system is below 6.89 x 10 5 Pa (100 psi). With the given chiller refrigeration capacity, the TF coils can be operated to yield up to 4 seconds of flat top time. The TF coils can be operated on a steady state basis at up to 20% of the pulsed duty design current rating of 7.32 kA/coil

  18. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.

  19. The design of the SULTAN inner coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, W.M.P.; Spoorenberg, C.J.G.

    1981-12-01

    The background field of the first phase of the test facility SULTAN will be generated by two concentric solenoids: a 6 Tesla outer coil with a free bore of 1.3 m and an inner coil for increasing the field to 8 Tesla. The free bore (cold) will be 1.055 m. The final design of the 8 Tesla inner coil is described. The coil will operate at an overall current density of 23 x 10 6 A/m 2 . It will be cooled directly by forced flow supercritical helium. A hollow conductor is applied, composed of a rectangular copper tube and a 16 strands Rutherford cable, soldered on one side of the tube. The copper tube will be cold worked to cope with the high stress level (165 MPa). The design base (field and stress analysis, cooling, stability), the mechanical design and the instrumentation will be specified. The design and construction of the coil is a part of the collaboration between ECN and Holec Transformer Group

  20. Coil Array Design Inspired on the Kepler's Lenten Pretzel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F.; Solis, S. E.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2008-01-01

    The RF coil arrays are an important part in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, since they are the main device for transmission and reception of the magnetic resonance signal. An RF coil array with a new configuration based on the Kepler's Lenten pretzel for the geocentric path of Mars is proposed in this work. The evenly distributed trajectories may serve as the basic configuration to form a coil array to adequately cover a region of interest for magnetic resonance experiments. The main goal is to investigate the electromagnetic properties of this coil array geometry to obtain an optimal design for its further construction. Hence, the electromagnetic properties of the coil array were numerical simulated using the finite element method and the quasi-static approach. Resulting simulations showed that there is an important concentration of magnetic field lines at the centre of the coil array. This is an advantage over other coil arrays where the magnetic field usually decreased at their geometrical centre. Both the electric and magnetic fields had also a very good uniformity. These characteristics made this coil design a good candidate for applications where the use of multi-coil technology is mandatory

  1. Finite element modeling of TFTR poloidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.A.; O'Toole, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Poloidal Field (PF) coils were originally analyzed to TFTR design conditions. The coils have been reanalyzed by PPPL and Grumman to determine operating limits under as-built conditions. Critical stress levels, based upon data obtained from the reanalysis of each PF coil, are needed for input to the TFTR simulation code algorithms. The primary objective regarding structural integrity has been to ascertain the magnitude and location of critical internal stresses in each PF coil due to various combinations of electromagnetic and thermally induced loads. For each PF coil, a global finite element model (FEM) of a coil sector is being analyzed to obtain the basic coil internal loads and displacements. Subsequent fine mesh local models of the coil lead stem and lead spur regions produce the magnitudes and locations of peak stresses. Each copper turn and its surrounding insulation are modeled using solid finite elements. The corresponding electromagnetic and thermal analyses are similarly modeled. A series of test beams were developed to determine the best combination of MSC/NASTRAN-type finite elements for use in PF coil analysis. The results of this analysis compare favorably with those obtained by the earlier analysis which was limited in scope

  2. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  3. Design of a 3D printed lightweight orthotic device based on twisted and coiled polymer muscle: iGrab hand orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Lokesh; Sharma, Ashvath; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Baughman, Ray H.; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-04-01

    Partial or total upper extremity impairment affects the quality of life of a vast number of people due to stroke, neuromuscular disease, or trauma. Many researchers have presented hand orthosis to address the needs of rehabilitation or assistance on upper extremity function. Most of the devices available commercially and in literature are powered by conventional actuators such as DC motors, servomotors or pneumatic actuators. Some prototypes are developed based on shape memory alloy (SMA) and dielectric elastomers (DE). This study presents a customizable, 3D printed, a lightweight exoskeleton (iGrab) based on recently reported Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) muscles, which are lightweight, provide high power to weight ratio and large stroke. We used silver coated nylon 6, 6 threads to make the TCP muscles, which can be easily actuated electrothermally. We reviewed briefly hand orthosis created with various actuation technologies and present our design of tendon-driven exoskeleton with the muscles confined in the forearm area. A single muscle is used to facilitate the motion of all three joints namely DIP (Distal interphalangeal), PIP (Proximal Interphalangeal) and MCP (Metacarpophalangeal) using passive tendons though circular rings. The grasping capabilities, along with TCP muscle properties utilized in the design such as life cycle, actuation under load and power inputs are discussed.

  4. Near infrared photodetector based on polymer and indium nitride nanorod organic/inorganic hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Wei-Jung; Li, Shao-Sian; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2010-01-01

    We propose a nanostructured near infrared photodetector based on indium nitride (InN) nanorod/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrids. The current-voltage characteristic of the hybrid device demonstrates the typical p-n heterojunction diode behavior, consisting of p-type polymer and n-type InN nanorods. The device shows a photoresponse range of 900-1260 nm under various reverse biases. An external quantum efficiency of 3.4% at 900 nm operated at -10 V reverse bias was obtained, which is comparable with devices based on lead sulfide and lead selenide hybrid systems.

  5. Hybrid Macro-Micro Fluidics System for a Chip-Based Biosensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamanaha, C. R; Whitman, L. J; Colton, R.J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators...

  6. Three hybridization models based on local search scheme for job shop scheduling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi Fraga, Tatiana

    2015-05-01

    This work presents three different hybridization models based on the general schema of Local Search Heuristics, named Hybrid Successive Application, Hybrid Neighborhood, and Hybrid Improved Neighborhood. Despite similar approaches might have already been presented in the literature in other contexts, in this work these models are applied to analyzes the solution of the job shop scheduling problem, with the heuristics Taboo Search and Particle Swarm Optimization. Besides, we investigate some aspects that must be considered in order to achieve better solutions than those obtained by the original heuristics. The results demonstrate that the algorithms derived from these three hybrid models are more robust than the original algorithms and able to get better results than those found by the single Taboo Search.

  7. Performance of trim coils made by a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Skaritka, J.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    A precision, automated method of manufacturing trim coils based on printed circuit technology has been developed. Excellent quench performance and increased radiation resistance have been achieved in recently-tested models of sextupole trim coils developed for operation inside 40 mm-aperture SSC Main Collider dipoles. 6 refs., 2 figs

  8. Design of Tokamak plasma with high Tc superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchimoto, T.; Miya, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Yamada, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a design of tokamak plasma in light of how the small ignited tokamak is possible with use of the HTSC coils as plasma stabilizer. The same data base and formulas as ITER are here used and any innovative technology other than the HTSC stabilizing coils is not assumed. (author)

  9. Coil End Parts Development Using BEND and Design for MQXF by LARP

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Miao; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Bossert, R; Ferracin, P; Krave, S

    2016-01-01

    End parts are critical components for saddle-shaped coils. They have a structural function where the cables are deformed in order to cross over the magnet aperture. Based on the previous design of the US LARP program for 90 mm aperture quadrupoles (TQ/LQ) and 120 mm aperture quadrupoles (HQ/LHQ) using BEND, the coil ends of the low-β quadruples (MQXF) for the HiLumi LHC upgrade were developed. This paper shows the design of the MQXF coil ends, the analysis of the coil ends during the coil fabrication, the autopsy analysis of the coil ends and the feedback to BEND parameters.

  10. Coil End Parts Development Using BEND and Design for MQXF by LARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Miao [Fermilab; Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Bermudez, S. Izquierdo [CERN; Bossert, R. [Fermilab; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Krave, S. [Fermilab

    2016-09-06

    End parts are critical components for saddle-shaped coils. They have a structural function where the cables are deformed in order to cross over the magnet aperture. Based on the previous design of the US LARP program for 90 mm aperture quadrupoles (TQ/LQ) and 120 mm aperture quadrupoles (HQ/LHQ) using BEND, the coil ends of the low-β quadruples (MQXF) for the HiLumi LHC upgrade were developed. This paper shows the design of the MQXF coil ends, the analysis of the coil ends during the coil fabrication, the autopsy analysis of the coil ends and the feedback to BEND parameters.

  11. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Zhao, Ye

    2013-12-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO{sub 2}) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity.

  12. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yibing; Zhao, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO 2 ) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity

  13. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  14. Hybrid structures based on montmorillonite/modified starch intercalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchek, P.; Špírková, Milena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 9 (2010), s. 885 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /6./. 29.09.2010-1.10.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic/inorganic hybrides * montmorillonite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  15. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  16. Microcantilver-based DNA hybridization sensors for Salmonella identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricciardi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection of pathogenic microorganisms in foods remains a challenging since the safety of foodstuffs has to be ensured by the food producing companies. Conventional methods for the detection and identification of bacteria mainly rely on specific microbiological and biochemical identification. Biomolecular methods, are commonly used as a support for traditional techniques, thanks to their high sensitivity, specificity and not excessive costs. However, new methods like biosensors for example, can be an exciting alternative to the more traditional tecniques for the detection of pathogens in food. In this study we report Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis DNA detection through a novel class of label-free biosensors: microcantilevers (MCs. In general, MCs can operate as a microbalance and is used to detect the mass of the entities anchored to the cantilever surface using the decrease in the resonant frequency. We use DNA hybridization as model reaction system and for this reason, specific single stranded probe DNA of the pathogen and three different DNA targets (single-stranded complementary DNA, PCR product and serial dilutions of DNA extracted from S. Enteritidis strains were applied. Two protocols were reported in order to allow the probe immobilization on cantilever surface: i MC surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde and an amino-modified DNA probe was used; ii gold-coated sensors and thiolated DNA probes were used in order to generate a covalent bonding (Th-Au. For the first one, measures after hybridization with the PCR product showed related frequency shift 10 times higher than hybridization with complementary probe and detectable signals were obtained at the concentrations of 103 and 106 cfu/mL after hybridization with bacterial DNA. There are currently optimizations of the second protocol, where preliminary results have shown to be more uniform and therefore more precise within each of the

  17. Nanostructured ZnO-based biosensor: DNA immobilization and hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully fabricated by using (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES with zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods synthesized using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method on thermally oxidized SiO2 thin films. The structural quality and morphology of the ZnO nanorods were determined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, which show a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along the (101 direction. The surface of the SiO2 thin films was chemically modified with ZnO. Label-free detection DNA immobilization and hybridization were performed using potassium hexacyanoferrate with cyclic voltammetry (CV measurements. The capacitance, permittivity, and conductivity profiles of the fabricated sensor clearly indicate DNA immobilization and hybridization. Results show that the capacitance values of bare, ZnO- modified surface immobilization, and target DNA hybridization were 46×10−12F, 47×10−8F, 27μF, and 17μF, respectively, at 1Hz. The permittivity measurement increased from 3.94×103 to 251×103 and 165×103 at the frequency range of approximately 200 to 1Hz for bare and DNA immobilization and hybridization, respectively. The measured conductivity values for the bare, ZnO, immobilized, and hybridization device were 2.4×10−9, 10×10−8, 1.6×10−7, and 1.3×10−7Scm−1, respectively. Keywords: Zinc oxide, Biosensor, Capacitance, Permittivity, Conductivity

  18. Multiway study of hybridization in nanoscale semiconductor labeled DNA based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Somayeh; Kompany Zare, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    donor-QD acceptor) upon hybridization with a label free target was monitored by two-dimensional photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (2D-PLE). Detection of a target oligonucleotide strand, using sandwiched nanoassembly in a separation-free format, was performed with the appearance of a new feature...... and model based analysis of 2D-PLE data was implemented by means of PAR-AFAC and hard trilinear decomposition (HTD), allowing to fit a proper model for FRET-based sandwich DNA hybridization systems. This study is the first successful application of a multiway chemometric technique to consider FRET based DNA...... hybridization in sandwiched nanoassemblies. A multi-equilibria model was properly fitted to the data and confirmed there is a competition between ternary and binary complex formation. Equilibrium constants of DNA hybridization in sandwiched nanoassemblies were estimated for the first time. Equilibrium constants...

  19. Coil Optimization for HTS Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    An optimization approach of HTS coils in HTS synchronous machines (SM) is presented. The optimization is aimed at high power SM suitable for direct driven wind turbines applications. The optimization process was applied to a general radial flux machine with a peak air gap flux density of ~3T...... is suitable for which coil segment is presented. Thus, the performed study gives valuable input for the coil design of HTS machines ensuring optimal usage of HTS tapes....

  20. Structural mapping of the coiled-coil domain of a bacterial condensin and comparative analyses across all domains of life suggest conserved features of SMC proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Vincent M; Stanage, Tyler H; Mims, Alexandra; Norden, Ian S; Oakley, Martha G

    2015-06-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins form the cores of multisubunit complexes that are required for the segregation and global organization of chromosomes in all domains of life. These proteins share a common domain structure in which N- and C- terminal regions pack against one another to form a globular ATPase domain. This "head" domain is connected to a central, globular, "hinge" or dimerization domain by a long, antiparallel coiled coil. To date, most efforts for structural characterization of SMC proteins have focused on the globular domains. Recently, however, we developed a method to map interstrand interactions in the 50-nm coiled-coil domain of MukB, the divergent SMC protein found in γ-proteobacteria. Here, we apply that technique to map the structure of the Bacillus subtilis SMC (BsSMC) coiled-coil domain. We find that, in contrast to the relatively complicated coiled-coil domain of MukB, the BsSMC domain is nearly continuous, with only two detectable coiled-coil interruptions. Near the middle of the domain is a break in coiled-coil structure in which there are three more residues on the C-terminal strand than on the N-terminal strand. Close to the head domain, there is a second break with a significantly longer insertion on the same strand. These results provide an experience base that allows an informed interpretation of the output of coiled-coil prediction algorithms for this family of proteins. A comparison of such predictions suggests that these coiled-coil deviations are highly conserved across SMC types in a wide variety of organisms, including humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  2. Optimum Performance-Based Seismic Design Using a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid optimization method is presented to optimum seismic design of steel frames considering four performance levels. These performance levels are considered to determine the optimum design of structures to reduce the structural cost. A pushover analysis of steel building frameworks subject to equivalent-static earthquake loading is utilized. The algorithm is based on the concepts of the charged system search in which each agent is affected by local and global best positions stored in the charged memory considering the governing laws of electrical physics. Comparison of the results of the hybrid algorithm with those of other metaheuristic algorithms shows the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  3. Analysis of fixed tilt and sun tracking photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 6 kW_p photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid power system analysis in a Indian Western Himalayan location. - Highlights: • Power generation by a roof mounted photovoltaic–micro wind hybrid system is explored. • Optimum hybrid configurations using fixed and sun tracking photovoltaic systems are determined. • Analysis of hybrid systems with optimally tilted and different sun tracking systems is presented. • Two axis sun tracking systems are found to generate 4.88–26.29% more energy than fixed tilt system. • Hybrid system installed at optimum tilt angle is found to be cost effective than a sun tracking system. - Abstract: In this study fixed tilt and sun tracking photovoltaic based micro wind hybrid power systems are analyzed along with determining the optimum configurations for a 6 kW_p roof mounted micro wind based hybrid system using fixed and tracking photovoltaic systems to enhance the power generation potential in a low windy Indian hilly terrain with good solar resource. The main objective of the study is to enhance power generation by focusing on photovoltaic component of the hybrid system. A comparative power generation analysis of different configurations of hybrid systems with fixed tilt, monthly optimum tilt, yearly optimum tilt and 6 different sun tracking photovoltaic systems is carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. Monthly and seasonal optimum tilt angles determined for the location vary between 0° and 60° with annual optimum tilt angle as 29.25°. The optimum configurations for all sun tracking systems except for the two axis tracking system is found to be 7 kW_p photovoltaic system, one 5 kW_p wind turbine, 10 batteries and a 2 kW_p inverter. The optimum configuration for two axis tracking system and two types of fixed tilt systems, is found to be a 8 kW_p photovoltaic system, one 5 kW_p wind turbine, 10 batteries and a 2 kW_p inverter. The results show that horizontal axis with

  4. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  5. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Investigating the effect of coil model losses on computational electromagnetic exposure of an ASTM phantom at 64 MHz MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail; Horner, Marc; Kainz, Wolfgang; Angelone, Leonardo M

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of coil losses on the electromagnetic field generated in an ASTM phantom by a birdcage coil. The study was based on different numerical implementations of an RF body coil at 64 MHz, using the same 3D EM and RF circuit co-simulation procedure. The coil quality factor was evaluated with respect to losses due to power feed mismatch and to resistive losses of the coil components. The results of the study showed that the magnetic field at the coil iso-center, normalized to the square root of the whole body specific absorption rate, depends on the coil quality factor.

  7. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schreck, Kathleen M.; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins ...

  8. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  9. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  10. The coiled coil motif in polymer drug delivery systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 90-96 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0543; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coiled coil * hydrophilic polymer * recombinant protein Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.905, year: 2013

  11. Control and fault diagnosis based sliding mode observer of a multicellular converter: Hybrid approach

    KAUST Repository

    Benzineb, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the diagnosis of a three cell converter is developed. The hybrid nature of the system represented by the presence of continuous and discrete dynamics is taken into account in the control design. The idea is based on using a hybrid control and an observer-type sliding mode to generate residuals from the observation errors of the system. The simulation results are presented at the end to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. © 2013 FEI STU.

  12. Imaging performance of a full-ring prototype PET-MRI system based on four-layer DOI-PET detectors integrated with a RF coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Inadama, Naoko; Eiji, Yoshida; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-05-18

    We are developing a PET system integrated with a birdcage RF-coil for PET-MRI in order to realize both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the PET image by using the 4-layered depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detector. We constructed a full-ring prototype system and evaluated performances, especially imaging performance, of the prototype system in simultaneous measurement. The prototype system consists of eight four-layer DOI-PET detectors and a prototype birdcage RF-coil developed for the proposed system. The PET detectors consist of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter array (S11064-050P), a readout circuit, fourlayer DOI scintillator arrays and a shielding box made of 35 μm thick copper foil. The crystal array consists of 2.0 mm x 2.0 mm x 5.0 mm LYSO crystals arranged in 38 x 6 x 4 layer. The RF-coil has eight coil elements and the eight PET detectors are positioned at each element gap. The diameter of the RF-coil elements is 261 mm. We conducted performance tests of the prototype system with a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio). Only the PET detectors, the RF-coil and the cables were in an MRI room during measurements. A data acquisition system and power supplies for the MPPCs and preamplifiers were outside the MRI room and connected to all the detectors through a penetration panel. As a result, the spatial resolutions of a Na-22 point source in the PET image were lower than 1.6 mm in whole the FOV due to the DOI capability. In addition, the influence of the simultaneous measurements on the PET performance is negligible. On the other hand, the SNR of the phantom image in the magnitude images was degraded from 259.7 to 209.4 due to noise contamination from the power supplies.

  13. Imaging performance of a full-ring prototype PET-MRI system based on four-layer DOI-PET detectors integrated with a RF coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio; Inadama, Naoko; Eiji, Yoshida; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a PET system integrated with a birdcage RF-coil for PET-MRI in order to realize both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the PET image by using the 4-layered depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detector. We constructed a full-ring prototype system and evaluated performances, especially imaging performance, of the prototype system in simultaneous measurement. The prototype system consists of eight four-layer DOI-PET detectors and a prototype birdcage RF-coil developed for the proposed system. The PET detectors consist of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter array (S11064-050P), a readout circuit, fourlayer DOI scintillator arrays and a shielding box made of 35 μm thick copper foil. The crystal array consists of 2.0 mm x 2.0 mm x 5.0 mm LYSO crystals arranged in 38 x 6 x 4 layer. The RF-coil has eight coil elements and the eight PET detectors are positioned at each element gap. The diameter of the RF-coil elements is 261 mm. We conducted performance tests of the prototype system with a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio). Only the PET detectors, the RF-coil and the cables were in an MRI room during measurements. A data acquisition system and power supplies for the MPPCs and preamplifiers were outside the MRI room and connected to all the detectors through a penetration panel. As a result, the spatial resolutions of a Na-22 point source in the PET image were lower than 1.6 mm in whole the FOV due to the DOI capability. In addition, the influence of the simultaneous measurements on the PET performance is negligible. On the other hand, the SNR of the phantom image in the magnitude images was degraded from 259.7 to 209.4 due to noise contamination from the power supplies.

  14. Students' perception towards the problem based learning tutorial session in a system-based hybrid curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed A; Khalil, Mahmoud S; Irshad, Mohammad; Abdulghani, Hamza M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate students' perception towards the problem based learning (PBL) session in a system-based hybrid curriculum. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia at the end of the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey questionnaire was self-administered, and examined perceptions of PBL session benefits, appropriate running of sessions, and tutor's roles. Out of 510 students, 275 (53.9%) completed the questionnaire. Most of the students reported that PBL sessions were helpful in understanding basic sciences concepts (p=0.04). In addition, they agreed that PBL sessions increased their knowledge of basic sciences (p=0.01). Most students reported that PBL sessions encouraged self-directed learning, collaborative learning, and improved decision making skills. However, 54.5% of students reported lack of proper training before starting the PBL sessions, and only 25.1% of students agreed that the teaching staff are well prepared to run the sessions. Most students used the internet (93.1%), lecture notes (76.7%), and books (64.4%) as learning resources. Most students reported repetition of topics between PBL sessions and lectures (p=0.07). The study highlighted the significant role of PBL in a system-based hybrid curriculum and helped students improve their knowledge and different learning skills. Students and staff training is required before the utilizing the PBL as an instructional method.

  15. Automatic treatment of multiple wound coils in 3D finite element problems including multiply connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, P.J.; Lai, H.C.; Eastham, J.F.; Al-Akayshee, Q.H. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an efficient scheme for incorporating multiple wire wound coils into 3D finite element models. The scheme is based on the magnetic scalar representation with an additional basis for each coil. There are no restrictions on the topology of coils with respect to ferromagnetic and conductor regions. Reduced scalar regions and cuts are automatically generated.

  16. Structural analysis of equilibrium and ohmic heating coil assemblies for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1975-10-01

    The structural adequacy of the equilibrium and ohmic heating coils and their support systems for the TFTR device has been investigated. The capability of the coils to span ribs of the support structure has been established. The support structure has been found to be effective in resisting the magnetic forces in the coils. The bands encircling the outboard coils and the band tensioning devices have been found to perform adequately. The analysis is based on October 1975 conceptual design

  17. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashti, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yahyaei, Hossein [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozi, Saman [Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Sara [Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahiminejad, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Science, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Khadijeh [Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Hossein, E-mail: hghanbari@tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites based on polyurethane and nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method fabricated • Addition of inorganic phase improved mechanical properties. • Nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method increased hydrophilicity. • By adding nanosilica to polyurethane biocompatibility increased significantly.

  18. Kalman Filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Chen, Shuo; Deng, Kexin; Chen, Bingyao; Wei, Xing; Yang, Jiafei; Wang, Shi; Ying, Kui

    2017-01-01

    To develop a self-adaptive and fast thermometry method by combining the original hybrid magnetic resonance thermometry method and the bio heat transfer equation (BHTE) model. The proposed Kalman filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry, abbreviated as KalBHT hybrid method, introduced the BHTE model to synthesize a window on the regularization term of the hybrid algorithm, which leads to a self-adaptive regularization both spatially and temporally with change of temperature. Further, to decrease the sensitivity to accuracy of the BHTE model, Kalman filter is utilized to update the window at each iteration time. To investigate the effect of the proposed model, computer heating simulation, phantom microwave heating experiment and dynamic in-vivo model validation of liver and thoracic tumor were conducted in this study. The heating simulation indicates that the KalBHT hybrid algorithm achieves more accurate results without adjusting λ to a proper value in comparison to the hybrid algorithm. The results of the phantom heating experiment illustrate that the proposed model is able to follow temperature changes in the presence of motion and the temperature estimated also shows less noise in the background and surrounding the hot spot. The dynamic in-vivo model validation with heating simulation demonstrates that the proposed model has a higher convergence rate, more robustness to susceptibility problem surrounding the hot spot and more accuracy of temperature estimation. In the healthy liver experiment with heating simulation, the RMSE of the hot spot of the proposed model is reduced to about 50% compared to the RMSE of the original hybrid model and the convergence time becomes only about one fifth of the hybrid model. The proposed model is able to improve the accuracy of the original hybrid algorithm and accelerate the convergence rate of MR temperature estimation.

  19. Data classification based on the hybrid intellectual technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidova Liliya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the data classification technique, implying the consistent application of the SVM and Parzen classifiers, has been suggested. The Parser classifier applies to data which can be both correctly and erroneously classified using the SVM classifier, and are located in the experimentally defined subareas near the hyperplane which separates the classes. A herewith, the SVM classifier is used with the default parameters values, and the optimal parameters values of the Parser classifier are determined using the genetic algorithm. The experimental results confirming the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid intellectual data classification technology have been presented.

  20. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  1. Multiphase Return Trajectory Optimization Based on Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid trajectory optimization method consisting of Gauss pseudospectral method (GPM and natural computation algorithm has been developed and utilized to solve multiphase return trajectory optimization problem, where a phase is defined as a subinterval in which the right-hand side of the differential equation is continuous. GPM converts the optimal control problem to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP, which helps to improve calculation accuracy and speed of natural computation algorithm. Through numerical simulations, it is found that the multiphase optimal control problem could be solved perfectly.

  2. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ducnghia264@fpt.vn

    2009-09-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  3. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  4. Power Adaptation Based on Truncated Channel Inversion for Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.

  5. Power Adaptation Based on Truncated Channel Inversion for Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer; Hong-Chuan Yang; Gebali, Fayez; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.

  6. Polyacrylamide-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xinfang [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tao, Junshi; Li, Mingzhi; Zhu, Bishan; Li, Xuan; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhao, Tingjie; Wang, Bingzhu; Suo, Biao [Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Haiwang, E-mail: whwdbdx@126.com [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ye, Li, E-mail: yeli@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Xiwei, E-mail: qxw@mail.neuq.edu.cn [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid materials are of great potential as flocculants in soil-liquid separation. Herein, we reported the design of inorganic soil-TiO{sub 2}-PAM hybrid materials using a unique process, which involved coating of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the surface of inorganic soils and subsequent polymerization of acrylamide (AM) on these nanoparticles under visible light. Inorganic soils including kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite and diatomaceous earth were used to control the volume and to reduce the cost, and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles accelerated PAM degradation. The nanoparticles initiated AM polymerization directly under visible light, thus providing a facile strategy for the synthesis of new organic-inorganic hybrid flocculants. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The degradation of PAM initiated by UV irradiation exceeded 24% in 2 h, depending on its initial concentration. - Highlights: • A new polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property was developed. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show a unique surface-initiated property under the condition of visible light. • We designed a facile strategy for the synthesis of inorganic soil@TiO{sub 2}@PAM hybrid materials.

  7. Comparison of endorectal coil and nonendorectal coil T2W and diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 Tesla for localizing prostate cancer: correlation with whole-mount histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkbey, Baris; Merino, Maria J; Gallardo, Elma Carvajal; Shah, Vijay; Aras, Omer; Bernardo, Marcelino; Mena, Esther; Daar, Dagane; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Linehan, W Marston; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L

    2014-06-01

    To compare utility of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI-MRI) obtained with and without an endorectal coil at 3 Tesla (T) for localizing prostate cancer. This Institutional Review Board-approved study included 20 patients (median prostate-specific antigen, 8.4 ng/mL). Patients underwent consecutive prostate MRIs at 3T, first with a surface coil alone, then with combination of surface, endorectal coils (dual coil) followed by robotic assisted radical prostatectomy. Lesions were mapped at time of acquisition on dual-coil T2W, DWI-MRI. To avoid bias, 6 months later nonendorectal coil T2W, DWI-MRI were mapped. Both MRI evaluations were performed by two readers blinded to pathology with differences resolved by consensus. A lesion-based correlation with whole-mount histopathology was performed. At histopathology 51 cancer foci were present ranging in size from 2 to 60 mm. The sensitivity of the endorectal dual-coil, nonendorectal coil MRIs were 0.76, 0.45, respectively. PPVs for endorectal dual-coil, nonendorectal coil MRI were 0.80, 0.64, respectively. Mean size of detected lesions with nonendorectal coil MRI were larger than those detected by dual-coil MRI (22 mm versus 17.4 mm). Dual-coil prostate MRI detected more cancer foci than nonendorectal coil MRI. While nonendorectal coil MRI is an attractive alternative, physicians performing prostate MRI should be aware of its limitations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hybrid heat pipe based passive cooling device for spent nuclear fuel dry storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid heat pipe was presented as a passive cooling device for dry storage cask of SNF. • A method to utilize waste heat from spent fuel was suggested using hybrid heat pipe. • CFD analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal performance of hybrid heat pipe. • Hybrid heat pipe can increase safety margin and storage capacity of the dry storage cask. - Abstract: Conventional dry storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were designed to remove decay heat through the natural convection of air, but this method has limited cooling capacity and a possible re-criticality accident in case of flooding. To enhance the safety and capacity of dry storage cask of SNF, hybrid heat pipe-based passive cooling device was suggested. Heat pipe is an excellent passive heat transfer device using the principles of both conduction and phase change of the working fluid. The heat pipe containing neutron absorber material, the so-called hybrid heat pipe, is expected to prevent the re-criticality accidents of SNF and to increase the safety margin during interim and long term storage period. Moreover, a hybrid heat pipe with thermoelectric module, a Stirling engine and a phase change material tank can be used for utilization of the waste heat as heat-transfer medium. Located at the guide tube or instrumentation tube, hybrid heat pipe can remove decay heat from inside the sealed metal cask to outside, decreasing fuel rod temperature. In this paper, a 2-step analysis was performed using computational fluid dynamics code to evaluate the heat and fluid flow inside a cask, which consisted of a single spent fuel assembly simulation and a full-scope dry cask simulation. For a normal dry storage cask, the maximum fuel temperature is 290.0 °C. With hybrid heat pipe cooling, the temperature decreased to 261.6 °C with application of one hybrid heat pipe per assembly, and to 195.1 °C with the application of five hybrid heat pipes per assembly. Therefore, a dry

  9. Improved hybrid information filtering based on limited time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Jun; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-12-01

    Adopting the entire collecting information of users, the hybrid information filtering of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM) (Zhou et al., 2010) was successfully proposed to solve the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma. Since the recent behaviors are more effective to capture the users' potential interests, we present an improved hybrid information filtering of adopting the partial recent information. We expand the time window to generate a series of training sets, each of which is treated as known information to predict the future links proven by the testing set. The experimental results on one benchmark dataset Netflix indicate that by only using approximately 31% recent rating records, the accuracy could be improved by an average of 4.22% and the diversity could be improved by 13.74%. In addition, the performance on the dataset MovieLens could be preserved by considering approximately 60% recent records. Furthermore, we find that the improved algorithm is effective to solve the cold-start problem. This work could improve the information filtering performance and shorten the computational time.

  10. Preparation of silica-based hybrid materials by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Margaca, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcao, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray irradiation is well known to promote the crosslinking of polymer chains. The method is now used by the authors to prepare hybrid materials from a mixture of polymer and metallic alkoxides of silicium and zirconium that are usually obtained via the sol-gel process. Macroscopically homogeneous and transparent hybrid materials have been obtained by γ-irradiation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr). The influence of several parameters has been studied. The dose rate was found to have no significant impact in the prepared material. The polymer molecular weight was also observed not to play any special role. It was found that all irradiated samples consist of a polymer gel matrix. In the case where both alkoxides are present there are inorganic oxide regions linked to the PDMS network. However when one of the alkoxides is absent there is no formation of inorganic oxide regions linked to the polymer matrix, there being only a few individual derived molecules of the other alkoxide linked to the polymer

  11. The IEA Large Coil Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, D.S.; Klose, W.; Shimamoto, S.; Vecsey, G.

    1988-01-01

    A multinational program of cooperative research, development, demonstrations, and exchanges of information on superconducting magnets for fusion was initiated in 1977 under an IEA agreement. The first major step in the development of TF magnets was called the Large Coil Task. Participants in LCT were the U.S. DOE, EURATOM, JAERI, and the Departement Federal de l'Interieur of Switzerland. The goals of LCT were to obtain experimental data, to demonstrate reliable operation of large superconducting coils, and to prove design principles and fabrication techniques being considered for the toroidal magnets of thermonuclear reactors. These goals were to be accomplished through coordinated but largely independent design, development, and construction of six test coils, followed by collaborative testing in a compact toroidal test array at fields of 8 T and higher. Under the terms of the IEA Agreement, the United States built and operated the test facility at Oak Ridge and provided three test coils. The other participants provided one coil each. Information on design and manufacturing and all test data were shared by all. The LCT team of each participant included a government laboratory and industrial partners or contractors. The last coil was completed in 1985, and the test assembly was completed in October of that year. Over the next 23 months, the six-coil array was cooled down and extensive testing was performed. Results were gratifying, as tests achieved design-point performance and well beyond. (Each coil reached a peak field of 9 T.) Experiments elucidated coil behavior, delineated limits of operability, and demonstrated coil safety. (orig./KP)

  12. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  13. Resizing Technique-Based Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Drift Design of Multistory Steel Frame Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since genetic algorithm-based optimization methods are computationally expensive for practical use in the field of structural optimization, a resizing technique-based hybrid genetic algorithm for the drift design of multistory steel frame buildings is proposed to increase the convergence speed of genetic algorithms. To reduce the number of structural analyses required for the convergence, a genetic algorithm is combined with a resizing technique that is an efficient optimal technique to control the drift of buildings without the repetitive structural analysis. The resizing technique-based hybrid genetic algorithm proposed in this paper is applied to the minimum weight design of three steel frame buildings. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, optimum weights, computational times, and generation numbers from the proposed algorithm are compared with those from a genetic algorithm. Based on the comparisons, it is concluded that the hybrid genetic algorithm shows clear improvements in convergence properties.

  14. Superconducting poloidal coils for STARFIRE commercial reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Evans, K. Jr.; Turner, L.R.; Huang, Y.C.; Prater, R.; Alcorn, J.

    1979-01-01

    STARFIRE is considered to be the tenth commercial tokamak power plant. A preliminary design study on its superconducting poloidal coil system is presented. Key features of the design studies are: the elimination of the ohmic heating coil; the trade-off studies of the equilibrium field coil locations; and the development of a conceptual design for the superconducting equilibrium field coils. Described are the 100 kA cryostable conductor design, the coil structure, and evaluation of the coil forces

  15. Trends in tungsten coil atomic spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, George L.

    Renewed interest in electrothermal atomic spectrometric methods based on tungsten coil atomizers is a consequence of a world wide increasing demand for fast, inexpensive, sensitive, and portable analytical methods for trace analysis. In this work, tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometry (WCAAS) and tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES) are used to determine several different metals and even a non-metal at low levels in different samples. Improvements in instrumentation and new strategies to reduce matrix effects and background signals are presented. Investigation of the main factors affecting both WCAAS and WCAES analytical signals points to the importance of a reducing, high temperature gas phase in the processes leading to atomic cloud generation. Some more refractory elements such as V and Ti were determined for the first time by double tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (DWCAES). The higher temperatures provided by two atomizers in DWCAES also allowed the detection of Ag, Cu and Sn emission signals for the first time. Simultaneous determination of several elements by WCAES in relatively complex sample matrices was possible after a simple acid extraction. The results show the potential of this method as an alternative to more traditional, expensive methods for fast, more effective analyses and applications in the field. The development of a new metallic atomization cell is also presented. Lower limits of detection in both WCAAS and WCAES determinations were obtained due to factors such as better control of background signal, smaller, more isothermal system, with atomic cloud concentration at the optical path for a longer period of time. Tungsten coil-based methods are especially well suited to applications requiring low sample volume, low cost, sensitivity and portability. Both WCAAS and WCAES have great commercial potential in fields as diverse as archeology and industrial quality control. They are simple, inexpensive, effective

  16. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham S. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA-based artificial neural network (ANN to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM, are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene-Based Magnetic Hybrid Nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jashiela Wani Jusin; Madzlan Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-based magnetic hybrid nano composite has the advantage of exhibiting better performance as platform or supporting materials to develop novel properties of composite by increasing selectivity of the targeted adsorbate. The hybrid nano material was prepared by mixing and hydrolysing iron (II) and iron (III) salt precursors in the presence of GO dispersion through coprecipitation method followed by in situ chemical reduction of GO. The effect of weight loading ratio of Fe to GO (4:1, 2.5:1, 1:1 and 1:4) on structural properties of the hybrid nano materials was investigated. The presence of characteristic peaks in FTIR spectra indicated that GO has been successfully oxidized from graphite while the decrease in oxygenated functional groups and peaks intensity evidenced the formation of hybrid nano materials through the subsequent reduction process. The presence of characteristic peaks in XRD pattern denoted that magnetite nanoparticles disappeared at higher loading of GO. TEM micrograph showed that the best distribution of iron oxide particles on the surface of hybrid nano material occurred when the loading ratio of Fe to GO was fixed at 2:5 to 1. The reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets in the hybrid materials showed less wrinkled sheet like structure compared to GO due to exfoliation and reduction process during the synthesis. The layered morphology of GO degrades at higher concentrations of iron oxide. (author)

  18. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Hybrid ESS Based on Optimal Energy Management Strategy for LHDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems (ESS play an important role in the performance of mining vehicles. A hybrid ESS combining both batteries (BTs and supercapacitors (SCs is one of the most promising solutions. As a case study, this paper discusses the optimal hybrid ESS sizing and energy management strategy (EMS of 14-ton underground load-haul-dump vehicles (LHDs. Three novel contributions are added to the relevant literature. First, a multi-objective optimization is formulated regarding energy consumption and the total cost of a hybrid ESS, which are the key factors of LHDs, and a battery capacity degradation model is used. During the process, dynamic programming (DP-based EMS is employed to obtain the optimal energy consumption and hybrid ESS power profiles. Second, a 10-year life cycle cost model of a hybrid ESS for LHDs is established to calculate the total cost, including capital cost, operating cost, and replacement cost. According to the optimization results, three solutions chosen from the Pareto front are compared comprehensively, and the optimal one is selected. Finally, the optimal and battery-only options are compared quantitatively using the same objectives, and the hybrid ESS is found to be a more economical and efficient option.

  19. Dendrimer-based biosensor for chemiluminescent detection of DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Hun, X.; Qing, H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a highly sensitive chemiluminescent (CL) biosensor for the sequence-specific detection of DNA using a novel bio barcode DNA probe modified with gold nanoparticles that were covered with a dendrimer. The modified probe is composed of gold nanoparticles, a dendrimer, the CL reagent, and the DNA. The capture probe DNA was immobilized on magnetic beads covered with gold. It first hybridizes with the target DNA and then with one terminal end of the signal DNA on the barcoded DNA probe. CL was generated by adding H 2 O 2 and Co(II) ions as the catalyst. The immobilization of dendrimer onto the gold nanoparticles can significantly enhance sensitivity and gives a detection limit of 6 fmol L -1 of target DNA. (author)

  20. Hybrid paper-based potentiostat for low-cost point-of-need diagnostics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, PH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the manufacturing of a low-cost hybrid paper-based potentiostat. Potentiostats exhibit high sensitivity, and can be used for a variety of applications. The results highlight the functionality of a paper-based potentiostat...

  1. Highly Reproducible Sn-Based Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells with 9% Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Shuyan; Liu, Jian; Portale, Giuseppe; Fang, Hong-Hua; Blake, Graeme R.; ten Brink, Gert H.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    The low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of tin-based hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) is mainly attributed to the high background carrier density due to a high density of intrinsic defects such as Sn vacancies and oxidized species (Sn4+) that characterize Sn-based HPSCs. Herein, this study

  2. Topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems using the hybrid finite element-wave based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goo, Seongyeol; Wang, Semyung; Kook, Junghwan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative topology optimization method for bounded acoustic problems that uses the hybrid finite element-wave based method (FE-WBM). The conventional method for the topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems is based on the finite element method (FEM), which...

  3. The Use of Mapping in Child Welfare Investigations: A Strength-Based Hybrid Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Kristen; Versanov, Avi; Cheung, Connie; Goodman, Deborah; Andrews, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    To enhance strengths-based service, a large urban child welfare agency in Ontario, Canada implemented part of the Signs of Safety (SOS) model in 2010. SOS was created to engage families involved with the child welfare system, and is rooted in the beliefs of collaboration, strengths-based practice, and safety. The hybrid of the full SOS model…

  4. Compressing DNA sequence databases with coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Michael D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly available DNA sequence databases such as GenBank are large, and are growing at an exponential rate. The sheer volume of data being dealt with presents serious storage and data communications problems. Currently, sequence data is usually kept in large "flat files," which are then compressed using standard Lempel-Ziv (gzip compression – an approach which rarely achieves good compression ratios. While much research has been done on compressing individual DNA sequences, surprisingly little has focused on the compression of entire databases of such sequences. In this study we introduce the sequence database compression software coil. Results We have designed and implemented a portable software package, coil, for compressing and decompressing DNA sequence databases based on the idea of edit-tree coding. coil is geared towards achieving high compression ratios at the expense of execution time and memory usage during compression – the compression time represents a "one-off investment" whose cost is quickly amortised if the resulting compressed file is transmitted many times. Decompression requires little memory and is extremely fast. We demonstrate a 5% improvement in compression ratio over state-of-the-art general-purpose compression tools for a large GenBank database file containing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. Finally, coil can efficiently encode incremental additions to a sequence database. Conclusion coil presents a compelling alternative to conventional compression of flat files for the storage and distribution of DNA sequence databases having a narrow distribution of sequence lengths, such as EST data. Increasing compression levels for databases having a wide distribution of sequence lengths is a direction for future work.

  5. Quench detection system of the EURATOM coil for the Large Coil Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noether, G.; Gauss, S.; Maurer, W.; Siewerdt, L.; Ulbricht, A.; Wuechner, F.

    1989-01-01

    A special quench detection system has been developed for the EURATOM Large Coil Task (LCT) coil. The system is based on a bridge circuit which uses a special 'two in hand' winding technique for the pancakes of the EURATOM LCT coil. The electronic circuit was designed in a fail safe way to prevent failure of the quench detector due to failure of one of its components. A method for quick balancing of the quench detection system in a large toroidal magnet system was applied. The quench detection system worked very reliably during the experimental phase of the LCT and was within the quench detection level setting of 50 mV, i.e. the system was not sensitive to poloidal field transients at or below this level. Non-electrical methods for quench detection were also investigated. (author)

  6. Battery durability and longevity based power management for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with hybrid energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Xiong, Rui; Cao, Jiayi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel procedure for developing an optimal power management strategy was proposed. • Efficiency and durability were considered to improve the practical performance. • Three control rules were abstracted from the optimization results with DP algorithm. • The proposed control strategy was verified under different SoC and SoH conditions. • The proposed strategy could further improve the energy efficiency obviously. - Abstract: Efficiency and durability are becoming two key issues for the energy storage system in electric vehicles together with their associated power management strategies. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of a near-optimal power management strategy for the hybrid battery and ultracapacitor energy storage system (HESS) in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The design procedure starts by defining a cost function to minimize the electricity consumption of the HESS and to optimize the operating behavior of the battery. To determine the optimal control actions and power distribution between two power sources, a dynamic programming (DP)-based novel analysis method is proposed, and the optimization framework is presented accordingly. Through analysis of the DP control actions under different battery state-of-health (SoH) conditions, near-optimal rules are extracted. A rule based power management is proposed based on the abstracted rules and simulation results indicate that the new control strategy can improve system efficiency under different SoH and different SoC conditions. Ultimately, the performance of proposed strategy is further verified under different types of driving cycles including the MANHATTAN cycle, 1015 6PRIUS cycle and UDDSHDV cycle.

  7. An investigation of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen hybridization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinjing; Xue, Haobai; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid UPS based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen engine is proposed. • The dynamic modelling of the hybrid UPS system is conducted. • The dynamic working performance is obtained and analysed based on the simulation. • The hybrid UPS enjoys environmental benignity, long life and easy maintenance. • It is a highly possible solution to replace conventional UPS systems. - Abstract: An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) hybridization is first introduced in this paper. Of the newly designed UPS, the supercapacitor reacts instantaneously once the main supply fails, and it also starts the LN 2 power system to produce continuing electricity for the customer. This hybrid UPS system is of environment cleanness, long life time, easy maintenaince, etc. A 10 kW model is analyzed in this study. A two-stage nitrogen expander is designed with the rated speed of 900 rpm as the long time power generation device of the LN 2 cycle. The UPS starting process calculation is carried out. The results reveal that commercial supercapacitors could fulfill this request. This UPS could be a competent choice for the UPS application. Further discussion indicates the LN 2 power system could be used widely from UPS to low carbon vehicles

  8. Investigation of Υ Dor - δ Sct hybrid stars based on high precission space photometry and complementary ground based spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareter, M.

    2013-01-01

    Stellar pulsation carries information on the physical condition within the star. While pressure modes (p modes) probe the outer layers of a star, gravity modes (g modes) penetrate deep into the radiative zone and thus carry valuable information on the physical conditions there. gamma Dor stars are stars that pulsate in such modes, apart from white dwarfs and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Therefore, these stars are important test benches for stellar evolution and pulsation theory. delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrids are stars that pulsate like gamma Dor stars with g modes but also with p modes as the delta Sct stars do. This makes them even more suited for asteroseismology. The CoRoT long runs offer a great opportunity to analyse a large sample of stars observed homogeneously, uninterrupted and long time base of about 150 days, which is practically unachievable with ground based observation. Since space missions avoid the scintillation caused by the Earth's atmosphere, they allow to detect stellar oscillations on a sub-millimagnitude level even for stars as faint as 15th magnitude. The photometric data is supplemented by AAOmega classification spectroscopy, allowing to determine effective tem- peratures and surface gravity. With these data a statistical approach was adopted to describe the pulsation behaviour gamma Dor and delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid stars. A temperature - period relation was found for gamma Dor and delta Sct stars, but none for delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid stars, when considering their strongest g mode or p mode, respectively. The instability domain of hybrid stars is equal to that of delta Sct stars and is not con- fined to the overlapping region of the delta Sct and gamma Dor IS in the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram. Hybrid stars behave differently in the g mode regime than gamma Dor stars, which poses a serious question on how to define properly a delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid. The convective flux blocking mechanism is supposed to work for stars

  9. Extension to linear dynamics for hybrid stress finite element formulation based on additional displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumihara, K.

    Based upon legitimate variational principles, one microscopic-macroscopic finite element formulation for linear dynamics is presented by Hybrid Stress Finite Element Method. The microscopic application of Geometric Perturbation introduced by Pian and the introduction of infinitesimal limit core element (Baby Element) have been consistently combined according to the flexible and inherent interpretation of the legitimate variational principles initially originated by Pian and Tong. The conceptual development based upon Hybrid Finite Element Method is extended to linear dynamics with the introduction of physically meaningful higher modes.

  10. Development work for the Japanese LCT coil and its design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Susumu; Ando, Toshinari; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yasukochi, Ko

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes design, verification tests, and construction of the Japanese test coil for the Large Coil Task (LCT). Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) signed on the LCT international agreement under the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 1978, and since then JAERI has been working to develop the Japanese LCT coil to explore the problems of design and construction of tokamak toroidal coil. Based on the common requirements of the LCT, the Japanese LCT coil was designed to be a pool-cooled NbTi fully-stabilized coil whose operating current is 10,220 A at 8 T. Through research and development of the Japanese LCT coil, new advances in the super-conducting coil technology were obtained, such as mechanically and chemically treated conductor surface that has high heat transfer about four times as much as usual ones, nitrogen-strengthened stainless steel that has the yield strength twice as much as usual stainless steel, NbTi filaments those have the critical current density twice as much as those before LCT, and so on. These advances have enabled to construct the Japanese LCT coil and it was completed in the spring of 1982. During the construction of the coil, new fabrication techniques were obtained to wind large current conductor into a mechanically rigid coil and thus to construct a totally stable large coil. (author)

  11. A simple model based magnet sorting algorithm for planar hybrid undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowsky, G.

    2010-01-01

    Various magnet sorting strategies have been used to optimize undulator performance, ranging from intuitive pairing of high- and low-strength magnets, to full 3D FEM simulation with 3-axis Helmholtz coil magnet data. In the extreme, swapping magnets in a full field model to minimize trajectory wander and rms phase error can be time consuming. This paper presents a simpler approach, extending the field error signature concept to obtain trajectory displacement, kick angle and phase error signatures for each component of magnetization error from a Radia model of a short hybrid-PM undulator. We demonstrate that steering errors and phase errors are essentially decoupled and scalable from measured X, Y and Z components of magnetization. Then, for any given sequence of magnets, rms trajectory and phase errors are obtained from simple cumulative sums of the scaled displacements and phase errors. The cost function (a weighted sum of these errors) is then minimized by swapping magnets, using one's favorite optimization algorithm. This approach was applied recently at NSLS to a short in-vacuum undulator, which required no subsequent trajectory or phase shimming. Trajectory and phase signatures are also obtained for some mechanical errors, to guide 'virtual shimming' and specifying mechanical tolerances. Some simple inhomogeneities are modeled to assess their error contributions.

  12. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in target volume delineation of base of tongue tumours - A study using flexible surface coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Merina [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Maria [Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Sohaib, Aslam [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Kong, Christine; Burke, Kevin [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Richardson, Cheryl; Usher, Marianne [Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Brennan, Sinead [Department of Radiotherapy, St. James' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Riddell, Angela [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Davies, Mark; Newbold, Kate [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior diagnostic accuracy over computed tomography (CT) in oropharyngeal tumours. Precise delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) is mandatory in radiotherapy planning when a GTV boost is required. CT volume definition in this regard is poor. We studied the feasibility of using flexible surface (flex-L) coils to obtain MR images for MR-CT fusion to assess the benefit of MRI over CT alone in planning base of tongue tumours. Methods: Eight patients underwent CT and MRI radiotherapy planning scans with an immobilisation device. Distortion-corrected T1-weighted post-contrast MR scans were fused to contrast-enhanced planning CT scans. GTV, clinical target and planning target volumes (CTV, PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) were delineated on CT, then on MRI with blinding to the CT images. The volumetric and spatial differences between MRI and CT volumes for GTV, CTV, PTV and OAR were compared. MR image distortions due to field inhomogeneity and non-linear gradients were corrected and the need for such correction was evaluated. Results: The mean primary GTV was larger on MRI (22.2 vs. 9.5 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.05) than CT. The mean primary and nodal GTV (i.e. BOT and macroscopic nodes) was significantly larger on MRI (27.2 vs. 14.4 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.05). The volume overlap index (VOI) between MRI and CT for the primary was 0.34 suggesting that MRI depicts parts of the primary tumour not detected by CT. There was no significant difference in volume delineation between MR and CT for CTV, PTV, nodal CTV and nodal PTV. MRI volumes for brainstem and spinal cord were significantly smaller due to improved organ definition (p = 0.002). Susceptibility and gradient-related distortions were not found to be clinically significant. Conclusion: MRI improves the definition of tongue base tumours and neurological structures. The use of MRI is recommended for GTV dose-escalation techniques to provide precise depiction of GTV and

  13. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in target volume delineation of base of tongue tumours - A study using flexible surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Merina; Schmidt, Maria; Sohaib, Aslam; Kong, Christine; Burke, Kevin; Richardson, Cheryl; Usher, Marianne; Brennan, Sinead; Riddell, Angela; Davies, Mark; Newbold, Kate; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior diagnostic accuracy over computed tomography (CT) in oropharyngeal tumours. Precise delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) is mandatory in radiotherapy planning when a GTV boost is required. CT volume definition in this regard is poor. We studied the feasibility of using flexible surface (flex-L) coils to obtain MR images for MR-CT fusion to assess the benefit of MRI over CT alone in planning base of tongue tumours. Methods: Eight patients underwent CT and MRI radiotherapy planning scans with an immobilisation device. Distortion-corrected T1-weighted post-contrast MR scans were fused to contrast-enhanced planning CT scans. GTV, clinical target and planning target volumes (CTV, PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) were delineated on CT, then on MRI with blinding to the CT images. The volumetric and spatial differences between MRI and CT volumes for GTV, CTV, PTV and OAR were compared. MR image distortions due to field inhomogeneity and non-linear gradients were corrected and the need for such correction was evaluated. Results: The mean primary GTV was larger on MRI (22.2 vs. 9.5 cm 3 , p = 0.05) than CT. The mean primary and nodal GTV (i.e. BOT and macroscopic nodes) was significantly larger on MRI (27.2 vs. 14.4 cm 3 , p = 0.05). The volume overlap index (VOI) between MRI and CT for the primary was 0.34 suggesting that MRI depicts parts of the primary tumour not detected by CT. There was no significant difference in volume delineation between MR and CT for CTV, PTV, nodal CTV and nodal PTV. MRI volumes for brainstem and spinal cord were significantly smaller due to improved organ definition (p = 0.002). Susceptibility and gradient-related distortions were not found to be clinically significant. Conclusion: MRI improves the definition of tongue base tumours and neurological structures. The use of MRI is recommended for GTV dose-escalation techniques to provide precise depiction of GTV and improved

  14. Recent Advances of Graphene-based Hybrids with Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Nuria; Criado, Alejandro; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of graphene-based nanomaterials combined with magnetic nanoparticles offers key benefits in the modern biomedicine. In this minireview, we focus on the most recent advances in hybrids of magnetic graphene derivatives for biomedical applications. We initially analyze the several methodologies employed for the preparation of graphene-based composites with magnetic nanoparticles, more specifically the kind of linkage between the two components. In the last section, we focus on the biomedical applications where these magnetic-graphene hybrids are essential and pay special attention on how the addition of graphene improves the resulting devices in magnetic resonance imaging, controlled drug delivery, magnetic photothermal therapy and cellular separation and isolation. Finally, we highlight the use of these magnetic hybrids as multifunctional material that will lead to a next generation of theranostics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. AMITIS: A 3D GPU-Based Hybrid-PIC Model for Space and Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Shahab; Poppe, Andrew R.; Delory, Gregory T.; Farrell, William M.

    2017-05-01

    We have developed, for the first time, an advanced modeling infrastructure in space simulations (AMITIS) with an embedded three-dimensional self-consistent grid-based hybrid model of plasma (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) that runs entirely on graphics processing units (GPUs). The model uses NVIDIA GPUs and their associated parallel computing platform, CUDA, developed for general purpose processing on GPUs. The model uses a single CPU-GPU pair, where the CPU transfers data between the system and GPU memory, executes CUDA kernels, and writes simulation outputs on the disk. All computations, including moving particles, calculating macroscopic properties of particles on a grid, and solving hybrid model equations are processed on a single GPU. We explain various computing kernels within AMITIS and compare their performance with an already existing well-tested hybrid model of plasma that runs in parallel using multi-CPU platforms. We show that AMITIS runs ∼10 times faster than the parallel CPU-based hybrid model. We also introduce an implicit solver for computation of Faraday’s Equation, resulting in an explicit-implicit scheme for the hybrid model equation. We show that the proposed scheme is stable and accurate. We examine the AMITIS energy conservation and show that the energy is conserved with an error < 0.2% after 500,000 timesteps, even when a very low number of particles per cell is used.

  16. Study of PDMS conformation in PDMS-based hybrid materials prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancastre, J.J.H.; Fernandes, N.; Margaça, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcão, A.N.; Casimiro, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane-silicate based hybrid materials have recognized properties (high flexibility, low elastic modulus or high mechanical strength) for which there are a large number of applications in development, such as for the bioapplications field. The hybrids addressed in the present study were prepared by gamma irradiation of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr) without addition of any solvent or other product. The materials are homogeneous, transparent, monolithic and flexible. The structure dependence on the PrZr content is addressed. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) was used. The results reveal that the polymer in the hybrids prepared with PrZr, in a content≤5 wt%, shows a structure similar to that in the irradiated pure polymer sample. In these samples the presence of ordered polymer regions is clearly found. For samples prepared with higher content of Zr almost no ordered polymer regions are observed. The addition of PrZr plays an important role on polymer conformation in these hybrid materials. - Highlights: ► PDMS-based hybrid materials were prepared by γ-irradiation. ► FTIR, ATR/FT-IR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the materials. ► Changes in FTIR bands reflect growth of crosslinking network. ► Above certain Zr concentration regions of Zr-silicate oxide are formed. ► Zr content determines conformation of the polymer chain network.

  17. Quasi-static electric field in a cylindrical volume conductor induced by external coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselle, K P; Stuchly, M A

    1994-02-01

    An expansion technique based on modified Bessel functions is used to obtain an analytical solution for the electric field induced in a homogeneous cylindrical volume conductor by an external coil. The current in the coil is assumed to be changing slowly so that quasi-static conditions can be justified. Valid for any coil type, this solution is ideal for fast computation of the induced electric field at a large number of points. Efficient implementation of this method in a computer code is described and numerical results are presented for a perpendicular circular coil and a tangential double-square coil.

  18. Detailed 3D models of the induced electric field of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, F S; Lancaster, J L; Fox, P T

    2007-01-01

    Previous models neglected contributions from current elements spanning the full geometric extent of wires in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils. A detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry is shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of electric field (E-field) models. Modeling E-field dependence based on the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured) where simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured)

  19. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  20. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Kathleen M; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-09-15

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (T(g)) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins incorporating silsesquioxane (SSQ) species into the photopolymerized networks were investigated as a route to improve these properties. Thiol- and ene-functionalized SSQs (SH-SSQ and allyl-SSQ, respectively) were synthesized via alkoxysilane hydrolysis/condensation chemistry, using a photopolymerizable monomer [either pentaerythriol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) or 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TATATO)] as the reaction solvent. The resulting SSQ-containing solutions (SSQ-PETMP and SSQ-TATATO) were characterized, and their incorporation into photopolymerized networks was evaluated.

  1. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  2. On-coil multiple channel transmit system based on class-D amplification and pre-amplification with current amplitude feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Natalia; Heilman, Jeremiah A; Riffe, Matthew J; Heid, Oliver; Vester, Markus; Griswold, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    A complete high-efficiency transmit amplifier unit designed to be implemented in on-coil transmit arrays is presented. High power capability, low power dissipation, scalability, and cost minimization were some of the requirements imposed to the design. The system is composed of a current mode class-D amplifier output stage and a voltage mode class-D preamplification stage. The amplitude information of the radio frequency pulse was added through a customized step-down DC-DC converter with current amplitude feedback that connects to the current mode class-D stage. Benchtop measurements and imaging experiments were carried out to analyze system performance. Direct control of B1 was possible and its load sensitivity was reduced to less than 10% variation from unloaded to full loaded condition. When using the amplifiers in an array configuration, isolation above 20 dB was achieved between neighboring coils by the amplifier decoupling method. High output current operation of the transmitter was proved on the benchtop through output power measurements and in a 1.5T scanner through flip angle quantification. Finally, single and multiple channel excitations with the new hardware were demonstrated by receiving signal with the body coil of the scanner. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  4. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1955-01-01

    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  5. Radiation resistant ducted superconductive coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, A.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation-resistant ducted superconductive coil consists of a helically wound electrical conductor constituted by an electrically conductive core of superconductive material provided with a longitudinally extending cooling duct. The core is covered with a layer of inorganic insulating material and the duct is covered by an electrically conductive metallic gas-tight sheath. The metallic sheaths on adjacent turns of the coil are secured together. 2 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

  6. The Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.

    1985-01-01

    With delivery of the coil to ORNL on February 4, 1984, the second phase of the Swiss Large Coil Program - design and construction - was terminated. Mainlines of the Swiss design concept are summarized and related to theoretical calculations, experimental results of the supporting program, fabricational experience and first successful test results. An attempt is made to draw preliminary conclusions with regard to the design of future toroidal systems such as NET

  7. The SMES model coil. Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Takahashi, Nobuji

    1998-01-01

    A SMES model coil was fabricated as R and D item in the development of component technologies for a 480 MJ/20 MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device could be manufactured. (author)

  8. The SMES model coil. Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanai, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Takahashi, Nobuji [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1998-07-01

    A SMES model coil was fabricated as R and D item in the development of component technologies for a 480 MJ/20 MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device could be manufactured. (author)

  9. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  10. Novel Coil Winding Method to Realize Pot Heated Evenly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Yan Wang; Hai-Long Li; Meng Zhang; Zhi-Tao Xu; Cui-Lin Zhong; Jun Xu

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem about the inhomogeneous thermal effect of pot heated by coils along the circumference, a novel coil winding method is proposed and compared with the general winding method in the paper. First, based on the Biot-Savart law and Ampere’s rule, the magnetic induction generated by a straight current carrying conductor and a current loop is discussed, respectively. Then the novel coil winding method is developed by adjusting the location of inhomogeneous joints. The joints are periodically scattered along the circumferential direction and symmetrically designed around the central axis. Numerical results show that the quite non-uniform temperature in the base of pot at the circular direction is effectively improved by using the proposed winding method. The potential danger produced by high temperature at some region of coils plate is minimized. It is energy-efficient and safe for residential appliances.

  11. Flexible eddy current coil arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krampfner, Y.; Johnson, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel approach was devised to overcome certain limitations of conventional eddy current testing. The typical single-element hand-wound probe was replaced with a two dimensional array of spirally wound probe elements deposited on a thin, flexible polyimide substrate. This provides full and reliable coverage of the test area and eliminates the need for scanning. The flexible substrate construction of the array allows the probes to conform to irregular part geometries, such as turbine blades and tubing, thereby eliminating the need for specialized probes for each geometry. Additionally, the batch manufacturing process of the array can yield highly uniform and reproducible coil geometries. The array is driven by a portable computer-based eddy current instrument, smartEDDY/sup TM/, capable of two-frequency operation, and offers a great deal of versatility and flexibility due to its software-based architecture. The array is coupled to the instrument via an 80-switch multiplexer that can be configured to address up to 1600 probes. The individual array elements may be addressed in any desired sequence, as defined by the software

  12. Compact hybrid cell based on a convoluted nanowire structure for harvesting solar and mechanical energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A fully integrated, solid-state, compact hybrid cell (CHC) that comprises ''convoluted'' ZnO nanowire structures for concurrent harvesting of both solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The compact hybrid cell is based on a conjunction design of an organic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and piezoelectric nanogenerator in one compact structure. The CHC shows a significant increase in output power, clearly demonstrating its potential for simultaneously harvesting multiple types of energy for powering small electronic devices for independent, sustainable, and mobile operation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. ZnO-based nanocrystalline powders with applications in hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damonte, L.C. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Donderis, V. [Dto. De Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Ferrari, S.; Meyer, M. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Orozco, J. [Dto. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development of hybrid photovoltaic cells consisting of new materials, such as devices based on the combination of a wide gap semiconductor and an organic dye (dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSC). In this paper we obtain nano-zinc oxide particles whose optical and electrical properties have been modified by the presence of small amounts of Al or In acting as dopants. The aim of this study is to improve the compatibility of each of the compounds present in the photovoltaic solar cell. The knowledge gained will provide input to guide the processes in the manufacture of hybrid solar cells. (author)

  14. Hybrid Approach To Steganography System Based On Quantum Encryption And Chaos Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAID A. ABOD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid scheme for secretly embedding image into a dithered multilevel image is presented. This work inputs both a cover image and secret image, which are scrambling and divided into groups to embedded together based on multiple chaos algorithms (Lorenz map, Henon map and Logistic map respectively. Finally, encrypt the embedded images by using one of the quantum cryptography mechanisms, which is quantum one time pad. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid system successfully embedded images and combine with the quantum cryptography algorithms and gives high efficiency for secure communication.

  15. Photo-thermal characteristics of hybrid nanofluids based on Therminol-55 oil for concentrating solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Ovais; Qayoum, Adnan; Gupta, Rajat

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid nanofluids are the new generation efficient heat transfer fluids allowing greater control over the properties of base fluid as compared to mono-nanofluids. In this study, attempt has been made for increasing the efficiency for photo-thermal conversion by heat transfer fluid for high temperature solar collectors. Therminol-55, a high temperature heat transfer fluid is doped with Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles with an aim to improve the thermal and optical properties. Effects of concentration and type of nanoparticle on photo-thermal conversion properties and absorbance in Therminol-55 have been studied. Spectrophotometric analysis has been carried for all nanofluids, namely, Al2O3-Therminol-55, TiO2-Therminol-55 and hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2)-Therminol-55 nanofluids with varying concentrations of 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 wt%. It was found that TiO2 nanofluids possess the maximum absorbance with minimal effect of nanoparticle concentration above 0.1 wt% followed by hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2) nanofluid (HNF) with strong dependence of concentration. Al2O3-Therminol-55 nanofluids exhibited least absorbance. The peak values of absorbance are 0.47, 2.15 and 2.144 in the visible region for Al2O3-Therminol-55, TiO2-Therminol-55 and hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2)-Therminol-55 nanofluids, respectively. It was observed that hybrid nanofluids show both bathochromic and hyperchromic shifts. Further, performance testing has been carried out using artificial source of light and it has been observed that hybrid nanofluids provide efficient photo-thermal conversion as compared to TiO2 and Al2O3-Therminol-55 nanofluids. Maximum temperatures of 152.9, 149.6, 158.6 °C were observed for 0.5 wt% Al2O3-Therminol-55, 0.1 wt% TiO2-Therminol-55, and 0.5 wt% hybrid (Al2O3-TiO2) nanofluid, respectively, against 125.8 °C of Therminol-55. Hybrid nanofluids based on Therminol-55 could be a potential candidate for high temperature concentrating collectors based on the superior properties over mono-nanofluids and

  16. A Fast Enhanced Secure Image Chaotic Cryptosystem Based on Hybrid Chaotic Magic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Koppu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced secure image chaotic cryptosystem has been proposed based on hybrid CMT-Lanczos algorithm. We have achieved fast encryption and decryption along with privacy of images. The pseudorandom generator has been used along with Lanczos algorithm to generate root characteristics and eigenvectors. Using hybrid CMT image, pixels are shuffled to accomplish excellent randomness. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method had more robustness to various attacks: brute-force attack, known cipher plaintext, chosen-plaintext, security key space, key sensitivity, correlation analysis and information entropy, and differential attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed methods give better result in protecting images with low-time complexity.

  17. 25th anniversary article: hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), receive a lot of attention, because of their intriguing properties and wide applications in catalysis, energy-storage devices, electronics, optoelectronics, and so on. To further enhance the performance of their application, these 2D nanomaterials are hybridized with other functional nanostructures. In this review, the latest studies of 2D nanomaterial-based hybrid nanostructures are discussed, focusing on their preparation methods, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Fang, Youxing; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, M Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2016-01-28

    A novel hybrid battery utilizing an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) (EMImCl-AlCl3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. The hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  19. The business case for condition-based maintenance: a hybrid (non-) financial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiddens, W.W.; Tinga, T.; Braaksma, A.J.J.; Brouwer, O.; Cepin, Marko; Bris, Radim

    2017-01-01

    Although developing business cases is key for evaluating project success, the costs and benefits of condition-based maintenance (CBM) implementations are often not explicitly defined and evaluated. Using the design science methodology, we developed a hybrid business case approach to help managers

  20. A Cost–Effective Computer-Based, Hybrid Motorised and Gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Cost–Effective Computer-Based, Hybrid Motorised and Gravity-Driven Material Handling System for the Mauritian Apparel Industry. ... Thus, many companies are investing significantly in a Research & Development department in order to design new techniques to improve worker's efficiency, and to decrease the amount ...

  1. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  2. Improving head and neck CTA with hybrid and model-based iterative reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, J. M.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Vos, P. C.; Willemink, MJ; Velthuis, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare image quality of head and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) algorithms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The raw data of 34 studies were

  3. An Exploration of Hybrid Spaces for Place-Based Geomorphology with Latino Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia; Bannan, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Latino bilingual children hold rich understandings, which are underexplored and underutilized in the geoscience classroom. Oftentimes, young Latinos possess unique cultural land experiences shaping their place identities. We consider science as language and culture, and propose place-based geoscience hybrid space explorations that are culturally…

  4. Web-based hybrid mobile apps: state of the practice and research opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malavolta, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the contents of a tutorial on web-based hybrid mobile apps. Nowadays millions of mobile apps are downloaded and used all over the world. Mobile apps are distributed via different app stores like Google Play Store, the Apple App Store, the Windows Phone Store. One of the most

  5. Multi-agent system-based event-triggered hybrid control scheme for energy internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Han, Qing Long

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an event-triggered hybrid control for the energy Internet based on a multi-agent system approach with which renewable energy resources can be fully utilized to meet load demand with high security and well dynamical quality. In the design of control, a multi-agent system...

  6. Effective pathfinding for four-wheeled robot based on combining Theta* and hybrid A* algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Геннадійович Михалько

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective pathfinding algorithm based on Theta* and Hybrid A* algorithms was developed for four-wheeled robot. Pseudocode for algorithm was showed and explained. Algorithm and simulator for four-wheeled robot were implemented using Java programming language. Algorithm was tested on U-obstacles, complex maps and for parking problem

  7. Hybrid Force Control Based on ICMAC for an Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Lixun Zhang; Yupeng Zou; Lan Wang; Xinping Pei

    2012-01-01

    A novel Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot (ART) based on a cable‐driven mechanism is represented in this paper. ART, a typical passive force servo system, can help astronauts to bench press in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers to eliminate the surplus force caused by an astronaut’s active movements. Based on the dynamics modelling of the cable‐driven unit, a hybrid force controller based on improved credit assignment CMAC (ICMAC) is presented...

  8. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces:Nomads and Artisans

    OpenAIRE

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how st...

  9. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  10. Rational design of multifunctional devices based on molybdenum disulfide and graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yi Rang; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Kim, Seong Jun [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yooseok; Jeon, Cheolho [Nano-Surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, 302-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wooseok, E-mail: wssong@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jongsun, E-mail: jslim@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid thin films for multifunctional applications. • Large-area, uniform multilayer MoS{sub 2} was synthesized on TCVD-grown graphene. • The mobility and photocurrent of the hybrid devices were improved significantly. - Abstract: We rationally designed a new type of hybrid materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) synthesized by Mo pre-deposition followed by subsequent sulfurization process directly on thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD)-grown graphene, for applications in a multifunctional device. The synthesis of stoichiometric and uniform multilayer MoS{sub 2} and high-crystalline monolayer graphene was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To examine the electrical transport and photoelectrical properties of MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid films, field effect transistors (FETs) and visible-light photodetectors based on MoS{sub 2}-graphene were both fabricated. As a result, the extracted mobility for MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid FETs was two times higher than that of MoS{sub 2} FETs. In addition, the MoS{sub 2}-graphene photodetectors revealed a significant photocurrent with abrupt switching behavior under periodic illumination.

  11. STRATEGY WATER-BASED CONDENSER : An Experimental Scale Model for Hybrid Passive Cooling Systems to Improve Indoor Temperature and Hot Water Utilities in Surabaya-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Santoso Mintorogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a case of energy saving research, to system water-based condenser for the use of energy efficient with involvement of forced fluid hybrid passive cooling and water heating in building systems. Our argument is based on the fact that series of water copper pipes are to be cooled enough by nocturnal radiant cooling of the night cool air to lower the indoor air temperature at the daytime. We describe the model of working to which we use and to which we believe that series of cool water copper pipes as evaporator allows effectively reducing the energy used for indoor cooling and for water heating utilization. We then measure the model indoor temperature, and water temperature inside the series of copper pipes. Kinds of water coolant used for cooling are an essential factor. Finally, we will discuss some of the achieving of the effective cooled water, setting up the pipes water-based condenser hybrid system on the top of the outside roof as well as setting up the evaporator coils at ceiling. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penulisan ini merupakan suatu penelitian pada golongan sistem penghematan energi yang berupakan kondensor dengan bahan media air dengan bantuan tenaga gerak pompa atau tanpa tenaga pompa air. Pipa-pipa yang berisi air yang diletakkan diatas atap terbuka untuk mendapatkan air yang dingin melalui proses konduksi, konveksi, dan radiasi dari udara alami sepanjang malam, dimana media air yang telah dingin tersebut untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai media pendingin ruangan dengan melalukan ke pipa-pipa dalam ruangan--diatas plafon, sebagai evapurator. Selain media air akan diteliti air pendingin radiator (water coolent apakah akan mendapatkan efek pendinginan yang melebihi media air. Juga akan diteliti cara proses mendapatkan media air dingin, yaitu proses dengan air tenang (still water dan air bergerak (forced fluid, sistim mana yang lebih efektif dalam mendapatkan media air dingin dan percepatan mendapatkan air dingin. Kata

  12. Seismic performance evaluation of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system using real-time hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eem, S H; Jung, H J; Koo, J H

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magneto-rheological (MR) elastomer-based base isolation systems have been actively studied as alternative smart base isolation systems because MR elastomers are capable of adjusting their modulus or stiffness depending on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. By taking advantage of the MR elastomers’ stiffness-tuning ability, MR elastomer-based smart base isolation systems strive to alleviate limitations of existing smart base isolation systems as well as passive-type base isolators. Until now, research on MR elastomer-based base isolation systems primarily focused on characterization, design, and numerical evaluations of MR elastomer-based isolators, as well as experimental tests with simple structure models. However, their applicability to large civil structures has not been properly studied yet because it is quite challenging to numerically emulate the complex behavior of MR elastomer-based isolators and to conduct experiments with large-size structures. To address these difficulties, this study employs the real-time hybrid simulation technique, which combines physical testing and computational modeling. The primary goal of the current hybrid simulation study is to evaluate seismic performances of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system, particularly its adaptability to distinctly different seismic excitations. In the hybrid simulation, a single-story building structure (non-physical, computational model) is coupled with a physical testing setup for a smart base isolation system with associated components (such as laminated MR elastomers and electromagnets) installed on a shaking table. A series of hybrid simulations is carried out under two seismic excitations having different dominant frequencies. The results show that the proposed smart base isolation system outperforms the passive base isolation system in reducing the responses of the structure for the excitations considered in this study. (paper)

  13. Hybrid organic/inorganic position-sensitive detectors based on PEDOT:PSS/n-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Mahdiyeh; Torbatiyan, Hadis; Abdi, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    Various configurations like p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor Schottky barriers, and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures have been widely used in position-sensitive detectors. In this report, we propose a PEDOT:PSS/n-Si heterojunction as a hybrid organic/inorganic configuration for position-sensitive detectors. The influence of the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, the wavelength of incident light, and the intensity of illumination on the device performance are investigated. The hybrid PSD exhibits very high sensitivity (>100 mV/mm), excellent nonlinearity (0.995) with a response time of heterojunction are very promising for developing a new class of position-sensitive detectors based on the hybrid organic/inorganic junctions.

  14. Constrained Optimization Based on Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm and Adaptive Constraint-Handling Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Cai, Zixing; Zhou, Yuren

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach to deal with numerical and engineering constrained optimization problems, which incorporates a hybrid evolutionary algorithm and an adaptive constraint-handling technique, is presented in this paper. The hybrid evolutionary algorithm simultaneously uses simplex crossover and two...... mutation operators to generate the offspring population. Additionally, the adaptive constraint-handling technique consists of three main situations. In detail, at each situation, one constraint-handling mechanism is designed based on current population state. Experiments on 13 benchmark test functions...... and four well-known constrained design problems verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. The experimental results show that integrating the hybrid evolutionary algorithm with the adaptive constraint-handling technique is beneficial, and the proposed method achieves competitive...

  15. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  16. Practical Switching-Based Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission and Its Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless backhaul. We present and analyze a switching-based transmission scheme for the hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either the FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with the FSO link enjoying a higher priority. We considered both a single-threshold case and a dual-threshold case for FSO link operation. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate, and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with the FSO-only scenario.

  17. Control Strategy Based on Wavelet Transform and Neural Network for Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an energy management of a hybrid power generation system. The proposed control strategy for the energy management is based on the combination of wavelet transform and neural network arithmetic. The hybrid system in this paper consists of an emulated wind turbine generator, PV panels, DC and AC loads, lithium ion battery, and super capacitor, which are all connected on a DC bus with unified DC voltage. The control strategy is responsible for compensating the difference between the generated power from the wind and solar generators and the demanded power by the loads. Wavelet transform decomposes the power difference into smoothed component and fast fluctuated component. In consideration of battery protection, the neural network is introduced to calculate the reference power of battery. Super capacitor (SC is controlled to regulate the DC bus voltage. The model of the hybrid system is developed in detail under Matlab/Simulink software environment.

  18. Hybrid Organometallic-Inorganic Nanomaterial: Acetyl Ferrocene Schiff base Immobilized on Silica Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masteri-Farahani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In  this  work,  a  new  hybrid  organometallic-inorganic  hybrid nanomaterial was prepared by immobilization of acetyl ferrocene on the  surface  of magnetite  nanoparticles. Covalent  grafting of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles (SCMNPs with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane gave aminopropyl-modified magnetite nanoparticles (AmpSCMNPs. Then, Schiff base condensation  of AmpSCMNPs with acetyl  ferrocene resulted in the preparation of acferro-SCMNPs hybrid nanomaterial. Characterization of the prepared nanomaterial was performed with different physicochemical methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. VSM analysis showed superparamagnetic properties of the prepared nanomaterial and TEM and SEM analyses indicated the relatively spherical nanoparticles with 15 nm average size.

  19. Practical Switching-Based Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission and Its Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer; Hong-Chuan Yang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless backhaul. We present and analyze a switching-based transmission scheme for the hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either the FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with the FSO link enjoying a higher priority. We considered both a single-threshold case and a dual-threshold case for FSO link operation. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate, and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with the FSO-only scenario.

  20. Hybrid Energy System Design of Micro Hydro-PV-biogas Based Micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishrina; Abdullah, A. G.; Risdiyanto, A.; Nandiyanto, ABD

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid renewable energy system is an arrangement of one or more sources of renewable energy and also conventional energy. This paper describes a simulation results of hybrid renewable power system based on the available potential in an educational institution in Indonesia. HOMER software was used to simulate and analyse both in terms of optimization and economic terms. This software was developed through 3 main principles; simulation, optimization, and sensitivity analysis. Generally, the presented results show that the software can demonstrate a feasible hybrid power system as well to be realized. The entire demand in case study area can be supplied by the system configuration and can be met by ¾ of electricity production. So, there are ¼ of generated energy became an excess electricity.

  1. Link reliability based hybrid routing for tactical mobile ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiaochuan; Wei Gang; Wu Keping; Wang Gang; Jia Shilou

    2008-01-01

    Tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network,without the aid of pre-established network infrastructure. The routing protocol has a crucial impact on the networkperformance in battlefields. Link reliability based hybrid routing (LRHR) is proposed, which is a novel hybrid routing protocol, for tactical MANET. Contrary to the traditional single path routing strategy, multiple paths are established between a pair of source-destination nodes. In the hybrid routing strategy, the rate of topological change provides a natural mechanism for switching dynamically between table-driven and on-demand routing. The simulation results indicate that the performances of the protocol in packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and average end-to-end delay are better than the conventional routing protocol.

  2. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  3. A Systematic study of modular coil characteristics for 2-field periods quasi-axisymmetric stellarator QAS-LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jinxing; Song, Yuntao; Breslau, Joshua; Neilson, George Hutch

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic studies of modular coils characteristics for quasi-axisymmetric stellarator were carried out for the key design parameters. • We systematically analyzed the relationships between design parameters of modular coils and electromagnetic properties such as the maximum field. • The approximate formulae relating modular coil parameters to the maximum magnetic field were derived by the use of simple two coil systems. - Abstract: Modular coil characteristics of a 2-field periods quasi-axisymmetric stellarator QAS-LA configuration with an aspect ratio A p = 3, magnetic pressure ∼4% and rotational transform ι ∼ 0.15 per field period supplied by its own shaping have been detailed studied. In addition, the characteristics of modular coils for QAS-LA were compared with those of an intermediate QA configuration QAS-LAx and a tokamak based on the same center magnet field B 0 , aspect ratio and number of coils. As expected, the B max /B 0 , force F and overturning moment M, increase with the increased complexity of the coil shape. The relationships between the modular coils’ parameters (such as radius curvature ρ, distance from coil to coil Δ c–c and the cross-section of coils) and the electromagnetic characteristics have been systematically summarized. The approximate formula for the maximum magnetic field in the coil body as functions of modular coil parameters (Δ c–c , ρ) was derived for a simple two wire system which will be useful when optimizations of coil properties are called for

  4. Coil supporting device in nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Ryo; Imura, Yasuya.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To secure intermediate fittings with a coil fixed thereon by an insulating tape to a fixed body by means of fittings, thereby supporting the coil in a narrow space. Structure: A coil is secured to intermediate fittings by means of an insulating tape, after which the intermediate fittings is mounted on a fixed body through fittings to support the coil in a narrow clearance portion between a plasma sealed vessel and a main coil. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Parametric system studies of candidate TF coil system options for the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiersen, W.T.; Flanagan, C.A.; Miller, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    System studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of hybrid and superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil system options to maximum field at the TF coil and to field enhancement due to resistive insert coils. The studies were performed using Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) design assumptions, guidelines, and criteria and involved iterative execution of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) systems code, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium code, and EFFI (a code to evaluate magnetic field strength). The results indicate that for TFCX with no minimum wall loading specified, a design point chosen solely on the basis of cost would likely be in the low-field region of design space where the cost advantage of hybrids is least apparent. However, as the desired neutron wall loading increases, the hybrid option suggests an increasing cost advantage over the all-superconducting option; this cost advantage is countered by increased complexity in design -- particularly in assembly and maintenance

  6. Parametric system studies of candidate TF coil system options for the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiersen, W.T.; Flanagan, C.A.; Miller, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    System studies were performed to determine the sensitivity of hybrid and superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil system options to maximum field at the TF coil and to field enhancement due to resistive insert coils. The studies were performed using Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) design assumptions, guidelines, and criteria and involved iterative execution of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) systems code, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium code, and EFFI (a code to evaluate magnetic field strength). The results indicate that for TFCX with no minimum wall loading specified, a design point chosen solely on the basis of cost would likely be in the low-field region of design space where the cost advantage of hybrids is least apparent. However, as the desired neutron wall loading increases, the hybrid option suggests an increasing cost advantage over the all-superconducting option; this cost advantage is countered by increased complexity in design - particularly in assembly and maintenance

  7. Coordinated control strategy for hybrid wind farms with DFIG-based and PMSG-based wind farms during network unbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jun; Liu, Ruikuo; Zhou, Te

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the coordinated control strategy for a hybrid wind farm with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based and direct-driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based wind farms during network unbalance. The negative-sequence current output capabilities of DFIG...... to the controllable operating regions, a targets selection scheme for each control unit is proposed to improve the stability of the hybrid wind farms containing both DFIG-based and PMSG-based wind farms during network unbalance, especially to avoid DFIG-based wind farm tripping from connected power grid under severe...... grid voltage unbalance conditions. Finally, the proposed coordinated control strategy is validated by the simulation results of a 30-MW-DFIG-based wind farm and a 30-MW-PMSG-based wind farm under different operation conditions and experimental results on a laboratory-scale experimental rig under severe...

  8. Towards integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Thorwath, Daniela; Schmidt, Holger; Quick, Harald H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Multimodality imaging has become an important adjunct of state-of-the-art radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning. Recently, simultaneous PET/MR hybrid imaging has become clinically available and may also contribute to target volume delineation and biological individualization in RT planning. For integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT treatment planning, compatible dedicated RT devices are required for accurate patient positioning. In this study, prototype RT positioning devices intended for PET/MR hybrid imaging are introduced and tested toward PET/MR compatibility and image quality. Methods: A prototype flat RT table overlay and two radiofrequency (RF) coil holders that each fix one flexible body matrix RF coil for RT head/neck imaging have been evaluated within this study. MR image quality with the RT head setup was compared to the actual PET/MR setup with a dedicated head RF coil. PET photon attenuation and CT-based attenuation correction (AC) of the hardware components has been quantitatively evaluated by phantom scans. Clinical application of the new RT setup in PET/MR imaging was evaluated in anin vivo study. Results: The RT table overlay and RF coil holders are fully PET/MR compatible. MR phantom and volunteer imaging with the RT head setup revealed high image quality, comparable to images acquired with the dedicated PET/MR head RF coil, albeit with 25% reduced SNR. Repositioning accuracy of the RF coil holders was below 1 mm. PET photon attenuation of the RT table overlay was calculated to be 3.8% and 13.8% for the RF coil holders. With CT-based AC of the devices, the underestimation error was reduced to 0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Comparable results were found within the patient study. Conclusions: The newly designed RT devices for hybrid PET/MR imaging are PET and MR compatible. The mechanically rigid design and the reproducible positioning allow for straightforward CT-based AC. The systematic evaluation within this study provides the

  9. A novel method for coil efficiency estimation: Validation with a 13C birdcage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Frijia, Francesca; Hartwig, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Coil efficiency, defined as the B1 magnetic field induced at a given point on the square root of supplied power P, is an important parameter that characterizes both the transmit and receive performance of the radiofrequency (RF) coil. Maximizing coil efficiency will maximize also the signal......-to-noise ratio. In this work, we propose a novel method for RF coil efficiency estimation based on the use of a perturbing loop. The proposed method consists of loading the coil with a known resistor by inductive coupling and measuring the quality factor with and without the load. We tested the method...... by measuring the efficiency of a 13C birdcage coil tuned at 32.13 MHz and verified its accuracy by comparing the results with the nuclear magnetic resonance nutation experiment. The method allows coil performance characterization in a short time and with great accuracy, and it can be used both on the bench...

  10. Hybrid incompatibility arises in a sequence-based bioenergetic model of transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulchinsky, Alexander Y; Johnson, Norman A; Watt, Ward B; Porter, Adam H

    2014-11-01

    Postzygotic isolation between incipient species results from the accumulation of incompatibilities that arise as a consequence of genetic divergence. When phenotypes are determined by regulatory interactions, hybrid incompatibility can evolve even as a consequence of parallel adaptation in parental populations because interacting genes can produce the same phenotype through incompatible allelic combinations. We explore the evolutionary conditions that promote and constrain hybrid incompatibility in regulatory networks using a bioenergetic model (combining thermodynamics and kinetics) of transcriptional regulation, considering the bioenergetic basis of molecular interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites. The bioenergetic parameters consider the free energy of formation of the bond between the TF and its binding site and the availability of TFs in the intracellular environment. Together these determine fractional occupancy of the TF on the promoter site, the degree of subsequent gene expression and in diploids, and the degree of dominance among allelic interactions. This results in a sigmoid genotype-phenotype map and fitness landscape, with the details of the shape determining the degree of bioenergetic evolutionary constraint on hybrid incompatibility. Using individual-based simulations, we subjected two allopatric populations to parallel directional or stabilizing selection. Misregulation of hybrid gene expression occurred under either type of selection, although it evolved faster under directional selection. Under directional selection, the extent of hybrid incompatibility increased with the slope of the genotype-phenotype map near the derived parental expression level. Under stabilizing selection, hybrid incompatibility arose from compensatory mutations and was greater when the bioenergetic properties of the interaction caused the space of nearly neutral genotypes around the stable expression level to be wide. F2's showed higher

  11. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  12. Proposing a Hybrid Model Based on Robson's Classification for Better Impact on Trends of Cesarean Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Punit; Rohatgi, Renu

    2017-06-01

    To construct a hybrid model classification for cesarean section (CS) deliveries based on the woman-characteristics (Robson's classification with additional layers of indications for CS, keeping in view low-resource settings available in India). This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Nalanda Medical College, Patna. All the women delivered from January 2016 to May 2016 in the labor ward were included. Results obtained were compared with the values obtained for India, from secondary analysis of WHO multi-country survey (2010-2011) by Joshua Vogel and colleagues' study published in "The Lancet Global Health." The three classifications (indication-based, Robson's and hybrid model) applied for categorization of the cesarean deliveries from the same sample of data and a semiqualitative evaluations done, considering the main characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of each classification system. The total number of women delivered during study period was 1462, out of which CS deliveries were 471. Overall, CS rate calculated for NMCH, hospital in this specified period, was 32.21% ( p  = 0.001). Hybrid model scored 23/23, and scores of Robson classification and indication-based classification were 21/23 and 10/23, respectively. Single-study centre and referral bias are the limitations of the study. Given the flexibility of the classifications, we constructed a hybrid model based on the woman-characteristics system with additional layers of other classification. Indication-based classification answers why, Robson classification answers on whom, while through our hybrid model we get to know why and on whom cesarean deliveries are being performed.

  13. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Jincheng; Su, Yongmao; Zhao, Jinghui

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe) regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV). Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simul...

  14. A Hybrid Wavelet-Based Method for the Peak Detection of Photoplethysmography Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and the pulse rate can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG signals. However, the accuracy of the extraction is directly affected by the quality of the signal obtained and the peak of the signal identified; therefore, a hybrid wavelet-based method is proposed in this study. Firstly, we suppressed the partial motion artifacts and corrected the baseline drift by using a wavelet method based on the principle of wavelet multiresolution. And then, we designed a quadratic spline wavelet modulus maximum algorithm to identify the PPG peaks automatically. To evaluate this hybrid method, a reflective pulse oximeter was used to acquire ten subjects’ PPG signals under sitting, raising hand, and gently walking postures, and the peak recognition results on the raw signal and on the corrected signal were compared, respectively. The results showed that the hybrid method not only corrected the morphologies of the signal well but also optimized the peaks identification quality, subsequently elevating the measurement accuracy of SpO2 and the pulse rate. As a result, our hybrid wavelet-based method profoundly optimized the evaluation of respiratory function and heart rate variability analysis.

  15. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Denture Base Using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating: An SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aa, Jafari; Mh, Lotfi-Kamran; M, Ghafoorzadeh; Sm, Shaddel

    2017-06-01

    Despite the numerous positive features of acrylic denture base, there are a number of undeniable associated disadvantages. The properties of denture base have been improved through various interventions including application of different types of filler and coatings. This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness, thickness and coating quality of organic-inorganic coating on the denture base through scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the colour change was evaluated visually. The organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared. Acrylic discs of 10×10 mm were fabricated. The test discs were dipped in the hybrid coating and cured. In order to evaluate the surface roughness and coating thickness, the surface and cross-section of the samples in both coated and control groups were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The colour change and transparency were visually evaluated with naked eyes. The data were statistically analyzed by student's t test. The hybrid materials perfectly covered all the surfaces of acrylic resin and established proper thickness. The coated group seemed smoother and flatter than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant ( for all parameters p > 0.05). It was quite a thin coating and no perceptible colour change was observed. The hybrid coating maintained good binding, caused no noticeable discoloration, and thoroughly covered the acrylic resin surface with uniform delicate thickness. It also slightly improved the acrylic resin surface roughness.

  16. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De wael, Annelies, E-mail: annelies.dewael@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Backer, Annick [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Van Aert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.vanaert@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. - Highlights: • A hybrid method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images is introduced. • Image simulations are incorporated into a statistical framework in a reliable manner. • Limits of the existing methods for atom-counting are far exceeded. • Reliable counting results from an experimental low dose image are obtained. • Progress towards reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials is made.

  17. A Hybrid Wavelet-Based Method for the Peak Detection of Photoplethysmography Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Jiang, Shanqing; Jiang, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Xiong, Wenji; Diao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    The noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and the pulse rate can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. However, the accuracy of the extraction is directly affected by the quality of the signal obtained and the peak of the signal identified; therefore, a hybrid wavelet-based method is proposed in this study. Firstly, we suppressed the partial motion artifacts and corrected the baseline drift by using a wavelet method based on the principle of wavelet multiresolution. And then, we designed a quadratic spline wavelet modulus maximum algorithm to identify the PPG peaks automatically. To evaluate this hybrid method, a reflective pulse oximeter was used to acquire ten subjects' PPG signals under sitting, raising hand, and gently walking postures, and the peak recognition results on the raw signal and on the corrected signal were compared, respectively. The results showed that the hybrid method not only corrected the morphologies of the signal well but also optimized the peaks identification quality, subsequently elevating the measurement accuracy of SpO 2 and the pulse rate. As a result, our hybrid wavelet-based method profoundly optimized the evaluation of respiratory function and heart rate variability analysis.

  18. A Hybrid Wavelet-Based Method for the Peak Detection of Photoplethysmography Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanqing; Jiang, Shan; Wu, Jiang; Xiong, Wenji

    2017-01-01

    The noninvasive peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the pulse rate can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. However, the accuracy of the extraction is directly affected by the quality of the signal obtained and the peak of the signal identified; therefore, a hybrid wavelet-based method is proposed in this study. Firstly, we suppressed the partial motion artifacts and corrected the baseline drift by using a wavelet method based on the principle of wavelet multiresolution. And then, we designed a quadratic spline wavelet modulus maximum algorithm to identify the PPG peaks automatically. To evaluate this hybrid method, a reflective pulse oximeter was used to acquire ten subjects' PPG signals under sitting, raising hand, and gently walking postures, and the peak recognition results on the raw signal and on the corrected signal were compared, respectively. The results showed that the hybrid method not only corrected the morphologies of the signal well but also optimized the peaks identification quality, subsequently elevating the measurement accuracy of SpO2 and the pulse rate. As a result, our hybrid wavelet-based method profoundly optimized the evaluation of respiratory function and heart rate variability analysis. PMID:29250135

  19. Power Loss Analysis and Comparison of Segmented and Unsegmented Energy Coupling Coils for Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sai Chun; McDannold, Nathan J

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigated the power losses of unsegmented and segmented energy coupling coils for wireless energy transfer. Four 30-cm energy coupling coils with different winding separations, conductor cross-sectional areas, and number of turns were developed. The four coils were tested in both unsegmented and segmented configurations. The winding conduction and intrawinding dielectric losses of the coils were evaluated individually based on a well-established lumped circuit model. We found that the intrawinding dielectric loss can be as much as seven times higher than the winding conduction loss at 6.78 MHz when the unsegmented coil is tightly wound. The dielectric loss of an unsegmented coil can be reduced by increasing the winding separation or reducing the number of turns, but the power transfer capability is reduced because of the reduced magnetomotive force. Coil segmentation using resonant capacitors has recently been proposed to significantly reduce the operating voltage of a coil to a safe level in wireless energy transfer for medical implants. Here, we found that it can naturally eliminate the dielectric loss. The coil segmentation method and the power loss analysis used in this paper could be applied to the transmitting, receiving, and resonant coils in two- and four-coil energy transfer systems.

  20. Two-Slotted Surface Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 4 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, S. E.; Hernandez, J. A.; Rodriguez, A. O.; Tomasi, D.

    2008-01-01

    Arrays of antennas have been widely accepted for magnetic resonance imaging applications due to their high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over large volumes of interest. A new surface coil based on the magnetron tube and called slotted surface coil, has been recently introduced by our group. This coil design experimentally demonstrated a significant improvement over the circular-shaped coil when used in the receive-only mode. The slotted coils formed a two-sheet structure with a 90 deg. separation and each coil had 6 circular slots. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element method for this coil design to study the behaviour of the array magnetic field. Then, we developed a two-coil array for brain magnetic resonance imaging to be operated at the resonant frequency of 170 MHz in the transceiver mode. Phantom images were acquired with our coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Numerical simulations demonstrated that electromagnetic interaction between the coil elements is negligible, and that the magnetic field showed a good uniformity. In vitro images showed the feasibility of this coil array for standard pulses for high field magnetic resonance imaging

  1. Development of Multiorgan Finite Element-Based Prostate Deformation Model Enabling Registration of Endorectal Coil Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Radiotherapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, Jennifer M.; Menard, Cynthia; Chung, Peter W.M.; Milosevic, Michael F.; Kirilova, Anna; Moseley, Joanne L.; Haider, Masoom A.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Endorectal coil (ERC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior visualization of the prostate compared with computed tomography at the expense of deformation. This study aimed to develop a multiorgan finite element deformable method, Morfeus, to accurately co-register these images for radiotherapy planning. Methods: Patients with prostate cancer underwent fiducial marker implantation and computed tomography simulation for radiotherapy planning. A series of axial MRI scans were acquired with and without an ERC. The prostate, bladder, rectum, and pubic bones were manually segmented and assigned linear elastic material properties. Morfeus mapped the surface of the bladder and rectum between two imaged states, calculating the deformation of the prostate through biomechanical properties. The accuracy of deformation was measured as fiducial marker error and residual surface deformation between the inferred and actual prostate. The deformation map was inverted to deform from 100 cm 3 to no coil. Results: The data from 19 patients were analyzed. Significant prostate deformation occurred with the ERC (mean intrapatient range, 0.88 ± 0.25 cm). The mean vector error in fiducial marker position (n = 57) was 0.22 ± 0.09 cm, and the mean vector residual surface deformation (n = 19) was 0.15 ± 0.06 cm for deformation from no coil to 100-cm 3 ERC, with an image vector resolution of 0.22 cm. Accurately deformed MRI scans improved soft-tissue resolution of the anatomy for radiotherapy planning. Conclusions: This method of multiorgan deformable registration enabled accurate co-registration of ERC-MRI scans with computed tomography treatment planning images. Superior structural detail was visible on ERC-MRI, which has potential for improving target delineation

  2. Interfacial micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation between water- and solvent-based dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Geneviève L; Akon, Bernadette A; Millas, Arlette

    2002-06-01

    Many dentin bonding systems of different compositions, and in particular containing different solvents, have been introduced to the market. Their effect on the quality of the interface requires clarification by means of comparative trials. This study investigated micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation with a variety of commercially available water- or solvent-based dentin bonding products and their recommended compomers. Five bonding systems were used on groups of 10 teeth each as follows: group I, acetone-based system used with 36% phosphoric acid; group II, a different acetone-based system containing nano-sized particles for filler loading and used with a non-rinsing conditioner containing maleic acid; group III, the acetone-based system of group II used with 36% phosphoric acid (the only difference in the treatment for groups II and III was the acid etching system); group IV, a mixed-solvent-based system (water/ethanol) used with 37% phosphoric acid; and group V, a water-based system used with 37% phosphoric acid. Each bonding system was covered with the recommended compomer. Class I occlusal preparations were made in extracted teeth and restored with one of the above systems. Five specimens of each group were studied with optical microscopy after staining. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the interface of the bonding system/dentin of the other 5 teeth in each group. The optical microscopy measurements were made with a 10 x 10 reticle. A micron mark with scale was used for the scanning electron microscope. All measurements were made in microm. The following criteria were used to define a good interface: absence of voids between the different parts of the interface, uniformity of the hybrid layer, good opening of the tubuli orifices, and tag adherence to the tubuli walls. Morphological differences were found at the interface depending on dentin treatment and adhesive composition. The acetone-containing systems were associated

  3. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  4. Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework for plug-in hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yan, Bingjie; Du, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Considering the complicated characteristics of traffic flow in city bus route and the nonlinear vehicle dynamics, optimal energy management integrated with clustering and recognition of driving conditions in plug-in hybrid electric bus is still a challenging problem. Motivated by this issue, this paper presents an innovative energy optimization control framework based on the cloud computing for plug-in hybrid electric bus. This framework, which includes offline part and online part, can realize the driving conditions clustering in offline part, and the energy management in online part. In offline part, utilizing the operating data transferred from a bus to the remote monitoring center, K-means algorithm is adopted to cluster the driving conditions, and then Markov probability transfer matrixes are generated to predict the possible operating demand of the bus driver. Next in online part, the current driving condition is real-time identified by a well-trained support vector machine, and Markov chains-based driving behaviors are accordingly selected. With the stochastic inputs, stochastic receding horizon control method is adopted to obtain the optimized energy management of hybrid powertrain. Simulations and hardware-in-loop test are carried out with the real-world city bus route, and the results show that the presented strategy could greatly improve the vehicle fuel economy, and as the traffic flow data feedback increases, the fuel consumption of every plug-in hybrid electric bus running in a specific bus route tends to be a stable minimum. - Highlights: • Cloud computing-based energy optimization control framework is proposed. • Driving cycles are clustered into 6 types by K-means algorithm. • Support vector machine is employed to realize the online recognition of driving condition. • Stochastic receding horizon control-based energy management strategy is designed for plug-in hybrid electric bus. • The proposed framework is verified by simulation and hard

  5. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and “native” mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources—file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies “bridges” that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources—the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.—to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign

  6. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  7. A decision support system based on hybrid knowledge approach for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic expert system, HYPOSS (Hybrid Knowledge Based Plant Operation Supporting System), which has been developed to support operators' decision making during the transients of nuclear power plant. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach which combines shallow and deep knowledge to couple the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure: structural, functional, behavioral and heuristic knowledge. Frames and rules are adopted to represent the various knowledge types. Rule-based deduction and abduction are used for shallow and deep knowledge based reasoning respectively. The event-based operational guidelines are provided to the operator according to the diagnosed results

  8. Hybrid ICA-Seed-Based Methods for fMRI Functional Connectivity Assessment: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain functional connectivity (FC is often assessed from fMRI data using seed-based methods, such as those of detecting temporal correlation between a predefined region (seed and all other regions in the brain; or using multivariate methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA. ICA is a useful data-driven tool, but reproducibility issues complicate group inferences based on FC maps derived with ICA. These reproducibility issues can be circumvented with hybrid methods that use information from ICA-derived spatial maps as seeds to produce seed-based FC maps. We report results from five experiments to demonstrate the potential advantages of hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods, comparing results from regressing fMRI data against task-related a priori time courses, with “back-reconstruction” from a group ICA, and with five hybrid ICA-seed-based FC methods: ROI-based with (1 single-voxel, (2 few-voxel, and (3 many-voxel seed; and dual-regression-based with (4 single ICA map and (5 multiple ICA map seed.

  9. Feasible voltage-tap based quench detection in a Ag/Bi-2212 coil enabled by fast 3D normal zone propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei

    2016-01-01

    For this study, small insert solenoids have been built using a commercial Ag/Bi-2212 multifilamentary round wire, insulated with a new thin TiO 2 – polymer coating insulation (thickness in ~20 μm versus ~100 μm for a commonly used mullite braided sleeve insulation), and characterized in background magnetic field up to 14 T at 4.2 K to explore the high-field performance and quench detection of Bi-2212 magnets. The coil has no visible leakage and no electrical shorts after reaction, and it carries 280 A/mm -2 in a background field 14 T and generates an additional 1.7 T. A notable result is that, despite normal zones propagate slowly along the conductor, the hot spot temperature upon detection increases only from 40 K to 60 K when the resistive quench detection voltage threshold increases from 0.1 V to 1 V for all operating current density investigated, showing that quench detection using voltage taps is feasible for this coil. This is in a strong contrast to a coil we previously built to the same specifications but from wires insulated with the mullite braided sleeve insulation, for which the hot spot temperature upon detection increases from ~80 K to ~140 K while increasing from the detection voltage threshold from 0.1 V to 1 V, and thus for which quench detection using voltage taps presents significant risks, consistent with the common belief that the effectiveness of quench detection using voltage taps for superconducting magnets built using high temperature superconductors is seriously compromised by their slow normal zone propagation. This striking difference is ascribed to the fast transverse quench propagation enabled by thin insulation and improved thermal coupling between conductor turns. Finally, this work demonstrates that quench detection for high-temperature superconducting magnets highly depends on the design and construction of the coils such as insulation materials used and this dependence should be factored into the overall magnet design

  10. Fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and hybrid modelling of horizontal visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuba, Zoltán; Bottyán, Zsolt

    2018-04-01

    Forecasting visibility is one of the greatest challenges in aviation meteorology. At the same time, high accuracy visibility forecasts can significantly reduce or make avoidable weather-related risk in aviation as well. To improve forecasting visibility, this research links fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and post-processed numerical weather prediction model outputs in hybrid forecast. Performance of analogue forecasting model was improved by the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process. Then, linear combination of the mentioned outputs was applied to create ultra-short term hybrid visibility prediction which gradually shifts the focus from statistical to numerical products taking their advantages during the forecast period. It gives the opportunity to bring closer the numerical visibility forecast to the observations even it is wrong initially. Complete verification of categorical forecasts was carried out; results are available for persistence and terminal aerodrome forecasts (TAF) as well in order to compare. The average value of Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of examined airports of analogue and hybrid forecasts shows very similar results even at the end of forecast period where the rate of analogue prediction in the final hybrid output is 0.1-0.2 only. However, in case of poor visibility (1000-2500 m), hybrid (0.65) and analogue forecasts (0.64) have similar average of HSS in the first 6 h of forecast period, and have better performance than persistence (0.60) or TAF (0.56). Important achievement that hybrid model takes into consideration physics and dynamics of the atmosphere due to the increasing part of the numerical weather prediction. In spite of this, its performance is similar to the most effective visibility forecasting methods and does not follow the poor verification results of clearly numerical outputs.

  11. Classification of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids under different water availability based on biometric traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The eucalyptus grows rapidly and is well suitable to edaphic and bioclimatic conditions in several regions of of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids grown under different water availability conditions.Area of study: The study was performed in south-eastern of BrazilMaterial and Methods: We evaluated five commercial hybrids cultivated in pots with the substrate maintained at 65, 50, 35 and 20% maximum water retention capacity. The evaluation was based on the following characteristics: total height (cm, diameter (mm, number of leaves, leaf area (dm2, and dry weight (g plant-1 of leaf, stem + branches,   root, shoot and total and root/shoot ratio.Main results: All the characteristics evaluated were adversely affected by reduced availability of water in the substrate. The hybrids assessed performed differently in terms of biometric characteristics, irrespective of water availability. Water deficit resulted in a greater reduction in the dry weight production compared to number of leaves, diameter and height. Hybrids H2 and H5 have favorable traits for tolerating drought. The hybrid H2 shows a stronger slowdown in growth as soil moisture levels drop, although its growth rate is low, and H5 increases the root/shoot ratio but maintains growth in terms of height, even under drought conditions.Research highlights: The results obtained in our experiment show that productive hybrids sensitive to drought could also perform better under water deficit conditions, maintaining satisfactory growth despite significant drops in these characteristics.Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; water deficit; drought tolerance. 

  12. Hourly forecasting of global solar radiation based on multiscale decomposition methods: A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjoly, Stéphanie; André, Maïna; Calif, Rudy; Soubdhan, Ted

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for the forecasting of solar radiation series at 1 h ahead. We investigated on several techniques of multiscale decomposition of clear sky index K_c data such as Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and Wavelet Decomposition. From these differents methods, we built 11 decomposition components and 1 residu signal presenting different time scales. We performed classic forecasting models based on linear method (Autoregressive process AR) and a non linear method (Neural Network model). The choice of forecasting method is adaptative on the characteristic of each component. Hence, we proposed a modeling process which is built from a hybrid structure according to the defined flowchart. An analysis of predictive performances for solar forecasting from the different multiscale decompositions and forecast models is presented. From multiscale decomposition, the solar forecast accuracy is significantly improved, particularly using the wavelet decomposition method. Moreover, multistep forecasting with the proposed hybrid method resulted in additional improvement. For example, in terms of RMSE error, the obtained forecasting with the classical NN model is about 25.86%, this error decrease to 16.91% with the EMD-Hybrid Model, 14.06% with the EEMD-Hybid model and to 7.86% with the WD-Hybrid Model. - Highlights: • Hourly forecasting of GHI in tropical climate with many cloud formation processes. • Clear sky Index decomposition using three multiscale decomposition methods. • Combination of multiscale decomposition methods with AR-NN models to predict GHI. • Comparison of the proposed hybrid model with the classical models (AR, NN). • Best results using Wavelet-Hybrid model in comparison with classical models.

  13. Image Restoration Based on the Hybrid Total-Variation-Type Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Baoli; Pang, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Yu-Fei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid total-variation-type model for the image restoration problem based on combining advantages of the ROF model with the LLT model. Since two ${L}^{1}$ -norm terms in the proposed model make it difficultly solved by using some classically numerical methods directly, we first employ the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve a general form of the proposed model. Then, based on the ADMM and the Moreau-Yosida decomposition theory, a more efficient method call...

  14. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asif Khan; Zafar Abas; Heung Soo Kim; Jaehwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active pa...

  15. Environmental and exergy benefit of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassani, Samir; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, Saad; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental and ExPBT analysis of different PV/T configurations is presented. • The exergy payback time of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is about 2 years. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is a reliable solution for pollution prevention. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is highly recommended at high solar concentration. - Abstract: Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems, which produce both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously, represent a method to achieve very high conversion rates of sunlight into useful energy. In recent years, nanofluids have been proposed as efficient coolants and optical filter for PV/T systems. Aim of this paper is to theoretically analyze the life cycle exergy of three different configurations of nanofluids-based PV/T hybrid systems, and compare their performance to a standard PV and PV/T system. Electrical and thermal performance of the analyzed solar collectors was investigated numerically. The life cycle exergy analysis revealed that the nanofluids-based PV/T system showed the best performance compared to a standard PV and PV/T systems. At the optimum value of solar concentration C, nanofluid-based PV/T configuration with optimized optical and thermal properties produces ∼1.3 MW h/m 2 of high-grade exergy annually with the lowest exergy payback time of 2 years, whereas these are ∼0.36, ∼0.79 MW h/m 2 and 3.48, 2.55 years for standard PV and PV/T systems, respectively. In addition, the nanofluids-based PV/T system can prevent the emissions of about 448 kg CO 2 eq m −2 yr −1 . Overall, it was found that the nanofluids-based PV/T with optimized optical and thermal properties has potential for further development in a high-concentration solar system.

  16. Fuzzy Shannon Entropy: A Hybrid GIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shadman Roodposhti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (LSM contributes to reducing the risk of living with landslides. Handling the vagueness associated with LSM is a challenging task. Here we show the application of hybrid GIS-based LSM. The hybrid approach embraces fuzzy membership functions (FMFs in combination with Shannon entropy, a well-known information theory-based method. Nine landslide-related criteria, along with an inventory of landslides containing 108 recent and historic landslide points, are used to prepare a susceptibility map. A random split into training (≈70% and testing (≈30% samples are used for training and validation of the LSM model. The study area—Izeh—is located in the Khuzestan province of Iran, a highly susceptible landslide zone. The performance of the hybrid method is evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves in combination with area under the curve (AUC. The performance of the proposed hybrid method with AUC of 0.934 is superior to multi-criteria evaluation approaches using a subjective scheme in this research in comparison with a previous study using the same dataset through extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation with AUC value of 0.894, and was built on the basis of decision makers’ evaluation in the same study area.

  17. Experimental analysis of SiC-based refractory concrete in hybrid rocket nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Raffaele; Bernhart, Gérard; Hijlkema, Jouke; Cutard, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion represents a good alternative to the more widely used liquid and solid systems. This technology combines some important specifications of the latters, as the possibility of re-ignition, thrust modulation, a higher specific impulse than solid systems, a greater simplicity and a lower cost than liquid systems. Nevertheless the highly oxidizing environment represents a major problem as regards the thermo-oxidation and ablative behavior of nozzle materials. The main goal of this research is to characterize a silicon carbide based micro-concrete with a maximum aggregates size of 800 μm, in a hybrid propulsion environment. The nozzle throat has to resist to a highly oxidizing polyethylene/nitrous oxide hybrid environment, under temperatures up to 2900 K. Three tests were performed on concrete-based nozzles in HERA Hybrid Rocket Motor (HRM) test bench at ONERA. Pressure chamber evolution and observations before and after tests are used to investigate the ablated surface at nozzle throat. Ablation behavior and crack generation are discussed and some improvements are proposed.

  18. Novel route of synthesis for cellulose fiber-based hybrid polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, F. H.; Ilmiati, S.; Kurnia Adi, H.; Arumsari, R.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polyurethanes, obtained by the reaction of a diisocyanate compound with bifunctional or multifunctional reagent such as diols or polyols, have been studied intensively and well developed. The wide range modifier such as chemical structures and molecular weight to build polyurethanes led to designs of materials that may easily meet the functional product demand and to the extraordinary spreading of these materials in market. Properties of the obtained polymer are related to the chemical structure of polyurethane backbone. A number polyurethanes prepared from biomass-based monomers have been reported. Cellulose fiber, as a biomass material is containing abundant hydroxyl, promising material as chain extender for building hybrid polyurethanes. In previous researches, cellulose fiber was used as filler in synthesis of polyurethane composites. This paper reported a novel route of hybrid polyurethane synthesis, which a cellulose fiber was used as chain extender. The experiment performed by reacting 4,4’-Methylenebis (cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI) and polyethylene glycol with variation of molecular weight to obtained pre-polyurethane, continued by adding micro fiber cellulose (MFC) with variation of type and composition in the mixture. The experiment was evaluated by NMR, FTIR, SEM and STA measurement. NMR and FTIR confirmed the reaction of the hybrid polyurethane. STA showed hybrid polyurethane has good thermal stability. SEM showed good distribution and dispersion of sorghum-based MFC.

  19. Effectiveness evaluation of double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rao, Qiaomeng

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of high speed, large capacity and limited spectrum resources of satellite communication network, a double-layered satellite network with global seamless coverage based on laser and microwave hybrid links is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the characteristics of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links, an effectiveness evaluation index system for the network is established. And then, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, which combines the analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links. Furthermore, the evaluation result of the proposed hybrid link network is obtained by simulation. The effectiveness evaluation process of the proposed double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links can help to optimize the design of hybrid link double-layered satellite network and improve the operating efficiency of the satellite system.

  20. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  1. Hybrid welding of carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy based composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lionetto, Francesca; De Nicolas Morillas, M.; Pappadà, Silvio; Buccoliero, Giuseppe; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    The approach for joining thermosetting matrix composites (TSCs) proposed in this study is based on the use of a low melting co-cured thermoplastic film, added as a last ply in the stacking sequence of the composite laminate. During curing, the thermoplastic film partially penetrates in the first

  2. Automated model-based testing of hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, van M.P.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    In automated model-based input-output conformance testing, tests are automati- cally generated from a speci¯cation and automatically executed on an implemen- tation. Input is applied to the implementation and output is observed from the implementation. If the observed output is allowed according to

  3. A Hybrid Positioning Method Based on Hypothesis Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiot, Nicolas; Pedersen, Troels; Laaraiedh, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    maxima. We propose to first estimate the support region of the two peaks of the likelihood function using a set membership method, and then decide between the two regions using a rule based on the less reliable observations. Monte Carlo simulations show that the performance of the proposed method...

  4. Hybrid Indoor-Based WLAN-WSN Localization Scheme for Improving Accuracy Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Farid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In indoor environments, WiFi (RSS based localization is sensitive to various indoor fading effects and noise during transmission, which are the main causes of localization errors that affect its accuracy. Keeping in view those fading effects, positioning systems based on a single technology are ineffective in performing accurate localization. For this reason, the trend is toward the use of hybrid positioning systems (combination of two or more wireless technologies in indoor/outdoor localization scenarios for getting better position accuracy. This paper presents a hybrid technique to implement indoor localization that adopts fingerprinting approaches in both WiFi and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This model exploits machine learning, in particular Artificial Natural Network (ANN techniques, for position calculation. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid system improved the accuracy, reducing the average distance error to 1.05 m by using ANN. Applying Genetic Algorithm (GA based optimization technique did not incur any further improvement to the accuracy. Compared to the performance of GA optimization, the nonoptimized ANN performed better in terms of accuracy, precision, stability, and computational time. The above results show that the proposed hybrid technique is promising for achieving better accuracy in real-world positioning applications.

  5. A diagnostic expert system for NPP based on hybrid knowledge approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic expert system, HYPOSS (Hybrid Knowledge Based Plant Operation Supporting System), which has been developed to support operators' decision making during the transients of nuclear power plant. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach which combines shallow and deep knowledge to couple the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure: structural, functional, behavioral and heuristic knowledge. The structural and functional knowledge is represented by three fundamental primitives and five types of functions respectively. The behavioral knowledge is represented using constraints. The inference procedure is based on the human problem solving behavior modeled in HYPOSS. For the validation of HYPOSS, several tests have been performed based on the data produced by a plant simulator. The results of validation studies showed a good applicability of HYPOSS to the anomaly diagnosis of nuclear power plant

  6. Adaptive Hybrid Control of Vehicle Semiactive Suspension Based on Road Profile Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yechen Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new road estimation based suspension hybrid control strategy is proposed. Its aim is to adaptively change control gains to improve both ride comfort and road handling with the constraint of rattle space. To achieve this, analytical expressions for ride comfort, road handling, and rattle space with respect to road input are derived based on the hybrid control, and the problem is transformed into a MOOP (Multiobjective Optimization Problem and has been solved by NSGA-II (Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II. A new road estimation and classification method, which is based on ANFIS (Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System and wavelet transforms, is then presented as a means of detecting the road profile level, and a Kalman filter is designed for observing unknown states. The results of simulations conducted with random road excitation show that the efficiency of the proposed control strategy compares favourably to that of a passive system.

  7. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-07-28

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.1% and Commission Internationale dÉnclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.05). Efficient deep-blue emission as well as high triplet state energy of Cz-2pbb enables fabrication of hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with a single emissive layer. Hybrid white emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb show the peak external quantum efficiency exceeding 10% and power efficiency of 14.8 lm/W at a luminance of 500 cd/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Simulation based design strategy for EMC compliance of components in hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Uwe; Ndip, Ivan; Hoene, Eckard; Guttowski, Stephan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany); Tschoban, Christian; Lang, Klaus-Dieter [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The design of components for the power train of hybrid vehicles needs to take into account EMC compliance standards related to hazardous electromagnetic fields. Using a simulation based design strategy allows for virtual EMC tests in parallel to the mechanical / electrical power design and thus reduces (re-)design time and costs. Taking as an example a high-voltage battery for a hybrid vehicle the emitted magnetic fields outside the battery are examined. The simulation stategy is based on 3D EM simulations using a full-wave and an eddy current solver. The simulation models are based on the actual CAD data from the mechanical construction resulting in and a high geometrical aspect ratio. The impact of simulation specific aspects such as boundary conditions and excitation is given. It was found that using field simulations it is possible to identify noise sources and coupling paths as well as aid the construction of the battery. (orig.)

  9. Multisensors Cooperative Detection Task Scheduling Algorithm Based on Hybrid Task Decomposition and MBPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multisensor scheduling algorithm based on the hybrid task decomposition and modified binary particle swarm optimization (MBPSO is proposed. Firstly, aiming at the complex relationship between sensor resources and tasks, a hybrid task decomposition method is presented, and the resource scheduling problem is decomposed into subtasks; then the sensor resource scheduling problem is changed into the match problem of sensors and subtasks. Secondly, the resource match optimization model based on the sensor resources and tasks is established, which considers several factors, such as the target priority, detecting benefit, handover times, and resource load. Finally, MBPSO algorithm is proposed to solve the match optimization model effectively, which is based on the improved updating means of particle’s velocity and position through the doubt factor and modified Sigmoid function. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is better in terms of convergence velocity, searching capability, solution accuracy, and efficiency.

  10. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  11. BI-ground microstrip array coil vs. conventional microstrip array coil for mouse imaging at 7 tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ricardo; Terrones, M. A. López; Jakob, P. M.

    2012-10-01

    At high field strengths, the need for more efficient high frequency coils has grown. Since the radiation losses and the interaction between coil and sample increase proportionally to field strength, the quality factor (Q) and the sensitivity of the coil decrease as consequence of these negative effects. Since Zhang et al proposed in 2001 a new surface coil based on the microstrip transmission line for high frequency, different Tx-Rx phased arrays based on this concept have been already introduced in animal and whole body systems at high field strengths, each of them with different modifications in order to get better field homogeneity, SNR or isolation between coil elements in the array. All these arrays for animals systems have been built for rat imaging. One of these modifications is called BI-Ground Microstrip Array Coil (BIGMAC). The implementation of a smaller two-channel BIGMAC design for mouse imaging is studied and its performance compared to a two-channel conventional Microstrip array at 7 Tesla, the higher isolation by using BIGMAC elements in comparison with conventional Microstrip elements is shown in this work.

  12. Hybrid Force Control Based on ICMAC for an Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Astronaut Rehabilitative Training Robot (ART based on a cable-driven mechanism is represented in this paper. ART, a typical passive force servo system, can help astronauts to bench press in a microgravity environment. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers to eliminate the surplus force caused by an astronaut's active movements. Based on the dynamics modelling of the cable-driven unit, a hybrid force controller based on improved credit assignment CMAC (ICMAC is presented. A planning method for the cable tension is proposed so that the dynamic load produced by the ART can realistically simulate the gravity and inertial force of the barbell in a gravity environment. Finally, MATLAB simulation results of the man-machine cooperation system are provided in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The simulation results show that the hybrid control method based on the structure invariance principle can inhibit the surplus force and that ICMAC can improve the dynamic performance of the passive force servo system. Furthermore, the hybrid force controller based on ICMAC can ensure the stability of the system.

  13. Equilibrium modeling of the TFCX poloidal field coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Miller, J.B.; Rothe, K.E.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1984-04-01

    The Toroidal Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) isproposed to be an ignition device with a low safety factor (q approx. = 2.0), rf or rf-assisted startup, long inductive burn pulse (approx. 300 s), and an elongated plasma cross section (kappa = 1.6) with moderate triangularity (delta = 0.3). System trade studies have been carried out to assist in choosing an appropriate candidate for TFCX conceptual design. This report describes an important element in these system studies - the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium modeling of the TFCX poloidal field (PF) coil system and its impact on the choice of machine size. Reference design points for the all-super-conducting toroidal field (TF) coil (TFCX-S) and hybrid (TFCX-H) options are presented that satisfy given PF system criteria, including volt-second requirements during burn, mechanical configuration constraints, maximum field constraints at the superconducting PF coils, and plasma shape parameters. Poloidal coil current waveforms for the TFCX-S and TFCX-H reference designs consistent with the equilibrium requirements of the plasma startup, heating, and burn phases of a typical discharge scenario are calculated. Finally, a possible option for quasi-steady-state operation is discussed

  14. Prediction of CO concentrations based on a hybrid Partial Least Square and Support Vector Machine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, B.; Motlagh, M. Shafie Pour; Rashidi, Y.; Kamalan, H.

    2012-08-01

    Due to the health impacts caused by exposures to air pollutants in urban areas, monitoring and forecasting of air quality parameters have become popular as an important topic in atmospheric and environmental research today. The knowledge on the dynamics and complexity of air pollutants behavior has made artificial intelligence models as a useful tool for a more accurate pollutant concentration prediction. This paper focuses on an innovative method of daily air pollution prediction using combination of Support Vector Machine (SVM) as predictor and Partial Least Square (PLS) as a data selection tool based on the measured values of CO concentrations. The CO concentrations of Rey monitoring station in the south of Tehran, from Jan. 2007 to Feb. 2011, have been used to test the effectiveness of this method. The hourly CO concentrations have been predicted using the SVM and the hybrid PLS-SVM models. Similarly, daily CO concentrations have been predicted based on the aforementioned four years measured data. Results demonstrated that both models have good prediction ability; however the hybrid PLS-SVM has better accuracy. In the analysis presented in this paper, statistic estimators including relative mean errors, root mean squared errors and the mean absolute relative error have been employed to compare performances of the models. It has been concluded that the errors decrease after size reduction and coefficients of determination increase from 56 to 81% for SVM model to 65-85% for hybrid PLS-SVM model respectively. Also it was found that the hybrid PLS-SVM model required lower computational time than SVM model as expected, hence supporting the more accurate and faster prediction ability of hybrid PLS-SVM model.

  15. Large coil program support structure conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to perform tests on both pool boiling and force cooled superconducting toroidal field coils. The tests will attempt to approximate conditions anticipated in an ignition tokamak. The test requirements resulted in a coil support design which accommodates up to six (6) test coils and is mounted to a structure capable of resisting coil interactions. The steps leading to the present LCP coil support structure design, details on selected structural components, and the basic assembly sequence are discussed

  16. Cooling device of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, R.; Lottin, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This device is rotating around an horizontal axis. The superconducting coils are contained in a cryogenic enclosure feeded in liquid helium forced circulation. They are related to an electric generator by electric mains each of them comprising a gas exchanger, and an exchanger-evaporator set between the cryogenic device and those exchangers. The exchanger-evaporator is aimed at dissipating the heat arriving by conductors connected to the superconducting coils. According to the invention, the invention includes an annular canalization with horizontal axis in which the connection conductors bathe in liquid helium [fr

  17. Methods for Reachability-based Hybrid Controller Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    approaches for airport runways ( Teo and Tomlin, 2003). The results of the reachability calculations were validated in extensive simulations as well as...UAV flight experiments (Jang and Tomlin, 2005; Teo , 2005). While the focus of these previous applications lies largely in safety verification, the work...B([15, 0],a0)× [−π,π])\\ V,∀qi ∈ Q, where a0 = 30m is the protected radius (chosen based upon published data of the wingspan of a Boeing KC -135

  18. Model-based design approaches for plug-in hybrid vehicle design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, C.J. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Stevens, M.B.; Fowler, M.W. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fraser, R.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wilhelm, E.J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Energy Systems Analysis

    2007-07-01

    A model-based design process for plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) was presented. The paper discussed steps between the initial design concept and a working vehicle prototype, and focused on an investigation of the software-in-the-loop (SIL), hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), and component-in-the-loop (CIL) design phases. The role and benefits of using simulation were also reviewed. A method for mapping and identifying components was provided along with a hybrid control strategy and component-level control optimization process. The role of simulation in component evaluation, architecture design, and de-bugging procedures was discussed, as well as the role simulation networks can play in speeding deployment times. The simulations focused on work performed on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox converted to a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV). Components were aggregated to create a complete virtual vehicle. A simplified vehicle model was implemented onto the on-board vehicle control hardware. Optimization metrics were estimated at 10 alpha values during each control loop iteration. The simulation was then used to tune the control system under a variety of drive cycles and conditions. A CIL technique was used to place a physical hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) component under the control of a real time HEV/PHEV simulation. It was concluded that controllers should have a standardized component description that supports integration into advanced testing procedures. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaib Ammari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will size an optimum hybrid central content three different generators, two on renewable energy (solar photovoltaic and wind power and two nonrenewable (diesel generator and storage system because the new central generator has started to consider the green power technology in order for best future to the world, this central will use all the green power resource available and distributes energy to a small isolated village in southwest of Algeria named “Timiaouine”. The consumption of this village estimated with detailed in two season; season low consumption (winter and high consumption (summer, the hybrid central will be optimized by program Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER PRO, this program will simulate in two configuration, the first with storage system, the second without storage system and in the end the program HOMER PRO will choose the best configuration which is the mixture of both economic and ecologic configurations, this central warrants the energetic continuity of village. Article History: Received May 18th 2017; Received in revised form July 17th 2017; Accepted Sept 3rd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ammari, C., Hamouda,M., and Makhloufi,S. (2017 Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(3, 263-272. http://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.263-272

  20. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  1. Thermal modeling of a hydraulic hybrid vehicle transmission based on thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyukjoon; Sprengel, Michael; Ivantysynova, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles have become a popular alternative to conventional powertrain architectures by offering improved fuel efficiency along with a range of environmental benefits. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (HHV) offer one approach to hybridization with many benefits over competing technologies. Among these benefits are lower component costs, more environmentally friendly construction materials, and the ability to recover a greater quantity of energy during regenerative braking which make HHVs partially well suited to urban environments. In order to further the knowledge base regarding HHVs, this paper explores the thermodynamic characteristics of such a system. A system model is detailed for both the hydraulic and thermal components of a closed circuit hydraulic hybrid transmission following the FTP-72 driving cycle. Among the new techniques proposed in this paper is a novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients. This paper concludes by comparing the results of this model with experimental data gathered on a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) transmission dynamometer possessing the same architecture, components, and driving cycle used within the simulation model. This approach can be used for several applications such as thermal stability analysis of HHVs, optimal thermal management, and analysis of the system's thermodynamic efficiency. - Highlights: • Thermal modeling for HHVs is introduced. • A model for the hydraulic and thermal system is developed for HHVs. • A novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients is proposed. • The thermodynamic system diagram of a series HHV is predicted.

  2. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluşan, H; Gharehbaghi, K; Külah, H; Zorlu, Ö; Muhtaroğlu, A

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage. (paper)

  3. Global Optimization Based on the Hybridization of Harmony Search and Particle Swarm Optimization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of stochastic search algorithms of global optimization which in various publications are called behavioural, intellectual, metaheuristic, inspired by the nature, swarm, multi-agent, population, etc. We use the last term.Experience in using the population algorithms to solve challenges of global optimization shows that application of one such algorithm may not always effective. Therefore now great attention is paid to hybridization of population algorithms of global optimization. Hybrid algorithms unite various algorithms or identical algorithms, but with various values of free parameters. Thus efficiency of one algorithm can compensate weakness of another.The purposes of the work are development of hybrid algorithm of global optimization based on known algorithms of harmony search (HS and swarm of particles (PSO, software implementation of algorithm, study of its efficiency using a number of known benchmark problems, and a problem of dimensional optimization of truss structure.We set a problem of global optimization, consider basic algorithms of HS and PSO, give a flow chart of the offered hybrid algorithm called PSO HS , present results of computing experiments with developed algorithm and software, formulate main results of work and prospects of its development.

  4. Fuzzy-Based Hybrid Control Algorithm for the Stabilization of a Tri-Rotor UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zain Anwar; Wang, Daobo; Aamir, Muhammad

    2016-05-09

    In this paper, a new and novel mathematical fuzzy hybrid scheme is proposed for the stabilization of a tri-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fuzzy hybrid scheme consists of a fuzzy logic controller, regulation pole-placement tracking (RST) controller with model reference adaptive control (MRAC), in which adaptive gains of the RST controller are being fine-tuned by a fuzzy logic controller. Brushless direct current (BLDC) motors are installed in the triangular frame of the tri-rotor UAV, which helps maintain control on its motion and different altitude and attitude changes, similar to rotorcrafts. MRAC-based MIT rule is proposed for system stability. Moreover, the proposed hybrid controller with nonlinear flight dynamics is shown in the presence of translational and rotational velocity components. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via MATLAB simulations, in which the proposed fuzzy hybrid controller is compared with the existing adaptive RST controller. It shows that our proposed algorithm has better transient performance with zero steady-state error, and fast convergence towards stability.

  5. Hybrid wireless-over-fiber transmission system based on multiple injection-locked FP LDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Chu, Chien-An; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Ting-Chien; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-07-27

    A hybrid wireless-over-fiber (WoF) transmission system based on multiple injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Unlike the traditional hybrid WoF transmission systems that require multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs to support different kinds of services, the proposed system employs multiple injection-locked FP LDs to provide different kinds of applications. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system delivers downstream intensity-modulated 20-GHz microwave (MW)/60-GHz millimeter-wave (MMW)/550-MHz cable television (CATV) signals and upstream phase-remodulated 20-GHz MW signal. Excellent bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 4-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system has practical applications for fiber-wireless convergence to provide broadband integrated services, including telecommunication, data communication, and CATV services.

  6. The hybrid energy storages based on batteries and ultracapacitors for contact microwelding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Yu. V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro resistance welding is an effective way to reliably join small-scale parts. It is widely used in electronics and instrument-making. The important particularities of micro resistance welding are pulse character of energy consumption, non-linear load and special form of current pulses. So, these particularities of welding process cause negative influence on the mains. One of the known ways to avoid it is to use autonomous power supplies for micro resistance welding machines. The important task for building autonomous power supplies is to choose effective energy storages, which have high capacity and small internal resistance, and which are capable to be charged and deliver energy to load very quickly. The solution of this task is seen in using hybrid energy storages, which include accumulators and ultracapacitors. The accumulators are able to provide high energy capacitance and the ultracapacitors are able to provide fast energy delivery. The possibility of application of hybrid energy storages, based on accumulator batteries and ultracapacitors, in micro resistance welding machines is confirmed with computer simulation. Two variants of hybrid energy storages are proposed. These hybrid energy storages have high power and dynamic characteristics, which are sufficient to generate current pulses for welding according to necessary settings.

  7. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, M.S.; Viti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus–based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  8. Dynamic multi-channel TMS with reconfigurable coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruoli; Jansen, Ben H; Sheth, Bhavin R; Chen, Ji

    2013-05-01

    Investigations of the causal involvement of particular brain areas and interconnections in behavior require an external stimulation system with reasonable spatio-temporal resolution. Current transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technology is limited to stimulating a single brain area once in a given trial. Here, we present a feasibility study for a novel TMS system based on multi-channel reconfigurable coils. With this hardware, researchers will be able to stimulate multiple brain sites in any temporal order in a trial. The system employs a wire-mesh coil, constructed using x- and y-directional wires. By varying the current direction and/or strength on each wire, we can configure the proposed mesh-wire coil into a standard loop coil and figure-eight coil of varying size. This provides maximum flexibility to the experimenter in that the location and extent of stimulation on the brain surface can be modified depending on experimental requirement. Moreover, one can dynamically and automatically modify the site(s) of stimulation several times within the span of seconds. By pre-storing various sequences of excitation patterns inside a control unit, one can explore the effect of dynamic TMS on behavior, in associative learning, and as rehabilitative therapy. Here, we present a computer simulation and bench experiments that show the feasibility of the dynamically-reconfigurable coil.

  9. Quantum transport in nanowire-based hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenel, Haci Yusuf

    2013-05-08

    We have studied the low-temperature transport properties of nanowires contacted by a normal metal as well as by superconducting electrodes. As a consequence of quantum coherence, we have demonstrated the electron interference effect in different aspects. The mesoscopic phase coherent transport properties were studied by contacting the semiconductor InAs and InSb nanowires with normal metal electrodes. Moreover, we explored the interaction of the microscopic quantum coherence of the nanowires with the macroscopic quantum coherence of the superconductors. In superconducting Nb contacted InAs nanowire junctions, we have investigated the effect of temperature, magnetic field and electric field on the supercurrent. Owing to relatively high critical temperature of superconducting Nb (T{sub c} ∝ 9 K), we have observed the supercurrent up to 4 K for highly doped nanowire-based junctions, while for low doped nanowire-based junctions a full control of the supercurrent was achieved. Due to low transversal dimension of the nanowires, we have found a monotonous decay of the critical current in magnetic field dependent measurements. The experimental results were analyzed within narrow junction model which has been developed recently. At high bias voltages, we have observed subharmonic energy gap structures as a consequence of multiple Andreev reflection. Some of the nanowires were etched, such that the superconducting Nb electrodes are connected to both ends of the nanowire rather than covering the surface of the nanowire. As a result of well defined nanowire-superconductor interfaces, we have examined quasiparticle interference effect in magnetotransport measurements. Furthermore, we have developed a new junction geometry, such that one of the superconducting Nb electrodes is replaced by a superconducting Al. Owing to the smaller critical magnetic field of superconducting Al (B{sub c} ∝ 15-50,mT), compared to superconducting Nb (B{sub c} ∝ 3 T), we were able to studied

  10. Technical feasibility of 2D-3D coregistration for visualization of self-expandable microstents to facilitate coil embolization of broad-based intracranial aneurysms: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Gregor [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Kreisklinikum Siegen, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Siegen (Germany); Pfister, Marcus [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany); Struffert, Tobias; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doelken, Marc; Doerfler, Arnd [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Spiegel, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim [University of Erlangen, Department of Informatics 5, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The use of self-expandable microstents for treatment of broad-based intracranial aneurysms is widely spread. However, poor fluoroscopic visibility of the stents remains disadvantageous during the coiling procedure. Flat detector angiographic computed tomography (ACT) provides high resolution imaging of microstents even though integration of this imaging modality in the neurointerventional workflow has not been widely reported. An acrylic glass model was used to simulate the situation of a broad-based sidewall aneurysm. After insertion of a self-expandable microstent, ACT was performed. The resulting 3D dataset of the Microstent was subsequently projected into a conventional 2D fluoroscopic roadmap. This 3D visualization of the stent supported the coil embolization procedure of the in vitro aneurysm. In vitro 2D-3D coregistration with integration of 3D ACT data of a self-expandable microstent in a conventional 2D roadmap is feasible. Unsatisfying stent visibility constrains clinical cases with complex parent vessel anatomy and challenging aneurysm geometry; hence, this technique potentially may be useful in such cases. In our opinion, the clinical feasibility and utility of this new technique should be verified in a clinical aneurysm embolization study series using 2D-3D coregistration. (orig.)

  11. Technical feasibility of 2D-3D coregistration for visualization of self-expandable microstents to facilitate coil embolization of broad-based intracranial aneurysms: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Gregor; Pfister, Marcus; Struffert, Tobias; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doelken, Marc; Doerfler, Arnd; Spiegel, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The use of self-expandable microstents for treatment of broad-based intracranial aneurysms is widely spread. However, poor fluoroscopic visibility of the stents remains disadvantageous during the coiling procedure. Flat detector angiographic computed tomography (ACT) provides high resolution imaging of microstents even though integration of this imaging modality in the neurointerventional workflow has not been widely reported. An acrylic glass model was used to simulate the situation of a broad-based sidewall aneurysm. After insertion of a self-expandable microstent, ACT was performed. The resulting 3D dataset of the Microstent was subsequently projected into a conventional 2D fluoroscopic roadmap. This 3D visualization of the stent supported the coil embolization procedure of the in vitro aneurysm. In vitro 2D-3D coregistration with integration of 3D ACT data of a self-expandable microstent in a conventional 2D roadmap is feasible. Unsatisfying stent visibility constrains clinical cases with complex parent vessel anatomy and challenging aneurysm geometry; hence, this technique potentially may be useful in such cases. In our opinion, the clinical feasibility and utility of this new technique should be verified in a clinical aneurysm embolization study series using 2D-3D coregistration. (orig.)

  12. Hybrid forecasting of chaotic processes: Using machine learning in conjunction with a knowledge-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jaideep; Wikner, Alexander; Fussell, Rebeckah; Chandra, Sarthak; Hunt, Brian R.; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2018-04-01

    A model-based approach to forecasting chaotic dynamical systems utilizes knowledge of the mechanistic processes governing the dynamics to build an approximate mathematical model of the system. In contrast, machine learning techniques have demonstrated promising results for forecasting chaotic systems purely from past time series measurements of system state variables (training data), without prior knowledge of the system dynamics. The motivation for this paper is the potential of machine learning for filling in the gaps in our underlying mechanistic knowledge that cause widely-used knowledge-based models to be inaccurate. Thus, we here propose a general method that leverages the advantages of these two approaches by combining a knowledge-based model and a machine learning technique to build a hybrid forecasting scheme. Potential applications for such an approach are numerous (e.g., improving weather forecasting). We demonstrate and test the utility of this approach using a particular illustrative version of a machine learning known as reservoir computing, and we apply the resulting hybrid forecaster to a low-dimensional chaotic system, as well as to a high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaotic system. These tests yield extremely promising results in that our hybrid technique is able to accurately predict for a much longer period of time than either its machine-learning component or its model-based component alone.

  13. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K{sub s}) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s{sup −1}. The higher K{sub s} value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination.

  14. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K s ) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s −1 . The higher K s value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination

  15. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22s(-1). The higher Ks value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05-23.2mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. © 2013.

  16. Energy-saving analysis of hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  17. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-26

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  18. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  19. Simple structured hybrid WOLEDs based on incomplete energy transfer mechanism: from blue exciplex to orange dopant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyou; Zhao, Bo; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Yan, Xingwu; Liu, Chengyuan; Wu, Hairuo; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Fangming; Hou, Fuhua

    2015-05-01

    Exciplex is well known as a charge transfer state formed between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules. However, exciplex based organic light emitting diodes (OLED) often performed low efficiencies relative to pure phosphorescent OLED and could hardly be used to construct white OLED (WOLED). In this work, a new mechanism is developed to realize efficient WOLED with extremely simple structure by redistributing the energy of triplet exciplex to both singlet exciplex and the orange dopant. The micro process of energy transfer could be directly examined by detailed photoluminescence decay measurement and time resolved photoluminescence analysis. This strategy overcomes the low reverse intersystem crossing efficiency of blue exciplex and complicated device structure of traditional WOLED, enables us to achieve efficient hybrid WOLEDs. Based on this mechanism, we have successfully constructed both exciplex-fluorescence and exciplex-phosphorescence hybrid WOLEDs with remarkable efficiencies.

  20. Chitosan-Based Hyaluronic Acid Hybrid Polymer Fibers as a Scaffold Biomaterial for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintarou Yamane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An ideal scaffold material is one that closely mimics the natural environment in the tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM. Therefore, we have applied hyaluronic acid (HA, which is a main component of the cartilage ECM, to chitosan as a fundamental material for cartilage regeneration. To mimic the structural environment of cartilage ECM, the fundamental structure of a scaffold should be a three-dimensional (3D system with adequate mechanical strength. We structurally developed novel polymer chitosan-based HA hybrid fibers as a biomaterial to easily fabricate 3D scaffolds. This review presents the potential of a 3D fabricated scaffold based on these novel hybrid polymer fibers for cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. Mathematical Modelling of a Hybrid Micro-Cogeneration Group Based on a Four Stroke Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol Valentin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a part of the work conducted in the first stage of a Research Grant called ”Hybrid micro-cogeneration group of high efficiency equipped with an electronically assisted ORC” acronym GRUCOHYB. The hybrid micro-cogeneration group is equipped with a four stroke Diesel engine having a maximum power of 40 kW. A mathematical model of the internal combustion engine is presented. The mathematical model is developed based on the Laws of Thermodynamics and takes into account the real, irreversible processes. Based on the mathematical model a computation program was developed. The results obtained were compared with those provided by the Diesel engine manufacturer. Results show a very high correlation between the manufacturer’s data and the simulation results for an engine running at 100% load. Future developments could involve using an exergetic analysis to show the ability of the ORC to generate electricity from recovered heat

  2. An Improved Iris Recognition Algorithm Based on Hybrid Feature and ELM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The iris image is easily polluted by noise and uneven light. This paper proposed an improved extreme learning machine (ELM) based iris recognition algorithm with hybrid feature. 2D-Gabor filters and GLCM is employed to generate a multi-granularity hybrid feature vector. 2D-Gabor filter and GLCM feature work for capturing low-intermediate frequency and high frequency texture information, respectively. Finally, we utilize extreme learning machine for iris recognition. Experimental results reveal our proposed ELM based multi-granularity iris recognition algorithm (ELM-MGIR) has higher accuracy of 99.86%, and lower EER of 0.12% under the premise of real-time performance. The proposed ELM-MGIR algorithm outperforms other mainstream iris recognition algorithms.

  3. Hybrid Composites Based on Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanofilament Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Tehrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform nanofilaments can be directly grown on fiber surfaces prior to composite fabrication. This study demonstrates the ability to create carbon nanofilaments on the surface of carbon fibers employing a synthesis method, graphitic structures by design (GSD, in which carbon structures are grown from fuel mixtures using nickel particles as the catalyst. The synthesis technique is proven feasible to grow nanofilament structures—from ethylene mixtures at 550 °C—on commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fibers. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the surface-grown carbon species. For comparison purposes, a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD technique was also utilized to grow multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs on carbon fiber yarns. The mechanical characterization showed that composites using the GSD-grown carbon nanofilaments outperform those using the CCVD-grown CNTs in terms of stiffness and tensile strength. The results suggest that further optimization of the GSD growth time, patterning and thermal shield coating of the carbon fibers is required to fully materialize the potential benefits of the GSD technique.

  4. Analytical Model and Optimized Design of Power Transmitting Coil for Inductively Coupled Endoscope Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Quan; Luo, Weijie; Yan, Guozheng; Yang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    A wireless power transfer system based on the weakly inductive coupling makes it possible to provide the endoscope microrobot (EMR) with infinite power. To facilitate the patients' inspection with the EMR system, the diameter of the transmitting coil is enlarged to 69 cm. Due to the large transmitting range, a high quality factor of the Litz-wire transmitting coil is a necessity to ensure the intensity of magnetic field generated efficiently. Thus, this paper builds an analytical model of the transmitting coil, and then, optimizes the parameters of the coil by enlarging the quality factor. The lumped model of the transmitting coil includes three parameters: ac resistance, self-inductance, and stray capacitance. Based on the exact two-dimension solution, the accurate analytical expression of ac resistance is derived. Several transmitting coils of different specifications are utilized to verify this analytical expression, being in good agreements with the measured results except the coils with a large number of strands. Then, the quality factor of transmitting coils can be well predicted with the available analytical expressions of self- inductance and stray capacitance. Owing to the exact estimation of quality factor, the appropriate coil turns of the transmitting coil is set to 18-40 within the restrictions of transmitting circuit and human tissue issues. To supply enough energy for the next generation of the EMR equipped with a Ø9.5×10.1 mm receiving coil, the coil turns of the transmitting coil is optimally set to 28, which can transfer a maximum power of 750 mW with the remarkable delivering efficiency of 3.55%.

  5. Rice Cellulose SynthaseA8 Plant-Conserved Region Is a Coiled-Coil at the Catalytic Core Entrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, Phillip S.; Olek, Anna T.; Makowski, Lee; Badger, John; Steussy, C. Nicklaus; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (NEU); (Purdue)

    2016-11-22

    The crystallographic structure of a rice (Oryza sativa) cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant-conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4 Å resolution. Two antiparallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data. The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain. The predicted position for the P-CR domain from the molecular docking models places the P-CR connector loop into a hydrophobic pocket of the catalytic core, with the coiled-coil aligned near the entrance of the substrate UDP-glucose into the active site. In this configuration, the P-CR coiled-coil alone is unlikely to regulate substrate access to the active site, but it could interact with other domains of CesA, accessory proteins, or other CesA catalytic domains to control substrate delivery.

  6. ANALYSIS DATA SETS USING HYBRID TECHNIQUES APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS INTEGRATED DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel-Petru GHENCEA; Miron ZAPCIU; Claudiu-Florinel BISU; Elena-Iuliana BOTEANU; Elena-Luminiţa OLTEANU

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a prediction model of behavior spindle from the point of view of the thermal deformations and the level of the vibrations by highlighting and processing the characteristic equations. This is a model analysis for the shaft with similar electro-mechanical characteristics can be achieved using a hybrid analysis based on artificial intelligence (genetic algorithms - artificial neural networks - fuzzy logic). The paper presents a prediction mode obtaining valid range of values f...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO HYBRIDS BASED ON FEMALE PARENTS FORMS WITH FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of variability of functional male sterility (ps–2 depending on year of study, genotype and age of the plant is shown. The efficiency of the method of forced ejection of pollen from intact anthers to increase the degree of sterility is shown. The five tomato hybrids developed based on selected lines were submitted for the state variety trial of Moldova.

  8. Solving Linear Equations by Classical Jacobi-SR Based Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm with Uniform Adaptation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jamali, R. M. Jalal Uddin; Hashem, M. M. A.; Hasan, M. Mahfuz; Rahman, Md. Bazlar

    2013-01-01

    Solving a set of simultaneous linear equations is probably the most important topic in numerical methods. For solving linear equations, iterative methods are preferred over the direct methods especially when the coefficient matrix is sparse. The rate of convergence of iteration method is increased by using Successive Relaxation (SR) technique. But SR technique is very much sensitive to relaxation factor, {\\omega}. Recently, hybridization of classical Gauss-Seidel based successive relaxation t...

  9. Hybrid Strategies for Link Adaptation Exploiting Several Degrees of Freedom in OFDM Based Broadband Wireless Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Suvra S.; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye

    2007-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, there are several degrees of freedom in time and frequency domain, such as, sub-band size, forward error control coding (FEC) rate, modulation order, power level, modulation adaptation interval, coding rate adaptation interval and powe...... of the link parameters based on the channel conditions would lead to highly complex systems with high overhead. Hybrid strategies to vary the adaptation rates to tradeoff achievable efficiency and complexity are presented in this work....

  10. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting Using the Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Based Hybrid Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yeau Chang

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of wind power in the electricity system provides many challenges to power system operators, mainly due to the unpredictability and variability of wind power generation. Although wind energy may not be dispatched, an accurate forecasting method of wind speed and power generation can help power system operators reduce the risk of an unreliable electricity supply. This paper proposes an enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) based hybrid forecasting method for short-term wi...

  11. OMNI: An optoelectronic multichannel network interface based on hybrid CMOS-SEED technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Timothy M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents a hybrid CMOS-SEED multiprocessor network interface smart pixel design that implements a reservation-based channel control protocol for collisionless concurrent access to multiple optical interprocessor communication channels. An asynchronous optical token is used as the arbitration mechanism for reservation control instead of slotted access. This work demonstrates that complex network protocol functions can be implemented using optoelectronic smart pixel technology.

  12. Novel high dielectric constant hybrid elastomers based on glycerol-insilicone emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid elastomers were prepared by speedmixing of two virtually immiscible liquids – glycerol and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) prepolymer. Upon crosslinking ofthe PDMS phase of the resulting glycerol-in-silicone emulsion freestanding films were obtained. In this way glycerol became uniformly...... elastomeractuators. Conductivities of samples based on various PDMS compositions with different loadings of embedded glycerol were thoroughly investigated providing useful information about the dielectric behavior....

  13. Environmentally friendly hybrid coatings for corrosion protection: silane based pre-treatments and nanostructured waterborne coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Fedel, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers a nanotechnology approach based on the production of metals pre-treatments and organic coatings (a complete protection system at all) designed from the nanoscale. The final aim is to develop protection systems with improved corrosion protection properties and a low environmental impact. In particular, multifunctional silane hybrid molecules were used to design sol-gel pre-treatments for metals and to modify the inner structure of UV curable waterborne organic coatings...

  14. Biodiesel production by using lipase immobilized onto novel silica-based hybrid foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nicolas [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Garcia, Annick Babeau; Oestreicher, Victor; Durand, Fabien; Backov, Renal [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Deleuze, Herve [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Laurent, Guillaume; Sanchez, Clement [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    The covalent immobilization of crude lipases within silica-based macroporous frameworks have been performed by combining sol-gel process, concentrated direct emulsion, lyotropic mesophase and post-synthesis functionalizations. The assynthesized open cell hybrid monoliths exhibit high macroscopic porosity, around 90%, providing interconnected scaffold while reducing the diffusion low kinetic issue. The entrapment of enzymes in such foams deals with a high stability over esterification of fatty acids, hydrolysis of triglycerides (not shown herein) and biodiesel production by transesterification. (orig.)

  15. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Cheng; Le Sun; Giuseppe Buja; Lihua Song

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs). Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator perm...

  16. HYBRID MODELING BASED ON SCSG-BR AND ORTHOPHOTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of digital city, digital applications are more and more widespread, while the urban buildings are more complex. Therefore, establishing an effective data model is the key to express urban building models accurately. In addition, the combination of 3D building model and remote sensing data become a trend to build digital city there are a large amount of data resulting in data redundancy. In order to solve the limitation of single modelling of constructive solid geometry (CSG, this paper presents a mixed modelling method based on SCSG-BR for urban buildings representation. On one hand, the improved CSG method, which is called as “Spatial CSG (SCSG” representation method, is used to represent the exterior shape of urban buildings. On the other hand, the boundary representation (BR method represents the topological relationship between geometric elements of urban building, in which the textures is considered as the attribute data of the wall and the roof of urban building. What's more, the method combined file database and relational database is used to manage the data of three-dimensional building model, which can decrease the complex processes in texture mapping. During the data processing, the least-squares algorithm with constraints is used to orthogonalize the building polygons and adjust the polygons topology to ensure the accuracy of the modelling data. Finally, this paper matches the urban building model with the corresponding orthophoto. This paper selects data of Denver, Colorado, USA to establish urban building realistic model. The results show that the SCSG-BR method can represent the topological relations of building more precisely. The organization and management of urban building model data reduce the redundancy of data and improve modelling speed. The combination of orthophoto and urban building model further strengthens the application in view analysis and spatial query, which enhance the scope of digital

  17. Hybrid Modeling Based on Scsg-Br and Orthophoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Huang, Y.; Yue, T.; Li, X.; Huang, W.; He, C.; Wu, Z.

    2018-05-01

    With the development of digital city, digital applications are more and more widespread, while the urban buildings are more complex. Therefore, establishing an effective data model is the key to express urban building models accurately. In addition, the combination of 3D building model and remote sensing data become a trend to build digital city there are a large amount of data resulting in data redundancy. In order to solve the limitation of single modelling of constructive solid geometry (CSG), this paper presents a mixed modelling method based on SCSG-BR for urban buildings representation. On one hand, the improved CSG method, which is called as "Spatial CSG (SCSG)" representation method, is used to represent the exterior shape of urban buildings. On the other hand, the boundary representation (BR) method represents the topological relationship between geometric elements of urban building, in which the textures is considered as the attribute data of the wall and the roof of urban building. What's more, the method combined file database and relational database is used to manage the data of three-dimensional building model, which can decrease the complex processes in texture mapping. During the data processing, the least-squares algorithm with constraints is used to orthogonalize the building polygons and adjust the polygons topology to ensure the accuracy of the modelling data. Finally, this paper matches the urban building model with the corresponding orthophoto. This paper selects data of Denver, Colorado, USA to establish urban building realistic model. The results show that the SCSG-BR method can represent the topological relations of building more precisely. The organization and management of urban building model data reduce the redundancy of data and improve modelling speed. The combination of orthophoto and urban building model further strengthens the application in view analysis and spatial query, which enhance the scope of digital city applications.

  18. Linear electro-optical behavior of hybrid nanocomposites based on silicon carbide nanocrystals and polymer matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouclé, J.; Kassiba, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Reynaud, C.; Desert, A.; Emery, J.; Bulou, A.; Sanetra, J.; Pud, A. A.; Kodjikian, S.

    2006-11-01

    An electro-optical activity has been recently reported for hybrid nanocomposite thin films where inorganic silicon carbide nanocrystals (ncSiC) are incorporated into polymer matrices. The role of the interface SiC polymer is suggested as the origin of the observed second order nonlinear optical susceptibility in the hybrid materials based on poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or poly-( N -vinylcarbazole) matrices. In this work, we report an analysis of the electro-optical response of this hybrid system as a function of the ncSiC content and surface state in order to precise the interface effect in the observed phenomenon. Two specific ncSiC samples with similar morphology and different surface states are incorporated in the PMMA matrix. The effective Pockels parameters of the corresponding hybrid nanocomposites have been estimated up to 7.59±0.74pm/V ( 1wt.% of ncSiC in the matrix). The interfacial region ncSiC polymer is found to play the main role in the observed effect. Particularly, the electronic defects on the ncSiC nanocrystal surface modify the interfacial electrical interactions between the two components. The results are interpreted and discussed on the basis of the strong influence of these active centers in the interfacial region at the nanoscale, which are found to monitor the local hyperpolarizabilities and the macroscopic nonlinear optical susceptibilities. This approach allows us to complete the description and understanding of the electro-optical response in the hybrid SiC /polymer systems.

  19. Comparison of self-field effects between Bi-2223/Ag tapes and pancake coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, A.K.M.; Gu, C.; Han, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge on self-field behavior in HTS tape and coil becomes important for the design of HTS devices. We report on the comparative nature and influence of self-field in Bi-2223/Ag tape and pancake coils in terms of critical current and ac loss. Measured dc and ac properties of short tape and pancake coils are verified based on the self-field. It is proved that perpendicular component of self-field acting in opposite direction at the two halves of tape-width determines critical current in short tape and single-turn coil. On the other hand, perpendicular component of self-field pointed in the same direction at the two halves of tape-width determines critical current in multi-turn coils. Influence of magnitude and orientation of self-field on ac loss is also investigated for a series of pancake coils based on the measured self-field ac loss in short sample

  20. Comparison of self-field effects between Bi-2223/Ag tapes and pancake coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, A.K.M. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Building Li Zhai, Room 209, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: alam643@yahoo.com; Gu, C. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Building Li Zhai, Room 209, Beijing 100084 (China); Han, Z. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Building Li Zhai, Room 209, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-08-15

    Knowledge on self-field behavior in HTS tape and coil becomes important for the design of HTS devices. We report on the comparative nature and influence of self-field in Bi-2223/Ag tape and pancake coils in terms of critical current and ac loss. Measured dc and ac properties of short tape and pancake coils are verified based on the self-field. It is proved that perpendicular component of self-field acting in opposite direction at the two halves of tape-width determines critical current in short tape and single-turn coil. On the other hand, perpendicular component of self-field pointed in the same direction at the two halves of tape-width determines critical current in multi-turn coils. Influence of magnitude and orientation of self-field on ac loss is also investigated for a series of pancake coils based on the measured self-field ac loss in short sample.

  1. Hybrid task priority-based motion control of a redundant free-floating space robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHOU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hybrid task priority-based motion planning algorithm of a space robot. The satellite attitude control task is defined as the primary task, while the least-squares-based non-strict task priority solution of the end-effector plus the multi-constraint task is viewed as the secondary task. Furthermore, a null-space task compensation strategy in the joint space is proposed to derive the combination of non-strict and strict task-priority motion planning, and this novel combination is termed hybrid task priority control. Thus, the secondary task is implemented in the primary task’s null-space. Besides, the transition of the state of multiple constraints between activeness and inactiveness will only influence the end-effector task without any effect on the primary task. A set of numerical experiments made in a real-time simulation system under Linux/RTAI shows the validity and feasibility of the proposed methodology. Keywords: Base attitude control, Hybrid task-priority, Motion planning, Multiple constraints, Redundant space robot

  2. A hybrid model for dissolved oxygen prediction in aquaculture based on multi-scale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase prediction accuracy of dissolved oxygen (DO in aquaculture, a hybrid model based on multi-scale features using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD is proposed. Firstly, original DO datasets are decomposed by EEMD and we get several components. Secondly, these components are used to reconstruct four terms including high frequency term, intermediate frequency term, low frequency term and trend term. Thirdly, according to the characteristics of high and intermediate frequency terms, which fluctuate violently, the least squares support vector machine (LSSVR is used to predict the two terms. The fluctuation of low frequency term is gentle and periodic, so it can be modeled by BP neural network with an optimal mind evolutionary computation (MEC-BP. Then, the trend term is predicted using grey model (GM because it is nearly linear. Finally, the prediction values of DO datasets are calculated by the sum of the forecasting values of all terms. The experimental results demonstrate that our hybrid model outperforms EEMD-ELM (extreme learning machine based on EEMD, EEMD-BP and MEC-BP models based on the mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, mean square error (MSE and root mean square error (RMSE. Our hybrid model is proven to be an effective approach to predict aquaculture DO.

  3. Opposition-Based Memetic Algorithm and Hybrid Approach for Sorting Permutations by Reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncco-Álvarez, José Luis; Muñoz, Daniel M; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio

    2018-02-21

    Sorting unsigned permutations by reversals is a difficult problem; indeed, it was proved to be NP-hard by Caprara (1997). Because of its high complexity, many approximation algorithms to compute the minimal reversal distance were proposed until reaching the nowadays best-known theoretical ratio of 1.375. In this article, two memetic algorithms to compute the reversal distance are proposed. The first one uses the technique of opposition-based learning leading to an opposition-based memetic algorithm; the second one improves the previous algorithm by applying the heuristic of two breakpoint elimination leading to a hybrid approach. Several experiments were performed with one-hundred randomly generated permutations, single benchmark permutations, and biological permutations. Results of the experiments showed that the proposed OBMA and Hybrid-OBMA algorithms achieve the best results for practical cases, that is, for permutations of length up to 120. Also, Hybrid-OBMA showed to improve the results of OBMA for permutations greater than or equal to 60. The applicability of our proposed algorithms was checked processing permutations based on biological data, in which case OBMA gave the best average results for all instances.

  4. Design and Analysis of Self-Healing Tree-Based Hybrid Spectral Amplitude Coding OCDMA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas A. Imtiaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient tree-based hybrid spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA system that is able to provide high capacity transmission along with fault detection and restoration throughout the passive optical network (PON. Enhanced multidiagonal (EMD code is adapted to elevate system’s performance, which negates multiple access interference and associated phase induced intensity noise through efficient two-matrix structure. Moreover, system connection availability is enhanced through an efficient protection architecture with tree and star-ring topology at the feeder and distribution level, respectively. The proposed hybrid architecture aims to provide seamless transmission of information at minimum cost. Mathematical model based on Gaussian approximation is developed to analyze performance of the proposed setup, followed by simulation analysis for validation. It is observed that the proposed system supports 64 subscribers, operating at the data rates of 2.5 Gbps and above. Moreover, survivability and cost analysis in comparison with existing schemes show that the proposed tree-based hybrid SAC-OCDMA system provides the required redundancy at minimum cost of infrastructure and operation.

  5. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Finite element coiled cochlea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.

  7. BPX toroidal field coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzenvoeder, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the toroidal field (TF) coil system of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) which consists of (18) beryllium copper magnets arrayed in a wedged configuration with a major radius of 2.6 meters and a field strength capability on axis of 9.0 Tesla. The toroidal array is constructed from six (3)-coil modules to facilitate remote recovery in the event of a magnet failure after nuclear activation precludes hands-on servicing. The magnets are of a modified Bitter plate design with partial cases of type 316-LN stainless steel welded with Inconel 182 weld wire. The coil turn plates are fabricated from CDA C17510 beryllium copper with optimized mechanical, thermal, and electrical characteristics. joints within the turns and between turns are made by welding with C17200 filler wire. Cryogenic cooling is employed to reduce power dissipation and to enhance performance. The magnets are cooled between experimental pulses by pressurized liquid nitrogen flowing through channels in the edges of the coil turns. This arrangement makes possible one full-power pulse per hour. Electrical insulation consists of polyimide-glass sheets bonded in place with vacuum-pressure impregnated epoxy/glass

  8. Demonstration poloidal coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Kawano, Katumi; Tada, Eisuke

    1989-01-01

    A new compact cryogenic cold compressor was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in collaboration with Isikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI) in order to produce the supercritical helium below 4.2 K for Demonstration Poloidal Coils (DPC) which are forced-flow cooled type superconducting pulse coils. This compressor is one of key components for DPC test facility. The cold compressor reduces pressure in liquid helium bath, which contains liquid helium of around 3,000 l, down to 0.5 atm efficiently. Consequently, supercritical helium down to 3.5 K is produced and supplied to the DPC coils. A centrifugal compressor with dynamic gas bearing is selected as a compressor mechanism to realize high adiabatic efficiency and large flow rate. In this performance tests, the compressor was operated for 220 h at saturated condition from 0.5 to 1.0 atm without any failure. High adiabatic efficiency (more than 60 %) is achieved with wide flow range (25-65 g/s) and the design value is fully satisfied. The compressor can rotate up to 80,000 rpm at maximum then the coil supply temperature of supercritical helium is 3.5 K. (author)

  9. Open-Coil Retraction Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. “Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS” is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.. A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement.

  10. PDX toroidal field coils stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Smith, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method used in the stress analysis of the PDX toroidal field coil is developed. A multilayer coil design of arbitrary dimensions in the shape of either a circle or an oval is considered. The analytical model of the coil and the supporting coil case with connections to the main support structure is analyzed using the finite element technique. The three dimensional magnetic fields and the non-uniform body forces which are a loading condition on a coil due to toroidal and poloidal fields are calculated. The method of analysis permits rapid and economic evaluations of design changes in coil geometry as well as in coil support structures. Some results pertinent to the design evolution and their comparison are discussed. The results of the detailed stress analysis of the final coil design due to toroidal field, poloidal field and temperature loads are presented

  11. Complex study of transport AC loss in various 2G HTS racetrack coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiran, E-mail: yc315@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Zhang, Min; Chudy, Michal; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, Tim [University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Comparing transport AC losses of two types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. ► The magnetic substrate in the MAG RABITS coil is the main difference. ► Experimental data agree well with simulation results. ► The transport AC loss in the MAG RABITS coil is 36% higher than that in the IBAD coil. ► It is better to keep all the substrate non-magnetic. -- Abstract: HTS racetrack coils are becoming important elements of an emerging number of superconducting devices such as generators or motors. In these devices the issue of AC loss is crucial, as performance and cooling power are derived from this quantity. This paper presents a comparative study of transport AC loss in two different types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. In this study, both experimental measurements and computer simulation approaches were employed. All the experiments were performed using classical AC electrical method. The finite-element computer model was used to estimate electromagnetic properties and calculate transport AC loss. The main difference between the characterized coils is covered inside tape architectures. While one coil uses tape based on RABITS magnetic substrate, the second coil uses a non-magnetic tape. Ferromagnetic loss caused by a magnetic substrate is an important issue involved in the total AC loss. As a result, the coil with the magnetic substrate surprised with high AC loss and rather low performance.

  12. SNBRFinder: A Sequence-Based Hybrid Algorithm for Enhanced Prediction of Nucleic Acid-Binding Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jia; Sun, Jun; Liu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Protein-nucleic acid interactions are central to various fundamental biological processes. Automated methods capable of reliably identifying DNA- and RNA-binding residues in protein sequence are assuming ever-increasing importance. The majority of current algorithms rely on feature-based prediction, but their accuracy remains to be further improved. Here we propose a sequence-based hybrid algorithm SNBRFinder (Sequence-based Nucleic acid-Binding Residue Finder) by merging a feature predictor SNBRFinderF and a template predictor SNBRFinderT. SNBRFinderF was established using the support vector machine whose inputs include sequence profile and other complementary sequence descriptors, while SNBRFinderT was implemented with the sequence alignment algorithm based on profile hidden Markov models to capture the weakly homologous template of query sequence. Experimental results show that SNBRFinderF was clearly superior to the commonly used sequence profile-based predictor and SNBRFinderT can achieve comparable performance to the structure-based template methods. Leveraging the complementary relationship between these two predictors, SNBRFinder reasonably improved the performance of both DNA- and RNA-binding residue predictions. More importantly, the sequence-based hybrid prediction reached competitive performance relative to our previous structure-based counterpart. Our extensive and stringent comparisons show that SNBRFinder has obvious advantages over the existing sequence-based prediction algorithms. The value of our algorithm is highlighted by establishing an easy-to-use web server that is freely accessible at http://ibi.hzau.edu.cn/SNBRFinder.

  13. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  14. Bow-shaped toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.

    1981-05-01

    Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case

  15. Study of a 5-Tesla large aperture coil for the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cure, B

    2011-01-01

    The present design of a CLIC detector foresees a large solenoid magnet with a 6 m aperture and a magnetic induction of 5 T at the interaction point. This can be achieved by a thin superconducting coil. This report gives the typical main parameters of such a coil and presents the feasibility based on and compared with the CMS and Atlas solenoid coil designs, indicating the limits on the conductor and the identified R&D prospects.

  16. Hybrid structures based on gold nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots for biosensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Margarita Kurochkina,1 Elena Konshina,1 Aleksandr Oseev,2 Soeren Hirsch3 1Centre of Information Optical Technologies, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 3Department of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Brandenburg, Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany Background: The luminescence amplification of semiconductor quantum dots (QD in the presence of self-assembled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs is one of way for creating biosensors with highly efficient transduction. Aims: The objective of this study was to fabricate the hybrid structures based on semiconductor CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays and to use them as biosensors of protein. Methods: In this paper, the hybrid structures based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Au NP arrays were fabricated using spin coating processes. Au NP arrays deposited on a glass wafer were investigated by optical microscopy and absorption spectroscopy depending on numbers of spin coating layers and their baking temperature. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used as the target protein analyte in a phosphate buffer. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to study the luminescent properties of Au NP/QD hybrid structures and to test BSA. Results: The dimensions of Au NP aggregates increased and the space between them decreased with increasing processing temperature. At the same time, a blue shift of the plasmon resonance peak in the absorption spectra of Au NP arrays was observed. The deposition of CdSe/ZnS QDs with a core diameter of 5 nm on the surface of the Au NP arrays caused an increase in absorption and a red shift of the plasmon peak in the spectra. The exciton–plasmon enhancement of the QDs’ photoluminescence intensity has been obtained at room temperature for hybrid structures with Au NPs array pretreated at temperatures of 100°C and 150°C. It has been found that an increase in the weight content of BSA

  17. Sensitive quench detection of the HTS coil using a co-winding coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Tomohiro; Ariyama, Takahiro; Takao, Tomoaki; Tsukamoto, Osami

    2017-01-01

    The authors have studied the co-winding coil method (CW method) using the co-wound coil electrically insulated from the HTS coil. In this method, the quench is detected by the voltage difference between the coil of the HTS tape (HTS coil) and the coil of the normal conductor (CW coil). The voltage induced in the CW coil caused by the change of the magnetic field is almost the same as that in the HTS coil because the coils are magnetically coupled close to each other. Therefore, it is expected that the induced voltage will be canceled with high accuracy and that the resistive voltage in the HTS coil will be detected with greater sensitivity compared to the bridge balance method, which is used commonly. In this study, quench detection applying the CW method is demonstrated using an experimental double-pancake coil. A tape with the copper layer deposited on the polymer substrate was used as the insulated conductor wire to form the CW coil. An additional pancake coil was used to expose the experimental double-pancake coil to the external magnetic field asymmetrically. It was shown that the CW method can detect the resistive voltage with greater sensitivity even when the HTS coil was exposed to the changing asymmetric external magnetic field. (author)

  18. Current control system for superconducting coils of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikaraishi, H.; Yamada, S.; Inoue, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduce a coil current control system of the LHD. The main part of this system consists of two VME based real time computers and a risc based work station which are connected by optical fiber link. In this computer system, a coil current controller for steady state operation of LHD which based on a state variable control theory is installed. Also advanced current control scheme, which are now developing for dynamic current control in phase II operation of LHD, are introduced. (author)

  19. Status of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss coil is a forced flow coil cooled by supercritical helium. A brief review of the design considerations, some of its specific features, and the progress in fabrication are described. A discussion of both the instrumentation and the cryogenic characteristics of the coil is presented

  20. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially