WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid cell panel

  1. Predicting bending stiffness of randomly oriented hybrid panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Moya; William T.Y. Tze; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a simple model to predict the bending modulus of elasticity (MOE) of randomly oriented hybrid panels. The modeling process involved three modules: the behavior of a single layer was computed by applying micromechanics equations, layer properties were adjusted for densification effects, and the entire panel was modeled as a three-...

  2. Structural Acoustic Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed to predict the structural acoustic response of shape memory alloy hybrid composite panels subjected to acoustic excitation. The panel is modeled by a finite element analysis and the radiated field is predicted using Rayleigh's integral. Transmission loss predictions for the case of an aluminum panel excited by a harmonic acoustic pressure are shown to compare very well with a classical analysis. Predictions of the normal velocity response and transmitted acoustic pressure for a clamped aluminum panel show excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Predicted transmission loss performance for a composite panel with and without shape memory alloy reinforcement are also presented. The preliminary results demonstrate that the transmission loss can be significantly increased with shape memory alloy reinforcement.

  3. Exergetic evaluation on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel; Taiyoko netsu hybrid panel no exergy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaki, H.; Morita, Y.; Fujisawa, T.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel (PV/T) is an energy converter that was designed for the composite use of electricity and heat. In this paper, the validity of PV/T designed for trial was evaluated based on an exergetic theory. As the result of an experiment, the electric exergetic value of PV/T and PV is each 65.8 kWh/m{sup 2} and 58.6 kWh/m{sup 2}. The former is higher than the latter by 11.2%. The total exergetic value of PV/T is also 1.2 and 8.2 times as high as those of a PV and solar collector (SC), respectively. The calculation result of the optimum temperature operation showed that the exergetic value of PV/T is 3.1 times as high as the electric exergetic value. Therefore, the operation must be performed with the electric and thermal exergetic values set in a ratio of 3.1 to 1. In this paper, the operating mode is handled in which importance was more attached to the electric exergy than the thermal exergy. The flow rate of a heating medium on PV/T is not thus the flow control that maximizes the PV/T exergy. In the future, studies including these points will be promoted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Hybrid silencers with micro-perforated panels and internal partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Cheng, Li; You, Xiangyu

    2015-02-01

    A sub-structuring approach, along with a unit cell treatment, is proposed to model expansion chamber silencers with internal partitions and micro-perforated panels (MPPs) in the absence of internal flow. The side-branch of the silencer is treated as a combination of unit cells connected in series. It is shown that, by connecting multiple unit cells with varying parameters, the noise attenuation bandwidth can be enlarged. With MPPs, the hybrid noise attenuation mechanism of the silencer is revealed. Depending on the size of the perforation hole, noise attenuation can be dominated by dissipative, reactive, or combined effects together. For a broadband sound absorption, the hole size, together with the perforation ratio and other parameters, can be optimized to strike a balance between the dissipative and reactive effect, for ultimately achieving the desired noise attenuation performance within a prescribed frequency region. The modular nature of the proposed formulation allows doing this in a flexible, accurate, and cost effective manner. The accuracy of the proposed approach is validated through comparisons with finite element method and experiments.

  5. Active vibration and noise control by hybrid active acoustic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoebener, U.; Gaul, L. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. A fuer Mechanik

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper a hybrid passive and active treatment for vibration and noise reduction of plate type structures is proposed. The treatment is manufactured as sandwich structure and is called hybrid active acoustic panel. The passive component is used to reduce the vibration and sound radiation for high frequencies whereas the active part of the system is designed for the low frequency range. By selecting the thickness of the passive damping layer a certain frequency limit is defined, which divides the high and low frequency range. The actuator and sensor layout of the active component is evaluated by using the mode shapes of the low frequency range. According to the evaluated layout a hybrid active acoustic panel is manufactured and experimentally tested. The experimental results validate the proposed concept. (orig.)

  6. Mapping of Microsatellite SW943 to Porcine Chromosome 12p11-(2/3p13) Using Primed in situ Synthesis and Somatic Cell Hybrid Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bang; WANG Yong-qiang; ZHANG Qing-de; YU Mei; ZHAO Shu-hong; XIONG Tong-an; LI Kui

    2002-01-01

    The porcine microsatellite SW943 was regionally localized on 12p11-(2/3p13) by the two methods: the Primed in situ (PRINS) labelling on the pachytene bivalents of pigs using the Dig-11-dUTP as the report molecule and pig × rodent Somatic Cell Hybrid PaneI(SCHP) which contains 27 cell lines through PCR amplification. Advantages and disadvantages of the two methods for physical mapping of microsatellites were also discussed.

  7. Hybrid passive-active absorption of a microperforated panel in free field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Pedro; Cuesta, María

    2007-06-01

    Although hybrid passive-active absorption in impedance tubes has been widely analyzed, its study in more realistic conditions remains to be accomplished. This letter describes the practical measurement of the passive-active absorption coefficient in a free field. The passive absorber consists of a microperforated panel backed by an air cavity and a wooden panel. A multichannel active system controls the sound pressure in a reduced cell behind the absorber. Measured absorption coefficients between 200 and 400 Hz account for 0.2-0.4 and 0.72-0.75, in the passive and active cases, respectively, and above 500 Hz both are comparable.

  8. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the installation of real time test bed with a small electric generator and dynamic solar panels with battery backups.

  9. Solar Cells and Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    TO CATALOG THIS DATA IN THE FORM OF A MODELo THE PRESENT DATA CAN BE MADE TO FIT A P-N JUNCTION WITH PHOTOCONDUCTIVE SERIES AND SHUNT RESISTANCES...TO THE SUN. ANALYSIS OF THE APPARENT MOTION OF THE SUN, WIND EFFECTS, PANEL ORIENTATION, SUN SENSING , AND BASIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS ARE INCLUDED IN...DESIGN REQUIREMENTS LED TO SPECIFICATION OF A TWO-DEGREE-OF- FREEDOM GEARLESS MECHANISM INCORPORATING SUN SENSING , DIRECT SHAFT TORQUINGs AND POWER

  10. Coupled thermal model of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid panel for sample cities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Sera, Dezso; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    generation by the TEG is insignificant compared to electrical output by the PV panel, and the TEG plays only a small role on power generation in the hybrid PV/TEG panel. However, contribution of the TEG in the power generation can be improved via higher ZT thermoelectric materials and geometry optimization......In general, modeling of photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV/TEG) hybrid panels have been mostly simplified and disconnected from the actual ambient conditions and thermal losses from the panel. In this study, a thermally coupled model of PV/TEG panel is established to precisely predict performance...... of the hybrid system under different weather conditions. The model takes into account solar irradiation, wind speed and ambient temperature as well as convective and radiated heat losses from the front and rear surfaces of the panel. The model is developed for three sample cities in Europe with different...

  11. A hybrid solar panel maximum power point search method that uses light and temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Solar cells have low efficiency and non-linear characteristics. To increase the output power solar cells are connected in more complex structures. Solar panels consist of series of connected solar cells with a few bypass diodes, to avoid negative effects of partial shading conditions. Solar panels are connected to special device named the maximum power point tracker. This device adapt output power from solar panels to load requirements and have also build in a special algorithm to track the maximum power point of solar panels. Bypass diodes may cause appearance of local maxima on power-voltage curve when the panel surface is illuminated irregularly. In this case traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms can find only a local maximum power point. In this article the hybrid maximum power point search algorithm is presented. The main goal of the proposed method is a combination of two algorithms: a method that use temperature sensors to track maximum power point in partial shading conditions and a method that use illumination sensor to track maximum power point in equal illumination conditions. In comparison to another methods, the proposed algorithm uses correlation functions to determinate the relationship between values of illumination and temperature sensors and the corresponding values of current and voltage in maximum power point. In partial shading condition the algorithm calculates local maximum power points bases on the value of temperature and the correlation function and after that measures the value of power on each of calculated point choose those with have biggest value, and on its base run the perturb and observe search algorithm. In case of equal illumination algorithm calculate the maximum power point bases on the illumination value and the correlation function and on its base run the perturb and observe algorithm. In addition, the proposed method uses a special coefficient modification of correlation functions algorithm. This sub

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Deflections of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel under Four-point Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Fajrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of theoretical and experimental deflection of a hybrid sandwich panel under four-point bending load. The paper initially presents few basic equations developed under three-point load, followed by development of model under four-point bending load and a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental results. It was found that the proposed model for predicting the deflection of hybrid sandwich panels provided fair agreement with the experimental values. Most of the sandwich panels showed theoretical deflection values higher than the experimental values, which is desirable in the design. It was also noticed that the introduction of intermediate layer does not contribute much to reduce the deflection of sandwich panel as the main contributor for the total deflection was the shear deformation of the core that mostly determined by the geometric of the samples and the thickness of the core.

  13. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  14. Construction of whole genome radiation hybrid panels and map of chromosome 5A of wheat using asymmetric somatic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanen Zhou

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of constructing a whole genome radiation hybrid (WGRH map in plant species with large genomes, asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. was performed. The protoplasts of wheat were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV and gamma-ray and rescued by protoplast fusion using B. scorzonerifolium as the recipient. Assessment of SSR markers showed that the radiation hybrids have the average marker retention frequency of 15.5%. Two RH panels (RHPWI and RHPWII that contained 92 and 184 radiation hybrids, respectively, were developed and used for mapping of 68 SSR markers in chromosome 5A of wheat. A total of 1557 and 2034 breaks were detected in each panel. The RH map of chromosome 5A based on RHPWII was constructed. The distance of the comprehensive map was 2103 cR and the approximate resolution was estimated to be ∼501.6 kb/break. The RH panels evaluated in this study enabled us to order the ESTs in a single deletion bin or in the multiple bins cross the chromosome. These results demonstrated that RH mapping via protoplast fusion is feasible at the whole genome level for mapping purposes in wheat and the potential value of this mapping approach for the plant species with large genomes.

  15. Solar Cell Panel and the Method for Manufacturing the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Sarver, Charles F. (Inventor); Naidenkova, Maria (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    According to an aspect of an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a solar cell panel and a method for manufacturing the same. The solar cell panel comprises: a solar cell for generating electric power from sunlight; a coverglass for covering the solar cell; transparent shims, which are disposed between the solar cell and the coverglass at the points where the distance between the solar cell and the coverglass needs to be controlled, and form a space between the solar cell and the coverglass; and adhesive layer, which fills the space between the solar cell and the coverglass and has the thickness the same as that of the transparent shims.

  16. THERMO-PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECTS ON THE POSTBUCKLING OF AXIALLY-LOADED HYBRID LAMINATED CYLINDRICAL PANELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈惠申

    2004-01-01

    A compressive postbuckling analysis is presented for a laminated cylinderical panel with piezoelectric actuators subjected to the combined action of mechanical, electrical and thermal loads. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the panel surface and through the panel thickness and the electric field is assumed to be the transverse component Ez only. The material properties are assumed to be independent of the temperature and the electric field. The governing equations are based on the classicalshell theory with von Ka rman-Donnell-type of kinematic nonlinearity. The nonlinear prebuckling deformations and initial geometric imperfections of the panel are both taken into account. A boundary layer theory of shell buckling, which includes the effects of nonlinearprebuckling deformations, large deflections in the postbuckling range, and initial geometric imperfections of the shell, is extended to the case of hybrid laminated cylindrical panels of finite length. A singular perturbation technique is employed to determine the buckling loads and postbuckling equilibrium paths. The numerical illustrations concern the compressive postbuckling behavior of perfect and imperfect, cross-ply laminated cylindrical thin panels with fully covered or embedded piezoelectric actuators under different sets of thermal and electrical loading conditions. The effects played by temperature rise, applied voltage,stacking sequence, the character of in-plane boundary conditions, as well as initial geometric imperfections are studied.

  17. Structural Acoustic Response of a Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Panel (Lessons Learned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents results from an effort to fabricate a shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) panel specimen and test the structure for dynamic response and noise transmission characteristics under the action of thermal and random acoustic loads. A method for fabricating a SMAHC laminate with bi-directional SMA reinforcement is described. Glass-epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape and Nitinol ribbon comprise the material system. Thermal activation of the Nitinol actuators was achieved through resistive heating. The experimental hardware required for mechanical support of the panel/actuators and for establishing convenient electrical connectivity to the actuators is presented. Other experimental apparatus necessary for controlling the panel temperature and acquiring structural acoustic data are also described. Deficiency in the thermal control system was discovered in the process of performing the elevated temperature tests. Discussion of the experimental results focuses on determining the causes for the deficiency and establishing means for rectifying the problem.

  18. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  19. Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W W; Wu, K J; Wang, K; Shi, T F; Wu, L; Li, S X; Teng, D Y; Ye, C H

    2014-01-16

    Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

  20. Long-term hygrothermal effects on damage tolerance of hybrid composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, Ori; Hiel, Clement; Luft, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A sandwich construction, composed of hybrid carbon-glass fiber-reinforced plastic skins and a syntactic foam core, was selected as the design concept for a wind tunnel compressor blade application, where high damage tolerance and durability are of major importance. Beam specimens were prepared from open-edge and encapsulated sandwich panels which had previously been immersed in water at different temperatures for periods of up to about two years in the extreme case. Moisture absorption and strength characteristics, as related to time of exposure to hygrothermal conditions, were evaluated for the sandwich specimens and their constituents (skins and foam). After different exposure periods, low-velocity impact damage was inflicted on most sandwich specimens and damage characteristics were related to impact energy. Eventually, the residual compressive strengths of the damaged (and undamaged) beams were determined flexurally. Test results show that exposure to hygrothermal conditions leads to significant strength reductions for foam specimens and open-edge sandwich panels, compared with reference specimens stored at room temperature. In the case of skin specimens and for beams prepared from encapsulated sanwich panels that had previously been exposed to hygrothermal conditions, moisture absorption was found to improve strength as related to the reference case. The beneficial effect of moisture on skin performance was, however, limited to moisture contents below 1% (at 50 C and lower temperatures). Above this moisture level and at higher temperatures, strength degradation of the skin seems to prevail.

  1. The Application of Statistical Design of Experiments to Study the In-Plane Shear Behaviour of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical aspect of experimental study on the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel with intermediate layer. The study was aimed at providing information of how significant the contribution of intermediate layer to the in-plane shear behaviour of new developed sandwich panel. The investigation was designed as a single factor experimental design and the results were throughly analysed with statistics software; Minitab 15. The panels were tested by applying a tensile force along the diagonal of the test frame simulating pure shear using a 100 kN MTS servo-hydraulic UTM. The result shows that the incorporation of intermediate layer has sinificantly enhanced the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel. The statistical analysis shows that the value of F0 is much higher than the value of Ftable, which has a meaning that the improvement provided by the incorporation of intermediate layer is statistically significant.

  2. Calculated characteristics of an ac plasma display panel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1996-02-01

    Equipotential contours and contours of constant power deposition into excitation of xenon, calculated from a two-dimensional (2-D) fluid model, are presented at times during the evolution of a single discharge event in an ac plasma display panel cell with a dielectric barrier rib geometry.

  3. Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weickert, Jonas; Dunbar, Ricky B.; Hesse, Holger C.; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas [Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU) Munich, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich (Germany)

    2011-04-26

    This progress report highlights recent developments in nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells. The authors discuss novel approaches to control the film morphology in fully organic solar cells and the design of nanostructured hybrid solar cells. The motivation and recent results concerning fabrication and effects on device physics are emphasized. The aim of this review is not to give a summary of all recent results in organic and hybrid solar cells, but rather to focus on the fabrication, device physics, and light trapping properties of nanostructured organic and hybrid devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Assessment of a Solar Cell Panel Spatial Arrangement Influence on Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, L. N.; Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, O. D.

    2017-05-01

    The research evaluates the impact of the spatial arrangement of solar cell panels on the amount of electricity generated (power generated by solar cell panel) in Tyumen. Dependences of the power generated by the solar panel on the time of day, air temperature, weather conditions and the spatial arrangement are studied. Formulas for the calculation of the solar cell panel inclination angle which provides electricity to urban infrastructure are offered. Based on the data in the future, changing of inclination angle of solar cell panel will be confirmed experimentally during the year in Tyumen, and recommendations for installing solar cell panels in urban infrastructure will be developed.

  5. Application of dissociation curve analysis to radiation hybrid panel marker scoring: generation of a map of river buffalo (B. bubalis chromosome 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäffer Alejandro A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescence of dyes bound to double-stranded PCR products has been utilized extensively in various real-time quantitative PCR applications, including post-amplification dissociation curve analysis, or differentiation of amplicon length or sequence composition. Despite the current era of whole-genome sequencing, mapping tools such as radiation hybrid DNA panels remain useful aids for sequence assembly, focused resequencing efforts, and for building physical maps of species that have not yet been sequenced. For placement of specific, individual genes or markers on a map, low-throughput methods remain commonplace. Typically, PCR amplification of DNA from each panel cell line is followed by gel electrophoresis and scoring of each clone for the presence or absence of PCR product. To improve sensitivity and efficiency of radiation hybrid panel analysis in comparison to gel-based methods, we adapted fluorescence-based real-time PCR and dissociation curve analysis for use as a novel scoring method. Results As proof of principle for this dissociation curve method, we generated new maps of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis chromosome 20 by both dissociation curve analysis and conventional marker scoring. We also obtained sequence data to augment dissociation curve results. Few genes have been previously mapped to buffalo chromosome 20, and sequence detail is limited, so 65 markers were screened from the orthologous chromosome of domestic cattle. Thirty bovine markers (46% were suitable as cross-species markers for dissociation curve analysis in the buffalo radiation hybrid panel under a standard protocol, compared to 25 markers suitable for conventional typing. Computational analysis placed 27 markers on a chromosome map generated by the new method, while the gel-based approach produced only 20 mapped markers. Among 19 markers common to both maps, the marker order on the map was maintained perfectly. Conclusion Dissociation curve

  6. Hybrid Neural Network Approach Based Tool for the Modelling of Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Laudani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid neural network approach based tool for identifying the photovoltaic one-diode model is presented. The generalization capabilities of neural networks are used together with the robustness of the reduced form of one-diode model. Indeed, from the studies performed by the authors and the works present in the literature, it was found that a direct computation of the five parameters via multiple inputs and multiple outputs neural network is a very difficult task. The reduced form consists in a series of explicit formulae for the support to the neural network that, in our case, is aimed at predicting just two parameters among the five ones identifying the model: the other three parameters are computed by reduced form. The present hybrid approach is efficient from the computational cost point of view and accurate in the estimation of the five parameters. It constitutes a complete and extremely easy tool suitable to be implemented in a microcontroller based architecture. Validations are made on about 10000 PV panels belonging to the California Energy Commission database.

  7. 荧光原位杂交三探针联合检测在儿童急性B淋巴细胞白血病诊断中的应用%Application of three-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization panel in the diagnosis of pediatric B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范婧; 李承文; 赵佳炜; 贡金英; 郑迎春; 汝昆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the three-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel in the diagnosis of pediatric B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).Methods Three-probe (TEL-AML1,BCR-ABL and MLL) FISH and conventional cytogenetic analysis were performed in 207 children with B-ALL.Results In 207 B-ALL children,the three-probe FISH panel assay showed that 151 cases carried genetic aberrancies with a positive rate of 72.9%,including 44 cases with typical positive signal patterns and 148 cases with atypical signal patterns (among them 41 cases have multiprobe abberancy).The conventional cytogenetic analysis detected 53 cases chromosomal abnormality with a positive rate of 25.6%.Conclusion The detection rate of genetic abnormalities in newly-diagnosed pediatric B-ALL could be significantly improved by using three-probe FISH panel upon conventional cytogenetic analysis.%目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(FISH)三探针联合检测在儿童急性B淋巴细胞白血病(B-ALL)诊断中的应用价值.方法 对207例B-ALL患儿全部行三探针(TEL-AML1、BCR-ABL、MLL) FISH联合检测和常规染色体核型分析.结果 207例B-ALL患儿经FISH三探针联合检测,151例(72.9%)检出异常,包括典型阳性信号44例、非典型信号148例(其中41例为多探针同时检出异常).常规染色体核型分析技术检出染色体异常53例(25.6%).结论 对初诊的儿童B-ALL患者采用三探针联合FISH检测可以有效提高遗传学异常检出率.

  8. Programmed cell death and hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A; Barr, C M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new theory to explain developmental aberrations in plant hybrids. In our theory, hybrid incompatibilities arise from imbalances in the mechanisms that cause male sterility in hermaphroditic plants. Mitochondria often cause male sterility by killing the tapetal tissue that nurtures pollen mother cells. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria destroy the tapetum by triggering standard pathways of programmed cell death. Some nuclear genotypes repress mitochondrial male sterility and restore pollen fertility. Normal regulation of tapetal development therefore arises from a delicate balance between the disruptive effects of mitochondria and the defensive countermeasures of the nuclear genes. In hybrids, incompatibilities between male-sterile mitochondria and nuclear restorers may frequently upset the regulatory control of programmed cell death, causing tapetal abnormalities and male sterility. We propose that hybrid misregulation of programmed cell death may also spill over into other tissues, explaining various developmental aberrations observed in hybrids.

  9. Active control of broadband sound transmission through an airplane trim panel using hybrid feedforward and feedback techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yun-Ren

    This thesis presents a method of actively controlling the sound transmission through two designs of aircraft trim panels using a hybrid feedforward and feedback control technique. The active trim panels are designed for a high stiffness to mass ratio to allow only rigid body modal vibration in the frequency range of interest, thus simplifying the control technique, which is developed to minimize the vibration of a panel and therefore minimize the sound transmission. The hybrid controller consists of an adaptive feedforward (filtered-X LMS algorithm) controller in conjunction with a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) feedback controller. The LQG feedback controller is designed to alter the dynamics of the estimated plant model of the filtered-x LMS algorithm, improving control performance for both steady state and transient disturbances. Numerical simulations indicate that the hybrid controller is a more effective method of reducing the vibrations of the panels (and therefore the sound transmission) when compared to using only a feedforward or feedback controller. Experiments were carried out by using two trim panel designs, the first exhibiting only an out-of-plane piston mode, and the second exhibiting three rigid body modes and the first bending mode in control frequency range. For the first trim panel, the implementation of the active control experiment showed that a 5 to 20 dB reduction in both the vibration level and sound pressure level could be achieved over 50 to 500 Hz under a plane acoustic wave excitation. For the second trim panel, the hybrid controller achieved a 5 to 20 dB vibration reduction over the 50 to 400 Hz frequency band under structure-borne excitation. For air-borne excitation, the control scheme produced a 5 to 15 dB vibration reduction over the 70 to 400 Hz bandwidth with a reference microphone attached on the center of the fuselage skin and facing the sound source. In the near field (50 cm from the panel), the sound pressure levels measured

  10. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  11. A Monte-Carlo Model of Partially Trapped UV Radiation in a Plasma Display Panel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straaten, Trudy; Kushner, Mark J.

    1999-10-01

    Plasma Display Panels (PDPs) are being developed for large-area high-brightness flat panel displays. Color PDP cells generally use xenon gas mixtures to generate UV photons that are converted to visible light by phosphors. While the UV photons produced by Xe(6s'-5s5p6, 6s-5s5p6) are only in a quasi-optically thick regime due to the small dimensions (100s μms) of PDP cells, current models of PDPs do not explicitly address UV radiation transport other than by using radiation trapping factors. In this paper we report on results from a two-dimensional hybrid simulation of a PDP cell which models radiation transport using Monte Carlo (MC) photon transport and frequency redistribution algorithms. We examine the spectrum of UV photons incident on the phosphor and their escape probability. For typical operating conditions (400 Torr, 1-4% Xe mole fraction) there is significant frequency redistribution of resonance radiation due to absorption and subsequent re-emission at a different frequency within the lineshape. Significant line reversal occurs at Xe mole fractions of a few percent, the degree of which depends on PDP cell dimensions. The escape probability generally decreases during the current pulse due to additional quenching by electron impact processes.

  12. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  13. Preflight study of San Marco D/L GaAs solar cell panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The solar array for the San Marco D/L spacecraft is described and the performance of 4 GaAs solar cell panels are examined. In comparison to the typical Si solar cell panel for San Marco D/L, it is shown that each GaAs solar cell panel provides at least 23 percent more specific power at maximum output and 28 deg C. Also described here, are several measurements that will be made to evaluate the relative performance of Si and GaAs solar cell panels during the San Marco D/L flight.

  14. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  15. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a station

  16. Hybrid Arc Cell Studies: Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg J. S.

    2012-09-28

    I report on the status, at the end of FY12, of the studies of an arc cell for a hybrid synchrotron accelerating from 375 GeV/c to 750 GeV/c in momentum. Garren produced a complete lattice that gives a good outline of the structure of a hybrid synchrotron lattice. It is, however, lacking in some details: it does not maintain a constant time of flight, it lacks chromaticity correction, its cell structure is not ideal for removing aberrations from chromaticity correction, and it probably needs more space between magnets. I have begun studying cell structures for the arc cells to optimize the lattice performance and cost. I present some preliminary results for two magnets per half cell. I then discuss difficulties encountered, some preliminary attempts at resolving them, and the future plans for this work.

  17. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  18. Hybrid solar cells : Perovskites under the Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-halide organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites are reported to display electron–hole diffusion lengths over 1 μm. This observation provides important insight into the charge-carrier dynamics of this class of semiconductors and increases the expectations for highly efficient and cheap solar cells.

  19. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  20. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arnold R.; Peters, John; Smith, Brian E.; Velev, Omourtag A.

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109 t, 1.2 MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive

  2. Construction of a river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and preliminary RH mapping of chromosomes 3 and 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Womack

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis not only is a useful source of milk, it also provides meat and works as a natural source of labor and biogas. To establish a project for buffalo genome mapping a 5,000-rad whole genome radiation hybrid panel was constructed for river buffalo and used to build preliminary RH maps from two chromosomes (BBU 3 and BBU10. The preliminary maps contain 66 markers, including coding genes, cattle ESTs and microsatellite loci. The RH maps presented here are the starting point for mapping additional loci, in particular, genes and expressed sequence tags that will allow detailed comparative maps between buffalo, cattle and other species to be constructed. A large quantity of DNA has been prepared from the cell lines forming the RH panel reported here and will be made publicly available to the international community both for the study of chromosome evolution and for the improvement of traits important to the role of buffalo in animal agriculture.

  3. Modeling the Effects of Solar Cell Attitude Distribution on Optical Cross Section for Solar Panel Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feirstine, K.; Bush, K.; Crosher, C.; Klein, M.; Bowers, D.; Wellems, D.; Duggin, M.; Vaughn, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Time-domain Analysis Simulation for Advanced Tracking (TASAT) was used to explore the variation of Optical Cross Section (OCS) with glint angle for a solar panel with different solar cell attitude distribution statistics. Simulations were conducted using a 3D model of a solar panel with various solar cell tip and tilt distribution statistics. Modeling a solar panel as a single sheet of "solar cell" material is not appropriate for OCS glint studies. However, modeling each individual solar cell on the panel, the tips and tilts of which come from a distribution of specified statistics (distribution type, mean, and standard deviation), accurately captures the solar panel OCS with glint angle. The objective of the simulations was to vary the glint measurement angle about the maximum glint position of the solar panel and observe the variations in OCS with angle for a bi-static illumination condition. OCS was calculated relative to the simulated scattering of a Spectralon material in the glint orientation. Results show the importance of solar cell attitude distribution statistics in modeling the OCS observed for a solar panel.

  4. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  5. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  6. A mass reduction effort of the electric and hybrid vehicle. [composite door panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R. B.; Jahnle, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    Weight reduction, cost competitiveness, and elimination of the intrusion beam resulted from the redesign and fabrication using composite materials of the door outer panel and intrusion beam from a Chevrolet Impala. The basis of the redesign involved replacing these two steel parts with a single compression molding using the unique approach of simultaneously curing a sheet molding compound outside panel with a continuous glass fiber intrusion strap. A weight reduction of nearly 11 pounds per door was achieved. Additional weight savings are possible by taking advantage of the elimination of the intrusion beam to design thinner door structures. The parts consolidation approach allows the composite structure to be cost competitive with the original steel design for both the lower production car models and for the near to midterm production vehicles using current state of the art composite production techniques. The design, prototype fabrication, costing, material, properties and compression molding production requirements are discussed.

  7. Impact Analysis of Embedded Delamination Location in Hybrid Curved Laminated Composite Stiffened Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naini, Jeevan Kumar; P, Ramesh Babu

    2016-08-01

    Modern, aero structures are predominantly of curved construction characterized by a skin and stiffeners. The latest generation of large passenger aircraft also uses mostly composite material in their primary structure and there is trend towards the utilization of bonding of subcomponents. The presence of delamination is a major problem in composite laminated panels and so, it is of great concern to both the academic and aeronautical industrial worlds Indeed delamination can strongly affect the material strength and, sometimes, can cause their breaking up in service. A Pre-damaged configuration is loaded to study the delamination location and mode for delamination initiation and propagation. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of the location of the delamination propagation when delamination is embedded inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface, with the cases i) delamination located at front and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface ii) delamination located in middle and inbetween plies of the skin-stiffener interface iii) delamination located at the end and inbetween plies of the skin- stiffener interface. Further the influence of the location of the delamination on load carrying capacity of the panel is investigated. The effect of location of debonds on crack growth and collapse behavior is analyzed using analysis tool. An analysis tool is applied that includes an approach for predicting interlaminar damage initiation and interlaminar damage growth as well as in-plane damage mechanisms to predict the design of defect free panel.

  8. A Neuroblastoma × Glioma Hybrid Cell Line with Morphine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Werner A.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    1974-01-01

    A neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cell line with well-developed neural properties was found that has high-affinity morphine receptors. The average cell contains approximately 3 × 106 receptors. In contrast, parent cells and other neuroblastoma or hybrid cell lines tested had few or no morphine receptors. PMID:4530316

  9. Hybrid solar cell on a carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynko, Dmytro A.; Fedoryak, Alexander N.; Smertenko, Petro S.; Dimitriev, Oleg P.; Ogurtsov, Nikolay A.; Pud, Alexander A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a method to assemble nanoscale hybrid solar cells in the form of a brush of radially oriented CdS nanowire crystals around a single carbon fiber is demonstrated for the first time. A solar cell was assembled on a carbon fiber with a diameter of ~5-10 μm which served as a core electrode; inorganic CdS nanowire crystals and organic dye or polymer layers were successively deposited on the carbon fiber as active components resulting in a core-shell photovoltaic structure. Polymer, dye-sensitized, and inverted solar cells have been prepared and compared with their analogues made on the flat indium-tin oxide electrode.

  10. A flat-panel-shaped hybrid piezo/triboelectric nanogenerator for ambient energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Gul; Khan, Fasihullah; Hassan, Arshad; Ali, Shawkat; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Recently, many researchers have been paying attention to nanogenerators (NGs) as energy sources for self-powered mirco-nano systems, and studying how to achieve their higher power generation. Hence, we propose a hybrid-type NG for harvesting both the piezoelectric and triboelectric effect simultaneously. In the proposed hybrid NG, the piezoelectric NG (PNG) and triboelectric NG (TENG) are fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and perovskite zinc stannite (ZnSnO3) nanocubes with a high charge polarization of 59 uC cm-2 composite (PDMS + ZnSnO3) and UV surface-treated PDMS, respectively. To effectively combine a high output current of PNG and a high voltage of TENG, these two NGs are stacked upon each other, and separated by sponge spacers providing a uniform air gap for the triboelectric effect. In particular, this fabricated structure has a low Young’s modulus for piezoelectricity. The proposed hybrid NG device effectively achieves a combined peak voltage of 300 V on an open circuit, a power density of 10.41 mW cm-2 at 1 MΩ load, and a maximum short circuit current density of 16 mA cm-2 at 50 Ω load. It is feasible that the proposed NG can be utilized as a source for various self-powered systems.

  11. Establishment of a drug sensitivity panel using human lung cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsushita A

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available We established a drug sensitivity panel consisting of 24 human lung cancer cell lines. Using this panel, we evaluated 26 anti-cancer agents: three alkylators, three platinum compounds, four antimetabolites, one topoisomerase I inhibitor, five topoisomerase II inhibitors, seven antimitotic agents and three tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This panel showed the following: a Drug sensitivity patterns reflected their clinically-established patterns of action. For example, doxorubicin and etoposide were shown to be active against small cell lung cancer cell lines and mitomycin-C and 5-fluorouracil were active against non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, in agreement with clinical data. b Correlation analysis of the mean graphs derived from the logarithm of IC50 values of the drugs gave insight into the mechanism of each drug's action. Thus, two drug combinations with reverse or no correlation, such as the combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine, might be good candidates for the ideal two drug combination in the treatment of lung cancer, as is being confirmed in clinical trials. c Using cluster analysis of the cell lines in the panel with their drug sensitivity patterns, we could classify the cell lines into four groups depending on the drug sensitivity similarity. This classification will be useful to elucidate the cellular mechanism of action and drug resistance. Thus, our drug sensitivity panel will be helpful to explore new drugs or to develop a new combination of anti-cancer agents for the treatment of lung cancer.

  12. Parametric studies of AC plasma display panel cells in complex geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punset, C.; Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). CPAT

    1996-12-31

    The authors have developed a two-dimensional fluid model of AC plasma panel cells. This model was used to study the operation of a plasma panel cell in a barrier rib geometry in single pulse operation. In this communication, they report results from calculations in several different geometries and for a series of applied voltage pulses. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of geometry on the electrical characteristics of AC plasma display panel cells. The calculations reported here are representative of actual device operation. They have also used the model to study the effect of the geometrical parameters of the cell, to optimize the discharge efficiency in producing UV photons and to study cross-talk, i.e., interaction between adjacent cells. The conclusions of these parametric studies will be presented.

  13. Positioning of human chromosomes in murine cell hybrids according to synteny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaburn, Karen J; Newbold, Robert F; Bridger, Joanna M

    2008-12-01

    Chromosomes occupy non-random spatial positions in interphase nuclei. It remains unclear what orchestrates this high level of organisation. To determine how the nuclear environment influences the spatial positioning of chromosomes, we utilised a panel of stable mouse hybrid cell lines carrying a single, intact human chromosome. Eleven of 22 human chromosomes revealed an alternative location in hybrid nuclei compared to that of human fibroblasts, with the majority becoming more internally localised. Human chromosomes in mouse nuclei position according to neither their gene density nor size, but rather the position of human chromosomes in hybrid nuclei appears to mimic that of syntenic mouse chromosomes. These results suggest that chromosomes adopt the behaviour of their host species chromosomes and that the nuclear environment is an important determinant of the interphase positioning of chromosomes.

  14. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  15. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Metallic foams are a relatively new class of materials with low density and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. Although incompletely characterized, they offer comparable mechanical performance to traditional spacecraft structural materials (i.e. honeycomb sandwich panels) without detrimental through-thickness channeling cells. There are two competing types of metallic foams: open cell and closed cell. Open cell foams are considered the more promising technology due to their lower weight and higher degree of homogeneity. Leading micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields (MMOD) incorporate thin plates separated by a void space (i.e. Whipple shield). Inclusion of intermediate fabric layers, or multiple bumper plates have led to significant performance enhancements, yet these shields require additional non-ballistic mass for installation (fasteners, supports, etc.) that can consume up to 35% of the total shield weight [1]. Structural panels, such as open cell foam core sandwich panels, that are also capable of providing sufficient MMOD protection, represent a significant potential for increased efficiency in hypervelocity impact shielding from a systems perspective through a reduction in required non-ballistic mass. In this paper, the results of an extensive impact test program on aluminum foam core sandwich panels are reported. The effect of pore density, and core thickness on shielding performance have been evaluated over impact velocities ranging from 2.2 - 9.3 km/s at various angles. A number of additional tests on alternate sandwich panel configurations of comparable-weight have also been performed, including aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels (see Figure 1), Nomex honeycomb core sandwich panels, and 3D aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels. A total of 70 hypervelocity impact tests are reported, from which an empirical ballistic limit equation (BLE) has been derived. The BLE is in the standard form suitable for implementation in

  16. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Wendy U; Dittmer, Janke J; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2002-03-29

    We demonstrate that semiconductor nanorods can be used to fabricate readily processed and efficient hybrid solar cells together with polymers. By controlling nanorod length, we can change the distance on which electrons are transported directly through the thin film device. Tuning the band gap by altering the nanorod radius enabled us to optimize the overlap between the absorption spectrum of the cell and the solar emission spectrum. A photovoltaic device consisting of 7-nanometer by 60-nanometer CdSe nanorods and the conjugated polymer poly-3(hexylthiophene) was assembled from solution with an external quantum efficiency of over 54% and a monochromatic power conversion efficiency of 6.9% under 0.1 milliwatt per square centimeter illumination at 515 nanometers. Under Air Mass (A.M.) 1.5 Global solar conditions, we obtained a power conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  18. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive

  19. Cell-in-Shell Hybrids: Chemical Nanoencapsulation of Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hun; Hong, Daewha; Lee, Juno; Choi, Insung S

    2016-05-17

    Nature has developed a fascinating strategy of cryptobiosis ("secret life") for counteracting the stressful, and often lethal, environmental conditions that fluctuate sporadically over time. For example, certain bacteria sporulate to transform from a metabolically active, vegetative state to an ametabolic endospore state. The bacterial endospores, encased within tough biomolecular shells, withstand the extremes of harmful stressors, such as radiation, desiccation, and malnutrition, for extended periods of time and return to a vegetative state by breaking their protective shells apart when their environment becomes hospitable for living. Certain ciliates and even higher organisms, for example, tardigrades, and others are also found to adopt a cryptobiotic strategy for survival. A common feature of cryptobiosis is the structural presence of tough sheaths on cellular structures. However, most cells and cellular assemblies are not "spore-forming" and are vulnerable to the outside threats. In particular, mammalian cells, enclosed with labile lipid bilayers, are highly susceptible to in vitro conditions in the laboratory and daily life settings, making manipulation and preservation difficult outside of specialized conditions. The instability of living cells has been a main bottleneck to the advanced development of cell-based applications, such as cell therapy and cell-based sensors. A judicious question arises: can cellular tolerance against harmful stresses be enhanced by simply forming cell-in-shell hybrid structures? Experimental results suggest that the answer is yes. A micrometer-sized "Iron Man" can be generated by chemically forming an ultrathin (cell. Since the report on silica nanoencapsulation of yeast cells, in which cytoprotective yeast-in-silica hybrids were formed, several synthetic strategies have been developed to encapsulate individual cells in a cytocompatible fashion, mimicking the cryptobiotic cell-in-shell structures found in nature, for example

  20. Time course of programmed cell death, which included autophagic features, in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Naoya; Nihei, Saori; Miyakawa, Naoto; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Marubashi, Wataru; van Doorn, Wouter G; Yamada, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    PCD with features of vacuolar cell death including autophagy-related features were detected in hybrid tobacco cells, and detailed time course of features of vacuolar cell death were established. A type of interspecific Nicotiana hybrid, Nicotiana suaveolens × N. tabacum exhibits temperature-sensitive lethality. This lethality results from programmed cell death (PCD) in hybrid seedlings, but this PCD occurs only in seedlings and suspension-cultured cells grown at 28 °C, not those grown at 36 °C. Plant PCD can be classified as vacuolar cell death or necrotic cell death. Induction of autophagy, vacuolar membrane collapse and actin disorganization are each known features of vacuolar cell death, but observed cases of PCD showing all these features simultaneously are rare. In this study, these features of vacuolar cell death were evident in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality. Ion leakage, plasma membrane disruption, increased activity of vacuolar processing enzyme, vacuolar membrane collapse, and formation of punctate F-actin foci were each evident in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that macroautophagic structures formed and tonoplasts ruptured in these cells. The number of cells that contained monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-stained structures and the abundance of nine autophagy-related gene transcripts increased just before cell death at 28 °C; these features were not evident at 36 °C. We assessed whether an autophagic inhibitor, wortmannin (WM), influenced lethality in hybrid cells. After the hybrid cell began to die, WM suppressed increases in ion leakage and cell deaths, and it decreased the number of cells containing MDC-stained structures. These results showed that several features indicative of autophagy and vacuolar cell death were evident in the hybrid tobacco cells subject to lethality. In addition, we documented a detailed time course of these vacuolar cell death features.

  1. CROWDED HYBRID PANEL MANUFACTURED WITH PEANUT HULLS REINFORCED WITH ITAÚBA WOOD PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Barbirato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815726In this paper, it was considered the study of the potential use of peanut hulls and wood particles of itaúba (Mezilaurus itauba species in order to add value to these materials through the manufacture of hybrid particle board in order to compare the physical and mechanical performances as well as durability. For these procedures, it was used the bi-component polyurethane resin based on castor beans (mammon oil and urea-formaldehyde. The product quality was evaluated based on the requirements of the standards NBR 14.810:2006 APA PRP and 108, through physico-mechanical and microstructural durability. The results indicate that the incorporation of wood particles warrants an increase in physical-mechanical properties of the particleboard manufactured with peanut hulls, the polyurethane resin based on castor oil was effective as a particle adhesive binder and the durability assay indicated that the material should be used under conditions of low exposure to moisture.

  2. Solar Trigeneration: a Transitory Simulation of HVAC Systems Using Different Typologies of Hybrid Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro del Amo Sancho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The high energy demand on buildings requires efficient installations and the integration of renewable energy to achieve the goal of reducing energy consumption using traditional energy sources. Usually, solar energy generation and heating loads have different profiles along a day and their maximums take place at different moments. In addition, in months in which solar production is higher, the heating demands are the minimum (hot water is consumed only domestically in summer. Cooling machines (absorption and adsorption allow using thermal energy to chill a fluid. This heat flow rate could be recovered from solar collectors or any other heat source. The aim of this study is to integrate different typologies of solar hybrid (photovoltaic and thermal collectors with cooling machines getting solar trigeneration and concluding the optimal combination for building applications. The heat recovered from the photovoltaic module is used to provide energy to these cooling machines getting a double effect: to get a better efficiency on PV modules and to cool the building. In this document the authors analyse these installations, their operating conditions, dimensions and parameters, in order to get the optimal installation in three different European cities. This work suggests that in a family house in Madrid, the optimal combination is to use CPVT with azimuthally tracking and absorption machine. In this case, the solar trigeneration system using 55 m2 of collector area saves the cooling loads and 79% of the heating load in the house round the year.

  3. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchuan Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  4. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-04-02

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  5. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  6. Assignment of the gene for human tetranectin (TNA) to chromosome 3p22-->p21.3 by somatic cell hybrid mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Naylor, S L; Albrechtsen, R

    1997-01-01

    Tetranectin is a plasminogen-binding protein that is induced during the mineralization phase of osteogenesis. By screening a human chromosome 3 somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have localized the human tetranectin gene (TNA) to 3p22-->p21.3, which is distinct from the loci of two human conne...

  7. Performance in cooling mode of a heat pump using panels with PV cells as the condenser; Taiyo denchitsuki panel wo gyoshukuki to shita heat pump no reibo unten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, T.; Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Fujita, M. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Comparison was made between heat pumps in cooling operation, one having two panels provided with solar cells, the second having an air-cooled heat exchanger alone, and the third having a series connection of a panel unit and air-cooled heat exchanger, all serving as condenser. The results are shown below. In the case of two-panel-unit condenser, there is a difference ({Delta}t) of 15{degree}C between the daytime free air temperature and condensing temperature but, with decreased insolation, free air temperature, and wind speed in the evening, the {Delta}t lowered to approximately 8{degree}C while the COP (coefficient of performance) increased from 2.4 to 3.3. On a cloudy day in summer, the two-panel-unit condenser had a {Delta}t of 13.9{degree}C and a COP of 3.1. In the case of the series-connection condenser, the {Delta}t was approximately 8{degree}C and the COP was 3.5. The COP of the two-panel-unit condenser was lower than that of the air-cooled heat exchanger by 9% at an insolation of 442W/m{sup 2} but it rose to 12% in the absence of insolation. The COP of the two-panel-unit condenser was higher than that of a one-panel-unit condenser by 17%. When an insulator plate was attached to the back of a panel, the {Delta}t increased but the COP decreased by 14%. In the case of the series-connection condenser, the COP increased by 6% in the absence of the insulator plate. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  8. A novel supercapacitor-fuel cell hybrid cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Y; ZHENG Jim P

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic hybrid fuel cell (MHFC) with a novel configuration was proposed in an effort to improve the fuel cell performance during instantaneous power changes. A modified direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with a layer of hydrous ruthenium dioxide (RuO2·xH2O) sandwiched between the anode catalyst layer and membrane was used to demonstrate the principle of the MHFC. Experimental results indicate that the RuO2·xH2O layer is equivalent to a resistor-capacitor transmission line and functions similar to a capacitor in parallel with the anode electrode. The improvement in dynamic response of the MHFC was experimentally confirmed under step current change and square current pulse operating. The ionic conductivity of the RuO2·xH2O layer was also obtained.

  9. Degradation of Akebono solar cell panels and variation of proton radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Miyake, W.; Matsuoka, A.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze long-term variation of electric current generated by Akebono solar cell panels (SCPI) and investigate how solar cell panels have been affected by space radiation. SCPI decreased slowly to about 7A in 2009 from 13A in 1989. The long-term decrease is probably due to various space radiations (Total Dose Effect). Therefore, we compare the decrease of solar cell output with solar proton flux measured by GOES satellites on GEO and with flux of trapped radiation from NASA's models (AP8 and AE8). We find a fair correlation between the decrease rate of solar cell output and trapped proton flux (above 10MeV) from the radiation model. However, we also find a few intervals of poor correlation, for an example, after a large geomagnetic storm occurred in March 1991, which suggests that stable proton radiation belt can be changed drastically for some special occasions.

  10. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S.; Ordonez, E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Open cell metallic foam core sandwich panel structures are of interest for application in spacecraft micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields due to their novel form and advantageous structural and thermal performance. Repeated shocking as a result of secondary impacts upon individual foam ligaments during the penetration process acts to raise the thermal state of impacting projectiles ; resulting in fragmentation, melting, and vaporization at lower velocities than with traditional shielding configurations (e.g. Whipple shield). In order to characterize the protective capability of these structures, an extensive experimental campaign was performed by the Johnson Space Center Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility, the results of which are reported in this paper. Although not capable of competing against the protection levels achievable with leading heavy shields in use on modern high-risk vehicles (i.e. International Space Station modules), metallic foam core sandwich panels are shown to provide a substantial improvement over comparable structural panels and traditional low weight shielding alternatives such as honeycomb sandwich panels and metallic Whipple shields. A ballistic limit equation, generalized in terms of panel geometry, is derived and presented in a form suitable for application in risk assessment codes.

  11. New hybrid model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-min; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    Model and simulation are good tools for design optimization of fuel cell systems. This paper proposes a new hybrid model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hybrid model includes physical component and black-box component. The physical component represents the well-known part of PEMFC, while artificial neural network (ANN) component estimates the poorly known part of PEMFC. The ANN model can compensate the performance of the physical model. This hybrid model is implemented on Matlab/Simulink software. The hybrid model shows better accuracy than that of the physical model and ANN model. Simulation results suggest that the hybrid model can be used as a suitable and accurate model for PEMFC.

  12. A stamped PEDOT:PSS-silicon nanowire hybrid solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiz, Syed Abdul; Nahhas, Ahmed Muhammad; Um, Han-Don; Jee, Sang-Won; Cho, Hyung Koun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2012-04-13

    A novel stamped hybrid solar cell was proposed using the stamping transfer technique by stamping an active PEDOT:PSS thin layer onto the top of silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Compared to a bulk-type counterpart that fully embeds SiNWs inside PEDOT:PSS, an increase in the photovoltaic efficiency was observed by a factor of ∼4.6, along with improvements in both electrical and optical responses for the stamped hybrid cell. Such improvements for hybrid cells was due to the formation of well-connected and linearly aligned active PEDOT:PSS channels at the top ends of the nanowires after the stamping process. These stamped channels facilitated not only to improve the charge transport, light absorption, but also to decrease the free carriers as well as exciton recombination losses for stamped hybrid solar cells.

  13. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  14. Cathode-supported hybrid direct carbon fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Gurauskis, Jonas; Deleebeeck, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The direct conversion of coal to heat and electricity by a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) is a highly efficient and cleaner technology than the conventional combustion power plants. HDCFC is defined as a combination of solid oxide fuel cell and molten carbonate fuel cell. This work...

  15. Buck Converter with Soft-Switching Cells for PV Panel Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In power conversion of photovoltaic (PV energy, a hard-switching buck converter always generates some disadvantages. For example, serious electromagnetic interference (EMI, high switching losses, and stresses on an active switch (metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor, MOSFET, and high reverse-recovery losses of a freewheeling diode result in low conversion efficiency. To release these disadvantages, a buck converter with soft-switching cells for PV panel applications is proposed. To create zero-voltage-switching (ZVS features of the active switches, a simple active soft-switching cell with an inductor, a capacitor, and a MOSFET is incorporated into the proposed buck converter. Therefore, the switching losses and stresses of the active switches and EMI can be reduced significantly. To reduce reverse-recovery losses of a freewheeling diode, a simple passive soft-switching cell with a capacitor and two diodes is implemented. To verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed buck converter with soft-switching cells for PV panel applications, a prototype soft-switching buck converter is built and implemented by using a maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT method. Simulated and experimental results are presented from a 100 W soft-switching buck converter for PV panel applications.

  16. Fabrication of pixilated architecture large panel organic flexible solar cell by reducing bulk electrical resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panag, Jasmeet Singh

    This study investigates experimentally the photovoltaic behavior and performance of a new pixilated architecture of large organic photovoltaic panels made of a large array of high-aspect ratio three-dimensional pillars surrounded by a matrix of polymer photoactive material. A least addressed problem in organic and thin-film solar cells is the high bulk resistance of cathodic and anodic layers that result in drastic reduction of currents and power conversion efficiency (PCE). For such panels to be practical and commercially competitive, this huge bulk-resistance has to be minimized as much as possible. In this study, therefore, we introduce a new novel architecture that essentially compartmentalizes large panels into smaller modules that are connected to each other in a parallel fashion. In this architecture, the metal cathode layer is applied on the top as a series of lines whereas the anodic layer is independently connected to the pixilated cells at the bottom. As a result, these modules act like independent pixel cells wherein the damage from process and operation is limited individual pixel cells. The factors considered in validating the pixilated architecture presented here consisted of effect of number of pixels on efficiency and bulk electrical resistance. In addition, the study shows that pixilated architecture offers more uniform photoactive layers, and hence better photovoltaic performance because of the compartmentalization.

  17. Optimum operating conditions of a solar cell panel and prediction of solar radiation in Sanaa, Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khogali, A.; Ramadan, M.R.I.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a solar cell panel is evaluated under the actual conditions prevailing in Sanaa, Yemen. The availability of solar energy is predicted using an empirical formula (with the number of hours of sunshine as an input). The results agree with measurements made using a pyranometer over a period of 1 year with a deviation of less than 10% and reveal a high annual insolation in Sanaa. The power output of the panel is linearly dependent on the solar irradiation and on the total cell conversion efficiency. The total cell conversion efficiency is highly sensitive to variation in temperature. A drop of 4% in the efficiency was detected at midday temperatures. If the panel is tilted towards the Equator in the winter months, the power output can be increased by 16%. For such a low latitude (15/sup 0/N) the angle of tilt may be fixed in order to simplify construction and to reduce costs. An estimate is given to the active cell area required to supply an energy of 1 kWh.

  18. Subclassification of pulmonary non-small cell lung carcinoma in fine needle aspirates using a limited immunohistochemistry panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Kapila

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Use of limited IHC panel helps categorize primary versus secondary tumors to the lung. The p63 is a useful marker for detecting squamous cell carcinoma. In countries where antibodies are not readily available, using a limited IHC panel of TTF-1, p63, and CK7 can help further type NSCLC lung tumors.

  19. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  20. Characterization of Air-Based Photovoltaic Thermal Panels with Bifacial Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ooshaksaraei; K. Sopian; R. Zulkifli; Saleem H. Zaidi

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panels account for a majority of the cost of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) panels. Bifacial silicon solar panels are attractive for PVT panels because of their potential to enhance electrical power generation from the same silicon wafer compared with conventional monofacial solar panels. This paper examines the performance of air-based bifacial PVT panels with regard to the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Four air-based bifacial PVT panels were designed. The maximum ef...

  1. Characterization of hybrids between bovine (MDBK) and mouse (L-cell) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, V G; Floyd, A D; Chinchar, G D; Taylor, M W

    1979-02-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)-deficient mutants of a bovine kidney cell line (MDBK) were selected following mutagenesis with ethylmethane sulfonate or ICR-170G. MDBK mutants were hybridized to thymidine kinase-deficient L cells and selected in HAT medium. Parental and hybrid cells were characterized for isozyme patterns of lactic dehydrogenase malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutamate oxalate transaminase. Chromosomes of MDBK can be distinguished from mouse L cells by configuration and by fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33-258 stain. Hybrid cells contained both MDBK and L-cell chromosomes and had elevated DNA content. MDBK cells are normally restrictive for mengovirus replication. Both permissive and restrictive hybrids were found. Our data indicate that there was preferential loss of MDBK chromosomes in the hybrid cell lines.

  2. The TVT Glass Pavilion: Theoretical Study on a Highly Transparent Building Made with Long-Spanned TVT Portals Braced with Hybrid Glass-Steel Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Froli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary buildings, the architectural demand for a complete dematerialisation of load bearing structures can be satisfied only in limited cases with the exclusive structural use of glass. Otherwise, for challenging applications such as long spanned or high-rise structures, the use of hybrid glass-steel systems is mandatory. Glass, fragile but highly compressive resistant, is associated with steel, ductile and tensile resistant. The present research shows the feasibility study for a fully glazed pavilion made of six TVT (Travi Vitree Tensegrity portal frames longitudinally braced by pre-stressed hybrid glass panels. The frames are about 20 m in span and 8 m in height. Appropriate multiscalar FEM numerical analyses, calibrated on the collapse tests performed on previous TVT large-scale prototypes, stated that the structural performance would be able to withstand heavy static and dynamic loads and stated the observance of the Fail-Safe Design principles.

  3. Investigation of a novel multifunctional roof panel for hybrid photovoltaic/thermal/daylight application in atrium and large green house

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Daylight is an energy efficient solution for illumination and visual comfort in buildings. However, successful daylight design requires effective daylight control technology to eliminate the negative impact such as overheating, unbalanced indoor daylight distribution and glare. With this mind, the current thesis presents a novel multifunctional roof panel which might be applied in atrium and large green house. The working principle of the panel is based on the non-imaging low-concentration so...

  4. Novel Na(+) doped Alq3 hybrid materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices and flat panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2015-05-01

    Pure and Na(+) -doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining a stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The X-ray diffractogram exhibits well-resolved peaks, revealing the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, FTIR confirms the molecular structure and the completion of quinoline ring formation in the metal complex. UV/Vis absorption and PL spectra of sodium-doped Alq3 complexes exhibit high emission intensity in comparison with Alq3 phosphor, proving that when doped in Alq3 , Na(+) enhances PL emission intensity. The excitation spectra of the synthesized complexes lie in the range 242-457 nm when weak shoulders are also considered. Because the sharp excitation peak falls in the blue region of visible radiation, the complexes can be employed for blue chip excitation. The emission wavelength of all the synthesized complexes lies in the bluish green/green region ranging between 485 and 531 nm. The intensity of the emission wavelength was found to be elevated when Na(+) is doped into Alq3 . Because both the excitation and emission wavelengths fall in the visible region of electromagnetic radiation, these phosphors can also be employed to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle. Thus, the synthesized phosphors can be used as bluish green/green light-emitting phosphors for organic light-emitting diodes, flat panel displays, solid-state lighting technology - a step towards the desire to reduce energy consumption and generate pollution free light.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  6. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  7. Patterned hybrid nanohole array surfaces for cell adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Nathan P; Lou, Yi; Muth, John F; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2009-10-06

    We report the fabrication of hybrid nanohole array surfaces to study the role of the surface nanoevironment on cell adhesion and cell migration. We use polystyrene beads and reactive ion etching to control the size and the spacing between nanoholes on a tailored self-assembled monolayer inert gold surface. The arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and brightfield microscopy. For cell adhesion studies, cells were seeded to these substrates to study the effect of ligand spacing on cell spreading, stress fiber formation, and focal adhesion structure and size. Finally, comparative cell migration rates were examined on the various nanohole array surfaces using time-lapse microscopy.

  8. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  9. Lineage development of cell fusion hybrids upon somatic reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Somatic cell reprogramming has been extensively studied over the last years and opened new perspectives in the use of pluripotent cells for regenerative biomedical purposes. Spontaneous cell fusion has been suggested to be involved in regenerative processes in vivo. Strong evidences support the hypothesis that the reprogrammed hybrids resulting from the fusion between a pluripote...

  10. Solar concentrator modules with silicone-onglass Fresnel lens panels and multijunction cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Valery D

    2010-04-26

    High-efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells, being very expensive to manufacture, should only be used in combination with solar concentrators in terrestrial applications. An essential cost reduction of electric power produced by photovoltaic (PV) installations with MJ cells, may be expected by the creation of highly-effective, but inexpensive, elements for optical concentration and sun tracking. This article is an overview of the corresponding approach under development at the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute. The approach to R&D of the solar PV modules is based on the concepts of sunlight concentration by small-aperture area Fresnel lenses and "all-glass" module design. The small-aperture area lenses are arranged as a panel with silicone-on-glass structure where the glass plate serves as the front surface of a module. In turn, high-efficiency InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge cells are arranged on a rear module panel mounted on a glass plate which functions as a heat sink and integrated protective cover for the cells. The developed PV modules and sun trackers are characterized by simple design, and are regarded as the prototypes for further commercialization.

  11. Solar concentrator modules with silicone-on-glass Fresnel lens panels and multijunction cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Valery D

    2010-04-26

    High-efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells, being very expensive to manufacture, should only be used in combination with solar concentrators in terrestrial applications. An essential cost reduction of electric power produced by photovoltaic (PV) installations with MJ cells, may be expected by the creation of highly-effective, but inexpensive, elements for optical concentration and sun tracking. This article is an overview of the corresponding approach under development at the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute. The approach to R&D of the solar PV modules is based on the concepts of sunlight concentration by small-aperture area Fresnel lenses and "all-glass" module design. The small-aperture area lenses are arranged as a panel with silicone-on-glass structure where the glass plate serves as the front surface of a module. In turn, high-efficiency InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge cells are arranged on a rear module panel mounted on a glass plate which functions as a heat sink and integrated protective cover for the cells. The developed PV modules and sun trackers are characterized by simple design, and are regarded as the prototypes for further commercialization.

  12. A panel of induced pluripotent stem cells from chimpanzees: a resource for comparative functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Romero, Irene; Pavlovic, Bryan J; Hernando-Herraez, Irene; Zhou, Xiang; Ward, Michelle C; Banovich, Nicholas E; Kagan, Courtney L; Burnett, Jonathan E; Huang, Constance H; Mitrano, Amy; Chavarria, Claudia I; Friedrich Ben-Nun, Inbar; Li, Yingchun; Sabatini, Karen; Leonardo, Trevor R; Parast, Mana; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Laurent, Louise C; Loring, Jeanne F; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-06-23

    Comparative genomics studies in primates are restricted due to our limited access to samples. In order to gain better insight into the genetic processes that underlie variation in complex phenotypes in primates, we must have access to faithful model systems for a wide range of cell types. To facilitate this, we generated a panel of 7 fully characterized chimpanzee induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines derived from healthy donors. To demonstrate the utility of comparative iPSC panels, we collected RNA-sequencing and DNA methylation data from the chimpanzee iPSCs and the corresponding fibroblast lines, as well as from 7 human iPSCs and their source lines, which encompass multiple populations and cell types. We observe much less within-species variation in iPSCs than in somatic cells, indicating the reprogramming process erases many inter-individual differences. The low within-species regulatory variation in iPSCs allowed us to identify many novel inter-species regulatory differences of small magnitude.

  13. A panel of induced pluripotent stem cells from chimpanzees: a resource for comparative functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Romero, Irene; Pavlovic, Bryan J; Hernando-Herraez, Irene; Zhou, Xiang; Ward, Michelle C; Banovich, Nicholas E; Kagan, Courtney L; Burnett, Jonathan E; Huang, Constance H; Mitrano, Amy; Chavarria, Claudia I; Friedrich Ben-Nun, Inbar; Li, Yingchun; Sabatini, Karen; Leonardo, Trevor R; Parast, Mana; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Laurent, Louise C; Loring, Jeanne F; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics studies in primates are restricted due to our limited access to samples. In order to gain better insight into the genetic processes that underlie variation in complex phenotypes in primates, we must have access to faithful model systems for a wide range of cell types. To facilitate this, we generated a panel of 7 fully characterized chimpanzee induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines derived from healthy donors. To demonstrate the utility of comparative iPSC panels, we collected RNA-sequencing and DNA methylation data from the chimpanzee iPSCs and the corresponding fibroblast lines, as well as from 7 human iPSCs and their source lines, which encompass multiple populations and cell types. We observe much less within-species variation in iPSCs than in somatic cells, indicating the reprogramming process erases many inter-individual differences. The low within-species regulatory variation in iPSCs allowed us to identify many novel inter-species regulatory differences of small magnitude. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07103.001 PMID:26102527

  14. Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2006-11-01

    The HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel is a widely-used resource for studies of human genetic variation. Here, pairs of close relatives that have been included in the panel are identified. Together with information on atypical and duplicated samples, the inferred relative pairs suggest standardized subsets of the panel for use in future population-genetic studies.

  15. File list: Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. Hybrid multiscale modeling and prediction of cancer cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangooei, Mohammad Hossein; Habibi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cancer development crossing several spatial-temporal scales is of great practical significance to better understand and treat cancers. It is difficult to tackle this challenge with pure biological means. Moreover, hybrid modeling techniques have been proposed that combine the advantages of the continuum and the discrete methods to model multiscale problems. In light of these problems, we have proposed a new hybrid vascular model to facilitate the multiscale modeling and simulation of cancer development with respect to the agent-based, cellular automata and machine learning methods. The purpose of this simulation is to create a dataset that can be used for prediction of cell phenotypes. By using a proposed Q-learning based on SVR-NSGA-II method, the cells have the capability to predict their phenotypes autonomously that is, to act on its own without external direction in response to situations it encounters. Computational simulations of the model were performed in order to analyze its performance. The most striking feature of our results is that each cell can select its phenotype at each time step according to its condition. We provide evidence that the prediction of cell phenotypes is reliable. Our proposed model, which we term a hybrid multiscale modeling of cancer cell behavior, has the potential to combine the best features of both continuum and discrete models. The in silico results indicate that the 3D model can represent key features of cancer growth, angiogenesis, and its related micro-environment and show that the findings are in good agreement with biological tumor behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first hybrid vascular multiscale modeling of cancer cell behavior that has the capability to predict cell phenotypes individually by a self-generated dataset.

  20. Graphene-based transparent electrodes for hybrid solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene: poly (styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene electrode. The solar cells based on graphene electrodes, especially those doped with HNO3, has comparable performance to the reference devices using commercial indium tin oxide (ITO. Our work suggests that graphene-based transparent electrode is a promising candidate to replace ITO.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2005-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2601NT40779 for the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine. A conceptual hybrid system design was selected for analysis and evaluation. The selected system is estimated to have over 65% system efficiency, a first cost of approximately $650/kW, and a cost of electricity of 8.4 cents/kW-hr. A control strategy and conceptual control design have been developed for the system. A number of SOFC module tests have been completed to evaluate the pressure impact to performance stability. The results show that the operating pressure accelerates the performance degradation. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects of pressure on carbon formation. Experimental observations on a functioning cell have verified that carbon deposition does not occur in the cell at steam-to-carbon ratios lower than the steady-state design point for hybrid systems. Heat exchanger design, fabrication and performance testing as well as oxidation testing to support heat exchanger life analysis were also conducted. Performance tests of the prototype heat exchanger yielded heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics consistent with the heat exchanger specification. Multicell stacks have been tested and performance maps were obtained under hybrid operating conditions. Successful and repeatable fabrication of large (>12-inch diameter) planar SOFC cells was demonstrated using the tape calendering process. A number of large area cells and stacks were successfully performance tested at ambient and pressurized conditions. A 25 MW plant configuration was

  2. Global microRNA analysis of the NCI-60 cancer cell panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søkilde, Rolf; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Podolska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a group of short noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. They are involved in many biological processes, including development, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Because miRNAs may play a role in the initiation...... and progression of cancer, they comprise a novel class of promising diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers and potential drug targets. By applying an LNA-enhanced microarray platform, we studied the expression profiles of 955 miRNAs in the NCI-60 cancer cell lines and identified tissue- and cell......-type-specific miRNA patterns by unsupervised hierarchical clustering and statistical analysis. A comparison of our data to three previously published miRNA expression studies on the NCI-60 panel showed a remarkably high correlation between the different technical platforms. In addition, the current work...

  3. Characterization of Air-Based Photovoltaic Thermal Panels with Bifacial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ooshaksaraei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels account for a majority of the cost of photovoltaic thermal (PVT panels. Bifacial silicon solar panels are attractive for PVT panels because of their potential to enhance electrical power generation from the same silicon wafer compared with conventional monofacial solar panels. This paper examines the performance of air-based bifacial PVT panels with regard to the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Four air-based bifacial PVT panels were designed. The maximum efficiencies of 45% to 63% were observed for the double-path-parallel bifacial PVT panel based on the first law of thermodynamics. Single-path bifacial PVT panel represents the highest exergy efficiency (10%. Double-path-parallel bifacial PVT panel is the second preferred design as it generates up to 20% additional total energy compared with the single-path panel. However, the daily average exergy efficiency of a double-path-parallel panel is 0.35% lower than that of a single-path panel.

  4. Instructing cells with programmable peptide DNA hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ronit; Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Álvarez, Zaida; Lewis, Jacob A.; Sur, Shantanu; Serrano, Chris M.; Boekhoven, Job; Lee, Sungsoo S.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2017-07-01

    The native extracellular matrix is a space in which signals can be displayed dynamically and reversibly, positioned with nanoscale precision, and combined synergistically to control cell function. Here we describe a molecular system that can be programmed to control these three characteristics. In this approach we immobilize peptide-DNA (P-DNA) molecules on a surface through complementary DNA tethers directing cells to adhere and spread reversibly over multiple cycles. The DNA can also serve as a molecular ruler to control the distance-dependent synergy between two peptides. Finally, we use two orthogonal DNA handles to regulate two different bioactive signals, with the ability to independently up- or downregulate each over time. This enabled us to discover that neural stem cells, derived from the murine spinal cord and organized as neurospheres, can be triggered to migrate out in response to an exogenous signal but then regroup into a neurosphere as the signal is removed.

  5. Validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH for multiple myeloma using CD138 positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kiyomi Kishimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm with acquired genetic abnormalities of clinical and prognostic importance. Multiple myeloma differs from other hematologic malignancies due to a high fraction of low proliferating malignant plasma cells and the paucity of plasma cells in bone marrow aspiration samples, making cytogenetic analysis a challenge. An abnormal karyotype is found in only one-third of patients with multiple myeloma and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most useful test for studying the chromosomal abnormalities present in almost 90% of cases. However, it is necessary to study the genetic abnormalities in plasma cells after their identification or selection by morphology, immunophenotyping or sorting. Other challenges are the selection of the most informative FISH panel and determining cut-off levels for FISH probes. This study reports the validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using CD138 positive cells, according to proposed guidelines published by the European Myeloma Network (EMN in 2012. METHOD: Bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma were used to standardize a panel of five probes [1q amplification, 13q14 deletion, 17p deletion, t(4;14, and t(14;16] in CD138+ cells purified by magnetic cell sorting. RESULTS: This test was validated with a low turnaround time and good reproducibility. Five of six samples showed genetic abnormalities. Monosomy/deletion 13 plus t(4;14 were found in two cases. CONCLUSION: This technique together with magnetic cell sorting is effective and can be used in the routine laboratory practice. In addition, magnetic cell sorting provides a pure plasma cell population that allows other molecular and genomic studies.

  6. A hybrid sequential deposition fabrication technique for micro fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kevin G.; Czyzewska, Eva K.; Vanderhoek, Tom P. K.; Fan, Lilian L. Y.; Abel, Keith A.; Wu, Q. M. Jonathan; Parameswaran, M. Ash

    2005-10-01

    Micro fuel cell systems have elicited significant interest due to their promise for instantly rechargeable, longer duration and portable power. Most micro fuel cell systems are either built as miniaturized plate-and-frame or silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Plate-and-frame systems are difficult to fabricate smaller than 20 cm3. Existing micro fuel cell designs cannot meet the cost, scale and power requirements of some portable power markets. Traditional MEMS scaling advantages do not apply to fuel cells because the minimum area for the fuel cell is fixed by the catalyst area required for a given power output, and minimum volume set by mass transport limitations. We have developed a new hybrid technique that borrows from both micro and macro machining techniques to create fuel cells in the 1-20 cm3 range, suitable for cell phones, PDAs and smaller devices.

  7. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  8. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  10. Transplantation of Photoreceptor Precursors Isolated via a Cell Surface Biomarker Panel From Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Self-Forming Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakowski, Jorn; Gonzalez-Cordero, Anai; West, Emma L; Han, Ya-Ting; Welby, Emily; Naeem, Arifa; Blackford, Samuel J I; Bainbridge, James W B; Pearson, Rachael A; Ali, Robin R; Sowden, Jane C

    2015-08-01

    Loss of photoreceptors due to retinal degeneration is a major cause of untreatable blindness. Cell replacement therapy, using pluripotent stem cell-derived photoreceptor cells, may be a feasible future treatment. Achieving safe and effective cell replacement is critically dependent on the stringent selection and purification of optimal cells for transplantation. Previously, we demonstrated effective transplantation of post-mitotic photoreceptor precursor cells labelled by fluorescent reporter genes. As genetically labelled cells are not desirable for therapy, here we developed a surface biomarker cell selection strategy for application to complex pluripotent stem cell differentiation cultures. We show that a five cell surface biomarker panel CD73(+)CD24(+)CD133(+)CD47(+)CD15(-) facilitates the isolation of photoreceptor precursors from three-dimensional self-forming retina differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells. Importantly, stem cell-derived cells isolated using the biomarker panel successfully integrate and mature into new rod photoreceptors in the adult mouse retinae after subretinal transplantation. Conversely, unsorted or negatively selected cells do not give rise to newly integrated rods after transplantation. The biomarker panel also removes detrimental proliferating cells prior to transplantation. Notably, we demonstrate how expression of the biomarker panel is conserved in the human retina and propose that a similar selection strategy will facilitate isolation of human transplantation-competent cells for therapeutic application.

  11. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  12. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  13. Assembly and initial characterization of a panel of 85 genomically validated cell lines from diverse head and neck tumor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Sano, Daisuke; Pickering, Curtis R; Jasser, Samar A; Henderson, Ying C; Clayman, Gary L; Sturgis, Erich M; Ow, Thomas J; Lotan, Reuben; Carey, Thomas E; Sacks, Peter G; Grandis, Jennifer R; Sidransky, David; Heldin, Nils Erik; Myers, Jeffrey N

    2011-12-01

    Human cell lines are useful for studying cancer biology and preclinically modeling cancer therapy, but can be misidentified and cross-contamination is unfortunately common. The purpose of this study was to develop a panel of validated head and neck cell lines representing the spectrum of tissue sites and histologies that could be used for studying the molecular, genetic, and phenotypic diversity of head and neck cancer. A panel of 122 clinically and phenotypically diverse head and neck cell lines from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid cancer, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, immortalized primary keratinocytes, and normal epithelium was assembled from the collections of several individuals and institutions. Authenticity was verified by carrying out short tandem repeat analysis. Human papillomavirus (HPV) status and cell morphology were also determined. Eighty-five of the 122 cell lines had unique genetic profiles. HPV-16 DNA was detected in 2 cell lines. These 85 cell lines included cell lines from the major head and neck primary tumor sites, and close examination shows a wide range of in vitro phenotypes. This panel of 85 genomically validated head and neck cell lines represents a valuable resource for the head and neck cancer research community that can help advance understanding of the disease by providing a standard reference for cell lines that can be used for biological as well as preclinical studies. ©2011 AACR.

  14. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  15. Stable organic-inorganic hybrid multilayered photoelectrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Min-gyeong; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Jinhee; Hong, Eun Mi; Choi, Sung Mook; Lee, Joo-Yul; Cho, Shinuk; Hong, Kihyon; Lim, Dong Chan

    2017-02-01

    The production of hydrogen from water via solar energy conversion has attracted immense attention as a potential solution for addressing energy supply issues. We demonstrated a stable and efficient organic-inorganic hybrid photoelectrochemical (H-PEC) cell. Modifying the surface energy and structure of the organic photoactive layer using multi-functional nanomaterials including -OH-modified NiO nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) led to a 2.8-fold enhancement of the water splitting performance in a single junction H-PEC cell. The enhanced performance was attributed to the i) improved water-wettability, ii) enhanced charge extraction property by band-edge alignment, and iii) the catalytic effect of the introduced NiO-OH nanoparticles. In addition, because of the effects of the RGO layer preventing water penetration and photo-corrosion during the oxidation of water, a distinguishable long-term stability was achieved from the H-PEC cell with an RGO capping layer. The best performance was obtained from the organic-inorganic hybrid multi-junction PEC cells consisting of the WO3 photo-anode (activated under UV irradiation) and the H-PEC cell (activated under visible light irradiation). The H-PEC cell with a WO3 photo-anode exhibited significantly enhanced stability and performance by a factor of 11.6 higher than photocurrent of the single H-PEC cell.

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  1. File list: Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. Hybrid CMOS / Microfluidic Systems for Cell Manipulation with Dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tom; Issadore, David; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2007-03-01

    A hybrid CMOS/microfluidic chip combines the biocompatibility of microfluidics with the built-in logic, programmability, and sensitivity of CMOS integrated circuits (ICs)^1 We have designed a CMOS IC for moving individual cells using dielectrophoresis (DEP). The IC was built in a commercial foundry and we subsequently fabricated a microfluidic chamber on the top surface. The chip consists of a 1.4 by 2.8mm array of over 32,000 individually addressable 11x11 micron pixels. An RF voltage of 5V at 10MHz can be applied to each pixel with respect to the conductive lid of the microfluidic chamber, producing a localized electric field that can trap a cell. By shifting the location of energized pixels, the array can trap and move cells along programmable paths through the microfluidic chamber. We show the design, fabrication, and testing of the hybrid chip. Bringing together the biocompatibility of microfluidics and the power of CMOS chips, hybrid CMOS / microfluidic systems are an exciting technology for biomedical research. Thanks to NSEC NSF grant PHY-0117795 and the NCI MIT-Harvard CCNE. [1] H Lee, Y Liu, RM Westervelt, D Ham, IEEE JSSC 41, 6, pp. 1471-1480, 2006

  5. Identifying locally advanced basal cell carcinoma eligible for treatment with vismodegib: an expert panel consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Ketty; Licitra, Lisa; Ascierto, Paolo A; Corvò, Renzo; Simonacci, Marco; Picciotto, Franco; Gualdi, Giulio; Pellacani, Giovanni; Santoro, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide. Most occur on the head and neck, where cosmetic and functional outcomes are critical. BCC can be locally destructive if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. Surgery is the treatment of choice for the majority of high-risk lesions. Aggressive, recurrent or unresectable tumors can be difficult to manage. Until recently, no approved systemic therapy was available for locally advanced or metastatic BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy. Vismodegib provides a systemic treatment option. However, a consensus definition of advanced BCC is lacking. A multidisciplinary panel with expertise in oncology, dermatology, dermatologic surgery and radiation oncology proposes a consensus definition based on published evidence and clinical experience.

  6. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  7. Identification of a panel of sensitive and specific DNA methylation markers for squamous cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird Peter W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States and Western Europe. Over 160,000 Americans die of this disease every year. The five-year survival rate is 15% – significantly lower than that of other major cancers. Early detection is a key factor in increasing lung cancer patient survival. DNA hypermethylation is recognized as an important mechanism for tumor suppressor gene inactivation in cancer and could yield powerful biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. Here we focused on developing DNA methylation markers for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Using the sensitive, high-throughput DNA methylation analysis technique MethyLight, we examined the methylation profile of 42 loci in a collection of 45 squamous cell lung cancer samples and adjacent non-tumor lung tissues from the same patients. Results We identified 22 loci showing significantly higher DNA methylation levels in tumor tissue than adjacent non-tumor lung. Of these, eight showed highly significant hypermethylation in tumor tissue (p Conclusion We have identified 22 DNA methylation markers for squamous cell lung cancer, several of which have not previously been reported to be methylated in any type of human cancer. The top eight markers show great promise as a sensitive and specific DNA methylation marker panel for squamous cell lung cancer.

  8. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

  9. Cell Assignment in Hybrid CMOS/Nanodevices Architecture Using a PSO/SA Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq M. Sait

    2013-10-01

    anowire\\MOLecular Hybrid, higher circuit densities are possible. In CMOL there is an additional layer of nanofabric on top of CMOS stack. Nanodevices that lie between overlapping nanowires are programmable and can implement any combinational logic using a netlist of NOR gates. The limitation on the length of nanowires put a constraint on the connectivity domain of a circuit. The gates connected to each other must be within a connectivity radius; otherwise an extra buffer is inserted to connect them. Particle swarm optimization (PSO has been used in a variety of problems that are NP- hard. PSO compared to the other iterative heuristic techniques is simpler to implement. Besides, it delivers comparable results. In this paper, a hybrid of PSO and simulated annealing (SA for solving the cell assignment in CMOL, an NP-hard problem, is proposed. The proposed method takes advantage of the exploration and exploitation factors of PSO and the intrinsic hill climbing feature of SA to reduce the number of buffers to be inserted. Experiments conducted on ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits and a comparison with other heuristic techniques, are presented. Results showed that the proposed hybrid algorithm achieved better solution in terms of buffer count in reasonable time.

  10. One-year monitoring of an oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel laboratory-developed test for bladder cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinawi-Aljundi R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rima Tinawi-Aljundi,1 Lauren King,2 Shannon T Knuth,2 Michael Gildea,2 Carrie Ng,2 Josh Kahl,2 Jacqueline Dion,2 Chris Young,2 Edward W Schervish,1 J Rene Frontera,1 Jason Hafron,1 Kenneth M Kernen,1 Robert Di Loreto,1 Joan Aurich-Costa21Michigan Institute of Urology, St Claire Shores, MI, USA; 2Cellay, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA Background: Previously, we had developed and manufactured an oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization (OligoFISH probe panel based on the most clinically sensitive chromosomes found in a reference set of bladder carcinoma cases. The panel was clinically validated for use as a diagnostic and monitoring assay for bladder cancer, reaching 100% correlation with the results of the UroVysion test. After 1 year of using this probe panel, we present here the comparison of cytology, cystoscopy, and pathology findings to the OligoFISH probe panel results to calculate its clinical performance. Materials and methods: In order to calculate clinical performance, we compared the OligoFISH results to the cytology and cystoscopy/pathology findings for 147 initial diagnoses and 399 recurrence monitorings. Finally, we compared clinical performance to published values for the UroVysion test, including both low- and high-grade tumors. Results: Chromosomes 3, 6, 7, and 20 were highly involved in bladder carcinoma aneuploidy. At the initial diagnosis, we obtained 90.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 84.5%–94.7% accuracy, 96.8% sensitivity (95% CI: 91.0%–99.3%, 79.2% specificity (95% CI: 65.9%–87.8%, 89.2% positive predictive value (PPV; 95% CI: 81.5%–94.5%, and 93.3% negative predictive value (NPV; 95% CI: 81.7%–97.3%. When monitoring for recurrence, we obtained 85.2% accuracy (95% CI: 81.3%–88.5%, 82.0% sensitivity (95% CI: 76.0%–87.1%, 88.4% specificity (95% CI: 83.2%–92.5%, 87.7% PPV (95% CI: 82.1%–92.0%, and 83.0% NPV (95% CI: 77.3%–87.8%. When looking at low- and high-grade tumors, the test showed 100

  11. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  12. Identification of a human papillomavirus-associated oncogenic miRNA panel in human oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma validated by bioinformatics analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Davis, J Wade; Taylor, Kristen H; Johnson, Jeff; Shi, Zonggao; Williams, Russell; Atasoy, Ulus; Lewis, James S; Stack, M Sharon

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative agent for an increasing subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs), and current evidence supports these tumors as having identifiable risk factors and improved response to therapy. However, the biochemical and molecular alterations underlying the pathobiology of HPV-associated OPSCC (designated HPV(+) OPSCC) remain unclear. Herein, we profile miRNA expression patterns in HPV(+) OPSCC to provide a more detailed understanding of pathologic molecular events and to identify biomarkers that may have applicability for early diagnosis, improved staging, and prognostic stratification. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in RNA isolated from an initial clinical cohort of HPV(+/-) OPSCC tumors by quantitative PCR-based miRNA profiling. This oncogenic miRNA panel was validated using miRNA sequencing and clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and miRNA in situ hybridization. The HPV-associated oncogenic miRNA panel has potential utility in diagnosis and disease stratification and in mechanistic elucidation of molecular factors that contribute to OPSCC development, progression, and differential response to therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  14. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Barnes, D.L.; Erickson, T.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, 621 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads. (author)

  15. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  16. Pseudoislet of hybrid cellular spheroids from commercial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Y H; Nam, B M; Kim, B Y; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Yeo, J E; Yang, W; Park, S H; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Investigators conducting diabetes-related research have focused on islet transplantation as a radical therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic islet isolation, an essential process, is a very demanding work because of the proteolytic enzymes, species, treatment time, and individual difference. Replacement of primary isolated pancreatic islets must be carried out continuously for various in vitro tests, making primary isolated islets a useful tool for cell transplantation research. Hence, we sought to develop pseudoislets from commercial pancreas-derived cell lines. In this study, we used RIN-5F and RIN-m cells, which secrete insulin, somatostatin, or glucagon. To manufacture hybrid cellular spheroids, the cells were cultured under hanging drop plate and nonadhesive plate methods. We observed that hybrid cellular pseudoislets exhibited an oval shape, with sizes ranging from 590 to 1200 μm. Their morphology was similar to naïve islets. Cell line pseudoislets secreted and expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Thus, the current artificially manufactured biomimetic pseudoislets resembled pancreatic islets of the endocrine system, appearing as cellular aggregates that secreted insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Enhanced immunoisolation techniques may lead to the development of new islet sources for pancreatic transplantation through this pseudoislet strategy.

  17. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-01-01

    - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two differ...

  18. Two years of on-orbit gallium arsenide performance from the LIPS solar cell panel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R. W.; Betz, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    The LIPS on-orbit performance of the gallium arsenide panel experiment was analyzed from flight operation telemetry data. Algorithms were developed to calculate the daily maximum power and associated solar array parameters by two independent methods. The first technique utilizes a least mean square polynomial fit to the power curve obtained with intensity and temperature corrected currents and voltages; whereas, the second incorporates an empirical expression for fill factor based on an open circuit voltage and the calculated series resistance. Maximum power, fill factor, open circuit voltage, short circuit current and series resistance of the solar cell array are examined as a function of flight time. Trends are analyzed with respect to possible mechanisms which may affect successive periods of output power during 2 years of flight operation. Degradation factors responsible for the on-orbit performance characteristics of gallium arsenide are discussed in relation to the calculated solar cell parameters. Performance trends and the potential degradation mechanisms are correlated with existing laboratory and flight data on both gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells for similar environments.

  19. Bio-hybrid cell-based actuators for microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Rika Wright; Sitti, Metin

    2014-10-15

    As we move towards the miniaturization of devices to perform tasks at the nano and microscale, it has become increasingly important to develop new methods for actuation, sensing, and control. Over the past decade, bio-hybrid methods have been investigated as a promising new approach to overcome the challenges of scaling down robotic and other functional devices. These methods integrate biological cells with artificial components and therefore, can take advantage of the intrinsic actuation and sensing functionalities of biological cells. Here, the recent advancements in bio-hybrid actuation are reviewed, and the challenges associated with the design, fabrication, and control of bio-hybrid microsystems are discussed. As a case study, focus is put on the development of bacteria-driven microswimmers, which has been investigated as a targeted drug delivery carrier. Finally, a future outlook for the development of these systems is provided. The continued integration of biological and artificial components is envisioned to enable the performance of tasks at a smaller and smaller scale in the future, leading to the parallel and distributed operation of functional systems at the microscale.

  20. Hybrid cells derived from breast epithelial cell/breast cancer cell fusion events show a differential RAF-AKT crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özel Cem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise to stable M13MDA435 hybrid cells, which are characterised by a unique gene expression profile and migratory behaviour. Here we investigated the involvement of the PLC-β/γ1, PI3K/AKT and RAS-RAF-ERK signal transduction cascades in the EGF and SDF-1α induced migration of two M13MDA435 hybrid cell clones in comparison to their parental cells. Results Analysis of the migratory behaviour by using the three-dimensional collagen matrix migration assay showed that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells as well as M13MDA435 hybrid cells, but not the breast cancer cell line, responded to EGF stimulation with an increased locomotory activity. By contrast, SDF-1α solely stimulated the migration of M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells, whereas the migratory activity of the other cell lines was blocked. Analysis of signal transduction cascades revealed a putative differential RAF-AKT crosstalk in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrid cell clones. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 effectively blocked the EGF induced migration of M13MDA435-3 hybrid cells, whereas the EGF induced locomotion of M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells was markedly increased. Analysis of RAF-1 S259 phosphorylation, being a major mediator of the negative regulation of RAF-1 by AKT, showed decreased pRAF-1 S259 levels in LY294002 treated M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells. By contrast, pRAF-1 S259 levels remained unaltered in the other cell lines. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signalling by Ly294002 relieves the AKT mediated phosphorylation of RAF-1, thereby restoring MAPK signalling. Conclusions Here we show that hybrid cells could evolve exhibiting a

  1. Recent progress in efficient hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Yuan, Huailiang; Li, Junpeng; Xu, Xiaobao; Shen, Yan; Lin, Hong; Wang, Mingkui

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been improved from 9.7 to 19.3%, with the highest value of 20.1% achieved in 2014. Such a high photovoltaic performance can be attributed to optically high absorption characteristics and balanced charge transport properties with long diffusion lengths of the hybrid lead halide perovskite materials. In this review, some fundamental details of hybrid lead iodide perovskite materials, various fabrication techniques and device structures are described, aiming for a better understanding of these materials and thus highly efficient PSC devices. In addition, some advantages and open issues are discussed here to outline the prospects and challenges of using perovskites in commercial photovoltaic devices. PMID:27877815

  2. Recent progress in efficient hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Yuan, Huailiang; Li, Junpeng; Xu, Xiaobao; Shen, Yan; Lin, Hong; Wang, Mingkui

    2015-06-01

    The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been improved from 9.7 to 19.3%, with the highest value of 20.1% achieved in 2014. Such a high photovoltaic performance can be attributed to optically high absorption characteristics and balanced charge transport properties with long diffusion lengths of the hybrid lead halide perovskite materials. In this review, some fundamental details of hybrid lead iodide perovskite materials, various fabrication techniques and device structures are described, aiming for a better understanding of these materials and thus highly efficient PSC devices. In addition, some advantages and open issues are discussed here to outline the prospects and challenges of using perovskites in commercial photovoltaic devices.

  3. Hybrid proton-conducting membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)]. E-mail: pedro.gomez@icmab.es; Asensio, Juan Antonio [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain); Borros, Salvador [Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-30

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel hybrid organic-inorganic material formed by phosphomolybdic acid H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PMo{sub 12}) and poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ABPBI) is reported. This material, composed of two proton-conducting components, can be cast in the form of membranes from methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solutions. Upon impregnation with phosphoric acid, the hybrid membranes present higher conductivity than the best ABPBI polymer membranes impregnated in the same conditions. These electrolyte membranes are stable up to 200 deg. C, and have a proton conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 185 deg. C without humidification. These properties make them very good candidates as membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at temperatures of 100-200 deg. C.

  4. Effects of hypoxia on expression of a panel of stem cell and chemoresistance markers in glioblastoma-derived spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Jesper; Jensen, Stine Skov; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte;

    2011-01-01

    ). Spheroids were formed in 21% and 1% O(2) in serum-free medium. The immunohistochemical panel included hypoxia (HIF-1α, HIF-2α), proliferation (Ki-67), and stem cell markers (CD133, podoplanin, Bmi-1, nestin, Sox-2) as well as markers related to chemoresistance (MGMT, TIMP-1, Lamp-1, MRP1, MDR-1...

  5. Technoeconomy of different solid oxide fuel cell based hybrid cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine, steam turbine and heat engine (Stirling engine) is used as bottoming cycle for a solid oxide fuel cell plant to compare different plants efficiencies, CO2 emissionsand plants cost in terms of $/kW. Each plant is then integrated with biomass gasification and finally six plants...... configurations are compared with each other. Technoeconomy is used when calculating the cost if the plants. It is found that when a solid oxide fuel cell plant is combined with a gas turbine cycle then the plant efficiency will be the highest one while if a biomass gasification plant is integrated...... with these hybrid cycles then integrated biomass gasification with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycle will have the highest plant efficiency. The cost of solid oxide fuel cell with steam plant is found to be the lowest one with a value of about 1030$/kW....

  6. Simulation and Test of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Golf Cart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the simulation model of fuel cell hybrid golf cart (FCHGC, which applies the non-GUI mode of the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR and the genetic algorithm (GA to optimize it. Simulation of the objective function is composed of fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic performance; the variables are the fuel cell stack power sizes and the battery numbers. By means of simulation, the optimal parameters of vehicle power unit, fuel cell stack, and battery pack are worked out. On this basis, GUI mode of ADVISOR is used to select the rated power of vehicle motor. In line with simulation parameters, an electrical golf cart is refitted by adding a 2 kW hydrogen air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack system and test the FCHGC. The result shows that the simulation data is effective but it needs improving compared with that of the real cart test.

  7. Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells via electropolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenchun

    Integrating polymers with inorganic nanostructures is difficult due to wetting and surface energy considerations. We developed an electropolymerization method to grow conformal polymers on high aspect ratio nanostructures. Our method is shown to improve the polymer filling rate inside the nanostructures and can be used in the development of efficient hybrid solar cells. As an example, we have studied the hybrid system of electropolymerized polythiophene (e-PT) on a variety of conductive (Au and ITO) and semiconductive substrates (Si, Ge, ZnO). In particular, e-PT/ZnO hybrid structure can be further developed into organic photovoltaics (OPV). Although unsubstituted PT is not the ideal polymer material for high efficiency solar cells, it is an excellent choice for studying basic bonding and morphology in hybrid structures. We find that e-PT is covalently bound to the polar ZnO planar substrate via a Zn-S bond, adopting an upright geometry. By contrast, no strong covalent bonding was observed between e-PT and ZnO nanorods that consist of non-polar ZnO surfaces predominantly. Energy level alignment at interfaces is critical for fundamental understanding and optimization of OPV as band offsets of the donor and acceptor materials largely determine the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the device. Using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPS), we examined the correlation between energy alignment and photovoltaic properties of a model hybrid solar cell structure incorporating undoped electrodeposited polythiophene (e-PT) films on ZnO planar substrates. The electrolyte anion (BF4-, PF6 -, ClO4- or CF3SO3 -) used in the electrodeposition solution was found to exert a strong influence on the neutral e-PT film morphology and adhesion, the band alignment at the interface, and ultimately the photovoltaic behavior. The interfacial dipole lowers polythiophene energy levels, increasing the theoretical and actual Voc in polythiophene

  8. Embryonic stem cell/fibroblast hybrid cells with near-tetraploid karyotype provide high yield of chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, A A; Kizilova, E A; Zhelezova, A I; Gridina, M M; Golubitsa, A N; Serov, O L

    2008-12-01

    Ten primary clones of hybrid cells were produced by the fusion of diploid embryonic stem (ES) cells, viz., line E14Tg2aSc4TP6.3 marked by green fluorescent protein (GFP), with diploid embryonic or adult fibroblasts derived from DD/c mice. All the hybrid clones had many characteristics similar to those of ES cells and were positive for GFP. Five hybrid clones having ploidy close to tetraploidy (over 80% of cells had 76-80 chromosomes) were chosen for the generation of chimeras via injection into C57BL blastocysts. These hybrid clones also contained microsatellites marking all ES cell and fibroblast chromosomes judging from microsatellite analysis. Twenty chimeric embryos at 11-13 days post-conception were obtained after injection of hybrid cells derived from two of three clones. Many embryos showed a high content of GFP-positive descendents of the tested hybrid cells. Twenty one adult chimeras were generated by the injection of hybrid cells derived from three clones. The contribution of GFP-labeled hybrid cells was significant and comparable with that of diploid E14Tg2aSc4TP6.3 cells. Cytogenetic and microsatellite analyses of cell cultures derived from chimeric embryos or adults indicated that the initial karyotype of the tested hybrid cells remained stable during the development of the chimeras, i.e., the hybrid cells were mainly responsible for the generation of the chimeras. Thus, ES cell/fibroblast hybrid cells with near-tetraploid karyotype are able to generate chimeras at a high rate, and many adult chimeras contain a high percentage of descendants of the hybrid cells.

  9. Thermal-mechanical behavior of sandwich panels with closed-cell foam core under intensive laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhi-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature field and thermal deformation of sandwich panels with closed-cell aluminum alloy foam core and heat-protective layer, which are subjected to Gaussian laser beam intensively irradiating, are investigated numerically. In transient heat analysis models, the influence of thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thickness of heat-protective layer on the temperature rise of the sandwich panels is calculated. In stress analysis models, a sequence coupled numerical method is utilized to simulate the thermal stress and deformation of sandwich panels induced by thermal expansion. Simulation results indicate that the temperature at center of sandwich panel increases firstly and then drops gradually with the increase of thermal conductivity of heat-protective layer after laser irradiation, and the critical thermal conductivity is obtained, while it decreases with the increase of specific heat and thickness of heat-protective layer. The thermal stress verifies the “Cyclo-hoop effect”, i. e. radial stress is compression stress in “hot zone” and tension stress in “cold zone”. The max thermal deformation of sandwich panels slightly increases with the increase of thickness of heat-protective layer for given specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  10. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  11. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode processes investigated using a 3-electrode half-cell setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A 3-electrode half-cell setup consisting of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte support was employed to investigate the chemical and electrochemical processes occurring in the vicinity of a model hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) anode (Ni-YSZ) in contact with a molten carbon...

  12. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  13. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and their hybrids during embryoid body formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josane Mittmann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the karyotypes of three hybrid clones of mouse embryonic stem cells and murine splenocytes (two having near diploid and one having near tetraploid chromosome numbers and the characteristics of their differentiation during the formation of embryoid bodies. The X chromosome originating from embryonic stem cells may be lost in hybrids with a near diploid chromosome number and reprogramming of the "somatic" X may occur. The morphological data we obtained using light and electron microscopy revealed a correlation between the karyotype constitution of hybrid cells and their differentiation during the formation of embryoid bodies. At the beginning of development, the embryoid bodies derived from hybrid cells already showed an advanced degree of differentiation. The production of significant quantities of cartilage was typical for hybrid cells with near tetraploid chromosome numbers. The hybrid cells showed restricted pluripotent capacity and were already committed when they started to differentiate into embryoid bodies.

  14. Laser Crystallization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Taewoo; Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ju Min; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae; Shin, Byungha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites attract enormous research interest for next generation solar energy harvest. Synergistic crystalline structures comprising organic and inorganic components enable solution processing of perovskite films. A reliable crystallization method for perovskites, compatible with fast continuous process over large-area flexible substrates, is crucial for high performance solar cell production. Here, we present laser crystallization of hybrid perovskite solar cells using near-infrared (NIR) laser (λ = 1064 nm). Crystalline morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite films are widely controllable with laser irradiation condition while maintaining film uniformity. Photothermal heating effectively assisted by interfacial photoconversion layers is critical for phase transformation without beam damage of multilayered device structures. Notably, laser crystallization attains higher device performances than conventional thermal annealing. Fast laser crystallization with manufacture level scan rate (1 m min(-1)) demonstrates inverted-type perovskite solar cells with 11.3 and 8.0% efficiencies on typical glass and flexible polymer substrates, respectively, without rigorous device optimization.

  15. Functional evaluation of ES-somatic cell hybrids in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Huseyin; Kim, Kitai; Liu, Jun; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q; Verma, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have previously been reported to reprogram somatic cells following fusion. The resulting ES-somatic cell hybrids have been shown to adopt the transcriptional profile of ESCs, suggesting that the pluripotent program is dominant. ES-somatic cell hybrids have most characteristics of pluripotent cells in vitro; however, it remains unclear whether the somatic genome is an active partner in the hybrid cells or simply retained predominately as silent cargo. Furthermore, the functional properties of ES-somatic cell hybrids in vivo have been limited to studies on their contribution to teratomas and developing embryos/chimeras. The extent of their pluripotency remains largely unclear. Here we determined that the somatic genome is actively transcribed by generating ES-somatic cell hybrids using Rag2-deficient ESCs fused to autologous wild-type somatic cells. Rag2 expression was detected during in vitro differentiation, suggesting that the somatic genome follows the correct temporal cues during differentiation. Furthermore, ES-somatic cell hybrids maintain their tetraploid state following 4 weeks of differentiation in vivo and are immune tolerated when transferred into matched individuals. The ES-somatic cell hybrids can efficiently differentiate into hematopoietic precursors in both myeloid and lymphoid lineages in vitro, suggesting that the somatic genome is actively transcribed following cell fusion based reprogramming. However, the ES-somatic cell hybrids showed an altered hematopoietic potential following in vitro differentiation and were unable to show hematopoietic engraftment in a mouse model.

  16. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  17. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    ...% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  18. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  19. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two different material of Solar panel like Amorphous & Crystalline in a Solar tracking system at Stationary, Single Axis, Dual Axis & Hybrid Axis solar tracker to have better performance with minimum losses to the surroundings, as this device ensures maximum intensity of sun rays hitting the surface of the panel from sunrise to sunset

  20. Dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrids and immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cathelin, Dominique; Nicolas, Alexandra; Bouchot, André

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells currently being used as a cellular adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy strategies. Unfortunately, DC-based vaccines have not demonstrated spectacular clinical results. DC loading with tumor antigens and DC differentiation and activation...

  1. Genome-wide reprogramming in hybrids of somatic cells and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Dominic J; Tanasijevic, Borko; Kaur, Anupinder; Obergfell, Craig; O'Neill, Rachel J; Krueger, Winfried; Rasmussen, Theodore P

    2007-05-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate that somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state when fused to ESCs. The resulting hybrids are pluripotent as judged by developmental assays, but detailed analyses of the underlying molecular-genetic control of reprogrammed transcription in such hybrids are required to better understand fusion-mediated reprogramming. We produced hybrids of mouse ESCs and fibroblasts that, although nearly tetraploid, exhibit characteristics of normal ESCs, including apparent immortality in culture, ESC-like colony morphology, and pluripotency. Comprehensive analysis of the mouse embryonic fibroblast/ESC hybrid transcriptome revealed global patterns of gene expression reminiscent of ESCs. However, combined analysis of variance and hierarchical clustering analyses revealed at least seven distinct classes of differentially regulated genes in comparisons of hybrids, ESCs, and somatic cells. The largest class includes somatic genes that are silenced in hybrids and ESCs, but a smaller class includes genes that are expressed at nearly equivalent levels in hybrids and ESCs that contain many genes implicated in pluripotency and chromatin function. Reprogrammed genes are distributed throughout the genome. Reprogramming events include both transcriptional silencing and activation of genes residing on chromosomes of somatic origin. Somatic/ESC hybrid cell lines resemble their pre-fusion ESC partners in terms of behavior in culture and pluripotency. However, they contain unique expression profiles that are similar but not identical to normal ESCs. ESC fusion-mediated reprogramming provides a tractable system for the investigation of mechanisms of reprogramming. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  2. Tumor associated macrophage × cancer cell hybrids may acquire cancer stem cell properties in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Ding

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women, and metastasis makes it lethal. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs that acquire an alternatively activated macrophage (M2 phenotype may promote metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we examined how TAMs interact with breast cancer cells to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of the M2-specific antigen CD163 in paraffin-embedded mammary carcinoma blocks to explore fusion events in breast cancer patients. U937 cells were used as a substitute for human monocytes, and these cells differentiated into M2 macrophages following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and M-CSF stimulation. M2 macrophages and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 fused in the presence of 50% polyethylene glycol. Hybrids were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the relevant cell biological properties were compared with their parental counterparts. Breast cancer stem cell (BCSC-related markers were quantified by immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and/or western blotting. The tumor-initiating and metastatic capacities of the hybrids and their parental counterparts were assessed in NOD/SCID mice. We found that the CD163 expression rate in breast cancer tissues varied significantly and correlated with estrogen receptor status (p0.05. Characterization of the fusion hybrids revealed a more aggressive phenotype, including increased migration, invasion and tumorigenicity, but reduced proliferative ability, compared with the parental lines. The hybrids also gained a CD44(+CD24(-/low phenotype and over-expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes. These results indicate that TAMs may promote breast cancer metastasis through cell fusion, and the hybrids may gain a BCSC phenotype.

  3. A hybrid model of mammalian cell cycle regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Singhania

    Full Text Available The timing of DNA synthesis, mitosis and cell division is regulated by a complex network of biochemical reactions that control the activities of a family of cyclin-dependent kinases. The temporal dynamics of this reaction network is typically modeled by nonlinear differential equations describing the rates of the component reactions. This approach provides exquisite details about molecular regulatory processes but is hampered by the need to estimate realistic values for the many kinetic constants that determine the reaction rates. It is difficult to estimate these kinetic constants from available experimental data. To avoid this problem, modelers often resort to 'qualitative' modeling strategies, such as Boolean switching networks, but these models describe only the coarsest features of cell cycle regulation. In this paper we describe a hybrid approach that combines the best features of continuous differential equations and discrete Boolean networks. Cyclin abundances are tracked by piecewise linear differential equations for cyclin synthesis and degradation. Cyclin synthesis is regulated by transcription factors whose activities are represented by discrete variables (0 or 1 and likewise for the activities of the ubiquitin-ligating enzyme complexes that govern cyclin degradation. The discrete variables change according to a predetermined sequence, with the times between transitions determined in part by cyclin accumulation and degradation and as well by exponentially distributed random variables. The model is evaluated in terms of flow cytometry measurements of cyclin proteins in asynchronous populations of human cell lines. The few kinetic constants in the model are easily estimated from the experimental data. Using this hybrid approach, modelers can quickly create quantitatively accurate, computational models of protein regulatory networks in cells.

  4. A Panel of CpG Methylation Sites Distinguishes Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are epigenetically identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs has been debated in the stem cell field. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in a large number of hiPSCs (n = 114 and hESCs (n = 155, and identified a panel of 82 CpG methylation sites that can distinguish hiPSCs from hESCs with high accuracy. We show that 12 out of the 82 CpG sites were subject to hypermethylation in part by DNMT3B. Notably, DNMT3B contributes directly to aberrant hypermethylation and silencing of the signature gene, TCERG1L. Overall, we conclude that DNMT3B is involved in a wave of de novo methylation during reprogramming, a portion of which contributes to the unique hiPSC methylation signature. These 82 CpG methylation sites may be useful as biomarkers to distinguish between hiPSCs and hESCs.

  5. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  6. Si/PEDOT:PSS core/shell nanowire arrays for efficient hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenhui; Wang, Chengwei; Yue, Wei; Chen, Liwei

    2011-09-01

    A solution filling and drying method has been demonstrated to fabricate Si/PEDOT:PSS core/shell nanowire arrays for hybrid solar cells. The hybrid core/shell nanowire arrays show excellent broadband anti-reflection, and resulting hybrid solar cells absorb about 88% of AM 1.5G photons in the 300-1100 nm range. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the hybrid solar cell reaches 6.35%, and is primarily limited by direct and indirect interfacial recombination of charge carriers.

  7. Metabolic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The BMP checks your blood sugar, calcium, and ... as creatinine to check your kidney function. The CMP includes all of those tests, as well as ...

  8. Two Beam Energy Exchange in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells with Photorefractive Field Controlled Boundary Conditions (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0209 TWO BEAM ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HYBRID LIQUID CRYSTAL CELLS WITH PHOTOREFRACTIVE FIELD CONTROLLED BOUNDARY...DATES COVERED (From - To) 29 August 2016 Interim 26 October 2015 – 29 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO BEAM ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HYBRID LIQUID... energy gain when two light beams intersect in a hybrid nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell with photorefractive crystalline substrates. A periodic space

  9. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A.; Faez, R.

    2017-04-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure is proposed. This efficient double-junction hybrid tandem solar cell consists of a single-junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) subcell with n-i-p structure as front cell and a P3HT:PCBM organic subcell with inverted structure as back cell. In order to optimize the hybrid tandem cell, we have performed a simulation based on transfer matrix method. We have compared the characteristics of this novel structure with a conventional structure. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.1 and 24% improvement compared to the conventional hybrid tandem cell was achieved. We also discuss the high potential of this novel structure for realizing high-stability organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  10. Plant protoplast fusion and growth of intergeneric hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, K N; Constabel, F; Michayluk, M R; Gamborg, O L

    1974-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric fusions of plant protoplasts were induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1540 or 4000. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation (or rate of fusion) was much higher when PEG was eluted with a high pH-high Ca(2+) solution or a salt solution than when it was eluted with a protoplast culture medium. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was also affected by the types of enzymes used for wall degradation, duration of enzyme incubation and molality of the PEG solutions.The maximum frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was 23% for V. hajastana Grossh.-soybean (Glycine max L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-soybean, 35% for pea (Pisum sativum L.)-soybean, 20% for pea-V. hajastana, 14% for corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean and 10% for V. villosa Roth-V. hajastana.40% of the barley-soybean, corn-soybean and pea-soybean heterokaryocytes divided at least once. Some divided many times and formed clusters of up to 100 cells in 2 weeks. The heterokaryocytes of soybean-V. hajastana, V. villosa-V. hajastana also divided. Of the PEG-treated protoplasts of N. langsdorffii and N. glauca 13.5% developed into tumor-like calli. The morphology of these calli was very much like that of the tumors produced on amphidiploid plants of N. langsdorffii x glauca.Nuclear staining indicated that heterokaryocytes of V. hajastana-soybean, pea-soybean, corn-soybean and barley-soybean could undergo mitosis. Nuclear divisions in a heterokaryocyte were usually synchronized or almost synchronized. Nuclear fusion and true hybrid formation usually occurred during the first mitotic division after protoplast fusion. A hybrid of barley-soybean in third cell division was observed. The frequency of heterokaryocytes which underwent nuclear fusion has not been determined. Multipole formation and chimeral cell colonies were also observed.

  11. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    Fuel cells can produce electricity with high efficiency, low pollutants, and low noise. With the advent of fuel cell technologies, fuel cell systems have since been demonstrated as reliable power generators with power outputs from a few watts to a few megawatts. With proper equipment, fuel cell systems can produce heating and cooling, thus increased its overall efficiency. To increase the acceptance from electrical utilities and building owners, fuel cell systems must operate more dynamically and integrate well with renewable energy resources. This research studies the dynamic performance of fuel cells and the integration of fuel cells with other equipment in three levels: (i) the fuel cell stack operating on hydrogen and reformate gases, (ii) the fuel cell system consisting of a fuel reformer, a fuel cell stack, and a heat recovery unit, and (iii) the hybrid energy system consisting of photovoltaic panels, fuel cell system, and energy storage. In the first part, this research studied the steady-state and dynamic performance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell stack. Collaborators at Aalborg University (Aalborg, Denmark) conducted experiments on a high temperature PEM fuel cell short stack at steady-state and transients. Along with the experimental activities, this research developed a first-principles dynamic model of a fuel cell stack. The dynamic model developed in this research was compared to the experimental results when operating on different reformate concentrations. Finally, the dynamic performance of the fuel cell stack for a rapid increase and rapid decrease in power was evaluated. The dynamic model well predicted the performance of the well-performing cells in the experimental fuel cell stack. The second part of the research studied the dynamic response of a high temperature PEM fuel cell system consisting of a fuel reformer, a fuel cell stack, and a heat recovery unit with high thermal integration. After verifying the model performance with the

  12. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...

  13. Characterization of hybridization between synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides and RNA in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politz, J C; Taneja, K L; Singer, R H

    1995-01-01

    Cells internalized synthetic oligonucleotides (oligos) in culture. The hybridization of these molecules to target RNA in the living cell was subsequently detected and characterized after fixation of the cells, with or without previous detergent extraction. Hybridized oligo was distinguished from free oligo in the cell using an in situ reverse transcription technique. This assay exploited the ability of the hybridized oligo to prime synthesis of a specific cDNA strand; unhybridized oligo present in the cell could not act as a primer for reverse transcription. Phosphorothioate and fluorochrome-labeled phosphodiester oligo dT were found to enter cells rapidly and hybridize to poly (A) RNA within 30 min. Hybrids containing phosphorothioate oligo dT were detectable in cells after up to 4 h of efflux time. Phosphodiester bonded oligo dT containing covalently-linked fluorochromes appeared more stable in the cell than unmodified phosphodiester oligo dT; hybrids containing these oligos could be detected in cells as long as 18h after efflux began. The in situ transcription assay was also sensitive enough to detect hybridization of anti-actin oligos to actin mRNA in the cell. It is probable, therefore, that this assay can be used to help assess the efficacy of antisense oligos by their hybridization to a target mRNA in cells or tissues; hybridized oligos are more likely to induce a specific antisense effect. Additionally, this assay will help to identify probes that would be useful as stable hybridization tags to follow RNA movement in living cells. Images PMID:8559650

  14. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; P.P.J. van den Bosch; Y. Shen; T. Hofman; Edwin Tazelaar

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid vehicles are believed to provide a solution to cut down emissions in the long term. They provide local zero-emission propulsion and when the hydrogen as fuel is derived from renewable energy sources, fuel cell hybrids enable well-to-wheel zero-emission transportation,

  15. Organic Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement By Employing Au Nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-14

    Specialists Conference Conference Date: June 14, 2015 Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement by Employing Au Nanocluster Manisha...tunable conductivity, organic polymer, heterojunction, nanocluster I. INTRODUCTION Recently, organic / inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells have...conventional Si p−n junction. These heterojunction devices are intended to exploit the advantageous properties of both organic and inorganic materials

  16. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...

  17. Unrepaired DNA damage facilitates elimination of uniparental chromosomes in interspecific hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yin, Hao; Lv, Lei; Feng, Yingying; Chen, Shaopeng; Liang, Junting; Huang, Yun; Jiang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Hanwei; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Wu, Lijun; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Elimination of uniparental chromosomes occurs frequently in interspecific hybrid cells. For example, human chromosomes are always eliminated during clone formation when human cells are fused with mouse cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we show that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells is accompanied by continued cell division at the presence of DNA damage on human chromosomes. Deficiency in DNA damage repair on human chromosomes occurs after cell fusion. Furthermore, increasing the level of DNA damage on human chromosomes by irradiation accelerates human chromosome loss in hybrid cells. Our results indicate that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells results from unrepaired DNA damage on human chromosomes. We therefore provide a novel mechanism underlying chromosome instability which may facilitate the understanding of carcinogenesis.

  18. A hybrid of cells and pancreatic islets toward a new bioartificial pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Teramura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface engineering using single-stranded DNA–poly(ethylene glycol-conjugated phospholipid (ssDNA–PEG-lipid is useful for inducing cell–cell attachment two and three dimensionally. In this review, we summarize our recent techniques for cell surface engineering and their applications to islet transplantation. Because any DNA sequence can be immobilized onto the cell surface by hydrophobic interactions between ssDNA–PEG-lipid and the cellular membrane without impairing cell function, a cell–cell hybrid can be formed through the DNA hybridization. With this technique, it would be possible to create three-dimensional hybrid structures of pancreatic islets coated with various accessory cells, such as patients’ own cells, mesenchymal and adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, neural crest stem cells or regulatory T cells, which might significantly improve the outcome of islet transplantation in diabetic patients.

  19. Corrosion Protection of Al/Au/ZnO Anode for Hybrid Cell Application

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection of power sources from corrosion is critical in the development of abiotic fuel cells, biofuel cells, hybrid cells and biobateries for implantable bioelectronics. Corrosion of these bioelectronic devices result in device inability to generate bioelectricity. In this paper Al/Au/ZnO was considered as a possible anodic substrate for the development of a hybrid cell. The protective abilities of corrosive resistant aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films formed o...

  20. Evaluation of action mechanisms of toxic chemicals using JFCR39, a panel of human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Tomoki; Yamazaki, Kanami; Sadahiro, Soutaro; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Kanno, Jun; Yamori, Takao

    2007-11-01

    We previously established a panel of human cancer cell lines, JFCR39, coupled to an anticancer drug activity database; this panel is comparable with the NCI60 panel developed by the National Cancer Institute. The JFCR39 system can be used to predict the molecular targets or evaluate the action mechanisms of the test compounds by comparing their cell growth inhibition profiles (i.e., fingerprints) with those of the standard anticancer drugs using the COMPARE program. In this study, we used this drug activity database-coupled JFCR39 system to evaluate the action mechanisms of various chemical compounds, including toxic chemicals, agricultural chemicals, drugs, and synthetic intermediates. Fingerprints of 130 chemicals were determined and stored in the database. Sixty-nine of 130 chemicals ( approximately 60%) satisfied our criteria for the further analysis and were classified by cluster analysis of the fingerprints of these chemicals and several standard anticancer drugs into the following three clusters: 1) anticancer drugs, 2) chemicals that shared similar action mechanisms (for example, ouabain and digoxin), and 3) chemicals whose action mechanisms were unknown. These results suggested that chemicals belonging to a cluster (i.e., a cluster of toxic chemicals, a cluster of anticancer drugs, etc.) shared similar action mechanism. In summary, the JFCR39 system can classify chemicals based on their fingerprints, even when their action mechanisms are unknown, and it is highly probable that the chemicals within a cluster share common action mechanisms.

  1. Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Christopher; Frost, Jarvist M.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; O'Regan, Brian C.; Walsh, Aron; Islam, M. Saiful

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on organic–inorganic halide perovskites have recently shown rapidly rising power conversion efficiencies, but exhibit unusual behaviour such as current–voltage hysteresis and a low-frequency giant dielectric response. Ionic transport has been suggested to be an important factor contributing to these effects; however, the chemical origin of this transport and the mobile species are unclear. Here, the activation energies for ionic migration in methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are derived from first principles, and are compared with kinetic data extracted from the current–voltage response of a perovskite-based solar cell. We identify the microscopic transport mechanisms, and find facile vacancy-assisted migration of iodide ions with an activation energy of 0.6 eV, in good agreement with the kinetic measurements. The results of this combined computational and experimental study suggest that hybrid halide perovskites are mixed ionic–electronic conductors, a finding that has major implications for solar cell device architectures. PMID:26105623

  2. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  3. Effects of hypoxia on expression of a panel of stem cell and chemosensitivity markers in glioblastoma cell line-derived spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Jesper; Jensen, Stine Skov; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    of a panel of stem cell and chemosensitivity markers was therefore investigated using glioma spheroids derived from the conventional glioblastoma cell line U87. The glioma spheroids were derived at normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) culturing conditions in serum-free medium with EGF and bFGF. The entire......Glioblastomas are the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumor. Tumor stem cells in these tumors have recently been suggested to possess innate resistance mechanisms against radiation and chemotherapy possibly explaining their high level of therapeutic resistance. Moreover tumor hypoxia...... immunohistochemical panel included hypoxia (HIF-1α, HIF-2α), proliferation (Ki-67) and stem cell (CD133, nestin, podoplanin, Bmi-1, Sox-2) markers as well as markers related to chemosensitivity (MGMT, MDR-1, TIMP-1, Lamp-1). Since spheroids derived in hypoxia were smaller than in normoxia, a set of experiments...

  4. Chemo-sensitivity in a panel of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines, YCUB series, derived from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiroaki; Naruto, Takuya; Tanoshima, Reo; Kato, Hiromi; Yokosuka, Tomoko; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Fujii, Hisaki; Yokota, Shumpei; Komine, Hiromi

    2009-10-01

    Sensitivity to 10 anticancer drugs was evaluated in 6 childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cell lines. Authenticity of newly established cell lines was confirmed by genomic fingerprinting. The line YCUB-5R established at relapse was more resistant to 4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, L-asparaginase, topotecan, fludarabine, and etoposide than YCUB-5 from the same patient at diagnosis. Of the drugs tested, etoposide and SN-38 (irinotecan) showed highest efficacy in the panel, with 50% growth inhibition at 0.22-1.8 microg/ml and 0.57-3.6 ng/ml, respectively. This cell line panel offers an in vitro model for the development of new therapies for childhood BCP-ALL.

  5. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  7. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  8. Restriction of human adenovirus replication in Chinese hamster cell lines and their hybrids with human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radna, R L; Foellmer, B; Feldman, L A; Francke, U; Ozer, H L

    1987-11-01

    We have found that the replication of human adenovirus (Ad2) is restricted in multiple Chinese hamster cell lines including CHO and V79. The major site of restriction involves differential accumulation of late viral proteins as demonstrated by immunofluorescence assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with and without prior immunoprecipitation. Synthesis of fiber and penton base are markedly reduced, whereas others, such as the 100K polypeptide, are synthesized efficiently. This pattern of restriction is similar to that previously reported for Ad2 infection of several monkey cell lines; however, the restriction is more marked in the Chinese hamster cell lines. The restriction is most likely due to a deficient cellular function since stable cell hybrids between V79 or CHO and human cells are permissive for virus replication. By analysis of a series of hybrids with reduced numbers of human chromosomes, fiber synthesis was correlated with the presence of the short arm of human chromosome 3. More hybrids showed restoration of fiber synthesis than production of progeny virus, suggesting that more than one unlinked function is required for the latter.

  9. Pluripotent hybrid cells contribute to extraembryonic as well as embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jeong Tae; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Youngsok; Schöler, Hans R

    2011-06-01

    The restricted gene expression of a differentiated cell can be reversed by forming hybrid with embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The resulting hybrid cells showed not only an ESC-specific marker expression but also a differentiation potential similar to the pluripotent fusion partner. Here, we evaluated whether the tetraploid fusion hybrid cells have a unique differentiation potential compared with diploid pluripotent cells. The first Oct4-GFP-positive cells were observed at day 2 following fusion between ESCs and neurosphere cells (OG2(+/-)/ROSA26(+/-)). Reprogramming efficiency was as high as 94.5% at passage 5 and 96.4% at passage 13. We have found that the tetraploid hybrid cells could form chimera with contribution to placenta after blastocyst injection. This result indicates that the tetraploid pluripotent fusion hybrid cells have wide range of differentiation potential. Therefore, we suggest that once the somatic cells are reprogrammed by fusion with ESCs, the tetraploid hybrid cells contributed to the extraembryonic as well as embryonic tissues.

  10. An essential cell cycle regulation gene causes hybrid inviability in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin; Baker, EmilyClare P; Cooper, Jacob C; Frizzell, Kimberly A; Hsieh, Emily; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob O; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-12-18

    Speciation, the process by which new biological species arise, involves the evolution of reproductive barriers, such as hybrid sterility or inviability between populations. However, identifying hybrid incompatibility genes remains a key obstacle in understanding the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. We devised a genomic screen, which identified a cell cycle-regulation gene as the cause of male inviability in hybrids resulting from a cross between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Ablation of the D. simulans allele of this gene is sufficient to rescue the adult viability of hybrid males. This dominantly acting cell cycle regulator causes mitotic arrest and, thereby, inviability of male hybrid larvae. Our genomic method provides a facile means to accelerate the identification of hybrid incompatibility genes in other model and nonmodel systems.

  11. Eco green flexible hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric solar cells with nanoimprint technology and roll-to-roll manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Choi, Sang H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the technical and commercial feasibility of nanotechnology based, high-efficiency, photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid solar cells as an environmentally-friendly, renewable energy source for residential and commercial buildings. To convert as much as possible of the usable photovoltaic (58% of the Energy Density) and thermoelectric (42% of the Energy Density) solar spectrum into electricity, a hybrid multilayer system is presented which comprises of 1) carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded in conducting polymers such as P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene) or P3OT (poly3-octylthiophene), 2) 3D gold nanostructures exhibiting plasmonic resonances for energy conversion, 3) nanoantenna architecture to capture IR energy, 4) a composite of Bi2Te3, SiGe nanocrystals and Au nanoshells as thermoelectric energy conversion layer, 5) configuration of the above items engineered in the form of meta-material designs that by virtue of their 3D structures ensure that incident light is neither reflected nor transmitted, but is rather all absorbed, 6) a multilayer arrangement of the above layers in a fractal architecture to capture all the wavelengths from 200 to 3000 nm8 and the matching electronic interface for each layer. The roll-to-roll manufacturing method presented will enable economical large-scale production of solar panels. This potentially transformational technology has the ability to replace the Si solar cell technology by reducing costs from 0.18/KWh to 0.003/KWh while introducing a more environmentally-friendly manufacturing process.

  12. Dominance of parental genomes in embryonic stem cell/fibroblast hybrid cells depends on the ploidy of the somatic partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, Anna A; Matveeva, Natalia M; Gridina, Maria M; Battulin, Nariman R; Karpov, Anton; Kiseleva, Elena V; Morozova, Ksenia N; Serov, Oleg L

    2010-06-01

    Two dozen hybrid clones were produced by fusion of diploid embryonic stem (ES) cells positive for green fluorescent protein (GFP) with tetraploid fibroblasts derived from DD/c and C57BL-I(I)1RK mice. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated that most cells from these hybrid clones contained near-hexaploid chromosome sets. Additionally, the presence of chromosomes derived from both parental cells was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of polymorphic microsatellites. All hybrid cells were positive for GFP and demonstrated growth characteristics and fibroblast-like morphology. In addition, most hybrid cells were positive for collagen type I, fibronectin, and lamin A/C but were negative for Oct4 and Nanog proteins. Methylation status of the Oct4 and Nanog gene promoters was evaluated by bisulfite genomic sequencing analysis. The methylation sites (CpG-sites) of the Oct4 and Nanog gene promoters were highly methylated in hybrid cells, whereas the CpG-sites were unmethylated in the parental ES cells. Thus, the fibroblast genome dominated the ES genome in the diploid ES cell/tetraploid fibroblast hybrid cells. Immunofluorescent analysis of the pluripotent and fibroblast markers demonstrated that establishment of the fibroblast phenotype occurred shortly after fusion and that the fibroblast phenotype was further maintained in the hybrid cells. Fusion of karyoplasts and cytoplast derived from tetraploid fibroblasts with whole ES cells demonstrated that karyoplasts were able to establish the fibroblast phenotype of the reconstructed cells but not fibroblast cytoplasts. Thus, these data suggest that the dominance of parental genomes in hybrid cells of ES cell/somatic cell type depends on the ploidy of the somatic partner.

  13. Hybrid Verification of A Deepwater Cell-Truss Spar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yi-hua; YANG Jian-min; XIAO Long-fei

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid model testing technique is widely used in verification of a deepwater floating structure and its mooring system,but the design of the truncated mooring systems which can reproduce both static and dynamic response same as the full-depth mooring system is still a big challenge,especially for the mooting systems with large truncation.A Cell-Tress Spar operated in 1500 m water depth is verified in a wave basin with 4 m water depth.A large truncation factor arises even though a small model scale 1:100 is adopted.Computer program modules for analyzing the static and frequency domain dynamic response of mooting line are combined with multi-objective genetic algorithm NSGA-II to optimize the truncared mooting system.Considering the asymmetry of layout of mooring hnes,two different truncated mooring systems are respectively designed for both directions in which the restoring forces of the.mooting system are quite,different.Not only the static characteristics of the mooting systems are calibrated,but also the dynamic responses of the single truncated mooting line are evaluated through time domain numerical simulation and model tests.The model test results of 100-year storm in the GOM are reconstructed and extrapolated to a full depth.It is found that the experimental and numerical resuits of Spar wave frequency motion agree well,and the dynamic responses of the full-depth mooring lines are better reproduced,but the low frequency surge motion is overestimated due to the smaller mooring-induced damping.It is a feasible method adopting different truncated mooring systems for different directions in which the restoring force characteristics are quite different and cannot be simulated by one truncated mooring system.Hybrid verification of a deepwater platform in wave basin with shallow water depth is still feasible if the truncated mooring systems are properly designed,and numerical extrapolation is necessary.

  14. Novel triazole hybrids of myrrhanone C, a natural polypodane triterpene: Synthesis, cytotoxic activity and cell based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Madasu; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Ramakrishna, Sistla; Mallavadhani, Uppuluri Venkata

    2016-05-23

    The 3-keto functionality in ring A of myrrhanone C, a natural bicyclic triterpene has been chemically modified and synthesized 27 novel triazole hybrids belonging to two different series in very good to excellent yields (66-83%). The synthesized compounds were thoroughly characterized by their spectroscopic data (IR, (1)H&(13)C NMR, HRMS). All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against a panel of five human cancer cell lines by employing MTT assay using doxorubicin as the standard. In general the synthesized compounds showed anticancer activity against almost all the cell lines screened. Interestingly, the oxime based triazoles (4a-4n) showed higher activity than the benzylidene triazoles (6a-6m). Most significantly compound 4a showed potent activity against all the tested cell lines, especially against lung cancer (A-549) with an IC 50 of 6.16 μm. In view of their significant activity against lung cancer cell lines, compounds 4a and 4l were subjected to detailed biological studies, which revealed that they arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase and induced cell death by apoptosis that was further confirmed by Hoechst staining, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and Annexin V-FITC assay. These compounds will serve as lead molecules in the development of potent anticancer drug candidates especially for lung cancer.

  15. Recent progress in stabilizing hybrid perovskites for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Cai, Xin; Yang, Donghui; Song, Dan; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Jinghua; Ma, Aibin; Lv, Shiquan; Hu, Michael Z.; Ni, Chaoying

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have quickly evolved as a promising group of materials for solar cells and optoelectronic applications mainly owing to the inexpensive materials, relatively simple and versatile fabrication and high power conversion efficiency (PCE). The certified energy conversion efficiency for perovskite solar cell (PSC) has reached above 20%, which is compatible to the current best for commercial applications. However, long-term stabilities of the materials and devices remain to be the biggest challenging issue for realistic implementation of the PSCs. This article discusses the key issues related to the stability of perovskite absorbing layer including crystal structural stability, chemical stability under moisture, oxygen, illumination and interface reaction, effects of electron-transporting materials (ETM), hole-transporting materials (HTM), contact electrodes, ion migration and preparation conditions. Towards the end, prospective strategies for improving the stability of PSCs are also briefly discussed and summarized. We focus on recent understanding of the stability of materials and devices and our perspectives about the strategies for the stability improvement.

  16. Comparison of hybrid blends for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechmann, M. C.; Gutmann, J. S. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Institute for Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Koll, D.; Tremel, W. [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Kessler, D. [Institute for Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Theato, P. [Institute for Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, WCU program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment (C2E2), College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-744 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In blended hybrid systems distinct micro- or nanostructured materials can be formed by phase separation. Network structures of particles or rods in a polymer matrix can be developed via self-assembly. We use this blending approach to compare active materials for application in solar cell devices. Blends were fabricated from either poly(hexylthiophene) P3HT or poly(triphenylamine) PTPA mixed with nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} rods. In this manner, we compare two different hole conducting polymers in their performance in photovoltaic devices, while experimental conditions are kept identical. We find that the choice of solvent and photovoltaic characterization conducted in inert atmosphere is of importance for blends prepared from P3HT/TiO{sub 2} blends, but not for PTPA/TiO{sub 2} blends. Even though prepared with the same TiO{sub 2} rods, solar cells prepared from PTPA blends showed an enhanced efficiency when measured under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the PTPA/TiO{sub 2} showed higher long-term stability. (author)

  17. Comparison of Hybrid Blends for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Lechmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In blended hybrid systems distinct micro- or nanostructured materials can be formed by phase separation. Network structures of particles or rods in a polymer matrix can be developed via self-assembly. We use this blending approach to compare active materials for application in solar cell devices. Blends were fabricated from either poly(hexylthiophene P3HT or poly(triphenylamine PTPA mixed with nanocrystalline TiO2 rods. In this manner, we compare two different hole conducting polymers in their performance in photovoltaic devices, while experimental conditions are kept identical. We find that the choice of solvent and photovoltaic characterization conducted in inert atmosphere is of importance for blends prepared from P3HT/TiO2 blends, but not for PTPA/TiO2 blends. Even though prepared with the same TiO2 rods, solar cells prepared from PTPA blends showed an enhanced efficiency when measured under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the PTPA/TiO2 showed higher long-term stability.

  18. Improved performance of silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots/organic hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Zhaoyun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, Jiangsu Province (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Renqi; Xue, Zhaoguo; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Jun; Yu, Yao; Su, Weining; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We introduce an intermediate cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) layer between the organic with silicon nanowires of hybrid solar cells as a down-shifting layer. • The hybrid solar cell got the maximum short circuit current density of 33.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, getting an increase of 15.1% comparing to solar cell without CdTe QDs. • The PCE of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer increases 28.8%. - Abstract: We fabricated silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs)/organic hybrid solar cells and investigated their structure and electrical properties. Transmission electron microscope revealed that CdTe QDs were uniformly distributed on the surface of the silicon nanowires, which made PEDOT:PSS easily filled the space between SiNWs. The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics of hybrid solar cells were investigated both in dark and under illumination. The result shows that the performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer has an obvious improvement. The optimal short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of solar cells with CdTe QDs layer can reach 33.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Compared with the solar cells without CdTe QDs, J{sub sc} has an increase of 15.1%. Power conversion efficiency of solar cells also increases by 28.8%. The enhanced performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layers are ascribed to down-shifting effect of CdTe QDs and the modification of the silicon nanowires surface with CdTe QDs. The result of our experiments suggests that hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs modified are promising candidates for solar cell application.

  19. [Analysis of chromosome composition in interspecific embryonic stem hybrid cells of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristiazhniuk, I E; Matveeva, N M; Grafodatskiĭ, A S; Serdiukova, N A; Serov, O L

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome complements of twenty hybrid clones obtained by fusion of Mus musculus embryonic stem cells (ESC) and M. caroli splenocytes were studied. Using of double-color in situ hybridization with chromosome- and species-specific probes we were able to detect the parental origin for each chromosome in hybrid cells. Based on parental chromosome ratio, all 20 hybrid clones were separated in some different groups: from the group containing practically tetraploid M. musculus genome with single M. caroli chromosomes to hybrids with dominance of M. caroli chromosome homologues. In 8 hybrid cells clones we observed prevalence of chromosomes originated from ESC in ratio from 5:1 to 3:1. Another hybrid cells clones have either equal (1:1, 1:2) ratio of M. musculus to M. caroli chromosomes or with the prevalence of ESC- (2:1) or splenocyte- (1:2) originated parental chromosome homologues. In 3 hybrid cells clones, we observed preferable segregation of ESC-originated pluripotent chromosomes. This phenomenon was found for the first time and it possibly indicates compensation of the epigenetic differences between parental chromosomes of ESC- and splenocyte-origination.

  20. Analysis of the inner collection efficiency in hybrid silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nubile, P.; Torres, P; Hof, Ch.; Fischer, D.

    2008-01-01

    The collection of photogenerated carriers in hybrid silicon solar cells structures were determined by the DICE (dynamic inner collection efficiency) technique. The hybrid solar cells have a microcrystalline n-type emitter and a crystalline p-type base. Cells with amorphous buffers of several thickness and p+ back surface field microcrystalline layers were also studied. Spectral response and reflectivity were measured for each sample in order to obtain the internal spectral response or quantum...

  1. What Is Moving in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    and fuel cell applications. We expound on the implications of these effects for the photovoltaic action. The temporal behavior displayed by hybrid perovskites introduces a sensitivity in materials characterization to the time and length scale of the measurement, as well as the history of each sample. It also poses significant challenges for accurate materials modeling and device simulations. There are large differences between the average and local crystal structures, and the nature of charge transport is too complex to be described by common one-dimensional drift-diffusion models. Herein, we critically discuss the atomistic origin of the dynamic processes and the associated chemical disorder intrinsic to crystalline hybrid perovskite semiconductors. PMID:26859250

  2. What Is Moving in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jarvist M; Walsh, Aron

    2016-03-15

    Organic-inorganic semiconductors, which adopt the perovskite crystal structure, have perturbed the landscape of contemporary photovoltaics research. High-efficiency solar cells can be produced with solution-processed active layers. The materials are earth abundant, and the simple processing required suggests that high-throughput and low-cost manufacture at scale should be possible. While these materials bear considerable similarity to traditional inorganic semiconductors, there are notable differences in their optoelectronic behavior. A key distinction of these materials is that they are physically soft, leading to considerable thermally activated motion. In this Account, we discuss the internal motion of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) and formamidinium lead iodide ([CH(NH2)2]PbI3), covering: (i) molecular rotation-libration in the cuboctahedral cavity; (ii) drift and diffusion of large electron and hole polarons; (iii) transport of charged ionic defects. These processes give rise to a range of properties that are unconventional for photovoltaic materials, including frequency-dependent permittivity, low electron-hole recombination rates, and current-voltage hysteresis. Multiscale simulations, drawing from electronic structure, ab initio molecular dynamic and Monte Carlo computational techniques, have been combined with neutron diffraction measurements, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, and ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy to qualify the nature and time scales of the motions. Electron and hole motion occurs on a femtosecond time scale. Molecular libration is a sub-picosecond process. Molecular rotations occur with a time constant of several picoseconds depending on the cation. Recent experimental evidence and theoretical models for simultaneous electron and ion transport in these materials has been presented, suggesting they are mixed-mode conductors with similarities to fast-ion conducting metal oxide perovskites developed for battery and fuel cell

  3. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, M; Rosenberg, C; Stoop, H; Schuyer, M; Timmer, A; Oosterhuis, W; Looijenga, L

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal information on germ cell tumors of the infantile testis, ie, teratomas and yolk sac tumors, is limited and controversial. We studied two teratomas and four yolk sac tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization. No chromosomal anomalies were found in the

  4. Metal octacarboxyphthalocyanine / multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was prepared through non- covalent (Pi)p-(Pi)p stacking. The metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was later employed in dye solar cells as a photosensitiser of choice...

  5. Charge extraction from nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chiatzun

    Conjugated polymers are attractive for use in photovoltaic (PV) cells because they are highly absorptive, their absorption spectrum can be tuned to match various regions of the solar spectrum and their solubility in common solvents enables the use of low-cost printing technique to mass produce PV panels. Photoexcitation of conjugated polymers forms excitons, which are bound electron-hole pairs. In order to convert these excitons into free carriers, the polymers have to be blended with an electron acceptor in close promixity of ˜10 nm. The charge transfer process at the donor-acceptor interface provides the necessary driving force to split excitons, while the close proximity guarantees excitons reaching an interface before decaying. Once the carriers are split, they have to be transported to their respective electrodes before recombining. Ordered nanostructured titania (TiO2) matrix infiltrated with conjugated polymers is a promising acceptor-donor system, which can potentially meet these requirements. In this work, several optimizations are shown to be essential for increasing the performance of TiO2/polymer cells. First, we measure the hole mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a thin film diode in the space-charge limited regime. We show that the mobility increases with the polymer molecular weight and can be correlated to the film morphology. The anisotropy in P3HT chain packing suggests that its diode mobility of 10-4 cm 2/Vs can be further enhanced upon chain alignment in straight nanopores. Second, we investigate the use of molecular surface modification to control the interfacial energetics and charge transfer dynamics. By introducing dipoles at the TiO2/P3HT interface, the interfacial energy offset can be changed resulting in a concomitant change in the open circuit voltage. In addition, certain modifiers improve exciton harvesting by mediating charge transfer from the polymer to TiO2. We further show that the use of an amphiphilic molecule

  6. Hybrid morphology dependence of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Weifeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-01-01

    A nanocrystal thin-film solar cell operating on an exciton splitting pattern requires a highly efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and transportation of separated charges. A hybrid bulk-heterojunction (HBH) nanostructure providing a large contact area and interpenetrated charge channels is favorable to an inorganic nanocrystal solar cell with high performance. For this freshly appeared structure, here in this work, we have firstly explored the influence of hybrid morphology on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells with variation in CdSe nanoparticle morphology. Quantum dot (QD) or nanotetrapod (NT)-shaped CdSe nanocrystals have been employed together with CdTe NTs to construct different hybrid structures. The solar cells with the two different hybrid active layers show obvious difference in photovoltaic performance. The hybrid structure with densely packed and continuously interpenetrated two phases generates superior morphological and electrical properties for more efficient inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which could be readily realized in the NTs:QDs hybrid. This proved strategy is applicable and promising in designing other highly efficient inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  7. Diverse effects of the MalE-LacZ hybrid protein on Escherichia coli cell physiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, K.; Akiyama, Y; Yura, T; Shiba, K

    1986-01-01

    The hybrid protein between the periplasmic maltose-binding protein and the cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase (the MalE-LacZ hybrid protein) was previously shown to block the export of envelope proteins when synthesized in large amounts. Now we show that the hybrid protein exerts another major effect on the cell, that is, induction of the heat shock proteins. This latter effect was dependent on the htpR gene product but independent of the function of the signal sequence on the hybrid protein. On ...

  8. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth [Center for Manufacturing Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH{sub 4} on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO{sub 2} as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO{sub 2} battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs. (author)

  9. Two-dimensional model of an AC plasma display panel cell in a neon-xenon mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    We present a 2-D fluid model of an AC plasma display panel cell. Plasma Display Panels (PDP) are flat display devices where the light of each picture element is emitted from a plasma created by an electric discharge. In the simplest electrode configuration, AC plasma display panels consist of two glass plates, each with parallel electrodes deposited on their surfaces. The electrodes are covered with a dielectric film above which a protective MgO layer is deposited. The plates are sealed together with their electrodes at right angles, and the cap between the plates is filled with a rare gas mixture. An electric discharge can be initiated in the gas cap by applying a voltage pulse between a line electrode and a column electrode. This discharge is transient due to the dielectric layers covering the electrode: the charges deposited on the dielectric surfaces induce in the gas cap a voltage which opposes the electrode voltage. Since the electrode voltage is AC (frequency in the 10-100 kHz range), a discharge is initiated each time the electrode voltage changes sign (the voltage across the dielectric layers adds to the electrode voltage when it changes sign). The {open_quotes}ON{close_quotes} state of a picture element is therefore a succession of transient discharges. In color displays, the UV light of the discharge is used to excite phosphors in the three fundamental colors (at least three discharge cells are used for one pixel of the screen). Neon-xenon or helium-xenon mixtures are generally used in color displays where photons emitted by excited atomic (147 nm) and molecular (150 nm and 173 nm) xenon are used to excite the phosphors.

  10. File list: Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  14. Oxidative Stress Triggered by Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in a Comprehensive Panel of Human Cervical Cancer-Derived Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel P; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de S; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Ratti, Bianca A; Kaplum, Vanessa; Bruschi, Marcos L; Nakamura, Celso V; Silva, Sueli O; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the cytotoxic effects of apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), particularly its marked inhibition of cancer cell viability both in vitro and in vivo, have attracted the attention of the anticancer drug discovery field. Despite this, there are few studies of apigenin in cervical cancer, and these studies have mostly been conducted using HeLa cells. To evaluate the possibility of apigenin as a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we evaluated its cytotoxic effects in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive), SiHa (HPV 16-positive), CaSki (HPV 16 and HPV 18-positive), and C33A (HPV-negative) cells in comparison to a nontumorigenic spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT). Our results demonstrated that apigenin had a selective cytotoxic effect and could induce apoptosis in all cervical cancer cell lines which were positively marked with Annexin V, but not in HaCaT (control cells). Additionally, apigenin was able to induce mitochondrial redox impairment, once it increased ROS levels and H2O2, decreased the Δψm, and increased LPO. Still, apigenin was able to inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells. Thus, apigenin appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV genotypes.

  15. Oxidative Stress Triggered by Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in a Comprehensive Panel of Human Cervical Cancer-Derived Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P. Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the cytotoxic effects of apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, particularly its marked inhibition of cancer cell viability both in vitro and in vivo, have attracted the attention of the anticancer drug discovery field. Despite this, there are few studies of apigenin in cervical cancer, and these studies have mostly been conducted using HeLa cells. To evaluate the possibility of apigenin as a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we evaluated its cytotoxic effects in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive, SiHa (HPV 16-positive, CaSki (HPV 16 and HPV 18-positive, and C33A (HPV-negative cells in comparison to a nontumorigenic spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT. Our results demonstrated that apigenin had a selective cytotoxic effect and could induce apoptosis in all cervical cancer cell lines which were positively marked with Annexin V, but not in HaCaT (control cells. Additionally, apigenin was able to induce mitochondrial redox impairment, once it increased ROS levels and H2O2, decreased the Δψm, and increased LPO. Still, apigenin was able to inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells. Thus, apigenin appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV genotypes.

  16. Oxidative Stress Triggered by Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in a Comprehensive Panel of Human Cervical Cancer-Derived Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel P.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Ratti, Bianca A.; Kaplum, Vanessa; Bruschi, Marcos L.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Maria-Engler, Silvya S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the cytotoxic effects of apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), particularly its marked inhibition of cancer cell viability both in vitro and in vivo, have attracted the attention of the anticancer drug discovery field. Despite this, there are few studies of apigenin in cervical cancer, and these studies have mostly been conducted using HeLa cells. To evaluate the possibility of apigenin as a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we evaluated its cytotoxic effects in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive), SiHa (HPV 16-positive), CaSki (HPV 16 and HPV 18-positive), and C33A (HPV-negative) cells in comparison to a nontumorigenic spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT). Our results demonstrated that apigenin had a selective cytotoxic effect and could induce apoptosis in all cervical cancer cell lines which were positively marked with Annexin V, but not in HaCaT (control cells). Additionally, apigenin was able to induce mitochondrial redox impairment, once it increased ROS levels and H2O2, decreased the Δψm, and increased LPO. Still, apigenin was able to inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells. Thus, apigenin appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV genotypes. PMID:28191273

  17. [Hybridization of cells of the same mating type in Saccharomyces yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge-Vechtomov, S G; Repnevskaia, M V; Karpova, T S

    1986-11-01

    The problem of mating-type switches in heterothallic yeast cells was investigated. 93% of non-mating hybrids were obtained in a X a crosses. The hybrids obtained in alpha X alpha crosses expressed alpha-mating type predominantly. Hybrids with no major rearrangements or loss of chromosome III were detected among these hybrids. In the selective system for cytoduction in a X a crosses the significant part of all cytoductants were alpha-maters, i.e. those originated through a----alpha switches. In alpha X alpha crosses alpha cytoductants were predominantly obtained either spontaneously or after UV-irradiation, though the frequency of cytoductants after UV-irradiation exceeded the control value several times. So, we developed the method for selection of mating-type "switchers" (a in equilibrium alpha), avoiding the diploid stage, and demonstrated the possibility of hybridization among the alpha-cells without hereditary changes at the MAT locus.

  18. Optimal design of a hybridization scheme with a fuel cell using genetic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A.

    Fuel cell is one of the most dependable "green power" technologies, readily available for immediate application. It enables direct conversion of hydrogen and other gases into electric energy without any pollution of the environment. However, the efficient power generation is strictly stationary process that cannot operate under dynamic environment. Consequently, fuel cell becomes practical only within a specially designed hybridization scheme, capable of power storage and power management functions. The resultant technology could be utilized to its full potential only when both the fuel cell element and the entire hybridization scheme are optimally designed. The design optimization in engineering is among the most complex computational tasks due to its multidimensionality, nonlinearity, discontinuity and presence of constraints in the underlying optimization problem. this research aims at the optimal utilization of the fuel cell technology through the use of genetic optimization, and advance computing. This study implements genetic optimization in the definition of optimum hybridization rules for a PEM fuel cell/supercapacitor power system. PEM fuel cells exhibit high energy density but they are not intended for pulsating power draw applications. They work better in steady state operation and thus, are often hybridized. In a hybrid system, the fuel cell provides power during steady state operation while capacitors or batteries augment the power of the fuel cell during power surges. Capacitors and batteries can also be recharged when the motor is acting as a generator. Making analogies to driving cycles, three hybrid system operating modes are investigated: 'Flat' mode, 'Uphill' mode, and 'Downhill' mode. In the process of discovering the switching rules for these three modes, we also generate a model of a 30W PEM fuel cell. This study also proposes the optimum design of a 30W PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model and hybridization's switching rules are postulated

  19. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Farouk Odeim; Jürgen Roes; Angelika Heinzel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, ...

  20. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  1. Hybrid ODE/SSA methods and the cell cycle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Chen, M.; Cao, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Stochastic effect in cellular systems has been an important topic in systems biology. Stochastic modeling and simulation methods are important tools to study stochastic effect. Given the low efficiency of stochastic simulation algorithms, the hybrid method, which combines an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system with a stochastic chemically reacting system, shows its unique advantages in the modeling and simulation of biochemical systems. The efficiency of hybrid method is usually limited by reactions in the stochastic subsystem, which are modeled and simulated using Gillespie's framework and frequently interrupt the integration of the ODE subsystem. In this paper we develop an efficient implementation approach for the hybrid method coupled with traditional ODE solvers. We also compare the efficiency of hybrid methods with three widely used ODE solvers RADAU5, DASSL, and DLSODAR. Numerical experiments with three biochemical models are presented. A detailed discussion is presented for the performances of three ODE solvers.

  2. Gene expression changes as markers of early lapatinib response in a panel of breast cancer cell lines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Neill, Fiona

    2012-06-18

    AbstractBackgroundLapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2 and EGFR and is approved, in combination with capecitabine, for the treatment of trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. In order to establish a possible gene expression response to lapatinib, a panel of breast cancer cell lines with varying sensitivity to lapatinib were analysed using a combination of microarray and qPCR profiling.MethodsCo-inertia analysis (CIA), a data integration technique, was used to identify transcription factors associated with the lapatinib response on a previously published dataset of 96 microarrays. RNA was extracted from BT474, SKBR3, EFM192A, HCC1954, MDAMB453 and MDAMB231 breast cancer cell lines displaying a range of lapatinib sensitivities and HER2 expression treated with 1 μM of lapatinib for 12 hours and quantified using Taqman RT-PCR. A fold change ≥ ± 2 was considered significant.ResultsA list of 421 differentially-expressed genes and 8 transcription factors (TFs) whose potential regulatory impact was inferred in silico, were identified as associated with lapatinib response. From this group, a panel of 27 genes (including the 8 TFs) were selected for qPCR validation. 5 genes were determined to be significantly differentially expressed following the 12 hr treatment of 1 μM lapatinib across all six cell lines. Furthermore, the expression of 4 of these genes (RB1CC1, FOXO3A, NR3C1 and ERBB3) was directly correlated with the degree of sensitivity of the cell line to lapatinib and their expression was observed to “switch” from up-regulated to down-regulated when the cell lines were arranged in a lapatinib-sensitive to insensitive order. These included the novel lapatinib response-associated genes RB1CC1 and NR3C1. Additionally, Cyclin D1 (CCND1), a common regulator of the other four proteins, was also demonstrated to observe a proportional response to lapatinib exposure.ConclusionsA panel of 5 genes were determined to be differentially

  3. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  4. Dynamic Simulation of Carbonate Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.A. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Brouwer, J. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Liese, E.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2006-04-01

    Hybrid fuel cell/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment during perturbations that may occur when the system is connected to the utility grid or in stand-alone mode. This paper presents recent dynamic simulation results from two laboratories focused on developing tools to aid in the design and dynamic analyses of hybrid fuel cell systems. The simulation results present the response of a carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, or molten carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, (MCFC/GT) hybrid system to a load demand perturbation. Initial results suggest that creative control strategies will be needed to ensure a flexible system with wide turndown and robust dynamic operation.

  5. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) consisting of a solid carbon (carbon black)-molten carbonate ((62–38 wt% Li-K)2CO3) mixtures in the anode chamber of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell type full-cell are tested for their electrochemical performance between 700 and 800°C. Performance...

  6. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  7. On practicality of a hybrid car with solar cells; Taiyo denchi wo tosaishita hybrid car no jitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Nagayoshi, H.; Kamisako, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper stated a development of a hybrid car which is a parallel type with gasoline engine and electric motor as driving source (connecting each according to the situation) and is also equipped with solar cells. Specifications are gasoline engine of 1200cc, induction motor of 5.5kW, lead battery of 288V and 7.2kWh, monocrystal silicon solar cells of 180W maximum output, and body weight of 1100kg. The rear wheel is driven by electric motor, and the front wheel by gasoline engine. The car is loaded with battery charge use solar cells on hood and roof. To enhance cleaning degree, 1.6kW solar cells are installed as an installed power system and used for battery charge. Even by an electric motor with output less than that of the usual electric car, harmful exhaust gas emitted in start-up can be controlled. This is because the electric motor can be used in accelerating. It was confirmed that the power required for it could be supplied by solar cells installed on the car. The hybrid car is practically useful for prevention of local air pollution. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of GO-Fe3O4 hybrid in cultured mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzejczak-Silicka Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at investigating the effect of the Fe3O4 hybrid deposited on graphene oxide (GO-Fe3O4 on the relative viability and DNA integrity. The properties of the GO-Fe3O4 hybrid were analyzed using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction technique (XRD and thermal gravimetric method (TGA, while the efficiency of graphene oxide covalent functionalization with iron oxide nanospheres was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. L929 and MCF-7 cell lines were selected to analyze the biocompatibility of GO-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The hybrid was tested using WST-1 and LDH leakage assays. DNA integrity was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and micronucleus assay was performed to examine chromosomal damage in the exposed cell lines. The tested GO-Fe3O4 hybrid did not significantly reduce cell metabolism of L929 cells. GO-Fe3O4 hybrid particles only slightly affected the integrity of cell membranes. DNA integrity and micronucleus assays did not indicate genotoxicity of the hybrid.

  9. Optimism system refrigerator hybrid power (solar cell + actuator motor to traditional fisherman boat in Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soetyono Ch. Iskandar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of Pre-eminent Donation of This college aimed at energetic refrigerator system planning of hybrid (solar cell + actuator motor at inclusion ship of fish in coming, principal from this research is, exploiting of dissociation energy of diatomic is newest with usage of diesel fuel technology cell as coolant system actuator at actuator motor plus fisherman ship. This research program planned in a period of three years to design freezing device of energetic fish of hybrid (solarcell + actuator motor fisherman ship, yields storage device basis barium product of energetic fish of hybrid.In first year, does with refer to study study about base material refrigerator and solar cell and makes energetic refrigerator system prototype of solar (laboratory scale. In second year, does study to design energetic refrigerator of hybrid (solar cell + actuator motor with laboratory scale productively energetic refrigerator prototype of hybrid with laboratory scale. In third year, application of energetic refrigerator system of hybrid (solar cell + actuator motor at fisherman ship Poetere in Makassar, expected can push and motivates fisherman public in developing and applies this technology, causing can increase quality of produce of fish and at the same time increases fisherman public economics value without using again ice block to make cool fisherman fishing boat hold.

  10. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  11. Effects of hypoxia on expression of a panel of stem cell and chemosensitivity markers in glioblastoma cell line-derived spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Jesper; Jensen, Stine Skov; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte;

    immunohistochemical panel included hypoxia (HIF-1α, HIF-2α), proliferation (Ki-67) and stem cell (CD133, nestin, podoplanin, Bmi-1, Sox-2) markers as well as markers related to chemosensitivity (MGMT, MDR-1, TIMP-1, Lamp-1). Since spheroids derived in hypoxia were smaller than in normoxia, a set of experiments...... for podoplanin, nestin and TIMP-1 as well as for Ki-67. Hif-2α, Sox-2, MGMT and MDR-1 were not detectable in normoxic and hypoxic U87 spheroids. In conclusion, the expression of tumor stem cell and chemosensitivity markers seems to depend on the oxygen tension suggesting that future development of therapeutic...

  12. Research on performance of hybrid organic dyes-sensitized solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Sun; Weizheng Yuan; Dayong Qiao

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid sensitizer rhodamine B and coumarin or eosin and coumarin is used to sensitize nanocrystalline porous films. Absorption of the nanocrystalline photovoltaic cell (NPC) is improved in visible light. The performance of these cells is more effective than that of cells sensitized only by sensitizer rhodamine B or eosin. In the simulative solar light, cell sensitized by hybrid sensitizer rhodamine B and coumarin can get open circuit voltage (Voc) of 550 mV and short circuit current (Isc) of 0.1375 mA/cm2.

  13. Modeling and control of a small solar fuel cell hybrid energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Xin-jian; CAO Guang-yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a solar photovoltaic fuel cell (PVEC) hybrid generation system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), an electrolyser, a supercapacitor, a storage gas tank and power conditioning unit (PCU). The load is supplied from the PV generator with a fuel cell working in parallel. Excess PV energy when available is converted to hydrogen using an electrolyser for later use in the fuel cell. The individual mathematical model for each component is presented. Control strategy for the system is described. MATLAB/Simulink is used for the simulation of this highly nonlinear hybrid energy system. The simulation results are shown in the paper.

  14. ZnO-based nanocrystalline powders with applications in hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damonte, L.C. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Donderis, V. [Dto. De Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Ferrari, S.; Meyer, M. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Orozco, J. [Dto. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development of hybrid photovoltaic cells consisting of new materials, such as devices based on the combination of a wide gap semiconductor and an organic dye (dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSC). In this paper we obtain nano-zinc oxide particles whose optical and electrical properties have been modified by the presence of small amounts of Al or In acting as dopants. The aim of this study is to improve the compatibility of each of the compounds present in the photovoltaic solar cell. The knowledge gained will provide input to guide the processes in the manufacture of hybrid solar cells. (author)

  15. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  16. A Hybrid Tandem Solar Cell Combining a Dye-Sensitized and a Polymer Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhipeng; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Liangzheng; Ye, Jiajiu; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell was assambled by connecting a dye sensitized solar cell and a polymer solar cell in series. A N719 sensitized TiO2 was used as photocathode in dye-sensitized subcell, and a MEH-PPV/PCBM composite was used as active layer in the polymer subcell. The polymer subcell fabricated on the counter electrode of the dye sensitized solar cell. A solution processed TiO(x) layer was used as electron collection layer of the polymer sub cell and the charge recombination layer. The effects of the TiO(x) interlayer and the spectral overlap between the two sub cells have been studied and optimized. The results shows that a proper thickness of the TiO(x) layer is needed for tandem solar cells. Thick TiO(x) will enhance the series resistance, but too thin TiO(x), layer will damage the hole blocking effect and its hydrophilic. The resulting optimized tandem solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.28% with a V(oc) of 0.95 V under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination.

  17. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  18. Numerical simulations for the effiency improvement of hybrid dye-microcrystalline silicon pin-solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdorf, Sven; Bauer, Gottfried Heinrich; Brueggemann, Rudolf [Institut fuer Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid solar cells consisting of dye sensitizers incorporated in the i-layer of microcrystalline silicon pin solar cell have been proposed and even recently processed. The dye sensitizer molecules are embedded in the matrix and enhance the overall absorption of the dye-matrix system due to their high absorption coefficient in the spectral range interesting for photovoltaic applications. However, the charge transport properties of dyes are quite poor. Microcrystalline silicon on the other hand has acceptable charge transport properties, while the absorption, given a layer thickness in the micron range, is relatively poor. This contribution investigates the effiency improvement of hybrid dye-microcrystalline solar cells compared to pure microcrystalline solar cells by simulation. The results indicate that, under optimal conditions, the effiency can be improved by more than 20 % compared to a pure microcrystalline silicon cell. The thickness reduction for the hybrid system can be as large as 50 % for the same effiency.

  19. A discussion on the origin and solutions of hysteresis in perovskite hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Ho; Hyeok Jang, Min; Lee, Min Ho; Hyuck Heo, Jin; Park, Jin Kyoung; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Hong, Ki-Ha; Im, Sang Hyuk

    2016-11-01

    Although the record efficiencies of perovskite hybrid solar cells are gradually reaching the efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells, perovskite hybrid solar cells often exhibit significant current density-voltage (J-V) hysteresis with respect to the forward and reverse scan direction and scan rate. The origin of the J-V hysteresis of perovskite hybrid solar cells has not, to date, been clearly elucidated. Dielectric polarization by the ferroelectric properties of perovskite (i), the ionic motion/migration of perovskite materials (ii), and charge trapping and detrapping at trap sites by the unbalanced electron and hole flux (iii) are considered the possible origins of J-V hysteresis. Here, we reviewed the origin of the J-V hysteresis of perovskite solar cells from the above three points of view and we then suggest how one may reduce the J-V hysteresis with respect to the scan direction and scan rate.

  20. Telomeres in ICF syndrome cells are vulnerable to DNA damage due to elevated DNA:RNA hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagie, Shira; Toubiana, Shir; Hartono, Stella R.; Katzir, Hagar; Tzur-Gilat, Aya; Havazelet, Shany; Francastel, Claire; Velasco, Guillaume; Chédin, Frédéric; Selig, Sara

    2017-01-01

    DNA:RNA hybrids, nucleic acid structures with diverse physiological functions, can disrupt genome integrity when dysregulated. Human telomeres were shown to form hybrids with the lncRNA TERRA, yet the formation and distribution of these hybrids among telomeres, their regulation and their cellular effects remain elusive. Here we predict and confirm in several human cell types that DNA:RNA hybrids form at many subtelomeric and telomeric regions. We demonstrate that ICF syndrome cells, which exhibit short telomeres and elevated TERRA levels, are enriched for hybrids at telomeric regions throughout the cell cycle. Telomeric hybrids are associated with high levels of DNA damage at chromosome ends in ICF cells, which are significantly reduced with overexpression of RNase H1. Our findings suggest that abnormally high TERRA levels in ICF syndrome lead to accumulation of telomeric hybrids that, in turn, can result in telomeric dysfunction. PMID:28117327

  1. Non-preconditioned conjugate gradient on cell and FPCA-based hybrid supercomputer nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubois, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boorman, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connor, Carolyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-03-10

    This work presents a detailed implementation of a double precision, Non-Preconditioned, Conjugate Gradient algorithm on a Roadrunner heterogeneous supercomputer node. These nodes utilize the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture{trademark} in conjunction with x86 Opteron{trademark} processors from AMD. We implement a common Conjugate Gradient algorithm, on a variety of systems, to compare and contrast performance. Implementation results are presented for the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer, SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation SRC-6 FPGA enhanced hybrid supercomputer, and AMD Opteron only. In all hybrid implementations wall clock time is measured, including all transfer overhead and compute timings.

  2. Non-preconditioned conjugate gradient on cell and FPGA based hybrid supercomputer nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubois, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boorman, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connor, Carolyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a detailed implementation of a double precision, non-preconditioned, Conjugate Gradient algorithm on a Roadrunner heterogeneous supercomputer node. These nodes utilize the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture{sup TM} in conjunction with x86 Opteron{sup TM} processors from AMD. We implement a common Conjugate Gradient algorithm, on a variety of systems, to compare and contrast performance. Implementation results are presented for the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer, SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation SRC-6 FPGA enhanced hybrid supercomputer, and AMD Opteron only. In all hybrid implementations wall clock time is measured, including all transfer overhead and compute timings.

  3. A hybrid biofuel cell based on electrooxidation of glucose using ultra-small silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongki; Wang, Gang; Nayfeh, Munir H; Yau, Siu-Tung

    2009-06-15

    The ultra-small silicon nanoparticle was shown to be an electrocatalyst for the electrooxidation of glucose. The oxidation appeared to be a first order reaction which involves the transfer of 1 electron. The oxidation potential showed a low onset of -0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl (-0.62 V vs. RHE). The particle was used as the anode catalyst of a prototype hybrid biofuel cell, which operated on glucose and hydrogen peroxide. The output power of the hybrid cell showed a dependence on the enzymes used as the cathode catalyst. The power density was optimized to 3.7 microW/cm(2) when horseradish peroxidase was replaced by microperoxidase-11 (MP-11). Comparing the output power of the hybrid cell to that of a biofuel cell indicates enhanced cell performance due to the fast reaction kinetics of the particle. The long-term stability of the hybrid cell was characterized by monitoring the cell voltage for 5 days. It appeared to that the robustness of the silicon particle resulted in more cell stability compared to the long-term performance of a biofuel cell.

  4. Multi-omic profiling of EPO-producing CHO cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Engmark, Mikael

    discovered indications of metabolic adaptation of the amino acid catabolism in favor of heterologous protein production. We established a panel of stably EPO expressing CHO-K1 clones spanning a 25-fold productivity range and characterized the clones in batch and chemostat cultures. For this, we employed......, EPO gene expression, intracellular protein levels and genomewide differential gene expression analysis of genes functionally related to secretory protein processing,respectively. Finally, we generated a network reconstruction of the amino acid catabolism in CHO cells. There construction was utilized...... clone during chemostat culture. The EPO productivity levels were not reflected in EPO gene load,EPO gene expression or intracellular protein retention, indicating that these processes were not limiting EPO productivity. The global gene expression analysis did not identify significant differentially...

  5. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  6. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  7. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  8. In situ hybridization of oxytocin messenger RNA: macroscopic distribution and quantitation in rat hypothalamic cell groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbach, J.P.; Voorhuis, T.A.; van Tol, H.H.; Ivell, R.

    1987-05-29

    Oxytocin mRNA was detected in the rat hypothalamus by in situ hybridization to a single stranded /sup 35/S-labelled DNA probe and the distribution of oxytocin mRNA-containing cell groups was studied at the macroscopic level. Specificity of hybridization was confirmed by comparison to vasopressin mRNA hybridization in parallel tissue sections. Cell groups containing oxytocin mRNA were confined to a set of hypothalamic cell groups, i.c. the supraoptic, paraventricular, anterior commissural nuclei, nucleus circularis and scattered hypothalamic islets. These cell groups displayed similar densities of autoradiographic signals indicating that the oxytocin gene is expressed at approximately the same average level at these various sites.

  9. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A;

    1997-01-01

    cells recovered did not differ. Seven of seven male pregnancies were correctly identified. One case of trisomy 21 was detected. CONCLUSION: The in situ hybridization analysis of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated from maternal blood using single density gradient centrifugation, anti-CD71/anti...... of the isolated cells were subjected to in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes for the Y chromosome and chromosome 21 to confirm the fetal origin. RESULTS: After MiniMACS the enrichment factors for the CD71/GPA- and CD36/GPA-positive cells from maternal blood were similar, and the percentages of fetal...

  10. Compact hybrid cell based on a convoluted nanowire structure for harvesting solar and mechanical energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A fully integrated, solid-state, compact hybrid cell (CHC) that comprises ''convoluted'' ZnO nanowire structures for concurrent harvesting of both solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The compact hybrid cell is based on a conjunction design of an organic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and piezoelectric nanogenerator in one compact structure. The CHC shows a significant increase in output power, clearly demonstrating its potential for simultaneously harvesting multiple types of energy for powering small electronic devices for independent, sustainable, and mobile operation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Improved photovoltaic performance of silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells by incorporating silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kong; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Xinhui; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-02-18

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays show an excellent light-trapping characteristic and high mobility for carriers. Surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be used to increase light scattering and absorption in solar cells. We fabricated a new kind of SiNW/organic hybrid solar cell by introducing AgNPs. Reflection spectra confirm the improved light scattering of AgNP-decorated SiNW arrays. A double-junction tandem structure was designed to manufacture our hybrid cells. Both short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency measurements show an enhancement in optical absorption of organic layer, especially at lower wavelengths.

  12. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  13. Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency by Douglas M. Kroll B.S...Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase

  14. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part I: Steady state performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    The hybridization of gas turbine technology with high temperature fuel cells represents an ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emission, fuel flexible power generation platform. The performance of past prototypes has been limited by marginal compatibility of the two primary sub-systems. This paper addresses the challenge of selecting compatible hardware by presenting a simple and robust method for bespoke hybrid system design and off-the-shelf component integration. This is the first application of detailed, spatially resolved, physical models capable of resolving off-design performance to the integration analysis of FC-GT hybrids. Static maps are produced for both turbine and fuel cell sub-systems that readily evaluate the compatibility and hybrid performance. Molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are considered for hybridization with recuperated micro-turbines and larger axial flow gas turbine systems. Current state-of-the-art molten carbonate technology is shown to pair well with present micro-turbine technology in an FC bottoming cycle design achieving 74.4% LHV efficiency. Solid oxide technology demonstrates remarkable potential for integration with larger scale axial turbo-machinery to achieve greater than 75% LHV efficiency. This performance map technique closely matches results from detailed integrated hybrid system analyses, and enables quick determination of performance requirements for balance of plant design and optimization.

  15. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture. The ...... both to immortalize a rare cell type and to provide a selection for the maintenance of its differentiated phenotype....

  16. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  17. Effect of CeO2 Addition on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...

  18. Effect of CeO2 Infiltration on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...

  19. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells: optimal carrier transport in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keisuke; Dutta, Mrinal; Fukata, Naoki

    2014-06-07

    Inorganic/organic hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells that combine vertically-aligned n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have great potential for replacing commercial Si solar cells. The chief advantage of such solar cells is that they exhibit higher absorbance for a given thickness than commercial Si solar cells, due to incident light-trapping within the NW arrays, thus enabling lower-cost solar cell production. We report herein on the effects of NW length, annealing and surface electrode on the device performance of SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the obtained SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by tuning the thickness of the surface electrode, and the etching conditions during NW formation and post-annealing. The PCE of 9.3% is obtained by forming efficient transport pathways for photogenerated charge carriers to electrodes. Our approach is a significant contribution to design of high-performance and low-cost inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Selective Delivery of PEGylated Compounds to Tumor Cells by Anti-PEG Hybrid Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hsin-Yi; Su, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Bing-Mae; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Huang, Wei-Chiao; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Yan, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Roffler, Steve R

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is attached to many peptides, proteins, liposomes, and nanoparticles to reduce their immunogenicity and improve their pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Here, we describe hybrid antibodies that can selectively deliver PEGylated medicines, imaging agents, or nanomedicines to target cells. Human IgG1 hybrid antibodies αPEG:αHER2 and αPEG:αCD19 were shown by ELISA, FACS, and plasmon resonance to bind to both PEG and HER2 receptors on SK-BR-3 breast adenocarcinoma and BT-474 breast ductal carcinoma cells or CD19 receptors on Ramos and Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. In addition, αPEG:αHER2 specifically targeted PEGylated proteins, liposomes, and nanoparticles to SK-BR-3 cells that overexpressed HER2, but not to HER2-negative MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Endocytosis of PEGylated nanoparticles into SK-BR-3 cells was induced specifically by the αPEG:αHER2 hybrid antibody, as observed by confocal imaging of the accumulation of Qdots inside SK-BR-3 cells. Treatment of HER2(+) SK-BR-3 and BT-474 cancer cells with αPEG:αHER2 and the clinically used chemotherapeutic agent PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin for 3 hours enhanced the in vitro effectiveness of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin by over two orders of magnitude. Hybrid anti-PEG antibodies offer a versatile and simple method to deliver PEGylated compounds to cellular locations and can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PEGylated medicines.

  1. Sample preparation and in situ hybridization techniques for automated molecular cytogenetic analysis of white blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijke, F.M. van de; Vrolijk, H.; Sloos, W. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    With the advent in situ hybridization techniques for the analysis of chromosome copy number or structure in interphase cells, the diagnostic and prognostic potential of cytogenetics has been augmented considerably. In theory, the strategies for detection of cytogenetically aberrant cells by in situ hybridization are simple and straightforward. In practice, however, they are fallible, because false classification of hybridization spot number or patterns occurs. When a decision has to be made on molecular cytogenetic normalcy or abnormalcy of a cell sample, the problem of false classification becomes particularly prominent if the fraction of aberrant cells is relatively small. In such mosaic situations, often > 200 cells have to be evaluated to reach a statistical sound figure. The manual enumeration of in situ hybridization spots in many cells in many patient samples is tedious. Assistance in the evaluation process by automation of microscope functions and image analysis techniques is, therefore, strongly indicated. Next to research and development of microscope hardware, camera technology, and image analysis, the optimization of the specimen for the (semi)automated microscopic analysis is essential, since factors such as cell density, thickness, and overlap have dramatic influences on the speed and complexity of the analysis process. Here we describe experiments that have led to a protocol for blood cell specimen that results in microscope preparations that are well suited for automated molecular cytogenetic analysis. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Perylenes as sensitizers in hybrid solar cells : how molecular size influences performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chen; Liu, Zhihong; Schoneboom, Jan; Eickemeyer, Felix; Pschirer, Neil G.; Erk, Peter; Herrmann, Andreas; Mullen, Klaus; Schöneboom, Jan; Grätzel, Michael; Janssen, René

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), one kind of hybrid solar cells, are being intensively developed due to their high efficiency and low cost. One of the main factors to improve the efficiency is the minimization of the recombination of holes and electrons at the TiO(2)/dye/electrolyte interface. To

  3. Staphylococcal Entertotoxins of the Enterotoxin Gene Cluster (egcSEs Induce Nitrous Oxide- and Cytokine Dependent Tumor Cell Apoptosis in a Broad Panel of Human Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eTerman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The egcSEs comprise five genetically linked staphylococcal enterotoxins, SEG, SEI, SElM, SElN and SElO and two pseudotoxins which constitute an operon present in up to 80% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. A preparation containing theses proteins was recently used to treat advanced lung cancer with pleural effusion. We investigated the hypothesis that egcSEs induce nitrous oxide (NO and associated cytokine production and that these agents may be involved in tumoricidal effects against a broad panel of clinically relevant human tumor cells. Preliminary studies showed that egcSEs and SEA activated T cells (range: 11-25% in a concentration dependent manner. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with equimolar quantities of egcSEs expressed NO synthase and generated robust levels of nitrite (range: 200-250 µM, a breakdown product of NO; this reaction was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA (0.3 mM, an NO synthase antagonist. Cell free supernatants (CSFs of all egcSE-stimulated PBMCs were also equally effective in inducing concentration dependent tumor cell apoptosis in a broad panel of human tumor cells. The latter effect was due in part to the generation of NO and TNF-α since it was significantly abolished by L-NMMA, anti-TNF-α antibodies respectively and a combination thereof. A hierarchy of tumor cell sensitivity to these CFSs was as follows: lung carcinoma>osteogenic sarcoma>melanoma>breast carcinoma>neuroblastoma. Notably, SEG induced robust activation of NO/TNFα-dependent tumor cell apoptosis comparable to the other egcSEs and SEA despite TNF-α and IFN-γ levels that were 2 and 8 fold lower respectively than the other egcSEs and SEA. Thus, egcSEs produced by S. aureus induce NO synthase and the increased NO formation together with TNF-α appear to contribute to egcSE-mediated apoptosis against a broad panel of human tumor cells.

  4. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Allister Yingwei [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh, E-mail: dineshkumar@ntu.edu.sg [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-04-01

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Endothelial cell activation, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by a panel of metal-based nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The importance of composition, size, crystal structure, charge and coating of metal-based nanomaterials (NMs) were evaluated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and/or THP-1 monocytic cells. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed because they are important in...

  6. Multi-omic profiling -of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Daniel; Seresht, Ali Kazemi; Engmark, Mikael; Magdenoska, Olivera; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-11-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied to study the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in a panel of CHO-K1 cells under growth-limited and unlimited conditions in batch and chemostat cultures. Physiological characterization of the EPO-producing cells included global transcriptome analysis, targeted metabolome analysis, including intracellular pools of glycolytic intermediates, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) , adenine nucleotide phosphates (ANP), and extracellular concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. Potential impact of EPO expression on the protein secretory pathway was assessed at multiple stages using quantitative PCR (qPCR), reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blots (WB), and global gene expression analysis to assess EPO gene copy numbers, EPO gene expression, intracellular EPO retention, and differentially expressed genes functionally related to secretory protein processing, respectively. We found no evidence supporting the existence of production bottlenecks in energy metabolism (i.e., glycolytic metabolites, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) and ANPs) in batch culture or in the secretory protein production pathway (i.e., gene dosage, transcription and post-translational processing of EPO) in chemostat culture at specific productivities up to 5 pg/cell/day. Time-course analysis of high- and low-producing clones in chemostat culture revealed rapid adaptation of transcription levels of amino acid catabolic genes in favor of EPO production within nine generations. Interestingly, the adaptation was followed by an increase in specific EPO productivity.

  7. 17.6%-Efficient radial junction solar cells using silicon nano/micro hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangmin; Hwang, Inchan; Kim, Namwoo; Choi, Deokjae; Um, Han-Don; Kim, Seungchul; Seo, Kwanyong

    2016-07-01

    We developed a unique nano- and microwire hybrid structure by selectively modifying only the tops of microwires using metal-assisted chemical etching. The proposed nano/micro hybrid structure not only minimizes surface recombination but also absorbs 97% of incident light under AM 1.5G illumination, demonstrating outstanding light absorption compared to that of planar (59%) and microwire arrays (85%). The proposed hybrid solar cells with an area of 1 cm2 exhibit power conversion efficiencies (Eff) of up to 17.6% under AM 1.5G illumination. In particular, the solar cells show a high short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 39.5 mA cm-2 because of the high light-absorbing characteristics of the nanostructures. This corresponds to an approximately 61.5% and 16.5% increase in efficiency compared to that of a planar silicon solar cell (Eff = 10.9%) and a microwire solar cell (Eff = 15.1%), respectively. Therefore, we expect the proposed hybrid structure to become a foundational technology for the development of highly efficient radial junction solar cells.We developed a unique nano- and microwire hybrid structure by selectively modifying only the tops of microwires using metal-assisted chemical etching. The proposed nano/micro hybrid structure not only minimizes surface recombination but also absorbs 97% of incident light under AM 1.5G illumination, demonstrating outstanding light absorption compared to that of planar (59%) and microwire arrays (85%). The proposed hybrid solar cells with an area of 1 cm2 exhibit power conversion efficiencies (Eff) of up to 17.6% under AM 1.5G illumination. In particular, the solar cells show a high short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 39.5 mA cm-2 because of the high light-absorbing characteristics of the nanostructures. This corresponds to an approximately 61.5% and 16.5% increase in efficiency compared to that of a planar silicon solar cell (Eff = 10.9%) and a microwire solar cell (Eff = 15.1%), respectively. Therefore, we expect the

  8. Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramachandran

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article give an insight into the different methods employed in the construction of Sandwich panels, their limitations and future design application for defence use as a structural element with one of the highest strength-weight ratios yet devised.

  9. Panel Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Lists the speakers and summarizes the issues addressed for 12 panel sessions on topics related to networking, including libraries and national networks, federal national resources and energy programs, multimedia issues, telecommuting, remote image serving, accessing the Internet, library automation, scientific information, applications of Z39.50,…

  10. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoelectrochemical Cell of Hybrid Regioregular POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE-2,5-DIYL) and Molybdenum Disulfide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmola, Fatmaelzahraa M.; Ram, Manoj K.; Takshi, Arash; Stafanakos, Elias; Kumar, Ashok; Goswami, D. Yogi

    The photoelectrochemical cell attracts attention worldwide due to conversion of optical energy into electricity, production of hydrogen through water splitting and use in photodetector and photo-sensor applications. We have been working on the photochemical cell based on regioregular polyhexylthiophenes hybrid-structured films for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic applications. This paper discusses the hybrid film studies on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for photoelectrochemical cell. The hybrid P3HT/MoS2 films deposited over indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate or n-type silicon substrates were characterized using FTIR, UV/vis, electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The optical measurements showed a higher absorption magnitude with low reflection properties of P3HT/MoS2 hybrid films revealing a superior photocurrent compared to both P3HT and MoS2 films. The P3HT/MoS2 hybrid-based photoelectrochemical cell yielded a short-circuit current (Isc) of 183.16μAṡcm-2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.92V, fill factor (FF) of 25% and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.18% under the light intensity of 242Wṡm-2. The estimated power conversion efficiency and fill factor are comparable to organic-based photovoltaic devices.

  12. In-Flight Results of the Flexible Solar Cell Panel on TET-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Sebastian; Zajac, Kai; Seifart, Klause; Hartmann, Lars; Otte, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    A future alternative to current rigid solar cell technologies for space applications can be realized with Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cell technology on a flexible polyimide substrate. Of all thin film technologies, those based on CIGSe have the highest potential to reach attractive photovoltaic conversion efficiencies in combination with low weight to realize high power densities on generator level.The on-orbit verification program offers a flight opportunity for a solar cell payload to be tested in space environment. The TET-1 spacecraft was successfully launched on 22 July 2012 into earth orbit. After the successful commissioning phase the payload on board being tested over a period of one year. The paper will present the experimental solar array of CIGSe thin film solar cells on TET-1 spacecraft, outline the on orbit results and will provide an outlook for future projects.

  13. General and specific combining abilities in a maize (Zea mays L.) test-cross hybrid panel: relative importance of population structure and genetic divergence between parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larièpe, A; Moreau, L; Laborde, J; Bauland, C; Mezmouk, S; Décousset, L; Mary-Huard, T; Fiévet, J B; Gallais, A; Dubreuil, P; Charcosset, A

    2017-02-01

    General and specific combining abilities of maize hybrids between 288 inbred lines and three tester lines were highly related to population structure and genetic distance inferred from SNP data. Many studies have attempted to provide reliable and quick methods to identify promising parental lines and combinations in hybrid breeding programs. Since the 1950s, maize germplasm has been organized into heterotic groups to facilitate the exploitation of heterosis. Molecular markers have proven efficient tools to address the organization of genetic diversity and the relationship between lines or populations. The aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent marker-based evaluations of population structure and genetic distance may account for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability components in a population composed of 800 inter and intra-heterotic group hybrids obtained by crossing 288 inbred lines and three testers. Our results illustrate a strong effect of groups identified by population structure analysis on both GCA and SCA components. Including genetic distance between parental lines of hybrids in the model leads to a significant decrease of SCA variance component and an increase in GCA variance component for all the traits. The latter suggests that this approach can be efficient to better estimate the potential combining ability of inbred lines when crossed with unrelated lines, and limits the consequences of tester choice. Significant residual GCA and SCA variance components of models taking into account structure and/or genetic distance highlight the variation available for breeding programs within structure groups.

  14. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  15. Oxygen release and exchange in niobium oxide MEHPPV hybrid solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lira-Cantu, M.; Norrman, K.; Andreasen, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that niobium oxide exchanges oxygen with the atmosphere when illuminated by simulated sunlight. The oxygen exchange was found to take place for pristine niobium oxide films when illuminated in an oxygen atmosphere and when illuminated in an operational hybrid solar cell. The oxygen...... exchange was demonstrated using O-18(2)-isotopic labeling in combination with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging analysis of devices and oxide substrates. TOF-SIMS depth profiling confirmed O-18 incorporation throughout the device in hybrid solar cells. The results...

  16. High Efficiency Hybrid Solar Cells Using Nanocrystalline Si Quantum Dots and Si Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mrinal; Thirugnanam, Lavanya; Trinh, Pham Van; Fukata, Naoki

    2015-07-28

    We report on an efficient hybrid Si nanocrystal quantum dot modified radial p-n junction thinner Si solar cell that utilizes the advantages of effective exciton collection by energy transfer from nanocrystal-Si (nc-Si) quantum dots to underlying radial p-n junction Si nanowire arrays with excellent carrier separation and propagation via the built-in electric fields of radial p-n junctions. Minimization of recombination, optical, and spectrum losses in this hybrid structure led to a high cell efficiency of 12.9%.

  17. A High-Efficiency Si Nanowire Array/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    A low-cost Si nanowire array/perovskite hybrid solar cell is proposed and simulated. The solar cell consists of a Si p-i-n nanowire array filled with CH3NH3PbI3, in which both the nanowires and perovskite absorb the incident light while the nanowires act as the channels for transporting photo-generated electrons and holes. The hybrid structure has a high absorption efficiency in a broad wavelength range of 300~800 nm. A large short-circuit current density of 28.8 mA/cm2 and remarkable convers...

  18. VISUALIZATION OF DYNAMIC ORGANIZATION OF CYTOSKELETON GELS IN LIVING CELLS BY HYBRID-SPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Kawabata; Y.Sado; M.Nagayama; T.Nitta; K.Nemoto; Y.Koyama; H.Haga

    2003-01-01

    We succeeded in performing of hybrid Scanning Probe Microscopy (hybrid-SPM) in which mechanical-SPM and fluorescence microscopy are combined. This technique is able to measure simultaneously mechanical properties and distribution of cytoskeletons of living cells by using green fluorescent protein. We measured evolution of both local elasticity and distributions of actin stress fibers in an identical fibroblast living in physiological conditions. The SPM experiments revealed that stiffer lines develop in living cells, which correspond to actin stress fibers. The elasticity of the actin stress fibers is as high as 100 kPa. We discuss mechanical effects on the development of actin filament networks.

  19. Mutational Analysis of Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Using Targeted Sequencing with a Comprehensive Cancer Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungkyu; Go, Jai Hyang; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Hojung; Lee, Won Mi; Cho, Chun-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), is a malignant disorder of cytotoxic lymphocytes of NK or T cells. It is an aggressive neoplasm with a very poor prognosis. Although extranodal NKTCL reportedly has a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus, the molecular pathogenesis of NKTCL has been unexplored. The recent technological advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have made DNA sequencing cost- and time-effective, with more reliable results. Using the Ion Proton Comprehensive Cancer Panel, we sequenced 409 cancer-related genes to identify somatic mutations in five NKTCL tissue samples. The sequencing analysis detected 25 mutations in 21 genes. Among them, KMT2D, a histone modification-related gene, was the most frequently mutated gene (four of the five cases). This result was consistent with recent NGS studies that have suggested KMT2D as a novel driver gene in NKTCL. Mutations were also found in ARID1A, a chromatin remodeling gene, and TP53, which also recurred in recent NGS studies. We also found mutations in 18 novel candidate genes, with molecular functions that were potentially implicated in cancer development. We suggest that these genes may result in multiple oncogenic events and may be used as potential bio-markers of NKTCL in the future. PMID:27729836

  20. Spontaneous formation of tumorigenic hybrids between breast cancer and multipotent stromal cells is a source of tumor heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Lorico, Aurelio

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer progression involves cancer cell heterogeneity, with generation of invasive/metastatic breast cancer cells within populations of nonmetastatic cells of the primary tumor. Sequential genetic mutations, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, interaction with local stroma, and formation of hybrids between cancer cells and normal bone marrow-derived cells have been advocated as tumor progression mechanisms. We report herein the spontaneous in vitro formation of heterotypic hybrids between human bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) and two different breast carcinoma cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (MDA) and MA11. Hybrids showed predominantly mesenchymal morphological characteristics, mixed gene expression profiles, and increased DNA ploidy. Both MA11 and MDA hybrids were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice, and some MDA hybrids had an increased metastatic capacity. Both in culture and as xenografts, hybrids underwent DNA ploidy reduction and morphological reversal to breast carcinoma-like morphological characteristics, while maintaining a mixed breast cancer-mesenchymal expression profile. Analysis of coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms by RNA sequencing revealed genetic contributions from both parental partners to hybrid tumors and metastasis. Because MSCs migrate and localize to breast carcinoma, our findings indicate that formation of MSC-breast cancer cell hybrids is a potential mechanism of the generation of invasive/metastatic breast cancer cells. Our findings reconcile the fusion theory of cancer progression with the common observation that breast cancer metastases are generally aneuploid, but not tetraploid, and are histopathologically similar to the primary neoplasm.

  1. Ovarian cancer cell line panel (OCCP: clinical importance of in vitro morphological subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine M Beaufort

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease and remains the most lethal gynaecological malignancy in the Western world. Therapeutic approaches need to account for inter-patient and intra-tumoural heterogeneity and detailed characterization of in vitro models representing the different histological and molecular ovarian cancer subtypes is critical to enable reliable preclinical testing. There are approximately 100 publicly available ovarian cancer cell lines but their cellular and molecular characteristics are largely undescribed. We have characterized 39 ovarian cancer cell lines under uniform conditions for growth characteristics, mRNA/microRNA expression, exon sequencing, drug response for clinically-relevant therapeutics and collated all available information on the original clinical features and site of origin. We tested for statistical associations between the cellular and molecular features of the lines and clinical features. Of the 39 ovarian cancer cell lines, 14 were assigned as high-grade serous, four serous-type, one low-grade serous and 20 non-serous type. Three morphological subtypes: Epithelial (n = 21, Round (n = 7 and Spindle (n = 12 were identified that showed distinct biological and molecular characteristics, including overexpression of cell movement and migration-associated genes in the Spindle subtype. Comparison with the original clinical data showed association of the spindle-like tumours with metastasis, advanced stage, suboptimal debulking and poor prognosis. In addition, the expression profiles of Spindle, Round and Epithelial morphologies clustered with the previously described C1-stromal, C5-mesenchymal and C4 ovarian subtype expression profiles respectively. Comprehensive profiling of 39 ovarian cancer cell lines under controlled, uniform conditions demonstrates clinically relevant cellular and genomic characteristics. This data provides a rational basis for selecting models to develop

  2. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  3. Development of integrated fuel cell hybrid power source for electric forklift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, T. M.; Karimäki, H.; Viitakangas, J.; Vallet, J.; Ihonen, J.; Hyötylä, P.; Uusalo, H.; Tingelöf, T.

    A hybrid drivetrain comprising a 16 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, ultracapacitor modules and a lead-acid battery was constructed and experimentally tested in a real counterweight forklift application. A scaled-down version of the hybrid system was assembled and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using a controllable resistive load. The control loops were operating in an in-house developed embedded system. The software is designed for building generic control applications, and the source code has been released as open source and made available on the internet. The hybrid drivetrain supplied the required 50 kW peak power in a typical forklift work cycle consisting of both loaded and unloaded driving, and lifting of a 2.4 tonne load. Load variations seen by the fuel cell were a fraction of the total current drawn by the forklift, with the average fuel cell power being 55% of nominal rating. A simple fuel cell hybrid model was also developed to further study the effects of energy storage dimensioning. Simulation results indicate that while a battery alone significantly reduces the load variations of the fuel cell, an ultracapacitor reduces them even further. Furthermore, a relatively small ultracapacitor is enough to achieve most of the potential benefit.

  4. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesoo; Palmiano, Elenita; Liang, Ru-Ze; Hu, Hanlin; Murali, Banavoth; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Firdaus, Yuliar; Gao, Yangqin; Sheikh, Arif; Yuan, Mingjian; Mohammed, Omar F.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Sargent, Edward H.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-05-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene—poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)—top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion. The two subcells are connected in series via an interconnecting layer (ICL) composed of a metal oxide layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, and an ultrathin layer of Au. The ultrathin layer of Au forms nano-islands in the ICL, reducing the series resistance, increasing the shunt resistance, and enhancing the device fill-factor. The hybrid tandems reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.9%, significantly higher than the PCE of the corresponding individual single cells, representing one of the highest efficiencies reported to date for hybrid tandem solar cells based on CQD and polymer subcells.

  5. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2017-06-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene—poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)—top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion. The two subcells are connected in series via an interconnecting layer (ICL) composed of a metal oxide layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, and an ultrathin layer of Au. The ultrathin layer of Au forms nano-islands in the ICL, reducing the series resistance, increasing the shunt resistance, and enhancing the device fill-factor. The hybrid tandems reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.9%, significantly higher than the PCE of the corresponding individual single cells, representing one of the highest efficiencies reported to date for hybrid tandem solar cells based on CQD and polymer subcells.

  6. Improved dynamic performance of hybrid PEM fuel cells and ultracapacitors for portable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcinoz, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51200 (Turkey); Alam, M.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Transient power demand fluctuations and maintaining high energy density are important for many portable devices. Small fuel cells are potentially good candidates as alternative energy sources for portable applications. Hybrid power sources have some inherent properties which may be effectively utilized to improve the efficiency and dynamic response of the system. In this paper, an improved dynamic model considering the characteristics of the temperature and equivalent internal resistance is presented for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The dynamic behavior of a system with hybrid PEM fuel cells and an ultracapacitor bank is simulated. The hybrid PEM fuel cell/ultracapacitor bank system is used for powering a portable device (such as a laptop computer). The power requirement of a laptop computer varies significantly under different operation conditions. The analytical models of the hybrid system with PEM fuel cells and an ultracapacitor bank are designed and simulated by developing a detailed simulation software using Matlab, Simulink and SimPowerSystems Blockset for portable applications. (author)

  7. TiO-Based Organic Hybrid Solar Cells with Mn+ Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zühal Alparslan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid solar cell is designed and proposed as a feasible and reasonable alternative, according to acquired efficiency with the employment of TiO2 (titanium dioxide and Mn-doped TiO2 thin films. In the scope of this work, TiO2 (titanium dioxide and Mn:TiO2 hybrid organic thin films are proposed as charge transporter layer in polymer solar cells. Poly(3-hexylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT: PCBM is used as active layer. When the Mn-doped TiO2 solar cells were compared with pure TiO2 cells, Mn-doped samples revealed a noteworthy efficiency enhancement with respect to undoped-TiO2-based cells. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.44% at the ratio of 3.5% (wt/wt Mn doping.

  8. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; J.C.N. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this

  9. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuizen, Bram; Bosma, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this pape

  10. Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

  11. Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cell with a bacteria/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Jia; Qu, Youpeng; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Yingjuan; Feng, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    The biofilm on the anode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a vital component in system, and its formation and characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this study, a bacteria/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid biofilm is fabricated by effectively inserting the MWCNTs into the anode biofilm via an adsorption-filtration method. This hybrid biofilm has been demonstrated to be an efficient structure for improving an anode biofilm performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the hybrid biofilm takes advantage of the conductivity and structure of MWCNT to enhance the electron transfer and substrate diffusion of the biofilm. With this hybrid biofilm, the current density, power density and coulombic efficiency are increased by 46.2%, 58.8% and 84.6%, respectively, relative to naturally grown biofilm. Furthermore, the start-up time is reduced by 53.8% compared with naturally grown biofilm. The perturbation test demonstrates that this type of hybrid biofilm exhibits strong adsorption ability and enhances the biofilm's resistance to a sudden change of substrate concentration. The superior performance of the hybrid biofilm with MWCNT ;nanowire; matrix compared with naturally grown biofilm demonstrates its great potential for boosting the performance of MFCs.

  12. Functional stability of endothelial cells on a novel hybrid scaffold for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankajakshan, Divya; Krishnan, Lissy K [Thrombosis Research Unit, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012 (India); Krishnan V, Kalliyana, E-mail: lissykk@sctimst.ac.i [Division of Polymer Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Porous and pliable conduits made of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds offer great potential for the development of blood vessel substitutes but they generally lack signals for cell proliferation, survival and maintenance of a normal phenotype. In this study we have prepared and evaluated porous poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) integrated with fibrin composite (FC) to get a biomimetic hybrid scaffold (FC PCL) with the biological properties of fibrin, fibronectin (FN), gelatin, growth factors and glycosaminoglycans. Reduced platelet adhesion on a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-seeded hybrid scaffold as compared to bare PCL or FC PCL was observed, which suggests the non-thrombogenic nature of the tissue-engineered scaffold. Analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after 5 days of endothelial cell (EC) culture on a hybrid scaffold indicated that the prothrombotic von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were quiescent and stable. Meanwhile, dynamic expressions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase indicated the desired cell phenotype on the scaffold. On the hybrid scaffold, shear stress could induce enhanced nitric oxide release, which implicates vaso-responsiveness of EC grown on the tissue-engineered construct. Significant upregulation of mRNA for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen IV and elastin, in EC was detected by RT-PCR after growing them on the hybrid scaffold and FC-coated tissue culture polystyrene (FC TCPS) but not on FN-coated TCPS. The results indicate that the FC PCL hybrid scaffold can accomplish a remodeled ECM and non-thrombogenic EC phenotype, and can be further investigated as a scaffold for cardiovascular tissue engineering. (communication)

  13. Effects of Honeycomb Cell Size on Performances of Sandwich Panels%蜂窝体胞尺寸对夹芯板性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙士平; 赖余东

    2011-01-01

    Honeycomb sandwich panel was studied to reveal the effects of the cell size in the static analysis and the free vibration analysis. The response of the sandwich panel with the homogenized cores was used as the standard of comparison. The ratio of the responses of the detailed finite element models of sandwich panels to the corresponding comparison solutions was defined as a Size Influencing Index that reflects the influences of the size variation of different cell configuration. Based finite element technique, the static and the free variation response of honeycomb sandwich panels with the different cores and the homogenized cores were analyzed comparatively, under three typical boundary conditions, including the hexagonal, triangular and square honeycomb core. The computed results reveal the size effect of the honeycomb cell on the stiffness and the frequency behavior of sandwich panel. It is shown that when the ratio of the macrostructure size to the cell size is larger than 12, the influence of the cell size on the sandwich panel performances tends to gentle weakening. Meanwhile, when the cell size and macrostructure size are comparable with each other, the size effect is quite obvious, and the degree of influence is significantly dependent on the boundary condition and the cell configuration.%研究了周期性夹芯蜂窝体胞尺寸对夹芯板刚度性能、一阶频率的影响规律.以夹芯均匀化等效的夹芯板模型为基准,定义无量纲尺寸影响因子,描述不同蜂窝尺寸夹芯板性能相对均匀化等效模型基准值的变化趋势,量化蜂窝尺寸的影响程度.采用有限元数值方法,开展了不同尺寸、不同构型以及不同边界条件下蜂窝夹芯板性能的比较分析.计算结果表明:夹芯板的刚度性能与频率具有尺寸效应,当夹芯尺寸与蜂窝尺寸比值大于12,蜂窝尺寸的影响程度趋于平缓减弱,当蜂窝尺寸与夹芯尺寸相当时,蜂窝尺寸的影响非常明显,其影

  14. Chromosome engineering: generation of mono- and dicentric isochromosomes in a somatic cell hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, A W; Schueler, M G; Willard, H F

    1999-08-01

    The most common isochromosome found in humans involves the long arm of the X, i(Xq), and is associated with a subset of Turner syndrome cases. To study the formation and behavior of isochromosomes in a more tractable experimental system, we have developed a somatic cell hybrid model system that allows for the selection of mono- or dicentric isochromosomes involving the short arm of the X, i(Xp). Simultaneous positive and negative counterselection of a mouse/human somatic cell hybrid containing a human X chromosome, selecting for retention of the UBE1 locus in Xp but against the HPRT locus in Xq, results in a variety of abnormalities of the X chromosome involving deletions of Xq. We have generated 70 such "Pushmi-Pullyu" hybrids derived from seven independent X chromosomes. Cytogenetic analysis of these hybrids using fluorescence in situ hybridization showed i(Xp) chromosomes in approximately 19% of the hybrids. Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses of the Pushmi-Pullyu hybrids revealed a distribution of breakpoints along Xq. The distance between the centromeres of the dicentric i(Xp)s generated ranged from approximately 2 Mb to approximately 20 Mb. To examine centromeric activity in these dicentric i(Xp)s, we used indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to centromere protein E (CENP-E). CENP-E was detected at only one of the centromeres of a dicentric i(Xp) with approximately 2-3 Mb of Xq DNA. In contrast, CENP-E was detected at both centromeres of a dicentric i(Xp) with approximately 14 Mb of Xq DNA. Two other dicentric i(Xp) chromosomes were heterogeneous with respect to centromeric activity, suggesting that centromeric activity and chromosome stability of dicentric chromosomes may be more complicated than previously thought. The Pushmi-Pullyu model system presented in this study may provide a tool for examining the structure and function of mammalian centromeres.

  15. Solution-processed, nanostructured hybrid solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Zheng, Ying; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Holloway, Paul H; Xue, Jiangeng

    2012-06-07

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, as an alternative to all-organic solar cells, have received significant attention for their potential advantages in combining the solution-processability and versatility of organic materials with high charge mobility and environmental stability of inorganic semiconductors. Here we report efficient and air-stable hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity based on a low-gap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and spherical CdSe nanoparticles. The solvents used for depositing the hybrid PCPDTBT:CdSe active layer were shown to strongly influence the film morphology, and subsequently the photovoltaic performance of the resulted solar cells. Appropriate post-deposition annealing of the hybrid film was also shown to improve the solar cell efficiency. The inclusion of a thin ZnO nanoparticle layer between the active layer and the metal cathode leads to a significant increase in device efficiency especially at long wavelengths, due to a combination of optical and electronic effects including more optimal light absorption in the active layer and elimination of unwanted hole leakage into the cathode. Overall, maximum power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7 ± 0.2% and spectral sensitivity extending above 800 nm were achieved in such PCPDTBT:CdSe nanosphere hybrid solar cells. Furthermore, the devices with a ZnO nanoparticle layer retained ∼70% of the original efficiency after storage under ambient laboratory conditions for over 60 days without any encapsulation.

  16. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  17. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    . By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r...

  18. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, Edwin; Shen, Y.; Veenhuizen, Bram; Hofman, T.; Bosch, P. van den

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  19. Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Advanced Antireflection and Back Surface Field Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiling; Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Yang, Xi; Sheng, Jiang; Wu, Sudong; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) is one of most suitable antireflection (AR) layers for silicon/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Si/PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cells due to its well-matched refractive index (2.1). A simulation model was employed to predict the optical characteristics of Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with the MoO3 layers as antireflection coatings (ARCs), as well as to analyze the loss in current density. By adding an optimum thickness of a 34-nm-thick ARC of MoO3 on the front side and an effective rear back surface field (BSF) of phosphorus-diffused N + layer at the rear side, the hybrid cells displayed higher light response in the visible and near infrared regions, boosting a short-circuit current density ( J sc) up to 28.7 mA/cm2. The average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells was thus increased up to 11.90 %, greater than the value of 9.23 % for the reference devices.

  20. Hybrid polymer solar cells from highly reactive diethylzinc : MDMO-PPV versus P3HT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, Date J.D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Boer, Bert de; Blom, Paul W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloetyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) during the processing of hybrid organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells with zinc oxide (ZnO) from a molecular precursor as acceptor is reported. Upon addition of diethylzinc, the absorption spect

  1. Hybrid inorganic-organic tandem solar cells for broad absorption of the solar spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speirs, M. J.; Groeneveld, B. G. H. M.; Protesescu, L.; Piliego, Claudia; Kovalenko, M. V.; Loi, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first hybrid tandem solar cell with solution processable active layers using colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) as the front subcell in combination with a polymer-fullerene rear subcell. Al/WO3 is introduced as an interlayer, yielding an open circuit voltage (V-OC) equal to about 92% of

  2. Experimental assessment of an energy management strategy on a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid power trains comprise an energy storage to supply peaks in the power demand and to facilitate regenerative braking. In terms of control systems, the presence of storage provides additional freedom to minimize the vehicle’s fuel consumption. In a previous paper [1] an analytical

  3. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2016-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower c

  4. Annealing effect of hybrid solar cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) and zinc-oxide nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid Films June 2013/Vol. 537 Annealing effect of hybrid solar cells based on poly (3- hexylthiophene) and zinc-oxide nanostructures David E. Motaung a, *, Gerald F. Malgas a, **, Suprakas S. Ray a, Christopher J. Arendse b a DST...

  5. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Shen; P. van den Bosch; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; T. Hofman

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  6. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2016-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower c

  7. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  8. Fabrication and characterization of titania/poly (3-dodecylthiopene)/red seaweed as hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Dagang, Ahmad Nazri; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Khamsan, Muhammad Emmer Ashraf; Ahmad, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nik; Ali, Nik

    2017-03-01

    In this research, hybrid solar cells which consist of a combination of organic red seaweed (RS) (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and poly (3-dodecylthiophene) (P3DT) with inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials are fabricated. These hybrid solar cells are fabricated in bilayer heterojunction of ITO/TiO2 NCs/P3DT/RS/Au via electrochemistry method using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The optical, electrical properties and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these hybrid solar cells that can absorb over a broad range of light spectrum were studied. The UV-Vis spectra showed that TiO2 NCs, P3DT and RS were absorbed over a wide range of light spectrum which were 200-300 nm, 300-900 nm and 250-670 nm; respectively. The FTIR spectra of the RS showed the presence of carbonyl and hydroxyl group which was responsible for a good sensitizer for these hybrid solar cells. The electrical conductivity of ITO/ (1) TiO2 NCs/P3DT/RS thin film under the light radiation of 100 Wm-2 was 0.288 Scm-1, while for PCE, it was 2.0 %.

  9. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors have a significantly safer insertion profile, but efficient delivery into relevant cell/tissue types is a limitation. In an attempt to combine the favorable features of the two vector systems we established a novel hybrid vector technology based on SB transposase...

  10. Si nanowires organic semiconductor hybrid heterojunction solar cells toward 10% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lining; Jiang, Changyun; Wang, Hao; Lai, Donny; Rusli

    2012-03-01

    High-efficiency hybrid solar cells are fabricated using a simple approach of spin coating a transparent hole transporting organic small molecule, 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) arrays prepared by electroless chemical etching. The characteristics of the hybrid cells are investigated as a function of SiNWs length from 0.15 to 5 μm. A maximum average power conversion efficiency of 9.92% has been achieved from 0.35 μm length SiNWs cells, despite a 12% shadowing loss and the absence of antireflective coating and back surface field enhancement. It is found that enhanced aggregations in longer SiNWs limit the cell performance due to increased series resistance and higher carrier recombination in the shorter wavelength region. The effects of the Si substrate doping concentrations on the performance of the cells are also investigated. Cells with higher substrate doping concentration exhibit a significant drop in the incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) in the near infrared region. Nevertheless, a promising short circuit current density of 19 mA/cm(2) and IPCE peak of 57% have been achieved for a 0.9 μm length SiNWs cell fabricated on a highly doped substrate with a minority-carrier diffusion length of only 15 μm. The results suggest that such hybrid cells can potentially be realized using Si thin films instead of bulk substrates. This is promising towards realizing low-cost and high-efficiency SiNWs/organic hybrid solar cells.

  11. Hardware-Based Simulation of a Fuel Cell Turbine Hybrid Response to Imposed Fuel Cell Load Transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.P. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Tucker, D.A.; Haynes, C.L. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Liese, E.A.; Wepfer, W.J. (Georgia Inst. of Technology)

    2006-11-01

    Electrical load transients imposed on the cell stack of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power system are studied using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project. The hardware simulation facility is located at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A computational fuel cell model capable of operating in real time is integrated with operating gas turbine hardware. The thermal output of a modeled 350 kW solid oxide fuel cell stack is replicated in the facility by a natural gas fired burner in a direct fired hybrid configuration. Pressure vessels are used to represent a fuel cell stack's cathode flow and post combustion volume and flow impedance. This hardware is used to simulate the fuel cell stack and is incorporated with a modified turbine, compressor, and 120 kW generator on a single shaft. For this study, a simulation was started with a simulated current demand of 307 A on the fuel cell at approximately 0.75 V and an actual 45 kW electrical load on the gas turbine. An open loop response, allowing the turbine rotational speed to respond to thermal transients, was successfully evaluated for a 5% current reduction on the fuel cell followed by a 5% current increase. The impact of the fuel cell load change on system process variables is presented. The test results demonstrate the capabilities of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation approach in evaluating hybrid fuel cell turbine dynamics and performance.

  12. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  13. High-efficiency si/polymer hybrid solar cells based on synergistic surface texturing of Si nanowires on pyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lining; Lai, Donny; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Changyun; Rusli

    2012-06-11

    An efficient Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cell using synergistic surface texturing of Si nanowires (SiNWs) on pyramids is demonstrated. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.9% is achieved from the cells using the SiNW/pyramid binary structure, which is much higher than similar cells based on planar Si, pyramid-textured Si, and SiNWs. The PCE is the highest reported to-date for hybrid cells based on Si nanostructures and PEDOT.

  14. Platinum nanoparticle interlayer promoted improvement in photovoltaic performance of silicon/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xiao-Qing; Liu, L.F., E-mail: lifeng.liu@inl.int

    2015-01-15

    Inorganic–organic hybrid solar cells have attracted considerable interest in recent years for their low production cost, good mechanical flexibility and ease of processing of polymer films over a large area. Particularly, silicon/conducting polymer hybrid solar cells are extensively investigated and widely believed to be a low-cost alternative to the crystalline silicon solar cells. However, the power conversion efficiency of silicon/conducting polymer solar cells remains low in case hydrogen-terminated silicon is used. In this paper, we report that by introducing a platinum nanoparticle interlayer between the hydrogen-terminated silicon and the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), namely PEDOT:PSS, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be improved by a factor of 2–3. The possible mechanism responsible for the improvement has been investigated using different techniques including impedance spectroscopy, Mott–Schottky analysis and intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). The results show that with a platinum nanoparticle interlayer, both the series resistance and charge transport/transfer resistance of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells are reduced leading to an increased short circuit current density, and the built-in voltage at the space charge region is raised facilitating electron-hole separation. Moreover, the lifetime of charge carriers in the Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells is extended, namely, the recombination is effectively suppressed which also contributes to the improvement of photovoltaic performance. - Graphical abstract: A platinum nanoparticle interlayer electrolessly deposited between the n-Si:H and PEDOT:PSS can markedly improve the photovoltaic performance of the resulting Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. - Highlights: • A Pt nanoparticle layer is introduced between the Si and PEDOT:PSS in hybrid cells. • The Pt interlayer

  15. Modeling susceptibility to drug-induced long QT with a panel of subject-specific induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillitano, Francesca; Hansen, Jens; Kong, Chi-Wing; Karakikes, Ioannis; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Geng, Lin; Scott, Stuart; Reynier, Stephan; Wu, Ma; Valogne, Yannick; Desseaux, Carole; Salem, Joe-Elie; Jeziorowska, Dorota; Zahr, Noël; Li, Ronald; Iyengar, Ravi; Hajjar, Roger J; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    A large number of drugs can induce prolongation of cardiac repolarization and life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The prediction of this side effect is however challenging as it usually develops in some genetically predisposed individuals with normal cardiac repolarization at baseline. Here, we describe a platform based on a genetically diverse panel of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that reproduces susceptibility to develop a cardiotoxic drug response. We generated iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from patients presenting in vivo with extremely low or high changes in cardiac repolarization in response to a pharmacological challenge with sotalol. In vitro, the responses to sotalol were highly variable but strongly correlated to the inter-individual differences observed in vivo. Transcriptomic profiling identified dysregulation of genes (DLG2, KCNE4, PTRF, HTR2C, CAMKV) involved in downstream regulation of cardiac repolarization machinery as underlying high sensitivity to sotalol. Our findings offer novel insights for the development of iPSC-based screening assays for testing individual drug reactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19406.001 PMID:28134617

  16. Study of fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basurto, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental awareness and the interest in distributed generation caused by electricity market de-regulation are factors that promote research on renewable energies. Fuel cells transform the chemical energy stored in fuel into electricity by means of electrochemical reactions. Among the different fuel cell types, high temperature fuel cells (HTFCS) have many advantages: high efficiency, low emissions, fuel flexibility, modularity and high quality waste heat. The main disadvant...

  17. [Additional phragmoplast corrects abnormal cytokinesis in wheat x rye hybrid pollen mother cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, E I; Shamina, N V; Dudka, L F; Kovtunenko, V Ia; Bolobolova, E U

    2009-01-01

    The phragmoplast dysfunction in wheat x rye hybrid F1 male meiosis has been described. The pollen mother cells (PMCs) show the phenotype where transition from central spindle fibers (forming a solid bundle) to a phragmoplast (hollow cylinder) is blocked. The blockade suppresses centrifugal movement of the phragmoplast and cell plate formation. The resulting cells occur to be binucleate. Sometimes, the two nuclei join and form one restitution nucleus. PMCs of wheat x rye F1 hybrid N D-144gp 06r. F1 (T. aestivum c. 93-60 T 9 x S. cereale c. Saratovskaya 7) showing this phenotype have an additional phragmoplast at late telophase. This happens like that in the case of immobile phragmoplast formation in meiosis in bicotyledons: the new phragmoplast arises by the aid of microtubules polymerization starting from the spindle poles. The new additional phragmoplast builds a new cell plate and accomplishes cytokinesis.

  18. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  19. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... and ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  20. Advanced solar panel designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg. This paper will address the construction details for the GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh panel configurations. These are ultimately sized to provide 75 Watts and 119 Watts respectively for smallsats or may be used as modular building blocks for larger systems. GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh coupons have been fabricated and tested to successfully demonstrate critical performance parameters and results are also provided here.

  1. Improving battery charging with solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boico, Florent Michael

    Recent technological developments in thin-film photovoltaics, such as amorphous silicon and hybrid dye sensitized photovoltaic (PV) cells are leading to new generations of portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, flexible, and have been reported to achieve power efficiencies of up to 10%. Already, commercial-off-the-shelf arrays exist that have panels embedded in fabric that can be folded to dimensions of less than 12" x 12", yet are able to produce up to 50Watts of power at 12V. These new products make solar power available to various types of applications. In particular, military applications are emerging to give soldier a source of power that can always be at reach. In parallel with these developments, NiMH and Li-ion batteries are increasingly being used to power various equipment. Currently, the military is field testing solar charging of its batteries with portable solar arrays. However, so far, all known charge control algorithm have failed as they commonly falsely detect overcharge at random times in the charging and leave the battery partially charged. The goal of our research is to investigate the origins of failure in existing charge control algorithms and to propose adequate algorithms that would improve the battery charging. Additionally, ways to optimize the generated photovoltaic power is critical for portable solar application as the energy produced is limited. It is known that the use of a DC-DC converter between the solar panel and the load allows optimization of the power delivered by the solar panel when "Maximum Power Point Tracking" is utilized. Therefore we are developing new solutions that address the specific problem of Maximum Power Point Tracking for modular solar panels.

  2. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai A, Banta L, Tucker D

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  3. Microinjection and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Studying mRNA Export in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Shi, Min; Cheng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Microinjection and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) assay is a useful method for mRNA export studies, which can overcome the problems of traditional transfection in cells. Here, we describe the method of microinjection and FISH assay applied in investigation of mRNA export. By this method we can estimate the mRNA export kinetics, examining mRNA export in cells with low transfection efficiencies, and observing nuclear export of aberrant RNAs.

  4. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol) Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Redouan Mahou; Meier, Raphael P H; Bühler, Léo H.; Christine Wandrey

    2014-01-01

    The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg) using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly...

  5. Role of majority and minority carrier barriers silicon/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Sushobhan; Lee, Stephanie; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Sturm, James C

    2011-12-22

    A hybrid approach to solar cells is demonstrated in which a silicon p-n junction, used in conventional silicon-based photovoltaics, is replaced by a room-temperature fabricated silicon/organic heterojunction. The unique advantage of silicon/organic heterojunction is that it exploits the cost advantage of organic semiconductors and the performance advantages of silicon to enable potentially low-cost, efficient solar cells.

  6. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...

  7. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then......, a multiple-input power conversion system including a decoupled dual-input converter and a three-phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter is proposed. The system can operate in both stand-alone and grid-connected modes. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed...

  8. LQR-Based Power Train Control Method Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV proposed in our previous study, a multistate feedback control strategy of the hybrid power train is designed based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR algorithm. A Kalman Filter (KF observer is introduced to estimate state of charge (SOC of the battery firstly, and then a linear quadratic regulator is constructed to compute the state feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop control system. At last, simulation and actual test are utilized to demonstrate this new approach.

  9. Hybrid nanocone forests with high absorption in full-solar spectrum for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yudong; Mao, Haiyang; Xiong, Jijun; Ming, Anjie; Wang, Weibing

    2016-11-01

    In this work, hybrid nanocone forests (HNFs) with high absorption in full-solar-spectrum are fabricated based on a plasma repolymerization technique. The HNFs combine light trapping effect of the nanocone forests with surface plasmon resonance effect of the metallic nanoparticles, thus can achieve an optimized absorption larger than 80% in the full-solar spectrum (i.e. 200-2500nm). Besides, with the hybrid nanostructures, the absorption decrease around the Si bandgap width can be narrowed greatly, while the normalized utilization efficiency of solar radiation can be increased. Therefore, usage of the HNFs as a texture structure in solar cells to obtain higher conversion efficiencies is foreseeable.

  10. Fabrication of stable photovoltachromic cells using a solvent-free hybrid polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Che; Cho, Hsun-Wei; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-08-21

    In this work, photovoltachromic cells (PVCCs) are fabricated using a solvent-free polyethylene glycol (PEG)-titanium hybrid polymer electrolyte. With appropriate addition of 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide in the electrolyte, the range of tunable colored-state transmittance of the PVCC is enlarged due to an improved fill factor. A transmittance modulation larger than 40% can be maintained for at least 3 months, demonstrating the good long-term stability of PVCCs fabricated using the solvent-free PEG-Ti hybrid electrolyte.

  11. Immunophenotype of normal vs. myeloma plasma cells: Toward antibody panel specifications for MRD detection in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Montero, Juan; de Tute, Ruth; Paiva, Bruno; Perez, José Juan; Böttcher, Sebastian; Wind, Henk; Sanoja, Luzalba; Puig, Noemí; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Vidriales, María Belén; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several studies on large series of multiple myeloma (MM) patients have demonstrated the clinical utility of flow cytometry monitoring of minimal residual disease (flow-MRD) in bone marrow (BM), for improved assessment of response to therapy and prognostication. However, disturbing levels of variability exist regarding the specific protocols and antibody panels used in individual laboratories. Overall, consensus exists about the utility of combined assessment of CD38 and CD138 for the identification of BM plasma cells (PC); in contrast, more heterogeneous lists of markers are used to further distinguish between normal/reactive PCs and myeloma PCs in the MRD settings. Among the later markers, CD19, CD45, CD27, and CD81, together with CD56, CD117, CD200, and CD307, have emerged as particularly informative; however, no single marker provides enough specificity for clear discrimination between clonal PCs and normal PCs. Accordingly, multivariate analyses of single PCs from large series of normal/reactive vs. myeloma BM samples have shown that combined assessment of CD138 and CD38, together with CD45, CD19, CD56, CD27, CD81, and CD117 would be ideally suited for MRD monitoring in virtually every MM patient. However, the specific antibody clones, fluorochrome conjugates and sources of the individual markers determines its optimal (vs. suboptimal or poor) performance in an eight-color staining. Assessment of clonality, via additional cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (CyIg) κ vs. CyIgλ evaluation, may contribute to further establish the normal/reactive vs. clonal nature of small suspicious PC populations at high sensitivity levels, provided that enough cells are evaluated.

  12. Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richon, V M; Webb, Y; Merger, R; Sheppard, T; Jursic, B; Ngo, L; Civoli, F; Breslow, R; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

    1996-06-11

    Hybrid polar compounds, of which hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is the prototype, are potent inducers of differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in patients, but is not an adequate therapeutic agent because of dose-limiting toxicity. We report on a group of three potent second generation hybrid polar compounds, diethyl bis-(pentamethylene-N,N-dimethylcarboxamide) malonate (EMBA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) with optimal concentrations for inducing MEL cells of 0.4 mM, 2 microM, and 4 microM, respectively, compared to 5 mM for HMBA. All three agents induce accumulation of underphosphorylated pRB; increased levels of p2l protein, a prolongation of the initial G1 phase of the cell cycle; and accumulation of hemoglobin. However, based upon their effective concentrations, the cross-resistance or sensitivity of an HMBA-resistant MEL cell variant, and differences in c-myb expression during induction, these differentiation-inducing hybrid polar compounds can be grouped into two subsets, HMBA/EMBA and SAHA/CBHA. This classification may prove of value in selecting and planning prospective preclinical and clinical studies toward the treatment of cancer by differentiation therapy.

  13. Hybrid resistance to EL-4 lymphoma cells. 2. Association between loss of hybrid resistance and detection of suppressor cells after treatment of mice with /sup 89/Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano, E.; Kumar, V.; Bennett, M. (Boston Univ., MA (USA). School of Medicine)

    1981-01-01

    (C57BL/6XDBA/2)F/sub 1/ hybrid (B6D2F/sub 1/) mice resist the growth of parental-strain (B6) EL-4 lymphoma cells inoculated intraperitoneally; i.e., B6D2F/sub 1/ mice survive longer than B6 mice and do not develop ascites. As compared with B6 mice, B6D2F/sub 1/ mice have higher levels of natural killer (NK) activity against /sup 51/Cr-labelled EL-4 cells in their lymphoid organs. B6D2F/sub 1/ mice treated with /sup 89/Sr lose NK activity for certain lymphoma cell targets, e.g. YAC-1, but NK(EL-4) function is usually intact. However, /sup 89/Sr-treated mice had lost hybrid resistance to EL-4 cells in vivo, as determined by survival times and the development of ascites. NK(EL-4) and NK(YAC-1) activities were stimulated by irradiated or unirradiated EL-4 cells, Corynebacterium parvum, or polyinosinic:polycytiylic acid (pI:pC) in spleens of normal B6D2F/sub 1/ mice, but NK(EL-4) activity was depressed within 3 days by such treatment in B6D2F/sub 1/ mice previously injected with /sup 89/Sr. Suppressor cells for NK(EL-4) but not for NK(YAC-1) effectors were easily detected in spleens of /sup 89/Sr- treated mice 'challenged' with C. parvum. Thus, agents capable of stimulating NK cell function in normal mice may lead to suppression of that activity in mice depleted of marrow-dependent cell function by /sup 89/Sr. Spleen cells of /sup 89/Sr-treated B6D2F/sub 1/ mice were also unable to generate anti-EL-4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a cell-mediated lympholysis system; this defect appeared also to be mediated by suppressor cells. Lymphoid cells depleted by /sup 89/Sr- induced marrow aplasia may have two functions in host defences against tumours (especially lymphomas): they may lyse tumour cells directly and they may 'down-regulate' suppressor cells capable of inhibiting other 'natural' or 'induced' immune functions.

  14. Peak-power-point monitor for solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine solar cell panel peak power capability without disrupting power flow from panel. Separate solar cell strings were switched from panel circuits, and increasingly larger loads were added rapidly until peak power points were transversed. String wattage output was recorded and all stored string measurements summed together indicate peak power point in panel.

  15. Fusion of CCL21 non-migratory active breast epithelial and breast cancer cells give rise to CCL21 migratory active tumor hybrid cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Berndt

    Full Text Available The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to tumor progression because several data provided evidence that fusion of tumor cells and normal cells gave rise to hybrid cell lines exhibiting novel properties, such as increased metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance. Here we investigated M13HS hybrid cell lines, derived from spontaneous fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics and HS578T-Hyg breast cancer cells, concerning CCL21/CCR7 signaling. Western Blot analysis showed that all cell lines varied in their CCR7 expression levels as well as differed in the induction and kinetics of CCR7 specific signal transduction cascades. Flow cytometry-based calcium measurements revealed that a CCL21 induced calcium influx was solely detected in M13HS hybrid cell lines. Cell migration demonstrated that only M13HS hybrid cell lines, but not parental derivatives, responded to CCL21 stimulation with an increased migratory activity. Knockdown of CCR7 expression by siRNA completely abrogated the CCL21 induced migration of hybrid cell lines indicating the necessity of CCL21/CCR7 signaling. Because the CCL21/CCR7 axis has been linked to metastatic spreading of breast cancer to lymph nodes we conclude from our data that cell fusion could be a mechanism explaining the origin of metastatic cancer (hybrid cells.

  16. Method of manufacturing a hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2017-02-07

    A method of manufacturing an all back contact solar cell which has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. A second emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The method further includes forming contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  17. Enhancing hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode performance using Ag2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid-direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of a molten slurry of solid carbon black and (Li-K)2CO3 added to the anode chamber of a solid oxide fuel cell, was characterized using current-potential-power density curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Two...... types of experimental setups were employed in this study, an anode-supported full cell configuration (two electrodes, two atmospheres setup) and a 3-electrode electrolyte-supported half-cell setup (single atmosphere). Anode processes with and without catalysts were investigated as a function...

  18. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  19. An in situ hybridization-based screen for heterogeneously expressed genes in mouse ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mark G; Stagg, Carole A; Falco, Geppino; Yoshikawa, Toshiyuki; Bassey, Uwem C; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Sharova, Lioudmila V; Shaik, Nabeebi; Ko, Minoru S H

    2008-02-01

    We previously reported that Zscan4 showed heterogeneous expression patterns in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. To identify genes that show similar expression patterns, we carried out high-throughput in situ hybridization assays on ES cell cultures for 244 genes. Most of the genes are involved in transcriptional regulation, and were selected using microarray-based comparisons of gene expression profiles in ES and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells versus differentiated cell types. Pou5f1 (Oct4, Oct3/4) and Krt8 (EndoA) were used as controls. Hybridization signals were detected on ES cell colonies for 147 genes (60%). The majority (136 genes) of them showed relatively homogeneous expression in ES cell colonies. However, we found that two genes unequivocally showed Zscan4-like spotted expression pattern (spot-in-colony pattern; Whsc2 and Rhox9). We also found that nine genes showed relatively heterogeneous expression pattern (mosaic-in-colony pattern: Zfp42/Rex1, Rest, Atf4, Pa2g4, E2f2, Nanog, Dppa3/Pgc7/Stella, Esrrb, and Fscn1). Among these genes, Zfp42/Rex1 showed unequivocally heterogeneous expression in individual ES cells prepared by the CytoSpin. These results show the presence of different types or states of cells within ES cell cultures otherwise thought to be undifferentiated and homogeneous, suggesting a previously unappreciated complexity in ES cell cultures.

  20. Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eames, Christopher; Frost, Jarvist M; Barnes, Piers R F; O'Regan, Brian C; Walsh, Aron; Islam, M Saiful

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently shown rapidly rising power conversion efficiencies, but exhibit unusual behaviour such as current-voltage hysteresis and a low...

  1. Analysis of a model of fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system for enhanced energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calay, Rajnish K.; Mustafa, Mohamad Y.; Virk, Mohammad S.; Mustafa, Mahmoud F.

    2012-11-01

    A simple mathematical model to evaluate the performance of FC-GT hybrid system is presented in this paper. The model is used to analyse the influence of various parameters on the performance of a typical hybrid system, where excess heat rejected from the solid-oxide fuel cell stack is utilised to generate additional power through a gas turbine system and to provide heat energy for space heating. The model is based on thermodynamic analysis of various components of the plant and can be adapted for various configurations of the plant components. Because there are many parameters defining the efficiency and work output of the hybrid system, the technique is based on mathematical and graphical optimisation of various parameters; to obtain the maximum efficiency for a given plant configuration.

  2. Graphene hybrids: Synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmee eBadhulika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/ metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT, graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells.

  3. Nonlinear mechanics of hybrid polymer networks that mimic the complex mechanical environment of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Maarten; Vaessen, Sarah L.; van Schayik, Pim; Voerman, Dion; Rowan, Alan E.; Kouwer, Paul H. J.

    2017-05-01

    The mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular environment they reside in are governed by a complex interplay of biopolymers. These biopolymers, which possess a wide range of stiffnesses, self-assemble into fibrous composite networks such as the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. They interact with each other both physically and chemically to create a highly responsive and adaptive mechanical environment that stiffens when stressed or strained. Here we show that hybrid networks of a synthetic mimic of biological networks and either stiff, flexible and semi-flexible components, even very low concentrations of these added components, strongly affect the network stiffness and/or its strain-responsive character. The stiffness (persistence length) of the second network, its concentration and the interaction between the components are all parameters that can be used to tune the mechanics of the hybrids. The equivalence of these hybrids with biological composites is striking.

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... physiological effect for infants and young children. A claim on iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells in the general population has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iron in normal formation of haemoglobin...... and red blood cells applies to all ages, including infants and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between dietary intake of iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells....

  5. Research on large panel dye sensitized solar cell%大面板染料敏化太阳能电池制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王傲; 吴聪聪

    2011-01-01

    With the commercialization of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), the investigation of large panel DSSC has attracted much attention. DSSC panel with size up to 100mm × 75mm in parallel was fabricated by screen print method. The influence of DSSC size on the performance was investigated, and the photoelectrical property of large panel DSSC was studied. The results indicated that the fill factor decreases with increasing DSSC size. By using parallel connection the fill factor of large panel DSSC was dramatically improved compared with small size DSSC, and the fill factor of 0. 63 was obtained.%随着染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC)商业化进程的发展,大面板DSSC已成为当前研究的热点之一.采用丝网印刷法制备出尺寸为100mm×75mm的并联结构大面板DSSC,研究了面积对DSSC光电性能的影响,并对大面板DSSC的光电性能进行了讨论.结果表明,随着DSSC的面积的增加,电池的填充因子逐渐减小,采用并联结构的大面板DSSC的填充因子有显著提高,填充因子达到0.63.

  6. Performance simulation and analysis of a fuel cell/battery hybrid forklift truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Advani, Suresh G.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a forklift truck powered by a hybrid system consisting of a PEM fuel cell and a lead acid battery is modeled and investigated by conducting a parametric study. Various combinations of fuel cell size and battery capacity are employed in conjunction with two distinct control...... strategies to study their effect on hydrogen consumption and battery state-of-charge for two drive cycles characterized by different operating speeds and forklift loads. The results show that for all case studies, the combination of a 110 cell stack with two strings of 55 Ah batteries is the most economical...... choice for the hybrid system based on system size and hydrogen consumption. In addition, it is observed that hydrogen consumption decreases by about 24% when the maximum speed of the drive cycle is decreased from 4.5 to 3 m/s. Similarly, by decreasing the forklift load from 2.5 to 1.5 ton, the hydrogen...

  7. A High-Efficiency Si Nanowire Array/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-12-01

    A low-cost Si nanowire array/perovskite hybrid solar cell is proposed and simulated. The solar cell consists of a Si p-i-n nanowire array filled with CH3NH3PbI3, in which both the nanowires and perovskite absorb the incident light while the nanowires act as the channels for transporting photo-generated electrons and holes. The hybrid structure has a high absorption efficiency in a broad wavelength range of 300~800 nm. A large short-circuit current density of 28.8 mA/cm(2) and remarkable conversion efficiency of 13.3% are obtained at a thin absorber thickness of 1.6 μm, which are comparable to the best results of III-V nanowire solar cells.

  8. Evidence of programmed cell death during microsporogenesis in an interspecific Brachiaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzinatto, V A; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B

    2007-05-11

    Morphological changes have been investigated during plant programmed cell death (PCD) in the last few years due to the new interest in a possible apoptotic-like phenomenon existing in plants. Although PCD has been reported in several tissues and specialized cells in plants, there have been few reports of its occurrence during microsporogenesis. The present study reports a typical process of PCD during meiosis in an interspecific Brachiaria hybrid leading to male sterility. In this hybrid, some inflorescences initiated meiosis but it was arrested in zygotene/pachytene. From this stage, meiocytes underwent a severe alteration in shape showing substantial membrane blebbing; the cytoplasm became denser at the periphery; the cell nucleus entered a progressive stage of chromatin disintegration, and then the nucleolus disintegrated, and the cytoplasm condensed and shrunk. The oldest flowers of the raceme showed only the callose wall in the anthers showing obvious signs of complete sterility.

  9. Laser-ablated titania nanoparticles for aqueous processed hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körstgens, V.; Pröller, S.; Buchmann, T.; Moseguí González, D.; Song, L.; Yao, Y.; Wang, W.; Werhahn, J.; Santoro, G.; Roth, S. V.; Iglev, H.; Kienberger, R.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.

    2015-02-01

    Titania nanoparticles are produced by laser ablation in liquid in order to initiate functionalization of titania with the polymer for the active layer. By combining these titania nanoparticles and water-soluble poly[3-(potassium-6-hexanoate)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3P6T) hybrid solar cells are realized.Titania nanoparticles are produced by laser ablation in liquid in order to initiate functionalization of titania with the polymer for the active layer. By combining these titania nanoparticles and water-soluble poly[3-(potassium-6-hexanoate)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3P6T) hybrid solar cells are realized. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full scheme of the production of solar cells, additional spectra and details of the measurement techniques. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06782g

  10. A High-Efficiency Si Nanowire Array/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    A low-cost Si nanowire array/perovskite hybrid solar cell is proposed and simulated. The solar cell consists of a Si p-i-n nanowire array filled with CH3NH3PbI3, in which both the nanowires and perovskite absorb the incident light while the nanowires act as the channels for transporting photo-generated electrons and holes. The hybrid structure has a high absorption efficiency in a broad wavelength range of 300 800 nm. A large short-circuit current density of 28.8 mA/cm2 and remarkable conversion efficiency of 13.3% are obtained at a thin absorber thickness of 1.6 μm, which are comparable to the best results of III-V nanowire solar cells.

  11. A novel transferrin receptor-targeted hybrid peptide disintegrates cancer cell membrane to induce rapid killing of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamoto Megumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transferrin receptor (TfR is a cell membrane-associated glycoprotein involved in the cellular uptake of iron and the regulation of cell growth. Recent studies have shown the elevated expression levels of TfR on cancer cells compared with normal cells. The elevated expression levels of this receptor in malignancies, which is the accessible extracellular protein, can be a fascinating target for the treatment of cancer. We have recently designed novel type of immunotoxin, termed "hybrid peptide", which is chemically synthesized and is composed of target-binding peptide and lytic peptide containing cationic-rich amino acids components that disintegrates the cell membrane for the cancer cell killing. The lytic peptide is newly designed to induce rapid killing of cancer cells due to conformational change. In this study, we designed TfR binding peptide connected with this novel lytic peptide and assessed the cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro: We assessed the cytotoxicity of TfR-lytic hybrid peptide for 12 cancer and 2 normal cell lines. The specificity for TfR is demonstrated by competitive assay using TfR antibody and siRNA. In addition, we performed analysis of confocal fluorescence microscopy and apoptosis assay by Annexin-V binding, caspase activity, and JC-1 staining to assess the change in mitochondria membrane potential. In vivo: TfR-lytic was administered intravenously in an athymic mice model with MDA-MB-231 cells. After three weeks tumor sections were histologically analyzed. Results The TfR-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in 12 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values as low as 4.0-9.3 μM. Normal cells were less sensitive to this molecule, with IC50 values > 50 μM. Competition assay using TfR antibody and knockdown of this receptor by siRNA confirmed the specificity of the TfR-lytic hybrid peptide. In addition, it was revealed that this molecule can disintegrate the cell membrane of T47

  12. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Guo, L Jay

    2014-02-28

    We present ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell structure, which can transmit desired color of light. The transmitted colors show great angular tolerance due to the negligible optical phase associated with light propagating in ultra-thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers. We achieved the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid cells up to 2 %; and demonstrated that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges due to the suppressed electron-hole recombination in the ultra-thin a-Si layer. We also show the resonance is invariant with respect to the angle of incidence up to ± 70° regardless of the polarization of the incident light. Our exploration provides a design to realize energy harvesting colored photovoltaic panels for innovative applications.

  13. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Guo, L. Jay

    2014-02-01

    We present ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell structure, which can transmit desired color of light. The transmitted colors show great angular tolerance due to the negligible optical phase associated with light propagating in ultra-thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers. We achieved the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid cells up to 2 %; and demonstrated that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges due to the suppressed electron-hole recombination in the ultra-thin a-Si layer. We also show the resonance is invariant with respect to the angle of incidence up to +/-70° regardless of the polarization of the incident light. Our exploration provides a design to realize energy harvesting colored photovoltaic panels for innovative applications.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  15. Investigation of organic semiconductor interlayers in hybrid PEDOT:PSS/silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Martin; Zweipfennig, Thorsten; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-10-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their expected potential to combine the advantages of both material classes, the excellent electrical properties and stability of the inorganic and the low-cost processability of the organic semiconductors. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on n-doped crystalline Si as the inorganic and the polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) as the organic part of the device. The hole-conducting organic semiconductors poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and 2,2‧,7,7‧-Tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9‧-spirobifluorene (Spiro-MeOTAD) are investigated as electron blocking interlayers to reduce the parasitic electron current into the metal top contact and thereby increase the efficiency of the solar cell. In this context, P3HT is identified to be insufficient as an interlayer material due to unfavorable hysteresis effects. On the other hand, for solar cells with a Spiro-MeOTAD interlayer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is significantly increased. This is mainly attributed to an increased short-circuit current density. For the best performing device, a PCE of 14.3% is achieved, which is one of the highest values reported for this type of hybrid solar cells so far.

  16. Developmental potential of embryonic cells in a nucleocytoplasmic hybrid formed using a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takafumi; Saito, Taiju; Sakao, Suzu; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2010-01-01

    In teleosts, viable nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, formed by combining a nucleus from one species with the egg cytoplasm of another, have been used as one of the methods for breed improvement in aquaculture, but have been little exploited for developmental biology studies. Here, we used an artificial androgenesis technique to form nucleocytoplasmic hybrids comprising a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm. These hybrids were used to investigate interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasm during embryonic development. Additionally, the developmental characteristics of embryonic cells of nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were examined in chimeras produced by transplantation of blastomeres into recipient loach or goldfish embryos. We found that the nucleocytoplasmic hybrids arrested at the dome stage of embryonic development and did not form any gastrula structures. The goosecoid (gsc) and no tail (ntl) genes were expressed normally before gastrulation in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, similar to diploid loach. However, expression of the gsc and ntl genes was not maintained in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids. In chimeric embryos, blastomeres derived from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were found to mix with the cells of recipient loach embryos at the gastrula stage. The transplanted blastomeres formed small clusters at the somitogenesis stage and, finally, small spots at the hatching stage. In contrast, when the blastomeres were transplanted into goldfish embryos, the transplanted blastomeres aggregated in the chimeric embryos. Thus, embryonic cells from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids that arrest before gastrulation could survive beyond the somitogenesis stage depending on the cytoplasmic environment in the recipient embryos.

  17. PERBANDINGAN UNJUK KERJA ANTARA PANEL SEL SURYA BERPENJEJAK DENGAN PANEL SEL SURYA DIAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafaruddin Ch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce electrical energy at Solar Power Plant  is highly dependent on the magnitude and duration of sun exposure on the solar cell panels. The movement of the sun from east to west that periodicity in every day is a problem at  the  optimization generation of electricity at  Solar Power Plant   if using solar panel that motionless. This is because the solar cell panel can not catch the maximum sun exposure. To solve the above problem then designed a solar cell panel  tracker  capable of follo-wing the movements of the sun. Then conducted a test to see the performance of solar cell pa-nel  tracker  and compare it with the performance of solar cell panel was motionless. The testing doing along 6 days, with way to irradiate the panel of solar cells  tracker  and panels of solar cell motionless with sun exposure  along a  full day. Then the electric current generated each panel were recorded. The comparison of current then generating comparison of electric power delivery. The result show that the solar cell panel  tracker  produce the average current is 2.19 A whereas solar-cell panel still 1.97 A.  This result   indicate that average power for solar cell panel  tracker  39.41 W while for solar cell panel that motionless is  35.46 W. These results indicate that the performance of solar cell panel  tracker  better than  solar cell panel motionless.

  18. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given

    1975-01-01

    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  19. Performance evaluation of hybrid modified micro-channel solar cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Solar cell thermal tile, Micro-channel, Electrical efficiency, Thermal modeling. 1. ... than that of the PV modules is heated, while at the same time, the PV module ..... For a number of modified MCSCT tiles connected in series, the outlet ..... Group Technology, Neural Networks, and Non-traditional Optimization and.

  20. Hybrid solar cells from water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. McLeskey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of a water-soluble, light-absorbing polythiophene polymer to fabricate novel photovoltaic devices. The polymer is a water-soluble thiophene known as sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] or PTEBS. The intention is to take advantage of the properties of conjugated polymers (flexible, tunable, and easy to process and incorporate the additional benefits of water solubility (easily controlled evaporation rates and environmentally friendly. The PTEBS polythiophene has shown significant photovoltaic response and has been found to be effective for making solar cells. To date, solar cells in three different configurations have been produced: titanium dioxide (TiO2 bilayer cells, TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs in bulk heterojunctions. The best performance thus far has been achieved with TiO2 bilayer devices. These devices have an open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.84V, a short circuit current (Jsc of 0.15 mA/cm2, a fill factor (ff of 0.91, and an efficiency (η of 0.15 %.

  1. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-07

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals.

  2. Design of embedded-hybrid antimicrobial peptides with enhanced cell selectivity and anti-biofilm activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerable attention because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and their low prognostic to induce antibiotic resistance which is the most common source of failure in bacterial infection treatment along with biofilms. The method to design hybrid peptide integrating different functional domains of peptides has many advantages. In this study, we designed an embedded-hybrid peptide R-FV-I16 by replacing a functional defective sequence RR7 with the anti-biofilm sequence FV7 embedded in the middle position of peptide RI16. The results demonstrated that the synthetic hybrid the peptide R-FV-I16 had potent antimicrobial activity over a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as anti-biofilm activity. More importantly, R-FV-I16 showed lower hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity. Fluorescent assays demonstrated that R-FV-I16 depolarized the outer and the inner bacterial membranes, while scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that this peptide killed bacterial cells by disrupting the cell membrane, thereby damaging membrane integrity. Results from SEM also provided evidence that R-FV-I16 inherited anti-biofilm activity from the functional peptide sequence FV7. Embedded-hybrid peptides could provide a new pattern for combining different functional domains and showing an effective avenue to screen for novel antimicrobial agents.

  3. Cell response to single-walled carbon nanotubes in hybrid porous collagen sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongli; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous collagen sponges incorporated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared and used for 3D culture of bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs). The pore structures of the sponges were controlled by using ice particulates as a porogen material. The responses of cells to SWCNTs were investigated in this 3D cell culture system by evaluation of cell functions and cellular uptake of SWCNTs. The results showed that cells adhered and spatially distributed in the porous sponges. The incorporation of SWCNTs in the porous sponges promoted cell proliferation and production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG). Confocal Raman imaging revealed that SWCNTs could be internalized by cells. The hybrid porous sponges not only provided nanostructured pore surfaces to facilitate cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion but also supplied nanomaterials for cellular uptake which may be useful for biomedical applications.

  4. A hybrid toxin from bacteriophage f1 attachment protein and colicin E3 has altered cell receptor specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakes, K S; Davis, N G; Zinder, N D

    1988-01-01

    A hybrid protein was constructed in vitro which consists of the first 372 amino acids of the attachment (gene III) protein of filamentous bacteriophage f1 fused, in frame, to the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain of colicin E3. The hybrid toxin killed cells that had the F-pilus receptor for phage f1 but not F- cells. The activity of the hybrid protein was not dependent upon the presence of the colicin E3 receptor, BtuB protein. The killing activity was colicin E3 specific, since F+ cells expr...

  5. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  6. Cytotoxic activity to acute myeloid leukemia cells by Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Tomohisa; Kawamoto, Megumi; Kohno, Masayuki; Kawakami, Koji

    2012-07-01

    We previously reported that Antp-TPR hybrid peptide inhibited the interaction of Hsp90 with TPR2A and had selective cytotoxic activity discriminating between normal and cancer cells to induce cancer cell death. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR peptide toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. It was demonstrated that Antp-TPR peptide induced AML cell death in cell lines such as U937, K562, THP-1, and HL-60 via activation of caspases 3 and 7, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conversely, Antp-TPR peptide did not reduce the viability of normal cells including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), although both geldanamycin and 17-AAG, small-molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, mediated cytotoxicity to these normal cells at low concentrations. In addition, mutation analysis of TPR peptide demonstrated that the highly conserved amino acids Lys and Arg were critical to the cytotoxic activity. These results indicated that Antp-TPR hybrid peptide would provide potent and selective therapeutic options in the treatment of AML.

  7. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  8. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push......-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this cascaded structure simplifies the power management. The control strategy for the whole system is analyzed...

  9. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  10. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  11. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  13. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  14. Hybrid microfluidic fuel cell based on Laccase/C and AuAg/C electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, B; Dector, A; Cuevas-Muñiz, F M; Arjona, N; Cruz-Madrid, C; Arana-Cuenca, A; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Arriaga, L G; Ledesma-García, J

    2014-12-15

    A hybrid glucose microfluidic fuel cell composed of an enzymatic cathode (Laccase/ABTS/C) and an inorganic anode (AuAg/C) was developed and tested. The enzymatic cathode was prepared by adsorption of 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Laccase on Vulcan XC-72, which act as a redox mediator, enzymatic catalyst and support, respectively. The Laccase/ABTS/C composite was characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, streaming current measurements (Zeta potential) and cyclic voltammetry. The AuAg/C anode catalyst was characterised by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The hybrid microfluidic fuel cell exhibited excellent performance with a maximum power density value (i.e., 0.45 mW cm(-2)) that is the highest reported to date. The cell also exhibited acceptable stability over the course of several days. In addition, a Mexican endemic Laccase was used as the biocathode electrode and evaluated in the hybrid microfluidic fuel cell generating 0.5 mW cm(-2) of maximum power density.

  15. Understanding polycarbazole-based polymer:CdSe hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Jun Yan; Lam, Yeng Ming; Niziol, Jacek; Marzec, Mateusz

    2012-08-10

    We report for the first time the fabrication and characterization of organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells made of poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and pyridine-capped CdSe nanorods. By optimizing both CdSe loading and active layer film thickness, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PCDTBT:CdSe hybrid solar cells were able to reach 2%, with PCDTBT:CdSe devices displaying an open-circuit voltage (V(OC )) that is 35% higher than P3HT:CdSe devices due to the deeper HOMO level of PCDTBT polymer. The performance of PCDTBT:CdSe devices is limited by its morphology and also its lower LUMO energy offset compared to P3HT:CdSe devices. Hence, the performance of PCDTBT:CdSe solar cells could be further improved by modifying the morphology of the films and also by including an interlayer to generate a built-in voltage to encourage exciton dissociation. Our results suggest that PCDTBT could be a viable alternative to P3HT as an electron donor in hybrid BHJ solar cells for high photovoltage application.

  16. Comparative study of two different powertrains for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2016-07-01

    The powertrain plays an essential role in improving the tractive performance and the fuel consumption of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a comparative study of two different powertrains for fuel cell hybrid buses. The significant difference between the two powertrains lies in the types and arrangements of the electrical motor. One powertrain employs an induction motor to drive the vehicle, while the other powertrain adopts two permanent magnetic synchronous motors for near-wheel propulsion. Besides, the tiny difference between the proposed powertrain is the supply path of the fuel cell accessories, which can have an effect on the powertrain efficiency. The component parameters and energy management strategies for the two powertrain are determined. The fuel cell hybrid buses equipped with the two powertrains are developed, and some road tests are achieved, according to the chosen procedures or driving cycles. The paper focuses on the tractive performance and energy analysis of the powertrains based on the testing results. Finally, the paper summarizes the relative merits of the proposed powertrains.

  17. Multiscale tomographic analysis of polymer-nanoparticle hybrid materials for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Jiu, Tonggang; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Chandezon, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    The present work focuses on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of polymer and nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites used as active layers in solution-processed solar cells. The hybrid consists of blends of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) and CdSe nanorods. Electron tomography (ET) analysis performed in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) allows resolving single nanorods in the hybrid blend. These results are compared with those obtained using focused ion beam coupled with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), operated in a so-called 3D ``slice-and-view'' mode. This technique allows 3D information to be obtained on a whole device stack (hybrid active layers plus electrodes and the substrate) for significantly larger surface areas than with ET (~10 vs. ~0.1 μm2). The combination of ET and 3D FIB ``slice-and-view'' reconstructions provides complementary and coherent information on the 3D morphology of the hybrid systems at different length scales. Phase separation between the nanoparticles and the polymer is investigated by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes and is related to the performances of the hybrid devices.The present work focuses on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of polymer and nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites used as active layers in solution-processed solar cells. The hybrid consists of blends of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) and CdSe nanorods. Electron tomography (ET) analysis performed in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) allows resolving single nanorods in the hybrid blend. These results are compared with those obtained using focused ion beam coupled with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), operated in a so-called 3D ``slice-and-view'' mode. This technique allows 3D information to be obtained on a whole device stack (hybrid active layers plus electrodes and the substrate) for

  18. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-09-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration.

  19. Planar organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell by electrospray

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the organic-inorganic perovskite solar cell has attracted great attention due to the easy processing and rapid developed power conversion efficiency. The tri-halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx possessing excellent optical and electronic properties, such as absorption hands span the visible region, long charge carrier diffusion lengths, and appropriate direct band gap, makes them ideal active layer material for photovoltaic devices. In this thesis, electrohydrodynamic spraying is used...

  20. What is moving in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Jarvist M.; Walsh, Aron

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Organic–inorganic semiconductors, which adopt the perovskite crystal structure, have perturbed the landscape of contemporary photovoltaics research. High-efficiency solar cells can be produced with solution-processed active layers. The materials are earth abundant, and the simple processing required suggests that high-throughput and low-cost manufacture at scale should be possible. While these materials bear considerable similarity to traditional inorganic semiconductors, there are...

  1. Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in mantle cell lymphoma-consensus guidelines of the pathology panel of the European MCL Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klapper, W.; Hoster, E.; Determann, O.;

    2009-01-01

    powerful prognostic biomarker. The pathology panel of the European MCL Network evaluated methods to assess the Ki-67 index including stringent counting, digital image analysis, and estimation by eyeballing. Counting of 2 x 500 lymphoma cells is the gold standard to assess the Ki-67 index since this value.......37 for two methods of digital image analysis, respectively). Counting a reduced number of lymphoma cells (2 x 100 cells) showed high interobserver agreement (CCC = 0.74). Pitfalls of the Ki-67 index are discussed and guidelines and recommendations for assessing the Ki-67 index in MCL are given Udgivelsesdato......Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course and is mainly an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, there are some indolent cases The Ki-67 index, defined by the percentage of Ki-67-positive lymphoma cells on histopathological slides, has been shown to be a very...

  2. Liver Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GGT) – another enzyme found mainly in liver cells Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) – an enzyme released with cell damage; found ... and with conditions, such as congestive heart failure . Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) This is a non-specific marker of ...

  3. Loss of wild-type ATRX expression in somatic cell hybrids segregates with activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kylie; Napier, Christine E; Cole, Sara L; Dagg, Rebecca A; Lau, Loretta M S; Duncan, Emma L; Moy, Elsa L; Reddel, Roger R

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is a non-telomerase mechanism of telomere lengthening that occurs in about 10% of cancers overall and is particularly common in astrocytic brain tumors and specific types of sarcomas. Somatic cell hybridization analyses have previously shown that normal telomerase-negative fibroblasts and telomerase-positive immortalized cell lines contain repressors of ALT activity, indicating that activation of ALT results from loss of one or more unidentified repressors. More recently, ATRX or DAXX was shown to be mutated both in tumors with telomere lengths suggestive of ALT activity and in ALT cell lines. Here, an ALT cell line was separately fused to each of four telomerase-positive cell lines, and four or five independent hybrid lines from each fusion were examined for expression of ATRX and DAXX and for telomere lengthening mechanism. The hybrid lines expressed either telomerase or ALT, with the other mechanism being repressed. DAXX was expressed normally in all parental cell lines and in all of the hybrids. ATRX was expressed normally in each of the four telomerase-positive parental cell lines and in every telomerase-positive hybrid line, and was abnormal in the ALT parental cells and in all but one of the ALT hybrids. This correlation between ALT activity and loss of ATRX expression is consistent with ATRX being a repressor of ALT.

  4. Loss of wild-type ATRX expression in somatic cell hybrids segregates with activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Bower

    Full Text Available Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT is a non-telomerase mechanism of telomere lengthening that occurs in about 10% of cancers overall and is particularly common in astrocytic brain tumors and specific types of sarcomas. Somatic cell hybridization analyses have previously shown that normal telomerase-negative fibroblasts and telomerase-positive immortalized cell lines contain repressors of ALT activity, indicating that activation of ALT results from loss of one or more unidentified repressors. More recently, ATRX or DAXX was shown to be mutated both in tumors with telomere lengths suggestive of ALT activity and in ALT cell lines. Here, an ALT cell line was separately fused to each of four telomerase-positive cell lines, and four or five independent hybrid lines from each fusion were examined for expression of ATRX and DAXX and for telomere lengthening mechanism. The hybrid lines expressed either telomerase or ALT, with the other mechanism being repressed. DAXX was expressed normally in all parental cell lines and in all of the hybrids. ATRX was expressed normally in each of the four telomerase-positive parental cell lines and in every telomerase-positive hybrid line, and was abnormal in the ALT parental cells and in all but one of the ALT hybrids. This correlation between ALT activity and loss of ATRX expression is consistent with ATRX being a repressor of ALT.

  5. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Mairani, Andrea; Seidel, Philipp; Krunic, Damir; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Greilich, Steffen; Abdollahi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for the assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Toward further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD) was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the fluorescent nuclear track detector as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated with radiation-induced foci as surrogates for DNA double-strand breaks, the hallmark of radiation-induced cell lethality. Long-term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD. PMID:26697410

  6. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eDokic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Towards further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation- induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the FNTD as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated to radiation induced foci as surrogates for DNA double strand breakages (DSB, the hallmark of radiation ‐induced cell lethality. Long‐term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD.

  7. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Design, Modeling and Energy Management of a PEM Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahib Andari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the study and the modeling of hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM Fuel Cell electric vehicle. In fact, the paper deals with the model description of the powertrain which includes two energy sources: a PEM Fuel Cell as a primary source and a supercapacitor as a secondary source. The architecture is two degrees of freedom permitting a stability of the DC bus voltage. The hybridation of primary source with an energy storage system can improve vehicle dynamic response during transients and hydrogen consumption. The proposed energy management algorithm allows us to have a minimum hydrogen consumption. This algorithm is based on supercapacitor state of charge (SOC control and acceleration/deceleration phases making possible braking energy recovery. The proposed model is simulated and tested using Matlab/Simulink software allowing rapid transitions between sources. The obtained results with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC cycle demonstrate a 22% gain in hydrogen consumption.

  9. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  10. Array comparative genomic hybridization of keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Kai; Gao, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a benign keratinocytic neoplasm that spontaneously regresses after 3-6 months and shares features with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Furthermore, there are reports of KAs that have metastasized, invoking the question of whether KA is a variant of SCC (Hodak et al., 1993......). To date, no reported criteria are sensitive enough to discriminate reliably between KA and SCC, and consequently there is a clinical need for discriminating markers. Our previous study analyzed 132 KAs and 29 SCCs and revealed significantly different regions of genomic aberrations using chromosomal...

  11. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells and their reaction mechanisms - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    with carbon capture and storage (CCS) due to the high purity of CO2 emitted in the exhaust gas. Direct carbon (or coal) fuel cells (DCFCs) are directly fed with solid carbon to the anode chamber. The fuel cell converts the carbon at the anode and the oxygen at the cathode into electricity, heat and reaction...... is discussed on the fuel cell stack and system levels. The range of DCFC types can be roughly broken down into four fuel cell types: aqueous hydroxide, molten hydroxide, molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the electrochemical reactions occurring at the anode and the proposed...... mechanism(s) of these reactions for molten carbonate, solid oxide and hybrid direct carbon fuel cells. Additionally, the criteria of choosing the ‘best’ DCFC technology is explored, including system design (continuous supply of solid fuel), performance (power density, efficiency), environmental burden...

  12. Control strategy of fuel cell/supercapacitors hybrid power sources for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Raeel, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), GREEN, CNRS (UMR 7037) 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-07-14

    This paper presents a control principle for utilizing PEM fuel cell as main power source and supercapacitors as auxiliary power source for electric vehicle applications. The strategy is based on dc link voltage regulation, and fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to minimize the mechanical stresses of fuel cell and to ensure a good synchronization between fuel flow and fuel cell current. Supercapacitors are functioning during transient energy delivery or transient energy recovery. To authenticate control algorithms, the system structure is realized by analogical current loops and digital voltage loops (dSPACE). The experimental results with a 500W PEM fuel cell point out the fuel cell starvation problem when operating with dynamic load, and also confirm that the supercapacitor can improve system performance for hybrid power sources. (author)

  13. More stable hybrid organic solar cells deposited on amorphous Si electron transfer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiee, Mehran; Modtland, Brian; Dalal, Vikram L., E-mail: vdalal@iastate.edu [Iowa State University, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Aidarkhanov, Damir [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2014-05-26

    We report on defect densities, performance, and stability of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells produced using n-doped inorganic amorphous silicon-carbide layers as the electron transport layer (ETL). The organic material was poly-3-hexyl-thiophene (P3HT) and heterojunction was formed using phenyl-C{sub 71}-Butyric-Acid-Methyl Ester (PCBM). For comparison, inverted solar cells fabricated using Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as ETL were fabricated. Defect densities and subgap quantum efficiency curves were found to be nearly identical for both types of cells. The cells were subjected to 2xsun illumination and it was found that the cells produced using doped a-Si as ETL were much more stable than the cells produced using Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  14. Th2/1 Hybrid Cells Occurring in Murine and Human Strongyloidiasis Share Effector Functions of Th1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin N. Bock

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections by the soil-transmitted threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis affect 30–100 million people worldwide, predominantly in tropic and sub-tropic regions. Here we assessed the T helper cell phenotypes in threadworm-infected patients and experimental murine infections with focus on CD4+ T cells co-expressing markers of Th2 and Th1 differentiation. We show that mice infected with the close relative S. ratti generate strong Th2 responses characterized by the expansion of CD4+ GATA-3+ cells expressing IL-4/-5/-13 in blood, spleen, gut-draining lymph nodes, lung and gut tissue. In addition to conventional Th2 cells, significantly increased frequencies of GATA-3+T-bet+ Th2/1-hybrid cells were detected in all organs and co-expressed Th2- and Th1-cytokines at intermediate levels. Assessing the phenotype of blood-derived CD4+ T cells from South Indian patients infected with S. stercoralis and local uninfected control donors we found that GATA-3 expressing Th2 cells were significantly increased in the patient cohort, coinciding with elevated eosinophil and IgE/IgG4 levels. A fraction of IL-4+CD4+ T cells simultaneously expressed IFN-γ hence displaying a Th2/1 hybrid phenotype. In accordance with murine Th2/1 cells, human Th2/1 cells expressed intermediate levels of Th2 cytokines. Contrasting their murine counterparts, human Th2/1 hybrids were marked by high levels of IFN-γ and rather low GATA-3 expression. Assessing the effector function of murine Th2/1 cells in vitro we found that Th2/1 cells were qualified for driving the classical activation of macrophages. Furthermore, Th2/1 cells shared innate, cytokine-driven effector functions with Th1 cells. Hence, the key findings of our study are that T helper cells with combined characteristics of Th2 and Th1 cells are integral to immune responses of helminth-infected mice, but also occur in helminth-infected humans and we suggest that Th2/1 cells are poised for the instruction of balanced immune

  15. Genetic stability of murine pluripotent and somatic hybrid cells may be affected by conditions of their cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovna, Shramova Elena; Alekseevich, Larionov Oleg; Mikhailovich, Khodarovich Yurii; Vladimirovna, Zatsepina Olga

    2011-01-01

    Using mouse pluripotent teratocarcinoma PCC4azal cells and proliferating spleen lymphocytes we obtained a new type of hybrids, in which marker lymphocyte genes were suppressed, but expression the Oct-4 gene was not effected; the hybrid cells were able to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. In order to specify the environmental factors which may affect the genetic stability and other hybrid properties, we analyzed the total chromosome number and differentiation potencies of hybrids respectively to conditions of their cultivation. Particular attention was paid to the number and transcription activity of chromosomal nucleolus organizing regions (NORs), which harbor the most actively transcribed - ribosomal - genes. The results showed that the hybrids obtained are characterized by a relatively stable chromosome number which diminished less than in 5% during 27 passages. However, a long-term cultivation of hybrid cells in non-selective conditions resulted in preferential elimination of some NO- chromosomes, whereas the number of active NORs per cell was increased due to activation of latent NORs. On the contrary, in selective conditions, i.e. in the presence of hypoxantine, aminopterin and thymidine, the total number of NOR-bearing chromosomes was not changed, but a partial inactivation of remaining NORs was observed. The higher number of active NORs directly correlated with the capability of hybrid cells for differentiation to cardiomyocytes.

  16. High Antioxidant Activity Facilitates Maintenance of Cell Division in Leaves of Drought Tolerant Maize Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramova, Viktoriya; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Vasileva, Ivanina; Petrova, Alexandra S.; Holek, Anna; Mariën, Joachim; Asard, Han; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the impact of drought on growth regulation in leaves of 13 maize varieties with different drought sensitivity and geographic origins (Western Europe, Egypt, South Africa) and the inbred line B73. Combining kinematic analysis of the maize leaf growth zone with biochemical measurements at a high spatial resolution allowed us to examine the correlation between the regulation of the cellular processes cell division and elongation, and the molecular redox-regulation in response to drought. Moreover, we demonstrated differences in the response of the maize lines to mild and severe levels of water deficit. Kinematic analysis indicated that drought tolerant lines experienced less impact on leaf elongation rate due to a smaller reduction of cell production, which, in turn, was due to a smaller decrease of meristem size and number of cells in the leaf meristem. Clear differences in growth responses between the groups of lines with different geographic origin were observed in response to drought. The difference in drought tolerance between the Egyptian hybrids was significantly larger than between the European and South-African hybrids. Through biochemical analyses, we investigated whether antioxidant activity in the growth zone, contributes to the drought sensitivity differences. We used a hierarchical clustering to visualize the patterns of lipid peroxidation, H2O2 and antioxidant concentrations, and enzyme activities throughout the growth zone, in response to stress. The results showed that the lines with different geographic region used different molecular strategies to cope with the stress, with the Egyptian hybrids responding more at the metabolite level and African and the European hybrids at the enzyme level. However, drought tolerance correlated with both, higher antioxidant levels throughout the growth zone and higher activities of the redox-regulating enzymes CAT, POX, APX, and GR specifically in leaf meristems. These findings provide evidence for a link

  17. System Study on Hydrothermal Gasification Combined with a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Toonssen, Richard; Aravind, P.V.; Smit, Gerton; Woudstra, Nico; Verkooijen, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The application of wet biomass in energy conversion systems is challenging, since in most conventional systems the biomass has to be dried. Drying can be very energy intensive especially when the biomass has a moisture content above 50 wt% on a wet basis. The combination of hydrothermal biomass gasification and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) gas turbine (GT) hybrid system could be an efficient way to convert very wet biomass into electricity. Therefore, thermodynamic evalu...

  18. Scan rate effect of titania for hybrid solar cell applications: Structural and electrical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamsan, Muhammad Emmer Ashraf; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Ahmad, Zakiyah; Aziz, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    The AIP In this research, hybrid solar cell are produce by a combination of organic (Areca Catechu) extraction and Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and inorganic Titanium Dioxide, TiO2 materials. These hybrid solar cells are fabricated accordingly by layered of ITO/TiO2/P3HT/Areca Catechu/Au by using electrochemical method. The deposition of each layered by EIS was different by varied the scan rate of TiO2 deposition which are 0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.11 vs-1 whereas the number of scans of each layers are fixed to 5 numbers of scans. Nanocrystals TiO2 (anatase structured) was prepared by dissolving the TiO2 nanoparticles with acetic acid which acts as capping agent in order to gain TiO2 nanostructures with better-controlled size and shape. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images indicates that the TiO2 nanoparticles size was found to be around 15-34 nm. The XRD patterns indicate that the TiO2 film was highly crystalline and the anatase structure of TiO2 remains unchanged after annealed process took place at 450 °C. Sheet resistivity of the ITO/TiO2/P3HT/Areca Catechu/Au hybrid solar cell are measured in the dark and under different light intensity by using four point probes and power conversion efficiency are measured by using two point probes. In conclusion, the ITO/TiO2/P3HT/Areca Catechu/Au hybrid solar cell with 0.07 v s-1 scan rate produced the highest electrical conductivity and efficiency with 0.278 Scm-1 and 0.021 % respectively.

  19. Facile preparation of smooth perovskite films for efficient meso/planar hybrid structured perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Hua; Yun, Jung-Ho; Lyu, Miaoqiang; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-06-21

    Smooth organolead halide perovskite films for meso/planar hybrid structured perovskite solar cells were prepared by a simple compressed air blow-drying method under ambient conditions. The resultant perovskite films show high surface coverage, leading to a device power conversion efficiency of over 10% with an open circuit voltage up to 1.003 V merely using pristine poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a hole transporter.

  20. Hybrid T-helper cells: stabilizing the moderate center in a polarized system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Huang

    Full Text Available Polarization of cell phenotypes, a common strategy to achieve cell type diversity in metazoa, results from binary cell-fate decisions in the branching pedigree of development. Such "either-or" fate decisions are controlled by two opposing cell fate-determining transcription factors. Each of the two distinct "master regulators" promotes differentiation of its respective sister lineage. But they also suppress one other, leading to their mutually exclusive expression in the two ensuing lineages. Thus, promiscuous coexistence of the antagonist regulators in the same cell, the hallmark of the common "undecided" progenitor of two sister lineages, is considered unstable. This antagonism ensures robust polarization into two discretely distinct cell types. But now the immune system's T-helper (Th cells and their two canonical subtypes, Th1 and Th2 cells, tell a different story, as revealed in three papers recently published in PLOS Biology. The intermediate state that co-expresses the two opposing master regulators of the Th1 and Th2 subtypes, T-bet and Gata3, is highly stable and is not necessarily an undecided precursor. Instead, the Th1/Th2 hybrid cell is a robust new type with properties of both Th1 and Th2 cells. These hybrid cells are functionally active and possess the benefit of moderation: self-limitation of effector T cell function to prevent excessive inflammation, a permanent risk in host defense that can cause tissue damage or autoimmunity. Gene regulatory network analysis suggests that stabilization of the intermediate center in a polarizing system can be achieved by minor tweaking of the architecture of the mutual suppression gene circuit, and thus is a design option readily available to evolution.

  1. Exergy and economic comparison between kW-scale hybrid and stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Michael M.; Collinge, William O.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Schaefer, Laura A.

    2017-06-01

    Although hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) microturbine systems generate power more efficiently than stand-alone SOFC systems, hybrid systems remain in the demonstration phase. This study compares a hybrid system's exergetic and economic performance with that of a stand-alone system. Both systems meet a university building's kW-scale power demand. The hybrid system operates at 66% exergetic efficiency, and the stand-alone system operates at 59% exergetic efficiency. Increasing the fuel cell's operating voltage increases the systems' exergetic efficiencies, and varying the fuel cell's temperature, pressure, and fuel utilization influences the systems' exergetic performances, though to a lesser extent. This study calculates the systems' life cycle costs. We find that the systems' life cycle costs depend significantly on the systems' operation. During baseline operation, the hybrid system costs less than the stand-alone system. After optimizing the systems during cogeneration operation, the hybrid system costs slightly more than the stand-alone system. Overall, our findings support hybrid systems' continued research and development; it is recommended that future work simulate hybrid and stand-alone systems under a range of thermal-to-electric ratios to reflect different building types and operation.

  2. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  3. Direct X-ray detection with hybrid solar cells based on organolead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Hardeep Singh; Elshahat, Bassem; Sajo, Erno; Kumar, Jayant; Kokil, Akshay; Zygmanski, Piotr; Li, Lian; Mosurkal, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials are attracting considerable interest due to their exceptional opto-electronic properties, such as, high charge carrier mobilities, high exciton diffusion length, high extinction coefficients and broad-band absorption. These interesting properties have enabled their application in high performance hybrid photovoltaic devices. The high Z value of their constituents also makes these materials efficient for absorbing X-rays. Here we will present on the efficient use of hybrid solar cells based on organolead perovskite materials as X-ray detectors. Hybrid solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3 were fabricated using facile processing techniques on patterned indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The solar cells typically had a planar configuration of ITO/CH3NH3PbI3/P3HT/Ag. High sensitivity for X-rays due to high Z value, larger carrier mobility and better charge collection was observed. Detecting X-rays with energies relevant to medical oncology applications opens up the potential for diagnostic imaging applications.

  4. Photothermally Activated Pyroelectric Polymer Films for Harvesting of Solar Heat with a Hybrid Energy Cell Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Teahoon; Na, Jongbeom; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-12-22

    Photothermal effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s (PEDOTs) were explored for pyroelectric conversion. A poled ferroelectric film was coated on both sides with PEDOT via solution casting polymerization of EDOT, to give highly conductive and effective photothermal thin films of PEDOT. The PEDOT films not only provided heat source upon light exposure but worked as electrodes for the output energy from the pyroelectric layer in an energy harvester hybridized with a thermoelectric layer. Compared to a bare thermoelectric system under NIR irradiation, the photothermal-pyro-thermoelectric device showed more than 6 times higher thermoelectric output with the additional pyroelectric output. The photothermally driven pyroelectric harvesting film provided a very fast electric output with a high voltage output (Vout) of 15 V. The pyroelectric effect was significant due to the transparent and high photothermal PEDOT film, which could also work as an electrode. A hybrid energy harvester was assembled to enhance photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of a solar cell with a thermoelectric device operated by the photothermally generated heat. The PCE was increased more than 20% under sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G) utilizing the transmitted light through the photovoltaic cell as a heat source that was converted into pyroelectric and thermoelectric output simultaneously from the high photothermal PEDOT electrodes. Overall, this work provides a dynamic and static hybrid energy cell to harvest solar energy in full spectral range and thermal energy, to allow solar powered switching of an electrochromic display.

  5. MODELING, SIMULATON AND SIZING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC/WIND/FUEL CELL HYBRID GENERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.LATHA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern towards global warming have created the need to surge for the alternative power generation options. Renewable energy sources like Wind, Solar-PV, Biomass and fuel cells are gaining prominence nowadays, as they are more energy efficient, reduce pollution and also they serveas a promising solution to the toughest energy crisis faced during the recent years. This paper focuses on the modeling and simulation of solar – photovoltaic, wind and fuel cell hybrid energy systems using MATLAB/Simulink software. The intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources make them unreliable. Hence Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT is used to extract maximum power from the wind and sunwhen it is available. The standard perturb and observe method of MPPT is used for the PV system and for the wind generation system. The simulation results of the PV/Wind /Fuel cell hybrid system are presented in graph showing the effectiveness of the proposed system model. Also, hardware implementation of microcontroller based MPPT for solar-PV alone and unit sizing of the hybrid system for the PG simulation lab in EEE Dept. of Thiagarajar College of Engineering is depicted in the paper.

  6. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  7. Analysis of the PEDOT:PSS/Si nanowire hybrid solar cell with a tail state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kuan-Ying; Li, Chi-Kang; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lai, Yi; Lin, Ching-Fuh; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the electrical properties of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cell have been analyzed and an optimized structure is proposed. In addition, the planar PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell is also modeled for comparison. We first developed a simulation software which is capable of modeling organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by including Gaussian shape density of states into Poisson and drift-diffusion solver to present the tail states and trap states in the organic material. Therefore, the model can handle carrier transport, generation, and recombination in both organic and inorganic materials. Our results show that at the applied voltage near open-circuit voltage (Voc), the recombination rate becomes much higher at the PEDOT:PSS/Si interface region, which limits the fill factor and Voc. Hence, a modified structure with a p-type amorphous silicon (a-Si) layer attached on the interface of Si layer and an n+-type Si layer inserted near the bottom contact are proposed. The highest conversion efficiency of 16.10% can be achieved if both structures are applied.

  8. Fuel-Cell Electrolytes Based on Organosilica Hybrid Proton Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.

    2008-01-01

    A new membrane composite material that combines an organosilica proton conductor with perfluorinated Nafion material to achieve good proton conductivity and high-temperature performance for membranes used for fuel cells in stationary, transportation, and portable applications has been developed. To achieve high proton conductivities of the order of 10(exp -1)S/cm over a wide range of temperatures, a composite membrane based on a new class of mesoporous, proton-conducting, hydrogen-bonded organosilica, used with Nafion, will allow for water retention and high proton conductivity over a wider range of temperatures than currently offered by Nafion alone. At the time of this reporting, this innovation is at the concept level. Some of the materials and processes investigated have shown good proton conductivity, but membranes have not yet been prepared and demonstrated.

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  10. Novel Hybrid Ligands for Passivating PbS Colloidal Quantum Dots to Enhance the Performance of Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Yuehua; Zhao, Baofeng; Gao, Yuping; Liu, Han; Tian, Yiyao; Qin, Donghuan; Wu, Hongbin; Huang, Wenbo; Hou, Lintao

    2015-01-01

    We developed novel hybrid ligands to passivate PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), and two kinds of solar cells based on as-synthesized CQDs were fabricated to verify the passivation effects of the ligands...

  11. Compressive Properties of Open-Cell Al Hybrid Foams at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Ni/Al foams were fabricated by depositing electroless Ni–P (EN coatings on open-cell Al foam substrate to obtain enhanced mechanical properties. The microstructure, chemical components and phases of the hybrid foams were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The mechanical properties of the foams were studied by compressive tests at different temperatures. The experiment results show that the coating is mainly composed of Ni and P elements. There was neither defect at the interface nor crack in the coatings, indicating that the EN coatings had fine adhesion to the Al substrate. The compressive strengths and energy absorption capacities of the as-received foam and hybrid foams decrease with the increasing testing temperatures, but the hybrid foams exhibit a lower decrement rate than the as-received foam. This might be attributed to the different failure mechanisms at different testing temperatures, which is conformed by fractography observation.

  12. Multi-objective optimization for hybrid fuel cells power system under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.; Goyal, Amit

    One of the major applications of fuel cells is as onsite stationary electric power plants. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine a fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. Generally, the heat rejected by the fuel cell at a higher temperature is used in a bottoming cycle to generate steam. In this work we are considering a conceptual design of a solid oxide fuel cell-proton exchange membrane (SOFC-PEM) fuel cell hybrid power plant [R. Geisbrecht, Compact Electrochemical Reformer Based on SOFC Technology, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2000] in which the high temperature SOFC fuel cell acts both as electricity producer and fuel reformer for the low temperature PEM fuel cell (PEMFC). The exhaust from the PEM fuel cell goes to a waste hydrogen burner and heat recovery steam generator that produces steam for further utilizations. Optimizing this conceptual design involves consideration of a number of objectives. The process should have low pollutant emissions as well as cost competitive with the existing technology. The solution of a multi-objective optimization problem is not a single solution but a complete non-dominated or Pareto set, which includes the alternatives representing potential compromise solutions among the objectives. This makes a range of choice available to decision makers and provides them with the trade-off information among the multiple objectives effectively. This paper presents the optimal trade-off design solutions or the Pareto set for this hybrid power plant through a multi-objective optimization framework. This hybrid technology is new and the system level models used for fuel cells performance have significant uncertainties in them. In this paper, we characterize these uncertainties and study the effect of these uncertainties

  13. In vitro and in vivo study of pluripotency in intraspecific hybrid cells obtained by fusion of murine embryonic stem cells with splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N M; Shilov, A G; Kaftanovskaya, E M; Maximovsky, L P; Zhelezova, A I; Golubitsa, A N; Bayborodin, S I; Fokina, M M; Serov, O L

    1998-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient (HPRT-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, HM-1 cells (genotype XY), were fused with adult female DD/c mouse spleen cells. As a result, a set of HAT-resistant clones was isolated. Four hybrid clones most similar in morphology and growth characteristics to the HM-1 cells were studied in detail with respect to their pluripotency. Of these, three clones contained 41-43 chromosomes, and one clone was nearly tetraploid. All the clones had the XXY set of sex chromosomes and expressed the HPRT of the somatic partner only. The hybrid clones shared features with the HM-1 cells, indicating that they retained their pluripotent properties: (1) embryonic ECMA-7 antigen, not TROMA-1 antigen, was present in most cells; (2) the hybrid cells showed high activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase (AP); (3) all the hybrid clones were able to form complex embryoid bodies containing derivatives of all the embryonic germinal layers; (4) the hybrid cells contained synchronously replicating X chromosomes, indicating that they were in an active state; and (5) a set of chimeric animals was generated by injecting hybrid cells into BALB/c and C57BL/6J mouse blastocysts. Evidence for chimerism was provided by the spotted coat derived from 129/Ola mice and identification of 129/Ola glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in many organs. Thus the results obtained demonstrated that the hybrid cells retain their high pluripotency level despite the close contact of the "pluripotent" HM-1 genome with the "somatic" spleen cell genome during hybrid cell formation and the presence of the "somatic" X chromosome during many cell generations. The presence of HPRT of the somatic partner in many organs and tissues, including the testes in chimeric animals, shows that the "somatic" X chromosome segregates weakly, if at all, during development of the chimeras. There were no individuals with the 129/Ola genotype among the more than 50 offspring from chimeric mice. The

  14. Triboelectric-pyroelectric-piezoelectric hybrid cell for high-efficiency energy-harvesting and self-powered sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Lin, Long; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Chen, Jun; Fan, Xing; Yang, Po-Kang; Yi, Fang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-08

    A triboelectric-pyroelectric-piezoelectric hybrid cell, consisting of a triboelectric nanogenerator and a pyroelectric-piezoelectric nanogenerator, is developed for highly efficient mechanical energy harvesting through multiple mechanisms. The excellent performance of the hybrid cell enhances the energy-harvesting efficiency significantly (by 26.2% at 1 kΩ load resistance), and enables self-powered sensing, which will lead to a variety of advanced applications.

  15. Optimum design of composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module. Absorbing effect of cooling panel; Hikari netsu fukugo panel no saiteki sekkei. Reikyaku panel no kyunetsu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Kikuchi, S.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K.; Imaizumi, H. [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module becomes higher in energy-saving than the conventional air-conditioning system by the independent radiational heating and cooling effect obtained when the generating panel using a solar cell module is combined with the heating and cooling panel using a thermo-element module. The output of a solar cell module can be directly used because the solar cell module operates in AC. This paper reports the relation between the absorbed value and power consumption of the cooling panel, while paying attention to the cooling panel. The performance coefficient of the maximum absorbed value from an non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 2 to 3. Assume that the cooling panel during non-adiabatic operation is operated using a solar cell module of 800 W/m{sup 2} in solar intensity and 15% in conversion efficiency. The cooling-surface temperature difference is 12.12 K, and the maximum absorbed value of a non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 39.12 W/m{sup 2}. The absorbed value of the outer temperature to the cooling panel is 74.4 W/m{sup 2}, and each performance coefficient is 3.26 and 0.62. The absorbed value must be calculated for evaluation from the cooling-surface temperature difference measured directly from the cooling panel. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. High Efficiency Organic/Silicon-Nanowire Hybrid Solar Cells: Significance of Strong Inversion Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuegong; Shen, Xinlei; Mu, Xinhui; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Baoquan; Zeng, Lingsheng; Yang, Lifei; Wu, Yichao; He, Hang; Yang, Deren

    2015-11-01

    Organic/silicon nanowires (SiNWs) hybrid solar cells have recently been recognized as one of potentially low-cost candidates for photovoltaic application. Here, we have controllably prepared a series of uniform silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with various diameters on silicon substrate by metal-assisted chemical etching followed by thermal oxidization, and then fabricated the organic/SiNWs hybrid solar cells with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). It is found that the reflective index of SiNWs layer for sunlight depends on the filling ratio of SiNWs. Compared to the SiNWs with the lowest reflectivity (LR-SiNWs), the solar cell based on the SiNWs with low filling ratio (LF-SiNWs) has a higher open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The capacitance-voltage measurements have clarified that the built-in potential barrier at the LF-SiNWs/PEDOT:PSS interface is much larger than that at the LR-SiNWs/PEDOT one, which yields a strong inversion layer generating near the silicon surface. The formation of inversion layer can effectively suppress the carrier recombination, reducing the leakage current of solar cell, and meanwhile transfer the LF-SiNWs/PEDOT:PSS device into a p-n junction. As a result, a highest efficiency of 13.11% is achieved for the LF-SiNWs/PEDOT:PSS solar cell. These results pave a way to the fabrication of high efficiency organic/SiNWs hybrid solar cells.

  17. A ZnO nanowire bio-hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Houman; Schaefer, Michael; Yaghoubi, Shayan; Jun, Daniel; Schlaf, Rudy; Beatty, J. Thomas; Takshi, Arash

    2017-02-01

    Harvesting solar energy as a carbon free source can be a promising solution to the energy crisis and environmental pollution. Biophotovoltaics seek to mimic photosynthesis to harvest solar energy and to take advantage of the low material costs, negative carbon footprint, and material abundance. In the current study, we report on a combination of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with monolayers of photosynthetic reaction centers which are self-assembled, via a cytochrome c linker, as photoactive electrode. In a three-probe biophotovoltaics cell, a photocurrent density of 5.5 μA cm-2 and photovoltage of 36 mV was achieved, using methyl viologen as a redox mediator in the electrolyte. Using ferrocene as a redox mediator a transient photocurrent density of 8.0 μA cm-2 was obtained, which stabilized at 6.4 μA cm-2 after 20 s. In-depth electronic structure characterization using photoemission spectroscopy in conjunction with electrochemical analysis suggests that the fabricated photoactive electrode can provide a proper electronic path for electron transport all the way from the conduction band of the ZnO nanowires, through the protein linker to the RC, and ultimately via redox mediator to the counter electrode.

  18. Dual-energy X-ray micro-CT imaging of hybrid Ni/Al open-cell foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fíla, T.; Kumpová, I.; Koudelka, P.; Zlámal, P.; Vavřík, D.; Jiroušek, O.; Jung, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we employ dual-energy X-ray microfocus tomography (DECT) measurement to develop high-resolution finite element (FE) models that can be used for the numerical assessment of the deformation behaviour of hybrid Ni/Al foam subjected to both quasi-static and dynamic compressive loading. Cubic samples of hybrid Ni/Al open-cell foam with an edge length of [15]mm were investigated by the DECT measurement. The material was prepared using AlSi7Mg0.3 aluminium foam with a mean pore size of [0.85]mm, coated with nanocrystalline nickel (crystallite size of approx. [50]nm) to form a surface layer with a theoretical thickness of [0.075]mm. CT imaging was carried out using state-of-the-art DSCT/DECT X-ray scanner developed at Centre of Excellence Telč. The device consists of a modular orthogonal assembly of two tube-detector imaging pairs, with an independent geometry setting and shared rotational stage mounted on a complex 16-axis CNC positioning system to enable unprecedented measurement variability for highly-detailed tomographical measurements. A sample of the metal foam was simultaneously irradiated using an XWT-240-SE reflection type X-ray tube and an XWT-160-TCHR transmission type X-ray tube. An enhanced dual-source sampling strategy was used for data acquisition. X-ray images were taken using XRD1622 large area GOS scintillator flat panel detectors with an active area of [410 × 410]mm and resolution [2048 × 2048]pixels. Tomographic scanning was performed in 1,200 projections with a 0.3 degree angular step to improve the accuracy of the generated models due to the very complex microstructure and high attenuation of the investigated material. Reconstructed data was processed using a dual-energy algorithm, and was used for the development of a 3D model and voxel model of the foam. The selected parameters of the models were compared with nominal parameters of the actual foam and showed good correlation.

  19. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH in buccal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cortés-Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91. In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  20. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) in buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J

    2012-12-28

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91). In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  1. Hybrid solar cells with prescribed nanoscale morphologies based on hyperbranched semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, Antonios G; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate three-dimensional hyperbranched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  2. Turbomachinery for the air management and energy recovery in fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, A.; Magistri, L.; Massardo, A.F. [DIMSET (TPG), University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    High temperature fuel cells (MCFCs and SOFCs) can operate at atmospheric or pressurised conditions. In both cases, system performance can be significantly improved when the fuel cells are integrated with proper devices, which are designed to provide the necessary air inlet conditions and to recover the exhaust gas energy. This paper presents a review of modelling and design issues for the integration of turbomachinery with the fuel cell system, because turbomachinery is the most promising technology for coping with the high temperature fuel cell requirements. Since the gas turbine expander performance is significantly influenced by exhausts compositions, analytical approach is undertaken for properly modelling composition influence on expander performance, and results are presented to demonstrate the quantitative influence of the system parameters on the performance. The analysis covers the three main aspects of performance evaluation: the on-design, the off-design and, as a final mention, the control of the fuel cell hybrid systems. (author)

  3. Performance evaluation and parametric optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Chen, J. [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-06-15

    With the help of the current models of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and three-heat-source heat pumps, a generic model of a PEM fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system is established, so that the waste heat produced in the PEM fuel cell may be availably utilized. Based on the theory of electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, expressions for the efficiency and power output of the PEM fuel cell, the coefficient of performance and rate of pumping heat of the heat-driven heat pump, and the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived. The curves of the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system varying with the electric current density and the equivalent power output versus efficiency curves are represented through numerical calculation. The general performance characteristics of the hybrid system are analyzed. The optimally operating regions of some important parameters of the hybrid system are determined. The influence of some main irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system is discussed in detail. The advantages of the hybrid system are revealed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P;

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta-r...... role for the repair of radiation induced DNA damage in SCLC....

  5. Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells for enhanced conversion efficiency in UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlugun, Evren; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2008-03-17

    We propose and demonstrate semiconductor nanocrystal based photovoltaic scintillators integrated on solar cells to enhance photovoltaic device parameters including spectral responsivity, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, and solar conversion efficiency in the ultraviolet. Hybridizing (CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots of 2.4 nm in diameter on multi-crystalline Si solar cells for the first time, we show that the solar conversion efficiency is enhanced 2 folds under white light illumination similar to the solar spectrum. Such nanocrystal scintillators provide the ability to extend the photovoltaic activity towards UV.

  6. Effect of surgical wound fluids after intraoperative electron radiotherapy on the cancer stem cell phenotype in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, Karolina; Suchorska, Wiktoria Maria; Przybyła, Anna; Murawa, Dawid

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process after surgery alters the area surrounding the original tumor and around the scar, and the modified microenvironment is more favorable for tumor recurrence. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is one of the more novel strategies in breast cancer (BC) treatment. Irradiation during surgery has effects on the tumor microenvironment, abrogating the proliferative cascade induced by surgical wound healing. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of surgical wound fluids from IOERT treatment (RT-WF) compared with wound fluids from conservative-breast surgery only (WF) on the cancer stem cell phenotype in a panel of BC cell lines. Post-operative wound fluids were derived from patients with BC who underwent a tumor resection (quadrantectomy) plus intraoperative electron radiotherapy using a single dose of ≤10 Gy on the tumor bed and surrounding tissues, or from those who underwent a tumor resection without IOERT. Cell lines were incubated with 10% wound fluids, and after 4 days, the cluster of differentiation (CD)44+/CD24−/low phenotype and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity were determined by flow cytometry. The two types of fluid each affected the CD44+/CD24−/low phenotype. The results varied markedly between each cell line, even for the same histological subtypes. RT-WF decreased the CD44+/CD24−/low populations in the basal-like BT-549 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines, whereas in the luminal type MCF7 cell line, the two fluids inhibited these populations. The HER-OE subtypes harbored a minimal CD44+/CD24−/low population, but the growth of SK-BR-3 was stimulated by the two post-operative fluids. WF exhibited a stronger effect on ALDH1 activity compared with RT-WF. The stimulatory effect was dependent on the histological subtype of the cell line and the strongest dependence was observed in luminal subtypes characterized by low dehydrogenase activity in the control group. The present results enable a better understanding of

  7. Fusion of protoplasts with irradiated micro protoplasts as a tool for radiation hybrid panel in citrus;Fusao de protoplastos com microprotoplastos irradiados como ferramenta para painel hibrido de radiacao em citros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, Claudine Maria de, E-mail: debona@iapar.b [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Administrativo do Governo do Estado; Stelly, David, E-mail: stelly@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University (Tamu), College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Miller Junior, J. Creighton, E-mail: jcmillerjr@tamu.ed [Texas A and M University (Tamu), College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Sciences; Louzada, Eliezer Silva, E-mail: elouzada@ag.tamu.ed [Texas A and M University, (Tamuk), Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to combine asymmetric somatic hybridization (donor-recipient fusion or gamma fusion) to microprotoplast-mediated chromosome transfer, as a tool to be used for chromosome mapping in Citrus. Swinglea glutinosa micro protoplasts were irradiated either with 50, 70, 100 or 200 gamma rays and fused to cv. Ruby Red grapefruit or Murcott tangor protoplasts. Cell colonies were successfully formed and AFLP analyses confirmed presence of S. glutinosa in both 'Murcott' tangor and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit genomes. (author)

  8. Low and High Frequency Models of Response Statistics of a Cylindrical Orthogrid Vehicle Panel to Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David; Gardner, Bryce; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This presentation further develops the orthogrid vehicle panel work. Employed Hybrid Module capabilities to assess both low/mid frequency and high frequency models in the VA One simulation environment. The response estimates from three modeling approaches are compared to ground test measurements. Detailed Finite Element Model of the Test Article -Expect to capture both the global panel modes and the local pocket mode response, but at a considerable analysis expense (time & resources). A Composite Layered Construction equivalent global stiffness approximation using SEA -Expect to capture response of the global panel modes only. An SEA approximation using the Periodic Subsystem Formulation. A finite element model of a single periodic cell is used to derive the vibroacoustic properties of the entire periodic structure (modal density, radiation efficiency, etc. Expect to capture response at various locations on the panel (on the skin and on the ribs) with less analysis expense

  9. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SPAES-TiO_2 HYBRID MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Zhang; Hui-ling Liu; Jun-jing Li; Zhi Xia

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) copolymer with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 was synthesized and characterized. A series of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with various contents of nano-sized TiO_2 particles were prepared and characterized through sol-gel reactions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated the TiO_2 particles were well dispersed within polymer matrix. These composite membranes were evaluated for proton exchange membranes (PEMs) in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). These membranes showed good thermal stability and mechanical properties. It was found that the water uptake of these membranes increased with the increase of the TiO_2 contents in the hybrid membranes. Meanwhile, the introduction of inorganic particles increased the proton conductivity and reduced the methanol permeability. The proton conductivities (0.118-0.162 S/cm) of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with 8% TiO_2 particles are much higher than those of Nation 117 membrane (0.095-0.117 S/cm) and pure SPAES membrane (0.100-0.124 S/cm) with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 at all temperatures (25-100℃). Especially, the methanol diffusion coefficient (8.4×10~(-7) cm~2/s) of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with 8% TiO_2 is much lower than that of Nation 117 membrane (2.1 ×10~(-6) cm~2/s). SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes were therefore proposed as candidates of material for PEM in DMFC.

  10. Hybrid embryonic stem cell-derived tetraploid mice show apparently normal morphological, physiological, and neurological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Frieder; Zevnik, Branko; Brüning, Jens; Röhl, Mathias; Willuweit, Antje; Rode, Anja; Hennek, Thomas; Kauselmann, Gunther; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Kühn, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    ES cell-tetraploid (ES) mice are completely derived from embryonic stem cells and can be obtained at high efficiency upon injection of hybrid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts. This method allows the immediate generation of targeted mouse mutants from genetically modified ES cell clones, in contrast to the standard protocol, which involves the production of chimeras and several breeding steps. To provide a baseline for the analysis of ES mouse mutants, we performed a phenotypic characterization of wild-type B6129S6F(1) ES mice in relation to controls of the same age, sex, and genotype raised from normal matings. The comparison of 90 morphological, physiological, and behavioral parameters revealed elevated body weight and hematocrit as the only major difference of ES mice, which exhibited an otherwise normal phenotype. We further demonstrate that ES mouse mutants can be produced from mutant hybrid ES cells and analyzed within a period of only 4 months. Thus, ES mouse technology is a valid research tool for rapidly elucidating gene function in vivo.

  11. Nanowire Structured Hybrid Cell for Concurrently Scavenging Solar and Mechanical Energies

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Chen

    2009-04-29

    Conversion cells for harvesting solar energy and mechanical energy are usually separate and independent entities that are designed and built following different physical principles. Developing a technology that harvests multiple-type energies in forms such as sun light and mechanical around the clock is desperately desired for fully utilizing the energies available in our living environment. We report a hybrid cell that is intended for simultaneously harvesting solar and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on surfaces of a flat substrate, a dye-sensitized solar cell is integrated with a piezoelectric nanogenerator. The former harvests solar energy irradiating on the top, and the latter harvests ultrasonic wave energy from the surrounding. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, and they can be integrated in parallel and serial for raising the output current and voltage, respectively, as well as power. It is found that the voltage output from the solar cell can be used to raise the output voltage of the nanogenerator, providing an effective approach for effectively storing and utilizing the power generated by the nanogenerator. Our study demonstrates a new approach for concurrently harvesting multiple types of energies using an integrated hybrid cell so that the energy resources can be effectively and complementary utilized whenever and wherever one or all of them is available. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  13. Efficient production of intersubspecific hybrid mice and embryonic stem cells by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Akie; Honda, Arata; Ohkawa, Mika; Hirose, Michiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Yuzuriha, Misako; Miki, Hiromi; Mochida, Keiji; Inoue, Kimiko; Abe, Kuniya; Ito, Masao; Ogura, Atsuo

    2007-09-01

    Recently, mice and embryonic stem (ES) cells with allelic polymorphisms have been used extensively in the field of genetics and developmental biology. In this study, we examined whether intersubspecific hybrid mice and ES cells with these genotypes can be efficiently produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from wild-derived strains, JF1 (Mus musculus molossinus), MSM (M. m. molossinus), HMI (M. m. castaneus), and SWN (M. m. spp.), were directly injected into mature oocytes from laboratory mice ([C57BL/6 x DBA2]F1; M. m. domesticus). The in vitro and in vivo developmental capacity of F1 embryos was not significantly different among the groups (P > 0.05), and term offspring were efficiently obtained in all groups (27%-34% of transferred embryos). However, the mean body and placental weights of the offspring differed significantly with genotype (P cell lines. The ES cell lines were established at a high efficiency (9 lines from 20 blastocysts) and their allelic polymorphisms were confirmed. Thus, ICSI using cryopreserved spermatozoa allows the efficient and immediate production of a number of F1 hybrid mice and ES cell lines, which can be used for polymorphic analysis of mouse genetics.

  14. Immobilized gellan sulfate surface for cell adhesion and multiplication: development of cell-hybrid biomaterials using self-produced fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Keiichi; Kanemoto, Akiko; Hashimoto, Kenichi; Tokita, Masayuki; Komai, Takashi

    2002-04-08

    A new concept for cell-hybrid biomaterial is proposed in which human unbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are adhered to an immobilized gellan sulfate (GS) surface. Extra domain A containing fibronectin (EDA(+)FN) released from HUVEC is necessary for cell adhesion and multiplication. The material design in this study is based on these self-released cell adhesion proteins. The interaction between GS and EDA(+)FN was evaluated using the affinity constant (KA); the value obtained was 1.03x10(8) (M(-1)). These results suggest that the adhesion of HUVEC to GS may be supported by the adhesion of EDA(+)FN to GS. We also found that this new material adheres to HUVEC, allowing the reintroduction of EDA(+)FN, which is self-produced by the cell. This material is relatively easy to produce, not requiring the usual coating of adhesion proteins in pretreatment.

  15. Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Published data from various sources are used to perform economic and environmental comparisons of four types of vehicles: conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell. The production and utilization stages of the vehicles are taken into consideration. The comparison is based on a mathematical procedure, which includes normalization of economic indicators (prices of vehicles and fuels during the vehicle life and driving range) and environmental indicators (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), and evaluation of an optimal relationship between the types of vehicles in the fleet. According to the comparison, hybrid and electric cars exhibit advantages over the other types. The economic efficiency and environmental impact of electric car use depends substantially on the source of the electricity. If the electricity comes from renewable energy sources, the electric car is advantageous compared to the hybrid. If electricity comes from fossil fuels, the electric car remains competitive only if the electricity is generated on board. It is shown that, if electricity is generated with an efficiency of about 50-60% by a gas turbine engine connected to a high-capacity battery and an electric motor, the electric car becomes advantageous. Implementation of fuel cells stacks and ion conductive membranes into gas turbine cycles permits electricity generation to increase to the above-mentioned level and air pollution emissions to decrease. It is concluded that the electric car with on-board electricity generation represents a significant and flexible advance in the development of efficient and ecologically benign vehicles.

  16. A Highly Efficient Hybrid GaAs Solar Cell Based on Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current.

  17. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-07

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  18. Multi-branched CdSe nanocrystals stabilized by weak ligand for hybrid solar cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jincheng; Tao, Hong; Cao, Yong; Ackermann, Jorg

    2014-04-01

    In this article, multi-branched CdSe nanocrystals were produced by a facile colloidal approach stabilized by oleylamine at a relative low temperature. The as-prepared multi-branched CdSe nanocrystals after simple washing process were used in the fabrication of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/CdSe bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device. The effective charge separation in the poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ CdSe nanocomposites have been confirmed by the strong photoluminescence quenching. The films of the blends of P3HT and simply-washed CdSe nanocrystals show more uniform morphology and flatter surface than the film of the bends of P3HT and pyridine-refluxed CdSe nanocrystals. The corresponding power conversion efficiency under 1 sun is about 0.66% for the P3HT/pyridine-washed CdSe hybrid device. Our work did a preliminary study in the hybrid solar cell application of branched blenze CdSe nanocrystals prepared by an easier way, and will be interesting and helpful for making the high-efficiency hybrid solar cells with branched CdSe acceptors.

  19. Embedded Metal Electrode for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Han-Don; Choi, Deokjae; Choi, Ahreum; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-06-27

    We demonstrate here an embedded metal electrode for highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells. The electrode proposed here is an effective alternative to the conventional bus and finger electrode which leads to a localized short circuit at a direct Si/metal contact and has a poor collection efficiency due to a nonoptimized electrode design. In our design, a Ag/SiO2 electrode is embedded into a Si substrate while being positioned between Si nanowire arrays underneath poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), facilitating suppressed recombination at the Si/Ag interface and notable improvements in the fabrication reproducibility. With an optimized microgrid electrode, our 1 cm(2) hybrid solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage of 607 mV and a short circuit current density of 34.0 mA/cm(2). This power conversion efficiency is more than twice as high as that of solar cells using a conventional electrode (8.0%). The microgrid electrode significantly minimizes the optical and electrical losses. This reproducibly yields a superior quantum efficiency of 99% at the main solar spectrum wavelength of 600 nm. In particular, our solar cells exhibit a significant increase in the fill factor of 78.3% compared to that of a conventional electrode (61.4%); this is because of the drastic reduction in the metal/contact resistance of the 1 μm-thick Ag electrode. Hence, the use of our embedded microgrid electrode in the construction of an ideal carrier collection path presents an opportunity in the development of highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  20. Mechanisms of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells induced by hybrid-compound histone deacetylase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Seiko [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori; Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu; Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Nishino, Norikazu [Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Ky-2, remarkably inhibits myeloma cell growth. •Ky-2 demonstrates no cytotoxicity against normal lymphocytic cells. •Ky-2 induces cell cycle arrest through the cell cycle-associated proteins. •Ky-2 induces Bcl-2-inhibitable apoptosis through a caspase-dependent cascade. -- Abstract: Objectives: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are new therapeutic agents, used to treat various types of malignant cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Ky-2, a hybrid-compound HDAC inhibitor, on the growth of mouse myeloma cells. Materials and methods: Myeloma cells, HS-72, P3U1, and mouse normal cells were used in this study. Effect of HDAC inhibitors on cell viability was determined by WST-assay and trypan blue assay. Cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometer. The expression of cell cycle regulatory and the apoptosis associated proteins were examined by Western blot analysis. Hoechst’s staining was used to detect apoptotic cells. Results: Our findings showed that Ky-2 decreased the levels of HDACs, while it enhanced acetylation of histone H3. Myeloma cell proliferation was inhibited by Ky-2 treatment. Interestingly, Ky-2 had no cytotoxic effects on mouse normal cells. Ky-2 treatment induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and accumulation of a sub-G1 phase population, while Western blotting analysis revealed that expressions of the cell cycle-associated proteins were up-regulated. Also, Ky-2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 in myeloma cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In addition, Ky-2 was not found to induce apoptosis in bcl-2 overexpressing myeloma cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Ky-2 induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent cascade and Bcl-2-inhibitable mechanism in myeloma cells.

  1. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Voiculescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device’s sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35~45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection.

  2. Porous polylactic acid-silica hybrids: preparation, characterization, and study of mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Christos; Trujillo, Sara; Matos, Joana; Madeira, Sara; Ródenas-Rochina, Joaquín; Kripotou, Sotiria; Kyritsis, Apostolos; Mano, João F; Gómez Ribelles, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    A novel approach to reinforce polymer porous membranes is presented. In the prepared hybrid materials, the inorganic phase of silica is synthesized in-situ and inside the pores of aminolyzed polylactic acid (PLA) membranes by sol-gel reactions using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as precursors. The hybrid materials present a porous structure with a silica layer covering the walls of the pores while GPTMS serves also as coupling agent between the organic and inorganic phase. The adjustment of silica precursors ratio allows the modulation of the thermomechanical properties. Culture of mesenchymal stem cells on these supports in osteogenic medium shows the expression of characteristic osteoblastic markers and the mineralization of the extracellular matrix.

  3. Hybrid Dynamic Modeling and Control of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid automaton modeling approach that incorporates state space partitioning, phase dynamic modeling and control law synthesis by control strategy is utilized to develop a hybrid automaton model of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack shutdown. The shutdown operation is divided into several phases and their boundaries are decided according to a control strategy, which is a set of specifications about the dynamics of MCFC stack during shutdown. According to the control strategy, the specification of increasing stack temperature is satisfied in a phase that can be modeled accurately. The model for phase that has complex dynamic is approximated. The duration of this kind of phase is decreased to minimize the error caused by model approximation.

  4. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    and the consequence of differential binding on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infections. Recently, the mutually exclusive transcription paradigm has been called into doubt by transcription assays based on individual P. falciparum transcript identification in single infected erythrocytic cells using RNA...... fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...... erythrocytes. The method is based on the use of digoxigenin- and biotin- labeled antisense RNA probes using the TSA Plus Fluorescence Palette System(2) (Perkin Elmer), microscopic analyses and freshly selected P. falciparum IE. The in situ hybridization method can be used to monitor transcription...

  5. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of organic/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cells by solution-evacuated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Zou, Xian-Shao; Zhang, Bin; Dong, Jun; Niu, Qiao-Li; Yin, Yi-An; Zhang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on n-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid structures by evacuating the PEDOT:PSS solution with dip-dropping on the top of SiNWs before spin-coating (solution-evacuating). The coverage and contact interface between PEDOT:PSS and SiNW arrays can be dramatically enhanced by optimizing the solution-evacuated time. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 9.22% for a solution-evacuated time of 2 min compared with 5.17% for the untreated pristine device. The improvement photovoltaic performance is mainly attributed to better organic coverage and contact with an n-type SiNW surface.

  6. Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, Paul

    2004-12-31

    In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

  7. Plasmonic Nanoparticle-based Hybrid Photosensitizers with Broadened Excitation Profile for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy combining nanotechnology has shown great potential with improved therapeutic efficacy and fewer side effects. Ideal photosensitizers for cancer treatment should both have good singlet oxygen production capability and be excitable by light illuminations with deep tissue penetration. Here we report a type of hybrid photosensitizers consisting of plasmonic silver nanoparticles and photosensitizing molecules, where strong resonance coupling between the two leads to a broadened excitation profile and exceptionally high singlet oxygen production under both visible light and infrared light excitations. Our results indicate that the hybrid photosensitizers display low cytotoxicity without light illumination yet highly enhanced photodynamic inhibition efficacy against Hela cells under a broad spectrum of light illuminations including the near-infrared light, which has great implication in photodynamic therapy of deep-tissue cancers.

  8. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun; Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun; Wilson, John I. B.

    2014-03-01

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200 nm)/i-Si(450 nm)/n-Si(200 nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  9. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Wilson, John I. B., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200 nm)/i-Si(450 nm)/n-Si(200 nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  10. Immobilization of Biocatalysts and Cells on Hybrid Membranes Syntheses on Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations in the area of enzyme action in the living organisms give us the opportunity for applications of these biochemical catalysts in the different purposes of medicine, industry and analytical practice. Using of soluble enzymes is connected with many difficulties, because the enzymes are no regenerative and they are instability. By immobilization of the enzymes on to different carriers the more of these problems are overcome. The application of soluble enzymes caused many difficulties, by the reason that the enzymes can not be regenerated. The immobilization of the enzymes by means of different reagents and carriers overcomes this problem. The aim of this study to develop a sol-gel method of synthesis of new hybrid membrane, with immobilized biocatalysts (microbial cells and enzymes for biosensor construction. This study shows that hybrid organic-inorganic membranes were synthesized.

  11. Characterization of a Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell line with increased system L amino acid transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton, C D; Moreno, A; Oxender, D L

    1984-03-01

    We have studied leucine transport in several Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell lines obtained by fusion of a temperature-sensitive line of Chinese hamster ovary cells, ts025C1, and normal human leukocytes. A hybrid cell line exhibiting a twofold increase in L-leucine uptake over that in the parental cell line was found. This hybrid cell line, 158CnpT-1, was temperature resistant, whereas the parental Chinese hamster ovary mutant, ts025C1, contained a temperature-sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase mutation. An examination of the different amino acid transport systems in this hybrid cell line revealed a specific increase of system L activity with no significant changes in systems A and ASC. The Vmax for L-leucine uptake exhibited by the hybrid 158CnpT-1 was twice that in the CHO parental mutant, ts025C1. Cytogenetic analysis showed that the hybrid 158CnpT-1 contains four complete human chromosomes (numbers 4, 5, 10, and 21) and three interspecific chromosomal translocations in a total complement of 34 chromosomes. Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis of segregant clones obtained from hybrid 158CnpT-1 showed that the primary temperature resistance and high system L transport phenotypes can be segregated from this hybrid independently. The loss of the primary temperature resistance was associated with the loss of the human chromosome 5, as previously reported by other laboratories, whereas the loss of the high leucine transport phenotype, which is associated with a lesser degree of temperature resistance, was correlated with the loss of human chromosome 20.

  12. Design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid switcher locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Liping, E-mail: lguo@niu.ed [Department of Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Yedavalli, Karthik; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper discusses the design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive. Different types of fuel cells for appropriate application to locomotives were compared, fuel cell and auxiliary storage devices were modeled, and a control strategy for the overall system was developed in this paper. By using the proposed control strategy, the power control system regulates the sharing of power demand between fuel cell and auxiliary storage units including batteries and ultracapacitors. Experimental data of the power duty cycle of a typical switcher locomotive is analyzed. The proposed control system is tested using the experimental data. Results show that the control system is able to maintain output voltage from different power sources within a certain range, keep the state of charge of the batteries within an optimal range and meet power demand of the locomotive at a high efficiency.

  13. Design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid switcher locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liping [Department of Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Yedavalli, Karthik; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper discusses the design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive. Different types of fuel cells for appropriate application to locomotives were compared, fuel cell and auxiliary storage devices were modeled, and a control strategy for the overall system was developed in this paper. By using the proposed control strategy, the power control system regulates the sharing of power demand between fuel cell and auxiliary storage units including batteries and ultracapacitors. Experimental data of the power duty cycle of a typical switcher locomotive is analyzed. The proposed control system is tested using the experimental data. Results show that the control system is able to maintain output voltage from different power sources within a certain range, keep the state of charge of the batteries within an optimal range and meet power demand of the locomotive at a high efficiency. (author)

  14. Hybrid polymer/ZnO solar cells sensitized by PbS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidan; Zhao, Dongxu; Su, Zisheng; Shen, Dezhen

    2012-02-07

    Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)]/ZnO nanorod hybrid solar cells consisting of PbS quantum dots [QDs] prepared by a chemical bath deposition method were fabricated. An optimum coating of the QDs on the ZnO nanorods could strongly improve the performance of the solar cells. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 0.42% was achieved for the PbS QDs' sensitive solar cell coated by 4 cycles, which was increased almost five times compared with the solar cell without using PbS QDs. The improved efficiency is attributed to the cascade structure formed by the PbS QD coating, which results in enhanced open-circuit voltage and exciton dissociation efficiency.

  15. Improved performance of Li-ion cells under pulsed load using double-layer capacitors in a hybrid circuit mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.; NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

    2000-02-07

    Electrical characteristics of hybrid power sources consisting of Li-ion cells and double-layer capacitors were studied at 25 C and {minus}20 C. The cells were initially evaluated for pulse performance and then measured in hybrid modes of operation where they were coupled with the high-power capacitors. Cells manufactured by Panasonic measured at 25 C delivered full capacities of 0.76 Ah for pulses up to 3A and cells from A and T delivered full capacities of 0.73 Ah for pulses up to 4A. Measured cell resistances were 0.15 ohms and 0.12 ohms, respectively. These measurements were repeated at {minus}20 C. Direct coupling of the cells and capacitors (coupled hybrid) using 10F Panasonic capacitors in a 8F series/parallel combination extended the full capacity pulse limits (3.0V threshold) to 5.6A for the Panasonic cells and to 9A for the A and T cells. A similar arrangement using 100F capacitors from Elna in a 60F combination increased the Panasonic cell limit to 10 A. Operation in an uncoupled hybrid mode using uncoupled cell/capacitor discharge allowed fill cell capacity usage at 25 C up to the capacitor discharge limit and showed a factor of 5 improvement in delivered capacity at {minus}20 C.

  16. Stretchable living materials and devices with hydrogel-elastomer hybrids hosting programmed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Tzu-Chieh; Tham, Eléonore; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shaoting; Lu, Timothy K; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2017-02-28

    Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications. Here, we report the design of a set of living materials and devices based on stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel-elastomer hybrids that host various types of genetically engineered bacterial cells. The hydrogel provides sustainable supplies of water and nutrients, and the elastomer is air-permeable, maintaining long-term viability and functionality of the encapsulated cells. Communication between different bacterial strains and with the environment is achieved via diffusion of molecules in the hydrogel. The high stretchability and robustness of the hydrogel-elastomer hybrids prevent leakage of cells from the living materials and devices, even under large deformations. We show functions and applications of stretchable living sensors that are responsive to multiple chemicals in a variety of form factors, including skin patches and gloves-based sensors. We further develop a quantitative model that couples transportation of signaling molecules and cellular response to aid the design of future living materials and devices.

  17. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  18. Stretchable living materials and devices with hydrogel–elastomer hybrids hosting programmed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Tzu-Chieh; Tham, Eléonore; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shaoting; Lu, Timothy K.; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2017-01-01

    Living systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, and mammalian cells, can be genetically programmed with synthetic circuits that execute sensing, computing, memory, and response functions. Integrating these functional living components into materials and devices will provide powerful tools for scientific research and enable new technological applications. However, it has been a grand challenge to maintain the viability, functionality, and safety of living components in freestanding materials and devices, which frequently undergo deformations during applications. Here, we report the design of a set of living materials and devices based on stretchable, robust, and biocompatible hydrogel–elastomer hybrids that host various types of genetically engineered bacterial cells. The hydrogel provides sustainable supplies of water and nutrients, and the elastomer is air-permeable, maintaining long-term viability and functionality of the encapsulated cells. Communication between different bacterial strains and with the environment is achieved via diffusion of molecules in the hydrogel. The high stretchability and robustness of the hydrogel–elastomer hybrids prevent leakage of cells from the living materials and devices, even under large deformations. We show functions and applications of stretchable living sensors that are responsive to multiple chemicals in a variety of form factors, including skin patches and gloves-based sensors. We further develop a quantitative model that couples transportation of signaling molecules and cellular response to aid the design of future living materials and devices. PMID:28202725

  19. Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effect in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells Based on Photonic Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana; Iljin, Andrey; Lytvynenko, Oleg; Tarakhan, Ludmila; Karachevtseva, Lulmila

    2017-07-01

    Nonlinear-optical response of photorefractive hybrid liquid crystal (LC) cells has been studied by means of dynamic holographic technique in two-wave mixing arrangement. The LC cells include nonuniform silicon substrates comprising a micrometer-range photonic crystal. A thin LC layer is set between silicon substrate and a flat glass substrate covered by a transparent (ITO) electrode. A dynamic diffraction grating was induced in the LC volume by the two-wave mixing of laser beams with simultaneous application of DC electric field to the cell. Theoretical model of Raman-Nath self-diffraction was developed. This model allows for calculation of nonlinear optical characteristics in thin samples on the base of two-wave mixing experimental data, and with taking into account light losses on absorption and/or scattering. The hybrid LC cells demonstrate strong nonlinear optical effect, prospective for many applications in electro-optical microsystems, such as SLMs, as well as in multi-channel systems.

  20. Control strategy of hybrid fuel cell/battery distributed generation system for grid-connected operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Aliakbar GOLKAR; Amin HAJIZADEH

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of a hybrid fuel cell/battery distributed generation (HDG) system in distribution systems. The overall structure of the HDG system is given, dynamic models for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant,battery bank and its power electronic interfacing are briefly described, and controller design methodologies for the power conditioning units and fuel cell to control the power flow from the hybrid power plant to the utility grid are presented. To distribute the power between the fuel cell power plant and the battery energy storage, a neuro-fuzzy controller has been developed. Also, for controlling the active and reactive power independently in distribution systems, the current control strategy based on two fuzzy logic controllers has been presented. A Matlab/Simulink simulation model is developed for the HDG system by combining the individual component models and their controllers. Simulation results show the overall system performance including load-following and power management of the HDG system.

  1. Liquid perfluorochemical-supported hybrid cell culture system for proliferation of chondrocytes on fibrous polylactide scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarek, Maciej; Grabowska, Iwona; Senderek, Ilona; Wojasiński, Michał; Janicka, Justyna; Janczyk-Ilach, Katarzyna; Ciach, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    CP5 bovine chondrocytes were cultured on biodegradable electrospun fibrous polylactide (PLA) scaffolds placed on a flexible interface formed between two immiscible liquid phases: (1) hydrophobic perfluorochemical (PFC) and (2) aqueous culture medium, as a new way of cartilage implant development. Robust and intensive growth of CP5 cells was achieved in our hybrid liquid-solid-liquid culture system consisting of the fibrous PLA scaffolds in contrast to limited growth of the CP5 cells in traditional culture system with PLA scaffold placed on solid surface. The multicellular aggregates of CP5 cells covered the surface of PLA scaffolds and the chondrocytes migrated through and overgrew internal fibers of the scaffolds. Our hybrid culture system simultaneously allows the adhesion of adherent CP5 cells to fibers of PLA scaffolds as well as, due to use of phase of PFC, enhances the mass transfer in the case of supplying/removing of respiratory gases, i.e., O2 and CO2. Our flexible (independent of vessel shape) system is simple, ready-to-use and may utilize a variety of polymer-based scaffolds traditionally proposed for implant development.

  2. Modeling, simulation, and concept studies of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbek, Markus

    2010-03-29

    This thesis focuses on the development of a fuel cell-based hybrid electric powertrain for smaller (2 kW) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A Hardware-in-the-Loop test rig is designed and built with the possibility to simulate any load profile for HEVs in a realistic environment, whereby the environment is modeled. Detailed simulation models of the test rig are developed and validated to real physical components and control algorithms are designed for the DC/DC-converters and the fuel cell system. A state-feedback controller is developed for the DC/DC-converters where the state-space averaging method is used for the development. For the fuel cells, a gain-scheduling controller based on state feedback is developed and compared to two conventional methods. The design process of an HEV with regard to a given load profile is introduced with comparison between SuperCaps and batteries. The HEV is also evaluated with an introduction to different power management concepts with regard to fuel consumption, dynamics, and fuel cell deterioration rate. The power management methods are implemented in the test rig and compared. (orig.)

  3. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    ηp is the panel output determined from the efficiency of photovoltaic cell that constitutes .... The reservoir: a pond of water storage featuring a cylindrical shape of 6m ..... Prospect of wind-PV-battery hybrid power system as an alternative to grid.

  4. Panel 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Hermansson, Ann; Bakaletz, Lauren;

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of otitis media (OM) involves a number of factors related to the anatomy, pathology, and cell biology of the middle ear, the mastoid, the Eustachian tube, and the nasopharynx. Although some issues of pathogenesis are fairly well established, others are only marginally indicated b...

  5. Reaching the limits of prognostication in non-small cell lung cancer: an optimized biomarker panel fails to outperform clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Marianna; Djureinovic, Dijana; Brunnström, Hans Rr; Mattsson, Johanna Sm; Edlund, Karolina; Hengstler, Jan G; La Fleur, Linnea; Ekman, Simon; Koyi, Hirsh; Branden, Eva; Ståhle, Elisabeth; Jirström, Karin; Tracy, Derek K; Pontén, Fredrik; Botling, Johan; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Micke, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Numerous protein biomarkers have been analyzed to improve prognostication in non-small cell lung cancer, but have not yet demonstrated sufficient value to be introduced into clinical practice. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a prognostic model for surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer. A biomarker panel was selected based on (1) prognostic association in published literature, (2) prognostic association in gene expression data sets, (3) availability of reliable antibodies, and (4) representation of diverse biological processes. The five selected proteins (MKI67, EZH2, SLC2A1, CADM1, and NKX2-1 alias TTF1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays including tissue from 326 non-small cell lung cancer patients. One score was obtained for each tumor and each protein. The scores were combined, with or without the inclusion of clinical parameters, and the best prognostic model was defined according to the corresponding concordance index (C-index). The best-performing model was subsequently validated in an independent cohort consisting of tissue from 345 non-small cell lung cancer patients. The model based only on protein expression did not perform better compared to clinicopathological parameters, whereas combining protein expression with clinicopathological data resulted in a slightly better prognostic performance (C-index: all non-small cell lung cancer 0.63 vs 0.64; adenocarcinoma: 0.66 vs 0.70, squamous cell carcinoma: 0.57 vs 0.56). However, this modest effect did not translate into a significantly improved accuracy of survival prediction. The combination of a prognostic biomarker panel with clinicopathological parameters did not improve survival prediction in non-small cell lung cancer, questioning the potential of immunohistochemistry-based assessment of protein biomarkers for prognostication in clinical practice.

  6. Fruit extract from a Sechium edule hybrid induce apoptosis in leukaemic cell lines but not in normal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Cadena-Iñiguez, Jorge; Ruíz-Posadas, Lucero del Mar; Cadena-Zamudio, Jorge David; González-Ugarte, Ana Karen; Steider, Benny Weiss; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro

    2015-01-01

    The antiproliferative potential of a crude extract from the chayote hybrid H-837-07-GISeM® and its potential for apoptosis induction were assessed in leukaemic cell lines and normal mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs). The extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of the P388, J774, and WEHI-3 cell lines (with an IC50 below 1.3 μg·mL(-1)), reduced cell viability, and induced apoptotic body production, phosphatidylserine translocation, and DNA fragmentation. However, the extract had no effect on BM-MNCs. We postulate that these properties make the extract a good candidate for an anti-tumour agent for clinical use.

  7. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  8. Knockdown of antiapoptotic genes in breast cancer cells by siRNA loaded into hybrid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    João de Mello, Leônidas, Jr.; Rosa Souza, Gabriela Regina; Winter, Evelyn; Silva, Adny Henrique; Pittella, Frederico; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Tumorigenesis is related to an imbalance in controlling mechanisms of apoptosis. Expression of the genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL results in the promotion of cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, a novel approach to suppress antiapoptotic genes is the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in cancer cells. However, there are some limitations for the application of siRNA such as the need for vectors to pass the cell membrane and deliver the nucleic acid. In this study CaP-siRNA-PEG-polyanion hybrid nanoparticles were developed to promote siRNA delivery to cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in order to evaluate whether the silencing of antiapoptotic genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL by siRNA would increase cancer cell death. After 48 h of incubation the expression of BCL-2 and BCL-xL genes decreased to 49% and 23%, respectively. The siRNA sequence used induced cancer cell death at a concentration of 200 nM siRNA after 72 h of incubation. As the targeted proteins are related to the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, the nanocarriers systems were also tested in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX). The results showed a significant reduction in the CC50 of the DOX, after silencing the antiapoptotic genes. In addition, an increase in apoptotic cell counts for both incubations conditions was observed as well. In conclusion, silencing antiapoptotic genes such as BCL-2 and BCL-xL through the use of siRNA carried by hybrid nanoparticles showed to be effective in vitro, and presents a promising strategy for pre-clinical analysis, especially when combined with DOX against breast cancer.

  9. Deep sequencing reveals different compositions of mRNA transcribed from the F8 gene in a panel of FVIII-producing CHO cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Bolt, Gert; Hansen, Jens J

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is one of the most complex biopharmaceuticals due to the large size, poor protein stability and extensive post-translational modifications. As a consequence, efficient production of FVIII in mammalian cells poses a major challenge, with typical yields two to three...... orders of magnitude lower than for antibodies. In the present study we investigated CHO DXB11 cells transfected with a plasmid encoding human coagulation factor VIII. Single cell clones were isolated from the pool of transfectants and a panel of 14 clones representing a dynamic range of FVIII...... productivities was selected for RNA sequencing analysis. The analysis showed distinct differences in F8 RNA composition between the clones. The exogenous F8-dhfr transcript was found to make up the most abundant transcript in the present clones. No correlation was seen between F8 mRNA levels and the measured...

  10. Enhancing the efficiency of solution-processed polymer:colloidal nanocrystal hybrid photovoltaic cells using ethanedithiol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Cao, Weiran; Zheng, Ying; Yang, Yixing; Plaisant, Marc; Holloway, Paul H; Schanze, Kirk S; Reynolds, John R; Xue, Jiangeng

    2013-06-25

    Advances in colloidal inorganic nanocrystal synthesis and processing have led to the demonstration of organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells using low-cost solution processes from blends of conjugated polymer and colloidal nanocrystals. However, the performance of such hybrid PV cells has been limited due to the lack of control at the complex interfaces between the organic and inorganic hybrid active materials. Here we show that the efficiency of hybrid PV devices can be significantly enhanced by engineering the polymer-nanocrystal interface with proper chemical treatment. Using two different conjugated polymers, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT), we show that treating the polymer:nanocrystal hybrid film in an ethanedithiol-containing acetonitrile solution can increase the efficiency of the hybrid PV devices by 30-90%, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.2 ± 0.3% was obtained in the PCPDTBT:CdSe devices at 0.2 sun (AM 1.5G), which was slightly reduced to 4.7 ± 0.3% at 1 sun. The ethanedithiol treatment did not result in significant changes in the morphology and UV-vis optical absorption of the hybrid thin films; however, infrared absorption, NMR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies revealed the effective removal of organic ligands, especially the charged phosphonic acid ligands, from the CdSe nanorod surface after the treatment, accompanied by the possible monolayer passivation of nanorod surfaces with Cd-thiolates. We attribute the hybrid PV cell efficiency increase upon the ethanedithiol treatment to the reduction in charge and exciton recombination sites on the nanocrystal surface and the simultaneous increase in electron transport through the hybrid film.

  11. Improved performance of colloidal CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by hybrid passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Xu, Bo; Yuan, Chunze; Chen, Hong; Sun, Junliang; Sun, Licheng; Agren, Hans

    2014-11-12

    A hybrid passivation strategy is employed to modify the surface of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), by using mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and iodide anions through a ligand exchange reaction in solution. This is found to be an effective way to improve the performance of QDSCs based on colloidal QDs. The results show that MPA can increase the coverage of the QDs on TiO2 electrodes and facilitate the hole extraction from the photoxidized QDs, and simultaneously, that the iodide anions can remedy the surface defects of the CdSe QDs and thus reduce the recombination loss in the device. This hybrid passivation treatment leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency of the QDSCs by 41%. Furthermore, an optimal ratio of iodide ions to MPA was determined for favorable hybrid passivation; results show that excessive iodine anions are detrimental to the loading of the QDs. This study demonstrates that the improvement in QDSC performance can be realized by using a combination of different functional ligands to passivate the QDs, and that ligand exchange in solution can be an effective approach to introduce different ligands.

  12. Hybrid liposomes inhibit tumor growth and lung metastasis of murine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Hideki; Komizu, Yuji; Ichihara, Hideaki; Goto, Koichi; Ueoka, Ryuichi

    2013-06-01

    Antitumor effects of hybrid liposomes (HL) composed of l-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene(23) dodecyl ether (C₁₂(EO)₂₃) on the metastatic growth of murine osteosarcoma (LM8) cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Remarkable inhibitory effects of HL-23 on the growth of LM8 cells were obtained through the induction of apoptotic cell death in vitro. It was also indicated that HL-23 should dramatically suppress the invasion of LM8 cells and the formation of filopodia on the cell surface in vitro. Furthermore, significantly high therapeutic effects were observed in the homograft mouse models of LM8 cells with lung metastasis after the treatment with HL-23 in vivo. That is, the histological analysis demonstrated that the primary tumor growth of LM8 cells implanted subcutaneously into the mice was inhibited along with the induction of apoptosis. In addition, it was found that HL-23 significantly decreased the lung metastasis of LM8 cells in the mouse models through the inhibition of primary tumor invasion. These results suggest that HL-23 could be a novel agent for the chemotherapy of osteosarcoma.

  13. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-VS. In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  14. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol) Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahou, Redouan; Meier, Raphael P H; Bühler, Léo H; Wandrey, Christine

    2014-01-09

    The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg) using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-VS). In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells) as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  15. Analytical and Clinical Validation of a Digital Sequencing Panel for Quantitative, Highly Accurate Evaluation of Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Lanman

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing of cell-free circulating solid tumor DNA addresses two challenges in contemporary cancer care. First this method of massively parallel and deep sequencing enables assessment of a comprehensive panel of genomic targets from a single sample, and second, it obviates the need for repeat invasive tissue biopsies. Digital Sequencing™ is a novel method for high-quality sequencing of circulating tumor DNA simultaneously across a comprehensive panel of over 50 cancer-related genes with a simple blood test. Here we report the analytic and clinical validation of the gene panel. Analytic sensitivity down to 0.1% mutant allele fraction is demonstrated via serial dilution studies of known samples. Near-perfect analytic specificity (> 99.9999% enables complete coverage of many genes without the false positives typically seen with traditional sequencing assays at mutant allele frequencies or fractions below 5%. We compared digital sequencing of plasma-derived cell-free DNA to tissue-based sequencing on 165 consecutive matched samples from five outside centers in patients with stage III-IV solid tumor cancers. Clinical sensitivity of plasma-derived NGS was 85.0%, comparable to 80.7% sensitivity for tissue. The assay success rate on 1,000 consecutive samples in clinical practice was 99.8%. Digital sequencing of plasma-derived DNA is indicated in advanced cancer patients to prevent repeated invasive biopsies when the initial biopsy is inadequate, unobtainable for genomic testing, or uninformative, or when the patient's cancer has progressed despite treatment. Its clinical utility is derived from reduction in the costs, complications and delays associated with invasive tissue biopsies for genomic testing.

  16. Analytical and Clinical Validation of a Digital Sequencing Panel for Quantitative, Highly Accurate Evaluation of Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Oliver A.; Sebisanovic, Dragan; Lopez, Rene; Blau, Sibel; Collisson, Eric A.; Divers, Stephen G.; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Kopetz, E. Scott; Lee, Jeeyun; Nikolinakos, Petros G.; Baca, Arthur M.; Kermani, Bahram G.; Eltoukhy, Helmy; Talasaz, AmirAli

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of cell-free circulating solid tumor DNA addresses two challenges in contemporary cancer care. First this method of massively parallel and deep sequencing enables assessment of a comprehensive panel of genomic targets from a single sample, and second, it obviates the need for repeat invasive tissue biopsies. Digital SequencingTM is a novel method for high-quality sequencing of circulating tumor DNA simultaneously across a comprehensive panel of over 50 cancer-related genes with a simple blood test. Here we report the analytic and clinical validation of the gene panel. Analytic sensitivity down to 0.1% mutant allele fraction is demonstrated via serial dilution studies of known samples. Near-perfect analytic specificity (> 99.9999%) enables complete coverage of many genes without the false positives typically seen with traditional sequencing assays at mutant allele frequencies or fractions below 5%. We compared digital sequencing of plasma-derived cell-free DNA to tissue-based sequencing on 165 consecutive matched samples from five outside centers in patients with stage III-IV solid tumor cancers. Clinical sensitivity of plasma-derived NGS was 85.0%, comparable to 80.7% sensitivity for tissue. The assay success rate on 1,000 consecutive samples in clinical practice was 99.8%. Digital sequencing of plasma-derived DNA is indicated in advanced cancer patients to prevent repeated invasive biopsies when the initial biopsy is inadequate, unobtainable for genomic testing, or uninformative, or when the patient’s cancer has progressed despite treatment. Its clinical utility is derived from reduction in the costs, complications and delays associated with invasive tissue biopsies for genomic testing. PMID:26474073

  17. Analytical and Clinical Validation of a Digital Sequencing Panel for Quantitative, Highly Accurate Evaluation of Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanman, Richard B; Mortimer, Stefanie A; Zill, Oliver A; Sebisanovic, Dragan; Lopez, Rene; Blau, Sibel; Collisson, Eric A; Divers, Stephen G; Hoon, Dave S B; Kopetz, E Scott; Lee, Jeeyun; Nikolinakos, Petros G; Baca, Arthur M; Kermani, Bahram G; Eltoukhy, Helmy; Talasaz, AmirAli

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of cell-free circulating solid tumor DNA addresses two challenges in contemporary cancer care. First this method of massively parallel and deep sequencing enables assessment of a comprehensive panel of genomic targets from a single sample, and second, it obviates the need for repeat invasive tissue biopsies. Digital Sequencing™ is a novel method for high-quality sequencing of circulating tumor DNA simultaneously across a comprehensive panel of over 50 cancer-related genes with a simple blood test. Here we report the analytic and clinical validation of the gene panel. Analytic sensitivity down to 0.1% mutant allele fraction is demonstrated via serial dilution studies of known samples. Near-perfect analytic specificity (> 99.9999%) enables complete coverage of many genes without the false positives typically seen with traditional sequencing assays at mutant allele frequencies or fractions below 5%. We compared digital sequencing of plasma-derived cell-free DNA to tissue-based sequencing on 165 consecutive matched samples from five outside centers in patients with stage III-IV solid tumor cancers. Clinical sensitivity of plasma-derived NGS was 85.0%, comparable to 80.7% sensitivity for tissue. The assay success rate on 1,000 consecutive samples in clinical practice was 99.8%. Digital sequencing of plasma-derived DNA is indicated in advanced cancer patients to prevent repeated invasive biopsies when the initial biopsy is inadequate, unobtainable for genomic testing, or uninformative, or when the patient's cancer has progressed despite treatment. Its clinical utility is derived from reduction in the costs, complications and delays associated with invasive tissue biopsies for genomic testing.

  18. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...... and exergy analyses were applied. Focus in this optimization study was heat management, and the optimization efforts resulted in a substantial gain of approximately 6% in the electrical efficiency of the plant. The optimized hybrid plant produced approximately 290 kWe at an electrical efficiency of 58...

  19. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    Direct cultivation-independent sequence retrieval of unidentified bacteria from histological tissue sections has been limited by the difficulty of selectively isolating specific bacteria from a complex environment. Here, a new DNA isolation approach is presented for prokaryotic cells....... By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r......RNA gene PCR was performed from the dissected microcolonies, and the subsequent DNA sequence analysis identified the dissected bacterial cells as belonging to the Brachyspira aalborgi cluster 1. The advantage of this technique is the ability to combine the histological recognition of the specific bacteria...

  20. Microbial-enzymatic-hybrid biological fuel cell with optimized growth conditions for Shewanella oneidensis DSP-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jared N; Luckarift, Heather R; Sizemore, Susan R; Farrington, Karen E; Lau, Carolin; Johnson, Glenn R; Atanassov, Plamen

    2013-07-10

    In this work we present a biological fuel cell fabricated by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. This concept is devised as an extension to traditional biochemical methods by incorporating diverse biological catalysts with the aim of powering small devices. In preparing the biological fuel cell anode, novel hierarchical-structured architectures and biofilm configurations were investigated. A method for creating an artificial biofilm based on encapsulating microorganisms in a porous, thin film of silica was compared with S. oneidensis biofilms that were allowed to colonize naturally. Results indicate comparable current and power densities for artificial and natural biofilm formations, based on growth characteristics. As a result, this work describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells.

  1. Towards Self-Assembled Hybrid Artificial Cells: Novel Bottom-Up Approaches to Functional Synthetic Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Roberto J.; Hardy, Michael D.; Devaraj, Neal K.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in utilizing bottom-up approaches to develop synthetic cells. A popular methodology is the integration of functionalized synthetic membranes with biological systems, producing “hybrid” artificial cells. This Concept article covers recent advances and the current state-of-the-art of such hybrid systems. Specifically, we describe minimal supramolecular constructs that faithfully mimic the structure and/or function of living cells, often by controlling the assembly of highly ordered membrane architectures with defined functionality. These studies give us a deeper understanding of the nature of living systems, bring new insights into the origin of cellular life, and provide novel synthetic chassis for advancing synthetic biology. PMID:26149747

  2. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  3. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  4. Cycle Analysis of Micro Gas Turbine-Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijima, Shinji; Kasagi, Nobuhide

    A hybrid system based on a micro gas turbine (µGT) and a high-temperature fuel cell, i.e., molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) or solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), is expected to achieve a much higher efficiency than conventional distributed power generation systems. In this study, a cycle analysis method and the performance evaluation of a µGT-MCFC hybrid system, of which the power output is 30kW, are investigated to clarify its feasibility. We developed a general design strategy in which a low fuel input to a combustor and higher MCFC operating temperature result in a high power generation efficiency. A high recuperator temperature effectiveness and a moderate steam-carbon ratio are the requirements for obtaining a high material strength in a turbine. In addition, by employing a combustor for complete oxidation of MCFC effluents without additional fuel input, i.e., a catalytic combustor, the power generation efficiency of a µGT-MCFC is achieved at over 60%(LHV).

  5. Efficiency enhancement of pyramidal Si solar cells with reduced graphene oxide hybrid electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Chen; Huang, Chun-Ying; Fang, Chang-Wen; Lin, Ming-Yi; Lee, Wen-Chieh; Liu, Xiang-Sheng; Uen, Wu-Yih

    2016-12-01

    Developing a transparent and cost-effective electrode for a textured and large-scale optoelectronic device is an important requirement for high-throughput products. Here, we propose a costly fabrication procedure using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid materials composed of rGO, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and Ag nanowires (AgNWs) top electrodes for structured Si solar cells via a spin coating method. This work overcomes the obstacle of graphene damage during the transferred process and provides a simple way to form large-scale graphene-based films on textured surfaces. Due to the spin-coated rGO being uniform along with AgNW frameworks and plasmonic AuNPs, the pyramidal Si solar cell exhibits a significant improved efficiency of 10.75% compared with solar cells using pure rGO flakes as the top electrodes. Our study realizes the rGO hybrid materials deposited on a textured surface and has great potential for integration into transparent and structured devices for next-generation industrial production.

  6. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  7. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xia, Zhouhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Dong, Chao [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of New Mexico, ABQ 87120 (United States); Sun, Baoquan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lou, Yanhui, E-mail: yhlou@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0{sup #} diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement.

  8. Development of a protein marker panel for characterization of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs using global quantitative proteome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S. Pripuzova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new methods for reprogramming of adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC led to the development of new approaches in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the self-renewal, expansion and differentiation of human iPSC (hiPSC should lead to improvements in the manufacture of safe and reliable cell therapy products. The goal of our study was qualitative and quantitative proteomic characterizations of hiPSC by means of electrospray ionization (ESI-MSe and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS. Proteomes of hiPSCs of different somatic origins: fibroblasts and peripheral blood CD34+ cells, reprogrammed by the same technique, were compared with the original somatic cells and hESC. Quantitative proteomic comparison revealed approximately 220 proteins commonly up-regulated in all three pluripotent stem cell lines compared to the primary cells. Expression of 21 proteins previously reported as pluripotency markers was up-regulated in both hiPSCs (8 were confirmed by Western blot. A number of novel candidate marker proteins with the highest fold-change difference between hiPSCs/hESC and somatic cells discovered by MS were confirmed by Western blot. A panel of 22 candidate marker proteins of hiPSC was developed and expression of these proteins was confirmed in 8 additional hiPSC lines.

  9. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: Hybrid organic-inorganic materials as fuel cell polyelectrolyte membranes and functional nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiterer, Mariya

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Several classes of bridged polysilsesquioxanes are presented. The first class is a membrane material suitable for fuel cell technology as a proton conducting polyelectrolyte. The second class includes hybrid nanoparticles for display device applications and chromatographic media. Chapter 1 is an introduction to hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Sol-gel chemistry is discussed, followed by a survey of prominent examples of silica hybrids. Examples of physical organic-silica blends and covalent organo-silicas, including ORMOCERSRTM, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, and bridged polysilsesquioxanes are discussed. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are described in great detail. Monomer synthesis, sol-gel chemistry, processing, characterization, and physical properties are included. Chapter 2 describes the design of polyelectrolyte bridged polysilsesquioxane membranes. The materials contain covalently bound sulfonic acid groups originating from the corresponding disulfides. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials integrate a network supporting component which is systematically changed to fine-tune their physical properties. The membranes are characterized as PEM fuel cell electrolytes, where proton conductivities of 4-6 mS cm-1 were measured. In Chapter 3 techniques for the preparation of bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles are described. An inverse water-in-oil microemulsion polymerization method is developed to prepare cationic nanoparticles, including viologen-bridged materials with applications in electrochromic display devices. An aqueous ammonia system is used to prepare neutral nanoparticles containing hydrocarbon bridging groups, which have potential applications as chromatographic media. Chapter 4 describes electrochromic devices developed in collaboration with the Heflin group of Virginia Tech, which incorporate viologen bridged nanoparticles

  10. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  11. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SPAES-TiO_2 HYBRID MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠玲

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)(SPAES) copolymer with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 was synthesized and characterized.A series of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with various contents of nano-sized TiO_2 particles were prepared and characterized through sol-gel reactions.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) images indicated the TiO_2 particles were well dispersed within polymer matrix.These composite membranes were evaluated for proton exchange membranes(PEMs) in direct methanol fuel cell(DMFC).These mem...

  12. Investigation of bulk hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yi-Kai; Chang, Shu-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Tuan, Hsing-Yu; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2013-07-19

    This work presents the systematic studies of bulk hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in poly(3-hexylthiophene) matrix. The CIGS NCs of approximately 17 nm in diameter were homogeneously blended with P3HT layer to form an active layer of a photovoltaic device. The blend ratios of CIGS NCs to P3HT, solvent effects on thin film morphologies, interface between P3HT/CIGS NCs and post-production annealing of devices were investigated, and the best performance of photovoltaic devices was measured under AM 1.5 simulated solar illumination (100 mW/cm2).

  13. Planar Integrated Magnetics (PIM) Module in Hybrid Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    , hereby increasing the power density of converters. In this paper, a new planar integrated magnetics (PIM) module for a phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional dc-dc converter is proposed, which assembles one boost inductor and two transformers into an E-I-E core geometry, reducing...... and theoretical analysis, a lab prototype employing the PIM module is implemented for a fuel cell application with 20~40 V input voltage and 400 V output voltage. Detailed results from the experimental comparisons demonstrate that the PIM module is fully functional and electromagnetically equivalent...

  14. Detection of chromosomal aberrations in seminomatous germ cell tumours using comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, A M; Kirchhoff, M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    1997-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to evaluate tissue specimens from 16 seminomas in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of germ cell tumours in males. A characteristic pattern of losses and gains within the entire genomes was detected in 94% of the seminomas by comparing the ratio...... was demonstrated in the seminomas by improved detection criteria, which increased specificity and sensitivity. The rare aberrations, which appeared only in tumours in improved detection criteria, which increased specificity and sensitivity. The rare aberrations, which appeared only in tumours in clinical stage II...

  15. Improving Link Robustness in 5G Ultra-Dense Small Cells by Hybrid ARQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Catania, Davide; Frederiksen, Frank;

    2014-01-01

    A new 5th generation (5G) radio access technology is expected to cope with an estimated factor of x1000 growth in mobile data traffic in the upcoming years. Such system will be optimized for a massive uncoordinated deployment of small cells, where autonomous operation of the individual nodes may...... bring unpredictable and fast varying link quality. In this paper, Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) is studied as a solution to cope with such unpredictability. An operational mode of HARQ for our 5G system definition is proposed, and its performance is evaluated for two different scheduling...

  16. Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Julia, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti

  17. Performance study of sugar-yeast-ethanol bio-hybrid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Mackie, David M.; Benyamin, Marcus; Ganguli, Rahul; Sumner, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Renewable alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons for energy generation are of general interest for a variety of political, economic, environmental, and practical reasons. In particular, energy from biomass has many advantages, including safety, sustainability, and the ability to be scavenged from native ecosystems or from waste streams. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can take advantage of microorganism metabolism to efficiently use sugar and other biomolecules as fuel, but are limited by low power densities. In contrast, direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) take advantage of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) to generate electricity from alcohols at much higher power densities. Here, we investigate a novel bio-hybrid fuel cell design prepared using commercial off-the-shelf DAFCs. In the bio-hybrid fuel cells, biomass such as sugar is fermented by yeast to ethanol, which can be used to fuel a DAFC. A separation membrane between the fermentation and the DAFC is used to purify the fermentate while avoiding any parasitic power losses. However, shifting the DAFCs from pure alcohol-water solutions to filtered fermented media introduces complications related to how the starting materials, fermentation byproducts, and DAFC waste products affect both the fermentation and the long-term DAFC performance. This study examines the impact of separation membrane pore size, fermentation/fuel cell byproducts, alcohol and salt concentrations, and load resistance on fuel cell performance. Under optimized conditions, the performance obtained is comparable to that of a similar DAFC run with a pure alcohol-water mixture. Additionally, the modified DAFC can provide useable amounts of power for weeks.

  18. Formation of porous SnS nanoplate networks from solution and their application in hybrid solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, T.; Gury, L.; Sanchez-Molina, I; Martinez, L; Haque, SA

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we present a facile solution-based route towards nanostructured, hybrid absorber layers based on tin mono-sulfide (SnS), an emerging, non-toxic absorber material for low-cost and large-scale PV applications. Charge photogeneration properties in the hybrid system are studied using transient absorption spectroscopy and fabricated solar cells show efficient photocurrent generation over a broad spectral range.

  19. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribioli, L., E-mail: laura.tribioli@unicusano.it; Cozzolino, R. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Niccolo’ Cusano (Italy); Barbieri, M. [Engineering Dept., University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, 80143 Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  20. Study of MEH–PPV/PCBM active layer morphology and its application for hybrid solar cell performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quynh Nhu Nguyen Truong; Nguyen Tam Nguyen Truong; Chinho Park; Jae Hak Jung

    2012-04-01

    Surface morphologies of MEH–PPV:PCBM active layers were optimized by investigating ITO substrate treated with oxygen and nitrogen plasma. This treatment effectively improved smoothness, transmittance, and contact angle of ITO’s, resulting in good anode contacts for hybrid device structures. The consistently improved performance of hybrid solar cells was also achieved. The surface properties of treated and untreated ITO substrates were compared by contact angle, four point probe, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy.