WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid bistable optical

  1. What is refractive optical bistability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhehov, Tomislav

    1993-01-01

    The basic elements of the theory of refractive optical bistability, assuming mediums with linear absorption are given. Special attention is paid to bistable etalons of semiconductor materials an oxide glasses, since some of them are considered as promising components for optical bistability applications. The design optimization of such devices for minimum switching intensity is analyzed. Computer simulation of the transfer characteristic recording for two InSb etalons is presented. (author)

  2. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  3. Optical bistability controlling light with light

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbs, Hyatt

    1985-01-01

    Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light focuses on optical bistability in nonlinear optical systems. Emphasis is on passive (non-laser) systems that exhibit reversible bistability with input intensity as the hysteresis variable, along with the physics and the potential applications of such systems for nonlinear optical signal processing. This book consists of seven chapters and begins with a historical overview of optical bistability in lasers and passive systems. The next chapter describes steady-state theories of optical bistability, including the Bonifacio-Lugiato model, as we

  4. Optical bistability without the rotating wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharaby, Yasser A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Joshi, Amitabh, E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.ed [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Hassan, Shoukry S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.co [Mathematics Department, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2010-04-26

    Optical bistability for two-level atomic system in a ring cavity is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA) using non-autonomous Maxwell-Bloch equations with Fourier decomposition up to first harmonic. The first harmonic output field component exhibits reversed or closed loop bistability simultaneously with the usual (anti-clockwise) bistability in the fundamental field component.

  5. Optical bistability without the rotating wave approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaby, Yasser A.; Joshi, Amitabh; Hassan, Shoukry S.

    2010-01-01

    Optical bistability for two-level atomic system in a ring cavity is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA) using non-autonomous Maxwell-Bloch equations with Fourier decomposition up to first harmonic. The first harmonic output field component exhibits reversed or closed loop bistability simultaneously with the usual (anti-clockwise) bistability in the fundamental field component.

  6. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Jin Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.are, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulma.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulma.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  7. Possible hysteresis loops of resonatorless optical bistability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Le Thi Cat Tuong.

    1990-05-01

    We qualitatively show that hysteresis loops of intrinsic optical bistability phenomena without any additional feedback may be of various shapes including those of a butterfly and a three-winged bow. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  8. Noticeable positive Doppler effect on optical bistability in an N-type active Raman gain atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zeng-Guang; Zhang Jing-Tao; Niu Yue-Ping; Gong Shang-Qing

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the Doppler effect on optical bistability in an N-type active Raman gain atomic system inside an optical ring cavity. It is shown that the Doppler effect can greatly enhance the dispersion and thus create the bistable behaviour or greatly increase the bistable region, which has been known as the positive Doppler effect on optical bistability. In addition, we find that a positive Doppler effect can change optical bistability from the hybrid dispersion-gain type to a dispersive type

  9. Optical bistability and multistability in polaritonic materials doped with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiping; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the optical bistability and multistability in polaritonic materials doped with nanoparticles inside an optical ring cavity. It is found that the optical bistability and multistability can be easily controlled by adjusting the corresponding parameters of the system properly. The effect of the dipole–dipole interaction has also been included in the formulation, which leads to interesting phenomena. Our scheme opens up the possibility of controling the optical bistability and multistability in polaritonic materials doped with nanoparticles. (letter)

  10. Optical bistability using quantum interference in V-type atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M A; Calderon, Oscar G

    2002-01-01

    The behaviour of a V-type three-level atomic system in a ring cavity driven by a coherent field is studied. We consider a V configuration under conditions such that interference between decay channels is important. We find that when quantum interference is taken into account, optical bistability can be realized with a considerable decrease in the threshold intensity and the cooperative parameter. On the other hand, we also include the finite bandwidth of the driving field and study its role in the optical bistable response. It is found that at certain linewidths of the driving field optical bistability is obtained even if the system satisfies the trapping condition and the threshold intensity can be controlled. Furthermore, a change from the optical bistability due to quantum interference to the usual bistable behaviour based on saturation occurs as the driving field linewidth increases

  11. Optical bistability and multistability in a three-level Δ-type atomic system under the nonresonant condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Xi, Chen; Zhi-Ping, Wang; De-Hai, Chen; Yan-Qiu, Xu

    2009-01-01

    Under a nonresonant condition, we theoretically investigate hybrid absorptive-dispersive optical bistability and multistability behaviours in a three-level Δ-type system by using a microwave field to drive a hyperfine transition between two upper excited states inside a unidirectional ring cavity. We find that the optical bistability and multistability behaviours can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the microwave field or the intensity of the coherent coupling field. Furthermore, our studies show an interesting phenomenon of the transition from the optical bistability to the optical multistability only by changing the negative detuning of the coupling field into the positive detuning of the coupling field. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  12. Optical bistability induced by quantum coherence in a negative index atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Jun; Sun Hui; Li Jin-Ping; Yin Bao-Yin; Guo Hong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Bistability behaviors in an optical ring cavity filled with a dense V-type four-level atomic medium are theoretically investigated. It is found that the optical bistability can appear in the negative refraction frequency band, while both the bistability and multi-stability can occur in the positive refraction frequency bands. Therefore, optical bistability can be realized from conventional material to negative index material due to quantum coherence in our scheme. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Optical Bistability in Graded Core-Shell Granular Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ya-Min; Chen Guo-Qing; Xue Si-Zhong; Zhu Zhuo-Wei; Ma Chao-Qun

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic optical bistability (OB) of graded core-shell granular composites is investigated. The coated particles are made of cores with gradient dielectric function in c (r) = A(r/a) k and nonlinear shells. In view of the exponential distribution of the core dielectric constant, the potential functions of each region are obtained by solving the Maxwell equations, and the mathematical expressions of electric field in the shells and cores are determined. Numerical study reveals that the optical bistable threshold and the threshold width of the composite medium are dependent on the shell thickness, core dielectric exponent, and power function coefficient. The optical bistable width increases with the decreasing shell thickness and the power exponent and with the increasing power function coefficient

  14. An Optically Driven Bistable Janus Rotor with Patterned Metal Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yiwu; Liu, Jing; Liu, Rui; Guo, Honglian; Yang, Mingcheng; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Ke

    2015-11-24

    Bistable rotation is realized for a gold-coated Janus colloidal particle in an infrared optical trap. The metal coating on the Janus particles are patterned by sputtering gold on a monolayer of closely packed polystyrene particles. The Janus particle is observed to stably rotate in an optical trap. Both the direction and the rate of rotation can be experimentally controlled. Numerical calculations reveal that the bistable rotation is the result of spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by the uneven curvature of the coating patterns on the Janus sphere. Our results thus provide a simple method to construct large quantities of fully functional rotary motors for nano- or microdevices.

  15. Excitonic optical bistability in n-type doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Le Thi Cat Tuong

    1991-07-01

    A resonant monochromatic pump laser generates coherent excitons in an n-type doped semiconductor. Both exciton-exciton and exciton-donor interactions come into play. The former interaction can give rise to the appearance of optical bistability which is heavily influenced by the latter one. When optical bistability occurs at a fixed laser frequency both its holding intensity and hysteresis loop size are shown to decrease with increasing donor concentration. Two possibilities are suggested for experimentally determining one of the two parameters of the system - the exciton-donor coupling constant and the donor concentration, if the other parameter is known beforehand. (author). 36 refs, 2 figs

  16. Dynamic optical bistability in resonantly enhanced Raman generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikova, I.; Phillips, D.F.; Zibrov, A.S.; Andre, A.; Walsworth, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    We report observations of novel dynamic behavior in resonantly enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in Rb vapor. In particular, we demonstrate a dynamic hysteresis of the Raman scattered optical field in response to changes of the drive laser field intensity and/or frequency. This effect may be described as a dynamic form of optical bistability resulting from the formation and decay of atomic coherence. We have applied this phenomenon to the realization of an all-optical switch

  17. Phase-dependent optical bistability and multistability in a semiconductor quantum well system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Fan Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the hybrid absorptive-dispersive optical bistability and multistability in a four-level inverted-Y quantum well system inside a unidirectional ring cavity. We find that the coupling field, the pumping field as well as the cycling field can affect the optical bistability and multistability dramatically, which can be used to manipulate efficiently the threshold intensity and the hysteresis loop. The effects of the relative phase and the electronic cooperation parameter on the OB and OM are also studied. Our study is much more practical than its atomic counterpart due to its flexible design and the wide adjustable parameters. Thus, it may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.

  18. Optical bistability of optical fiber ring doped by Erbium and quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, S.; Tofighi, S.; Bahrampour, A.; Sajad, B.; Shahshahani, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical analysis of the steady state behavior of the optical bistability in an optical fiber ring doped by Erbium and quantum dots is presented. The up and down switching power is calculated and the dependence of the switching power on different fiber ring parameters is investigated. The switching power for this type of optical bistability device is obtained much lower than the fiber ring which its half length is doped by Erbium ion.

  19. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Chen, Aixi, E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.

  20. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device

  1. Controlling the optical bistability and multistability in a two-level pumped-probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad; Sahrai, Mostafa; Masoumeh Mousavi, Seyede

    2010-01-01

    We study the behavior of the optical bistability (OB) and multistability (OM) in a two-level pumped-probe atomic system by means of a unidirectional ring cavity. We show that the optical bistability in a two-level atomic system can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the pump field and the detuning between two fields. We find that applying the pumping field decreases the threshold of the optical bistability.

  2. Two optical bistability domains in composites of metal nanoparticles with nonlinear dielectric core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewamare, Sisay, E-mail: sisayshewa20@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Mal' nev, V.N., E-mail: vadimnmalnev@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2012-12-15

    It is shown that the local field in metal spherical particles with a dielectric core in an external varying electric field has two maxima at two different frequencies. The second maximum becomes more important with an increment in the metal fraction. Due to the nonlinear dielectric function of the core, the composite of these inclusions may have two optically induced bistability domains at different frequencies. At rather high metal fraction, two bistability domains merge and form one entire bistability domain. The parameters of these domains are studied numerically. The paper focuses on the second bistability domain, which has not been discussed in the literature so far. This domain exists in a comparatively narrow frequency range and its onset fields are lower than those of the first bistability domain. The lowest bistability onset fields are obtained in the entire domain. This peculiarity of the optical induced bistability in the metal composite with small dielectric cores can be attractive for possible applications.

  3. Controllable optical bistability in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yan, Jia-Kai; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistable behavior in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings. The effects of the cavity-pump detuning and the pump power on the bistable behavior are discussed detailedly, the impacts of the atom-pump detuning and the atom-cavity coupling strength on the bistability of the system are also explored, and the influences of the cavity-resonator coupling strength and the cavity decay rate are also taken into consideration. The numerical results demonstrate that by tuning these parameters the bistable behavior of the system can be freely switched on or off, and the threshold of the pump power for the bistability as well as the bistable region width can also be effectively controlled. These results can find potential applications in optical bistable switch in the quantum information processing.

  4. Two optical bistability domains in composites of metal nanoparticles with nonlinear dielectric core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewamare, Sisay; Mal'nev, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the local field in metal spherical particles with a dielectric core in an external varying electric field has two maxima at two different frequencies. The second maximum becomes more important with an increment in the metal fraction. Due to the nonlinear dielectric function of the core, the composite of these inclusions may have two optically induced bistability domains at different frequencies. At rather high metal fraction, two bistability domains merge and form one entire bistability domain. The parameters of these domains are studied numerically. The paper focuses on the second bistability domain, which has not been discussed in the literature so far. This domain exists in a comparatively narrow frequency range and its onset fields are lower than those of the first bistability domain. The lowest bistability onset fields are obtained in the entire domain. This peculiarity of the optical induced bistability in the metal composite with small dielectric cores can be attractive for possible applications.

  5. Internal optical bistability of quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor nanoheterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanchuk, Oleksandr V.; Kramar, Natalia K.; Kramar, Valeriy M.

    2018-01-01

    We represent the results of numerical computations of the frequency and temperature domains of possible realization of internal optical bistability in flat quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor nanoheterostructures with a single quantum well (i.e., nanofilms). Particular computations have been made for a nanofilm of layered semiconductor PbI2 embedded in dielectric medium, i.e. ethylene-methacrylic acid (E-MAA) copolymer. It is shown that an increase in the nanofilm's thickness leads to a long-wave shift of the frequency range of the manifestation the phenomenon of bistability, to increase the size of the hysteresis loop, as well as to the expansion of the temperature interval at which the realization of this phenomenon is possible.

  6. Atom-loss-induced quantum optical bi-stability switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bao-Jun; Cui Fu-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a system composed of a cigar-shaped Bose—Einstein condensate and an optical cavity with the two sides coupled dispersively. By adopting discrete-mode approximation for the condensate, taking atom loss as a necessary part of the model to analyze the evolution of the system, while using trial and error method to find out steady states of the system as a reference, numerical simulation demonstrates that with a constant pump, atom loss will trigger a quantum optical bi-stability switch, which predicts a new interesting phenomenon for experiments to verify

  7. Optical bistability via quantum interference from incoherent pumping and spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahrai, M.; Asadpour, S.H.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability (OB) in a V-type three-level atomic system confined in a unidirectional ring cavity via incoherent pumping field. It is shown that the threshold of optical bistability can be controlled by the rate of an incoherent pumping field and by interference mechanism arising from the spontaneous emission and incoherent pumping field. We demonstrate that the optical bistability converts to optical multi-stability (OM) by the quantum interference mechanism. - Highlights: → We modulate the optical bistability (OB) in a four-level N-type atomic system. → The threshold of optical bistability can be controlled by the quantum interferences. → OB converts to optical multi-stability (OM) by the quantum interferences. → We discuss the effect of an incoherent pumping field on reduction of OB threshold.

  8. Optical bistability and limiting in polymer dispersed liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yshino, K.; Tagawa, A.; Sadohara, Y.; Ozaki, M. (Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Munezawa, T. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Nomura, Y. (Takiron Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-04-15

    The linear electro-optical effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) and the nonlinear optical response of electrically feedbacked PDLC were studied. Electro-optical limiting and bistability were observed in PDLCs with negative and positive feedback, respectively. In the PDLC film with positive feedback gain, an optical hysteresis loop shifted toward a high intensity region with decreasing magnitude of the feedback gain. The switching between high and low transmission states in an optical bistable region was realized by controlling incident light, and the on-off switching by superimposing light pulse on incident light for an extremely short period (several hundreds {mu}s). As the light pulse was strong, the minimum pulse width required for switching was as short as 500 {mu}s or less. The on-off switching was also realized by shutting out the incident light for a period equivalent to the pulse width. Slower response times of the PDLC film required longer minimum pulse widths. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Plasmon-modulated bistable four-wave mixing signals from a metal nanoparticle-monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Xiao-Long; Ma, Jin-Hong; Xu, Si-Qin; Kuang, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Shan; Xiao, Si; He, Meng-Dong; Kim, Nam-Chol; Luo, Jian-Hua; Chen, Li-Qun

    2018-06-01

    We present a study for the impact of exciton-phonon and exciton-plasmon interactions on bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in a metal nanoparticle (MNP)-monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator hybrid system. Via tracing the FWM response we predict that, depending on the excitation conditions and the system parameters, such a system exhibits ‘U-shaped’ bistable FWM signals. We also map out bistability phase diagrams within the system’s parameter space. Especially, we show that compared with the exciton-phonon interaction, a strong exciton-plasmon interaction plays a dominant role in the generation of optical bistability, and the bistable region will be greatly broadened by shortening the distance between the MNP and the monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator. In the weak exciton-plasmon coupling regime, the impact of exciton-phonon interaction on optical bistability will become obvious. The scheme proposed may be used for building optical switches and logic-gate devices for optical computing and quantum information processing.

  10. Plasmon-modulated bistable four-wave mixing signals from a metal nanoparticle-monolayer MoS2 nanoresonator hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Xiao-Long; Ma, Jin-Hong; Xu, Si-Qin; Kuang, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Shan; Xiao, Si; He, Meng-Dong; Kim, Nam-Chol; Luo, Jian-Hua; Chen, Li-Qun

    2018-06-22

    We present a study for the impact of exciton-phonon and exciton-plasmon interactions on bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in a metal nanoparticle (MNP)-monolayer MoS 2 nanoresonator hybrid system. Via tracing the FWM response we predict that, depending on the excitation conditions and the system parameters, such a system exhibits 'U-shaped' bistable FWM signals. We also map out bistability phase diagrams within the system's parameter space. Especially, we show that compared with the exciton-phonon interaction, a strong exciton-plasmon interaction plays a dominant role in the generation of optical bistability, and the bistable region will be greatly broadened by shortening the distance between the MNP and the monolayer MoS 2 nanoresonator. In the weak exciton-plasmon coupling regime, the impact of exciton-phonon interaction on optical bistability will become obvious. The scheme proposed may be used for building optical switches and logic-gate devices for optical computing and quantum information processing.

  11. Bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer : Mechanism, phase diagram, and switching time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, Bintoro; Iskandar, Alexander; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of the bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer comprised of a closely spaced semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. The bistable nature of the response results from the interplay between the quantum dot's optical nonlinearity and its

  12. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: dr.mona.fathy@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.edu [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  13. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.S.; Sharaby, Y.A.; Ali, M.F.M.; Joshi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  14. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in a graphene monolayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duo, E-mail: zhangduo10@126.com [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Sun, Zhaoyu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Ding, Chunling [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yu, Rong [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Yang, Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-02-15

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) in a graphene monolayer system driven by an elliptically polarized control field and a right-hand circularly polarized probe field. Our numerical results show that it is easy to realize the transition from OB to OM or vice versa by adjusting the frequency detunings of the probe field and the control field, as well as the polarization-dependent phase difference between the two components of the control laser field. The influences of the intensity of the control field and the cooperation parameter on the OB behavior are also discussed in detail. These results may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.

  15. Optical bistability in Er-Yb codoped phosphate glass microspheres at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Jonathan M.; O'Shea, Danny G.; Shortt, Brian J.; Chormaic, Sile Nic

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate optical bistability in Er(3+)-Yb(3+) phosphate glass microspheres at 295 K. Bistability is associated with both Er(3+) fluorescence and lasing behavior, and chromatic switching. The chromatic switching results from an intrinsic mechanism exploiting the thermal coupling

  16. Topical Meeting on Optical Bistability Held at Rochester, New York on 15-17 June 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    ThB16-1 SELF-BEATING INSTABILITIES IN BISTABLE DEVICES J.A. MARTIN-PEREDA .. M.A. MURIEL DEPARTAMENTO DE ELECTRONICA CUANTICA E.T.S. ING...OPTICAL BISTABLL SYSTEMS J.A. MARTIN PEREDA M.A. MURIEL ; DEPARTAMENIO DE ELECTRONICA CUANTICA E.T.S. ING. TELLCOMUNICACION UNIVERSIDAD POLITECNICA DE

  17. Design of all-optical flip-flop by using optical bistability in passive micro-rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.; Abolfazli, M. J.; Rouholamini Nejad, H.; Bahrampour, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper at first, Optical bistability in the micro ring resonators in the presence of Kerr and two-photon absorption effects is studied and also, attenuation in micro rings with these nonlinear effects is calculated. An all-optical R-S flip-flop is designed by using optical bistability. Conditions for SET and RESET signals are calculated and their dependences on the optical parameters of micro rings are investigated.

  18. Method and apparatus for bistable optical information storage for erasable optical disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Cecil E.; McKinney, Ira D.

    1990-01-01

    A method and an optical device for bistable storage of optical information, together with reading and erasure of the optical information, using a photoactivated shift in a field dependent phase transition between a metastable or a bias-stabilized ferroelectric (FE) phase and a stable antiferroelectric (AFE) phase in an lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT). An optical disk contains the PLZT. Writing and erasing of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam normal to the disk. Reading of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam at an incidence angle of 15 to 60 degrees to the normal of the disk.

  19. A novel optic bistable device with very low threshold intensity using photorefractive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sean X.; Sun, Yuankun; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Li, Guifang

    1994-08-01

    Brimrose Corporation of America reports the successful completion of the SBIR Phase I research in low-threshold intensity optical bistable devices using photorefractive nonlinearity. A thin photorefractive film optical bistable device was proposed in the Phase I proposal. The feasibility of this device was theoretically investigated. The theoretical feasibility study formulates the materials requirements in such a kind of configuration for Phase II research. In addition, we have proposed and investigated another configuration of optical bistable devices that do not require advanced photorefractive materials, namely, the self-pumped phase conjugator. We have successfully demonstrated a low-threshold optical bistable operation in a KNSBN:CU crystal. To the best of our knowledge, the threshold of 650 mW/sq. cm is the lowest of its kind to be achieved so far.

  20. Optical bistability in a single-sided cavity coupled to a quantum channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payravi, M.; Solookinejad, Gh; Jabbari, M.; Nafar, M.; Ahmadi Sangachin, E.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the long wavelength optical reflection and bistable behavior of an InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure coupled to a single-sided cavity. It is found that due to the presence of a strong coupling field, the reflection coefficient can be controlled at long wavelength, which is essential for adjusting the threshold of reflected optical bistability. Moreover, the phase shift features of the reflection pulse inside an electromagnetically induced transparency window are also discussed.

  1. Geometric and potential dynamics interpretation of the optic ring resonator bistability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiangga, S.; Chittha, T.; Frank, T. D.

    2015-07-01

    The optical bistability is a fundamental nonlinear feature of the ring resonator. A geometric and potential dynamics interpretation of the bistability is given. Accordingly, the bistability of the nonlinear system is shown to be a consequence of geometric laws of vector calculus describing the resonator ring. In contrast, the so-called transcendental relations that have been obtained in the literature in order to describe the optical wave are interpreted in terms of potential dynamical systems. The proposed novel interpretation provides new insights into the nature of the ring resonator optical bistability. The fundamental work by Rukhlenko, Premaratne and Agrawal (2010) as well as a more recent study by Chiangga, Pitakwongsaporn, Frank and Yupapin (2013) are considered.

  2. A silicon-nanowire memory driven by optical gradient force induced bistability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, B. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Cai, H., E-mail: caih@ime.a-star.edu.sg; Gu, Y. D.; Kwong, D. L. [Institute of Microelectronics, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Chin, L. K.; Ng, G. I.; Ser, W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huang, J. G. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yang, Z. C. [School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, A. Q., E-mail: eaqliu@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-28

    In this paper, a bistable optical-driven silicon-nanowire memory is demonstrated, which employs ring resonator to generate optical gradient force over a doubly clamped silicon-nanowire. Two stable deformation positions of a doubly clamped silicon-nanowire represent two memory states (“0” and “1”) and can be set/reset by modulating the light intensity (<3 mW) based on the optical force induced bistability. The time response of the optical-driven memory is less than 250 ns. It has applications in the fields of all optical communication, quantum computing, and optomechanical circuits.

  3. Optical nonlinearity and bistability in the bound exciton energy range of CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, T.; Gutowski, J.

    1988-01-01

    Under high excitation conditions thick CdS samples show pronounced broad-band nonlinear transmission in the bound exciton region and up to a wavelength of about 515 nm at cryo-temperatures. This behavior is only explainable in a model based on impurity neutralization and bound exciton creation. The suitability of these nonlinearities to yield optical bistability will be shown. Bistable operation is investigated in dependence of crystal thickness, impurity concentration, excitation density, wavelength, and temperature. A strong correlation to acceptor-bound exciton generation is obtained, and the explanation of this bistable operation fits well with that of the above mentioned transmission behavior. (author)

  4. Optical bistability in the oscillation of an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-three-level laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Tian, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical modeling analysis is presented to study the optical bistability exhibited in the oscillation of an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-three-level laser. All the major characteristics of optical bistability depend on two normalized parameters, f and x a , which are defined by f = I sat,a /I sat,m and x a = 2α a0 p a /δ and are related to measurable properties of the laser medium. In comparison with the case of a homogeneously broadened laser, the essential condition for the occurrence of such bistability, f a /(x a + 1), turns out to be the same, whereas the intensities at the up- and down-thresholds are substantially increased and the bistability range is reduced. (paper)

  5. Influence of Fano interference and incoherent processes on optical bistability in a four-level quantum dot nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein Asadpour, Seyyed; Solookinejad, G; Panahi, M; Ahmadi Sangachin, E

    2016-01-01

    Role of Fano interference and incoherent pumping field on optical bistability in a four-level designed InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are analyzed. It is found that intensity threshold of optical bistability can be manipulated by Fano interference. It is shown that incoherent pumping fields make the threshold of optical bistability behave differently by Fano interference. Moreover, in the presence of Fano interference the medium becomes phase-dependent. Therefore, the relative phase of applied fields can affect the behaviors of optical bistability and intensity threshold can be controlled easily. (paper)

  6. Controlling steady-state and dynamical properties of atomic optical bistability

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical and experimental studies of atomic optical bistability and multistability, and their dynamical properties in systems with two- and three-level inhomogeneously-broadened atoms inside an optical cavity. By making use of the modified linear absorption and dispersion, as well as the greatly enhanced nonlinearity in the three-level electromagnetically induced transparency system, the optical bistablity and efficient all-optical switching can be achieved at relatively low laser powers, which can be well controlled and manipulated. Un

  7. Low-threshold optical bistability with multilayer graphene-covering Otto configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hengliang; Wu, Jipeng; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Wen, Shuangchun; Guo, Jun; Jiang, Leyong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified Otto configuration to realize tunable and low-threshold optical bistability at terahertz frequencies by attaching multilayer graphene sheets to a nonlinear substrate interface. Our work demonstrates that the threshold of optical bistability can be markedly reduced (three orders of magnitude) by covering the nonlinear substrate with multilayer graphene sheets, due to strong local field enhancement with the excitation of surface plasmons. We present the influences of the Fermi energy of graphene, the incident angle, the thickness of air gap and the relaxation time of graphene on the hysteresis phenomenon and give a way to optimize the surface plasmon resonance, which will enable us to further lower the minimal power requirements for realizing optical bistability due to the strong interaction of light with graphene sheets. These results are promising for realization of terahertz optical switches, optical modulators and logical devices. (paper)

  8. Controlling the optical bistability and transmission coefficient in a four-level atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Eslami-Majd, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    A novel four level atomic configuration is proposed for controlling the optical bistability and transmission coefficient with application on all-optical switching. Two circularly polarized components from a weak linearly-polarized probe beam are interacted separately by two transitions of this medium. A coherent coupling field has derived another atomic transition. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient of two orthogonally polarized beams at different frequencies can be achieved by adjusting the magnitude of the external magnetic field. It is found that the threshold of the optical bistability can be controlled by magnitude of the external magnetic field. Also, it is shown that optical bistability can be converted to optical multistability by switching the two orthogonally polarized beams. - Highlights: ► An inverted Y-type four level atomic system is proposed. ► Transmission coefficient can be controlled by a novel interesting parameter. ► Optical bistability and multistability can be achieved via external magnetic field. ► It is shown that our proposed model is suitable for all optical switching application.

  9. All-optical bistable logic control based on coupled Tamm plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei Li; Jiang, Yao; Zhu, Ye Yu; Wang, Fen; Rao, Yun Jiang

    2013-10-15

    A method for realizing low-threshold all-optical bistable logic control is proposed based on Tamm plasmons (TPs), which are formed in an asymmetric dielectric Bragg reflector (DBR)-metal-DBR (ADMD) structure with a layer of Kerr medium embedded. The ADMD structure supports two TPs due to coupling of trapped modes at each metal-DBR interface, generating two dips in the structure's reflection spectrum. Thus, control (i.e., pump) and controlled (i.e., probe) light with wavelengths close to the two dips, respectively, can be imported. It is verified theoretically that, thanks to the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity related to excitation of high-quality TP, bistable switching at very low injection intensity can be initiated by strength or direction variation of the pump. Meanwhile, the probe changes correspondingly with the pump. Thus, all-optical bistable logic operation of the probe can be controlled by the pump.

  10. Control of optical bistability and third-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triangular quantum dot molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Si-Cong; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Jin-Long; Shan, Xiao-Nan; Fu, Xi-Hong; Zeng, Yu-Gang; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process

  11. Controllable optical bistability in photonic-crystal one-atom laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoyong; Lue Shuchen

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the property of optical bistability in a photonic-crystal one-atom laser when nonlinear microcavity is present. The physical system consists of a coherently driven two-level light emitter strongly coupled to a high-quality microcavity which is embedded within a photonic crystal and another coherent probing field which has incident into the microcavity. In our case, the microcavity is fabricated by nonlinear material and placed as an impurity in photonic crystal. This study reveals that such a system can exhibit optical bistability. The dependence of threshold value and hysteresis loop on the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal, driving field Rabi frequency and dephasing processes, are studied. Our results clearly illustrate the ability to control optical bistability through suitable photonic-crystal architectures and external coherent driving field, and this study suggests that in a photonic-crystal nonlinear microcavity, the one-atom laser acts as an effective controllable bistable device in the design of all-light digital computing systems in the near future.

  12. The transformation of optical bistability effect and of generated pulses in operation of a DFB laser with two sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Phu; Dinh Van Hoang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper is presented the transformation of characteristics of optical bistability effect and of generated pulses in operation of a DFB laser with two sections. By solving the rate equations describing the operation of this laser the appearance of optical bistability effect in stationary regime and of short pulses in transient regime is obtained. With the variation of dynamical laser parameter we can evaluate the transformation indicated above. The method of examination used here is simple for determining the influence of any dynamical laser parameter on characteristics of optical bistability effect and generated pulses. (author)

  13. Second-order differential-delay equation to describe a hybrid bistable device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallee, R.; Dubois, P.; Cote, M.; Delisle, C.

    1987-08-01

    The problem of a dynamical system with delayed feedback, a hybrid bistable device, characterized by n response times and described by an nth-order differential-delay equation (DDE) is discussed. Starting from a linear-stability analysis of the DDE, the effects of the second-order differential terms on the position of the first bifurcation and on the frequency of the resulting self-oscillation are shown. The effects of the third-order differential terms on the first bifurcation are also considered. Experimental results are shown to support the linear analysis.

  14. Method of bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric phase PLZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Cecil E.

    1990-01-01

    A method for bistable storage of binary optical information includes an antiferroelectric (AFE) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) layer having a stable antiferroelectric first phase and a ferroelectric (FE) second phase obtained by applying a switching electric field across the surface of the device. Optical information is stored by illuminating selected portions of the layer to photoactivate an FE to AFE transition in those portions. Erasure of the stored information is obtained by reapplying the switching field.

  15. Coherent-feedback-induced controllable optical bistability and photon blockade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Long; Liu, Zhong-Peng; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that some nonlinear phenomena such as strong photon blockade are difficult to observe in optomechanical systems with current experimental technology. Here we present a coherent feedback control strategy in which a linear cavity is coherently controlled by an optomechanical controller in a feedback manner. The coherent feedback loop transfers quantum nonlinearity from the controller to the controlled cavity causing destructive quantum interference to occur, and making it possible to observe strong nonlinear effects. With the help of the coherent feedback loop, large and tunable bistability and strong photon blockade of the cavity modes can be achieved even in the optomechanical weak coupling regime. Additionally, the coherent feedback loop leads to two-photon and multiphoton tunnelings for the controlled linear cavity, which are also typical quantum nonlinear phenomena. We hope that our work can give new perspectives on engineering nonlinear interactions in quantum systems. (paper)

  16. Feedback-induced bistability of an optically levitated nanoparticle: A Fokker-Planck treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wenchao; Rodenburg, Brandon; Bhattacharya, M.

    2016-08-01

    Optically levitated nanoparticles have recently emerged as versatile platforms for investigating macroscopic quantum mechanics and enabling ultrasensitive metrology. In this paper we theoretically consider two damping regimes of an optically levitated nanoparticle cooled by cavityless parametric feedback. Our treatment is based on a generalized Fokker-Planck equation derived from the quantum master equation presented recently and shown to agree very well with experiment [B. Rodenburg, L. P. Neukirch, A. N. Vamivakas, and M. Bhattacharya, Quantum model of cooling and force sensing with an optically trapped nanoparticle, Optica 3, 318 (2016), 10.1364/OPTICA.3.000318]. For low damping, we find that the resulting Wigner function yields the single-peaked oscillator position distribution and recovers the appropriate energy distribution derived earlier using a classical theory and verified experimentally [J. Gieseler, R. Quidant, C. Dellago, and L. Novotny, Dynamic relaxation of a levitated nanoparticle from a non-equilibrium steady state, Nat. Nano. 9, 358 (2014), 10.1038/nnano.2014.40]. For high damping, in contrast, we predict a double-peaked position distribution, which we trace to an underlying bistability induced by feedback. Unlike in cavity-based optomechanics, stochastic processes play a major role in determining the bistable behavior. To support our conclusions, we present analytical expressions as well as numerical simulations using the truncated Wigner function approach. Our work opens up the prospect of developing bistability-based devices, characterization of phase-space dynamics, and investigation of the quantum-classical transition using levitated nanoparticles.

  17. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  18. Optical wall dynamics induced by coexistence of monostable and bistable spatial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odent, V; Louvergneaux, E; Clerc, M G; Andrade-Silva, I

    2016-11-01

    When nonequilibrium extended homogeneous systems exhibit multistability, it leads to the presence of domain walls between the existing equilibria. Depending on the stability of the steady states, the dynamics differs. Here, we consider the interface dynamics in the case of a spatially inhomogeneous system, namely, an optical system where the control parameter is spatially Gaussian. Then interfaces connect the monostable and the bistable nonuniform states that are associated with two distinct spatial regions. The coexistence of these two regions of different stability induces relaxation dynamics and the propagation of a wall with a time-dependent speed. We emphasize analytically these two dynamical behaviors using a generic bistable model. Experimentally, an inhomogeneous Gaussian light beam traveling through either a dye-doped liquid crystal cell or a Kerr cavity depicts these behaviors, in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  19. Optical bistability and multistability driven by external magnetic field in a dielectric slab doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, R.; Norouzi, F.

    2016-08-01

    The theoretical investigation of controlling the optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) in a dielectric medium doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy centres under optical excitation are reported. The shape of the OB curve from dielectric slab can be tuned by changing the external magnetic field and polarization of the control beam. The effect of the intensity of the control laser field and the frequency detuning of probe laser field on the OB and OM behaviour are also discussed in this paper. The results obtained can be used for realizing an all-optical bistable switching or development of nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Bistable optical devices with laser diodes coupled to absorbers of narrow spectral bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-06-20

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated with a combination of the following two effects: One is the decrease of the transmission of an Er-doped YAG crystal with increasing red shift of a laser diode resulting from an increase in the injection current, and the other is a negative nonlinear absorption in which the transmission decreases inversely with increasing laser intensity. Because a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of the laser diode, an optical bistability was observed in this system.

  1. Amplification without inversion, fast light and optical bistability in a duplicated two-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi Zohravi, Lida; Vafafard, Azar; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of a weak probe field in a duplicated two-level system are investigated in multi-photon resonance (MPR) condition and beyond it. It is shown that by changing the relative phase of applied fields, the absorption switches to the amplification without inversion in MPR condition. By applying the Floquet decomposition to the equations of motion beyond MPR condition, it is shown that the phase-dependent behavior is valid only in MPR condition. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the group velocity of light pulse can be controlled by the intensity of the applied fields and the gain-assisted superluminal light propagation (fast light) is obtained in this system. In addition, the optical bistability (OB) behavior of the system is studied beyond MPR condition. We apply an indirect incoherent pumping field to the system and it is found that the group velocity and OB behavior of the system can be controlled by the incoherent pumping rate. - Highlights: • We studied the optical properties of DTL system under MPR condition and beyond it. • By changing the relative phase, the absorption switches to the amplification without inversion in MPR condition. • The gain-assisted superluminal light propagation (fast light) is obtained in this system. • The optical bistability (OB) behavior of the system is studied beyond MPR condition. • The incoherent pumping rate has a major role in controlling the group velocity and OB behavior of the system

  2. Optical bistability of graphene in the terahertz range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Bludov, Yu V.; Santos, Jaime E.

    2014-01-01

    We use an exact solution of the relaxation-time Boltzmann equation in a uniform ac electric field to describe the nonlinear optical response of graphene in the terahertz (THz) range. The cases of monolayer, bilayer, and ABA-stacked trilayer graphene are considered, and the monolayer species...

  3. Phase dependence of optical bistability and multistability in a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.

    2016-01-01

    The optical bistability and multistability properties of a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are studied theoretically. Two orthogonal circularly polarized laser fields with the same frequency, different phases and electric fields amplitude are interacted by four-level quantum system. It is found that in the presence of the plasmonic nanostructure, the bistable behaviors related to one of the laser fields propagating through the unidirectional ring cavity can be modified by relative phase and amplitude control of another laser fields. Our obtained results show that the optical bistability can be converted into the optical multistability by varying the value of distance between the quantum system and the surface of the plasmonic nanostructure. Moreover, it is shown that under specific condition related to the distance, the lasing without population inversion can be obtained

  4. Phase dependence of optical bistability and multistability in a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H., E-mail: Rahimpour@guilan.ac.ir [Computational Nanophysics Laboratory (CNL), Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-14

    The optical bistability and multistability properties of a four-level quantum system near a plasmonic nanostructure embedded in a unidirectional ring cavity are studied theoretically. Two orthogonal circularly polarized laser fields with the same frequency, different phases and electric fields amplitude are interacted by four-level quantum system. It is found that in the presence of the plasmonic nanostructure, the bistable behaviors related to one of the laser fields propagating through the unidirectional ring cavity can be modified by relative phase and amplitude control of another laser fields. Our obtained results show that the optical bistability can be converted into the optical multistability by varying the value of distance between the quantum system and the surface of the plasmonic nanostructure. Moreover, it is shown that under specific condition related to the distance, the lasing without population inversion can be obtained.

  5. Electrical bistability in conductive hybrid composites of doped polyaniline nanofibers-gold nanoparticles capped with dodecane thiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, A; Agoretti, P; Cassinese, A; D'Angelo, P; Mohanraj, G T; Sanguigno, L

    2009-11-01

    A novel electrical bistable hybrid nanocomposite based on doped Polyaniline nanofibers with 1-Dodecanethiol-protected Gold nanoparticle (PAni.AuDT), 3-4 nm in size, as the conductive component and polystyrene as polymer matrix was prepared. The structural morphology of the composite and the dispersion of nanoparticles inside it were evaluated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The thermal stability and the ratio Polyaniline/Gold nanoparticles in the composite were determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical bistability of the PAni.AuDT-PS composite, the influence of the dispersion of the PAni.AuDT conductive network and the basic operation mechanism, have been assessed by measuring the electrical response of planar device architectures, also as a function of the environmental temperature (in the range 200 K K). The basic operation mechanism of the hybrid compound has been then correlated to the combined action of the thermally-induced scattering of charge carriers and the thermal contraction of the hosting polymeric matrix. Moreover, the right compromise between these two effects in terms of the most efficient bistability has been studied, founding the concentration of the conductive component which optimizes the device on-off ratio (I(on)/ I(off)).

  6. Electro-Optical Characterization of Bistable Smectic A Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktanir, Ebru Aylin

    My dissertation focuses the characterization and optimization of the electro-optical properties of smectic A (SmA) based liquid crystal (LC) displays. I present the development of robust and flexible bistable SmA LC displays utilizing polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) technology. The SmA PDLC displays produced on plastic substrates present electrically reversible memory, high contrast ratio, paper-like sunlight readability, and wide viewing angle characteristics. In order to optimize the SmA PDLC display, I investigated polymerization conditions, such as polymer concentration effect, polymerization temperature, and UV-light intensity variations. I characterized the electro-optical responses-such as static-response, time-response, threshold characteristics, and contrast ratio values' of the optimized SmA PDLC display and compared them to those of the pure SmA LC. The best electro-optical performance of SmA PDLC formulation was obtained using the combination of low mW/cm 2 and high mW/cm2 UV-light curing intensity. The contrast ratio of the optimum SmA PDLC at a 5o collection angle was 83% of that of the pure SmA material on plastic substrates. I fabricated 2.5 x 2.5 in., 4 x 4 in., and 6 x 6 in. sized monochrome flexible SmA PDLC displays, as well as red, yellow, and fluorescent dyes colored SmA PDLC displays on plastic substrates. The electro-optic performance of the bistable SmA LC display consisting of a patterned field-induced polymer wall infrastructure was also studied and compared to those of pure SmA material. I found that the contrast ratio of the SmA LC encapsulated between polymer walls was much greater than that of the SmA PDLC system, approaching the contrast ratio value of the pure SmA material. I also improved the electro-optical characteristics of bistable SmA LC displays by adding ferroparticles into the system. Finally, I illustrated the unique capabilities of polarized confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) to resolve the orientational order of Sm

  7. Induced high-order resonance linewidth shrinking with multiple coupled resonators in silicon-organic hybrid slotted two-dimensional photonic crystals for reduced optical switching power in bistable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thu Trang; Ngo, Quang Minh; Vu, Dinh Lam; Le, Khai Q.; Nguyen, Truong Khang; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.

    2018-01-01

    Shrinking the linewidth of resonances induced by multiple coupled resonators is comprehensively analyzed using the coupled-mode theory (CMT) in time. Two types of coupled resonators under investigation are coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) and side-coupled resonators with waveguide (SCREW). We examine the main parameters influencing on the spectral response such as the number of resonators (n) and the phase shift (φ) between two adjacent resonators. For the CROWs geometry consisting of n coupled resonators, we observe the quality (Q) factor of the right- and left-most resonant lineshapes increases n times larger than that of a single resonator. For the SCREW geometry, relying on the phase shift, sharp, and asymmetric resonant lineshape of the high Q factor a narrow linewidth of the spectral response could be achieved. We employ the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to design and simulate two proposed resonators for practical applications. The proposed coupled resonators in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slotted two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals (PhCs) filled and covered with a low refractive index organic material. Slotted PhC waveguides and cavities are designed to enhance the electromagnetic intensity and to confine the light into small cross-sectional area with low refractive index so that efficient optical devices could be achieved. A good agreement between the theoretical CMT analysis and the FDTD simulation is shown as an evidence for our accurate investigation. All-optical switches based on the CROWs in the SOI slotted 2-D PhC waveguide that are filled and covered by a nonlinear organic cladding to overcome the limitations of its well-known intrinsic properties are also presented. From the calculations, we introduce a dependency of the normalized linewidth of the right-most resonance and its switching power of the all-optical switches on number of resonator, n. This result might provide a guideline for all-optical signal processing on

  8. Study of thermally-induced optical bistability and the role of surface treatments in Si-based mid-infrared photonic crystal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Raji; Bulu, Irfan; Leijssen, Rick; Lončar, Marko

    2011-11-21

    We report the observation of optical bistability in Si-based photonic crystal cavities operating around 4.5 µm. Time domain measurements indicate that the source of this optical bistability is thermal, with a time constant on the order of 5 µs. Quality (Q) factor improvement is shown by the use of surface treatments (wet processes and annealing), resulting in a significant increase in Q-factor, which in our best devices is on the order of ~45,000 at 4.48 µm. After annealing in a N(2) environment, optical bistability is no longer seen in our cavities. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Magnetic and optical bistability in tetrairon(III) single molecule magnets functionalized with azobenzene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Thazhe Kootteri; Poneti, Giordano; Sorace, Lorenzo; Rodriguez-Douton, Maria Jesus; Barra, Anne-Laure; Neugebauer, Petr; Costantino, Luca; Sessoli, Roberta; Cornia, Andrea

    2012-07-21

    Tetrairon(III) complexes known as "ferric stars" have been functionalized with azobenzene groups to investigate the effect of light-induced trans-cis isomerization on single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour. According to DC magnetic data and EPR spectroscopy, clusters dispersed in polystyrene (4% w/w) exhibit the same spin (S = 5) and magnetic anisotropy as bulk samples. Ligand photoisomerization, achieved by irradiation at 365 nm, has no detectable influence on static magnetic properties. However, it induces a small but significant acceleration of magnetic relaxation as probed by AC susceptometry. The pristine behaviour can be almost quantitatively recovered by irradiation with white light. Our studies demonstrate that magnetic and optical bistability can be made to coexist in SMM materials, which are of current interest in molecular spintronics.

  10. Optical Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    owner

    K. George Thomas. Photosciences & Photonics Group. National Institute for Interdisciplinary. Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR,. Trivandrum- 695 019, INDIA. (kgt@vsnl.com). Optical Properties of Hybrid. Nanomaterials ...

  11. Controlling the optical bistability via quantum interference in a four-level N-type atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahrai, M.; Asadpour, S.H.; Mahrami, H.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the optical bistability (OB) and optical multi-stability (OM) in a four-level N-type atomic system. The effect of spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) on OB and OM is then discussed. It is found that SGC makes the medium phase dependent, so the optical bistability and multi-stability threshold can be controlled via relative phase between applied fields. We realize that the frequency detuning of probe and coupling fields with the corresponding atomic transition plays an important role in creation OB and OM. Moreover, the effect of laser coupling fields and an incoherent pumping field on reduction of OB and OM threshold is then discussed. - Highlights: → We modulate the optical bistability (OB) in a four-level N-type atomic system. The effect of spontaneously generated coherence on OB is discussed. → Spontaneously generated coherence makes the medium phase dependent. → The frequency of coupling field can reduce OB threshold. → We discuss the effect of an incoherent pumping field on reduction of OB threshold.

  12. Optical tristability in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of two cavities, which one of them is an optomechanical cavity that includes an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the other is a traditional cavity which contains an atomic medium. Hamiltonian of the system is written in a rotating frame with a rotation frequency of the frequency of input field to the system. Using Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion, the dynamics of the system is described. Applying the steady-state conditions leads to a system of equations of the mean values of the operators of the system. The stability condition of the system is satisfied numerically and behavior of optomechanical cavity is investigated in different situations to find the effect of changing of the parameters of the system on the type of its stability. We show proposed system has the capability of tristable behavior, where, the gain coefficient of OPA acts as a switch in changing the bistability of the system to a tristable manner. The building block of the tristability in this system can be figured out as the enhanced nonlinearity of the system due to the presence of OPA.

  13. Optical bistability of a thin film of resonant atoms in a phase-sensitive thermostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharov, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown theoretically that when a thin film of two-level atoms interacting with a resonant coherent electromagnetic wave is additionally illuminated with a squeezed field, a bistable transmission/reflection regime for coherent waves is obtained. This regime depends strongly on the phase difference between the coherent and the squeezed fields. New regimes, including a bistable regime, for the interaction of a coherent field with a film of resonant atoms are predicted based on this phenomenon. 14 refs., 5 figs

  14. Switching waves dynamics in optical bistable cavity-free system at femtosecond laser pulse propagation in semiconductor under light diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Egorenkov, Vladimir A.; Loginova, Maria M.

    2018-02-01

    We consider a propagation of laser pulse in a semiconductor under the conditions of an occurrence of optical bistability, which appears due to a nonlinear absorption of the semiconductor. As a result, the domains of high concentration of free charged particles (electrons and ionized donors) occur if an intensity of the incident optical pulse is greater than certain intensity. As it is well-known, that an optical beam must undergo a diffraction on (or reflection from) the domains boundaries. Usually, the beam diffraction along a coordinate of the optical pulse propagation does not take into account by using the slowly varying envelope approximation for the laser pulse interaction with optical bistable element. Therefore, a reflection of the beam from the domains with abrupt boundary does not take into account under computer simulation of the laser pulse propagation. However, the optical beams, reflected from nonhomogeneities caused by the domains of high concentration of free-charged particles, can essentially influence on a formation of switching waves in a semiconductor. We illustrate this statement by computer simulation results provided on the base of nonlinear Schrödinger equation and a set of PDEs, which describe an evolution of the semiconductor characteristics (concentrations of free-charged particles and potential of an electric field strength), and taking into account the longitudinal and transverse diffraction effects.

  15. Hybrid Optical Inference Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-27

    with labels. Now, events. a set of facts cal be generated in the dyadic form "u, R 1,2" Eichmann and Caulfield (19] consider the same type of and can...these enceding-schemes. These architectures are-based pri- 19. G. Eichmann and H. J. Caulfield, "Optical Learning (Inference)marily on optical inner

  16. A quintuple quantum dot system for electrical and optical control of multi/bistability in a telecommunication window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmannavaz, Mohammad Reza; Sattari, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model for a quintuple coupled quantum dot system based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Then, we analyze the optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) behaviours and transition between the regimes at a wavelength of λ=1.550 μm. We take the benefit of consecutive and parallel interdot tunnelling and an incoherent pumping field for electrical and even optical control of the processes. It is shown that OB, OM and transition between them can be accomplished and controlled by adjusting the rate of the inter-dot tunnellings (electrical bias), probe wavelength detuning and rate of the optical incoherent pumping field. By proper choice of the controlling parameters, the bistable hysteresis loop becomes narrower, which makes it easier for the cavity field to reach saturation. We interpret the OB and OM behaviours by discussing the absorption of the active medium. We also investigate switching time between the two stable states when the output field jumps from a lower branch to an upper branch. Such a controllable OB/OM and transition between them in multiple QD molecules at a wavelength of 1.550 μm, may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics, solid-state quantum information science and systems dealing with signal processing. (letter)

  17. High-power subnanosecond operation of a bistable optically controlled semiconductor switch (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoudt, D.C.; Richardson, M.A.; Demske, D.L.; Roush, R.A.; Eure, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    Recent high-power, subnanosecond-switching results of the Bistable Optically controlled Semiconductor Switch (BOSS) are presented. The process of persistent photoconductivity followed by photo-quenching have been demonstrated at megawatt power levels in copper-compensated, silicon-doped, semi-insulating gallium arsenide. These processes allow a switch to be developed that can be closed by the application of one laser pulse and opened by the application of a second laser pulse with a wavelength equal to twice that of the first laser. Switch closure is primarily achieved by elevating electrons from a deep copper center which has been diffused into the material. The opening phase is a two-step process which relies initially on the absorption of the 2-μm laser causing electrons to be elevated from the valance band back into the copper center, and finally on the recombination of electrons in the conduction band with boles in the valance band. The second step requires a sufficient concentration of recombination centers (RC) in the material for opening to occur in the subnanosecond regime. These RC's are generated in the bulk GaAs material by fast-neutron irradiation (∼ 1 MeV) at a fluence of about 3 x 10 15 cm -2 . High-power switching results which demonstrate that the BOSS switch can be opened in the subnanosecond regime are presented for the first time. Neutron-irradiated BOSS devices have been opened against a rising electric field of about 20 kV/cm (10 kV) in a time less than one nanosecond. Kilovolt electrical pulses have been generated with a FWHM of roughly 250 picoseconds

  18. Optically levitated nanoparticle as a model system for stochastic bistable dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, F; Rica, R A; Spasenović, M; Gieseler, J; Rondin, L; Novotny, L; Quidant, R

    2017-05-09

    Nano-mechanical resonators have gained an increasing importance in nanotechnology owing to their contributions to both fundamental and applied science. Yet, their small dimensions and mass raises some challenges as their dynamics gets dominated by nonlinearities that degrade their performance, for instance in sensing applications. Here, we report on the precise control of the nonlinear and stochastic bistable dynamics of a levitated nanoparticle in high vacuum. We demonstrate how it can lead to efficient signal amplification schemes, including stochastic resonance. This work contributes to showing the use of levitated nanoparticles as a model system for stochastic bistable dynamics, with applications to a wide variety of fields.

  19. Exact modelling of the optical bistability in ferroelectics via two-wave mixing: A system with full nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushaini, Muhammad Asif A.; Ibrahim, Abdel-Baset M. A.; Choudhury, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we provide a complete mathematical model of the phenomenon of optical bistability (OB) resulting from the degenerate two-wave mixing (TWM) process of laser beams interacting with a single nonlinear layer of ferroelectric material. Starting with the electromagnetic wave equation for optical wave propagating in nonlinear media, a nonlinear coupled wave (CW) system with both self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) sources of nonlinearity are derived. The complete CW system with full nonlinearity is solved numerically and a comparison between both the cases of with and without SPM at various combinations of design parameters is given. Furthermore, to provide a reliable theoretical model for the OB via TWM process, the results obtained theoretically are compared with the available experimental data. We found that the nonlinear system without SPM fails to predict the bistable response at lower combinations of the input parameters. However, at relatively higher values, the solution without SPM shows a reduction in the switching contrast and period in the OB response. A comparison with the experimental results shows better agreement with the system with full nonlinearity.

  20. Low threshold optical bistability and superluminal light propagation using a dielectric slab via inter-dot tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherzadeh, S; Nasehi, R; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The optical bistability (OB) behavior of a dielectric slab doped with quantum dot (QD) molecules is investigated in the presence of the inter-dot tunneling effect. It is shown that the threshold point of OB reduces by increasing inter-dot tunneling as well as by reducing the slab thickness. It is worth noting that the threshold of OB in a slab doped with QD molecules is smaller, by at least one order of magnitude, in respect to free QD molecules. We find that the inter-dot tunneling induces a negative group delay to the reflected pulse and it propagates in the superluminal region. Such simple control can be used in all optical switching. (paper)

  1. Controlling the optical bistability beyond the multi-photon resonance condition in a three-level closed-loop atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad; Nozari, Narges; Vafafard, Azar; Sahrai, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the optical bistability behavior of a three-level closed-loop atomic system beyond the multi-photon resonance condition. Using the Floquet decomposition, we solve the time-dependent equations of motion, beyond the multi-photon resonance condition. By identifying the different scattering processes contributing to the medium response, it is shown that in general the optical bistability behavior of the system is not phase-dependent. The phase dependence is due to the scattering of the driving and coupling fields into the probe field at a frequency, which, in general, differs from the probe field frequency. - Highlights: → We investigate optical bistability of a three-level closed-loop atomic system, beyond the multi-photon resonance condition. → By applying Floquet decomposition to the equation of motion, the different scattering processes contributing to the medium response are determined. → It is shown that the phase dependence of optical bistability arises from the scattering of the driving and coupling fields into the probe field frequency.

  2. Optical orientation in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V L

    2008-01-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of a semiconductor. Spin–spin interactions near the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface play a crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism

  3. Optical orientation in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2008-11-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of a semiconductor. Spin-spin interactions near the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface play a crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism.

  4. Optical Orientation in Ferromagnet/Semiconductor Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in the ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of the ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of the semiconductor. Spin-spin interactions near the interface ferromagnet/semiconductor play crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism.

  5. Chaos control and synchronization in Bragg acousto-optic bistable systems driven by a separate chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Gao, Jin-Yue

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we propose a new scheme to achieve chaos control and synchronization in Bragg acousto-optic bistable systems. In the scheme, we use the output of one system to drive two identical chaotic systems. Using the maximal conditional Lyapunov exponent (MCLE) as the criterion, we analyze the conditions for realizing chaos synchronization. Numerical calculation shows that the two identical systems in chaos with negative MCLEs and driven by a chaotic system can go into chaotic synchronization whether or not they were in chaos initially. The two systems can go into different periodic states from chaos following an inverse period-doubling bifurcation route as well when driven by a periodic system.

  6. Bistability in a laser with injected signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobantu, I.A.; Vlad, V.I.; Ursu, I.

    1987-04-01

    A unified description of bistability is given in free running lasers, optical bistable devices, ring lasers and lasers with an injected signal (LIS). A general review of laser instabilities is also presented in the frame of the theory of elementary catastrophes, emphasizing the apparence of higher order catastrophes in the case of a LIS suggesting thus a possibility to devise from first principles the whole hierarchy of laser instabilities. Experimental results on the bistability in the polarisation of LIS are also discussed. (authors)

  7. Bistable microelectromechanical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G.

    1999-01-01

    A bistable microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator is formed on a substrate and includes a stressed membrane of generally rectangular shape that upon release assumes a curvilinear cross-sectional shape due to attachment at a midpoint to a resilient member and at opposing edges to a pair of elongate supports. The stressed membrane can be electrostatically switched between a pair of mechanical states having mirror-image symmetry, with the MEM actuator remaining in a quiescent state after a programming voltage is removed. The bistable MEM actuator according to various embodiments of the present invention can be used to form a nonvolatile memory element, an optical modulator (with a pair of mirrors supported above the membrane and moving in synchronism as the membrane is switched), a switchable mirror (with a single mirror supported above the membrane at the midpoint thereof) and a latching relay (with a pair of contacts that open and close as the membrane is switched). Arrays of bistable MEM actuators can be formed for applications including nonvolatile memories, optical displays and optical computing.

  8. Intense blue upconversion emission and intrinsic optical bistability in Tm3+/Yb3+/Zn2+ tridoped YVO4 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manglesh; Mondal, Manisha; Mukhopadhyay, Lakshmi; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Tm3+/Yb3+/Zn2+:yttrium metavanadate (YVO4) phosphors prepared through chemical coprecipitation and the solid state reaction method have been structurally characterized by an x-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Photoluminescence study of the developed phosphors under ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) excitation has been performed. The excitation spectrum of the tetragonal zircon type YVO4 phosphors corresponding to the emission at ˜476 nm exhibits a broad excitation peak in the 250-350 nm region, which is due to charge distribution in the {{{{VO}}}4}3- group. Under 980 nm CW diode laser excitation, enhancements of about ˜3000 times and ˜40 times have been observed for the blue band in the tridoped Tm3+Yb3+Zn2+:YVO4 phosphors compared to those of the Tm3+:YVO4 singly and Tm3+/Yb3+:YVO4 codoped phosphors, respectively. A downconversion (DC) emission study shows an enhancement of about ˜50 times for the blue band in the tridoped phosphors compared to that of the singly doped phosphors. Optical bistability (OB) behavior of the developed phosphors has been also investigated upon 980 nm excitation. The calculated Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage (CIE) color coordinates lie in the blue region with 96.5% color purity under 980 nm excitation, having a color temperature of ˜3400 K. Our observations show that the developed phosphors may be suitably used in dual mode luminescence spectroscopy, display devices, and UV LED chips.

  9. Hybrid materials for optics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Benedicte; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2011-02-01

    The interest in organic-inorganic hybrids as materials for optics and photonics started more than 25 years ago and since then has known a continuous and strong growth. The high versatility of sol-gel processing offers a wide range of possibilities to design tailor-made materials in terms of structure, texture, functionality, properties and shape modelling. From the first hybrid material with optical functional properties that has been obtained by incorporation of an organic dye in a silica matrix, the research in the field has quickly evolved towards more sophisticated systems, such as multifunctional and/or multicomponent materials, nanoscale and self-assembled hybrids and devices for integrated optics. In the present critical review, we have focused our attention on three main research areas: passive and active optical hybrid sol-gel materials, and integrated optics. This is far from exhaustive but enough to give an overview of the huge potential of these materials in photonics and optics (254 references).

  10. Characterization of the bistable wideband optical filter on the basis of nonlinear 2D photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guryev, I. V., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Sukhoivanov, I. A., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Andrade Lucio, J. A., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Manzano, O. Ibarra, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Rodriguez, E. Vargaz, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Gonzales, D. Claudio, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Chavez, R. I. Mata, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Gurieva, N. S., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org [University of Guanajuato, Engineering division (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    In our work, we investigated the wideband optical filter on the basis of nonlinear photonic crystal. The all-optical flip-flop using ultra-short pulses with duration lower than 200 fs is obtained in such filters. Here we pay special attention to the stability problem of the nonlinear element. To investigate this problem, the temporal response demonstrating the flip-flop have been computed within the certain range of the wavelengths as well as at different input power.

  11. Bistability and low-frequency fluctuations in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: a theoretical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1988-01-01

    Near-threshold operation of a semiconductor laser exposed to moderate optical feedback may lead to low-frequency fluctuations. In the same region, a kink is observed in the light-current characteristic. Here it is demonstrated that these nonlinear phenomena are predicted by a noise driven multimode...

  12. Hybrid Coatings as Transducer in Optical Biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rose, K.; Dzyadevych, S.; Fernandez-Lafuente, R.; Jaffrezic, N.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Matějec, Vlastimil; Scully, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2008), s. 491-496 ISSN 1547-0091 Grant - others:GRD1(XE) 2001-C40477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical sensor * fluorescence * hybrid coating Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2008

  13. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  14. Optically induced bistable states in metal/tunnel-oxide/semiconductor /MTOS/ junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. K.; Dressendorfer, P. V.; Ma, T. P.; Barker, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A new switching phenomenon in metal-oxide semiconductor tunnel junction has been discovered. With a sufficiently large negative bias applied to the electrode, incident visible light of intensity greater than about 1 microW/sq cm causes the reverse-biased junction to switch from a low-current to a high-current state. It is believed that hot-electron-induced impact ionization provides the positive feedback necessary for switching, and causes the junction to remain in its high-current state after the optical excitation is removed. The junction may be switched back to the low-current state electrically. The basic junction characteristics have been measured, and a simple model for the switching phenomenon has been developed.

  15. Bistable scattering in graphene-coated dielectric nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rujiang; Wang, Huaping; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-06-22

    In nonlinear plasmonics, the switching threshold of optical bistability is limited by the weak nonlinear responses from the conventional Kerr dielectric media. Considering the giant nonlinear susceptibility of graphene, here we develop a nonlinear scattering model under the mean field approximation and study the bistable scattering in graphene-coated dielectric nanowires based on the semi-analytical solutions. We find that the switching intensities of bistable scattering can be smaller than 1 MW cm -2 at the working frequency. To further decrease the switching intensities, we show that the most important factor that restricts the bistable scattering is the relaxation time of graphene. Our work not only reveals some general characteristics of graphene-based bistable scattering, but also provides a guidance to further applications of optical bistability in the high speed all-optical signal processing.

  16. Optical hybrid quantum teleportation and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Okada, Masanori; Furusawa, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Quantum teleportation, a transfer protocol of quantum states, is the essence of many sophisticated quantum information protocols. There have been two complementary approaches to optical quantum teleportation: discrete variables (DVs) and continuous variables (CVs). However, both approaches have pros and cons. Here we take a "hybrid" approach to overcome the current limitations: CV quantum teleportation of DVs. This approach enabled the first realization of deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic qubits without post-selection. We also applied the hybrid scheme to several experiments, including entanglement swapping between DVs and CVs, conditional CV teleportation of single photons, and CV teleportation of qutrits. We are now aiming at universal, scalable, and fault-tolerant quantum computing based on these hybrid technologies.

  17. Design methodology for all-optical bistable switches based on a plasmonic resonator sandwiched between dielectric waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Yinxiao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Lei; Ying, Cuifeng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-01

    We present a bistable device consisting of a Bragg grating resonator with a Kerr medium sandwiched between two dielectric slab waveguides. The resonator is situated in a nanometer-scaled metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguide. Due to the dimensional confinement from the dielectric waveguide to the nanoscaled plasmonic waveguide, electric fields are enhanced greatly, which will further reduce the threshold value. Moreover, a semi-analytic method, based on the impedance theory and the transfer matrix method, is developed to study the transmission and reflection spectra as well as the bistability loop of such a switch. Our method is fast and accurate, as confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain simulation. (invited paper)

  18. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  19. Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2012-04-01

    Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

  20. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  1. Bistable Reflective Etalon (BRET)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shellenbarger, Zane

    2003-01-01

    This project designed, fabricated, and characterized normal-incidence etalon structures at 1550 nm wavelength operation for application, as bistable elements, to photonic analog-to-digital conversion...

  2. Bistable behaviour of biexciton population in a dense exciton-biexciton system in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An.

    1986-05-01

    The steady state bistable behaviour of biexciton population in a dense exciton-biexciton semiconductor is considered. The intrinsic optical feedback is provided by the recombination mechanism. The exciton-biexciton and biexciton-biexciton interactions play the role of non-linearity responsible for biexciton bistability to occur. The conditions leading to the effect of bistability are obtained and two-parameter phase transition diagrams are drawn for both intensity and frequency bistable phenomena. (author)

  3. Self-Management of Hybrid Optical and Packet Switching Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioreze, Tiago

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid optical and packet switching networks are composed of multi-service hybrid devices that enable forwarding of data at multiple levels. Large IP flows at the IP level may be therefore moved to the optical level bypassing therefore the per hop routing decisions of the IP level. Such move could

  4. Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber-Optic Sensor Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mark; Qing, Xinlin

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic (HyPFO) sensor sheets are undergoing development. They are intended for use in nondestructive evaluation and long-term monitoring of the integrity of diverse structures, including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and large stationary ones. It is anticipated that the further development and subsequent commercialization of the HyPFO sensor systems will lead to economic benefits in the form of increased safety, reduction of life-cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, increased structural reliability, reduction of maintenance costs, and increased readiness for service. The concept of a HyPFO sensor sheet is a generalization of the concept of a SMART Layer(TradeMark), which is a patented device that comprises a thin dielectric film containing an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric actuator/sensors. Such a device can be mounted on the surface of a metallic structure or embedded inside a composite-material structure during fabrication of the structure. There is has been substantial interest in incorporating sensors other than piezoelectric ones into SMART Layer(TradeMark) networks: in particular, because of the popularity of the use of fiber-optic sensors for monitoring the "health" of structures in recent years, it was decided to incorporate fiber-optic sensors, giving rise to the concept of HyPFO devices.

  5. Bistable Topological Insulator with Exciton-Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.

    2017-12-01

    The functionality of many nonlinear and quantum optical devices relies on the effect of optical bistability. Using microcavity exciton-polaritons in a honeycomb arrangement of microcavity pillars, we report the resonance response and bistability of topological edge states. A balance between the pump, loss, and nonlinearity ensures a broad range of dynamical stability and controls the distribution of power between counterpropagating states on the opposite edges of the honeycomb lattice stripe. Tuning energy and polarization of the pump photons, while keeping their momentum constant, we demonstrate control of the propagation direction of the dominant edge state. Our results facilitate the development of practical applications of topological photonics.

  6. Characterization of hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Seoane, J.; Kehayas, E.; Hill, M.T.; Maxwell, G.D.; Zhang, S.; Harmon, R.; Huijskens, Frans; Rivers, L.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Martinez, J.M.; Herrera Llorente, J.; Ramos, F.; Marti, J.; Avramopoulos, H.; Jeppesen, P.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Poustie, A.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fully-packaged, hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop with separate optical set and reset operation. The flip-flop can control a wavelength converter to route 40 Gb/s data packets all-optically. The experimental results are given

  7. Characterisation of hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Seoane, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    We present a fully-packaged, hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop with separate optical set and reset operation. The flip-flop can control a wavelength converter to route 40 Gb/s data packets all-optically. The experimental results are given....

  8. A genetic bistable switch utilizing nonlinear protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daniel; Holtz, William J; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2012-07-09

    Bistability is a fundamental property in engineered and natural systems, conferring the ability to switch and retain states. Synthetic bistable switches in prokaryotes have mainly utilized transcriptional components in their construction. Using both transcriptional and enzymatic components, creating a hybrid system, allows for wider bistable parameter ranges in a circuit. In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable family of hybrid bistable switches in E. coli using both transcriptional components and an enzymatic component. The design contains two linked positive feedback loops. The first loop utilizes the lambda repressor, CI, and the second positive feedback loop incorporates the Lon protease found in Mesoplasma florum (mf-Lon). We experimentally tested for bistable behavior in exponential growth phase, and found that our hybrid bistable switch was able to retain its state in the absence of an input signal throughout 40 cycles of cell division. We also tested the transient behavior of our switch and found that switching speeds can be tuned by changing the expression rate of mf-Lon. To our knowledge, this work demonstrates the first use of dynamic expression of an orthogonal and heterologous protease to tune a nonlinear protein degradation circuit. The hybrid switch is potentially a more robust and tunable topology for use in prokaryotic systems.

  9. Advances in hybrid optics physical sensors for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2010-04-01

    Highlighted are novel innovations in hybrid optical design physical sensors for extreme environments. Various hybrid design compositions are proposed that are suited for a particular sensor application. Examples includes combining freespace (wireless) and fiber-optics (wired) for gas turbine sensing and combining single crystal and sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials for robust extreme environment Coefficent of Thermal Expansion (CTE) matched frontend probe design. Sensor signal processing also includes the hybrid theme where for example Black-Body radiation thermometry (pyrometry) is combined with laser interferometry to provide extreme temperature measurements. The hybrid theme also operates on the optical device level where a digital optical device such as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is combined with an analog optical device such as an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal Length Lens (ECVFL) to deliver a smart and compressive Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging sensor for remote scene and object shape capture including both ambient light (passive) mode and active laser targeting and receive processing. Within a device level, the hybrid theme also operates via combined analog and digital control such as within a wavelength-coded variable optical delay line. These powerful hybrid design optical sensors have numerous applications in engineering and science applications from the military to the commercial/industrial sectors.

  10. Hybrid electronic/optical synchronized chaos communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, J P; Kane, D M; Davidović, A; Huntington, E H

    2009-04-27

    A hybrid electronic/optical system for synchronizing a chaotic receiver to a chaotic transmitter has been demonstrated. The chaotic signal is generated electronically and injected, in addition to a constant bias current, to a semiconductor laser to produce an optical carrier for transmission. The optical chaotic carrier is photodetected to regenerate an electronic signal for synchronization in a matched electronic receiver The system has been successfully used for the transmission and recovery of a chaos masked message that is added to the chaotic optical carrier. Past demonstrations of synchronized chaos based, secure communication systems have used either an electronic chaotic carrier or an optical chaotic carrier (such as the chaotic output of various nonlinear laser systems). This is the first electronic/optical hybrid system to be demonstrated. We call this generation of a chaotic optical carrier by electronic injection.

  11. Self-Management of Hybrid Optical and Packet Switching Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioreze, Tiago; Pras, Aiko

    Hybrid optical and packet switching networks enable data to be forwarded at multiple levels. Large IP flows at the IP level may be therefore moved to the optical level bypassing the per hop routing decisions of the IP level. Such move could be beneficial since congested IP networks could be

  12. Ultra-Fast All-Optical Self-Aware Protection Switching Based on a Bistable Laser Diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Vukovic, Dragana; Lorences Riesgo, Abel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel concept of all-optical protection switching with link failure automatic awareness based on AOWFF. The scheme is experimentally demonstrated using a single MG-Y laser diode with a record switching time ~200 ps....

  13. Integrated resource management for Hybrid Optical Wireless (HOW) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Yu, Hao; Wessing, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Efficient utilization of available bandwidth over hybrid optical wireless networks is a critical issue, especially for multimedia applications with high data rates and stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we propose an integrated resource management including an enhanced...... resource sharing scheme and an integrated admission control scheme for the hybrid optical wireless networks. It provides QoS guarantees for connections through both optical and wireless domain. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme improves QoS performances in terms of high throughput and low...

  14. Optical response of hybrid semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system: Beyond the dipole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Atefeh; Miri, MirFaez

    2018-01-01

    We study the response of a semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system to an external field E 0 cos ( ω t ) . The borders between Fano, double peaks, weak transition, strong transition, and bistability regions of the phase diagram move considerably as one regards the multipole effects. The exciton-induced transparency is an artifact of the dipole approximation. The absorption of the nanoparticle, the population inversion of the quantum dot, the upper and lower limits of intensity where bistability occurs, the characteristic time to reach the steady state, and other features of the hybrid system change due to the multipole effects. The phase diagrams corresponding to the fields parallel and perpendicular to the axis of system are quite distinguishable. Thus, both the intensity and the polarization of the incident field can be used to control the system. In particular, the incident polarization can be used to switch on and switch off the bistable behavior. For applications such as miniaturized bistable devices and nanosensors sensitive to variations of the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium, multipole effects must be considered.

  15. All-optical flip-flop operation based on asymmetric active-multimode interferometer bi-stable laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, H.; Chaen, Y.; Hagio, T.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate fast and low energy all optical flip-flop devices based on asymmetric active-multimode interferometer using high-mesa waveguide structure. The implemented devices showed high speed alloptical flip-flop operation with 25ps long pulses. The rising and falling times of the output sign...

  16. Organic bistable light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Liu, Jie; Pyo, Seungmoon; Yang, Yang

    2002-01-01

    An organic bistable device, with a unique trilayer structure consisting of organic/metal/organic sandwiched between two outmost metal electrodes, has been invented. [Y. Yang, L. P. Ma, and J. Liu, U.S. Patent Pending, U.S. 01/17206 (2001)]. When the device is biased with voltages beyond a critical value (for example 3 V), the device suddenly switches from a high-impedance state to a low-impedance state, with a difference in injection current of more than 6 orders of magnitude. When the device is switched to the low-impedance state, it remains in that state even when the power is off. (This is called "nonvolatile" phenomenon in memory devices.) The high-impedance state can be recovered by applying a reverse bias; therefore, this bistable device is ideal for memory applications. In order to increase the data read-out rate of this type of memory device, a regular polymer light-emitting diode has been integrated with the organic bistable device, such that it can be read out optically. These features make the organic bistable light-emitting device a promising candidate for several applications, such as digital memories, opto-electronic books, and recordable papers.

  17. Bistability and self-oscillations effects in a polariton-laser semiconductor microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, E A; Matinaga, F M

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental observation of polaritonic optical bistability of the laser emission in a planar semiconductor microcavity with a 100 0 A GaAs single quantum well in the strong-coupling regime. The bistability curves show crossings that indicate a competition between a Kerr-like effect induced by the polariton population and thermal effects. Associated with the bistability, laser-like emission occurs at the bare cavity mode

  18. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...... OpenDaylight is presented to control an optical switching matrix based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology....

  19. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  20. An amplitude and phase hybrid modulation Fresnel diffractive optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Cheng, Jiangao; Wang, Mengyu; Jin, Xueying; Wang, Keyi

    2018-04-01

    An Amplitude and Phase Hybrid Modulation Fresnel Diffractive Optical Element (APHMFDOE) is proposed here. We have studied the theory of APHMFDOE and simulated the focusing properties of it along the optical axis, which show that the focus can be blazed to other positions with changing the quadratic phase factor. Moreover, we design a Composite Fresnel Diffraction Optical Element (CFDOE) based on the characteristics of APHMFDOE. It greatly increases the outermost zone width without changing the F-number, which brings a lot of benefits to the design and processing of diffraction device. More importantly, the diffraction efficiency of the CFDOE is almost unchanged compared with AFZP at the same focus.

  1. Optical Characteristics of a Multichannel Hybrid Integrated Light Source for Ultra-High-Bandwidth Optical Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Shimizu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of a multi-channel hybrid integrated light source were described for an optical interconnection with a bandwidth of over 10 Tbit/s. The power uniformity of the relative intensity of a 1000-channel light source was shown, and the minimum standard deviation s of the optical power of the 200 output ports at each 25-channel laser diode (LD array was estimated to be 0.49 dB. This hybrid integrated light source is expected to be easily adaptable to a photonics-electronics convergence system for ultra-high-bandwidth interchip interconnections.

  2. Nonimaging optics maximizing exergy for hybrid solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Ferry, Jonathan; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Alexandr; Kirk, Alexander; Elarde, Victor; Osowski, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-Merced), Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a hybrid solar system using a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that maximizes the exergy by delivering direct electricity and on-demand heat. The hybrid solar system technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles and uses reflective liftoff cooled double junction (2J) InGaP/GaAs solar cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The nonimaging optics provides additional concentration towards the high temperature thermal stream and enables it to operate efficiently at 650 °C while the solar cell is maintained at 40 °C to operate as efficiently as possible.

  3. The unsaturated bistable stochastic resonance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenli; Wang, Juan; Wang, Linze

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the characteristics of the output saturation of the classical continuous bistable system (saturation bistable system) and its impact on stochastic resonance (SR). We further proposed a piecewise bistable SR system (unsaturated bistable system) and developed the expression of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using the adiabatic approximation theory. Compared with the saturation bistable system, the SNR is significantly improved in our unsaturated bistable SR system. The numerical simulation showed that the unsaturated bistable system performed better in extracting weak signals from strong background noise than the saturation bistable system.

  4. Controlling bistability by linear augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pooja Rani; Shrimali, Manish Dev; Prasad, Awadhesh; Feudel, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    In many bistable oscillating systems only one of the attractors is desired to possessing certain system performance. We present a method to drive a bistable system to a desired target attractor by annihilating the other one. This shift from bistability to monostability is achieved by augmentation of the nonlinear oscillator with a linear control system. For a proper choice of the control function one of the attractors disappears at a critical coupling strength in an control-induced boundary crisis. This transition from bistability to monostability is demonstrated with two paradigmatic examples, the autonomous Chua oscillator and a neuronal system with a periodic input signal.

  5. Bistable Mechanisms for Space Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A; Tolman, Kyler A; Trease, Brian P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Compliant bistable mechanisms are monolithic devices with two stable equilibrium positions separated by an unstable equilibrium position. They show promise in space applications as nonexplosive release mechanisms in deployment systems, thereby eliminating friction and improving the reliability and precision of those mechanical devices. This paper presents both analytical and numerical models that are used to predict bistable behavior and can be used to create bistable mechanisms in materials not previously feasible for compliant mechanisms. Materials compatible with space applications are evaluated for use as bistable mechanisms and prototypes are fabricated in three different materials. Pin-puller and cutter release mechanisms are proposed as potential space applications.

  6. Hybrid Optical Unobtrusive Blood Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfei Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is critical in diagnosing certain cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Some previous studies have proved that BP can be estimated by pulse transit time (PTT calculated by a pair of photoplethysmography (PPG signals at two body sites. Currently, contact PPG (cPPG and imaging PPG (iPPG are two feasible ways to obtain PPG signals. In this study, we proposed a hybrid system (called the ICPPG system employing both methods that can be implemented on a wearable device, facilitating the measurement of BP in an inconspicuous way. The feasibility of the ICPPG system was validated on a dataset with 29 subjects. It has been proved that the ICPPG system is able to estimate PTT values. Moreover, the PTT measured by the new system shows a correlation on average with BP variations for most subjects, which could facilitate a new generation of BP measurement using wearable and mobile devices.

  7. Optically controlled redshift switching effects in hybrid fishscale metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We numerically demonstrate optically controlled THz response in a hybrid fishscale metamaterial with embedded photoconductive silicon at oblique incidence of TE wave. The oblique incidence allows excitation of Fano-type trapped mode resonance in a 2-fold rotational symmetric metamaterial. The hybrid fishscale metamaterial exhibits an optically controlled redshift switching effect in the THz range. The switching effect is dominated by the conductivity of the silicon instead of mechanically adjusting angles of incidence. The tuning frequency range is up to 0.3THz with a large modulation depth and high transmission in the “ON” state. The fishscale metamaterial-based switching has been experimentally verified by its microwave counterpart integrated by variable resistors. Our work provides an alternative route to realize tunable Fano-type response in metamaterials and is of importance to active manipulation, sensing and switching of THz waves in practical applications.

  8. Optically controlled redshift switching effects in hybrid fishscale metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Jinwei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Wenxing; Dong, Guohua; Ye, Peng; Lv, Tingting; Zhu, Zheng; Li, Yuxiang; Guan, Chunying; Shi, Jinhui

    2018-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate optically controlled THz response in a hybrid fishscale metamaterial with embedded photoconductive silicon at oblique incidence of TE wave. The oblique incidence allows excitation of Fano-type trapped mode resonance in a 2-fold rotational symmetric metamaterial. The hybrid fishscale metamaterial exhibits an optically controlled redshift switching effect in the THz range. The switching effect is dominated by the conductivity of the silicon instead of mechanically adjusting angles of incidence. The tuning frequency range is up to 0.3THz with a large modulation depth and high transmission in the "ON" state. The fishscale metamaterial-based switching has been experimentally verified by its microwave counterpart integrated by variable resistors. Our work provides an alternative route to realize tunable Fano-type response in metamaterials and is of importance to active manipulation, sensing and switching of THz waves in practical applications.

  9. Distributed processing in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    A very incisive way of studying visual awareness and the mechanisms that underlie it, it to use bistable perception. In bistable perception, an observer's perceptual state alternates between one interpretation and its mutually exclusive counterpart while the stimulus remains the same. This gives us

  10. Bistable near field and bistable transmittance in 2D composite slab consisting of nonlocal core-Kerr shell inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Wu, Ya Min; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-23

    We carry out a theoretical study on optical bistability of near field intensity and transmittance in two-dimensional nonlinear composite slab. This kind of 2D composite is composed of nonlocal metal/Kerr-type dielectric core-shell inclusions randomly embedded in the host medium, and we derivate the nonlinear relation between the field intensity in the shell of inclusions and the incident field intensity with self-consistent mean field approximation. Numerical demonstration has been performed to show the viable parameter space for the bistable near field. We show that nonlocality can provide broader region in geometric parameter space for bistable near field as well as bistable transmittance of the nonlocal composite slab compared to local case. Furthermore, we investigate the bistable transmittance in wavelength spectrum, and find that besides the input intensity, the wavelength operation could as well make the transmittance jump from a high value to a low one. This kind of self-tunable nano-composite slab might have potential application in optical switching devices.

  11. Optimization of Bistable Viscoelastic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    driving pressure corresponding to the point of bistability, such that the effect is enhanced. The point of bistability is, however, not explicitly contained in the solution, so we opt for a heuristic approach based on the dissipation ratio between the asymmetric and unstable symmetric flow solutions. We...... find a design that significantly reduces the driving pressure required for bistability, and furthermore is in agreement with the approach followed by experimental researchers. Furthermore, by comparing the two asymmetric solutions, we succesfully apply the same approach to a problem with two fluids...

  12. Bistable amphoteric centers in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitina, A. G.; Zuev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that, at thermodynamic equilibrium, the release of charge carriers from the localized states of bistable amphoteric centers into quasi-free states depends on the degree of compensation. This brings about different functional dependences of the concentration of free charge carriers on temperature. It is found that, in uncompensated semiconductors, the concentration of free charge carriers follows the same dependence in the case of bistable amphoteric centers and bistable amphoteric U - centers, although the distributions of charge carriers over the charge states and configurations are different for these types of centers. The results can be used for interpreting various experimental data insufficiently explained in the context of the traditional approach

  13. Excitonic bistabilities, instabilities and chaos in laser-pumped semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Nguyen Trung Dan; Hoang Xuan Nguyen

    1992-07-01

    The Hurwitz criteria are used for a stability analysis of the steady state excitonic optical bistability curves in a semiconductor pumped by an external laser resonant with the exciton level. Besides the middle branch of the bistability curves which is unstable in the sense of the linear stability theory, we have found other domains of instability in the upper and lower branches of the steady state curves. Numerical results show that a possible route to chaos in the photon-exciton system is period-doubling self-oscillation process. The influence of the presence of free carriers that coexist with the excitons is also discussed. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs

  14. Bistable laser device with multiple coupled active vertical-cavity resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-08-19

    A new class of bistable coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor laser devices has been developed. These bistable laser devices can be switched, either electrically or optically, between lasing and non-lasing states. A switching signal with a power of a fraction of a milliwatt can change the laser output of such a device by a factor of a hundred, thereby enabling a range of optical switching and data encoding applications.

  15. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  16. Bistable cholesteric liquid crystal light shutter with multielectrode driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Chang; Tseng, Heng-Yi; Pai, Tsung-Wei; Wu, Yu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Jau, Hung-Chang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2014-08-01

    An electrically activated bistable light shutter that exploits polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal film was developed. Under double-sided three-terminal electrode driving, the device can be bistable and switched between focal conic and homeotropic textures with a uniform in-plane and vertical electrical field. The transparent state with a transmittance of 80% and the opaque/scattering state with a transmittance of 13% can be realized without any optical compensation film, and each can be simply switched to the other by applying a pulse voltage. Also, gray-scale selection can be performed by varying the applied voltage. The designed energy-saving bistable light shutter can be utilized to preserve privacy and control illumination and the flow of energy.

  17. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  18. Bistability of Cavity Magnon Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Pu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Dengke; Li, Tie-Fu; Hu, C.-M.; You, J. Q.

    2018-01-01

    We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops) in these two cases. The experimental results are well fitted and explained as being due to the Kerr nonlinearity with either a positive or negative coefficient. Moreover, when the magnetic field is tuned away from the anticrossing point of CMPs, we observe simultaneous bistability of both magnons and cavity photons by applying a drive field on the lower branch.

  19. Temporal nonlocality in bistable perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker-Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal nonlocality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested.

  20. Silicon Carbide Lightweight Optics With Hybrid Skins for Large Cryo Telescopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) has developed new silicon carbide (SiC) foam-based optics with hybrid skins that are composite, athermal and lightweight (FOCAL) that...

  1. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.; Bakapoulos, P.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Petrantonakis, D.; Stampoulidis, L.; Poustie, A.; McDougall, R.; Maxwell, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Seoane, J.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Jeppesen, P.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can be

  2. Architecture and evaluation of software-defined optical switching matrix for hybrid data centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    A software architecture is proposed for hybrid packet/optical data centers employing programmable NETCONF-enabled optical switching matrix, and a performance evaluation is presented comparing hybrid and electrical-only architectures for elephant flows under different traffic patterns. Network...

  3. Deterministic linear-optics quantum computing based on a hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a scheme for all-optical quantum computation using hybrid qubits. It enables one to efficiently perform universal linear-optical gate operations in a simple and near-deterministic way using hybrid entanglement as off-line resources

  4. Deterministic linear-optics quantum computing based on a hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok [Center for Macroscopic Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-04

    We suggest a scheme for all-optical quantum computation using hybrid qubits. It enables one to efficiently perform universal linear-optical gate operations in a simple and near-deterministic way using hybrid entanglement as off-line resources.

  5. Hybrid lightweight X-ray optics for half arcsecond imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    This proposal is for the development of grazing incidence optics suitable to meet the 0.5 arcsec imaging and 2.3 square meter effective area requirements of the X-ray Surveyor mission concept, currently under study by NASA. Our approach is to combine two promising technologies, as yet individually unproven at the 0.5 arcsec level, into a hybrid mirror approach. The two technologies are thin piezoelectric film adjustable optics under development at SAO and PSU, and differential deposition under development at NASA MSFC. These technologies are complementary: adjustable optics are best suited to fixing low spatial frequency errors due to piezoelectric cell size limitations, and differential deposition is best suited for fixing mid-spatial frequency errors so as to limit the amount of material that must be deposited. Thus, the combination of the two techniques extends the bandwidth of figure errors that can be corrected beyond what it was for either individual technique. Both technologies will be applied to fabricate Wolter-I mirror segment from single thermally formed glass substrates. This work is directed at mirror segments only (not full shells), as we believe segments are the most appropriate for developing the 3 m diameter X-ray Surveyor high resolution mirror. In this program we will extend differential deposition to segment surfaces (from line profiles), investigate the most realistic error bandwidths for each technology, and determine the impacts of one technologys processing steps on the other to find if there is an optimal order to combining the technologies. In addition, we will also conduct a conical/cylindrical mirror metrology "round-robin," to cross-calibrate the different cylindrical metrology to one another as a means of minimizing systematic errors. Finally, we will examine the balancing and compensating of mirror stress due to the various thin films employed (piezoelectric layer, differential deposition, X-ray reflecting layer(s)) with an eye to

  6. Optical assembly of bio-hybrid micro-robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Álvaro; Landwerth, Shirin; Woerdemann, Mike; Alpmann, Christina; Buscher, Tim; Becker, Maike; Studer, Armido; Denz, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    The combination of micro synthetic structures with bacterial flagella motors represents an actual trend for the construction of self-propelled micro-robots. The development of methods for fabrication of these bacteria-based robots is a first crucial step towards the realization of functional miniature and autonomous moving robots. We present a novel scheme based on optical trapping to fabricate living micro-robots. By using holographic optical tweezers that allow three-dimensional manipulation in real time, we are able to arrange the building blocks that constitute the micro-robot in a defined way. We demonstrate exemplarily that our method enables the controlled assembly of living micro-robots consisting of a rod-shaped prokaryotic bacterium and a single elongated zeolite L crystal, which are used as model of the biological and abiotic components, respectively. We present different proof-of-principle approaches for the site-selective attachment of the bacteria on the particle surface. The propulsion of the optically assembled micro-robot demonstrates the potential of the proposed method as a powerful strategy for the fabrication of bio-hybrid micro-robots.

  7. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.J.; Tong, F.; Hagoort, P.; van Ee, R.

    2009-01-01

    We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability

  8. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.M.; Knapen, T.; Scholte, H.S.; St. John-Saaltink, E.; Donner, T.H.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual

  9. Hybrid fast Hankel transform implementation for optics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul K.

    2013-09-01

    The most compute intensive part of a full optics simulation, especially including diffraction effects, is the Fourier transform between pupil and image spaces. This is typically performed as a two dimensional fast discrete transform. For a nearly radially symmetric system there are advantages to using polar coordinates, in which case the radial transform becomes a Hankel transform, using Bessel functions instead of circular functions. However, there are special difficulties in calculating and handling Bessel functions. Several solutions have been proposed. We present a hybrid Hankel transform which divides the domain, calculating a portion using Bessel function approximations but converting most of the domain into a one dimensional Fourier transform which can be handled by standard methods.

  10. Optical performance of hybrid porous silicon-porous alumina multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencha, L. G.; Antonio Hernández, C.; Forzani, L.; Urteaga, R.; Koropecki, R. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we study the optical response of structures involving porous silicon and porous alumina in a multi-layered hybrid structure. We performed a rational design of the optimal sequence necessary to produce a high transmission and selective filter, with potential applications in chemical and biosensors. The combination of these porous materials can be used to exploit its distinguishing features, i.e., high transparency of alumina and high refractive index of porous silicon. We assembled hybrid microcavities with a central porous alumina layer between two porous silicon Bragg reflectors. In this way, we constructed a Fabry-Perot resonator with high reflectivity and low absorption that improves the quality of the filter compared to a microcavity built only with porous silicon or porous alumina. We explored a simpler design in which one of the Bragg reflectors is replaced by the aluminium that remains bound to the alumina after its fabrication. We theoretically explored the potential of the proposal and its limitations when considering the roughness of the layers. We found that the quality of a microcavity made entirely with porous silicon shows a limit in the visible range due to light absorption. This limitation is overcome in the hybrid scheme, with the roughness of the layers determining the ultimate quality. Q-factors of 220 are experimentally obtained for microcavities supported on aluminium, while Q-factors around 600 are reached for microcavities with double Bragg reflectors, centred at 560 nm. This represents a four-fold increase with respect to the optimal porous silicon microcavity at this wavelength.

  11. Hybrid formulation of radiation transport in optically thick divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosato, J.; Marandet, Y.; Bufferand, H.; Stamm, R. [PIIM, UMR 7345 Aix-Marseille Universite / CNRS, Centre de St-Jerome, Marseille (France); Reiter, D. [IEK-4 Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of coupled atom-radiation transport in optically thick divertor plasmas can be computationally very demanding, in particular in ITER relevant conditions or even larger devices, e.g. for power plant divertor studies. At high (∝ 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) atomic densities, it can be shown that sufficiently large divertors behave in certain areas like a black body near the first resonance line of hydrogen (Lyman α). This suggests that, at least in part, the use of continuum model (radiation hydrodynamics) can be sufficiently accurate, while being less time consuming. In this work, we report on the development of a hybrid model devoted to switch automatically between a kinetic and a continuum description according to the plasma conditions. Calculations of the photo-excitation rate in a homogeneous slab are performed as an illustration. The outlined hybrid concept might be also applicable to neutral atom transport, due to mathematical analogy of transport equations for neutrals and radiation. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  12. Thermo-optic characteristics of hybrid polymer/silica microstructured optical fiber: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Anurag; Tripathi, Saurabh Mani

    2018-04-01

    Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) allow a variety of advanced materials to be infiltrated in their air-voids for obtaining the increased fiber functionality, and offering a new versatile platform for developing the compact sensors devices. We aim to investigate the thermal characteristics of high-index core triangular hybrid polymer/silica MOFs with circular air-voids infused with polymer by using the analytical field model [1]. We demonstrate that infiltration of air-voids with polymer, e.g., polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can facilitate to tune the fundamental modal properties of MOF such as effective index of the mode, near and the far-field profiles, effective mode area and the numerical aperture over the temperature ranging from 0 °C to 100 °C, for different values of relative air-void ratios. The evolution of the mode shape for a given temperature has been investigated in transition from near-field to far-field regime. We have studied the thermal dependence of splice losses between hybrid MOF and the standard step-index single-mode optical fiber in combination with Fresnel losses. For enhancing the evanescent field interactions, we have evaluated fraction of power associated with fundamental mode of hybrid MOF. We have compared the accuracy of our results with those based on full-vector finite-difference (FD) method, as available in the literature.

  13. Hybrid optical security system using photonic crystals and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Jerzy; Ostrowski, Roman

    2017-10-01

    An important issue in security systems is that of selection of the appropriate detectors or sensors, whose sensitivity guarantees functional reliability whilst avoiding false alarms. Modern technology enables the optimization of sensor systems, tailored to specific risk factors. In optical security systems, one of the safety parameters considered is the spectral range in which the excitation signal is associated with a risk factor. Advanced safety systems should be designed taking into consideration the possible occurrence of, often multiple, complex risk factors, which can be identified individually. The hazards of concern in this work are chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds present in the forms of gases and aerosols. The proposed sensor solution is a hybrid optical system consisting of a multi-spectral structure of photonic crystals associated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) resonator. The crystallographic structures of carbon present in graphene rings and graphenecarbon nanotube nanocomposites have properties which make them desirable for use in detectors. The advantage of this system is a multi-spectral sensitivity at the same time as narrow-band selectivity for the identification of risk factors. It is possible to design a system optimized for detecting specified types of risk factor from very complex signals.

  14. Numerical investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of a hybrid acousto-optic Bragg cell with a variable feedback gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Zhou, Hao

    2014-09-01

    Since around 1979, the operation of an acousto-optic Bragg cell under positive first-order feedback via amplification and delay in the loop has been studied extensively by several groups [1-3]. In recent work, the analysis of the nonlinear dynamics (NLD) of the system was extended to include bistable maps and Lyapunov exponents, and application of the chaos for signal encryption and decryption for uniform plane waves. The present work originated with the problem of a variable photodetector aperture opening relative to the first-order light. This potentially complex problem is simplified by assuming instead a variable feedback gain ( β ~ (t)), which leads to considerably different NLD. This paper examines initially the NLD versus the (DC) bias voltage for different variable- β ~ conditions, including slow and fast rates of change of the gain with time in relation to the feedback delay. It is found that the response depends critically on the rate of rise of the feedback gain, and also that the resulting chaotic regimes are generally significantly different from those for fixed values of β ~ . We have generated constant feedback gain and the variable feedback gain (t) chaos characteristics of the hybrid A-O network. Chaos as an equivalent carrier has been used to encrypt messages for both fixed and variable β ~ . The transmitted signal is detected from the encrypted carrier using a heterodyne method, using a slave Bragg cell with matched keys to generate local chaos followed by a low pass filter and a phase inverter. Results between variable- and fixed-gain systems are compared in terms of advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Bistable microvalve and microcatheter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Kirk Patrick

    2003-05-20

    A bistable microvalve of shape memory material is operatively connected to a microcatheter. The bistable microvalve includes a tip that can be closed off until it is in the desired position. Once it is in position it can opened and closed. The system uses heat and pressure to open and close the microvalve. The shape memory material will change stiffness and shape when heated above a transition temperature. The shape memory material is adapted to move from a first shape to a second shape, either open or closed, where it can perform a desired function.

  16. Directed assembly of hybrid nanostructures using optically resonant nanotweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, David [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This represents the final report for this project. Over the course of the project we have made significant progress in photonically driven nano-assembly including: (1) demonstrating the first direct optical tweezer based manipulation of proteins, (2) the ability to apply optical angular torques to microtubuals and other rod-shaped microparticles, (3) direct assembly of hybrid nanostructures comprising of polymeric nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes and, (4) the ability to drive biological reactions (specifically protein aggregation) that are thermodynamically unfavorable by applying localized optical work. These advancements are described in the list of papers provided in section 2.0 of the below. Summary details are provided in prior year annual reports. We have two additional papers which will be submitted shortly based on the work done under this award. An updated publication list will be provided to the program manager when those are accepted. In this report, we report on a new advancement made in the final project year, which uses the nanotweezer technology to perform direct measurements of particle-surface interactions. Briefly, these measurements are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions and current techniques are limited in their ability to measure piconewton scale interaction forces on sub-micrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. In this project year we developed a new technique called “Nanophotonic Force Microscopy” which uses the localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field, light to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle the technique maps out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. The major advantage of the technique is that it can measure forces and energy wells below the thermal noise

  17. Packaged and hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Hill, M.T.; Maxwell, G.D.; Zhang, S.; Harmon, R.; Huijskens, Frans; Rivers, L.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Poustie, A.

    2006-01-01

    A fully-packaged hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop, where InP-based semiconductor optical amplifiers are assembled onto a planar silica waveguide board, is demonstrated. It is shown experimentally that the flip-flop can dynamically toggle between its two states by injecting 150 ps optical

  18. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  19. High resolution hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor maps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, C.; Inglis, G.

    2013-12-01

    This abstract presents a method for creating hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor reconstructions at centimeter scale grid resolutions with robotic vehicles. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are two common sensing modalities with complementary strengths that are well suited for data fusion. We have recently developed an automated two stage pipeline to create such maps. The steps can be broken down as navigation refinement and map construction. During navigation refinement a graph-based optimization algorithm is used to align 3D point clouds created with both the multibeam sonar and stereo cameras. The process combats the typical growth in navigation error that has a detrimental affect on map fidelity and typically introduces artifacts at small grid sizes. During this process we are able to automatically register local point clouds created by each sensor to themselves and to each other where they overlap in a survey pattern. The process also estimates the sensor offsets, such as heading, pitch and roll, that describe how each sensor is mounted to the vehicle. The end results of the navigation step is a refined vehicle trajectory that ensures the points clouds from each sensor are consistently aligned, and the individual sensor offsets. In the mapping step, grid cells in the map are selectively populated by choosing data points from each sensor in an automated manner. The selection process is designed to pick points that preserve the best characteristics of each sensor and honor some specific map quality criteria to reduce outliers and ghosting. In general, the algorithm selects dense 3D stereo points in areas of high texture and point density. In areas where the stereo vision is poor, such as in a scene with low contrast or texture, multibeam sonar points are inserted in the map. This process is automated and results in a hybrid map populated with data from both sensors. Additional cross modality checks are made to reject outliers in a robust manner. The final

  20. Microscopic observation of zenithal bistable switching in nematic devices with different surface relief structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uche, C; Elston, S J; Parry-Jones, L A

    2005-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals have been shown to exhibit zenithal electro-optic bistability in devices containing sinusoidal and deformed sinusoidal gratings. Recently it has been shown that zenithal bistable states can also be supported at isolated edges of square gratings. In this paper, we present microscopic observations of bistability in cells containing sinusoidal gratings and long-pitch square gratings. We have also investigated a novel display based on square wells. High frame-rate video microscopy was used to obtain time-sequenced images when the devices were switched with monopolar pulses. These show that zenithal bistable switching can occur by two different processes: (i) domain growth (observed in cells containing sinusoidal gratings) and (ii) homogenous switching (observed in cells containing isolated edges

  1. Bistable dynamics of a levitated nanoparticle (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Francesco; Spasenovic, M.; Rica, Raúl A.; Novotny, Lukas; Quidant, Romain

    2015-08-01

    Bistable systems are ubiquitous in nature. Classical examples in chemistry and biology include relaxation kinetics in chemical reactions [1] and stochastic resonance processes such as neuron firing [2,3]. Likewise, bistable systems play a key role in signal processing and information handling at the nanoscale, giving rise to intriguing applications such as optical switches [4], coherent signal amplification [5,6] and weak forces detection [5]. The interest and applicability of bistable systems are intimately connected with the complexity of their dynamics, typically due to the presence of a large number of parameters and nonlinearities. Appropriate modeling is therefore challenging. Alternatively, the possibility to experimentally recreate bistable systems in a clean and controlled way has recently become very appealing, but elusive and complicated. With this aim, we combined optical tweezers with a novel active feedback-cooling scheme to develop a well-defined opto-mechanical platform reaching unprecedented performances in terms of Q-factor, frequency stability and force sensitivity [7,8]. Our experimental system consists of a single nanoparticle levitated in high vacuum with optical tweezers, which behaves as a non-linear (Duffing) oscillator under appropriate conditions. Here, we prove it to be an ideal tool for a deep study of bistability. We demonstrate bistability of the nanoparticle by noise activated switching between two oscillation states, discussing our results in terms of a double-well potential model. We also show the flexibility of our system in shaping the potential at will, in order to meet the conditions prescribed by any bistable system that could therefore then be simulated with our setup. References [1] T. Amemiya, T. Ohmori, M. Nakaiwa, T. Yamamoto, and T. Yamaguchi, "Modeling of Nonlinear Chemical Reaction Systems and Two-Parameter Stochastic Resonance," J. Biol. Phys. 25 (1999) 73 [2] F. Moss, L. M. Ward, and W. G. Sannita, "Stochastic

  2. Intrinsic Bistability and Critical Slowing in Tm3+/Yb3+ Codoped Laser Crystal with the Photon Avalanche Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Li-Xue, Chen; Xin-Lu, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We present theoretically a novel intrinsic optical bistability (IOB) in the Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ codoped system with a photon avalanche mechanism. Numerical simulations based on the rate equation model demonstrate distinct IOB hysteresis and critical slowing dynamics around the avalanche thresholds. Such an IOB characteristic in Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ codoped crystal has potential applications in solid-state bistable optical displays and luminescence switchers in visible-infrared spectra. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  3. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Jiang, Lun; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Kozlov, Alexandr

    2015-08-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-M), Gas Technology Institute, and Dr. Eli Yablonovitch of University of California at Berkeley developed a novel hybrid concentrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record single-junction Gallium arsenide (GaAs) PV components integrated with particle laden gas as thermal transfer and storage media, to simultaneously generate electricity and high temperature dispatchable heat. The collector transforms a parabolic trough, commonly used in CSP plants, into an integrated spectrum-splitting device. This places a spectrum-sensitive topping element on a secondary reflector that is registered to the thermal collection loop. The secondary reflector transmits higher energy photons for PV topping while diverting the remaining lower energy photons to the thermal media, achieving temperatures of around 400°C even under partial utilization of the solar spectrum. The collector uses the spectral selectivity property of Gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells to maximize the exergy output of the system, resulting in an estimated exergy efficiency of 48%. The thermal media is composed of fine particles of high melting point material in an inert gas that increases heat transfer and effectively stores excess heat in hot particles for later on-demand use.

  4. Silver nanoparticles fabricated hybrid microgels for optical and catalytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, M.; Shah, L.A.; Ambreen, J.; Sayed, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work different compositions of smart poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-vinylacetic acid-acrylamide) poly(NIPAM-VAA-AAm) microgels with different vinyl acetic acid (VAA) contents have been synthesized successfully by conventional free radical emulsion polymerization. Silver metal nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated inside the microgels network by insitu reduction method using sodium borohydride (NaBH/sub 4/) as reducing agent. The confirmation of polymerization and entrapment of metal NPs were carried out by FT-IR spectroscopy. Dynamic laser light scattering (DLLS) technique was used for calculating average hydrodynamic diameter of microgel particles. The optical properties of silver NPs were studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy at various conditions of pH and temperature. The hybrid microgels show red shift and increase in intensity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band with the increase in temperature and decrease in pH of the medium. The synthesized materials were used as catalysts in the reduction process and it was found that the catalyst composed of high amount of VAA shows enhanced catalytic activity. The apparent rate constant (k/sub app/) for catalyst composed of 12 percent VAA was doubled (5.6*10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/) as compared to 4 percent VAA containing catalyst (2.8*10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/). (author)

  5. Electron optics in hybrid photodetectors in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1996-12-01

    The CMS detector design has the hadronic calorimeter immersed in a 4 T magnetic field. The scintillator photon transducer must work reliably in this environment. The baseline phototransducer is the ''hybrid photomultiplier'', which consists of a standard photocathode (S20) followed by a high field acceleration onto the surface of a Si diode. Such a device has a linear response, 1 e out for every 3.6 eV of potential drop in excess of the threshold needed to penetrate the passivation layer of the diode. A threshold voltage of ∼2 kV is typical of these devices, leading to a gain of ∼2000 at 10 kV applied voltage. In the interest of reducing costs, the Si surface can be cut into pixels. However, the optics of the electron trajectories must be well understood so as to avoid crosstalk between pixels caused by misalignment of the accelerating electric field and the axis of the CMS magnetic field. The depletion depth of the Si is quite standard, ∼300 μm. The source capacity is ∼20 pF. The output pulse has a ∼6 nsec risetime for > 60 V diode biasing. The device is expected to be highly immune to magnetic field effects due to the short spacing, ∼3 mm, between photocathode and Si

  6. Optical properties of hybrid semiconductor-metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreilkamp, L.E.; Pohl, M.; Akimov, I.A.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Bayer, M. [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Belotelov, V.I.; Zvezdin, A.K. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02668 Warsaw (Poland); Rudzinski, A.; Kahl, M. [Raith GmbH, Konrad-Adenauer-Allee 8, 44263 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We study the optical properties of hybrid nanostructures comprising a semiconductor CdTe quantum well (QW) separated by a thin CdMgTe cap layer of 40 nm from a patterned gold film. The CdTe/CdMgTe QW structure with a well width of 10nm was grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The one-dimensional periodic gold films on top were made using e-beam lithography and lift-off process. The investigated structures can be considered as plasmonic crystals because the metal films attached to the semiconductor are patterned with a period in the range from 475 to 600 nm, which is comparable to the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) wavelength. Angle dependent reflection spectra at room temperature clearly show plasmonic resonances. PL spectra taken at low temperatures of about 10 K under below- and above-barrier illumination show significant modifications compared to the unstructured QW sample. The number of emission lines and their position shift change depending on the excitation energy. The role of exciton-SPP coupling and Schottky barrier at the semiconductor-metal interface are discussed.

  7. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we

  8. Remnants of semiclassical bistability in the few-photon regime of cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoff, Joseph; Armen, Michael A; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2011-11-21

    Broadband homodyne detection of the light transmitted by a Fabry-Perot cavity containing a strongly-coupled (133)Cs atom is used to probe the dynamic optical response in a regime where semiclassical theory predicts bistability but strong quantum corrections should apply. While quantum fluctuations destabilize true equilibrium bistability, our observations confirm the existence of metastable states with finite lifetimes and a hysteretic response is apparent when the optical drive is modulated on comparable timescales. Our experiment elucidates remnant semiclassical behavior in the attojoule (~10 photon) regime of single-atom cavity QED, of potential significance for ultra-low power photonic signal processing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access and Wavelength Division Multiplexing: Hybrid Scheme Review

    OpenAIRE

    P. Susthitha Menon; Sahbudin Shaari; Isaac A.M. Ashour; Hesham A. Bakarman

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Hybrid Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access (OCDMA) and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) have flourished as successful schemes for expanding the transmission capacity as well as enhancing the security for OCDMA. However, a comprehensive review related to this hybrid system are lacking currently. Approach: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on OCDMA-WDM overlay systems, including our hybrid approach of one-dimensional coding of SAC OCDMA with WDM si...

  10. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent

  11. Performance analysis of a hybrid fingerprint extracted from optical coherence tomography fingertip scans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hybrid fingerprint is a local-quality-specific blend of the surface and internal fingerprints, extracted from optical coherence tomography scans. Owing to its origin, and the manner in which it is obtained, the Hybrid fingerprint is a high...

  12. Modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple object recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the non-linear interpolation and generalization abilities of the hybrid optical neural network filter between the reference and non-reference images of the true-class object we designed the modifiedhybrid optical neural network filter. We applied an optical mask to the hybrid optical neural network's filter input. The mask was built with the constant weight connections of a randomly chosen image included in the training set. The resulted design of the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter is optimized for performing best in cluttered scenes of the true-class object. Due to the shift invariance properties inherited by its correlator unit the filter can accommodate multiple objects of the same class to be detected within an input cluttered image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the general hybrid optical neural network filter allows the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input cluttered image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. The filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously out-of-plane rotation, shift invariance and good clutter tolerance. It is able to successfully detect and classify correctly the true-class objects within background clutter for which there has been no previous training.

  13. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  14. A broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure. Both analytical model and experimental results showed that the coupled bistable structure requires lower excitation force to trigger bistable operation than conventional bistable structures. A compact electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure was implemented and tested. It was excited under white noise vibrations. Experimental results showed that the coupled bistable energy harvester can achieve bistable operation with lower excitation amplitude and generate more output power than both conventional bistable and linear energy harvesters under white noise excitation

  15. A bistable mechanism for directional sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta, C; Amselem, G; Bodenschatz, E

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic mechanism for directional sensing in eukaryotic cells that is based on bistable dynamics. As the key feature of this modeling approach, the velocity of trigger waves in the bistable sensing system changes its sign across cells that are exposed to an external chemoattractant gradient. This is achieved by combining a two-component activator/inhibitor system with a bistable switch that induces an identical symmetry breaking for arbitrary gradient input signals. A simple kinetic example is designed to illustrate the dynamics of a bistable directional sensing mechanism in numerical simulations

  16. Bistable diverter valve in microfluidics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Bandulasena, H.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2011), s. 1225-1233 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * bistable diverter valves * pressure-driven microfluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/x4907p1908151522/

  17. Optical and thermal response of single-walled carbon nanotube–copper sulfide nanoparticle hybrid nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan; He Yuan; Que Long; Lakshmanan, Santana; Yang Chang; Chen Wei

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the optical and thermal response of a single-walled carbon nanotube–copper sulfide nanoparticle (SWNT–CuS NP) hybrid nanomaterial and its application as a thermoelectric generator. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized using oleylamine molecules as the linker molecules between SWNTs and CuS NPs. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial has significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNT. Measurements also found that the hybrid nanomaterial thin-film devices exhibit a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which can be further enhanced up to 10 × by asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin-film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials is demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. (paper)

  18. Brain networks underlying bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel H; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Coggan, David D; Wailes-Newson, Kirstie; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Bistable stimuli, such as the Necker Cube, demonstrate that experience can change in the absence of changes in the environment. Such phenomena can be used to assess stimulus-independent aspects of conscious experience. The current study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to index stimulus-independent changes in neural activity to understand the neural architecture that determines dominance durations during bistable perception (using binocular rivalry and Necker cube stimuli). Anterior regions of the Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL) exhibited robust connectivity with regions of primary sensorimotor cortex. The strength of this region's connectivity with the striatum predicted shorter dominance durations during binocular rivalry, whereas its connectivity to pre-motor cortex predicted longer dominance durations for the Necker Cube. Posterior regions of the SPL, on the other hand, were coupled to associative cortex in the temporal and frontal lobes. The posterior SPL's connectivity to the temporal lobe predicted longer dominance during binocular rivalry. In conjunction with prior work, these data suggest that the anterior SPL contributes to perceptual rivalry through the inhibition of incongruent bottom up information, whereas the posterior SPL influences rivalry by supporting the current interpretation of a bistable stimulus. Our data suggests that the functional connectivity of the SPL with regions of sensory, motor, and associative cortex allows it to regulate the interpretation of the environment that forms the focus of conscious attention at a specific moment in time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...... attractive when traffic is unbalanced....

  20. International Conference on Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering, 1st, Cambridge, MA, October 23-25, 1984, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, D. B.; Sriram, S.

    Aspects of waveguide technology are explored, taking into account waveguide fabrication techniques in GaAs/GaAlAs, the design and fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs phase couplers for optical integrated circuit applications, ion implanted GaAs integrated optics fabrication technology, a direct writing electron beam lithography based process for the realization of optoelectronic integrated circuits, and advances in the development of semiconductor integrated optical circuits for telecommunications. Other subjects examined are related to optical signal processing, optical switching, and questions of optical bistability and logic. Attention is given to acousto-optic techniques in integrated optics, acousto-optic Bragg diffraction in proton exchanged waveguides, optical threshold logic architectures for hybrid binary/residue processors, integrated optical modulation and switching, all-optic logic devices for waveguide optics, optoelectronic switching, high-speed photodetector switching, and a mechanical optical switch.

  1. A novel bistable energy harvesting concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarselli, G; Nicassio, F; Pinto, F; Ciampa, F; Iervolino, O; Meo, M

    2016-01-01

    Bistable energy harvesting has become a major field of research due to some unique features for converting mechanical energy into electrical power. When properly loaded, bistable structures snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains and consequently power generation. Moreover, bistable structures can harvest energy across a broad-frequency bandwidth due to their nonlinear characteristics. Despite the fact that snap-through may be triggered regardless of the form or frequency of exciting vibration, the external force must reach a specific snap-through activation threshold value to trigger the transition from one stable state to another. This aspect is a limiting factor for realistic vibration energy harvesting application with bistable devices. This paper presents a novel power harvesting concept for bistable composites based on a ‘lever effect’ aimed at minimising the activation force to cause the snap through by choosing properly the bistable structures’ constraints. The concept was demonstrated with the help of numerical simulation and experimental testing. The results showed that the actuation force is one order of magnitude smaller (3%–6%) than the activation force of conventionally constrained bistable devices. In addition, it was shown that the output voltage was higher than the conventional configuration, leading to a significant increase in power generation. This novel concept could lead to a new generation of more efficient bistable energy harvesters for realistic vibration environments. (paper)

  2. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  3. Orientational transitions in ferromagnetic liquid crystals with bistable coupling between colloidal particles and the matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhlevnykh, A. N., E-mail: anz@psu.ru; Petrov, D. A. [Perm State National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    We study the orientational response of a ferromagnetic liquid crystal that is induced by magnetic and electric fields. A modified form of the energy of the orientational interaction between magnetic impurity particles and the liquid crystal matrix that leads to bistable coupling is considered. It is shown that apart from magnetic impurity segregation, first-order orientational transitions can be due to the bistability of the potential of the orientational coupling between the director and the magnetization. The ranges of material parameters that lead to optical bistability are determined. The possibility of first-order orientational transitions is analyzed for the optical phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary light rays transmitted through a ferronematic cell. It is shown that an electric field applied in the given geometry considerably enhances the magneto-orientational response of the ferronematic.

  4. Bistable out-of-plane stress-mismatched thermally actuated bilayer devices with large deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessling, B A; Lucas, T M; Moiseeva, E V; Aebersold, J W; Harnett, C K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore microfabricated bistable actuators released as thin films from a silicon wafer. The actuators are based on a serpentine design where two cantilevers are coupled at the tips by a thin-film bar. These devices are parameterized by two lengths: cantilever length and the length of the coupling bar. These two dimensions are systematically varied to study the effect of design parameters on bistability. The three-dimensional devices have extremely large deflection (hundreds of microns rather than tens of microns for most planar microactuators of similar size) and are thermally actuated out of the plane of the wafer by applying a bias across either the left or right side of the serpentine. The bistability of these devices is evaluated using electron and optical microscopy. Potential applications include non-volatile mechanical memory, optical shutters, and reconfigurable antenna elements

  5. Bistable enhanced total reflection in Kretschmann configuration containing a saturable gain medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haichun; Guo, Jie; Xu, Kun; Li, Zhe; Tang, Junqi; Man, Shiqing

    2018-03-05

    The reflection of a TM-polarized light beam from a Kretschmann configuration with a saturable gain medium is investigated theoretically. Here, the dielectric constant of the gain medium is described by a classical Lorentzian oscillator model. When surface plasmon polaritons are effectively excited in this structure, it is demonstrated that the curves of enhanced total reflection (ETR) show different shaped hysteresis loops associated with optical bistability owing to gain saturation effect. The effects of the angle of incidence, the thickness of metal film, and the value of small-signal gain on bistable ETR are discussed in detail in a homogeneously broadened (HB) gain medium at line center. Analogous results can also be obtained in an inhomogeneously broadened (inHB) gain medium, while the two switch thresholds and the width of optical bistability hysteresis in an inHB gain medium are significantly different from those in a HB gain medium.

  6. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-09-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  7. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10 -5 cm 2 /W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  8. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  9. Reverse bistable effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with ultra-fast switching at low driving voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Zhao, Xiaojin; Zhao, Huijie; Chigrinov, V G

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, reverse bistable effect with deep-sub-millisecond switching time is first reported in ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) devices using a homogeneous photo-alignment technique. It is indicated by our experimental results that both the anchoring energy and the dielectric property of the FLC's alignment layer is critical for the existence of the reverse bistable effect. In addition, with the derived criteria of the reverse bistable effect, we quantitatively analyze the switching dynamics of the reverse bistable FLC and the transition condition between the traditional bistability and our presented reverse bistability. Moreover, the fabricated FLC device exhibits an ultra-fast switching of ∼160  μs and a high contrast ratio of 1000:1, both of which were measured at a low driving voltage of 11 V. The featured deep-sub-millisecond switching time is really advantageous for our presented reverse bistable FLC devices, which enables a significant quality improvement of the existing optical devices, as well as a wide range of new applications in photonics and display areas.

  10. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal vapor dominated laser-arc hybrid welding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribic, B.; DebRoy, T.; Burgardt, P.

    2011-01-01

    During laser-arc hybrid welding, plasma properties affect the welding process and the weld quality. However, hybrid welding plasmas have not been systematically studied. Here we examine electron temperatures, species densities, and electrical conductivity for laser, arc, and laser-arc hybrid welding using optical emission spectroscopy. The effects of arc currents and heat source separation distances were examined because these parameters significantly affect weld quality. Time-average plasma electron temperatures, electron and ion densities, electrical conductivity, and arc stability decrease with increasing heat source separation distance during hybrid welding. Heat source separation distance affects these properties more significantly than the arc current within the range of currents considered. Improved arc stability and higher electrical conductivity of the hybrid welding plasma result from increased heat flux, electron temperatures, electron density, and metal vapor concentrations relative to arc or laser welding.

  11. A hybrid optical system for broadband imaging in guidance and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Yuesong; Shen, Chunyan; Zhao, Yiming

    2006-11-01

    A binary optics method has been adopted to improve upon a conventional optical system in guidance and control, and a hybrid broadband imaging system that includes a binary surface is analyzed and evaluated by optical design software ZEMAX. The practical design shows that the introduction of binary optics can simplify the structure of the imaging system and reduce the size and weight of the broadband guidance and control system. Moreover, it can help to acquire images of radiation of different wavelengths from targets; hence it will result in improved overall performance of missiles in wars.

  12. Hybrid optical-fibre/geopolymer sensors for structural health monitoring of concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.; Saafi, M.; Fusiek, G.; Niewczas, P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate hybrid optical-fibre/geopolymer sensors for monitoring temperature, uniaxial strain and biaxial strain in concrete structures. The hybrid sensors detect these measurands via changes in geopolymer electrical impedance, and via optical wavelength measurements of embedded fibre Bragg gratings. Electrical and optical measurements were both facilitated by metal-coated optical fibres, which provided the hybrid sensors with a single, shared physical path for both voltage and wavelength signals. The embedded fibre sensors revealed that geopolymer specimens undergo 2.7 mɛ of shrinkage after one week of curing at 42 °C. After curing, an axial 2 mɛ compression of the uniaxial hybrid sensor led to impedance and wavelength shifts of 7 × 10-2 and -2 × 10-4 respectively. The typical strain resolution in the uniaxial sensor was 100 μ \\varepsilon . The biaxial sensor was applied to the side of a concrete cylinder, which was then placed under 0.6 mɛ of axial, compressive strain. Fractional shifts in impedance and wavelength, used to monitor axial and circumferential strain, were 3 × 10-2 and 4 × 10-5 respectively. The biaxial sensor’s strain resolution was approximately 10 μ \\varepsilon in both directions. Due to several design flaws, the uniaxial hybrid sensor was unable to accurately measure ambient temperature changes. The biaxial sensor, however, successfully monitored local temperature changes with 0.5 °C resolution.

  13. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. A broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Dibin; Beeby, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure. Both analytical model and experimental results showed that the coupled bistable structure requires lower excitation force to trigger bistable operation than conventional bistable structures. A compact electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure was implemented and tested. It was excited under white noise vibrations. Experimental results showed that the coupl...

  15. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  16. Optimizations of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometer based on potassium and rubidium hybrid optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wang, Tao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometers have not realized its theoretical sensitivity, the optimization is critical for optimal performance. The optimizations proposed in this paper are suitable for hybrid optical pumping atomic magnetometer, which contains two alkali species. To optimize the parameters, the dynamic equations of spin evolution with two alkali species were solved, whose steady-state solution is used to optimize the parameters. The demand of the power of the pump beam is large for hybrid optical pumping. Moreover, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer increases with the increase of the power density of the pump beam. The density ratio between the two alkali species is especially important for hybrid optical pumping magnetometer. A simple expression for optimizing the density ratio is proposed in this paper, which can help to determine the mole faction of the alkali atoms in fabricating the hybrid cell before the cell is sealed. The spin-exchange rate between the two alkali species is proportional to the saturated density of the alkali vapor, which is highly dependent on the temperature of the cell. Consequently, the sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping magnetometer is dependent on the temperature of the cell. We proposed the thermal optimization of the hybrid cell for a hybrid optical pumping magnetometer, which can improve the sensitivity especially when the power of the pump beam is low. With these optimizations, a sensitivity of approximately 5 fT/Hz 1/2 is achieved with gradiometer arrangement

  17. Effective-mass model and magneto-optical properties in hybrid perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have proven to be a revolutionary material for low-cost photovoltaic applications. They also exhibit many other interesting properties, including giant Rashba splitting, large-radius Wannier excitons, and novel magneto-optical effects. Understanding these properties as well as the detailed mechanism of photovoltaics requires a reliable and accessible electronic structure, on which models of transport, excitonic, and magneto-optical properties can be effici...

  18. Hybrid optical pumping of K and Rb atoms in a paraffin coated vapor cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Peng, Xiang; Budker, Dmitry; Wickenbrock, Arne; Pang, Bo; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic hybrid optical pumping effects with a radio-frequency-field-driven nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (RF NMOR) scheme are studied in a dual-species paraffin coated vapor cell. By pumping K atoms and probing $^{87}$Rb atoms, we achieve an intrinsic magnetic resonance linewidth of 3 Hz and the observed resonance is immune to power broadening and light-shift effects. Such operation scheme shows favorable prospects for atomic magnetometry applications.

  19. Transcriptional delay stabilizes bistable gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Ott, William; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R

    2013-08-02

    Transcriptional delay can significantly impact the dynamics of gene networks. Here we examine how such delay affects bistable systems. We investigate several stochastic models of bistable gene networks and find that increasing delay dramatically increases the mean residence times near stable states. To explain this, we introduce a non-Markovian, analytically tractable reduced model. The model shows that stabilization is the consequence of an increased number of failed transitions between stable states. Each of the bistable systems that we simulate behaves in this manner.

  20. Hybrid catadioptric system for advanced optical cavity velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frayer, Daniel K.

    2018-02-06

    A probe including reflector is disclosed to measure the velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the surface by the probe and then reflected back from the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface, collected into probe, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to one or more lens groups and a reflector, such as a parabolic reflector having a mirrored interior surface.

  1. Thiol-modified MoS2 nanosheets as a functional layer for electrical bistable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guan; Tan, Fenxue; Lv, Bokun; Wu, Mengying; Wang, Ruiqi; Lu, Yue; Li, Xu; Li, Zhiqiang; Teng, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets have been synthesized by one-pot method using 1-ODT as sulfur source and surfactant. The structure, morphology and optical properties of samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, Abs spectrum and TEM patterns. The XRD pattern indicated that the as-obtained MoS2 belong to hexagonal system. The as-obtained MoS2 nanosheets blending with PVK could be used to fabricate an electrically bistable devices through a simple spin-coating method and the device exhibited an obvious electrical bistability properties. The charge transport mechanism of the device was discussed based on the filamentary switching models.

  2. Bistable Helmholtz solitons in cubic-quintic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear Helmholtz equation for modeling the evolution of broad optical beams in media with a cubic-quintic intensity-dependent refractive index. This type of nonlinearity is appropriate for some semiconductor materials, glasses, and polymers. Exact analytical soliton solutions are presented that describe self-trapped nonparaxial beams propagating at any angle with respect to the reference direction. These spatially symmetric solutions are, to the best of our knowledge, the first bistable Helmholtz solitons to be derived. Accompanying conservation laws (both integral and particular forms) are also reported. Numerical simulations investigate the stability of the solitons, which appear to be remarkably robust against perturbations

  3. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes detected by near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Kalle, W.H.J.; Kalle, W.H.J.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; Wiegant, J.C.A.G.; Raap, A.K.; Greve, Jan; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization o­n human metaphase chromosomes is detected by near-field scanning optical microscopy. This combination of cytochemical and scanning probe techniques enables the localization and identification of several fluorescently labelled genomic DNA fragments o­n a single

  4. The structural design and the electron optics of a hybrid electron-ion gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bas, E.B.; Gisler, E.; Stucki, F.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a new kind of a particle gun called the hybrid gun. It is able to deliver a finely focused electron or ion beam simply by reversing the polarity of the acceleration voltage. The detailed design features of the gun are given and the electron-ion optical properties are discussed. (author)

  5. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-05-08

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  6. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  7. Fabrication and evaluation of hybrid silica/polymer optical fiber sensors for large strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiying

    2007-04-01

    Silica-based optical fiber sensors are widely used in structural health monitoring systems for strain and deflection measurement. One drawback of silica-based optical fiber sensors is their low strain toughness. In general, silica-based optical fiber sensors can only reliably measure strains up to 2%. Recently, polymer optical fiber sensors have been employed to measure large strain and deflection. Due to their high optical losses, the length of the polymer optical fibers is limited to 100 meters. In this paper, we present a novel economical technique to fabricate hybrid silica/polymer optical fiber strain sensors for large strain measurement. First, stress analysis of a surface-mounted optical fiber sensor is performed to understand the load distribution between the host structure and the optical fiber in relation to their mechanical properties. Next, the procedure of fabricating a polymer sensing element between two optical fibers is explained. The experimental set-up and the components used in the fabrication process are described in details. Mechanical testing results of the fabricated silica/polymer optical fiber strain sensor are presented.

  8. Realization of a free-space 2 × 4 90° optical hybrid based on the birefringence and electro-optic effects of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Lingyu; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    A free-space 2 × 4 90° optical hybrid with electro-optic modulation is presented. The hybrid principally consists of two pairs of electro-optic crystal plates coated with gold electrodes and a polarization analyzer. The optical hybrid uses the birefringence effect of a crystal to split and combine a signal beam and a local oscillator beam, uses the electro-optic effect to introduce a phase modulation and produce a phase shift, and outputs four-channel signal/local oscillator mixed beams whose phase difference can be adjusted continuously. A LiNbO 3 crystal is used to design and manufacture the space optical hybrid, and an experimental system is used to verify its performance. The results show that the output phase of the hybrid is continuously adjustable, enabling the hybrid to function perfectly as a 2 × 4 90° space optical hybrid under an appropriate electric field, and that the phase error can be compensated for by an electric field adjustment. (paper)

  9. Space charge effects and electronic bistability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffini, A.; Strumia, F.; Tommasi, O.

    1996-01-01

    The excitation of metastable states in an atomic beam apparatus by means of electron collision is a widespread technique. The authors have observed a large bistable behaviour in apparatus designed to provide an intense and collimated beam of metastable helium by excitation with orthogonally impinging electrons. This bistable behaviour largely affects the efficiency of the apparatus and is therefore worth of being carefully investigated. The apparatus has an electrode configuration equivalent to that of a tetrode valve with large intergrid distances. The bistability consists in a hysteresis cycle in the curve of the anode current vs. grid voltage. Experimental measurements, supported by a simple theoretical model and by numerical simulation, stress out the crucial role played by space charge effects for the onset of bistability. A comparison with previous observations of this phenomenon is given. Spontaneous current oscillations with various shapes have been recorded in one of the two curves of the hysteresis cycle

  10. Bistable fluidic valve is electrically switched

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.; Salvinski, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Bistable control valve is selectively switched by direct application of an electrical field to divert fluid from one output channel to another. Valve is inexpensive, has no moving parts, and operates on fluids which are relatively poor electrical conductors.

  11. All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin; Lou, Jingyi; Tong, Limin

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 10(6) and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.

  12. Origami Mechanics: Bistability and Isometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Lechenault, Frederic; Morphogenesis; multiscale phenomena Team

    2015-03-01

    Origami structures are usually seen as assemblies of rigid faces articulated around creases with hinge-like behaviour. Their deployment and degrees of freedom are purely kinematic, resulting only from the geometry of the crease network. However, in real folded structures, the base material can deform outside the creases. In such situations, face bending competes with crease actuation in a morphogenetic way. In order to rationalise this interplay, we investigate the mechanical behaviour of an infinite sheet on which one or more straight creases meet at a single vertex. We find that these structures generically exhibit bistability, in the sense that they can snap through from one metastable configuration to another. Furthermore, we uncover a new class of isometry of the plane, which corresponds to metastable states of a creased sheet for which the hoop stress vanishes, an instability mechanism that is also responsible for the wrinkling of thin plates.

  13. Linear electro-optical behavior of hybrid nanocomposites based on silicon carbide nanocrystals and polymer matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouclé, J.; Kassiba, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Reynaud, C.; Desert, A.; Emery, J.; Bulou, A.; Sanetra, J.; Pud, A. A.; Kodjikian, S.

    2006-11-01

    An electro-optical activity has been recently reported for hybrid nanocomposite thin films where inorganic silicon carbide nanocrystals (ncSiC) are incorporated into polymer matrices. The role of the interface SiC polymer is suggested as the origin of the observed second order nonlinear optical susceptibility in the hybrid materials based on poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or poly-( N -vinylcarbazole) matrices. In this work, we report an analysis of the electro-optical response of this hybrid system as a function of the ncSiC content and surface state in order to precise the interface effect in the observed phenomenon. Two specific ncSiC samples with similar morphology and different surface states are incorporated in the PMMA matrix. The effective Pockels parameters of the corresponding hybrid nanocomposites have been estimated up to 7.59±0.74pm/V ( 1wt.% of ncSiC in the matrix). The interfacial region ncSiC polymer is found to play the main role in the observed effect. Particularly, the electronic defects on the ncSiC nanocrystal surface modify the interfacial electrical interactions between the two components. The results are interpreted and discussed on the basis of the strong influence of these active centers in the interfacial region at the nanoscale, which are found to monitor the local hyperpolarizabilities and the macroscopic nonlinear optical susceptibilities. This approach allows us to complete the description and understanding of the electro-optical response in the hybrid SiC /polymer systems.

  14. Simulation of a 3D MOT-Optical Molasses Hybrid for Potassium-41 Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W. A.; Wrubel, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    We report a design and numerical model for a 3D magneto-optical trap (MOT)-optical molasses hybrid for potassium-41 atoms. In this arrangement, the usual quadrupole magnetic field is replaced by an octupole field. The octupole field has a central region of very low magnetic field where our simulations show that the atoms experience an optical molasses, resulting in sub-doppler cooling not possible in a quadrupole MOT. The simulations also show that the presence of the magneto-optical trapping force at the edge of the cooling beams provides a restoring force which cycles atoms through the molasses region. We plan to use this hybrid trap to directly load a far off-resonance optical dipole trap. Because the atoms are recycled for multiple passes through the molasses, we expect a higher phase-space density of atoms loaded into the dipole trap. Similar hybrid cooling schemes should be relevant for lithium-6 and lithium-7, which also have poorly resolved D2 hyperfine structure. Research Corporation for Science Advancement, Cottrell College Science Award.

  15. Optical Biosensor with Multienzyme System Immobilized onto Hybrid Membrane for Pesticides Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Yotova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of optical biosensor based on simultaneous immobilization of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase enzymes for the detection of pesticides residues is described. Different kinds of novel SiO2 hybrid membranes were synthesized to be suitable for optical biosensors using sol-gel techniques. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of a multi-enzyme system including acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase covalently immobilized on new hybrid membranes. The sensor exhibited a linear response to acetylcholine in a concentration range of 2.5 - 30 mM. Inhibition plots obtained from testing carbamate (carbofuran pesticides exhibited concentration dependent behaviour and showed linear profiles in concentration ranges between 5x10-8 - 5x10-7 M for carbofuran. The factors affecting the constructed optical biosensors were investigated.

  16. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Anouk M; Knapen, Tomas; Scholte, H Steven; St John-Saaltink, Elexa; Donner, Tobias H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-05-06

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual inhibition between stimulus-selective neural populations in visual cortex plays a key role in these spontaneous perceptual fluctuations. However, a direct link between neural inhibition and bistable perception has not yet been established experimentally. Here, we link perceptual dynamics in three distinct bistable visual illusions (binocular rivalry, motion-induced blindness, and structure from motion) to measurements of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in human visual cortex (as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and to pharmacological stimulation of the GABAA receptor by means of lorazepam. As predicted by a model of neural interactions underlying bistability, both higher GABA concentrations in visual cortex and lorazepam administration induced slower perceptual dynamics, as reflected in a reduced number of perceptual switches and a lengthening of percept durations. Thus, we show that GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, shapes the dynamics of bistable perception. These results pave the way for future studies into the competitive neural interactions across the visual cortical hierarchy that elicit conscious perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical/Light-Powered Hybrid Micromotors with "On-the-Fly" Optical Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanrui; Tang, Songsong; Teymourian, Hazhir; Karshalev, Emil; Zhang, Fangyu; Li, Jinxing; Mou, Fangzhi; Liang, Yuyan; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2018-07-02

    Hybrid micromotors capable of both chemically powered propulsion and fuel-free light-driven actuation and offering built-in optical brakes for chemical propulsion are described. The new hybrid micromotors are designed by combining photocatalytic TiO 2 and catalytic Pt surfaces into a Janus microparticle. The chemical reactions on the different surfaces of the Janus particle hybrid micromotor can be tailored by using chemical or light stimuli that generate counteracting propulsion forces on the catalytic Pt and photocatalytic TiO 2 sides. Such modulation of the surface chemistry on a single micromotor leads to switchable propulsion modes and reversal of the direction of motion that reflect the tuning of the local ion concentration and hence the dominant propulsion force. An intermediate Au layer (under the Pt surface) plays an important role in determining the propulsion mechanism and operation of the hybrid motor. The built-in optical braking system allows "on-the-fly" control of the chemical propulsion through a photocatalytic reaction on the TiO 2 side to counterbalance the chemical propulsion force generated on the Pt side. The adaptive dual operation of these chemical/light hybrid micromotors, associated with such control of the surface chemistry, holds considerable promise for designing smart nanomachines that autonomously reconfigure their propulsion mode for various on-demand operations. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Hybrid Radio/Free-Space Optical Design for Next Generation Backhaul Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-04-22

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks imposes a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost-efficient backhaul solutions becomes an exciting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks, including either radio-frequency (RF) backhauls or optical fibers (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared with OF, it supports the lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution is the free-space optics (FSO) as it offers both a high data rate and a relatively low cost. The FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions, e.g., rain, fog, and line-of-sight. This paper combines both the RF and FSO advantages and proposes a hybrid RF/FSO backhaul solution. It considers the problem of minimizing the cost of the backhaul network by choosing either OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links between the base stations, so as to satisfy data rate, connectivity, and reliability constraints. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for reasonable prices of the hybrid RF/FSO links. They further reveal that the hybrid RF/FSO is a cost-efficient solution and a good candidate for upgrading the existing backhaul networks. © 2016 IEEE.

  19. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London N6G 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  20. (Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.

  1. Optical and mechanical tolerances in hybrid concentrated thermal-PV solar trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Liliana Ruiz; Cocilovo, Byron; Miles, Alexander; Pan, Wei; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Norwood, Robert A

    2018-05-14

    Hybrid thermal-PV solar trough collectors combine concentrated photovoltaics and concentrated solar power technology to harvest and store solar energy. In this work, the optical and mechanical requirements for optimal efficiency are analyzed using non-sequential ray tracing techniques. The results are used to generate opto-mechanical tolerances that can be compared to those of traditional solar collectors. We also explore ideas on how to relieve tracking tolerances for single-axis solar collectors. The objective is to establish a basis for tolerances required for the fabrication and manufacturing of hybrid solar trough collectors.

  2. Test of the quasi-optical grill for lower hybrid current drive on the CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, R.; Pavlo, P.; Preinhaelter, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Zacek, F.; Jakubka, K.; Kletecka, P.; Kryska, L.

    1994-03-01

    Feasibility studies of a new diffraction structure for launching lower hybrid waves into a tokamak plasma - of the microwave quasi-optical grill - are reported. The main parameters of the grill designed for the CASTOR tokamak are summarized, and results of preliminary radiation pattern measurements of a non-optimized model antenna are presented. The influence of a relatively great curvature of the plasma surface in the CASTOR tokamak is discussed and the ray tracing of the launched lower-hybrid wave in the actual CASTOR plasma is shown. Finally, the results of probe measurements of the CASTOR plasma core are given. (J.U.) 17 figs., 9 refs

  3. Experimental demonstration of optical data links using a hybrid CAP/QAM modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J L; Ingham, J D; Cheng, Q; Cunningham, D G; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2014-03-15

    The first known experimental demonstrations of a 10  Gb/s hybrid CAP-2/QAM-2 and a 20  Gb/s hybrid CAP-4/QAM-4 transmitter/receiver-based optical data link are performed. Successful transmission over 4.3 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF) is achieved, with a link power penalty ∼0.4  dBo for CAP-2/QAM-2 and ∼1.5  dBo for CAP-4/QAM-4 at BER=10(-9).

  4. Energy Harvesting Hybrid Acoustic-Optical Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Nasir; Celik, Abdulkadir; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-12-26

    Underwater wireless technologies demand to transmit at higher data rate for ocean exploration. Currently, large coverage is achieved by acoustic sensor networks with low data rate, high cost, high latency, high power consumption, and negative impact on marine mammals. Meanwhile, optical communication for underwater networks has the advantage of the higher data rate albeit for limited communication distances. Moreover, energy consumption is another major problem for underwater sensor networks, due to limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of a sensor node. The ultimate solution to this problem is to add energy harvesting capability to the acoustic-optical sensor nodes. Localization of underwater sensor networks is of utmost importance because the data collected from underwater sensor nodes is useful only if the location of the nodes is known. Therefore, a novel localization technique for energy harvesting hybrid acoustic-optical underwater wireless sensor networks (AO-UWSNs) is proposed. AO-UWSN employs optical communication for higher data rate at a short transmission distance and employs acoustic communication for low data rate and long transmission distance. A hybrid received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is proposed to localize the nodes in AO-UWSNs. The proposed technique combines the noisy RSS based measurements from acoustic communication and optical communication and estimates the final locations of acoustic-optical sensor nodes. A weighted multiple observations paradigm is proposed for hybrid estimated distances to suppress the noisy observations and give more importance to the accurate observations. Furthermore, the closed form solution for Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived for localization accuracy of the proposed technique.

  5. Energy Harvesting Hybrid Acoustic-Optical Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Localization

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir

    2017-12-26

    Underwater wireless technologies demand to transmit at higher data rate for ocean exploration. Currently, large coverage is achieved by acoustic sensor networks with low data rate, high cost, high latency, high power consumption, and negative impact on marine mammals. Meanwhile, optical communication for underwater networks has the advantage of the higher data rate albeit for limited communication distances. Moreover, energy consumption is another major problem for underwater sensor networks, due to limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of a sensor node. The ultimate solution to this problem is to add energy harvesting capability to the acoustic-optical sensor nodes. Localization of underwater sensor networks is of utmost importance because the data collected from underwater sensor nodes is useful only if the location of the nodes is known. Therefore, a novel localization technique for energy harvesting hybrid acoustic-optical underwater wireless sensor networks (AO-UWSNs) is proposed. AO-UWSN employs optical communication for higher data rate at a short transmission distance and employs acoustic communication for low data rate and long transmission distance. A hybrid received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is proposed to localize the nodes in AO-UWSNs. The proposed technique combines the noisy RSS based measurements from acoustic communication and optical communication and estimates the final locations of acoustic-optical sensor nodes. A weighted multiple observations paradigm is proposed for hybrid estimated distances to suppress the noisy observations and give more importance to the accurate observations. Furthermore, the closed form solution for Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived for localization accuracy of the proposed technique.

  6. Energy Harvesting Hybrid Acoustic-Optical Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Saeed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless technologies demand to transmit at higher data rate for ocean exploration. Currently, large coverage is achieved by acoustic sensor networks with low data rate, high cost, high latency, high power consumption, and negative impact on marine mammals. Meanwhile, optical communication for underwater networks has the advantage of the higher data rate albeit for limited communication distances. Moreover, energy consumption is another major problem for underwater sensor networks, due to limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of a sensor node. The ultimate solution to this problem is to add energy harvesting capability to the acoustic-optical sensor nodes. Localization of underwater sensor networks is of utmost importance because the data collected from underwater sensor nodes is useful only if the location of the nodes is known. Therefore, a novel localization technique for energy harvesting hybrid acoustic-optical underwater wireless sensor networks (AO-UWSNs is proposed. AO-UWSN employs optical communication for higher data rate at a short transmission distance and employs acoustic communication for low data rate and long transmission distance. A hybrid received signal strength (RSS based localization technique is proposed to localize the nodes in AO-UWSNs. The proposed technique combines the noisy RSS based measurements from acoustic communication and optical communication and estimates the final locations of acoustic-optical sensor nodes. A weighted multiple observations paradigm is proposed for hybrid estimated distances to suppress the noisy observations and give more importance to the accurate observations. Furthermore, the closed form solution for Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB is derived for localization accuracy of the proposed technique.

  7. Energy Harvesting Hybrid Acoustic-Optical Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Localization

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir; Celik, Abdulkadir; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Underwater wireless technologies demand to transmit at higher data rate for ocean exploration. Currently, large coverage is achieved by acoustic sensor networks with low data rate, high cost, high latency, high power consumption, and negative impact on marine mammals. Meanwhile, optical communication for underwater networks has the advantage of the higher data rate albeit for limited communication distances. Moreover, energy consumption is another major problem for underwater sensor networks, due to limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of a sensor node. The ultimate solution to this problem is to add energy harvesting capability to the acoustic-optical sensor nodes. Localization of underwater sensor networks is of utmost importance because the data collected from underwater sensor nodes is useful only if the location of the nodes is known. Therefore, a novel localization technique for energy harvesting hybrid acoustic-optical underwater wireless sensor networks (AO-UWSNs) is proposed. AO-UWSN employs optical communication for higher data rate at a short transmission distance and employs acoustic communication for low data rate and long transmission distance. A hybrid received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is proposed to localize the nodes in AO-UWSNs. The proposed technique combines the noisy RSS based measurements from acoustic communication and optical communication and estimates the final locations of acoustic-optical sensor nodes. A weighted multiple observations paradigm is proposed for hybrid estimated distances to suppress the noisy observations and give more importance to the accurate observations. Furthermore, the closed form solution for Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived for localization accuracy of the proposed technique.

  8. Hybrid Microfluidic Platform for Multifactorial Analysis Based on Electrical Impedance, Refractometry, Optical Absorption and Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio M. Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a novel microfluidic platform for multifactorial analysis integrating four label-free detection methods: electrical impedance, refractometry, optical absorption and fluorescence. We present the rationale for the design and the details of the microfabrication of this multifactorial hybrid microfluidic chip. The structure of the platform consists of a three-dimensionally patterned polydimethylsiloxane top part attached to a bottom SU-8 epoxy-based negative photoresist part, where microelectrodes and optical fibers are incorporated to enable impedance and optical analysis. As a proof of concept, the chip functions have been tested and explored, enabling a diversity of applications: (i impedance-based identification of the size of micro beads, as well as counting and distinguishing of erythrocytes by their volume or membrane properties; (ii simultaneous determination of the refractive index and optical absorption properties of solutions; and (iii fluorescence-based bead counting.

  9. Silver metaphosphate glass wires inside silica fibers--a new approach for hybrid optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chhavi; Rodrigues, Bruno P; Wieduwilt, Torsten; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Lothar; Schmidt, Markus A

    2016-02-22

    Phosphate glasses represent promising candidates for next-generation photonic devices due to their unique characteristics, such as vastly tunable optical properties, and high rare earth solubility. Here we show that silver metaphosphate wires with bulk optical properties and diameters as small as 2 µm can be integrated into silica fibers using pressure-assisted melt filling. By analyzing two types of hybrid metaphosphate-silica fibers, we show that the filled metaphosphate glass has only negligible higher attenuation and a refractive index that is identical to the bulk material. The presented results pave the way towards new fiber-type optical devices relying on metaphosphate glasses, which are promising materials for applications in nonlinear optics, sensing and spectral filtering.

  10. On the fly all-optical packet switching based on hybrid WDM/OCDMA labeling scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Houssem; Giannoulis, Giannis; Menif, Mourad; Katopodis, Vasilis; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Kouloumentas, Christos; Groumas, Panos; Kanakis, Giannis; Stamatiadis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Erasme, Didier

    2014-02-01

    We introduce a novel design of an all-optical packet routing node that allows for the selection and forwarding of optical packets based on the routing information contained in hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access (WDM/OCDMA) labels. A stripping paradigm of optical code-label is adopted. The router is built around an optical-code gate that consists in an optical flip-flop controlled by two fiber Bragg grating correlators and is combined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-based forwarding gate. We experimentally verify the proof-of-principle operation of the proposed self-routing node under NRZ and OCDMA packet traffic conditions. The successful switching of elastic NRZ payload at 40 Gb/s controlled by DS-OCDMA coded labels and the forwarding operation of encoded data using EQC codes are presented. Proper auto-correlation functions are obtained with higher than 8.1 dB contrast ratio, suitable to efficiently trigger the latching device with a contrast ratio of 11.6 dB and switching times below 3.8 ns. Error-free operation is achieved with 1.5 dB penalty for 40 Gb/s NRZ data and with 2.1 dB penalty for DS-OCDMA packets. The scheme can further be applied to large-scale optical packet switching networks by exploiting efficient optical coders allocated at different WDM channels.

  11. Hybrid optical CDMA-FSO communications network under spatially correlated gamma-gamma scintillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Raddo, Thiago R.; Garrido-Balsells, José María

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new hybrid network solution based on asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) and free-space optical (FSO) technologies for last-mile access networks, where fiber deployment is impractical. The architecture of the proposed hybrid OCDMA-FSO network...... is thoroughly described. The users access the network in a fully asynchronous manner by means of assigned fast frequency hopping (FFH)-based codes. In the FSO receiver, an equal gain-combining technique is employed along with intensity modulation and direct detection. New analytical formalisms for evaluating...... can successfully achieve error-free ABER levels for the three scenarios considered as long as forward error correction (FEC) algorithms are employed. Therefore, OCDMA-FSO networks can be a prospective alternative to deliver high-speed communication services to access networks with deficient fiber...

  12. Optical Manipulation of a Magnon-Photon Hybrid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggio, C; Carugno, G; Guarise, M; Ortolan, A; Ruoso, G

    2017-03-10

    We demonstrate an all-optical method for manipulating the magnetization in a 1-mm yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) sphere placed in a ∼0.17  T uniform magnetic field. A harmonic of the frequency comb delivered by a multi-GHz infrared laser source is tuned to the Larmor frequency of the YIG sphere to drive magnetization oscillations, which in turn give rise to a radiation field used to thoroughly investigate the phenomenon. The radiation damping issue that occurs at high frequency and in the presence of highly magnetizated materials has been overcome by exploiting the magnon-photon strong coupling regime in microwave cavities. Our findings demonstrate an effective technique for ultrafast control of the magnetization vector in optomagnetic materials via polarization rotation and intensity modulation of an incident laser beam. We eventually get a second-order susceptibility value of ∼10^{-7}  cm^{2}/MW for single crystal YIG.

  13. Piezo-phototronic UV/visible photosensing with optical-fiber-nanowire hybridized structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaona; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Liu, Ying; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-04

    An optical-fiber-nanowire hybridized UV-visible photodetector (PD) is reported. The PD is designed to allow direct integration in optical communication systems without requiring the use of couplers via fiber-welding technology. The PD works in two modes: axial and off-axial illumination mode. By using the piezo-phototronic effect, the performance of the PD is enhanced/optimized by up to 718% in sensitivity and 2067% in photoresponsivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Quantitative magneto-optical investigation of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G; Brisbois, J; Pinheiro, L B G L; Müller, J; Blanco Alvarez, S; Devillers, T; Dempsey, N M; Scheerder, J E; Van de Vondel, J; Melinte, S; Vanderbemden, P; Motta, M; Ortiz, W A; Hasselbach, K; Kramer, R B G; Silhanek, A V

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed quantitative magneto-optical imaging study of several superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures, including Nb deposited on top of thermomagnetically patterned NdFeB and permalloy/niobium with erasable and tailored magnetic landscapes imprinted in the permalloy layer. The magneto-optical imaging data are complemented with and compared to scanning Hall probe microscopy measurements. Comprehensive protocols have been developed for calibrating, testing, and converting Faraday rotation data to magnetic field maps. Applied to the acquired data, they reveal the comparatively weaker magnetic response of the superconductor from the background of larger fields and field gradients generated by the magnetic layer.

  15. ALOHA—Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis - From experimental demonstrations to a MIR instrument proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, L.; Darré, P.; Szemendera, L.; Gomes, J. T.; Baudoin, R.; Ceus, D.; Brustlein, S.; Delage, L.; Grossard, L.; Reynaud, F.

    2018-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis (ALOHA) project dedicated to investigate a new method for high resolution imaging in mid infrared astronomy. This proposal aims to use a non-linear frequency conversion process to shift the thermal infrared radiation to a shorter wavelength domain compatible with proven technology such as guided optics and detectors. After a description of the principle, we summarise the evolution of our study from the high flux seminal experiments to the latest results in the photon counting regime.

  16. Quantitative magneto-optical investigation of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G.; Brisbois, J.; Pinheiro, L. B. G. L.; Müller, J.; Blanco Alvarez, S.; Devillers, T.; Dempsey, N. M.; Scheerder, J. E.; Van de Vondel, J.; Melinte, S.; Vanderbemden, P.; Motta, M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Hasselbach, K.; Kramer, R. B. G.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed quantitative magneto-optical imaging study of several superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures, including Nb deposited on top of thermomagnetically patterned NdFeB and permalloy/niobium with erasable and tailored magnetic landscapes imprinted in the permalloy layer. The magneto-optical imaging data are complemented with and compared to scanning Hall probe microscopy measurements. Comprehensive protocols have been developed for calibrating, testing, and converting Faraday rotation data to magnetic field maps. Applied to the acquired data, they reveal the comparatively weaker magnetic response of the superconductor from the background of larger fields and field gradients generated by the magnetic layer.

  17. Synthesis of hybrid chitosan/calcium aluminosilicate using a sol-gel method for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahrawy, Amany Mohamed [Department of Solid State, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC), Giza 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Kim, Yong Soo, E-mail: yskim2@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, Ahmed I., E-mail: Ahmed_ali_2010@helwan.edu.eg [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Industrial Education & Technology, Helwan University, Cairo 11281 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid chitosan (CS)/calcium aluminosilicate nanocomposites thin films and membranes were prepared using a sol–gel method with three different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5, 7 and 10 mol. %). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the prepared samples were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical parameters revealed an increase in both the refractive index and band gap of the nanocomposites with increasing Al concentration. In addition, the PL spectra revealed a blue shift that was consistent with an increase in the optical band gap. These results suggest that CS/calcium aluminosilicate in two different forms can be a good candidate for optical sensors applications. - Highlights: • We show a large specific surface area of hybrid CS/calcium aluminosilicate thin films and membranes using sol-gel method. • Inorganic SiO{sub 2}-based phase are perfectly embedded onto chitosan matrix has a reliable stability. • CS/calcium aluminosilicate could be usable for optical sensors, planar waveguide, and bio-sensing.

  18. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-06-08

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  19. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    The deluge of date rate in today's networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  20. Bubbling and bistability in two parameter discrete systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The birth of X *. · is concurrent with the ... for bistability viz. a½, and the higher order bistability points a¾, etc. are marked. The quadrilateral marked as ... The characteristics of 2 parameter 1-d maps that exhibit bubbling/bistability related to their ...

  1. Optical response of a quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid interacting with a weak probe field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosionis, Spyridon G; Terzis, Andreas F; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2013-01-30

    We study optical effects in a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a spherical metal nanoparticle that interacts with a weak probe electromagnetic field. We use modified nonlinear density matrix equations for the description of the optical properties of the system and obtain a closed-form expression for the linear susceptibilities of the quantum dot, the metal nanoparticle, and the total system. We then investigate the dependence of the susceptibility on the interparticle distance as well as on the material parameters of the hybrid system. We find that the susceptibility of the quantum dot exhibits optical transparency for specific frequencies. In addition, we show that there is a range of frequencies of the applied field for which the susceptibility of the semiconductor quantum dot leads to gain. This suggests that in such a hybrid system quantum coherence can reverse the course of energy transfer, allowing flow of energy from the metallic nanoparticle to the quantum dot. We also explore the susceptibility of the metal nanoparticle and show that it is strongly influenced by the presence of the quantum dot.

  2. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  3. Design of a compact high-speed optical modulator based on a hybrid plasmonic nanobeam cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Mehdi; Zarifkar, Abbas

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid plasmonic electro-optic modulator based on a polymer-filled one dimensional photonic crystal nanobeam (1D PhCNB) cavity is proposed here. In the proposed structure the optical intensity modulation is realized by shifting the resonant wavelength of the cavity through electrically tuning the refractive index of the electro-optic polymer in the hybrid plasmonic waveguide. As a result of the subwavelength light confinement in the hybrid plasmonic waveguide and the compact footprint of the 1D PhCNB cavity, the designed modulator has the small overall footprint of 3 . 6 μm2 and the required wavelength shift can be achieved by applying very small actuating power. Three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) simulations show that the modulation depth of 10.9 dB, and insertion loss of 1.14 dB, along with very high modulation speed of 224 GHz can be achieved in the proposed modulator with very low modulation energy of 0.75 fJ/bit. A comparison between the performance parameters of the proposed modulator and those of previously reported PhCNB based modulators reveals the superior performance of the proposed structure in terms of modulation speed, energy consumption and overall footprint.

  4. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Joost Brouwer

    Full Text Available We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry. Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict.

  5. Longitudinal magnetic bistability of electroplated wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Garcia-Miquel, H.; Vazquez, M.; Svalov, A.V.; Vas'kovskiy, V.O.

    2002-01-01

    Fe 20 Ni 74 Co 6 and Fe 20 Ni 64 Co 16 1 μm thick magnetic tubes electroplated onto Cu 98 Be 2 conductive wire have been investigated in as-deposited state, after heat treatment under longitudinal magnetic field for 1 h at 330 deg. C, and after rf-sputtering deposition of the additional 2 μm Fe 19 Ni 81 layer. Heat treatments and an additional layer deposition modify the shape of hysteresis loops. Magnetically bistable behaviour, observed after the field annealing at a temperature of 330 deg. C, is studied as a function of the length of the samples. This is the first report by our knowledge on the bistable behaviour of the electroplated wires. The bistability of these wires is promising for applications such as tagging or pulse generator applications

  6. Hybrid reflection type metasurface of nano-antennas designed for optical needle field generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-03-01

    We propose a reflection type metal-insulator-metal (MIM) metasurface composed of hybrid optical antennas for comprehensive spatial engineering the properties of optical fields. Its capability is illustrated with an example to create a radially polarized vectorial beam for optical needle field generation. Functioning as local quarter-wave-plates (QWP), the MIM metasurface is designed to convert circularly polarized incident into local linear polarization to create an overall radial polarization with corresponding binary phases and desired normalized amplitude modulation ranged from 0.07 to 1. To obtain enough degrees of freedom, the optical-antenna layer comprises periodic arrangements of double metallic nano-bars with perpendicular placement and single nano-bars respectively for different amplitude modulation requirements. Both of the antennas enable to introduce π/2 retardation while reaching the desired modulation range both for phase and amplitude. Through adjusting the antennas' geometry and array carefully, we shift the gap-surface plasmon resonances facilitated by optical antennas to realize the manipulation of vectorial properties. Designed at 1064 nm wavelength, the particularly generated vectorial light output can be further tightly focused by a high numerical aperture objective to obtain longitudinally polarized flat-top focal field. The so-called optical needle field is a promising candidate for novel applications that transcend disciplinary boundaries. The proposed metasurface establishes a new class of compact optical components based on nano-scale structures, leading to compound functions for vectorial light generation.

  7. Balancing bistable perception during self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; Blanke, Olaf

    2012-10-01

    In two experiments we investigated whether bistable visual perception is influenced by passive own body displacements due to vestibular stimulation. For this we passively rotated our participants around the vertical (yaw) axis while observing different rotating bistable stimuli (bodily or non-bodily) with different ambiguous motion directions. Based on previous work on multimodal effects on bistable perception, we hypothesized that vestibular stimulation should alter bistable perception and that the effects should differ for bodily versus non-bodily stimuli. In the first experiment, it was found that the rotation bias (i.e., the difference between the percentage of time that a CW or CCW rotation was perceived) was selectively modulated by vestibular stimulation: the perceived duration of the bodily stimuli was longer for the rotation direction congruent with the subject's own body rotation, whereas the opposite was true for the non-bodily stimulus (Necker cube). The results found in the second experiment extend the findings from the first experiment and show that these vestibular effects on bistable perception only occur when the axis of rotation of the bodily stimulus matches the axis of passive own body rotation. These findings indicate that the effect of vestibular stimulation on the rotation bias depends on the stimulus that is presented and the rotation axis of the stimulus. Although most studies on vestibular processing have traditionally focused on multisensory signal integration for posture, balance, and heading direction, the present data show that vestibular self-motion influences the perception of bistable bodily stimuli revealing the importance of vestibular mechanisms for visual consciousness.

  8. Bistable Microvalve For Use With Microcatheter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Kirk Patrick

    2003-12-16

    A bistable microvalve of shape memory material is operatively connected to a microcatheter. The bistable microvalve includes a tip that can be closed off until it is in the desired position. Once it is in position it can be opened and closed. The system uses heat and pressure to open and close the microvalve. The shape memory material will change stiffness and shape when heated above a transition temperature. The shape memory material is adapted to move from a first shape to a second shape, either open or closed, where it can perform a desired function.

  9. Unidirectional Transition Waves in Bistable Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Neel; Arrieta, Andres F; Chong, Christopher; Kochmann, Dennis M; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-06-17

    We present a model system for strongly nonlinear transition waves generated in a periodic lattice of bistable members connected by magnetic links. The asymmetry of the on-site energy wells created by the bistable members produces a mechanical diode that supports only unidirectional transition wave propagation with constant wave velocity. We theoretically justify the cause of the unidirectionality of the transition wave and confirm these predictions by experiments and simulations. We further identify how the wave velocity and profile are uniquely linked to the double-well energy landscape, which serves as a blueprint for transition wave control.

  10. Bistable firing properties of soleus motor units in unrestrained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EKEN, T.; KIEHN, O.

    1989-01-01

    of the motoneuron pool by stimulation of la afferents, or inhibition by stimulation of skin afferents. The shifts were not related to gross limb movements. This phenomenon is referred to as a bistable firing pattern. Bistable firing also occurred spontaneously during quiet standing. Typically the firing frequency...... was unchanged or only phasically influenced. These results demonstrate for the first time a bistable firing pattern during postural activity in the intact animal. The firing pattern closely resembles the bistable behaviour described in spinal motoneurons in reduced preparations, where it is due to the presence...... of a plateau potential. This suggests that the bistable firing is unexplained by plateau potentials also in the intact animal....

  11. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-15

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such "hybrid microscopy" methods--combining physical and optical magnifications--can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes ("mini-microscopes"), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics--a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)--is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  12. Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-high sensitivity double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP ring resonator, used for optical sensors and modulators, is developed. Due to high index contrast, as well as plasmonic enhancement, a considerable part of the optical energy is concentrated in the narrow slots between Si and plasmonic materials (silver is used in this paper, which leads to high sensitivity to the infiltrating materials. By partial opening of the outer plasmonic circular sheet of the DSHP ring, a conventional side-coupled silicon on insulator (SOI bus waveguide can be used. Experimental results demonstrate ultra-high sensitivity (687.5 nm/RIU of the developed DSHP ring resonator, which is about five-times higher than for the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Further discussions show that a very low detection limit (5.37 × 10−6 RIU can be achieved after loaded Q factor modifications. In addition, the plasmonic metal structures offer also the way to process optical and electronic signals along the same hybrid plasmonic circuits with small capacitance (~0.275 fF and large electric field, which leads to possible applications in compact high-efficiency electro-optic modulators, where no extra electrodes for electronic signals are required.

  13. Neuromechanistic Model of Auditory Bistability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rankin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of higher frequency A and lower frequency B tones repeating in an ABA- triplet pattern are widely used to study auditory streaming. One may experience either an integrated percept, a single ABA-ABA- stream, or a segregated percept, separate but simultaneous streams A-A-A-A- and -B---B--. During minutes-long presentations, subjects may report irregular alternations between these interpretations. We combine neuromechanistic modeling and psychoacoustic experiments to study these persistent alternations and to characterize the effects of manipulating stimulus parameters. Unlike many phenomenological models with abstract, percept-specific competition and fixed inputs, our network model comprises neuronal units with sensory feature dependent inputs that mimic the pulsatile-like A1 responses to tones in the ABA- triplets. It embodies a neuronal computation for percept competition thought to occur beyond primary auditory cortex (A1. Mutual inhibition, adaptation and noise are implemented. We include slow NDMA recurrent excitation for local temporal memory that enables linkage across sound gaps from one triplet to the next. Percepts in our model are identified in the firing patterns of the neuronal units. We predict with the model that manipulations of the frequency difference between tones A and B should affect the dominance durations of the stronger percept, the one dominant a larger fraction of time, more than those of the weaker percept-a property that has been previously established and generalized across several visual bistable paradigms. We confirm the qualitative prediction with our psychoacoustic experiments and use the behavioral data to further constrain and improve the model, achieving quantitative agreement between experimental and modeling results. Our work and model provide a platform that can be extended to consider other stimulus conditions, including the effects of context and volition.

  14. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikpal@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhan, Bihong, E-mail: bihong_zhan@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Madhu Mohan, M.L.N. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401 (India); Schirhagl, Romana [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of BioMedical Engineering, Ant. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wang, Guoping, E-mail: guopingwang@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    constructed and compared. The switching times, the contrast ratio and spontaneous polarization of the nanostructures–HBLC composite film were carried out by systematic investigation. The sample preparation parameters, such as the curing time and curing intensity were optimized. The critical applied voltage to achieve the switching bi-stability of our device is only 4.5 V, which is approximately twice its threshold voltage for Freedericksz transition. This performance puts the hybrid structure at the top level in the state of the art in application oriented research in optics of liquid crystalline composite materials.

  15. Optical temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity by employing hybrid waveguides in a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    We report on a novel design of an on-chip optical temperature sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration where the two arms consist of hybrid waveguides providing opposite temperature-dependent phase changes to enhance the temperature sensitivity of the sensor. The sensitivity...... of the fabricated sensor with silicon/polymer hybrid waveguides is measured to be 172 pm/°C, which is two times larger than a conventional all-silicon optical temperature sensor (∼80 pm/°C). Moreover, a design with silicon/titanium dioxide hybrid waveguides is by calculation expected to have a sensitivity as high...

  16. A hybrid optical switch architecture to integrate IP into optical networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users. As a consequence, the nature of the Internet traffic has been fundamentally transformed from a pure packet-based pattern to today's predominantly flow-based pattern. Cloud computing has also brought about an unprecedented growth in the Internet traffic. In this paper, a hybrid optical switch architecture is presented to deal with the flow-based Internet traffic, aiming to offer flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand to improve fiber capacity utilization. The hybrid optical switch is capable of integrating IP into optical networks for cloud-based traffic with predictable performance, for which the delay performance of the electronic module in the hybrid optical switch architecture is evaluated through simulation.

  17. A novel survivable architecture for hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2014-02-01

    A novel tree-ring survivable architecture, which consists of an organization of a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) tree from optical line terminal (OLT) to remote nodes (RNs) and a time division multiplexing (TDM) ring in each RN, is proposed for hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks. By utilizing the cyclic property of arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) and the single-ring topology among a group of optical network units (ONUs) in the remote node, not only the feeder and distribution fibers, but also any fiber failures in the RN rings are protected simultaneously. Five-Gbit/s transmissions under both normal working and protection modes were experimentally demonstrated and a traffic restoration time was successfully measured.

  18. High-Capacity Hybrid Optical Fiber-Wireless Communications Links in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan

    of broadband services access. To realize the seamless convergence between the two network segments, the lower capacity of wireless systems need to be increased to match the continuously increasing bandwidth of fiber-optic systems. The research works included in this thesis are devoted to experimental...... investigations of photonic-wireless links with record high capacities to fulfill the requirements of next generation hybrid optical fiber-wireless access networks. The main contributions of this thesis have expanded the state-of-the-art in two main areas: high speed millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communication links......Integration between fiber-optic and wireless communications systems in the "last mile" access networks is currently considered as a promising solution for both service providers and users, in terms of minimizing deployment cost, shortening upgrading period and increasing mobility and flexibility...

  19. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 + ) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  20. Hybrid electro-optics and chipscale integration of electronics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, L. R.; Robinson, B. H.; Elder, D. L.; Tillack, A. F.; Johnson, L. E.

    2017-08-01

    Taken together, theory-guided nano-engineering of organic electro-optic materials and hybrid device architectures have permitted dramatic improvement of the performance of electro-optic devices. For example, the voltage-length product has been improved by nearly a factor of 104 , bandwidths have been extended to nearly 200 GHz, device footprints reduced to less than 200 μm2 , and femtojoule energy efficiency achieved. This presentation discusses the utilization of new coarse-grained theoretical methods and advanced quantum mechanical methods to quantitatively simulate the physical properties of new classes of organic electro-optic materials and to evaluate their performance in nanoscopic device architectures, accounting for the effect on chromophore ordering at interfaces in nanoscopic waveguides.

  1. Low-cost RAU with Optical Power Supply Used in a Hybrid RoF IEEE 802.11 Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.; Siuzdak, J.

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of a low-cost RAU (Remote Antenna Unit) device. It was designed to work in a hybrid Wi-Fi/optical network based on the IEEE 802.11b/g standard. An unique feature of the device is the possibility of optical power supply.

  2. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-07-26

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate but is sensitive to weather conditions. To combine the advantages of RF and FSO backhauls, this paper proposes a cost-efficient backhaul network using the hybrid RF/FSO technology. To ensure a resilient backhaul, the paper imposes a given degree of redundancy by connecting each node through K link-disjoint paths so as to cope with potential link failures. Hence, the network planning problem considered in this paper is the one of minimizing the total deployment cost by choosing the appropriate link type, i.e., either hybrid RF/FSO or optical fiber (OF), between each couple of base-stations while guaranteeing K link-disjoint connections, a data rate target, and a reliability threshold. The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques. It reformulates the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the planning graph, under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links. Simulation results show the cost of the different planning and suggest that the proposed heuristic solution has a close-to-optimal performance for a significant gain in computation complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

  3. Ultrafast optical snapshots of hybrid perovskites reveal the origin of multiband electronic transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Even, Jacky; Mohite, Aditya D.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2017-11-01

    Connecting the complex electronic excitations of hybrid perovskites to their intricate organic-inorganic lattice structure has critical implications for energy conversion and optoelectronic technologies. Here we detail the multiband, multivalley electronic structure of a halide hybrid perovskite by measuring the absorption transients of a millimeter-scale-grain thin film as it undergoes a thermally controlled reversible tetragonal-to-orthogonal phase transition. Probing nearly single grains of this hybrid perovskite, we observe an unreported energy splitting (degeneracy lifting) of the high-energy 2.6 eV band in the tetragonal phase that further splits as the rotational degrees of freedom of the disordered C H3N H3 + molecules are reduced when the sample is cooled. This energy splitting drastically increases during an extended phase-transition coexistence region that persists from 160 to 120 K, becoming more pronounced in the orthorhombic phase. By tracking the temperature-dependent optical transition energies and using symmetry analysis that describes the evolution of electronic states from the tetragonal phase to the orthorhombic phase, we assign this energy splitting to the nearly degenerate transitions in the tetragonal phase from both the R - and M -point-derived states. Importantly, these assignments explain how momentum conservation effects lead to long hot-carrier lifetimes in the room-temperature tetragonal phase, with faster hot-carrier relaxation when the hybrid perovskite structurally transitions to the orthorhombic phase due to enhanced scattering at the Γ point.

  4. Metastable and bistable defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, Bulat N; Abdullin, Kh A; Gorelkinskii, Yurii V

    2000-01-01

    Existing data on the properties and structure of metastable and bistable defects in silicon are analyzed. Primary radiation-induced defects (vacancies, self-interstitial atoms, and Frenkel pairs), complexes of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and other impurity atoms and defects with negative correlation energy are considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. A CW Gunn diode bistable switching element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments with a current-controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode are reported. Switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by current pulses of short duration (5-10 ns). Rise times of the order of several nanoseconds could be obtained.

  6. A bistable model of cell polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Semplice

    Full Text Available Ultrasensitivity, as described by Goldbeter and Koshland, has been considered for a long time as a way to realize bistable switches in biological systems. It is not as well recognized that when ultrasensitivity and reinforcing feedback loops are present in a spatially distributed system such as the cell plasmamembrane, they may induce bistability and spatial separation of the system into distinct signaling phases. Here we suggest that bistability of ultrasensitive signaling pathways in a diffusive environment provides a basic mechanism to realize cell membrane polarity. Cell membrane polarization is a fundamental process implicated in several basic biological phenomena, such as differentiation, proliferation, migration and morphogenesis of unicellular and multicellular organisms. We describe a simple, solvable model of cell membrane polarization based on the coupling of membrane diffusion with bistable enzymatic dynamics. The model can reproduce a broad range of symmetry-breaking events, such as those observed in eukaryotic directional sensing, the apico-basal polarization of epithelium cells, the polarization of budding and mating yeast, and the formation of Ras nanoclusters in several cell types.

  7. Towards an optimal model for a bistable nematic liquid crystal display device

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-03-13

    Bistable liquid crystal displays offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine a theoretical model of a possible bistable device, originally proposed by Cummings and Richardson (Euro J Appl Math 17:435-463 2006), and explore means by which it may be optimized, in terms of optical contrast, manufacturing considerations, switching field strength, and switching times. The compromises inherent in these conflicting design criteria are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  8. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  9. SPR based hybrid electro-optic biosensor for β-lactam antibiotics determination in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatus, Ramona; Feier, Bogdan; Cristea, Cecilia; Cennamo, Nunzio; Zeni, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    The present work aims to provide a hybrid platform capable of complementary and sensitive detection of β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin in particular. The use of an aptamer specific to ampicillin assures good selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of ampicillin from different matrice. This new approach is dedicated for a portable, remote sensing platform based on low-cost, small size and low-power consumption solution. The simple experimental hybrid platform integrates the results from the D-shape surface plasmon resonance plastic optical fiber (SPR-POF) and from the electrochemical (bio)sensor, for the analysis of ampicillin, delivering sensitive and reliable results. The SPR-POF already used in many previous applications is embedded in a new experimental setup with fluorescent fibers emitters, for broadband wavelength analysis, low-power consumption and low-heating capabilities of the sensing platform.

  10. Triggered Snap-Through of Bistable Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yijie; Huang, Shicheng; Trase, Ian; Hu, Nan; Chen, Zi

    Elastic bistable shells are common structures in nature and engineering, such as the lobes of the Venus flytrap or the surface of a toy jumping poppers. Despite their ubiquity, the parameters that control the bistability of such structures are not well understood. In this study, we explore how the geometrical features of radially symmetric elastic shells affect the shape and potential energy of a shell's stable states, and how to tune certain parameters in order to generate a snap-through transition from a convex semi-stable state to concave stable state. We fabricated a series of elastic shells with varying geometric parameters out of silicone rubber and measured the resulting potential energy in the semi-stable state. Finite element simulations were also conducted in order to determine the deformation and stress in the shells during snap-through. It was found that the energy of the semi-stable state is controlled by only two geometric parameters and a dimensionless ratio. We also noted two distinct transitions during snap-through, one between monostability and semi-bistability (the state a popper toy is in before it snaps-through and jumps), and a second transition between semi-bistability and true bistability. This work shows that it is possible to use a set of simple parameters to tailor the energy landscape of an elastic shell in order to generate complex trigger motions for their potential use in smart applications. Z.C. acknowledge support from Society in Science-Branco Weiss Fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich.

  11. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  12. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  13. Demonstration of a high speed hybrid electrical and optical sensing system for next generation launcher applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; O'Dowd, John A.; Honniball, Arthur; Bessler, Vivian; Farnan, Martin; O'Connor, Peter; Melicher, Milos; Gleeson, Danny

    2017-09-01

    The Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) has a goal of developing various launch vehicle system concepts and identifying the technologies required for the design of Europe's Next-Generation Launcher (NGL) while maintaining competitiveness on the commercial market. Avionics fiber optic sensing technology was investigated as part of the FLPP programme. Here we demonstrate and evaluate a high speed hybrid electrical/optical data acquisition system based on commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology capable of acquiring data from traditional electrical sensors and optical Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The proposed system consists of the KAM-500 data acquisition system developed by Curtis-Wright and the I4 tunable laser based fiber optic sensor interrogator developed by FAZ Technology. The key objective was to demonstrate the capability of the hybrid system to acquire data from traditional electrical sensors used in launcher applications e.g. strain, temperature and pressure in combination with optical FBG sensors, as well as data delivery to spacecraft avionics systems. The KAM-500 was configured as the main acquisition unit (MAU) and provided a 1 kHz sampling clock to the I4 interrogator that was configured as the secondary acquisition unit (SAU) to synchronize the data acquisition sample rate between both systems. The SAU acquired data from an array of optical FBG sensors, while the MAU data acquisition system acquired data from the electrical sensors. Data acquired from the optical sensors was processed by the FAZ I4 interrogation system and then encapsulated into UDP/IP packets and transferred to the KAM-500. The KAM-500 encapsulated the optical sensor data together with the data acquired from electrical sensors and transmitted the data over MIL-STD-1553 and Ethernet data interface. The temperature measurements resulted in the optical and electrical sensors performing on a par with each other, with all

  14. Light propagation and transmission in hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal cells: Geometrical optics calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carlos I.; Reyes, J. Adrian

    2006-08-01

    The authors present a geometrical approach to calculate the transmission of light in a hybrid-aligned nematic cell under the influence of an applied electric field. Using the framework of geometrical optics they present results for the ray tracing as well as the transmission of light as a function of the applied low frequency voltage. Dispersion effects are included through a wavelength dependent dielectric function. Their results for the transmittance as a function of the applied voltage show oscillations that are in good qualitative agreement with previously obtained experimental measurements.

  15. Single mode operation of a hybrid optically pumped D2O far infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, D.C.; Siegrist, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    We have achieved single mode operation in a hybrid optically pumped D 2 O far infrared laser. The active volume of the resonator was divided into two sections separated by a thin plastic foil. The larger section served as the main gain medium and the shorter section as mode selective element. The vapor pressure in the smaller volume was either very low or alternatively about 3 times higher than the pressure in the main part. In both cases single mode operation was achieved without any reduction of the total output energy. (author) 13 refs., 7 figs

  16. Bistable four-wave mixing response in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Xiao, Si; Liang, Shan; He, Meng-Dong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Kim, Nam-Chol; Chen, Li-Qun

    2017-10-16

    We perform a theoretical study of the bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) response in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity in which the SQD is embedded. It is shown that the shape of the FWM spectrum can switch among single-peaked, double-peaked, triple-peaked, and four-peaked arising from the vacuum Rabi splitting and the exciton-nanocavity coupling. Especially, we map out bistability phase diagrams within a parameter subspace of the system, and find that it is easy to turn on or off the bistable FWM response by only adjusting the excitation frequency or the pumping intensity. Our results offer a feasible means for measuring the SQD-PC nanocavity coupling strength and open a new avenue to design optical switches and memories.

  17. A novel optical beam splitter based on photonic crystal with hybrid lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qing-Yi; Fu Yong-Qi; Zhang Zhi-Min; Hu De-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A novel optical beam splitter constructed on the basis of photonic crystal (PC) with hybrid lattices is proposed in this paper. The band gap of square-lattice PC is so designed that the incident light is divided into several branch beams. Triangular-lattice graded-index PCs are combined for focusing each branch. Computational calculations are carried out on the basis of finite-different time-domain algorithm to prove the feasibility of our design. The waveguide is unnecessary in the design. Thus the device has functions of both splitting and focusing beams. Size of the divided beam at site of full-width at half-maximum is of the order of λ/2. The designed splitter has the advantages that it has a small volume and can be integrated by conventional semiconductor manufacturing process. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  18. Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Zhu, Long; Liu, Jun; Du, Cheng; Mo, Qi; Wang, Jian

    2015-11-16

    Mode-division multiplexing passive optical network (MDM-PON) is a promising scheme for next-generation access networks to further increase fiber transmission capacity. In this paper, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept experiment of hybrid mode-division multiplexing (MDM) and time-division multiplexing (TDM) PON architecture by exploiting orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. Bidirectional transmissions with 2.5-Gbaud 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) downstream and 2-Gbaud on-off keying (OOK) upstream are demonstrated in the experiment. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for downstream and upstream transmissions at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10(-3) are less than 2.0 dB and 3.0 dB, respectively.

  19. Preparation and morphological and optical characterization of azo-polymer-based SiO2 sonogel hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Saavedra, Omar G; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G; Torres-Zúñiga, Vicente; Guadalupe-Bañuelos, José; Ortega-Martínez, Roberto; Rivera, Ernesto; García, Tonatiuh

    2009-01-01

    The well-established catalyst-free sonogel route was successfully implemented to fabricate highly pure, optically active, solid state polymeric azo- dye/SiO 2 -based hybrid composites. Bulk samples exhibit controllable geometrical shapes and monolithic structure with variable dopant concentrations. Since the implemented azo-dye chromophores exhibit a push–pull structure, hybrid film samples were spin-coated on ITO-covered glass substrates; molecular alignment was then performed via electrical poling in order to explore the quadratic nonlinear optical performance of this kind of composite. Comprehensive morphological, spectroscopic and optical characterization of the samples were performed with several experimental techniques: atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and infrared, Raman, photoluminescent and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. The linear refractive indices of both bulk and thin film samples were measured according to the Brewster angle technique and a numerical analysis of the transmission spectral data, respectively. Regardless of the low glass transition temperatures of the studied polymers, some hybrid film samples were able to display stable nonlinear optical activity such as second harmonic generation. Results show that the chromophores were satisfactorily embedded into the highly pure SiO 2 sonogel network without significant guest–host molecular interactions, thus preserving their optical properties and producing sol–gel hybrid glasses suitable for optical applications

  20. Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Guido; Mattia, Maurizio; Braun, Jochen; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2009-07-01

    We propose a novel explanation for bistable perception, namely, the collective dynamics of multiple neural populations that are individually meta-stable. Distributed representations of sensory input and of perceptual state build gradually through noise-driven transitions in these populations, until the competition between alternative representations is resolved by a threshold mechanism. The perpetual repetition of this collective race to threshold renders perception bistable. This collective dynamics - which is largely uncoupled from the time-scales that govern individual populations or neurons - explains many hitherto puzzling observations about bistable perception: the wide range of mean alternation rates exhibited by bistable phenomena, the consistent variability of successive dominance periods, and the stabilizing effect of past perceptual states. It also predicts a number of previously unsuspected relationships between observable quantities characterizing bistable perception. We conclude that bistable perception reflects the collective nature of neural decision making rather than properties of individual populations or neurons.

  1. Designing Hybrids of Graphene Oxide and Gold Nanoparticles for Nonlinear Optical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Aneesh, J.; Sharma, Rituraj; Abhiramnath, P.; Maji, Tuhin Kumar; Omar, Ganesh Ji; Mishra, A. K.; Karmakar, Debjani; Adarsh, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear optical absorption of light by materials is weak due to its perturbative nature, although a strong nonlinear response is of crucial importance to applications in optical limiting and switching. Here we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically an extremely efficient scheme of excited-state absorption by charge transfer between donor and acceptor materials as a method to enhance the nonlinear absorption by orders of magnitude. With this idea, we demonstrate a strong excited-state absorption (ESA) in reduced graphene oxide that otherwise shows an increased transparency at high fluence and enhancement of ESA by one order of magnitude in graphene oxide by attaching gold nanoparticles (Au NP) in the tandem configuration that acts as an efficient charge-transfer pair when excited at the plasmonic wavelength. To explain the unprecedented enhancement, we develop a five-level rate-equation model based on the charge transfer between the two materials and numerically simulate the results. To understand the correlation of interfacial charge transfer with the concentration and type of the functional ligands attached to the graphene oxide sheet, we investigate the Au-NP—graphene oxide interface with various possible ligand configurations from first-principles calculations. By using the strong ESA of our hybrid materials, we fabricate liquid cell-based high-performance optical limiters with important device parameters better than that of the benchmark optical limiters.

  2. Multi-carrier transmission for hybrid radio frequency with optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Nguyen, Tien M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency (RF) wireless communication is reaching its capacity to support large data rate transmissions due to hardware constraints (e.g., silicon processes), software strategies (e.g., information theory), and consumer desire for timely large file exchanges (e.g., big data and mobile cloud computing). A high transmission rate performance must keep pace with the generated huge volumes of data for real-time processing. Integrated RF and optical wireless communications (RF/OWC) could be the next generation transmission technology to satisfy both the increased data rate exchange and the communications constraints. However, with the promising benefits of RF/OWC, challenges remain to fully develop hybrid RF with wireless optical communications such as uniform waveform design for information transmission and detection. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme, which widely employed in RF communications, is developed for optical communications. The traditional high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM is reduced to improve system performance. The proposed multi-carrier waveform is evaluated with a frequency-selective fading channel. The results demonstrate that bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed optical OFDM transmission technique outperforms the traditional OWC on-off keying (OOK) transmission scheme.

  3. Optical and mechanical excitation thermography for impact response in basalt-carbon hybrid fiber-reinforced composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hai; Sfarra, Stefano; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Perilli, Stefano; Fernandes, Henrique; Duan, Yuxia; Peeters, Jeroen; Avelidis, Nicholas P; Maldague, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, optical and mechanical excitation thermography were used to investigate basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP), carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and basalt-carbon fiber hybrid specimens subjected to impact loading. Interestingly, two different hybrid structures including sandwich-like and intercalated stacking sequence were used. Pulsed phase thermography (PPT), principal component thermography (PCT) and partial least squares thermography (PLST) were used to pro...

  4. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of hybridized CdS-PVA nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmei; Chen Zhe; Fang Pengfei; Wang Shaojie

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of CdS nanoparticles embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) matrixes had been prepared and characterized. The -OH groups acted as the coordination sites for cadmium ion aggregations and nanosized CdS particles were successfully grown in situ at these sites with the release of S 2- ions from thioacetamide. The density and size of the nanoparticles were found to be a function of molar quantity of cadmium ion used. X-ray diffraction results showed that the obtained CdS nanoparticles were hexagonal phase. Ionic clustering within the PVA matrix occurred and had provided a confined medium for particles growth in uniform size. The optical properties of the prepared CdS-PVA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopies. The absorption spectra showed a blue shift as compared to bulk CdS band-gap. The photoluminescence studies indicated the emission peak observed in samples could be assigned to the optical transition of the first excitonic state of the CdS nanoparticles

  5. Effective-mass model and magneto-optical properties in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z. G.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have proven to be a revolutionary material for low-cost photovoltaic applications. They also exhibit many other interesting properties, including giant Rashba splitting, large-radius Wannier excitons, and novel magneto-optical effects. Understanding these properties as well as the detailed mechanism of photovoltaics requires a reliable and accessible electronic structure, on which models of transport, excitonic, and magneto-optical properties can be efficiently developed. Here we construct an effective-mass model for the hybrid perovskites based on the group theory, experiment, and first-principles calculations. Using this model, we relate the Rashba splitting with the inversion-asymmetry parameter in the tetragonal perovskites, evaluate anisotropic g-factors for both conduction and valence bands, and elucidate the magnetic-field effect on photoluminescence and its dependence on the intensity of photoexcitation. The diamagnetic effect of exciton is calculated for an arbitrarily strong magnetic field. The pronounced excitonic peak emerged at intermediate magnetic fields in cyclotron resonance is assigned to the 3D±2 states, whose splitting can be used to estimate the difference in the effective masses of electron and hole.

  6. Hybrid optical CDMA-FSO communications network under spatially correlated gamma-gamma scintillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Raddo, Thiago R; Garrido-Balsells, José María; Borges, Ben-Hur V; Olmos, Juan José Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we propose a new hybrid network solution based on asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) and free-space optical (FSO) technologies for last-mile access networks, where fiber deployment is impractical. The architecture of the proposed hybrid OCDMA-FSO network is thoroughly described. The users access the network in a fully asynchronous manner by means of assigned fast frequency hopping (FFH)-based codes. In the FSO receiver, an equal gain-combining technique is employed along with intensity modulation and direct detection. New analytical formalisms for evaluating the average bit error rate (ABER) performance are also proposed. These formalisms, based on the spatially correlated gamma-gamma statistical model, are derived considering three distinct scenarios, namely, uncorrelated, totally correlated, and partially correlated channels. Numerical results show that users can successfully achieve error-free ABER levels for the three scenarios considered as long as forward error correction (FEC) algorithms are employed. Therefore, OCDMA-FSO networks can be a prospective alternative to deliver high-speed communication services to access networks with deficient fiber infrastructure.

  7. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contalbrigo, M.; Baltzell, N.; Benmokhtar, F.; Barion, L.; Cisbani, E.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lagamba, L.; Lucherini, V.; Malaguti, R.; Mirazita, M.; Montgomery, R.; Movsisyan, A.; Musico, P.; Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Pereira, S.

    2014-01-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures

  8. All-optical bidirectional neural interfacing using hybrid multiphoton holographic optogenetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch-Siegler, Shir; Mayblum, Tom; Dana, Hod; Brosh, Inbar; Gefen, Inna; Shoham, Shy

    2015-07-01

    Our understanding of neural information processing could potentially be advanced by combining flexible three-dimensional (3-D) neuroimaging and stimulation. Recent developments in optogenetics suggest that neurophotonic approaches are in principle highly suited for noncontact stimulation of network activity patterns. In particular, two-photon holographic optical neural stimulation (2P-HONS) has emerged as a leading approach for multisite 3-D excitation, and combining it with temporal focusing (TF) further enables axially confined yet spatially extended light patterns. Here, we study key steps toward bidirectional cell-targeted 3-D interfacing by introducing and testing a hybrid new 2P-TF-HONS stimulation path for accurate parallel optogenetic excitation into a recently developed hybrid multiphoton 3-D imaging system. The system is shown to allow targeted all-optical probing of in vitro cortical networks expressing channelrhodopsin-2 using a regeneratively amplified femtosecond laser source tuned to 905 nm. These developments further advance a prospective new tool for studying and achieving distributed control over 3-D neuronal circuits both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Baltzell, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Benmokhtar, F. [Christopher Newport University, VA (United States); Duquesne University, PA (United States); Barion, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Cisbani, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma – Gruppo Collega to Sanità (Italy); Italian National Institute of Health (Italy); El Alaoui, A. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hafidi, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hoek, M. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); J. Gutenberg Universität, Mainz (Germany); Kubarovsky, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, VA (United States); Lagamba, L. [INFN Sezione di Bari, University of Bari (Italy); Lucherini, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Malaguti, R. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Mirazita, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Montgomery, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Movsisyan, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Musico, P. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Pappalardo, L.L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Pereira, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures.

  10. Beam coupling in hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric liquid crystal cells: Impact of optical rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnyak, V. Yu.; Pinkevych, I. P.; Sluckin, T. J.; Cook, G.; Evans, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to describe two-beam energy exchange in a hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric cell. A cholesteric layer is placed between two inorganic substrates. One of the substrates is photorefractive (Ce:SBN). Weak and strong light beams are incident on the hybrid cell. The interfering light beams induce a periodic space-charge field in the photorefractive window. This penetrates into the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC), inducing a diffraction grating written on the LC director. In the theory, the flexoelectric mechanism for electric field-director coupling is more important than the LC static dielectric anisotropy coupling. The LC optics is described in the Bragg regime. Each beam induces two circular polarized waves propagating in the cholesteric cell with different velocities. The model thus includes optical rotation in the cholesteric LC. The incident light beam wavelength can fall above, below, or inside the cholesteric gap. The theory calculates the energy gain of the weak beam, as a result of its interaction with the pump beam within the diffraction grating. Theoretical results for exponential gain coefficients are compared with experimental results for hybrid cells filled with cholesteric mixture BL038/CB15 at different concentrations of chiral agent CB15. Reconciliation between theory and experiment requires the inclusion of a phenomenological multiplier in the magnitude of the director grating. This multiplier is cubic in the space-charge field, and we provide a justification of the q-dependence of the multiplier. Within this paradigm, we are able to fit theory to experimental data for cholesteric mixtures with different spectral position of cholesteric gap relative to the wavelength of incident beams, subject to the use of some fitting parameters

  11. Durable bistable auxetics made of rigid solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao; Liu, Lu; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano

    2018-02-01

    Bistable Auxetic Metamaterials (BAMs) are a class of monolithic perforated periodic structures with negative Poisson's ratio. Under tension, a BAM can expand and reach a second state of equilibrium through a globally large shape transformation that is ensured by the flexibility of its elastomeric base material. However, if made from a rigid polymer, or metal, BAM ceases to function due to the inevitable rupture of its ligaments. The goal of this work is to extend the unique functionality of the original kirigami architecture of BAM to a rigid solid base material. We use experiments and numerical simulations to assess performance, bistability and durability of rigid BAMs at 10,000 cycles. Geometric maps are presented to elucidate the role of the main descriptors of BAM architecture. The proposed design enables the realization of BAM from a large palette of materials, including elastic-perfectly plastic materials and potentially brittle materials.

  12. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Satoru; Rata, Scott; Hino, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Takeharu; Novák, Béla

    2016-12-19

    The abrupt and irreversible transition from interphase to M phase is essential to separate DNA replication from chromosome segregation. This transition requires the switch-like phosphorylation of hundreds of proteins by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B (CycB) complex. Previous studies have ascribed these switch-like phosphorylations to the auto-activation of Cdk1:CycB through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on Cdk1-Tyr15 [1, 2]. The positive feedback in Cdk1 activation creates a bistable switch that makes mitotic commitment irreversible [2-4]. Here, we surprisingly find that Cdk1 auto-activation is dispensable for irreversible, switch-like mitotic entry due to a second mechanism, whereby Cdk1:CycB inhibits its counteracting phosphatase (PP2A:B55). We show that the PP2A:B55-inhibiting Greatwall (Gwl)-endosulfine (ENSA) pathway is both necessary and sufficient for switch-like phosphorylations of mitotic substrates. Using purified components of the Gwl-ENSA pathway in a reconstituted system, we found a sharp Cdk1 threshold for phosphorylation of a luminescent mitotic substrate. The Cdk1 threshold to induce mitotic phosphorylation is distinctly higher than the Cdk1 threshold required to maintain these phosphorylations-evidence for bistability. A combination of mathematical modeling and biochemical reconstitution show that the bistable behavior of the Gwl-ENSA pathway emerges from its mutual antagonism with PP2A:B55. Our results demonstrate that two interlinked bistable mechanisms provide a robust solution for irreversible and switch-like mitotic entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Deboi, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, assembly and test of a development configuration bistable (latching) solenoid actuated propellant isolation valve suitable for the control hydrazine and liquid fluorine to an 800 pound thrust rocket engine is described. The valve features a balanced poppet, utilizing metal bellows, a hard poppet/seat interface and a flexure support system for the internal moving components. This support system eliminates sliding surfaces, thereby rendering the valve free of self generated particles.

  14. Experimental and simulation analysis of the W-band SC-FDMA hybrid optical-wireless transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of the W-band hybrid optical-wireless SC-FDMA with 1.49 Gbit/s transmission over up to 2.3 m of air propagation. Provided simulation performance analysis proves a potential to reach 12.1 Gbit/s.......We report on the experimental demonstration of the W-band hybrid optical-wireless SC-FDMA with 1.49 Gbit/s transmission over up to 2.3 m of air propagation. Provided simulation performance analysis proves a potential to reach 12.1 Gbit/s....

  15. Interlinked bistable mechanisms generate robust mitotic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Lukas H; Rata, Scott; Hochegger, Helfrid; Novák, Béla

    2017-10-18

    The transitions between phases of the cell cycle have evolved to be robust and switch-like, which ensures temporal separation of DNA replication, sister chromatid separation, and cell division. Mathematical models describing the biochemical interaction networks of cell cycle regulators attribute these properties to underlying bistable switches, which inherently generate robust, switch-like, and irreversible transitions between states. We have recently presented new mathematical models for two control systems that regulate crucial transitions in the cell cycle: mitotic entry and exit, 1 and the mitotic checkpoint. 2 Each of the two control systems is characterized by two interlinked bistable switches. In the case of mitotic checkpoint control, these switches are mutually activating, whereas in the case of the mitotic entry/exit network, the switches are mutually inhibiting. In this Perspective we describe the qualitative features of these regulatory motifs and show that having two interlinked bistable mechanisms further enhances robustness and irreversibility. We speculate that these network motifs also underlie other cell cycle transitions and cellular transitions between distinct biochemical states.

  16. Dynamics of unidirectionally coupled bistable Henon maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sausedo-Solorio, J.M.; Pisarchik, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of two bistable Henon maps coupled in a master-slave configuration. In the case of coexistence of two periodic orbits, the slave map evolves into the master map state after transients, which duration determines synchronization time and obeys a -1/2 power law with respect to the coupling strength. This scaling law is almost independent of the map parameter. In the case of coexistence of chaotic and periodic attractors, very complex dynamics is observed, including the emergence of new attractors as the coupling strength is increased. The attractor of the master map always exists in the slave map independently of the coupling strength. For a high coupling strength, complete synchronization can be achieved only for the attractor similar to that of the master map. -- Highlights: → We study dynamics of two bistable Henon maps coupled in a master-slave configuration. → Synchronization time for periodic orbits obeys a -1/2 power law with respect to coupling. → For a high coupling strength, the slave map remains bistable. → Complete synchronization can be achieved only when both maps stay at the same attractor.

  17. Bifurcation properties of nematic liquid crystals exposed to an electric field: Switchability, bistability, and multistability

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-07-01

    Bistable liquid crystal displays (LCDs) offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two (or more) stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine the basic physical principles involved in generating multiple stable states and the switching between these states. We consider a two-dimensional geometry in which variable surface anchoring conditions are used to control the steady-state solutions and explore how different anchoring conditions can influence the number and type of solutions and whether or not switching is possible between the states. We find a wide range of possible behaviors, including bistability, tristability, and tetrastability, and investigate how the solution landscape changes as the boundary conditions are tuned. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  18. Porous silicon-VO{sub 2} based hybrids as possible optical temperature sensor: Wavelength-dependent optical switching from visible to near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunez, E. E.; Salazar-Kuri, U.; Estevez, J. O.; Basurto, M. A.; Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62209 (Mexico); Campos, J. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Jiménez Sandoval, S. [Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales, Centro de Investigación y estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2015-10-07

    Morphological properties of thermochromic VO{sub 2}—porous silicon based hybrids reveal the growth of well-crystalized nanometer-scale features of VO{sub 2} as compared with typical submicron granular structure obtained in thin films deposited on flat substrates. Structural characterization performed as a function of temperature via grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman demonstrate reversible semiconductor-metal transition of the hybrid, changing from a low-temperature monoclinic VO{sub 2}(M) to a high-temperature tetragonal rutile VO{sub 2}(R) crystalline structure, coupled with a decrease in phase transition temperature. Effective optical response studied in terms of red/blue shift of the reflectance spectra results in a wavelength-dependent optical switching with temperature. As compared to VO{sub 2} film over crystalline silicon substrate, the hybrid structure is found to demonstrate up to 3-fold increase in the change of reflectivity with temperature, an enlarged hysteresis loop and a wider operational window for its potential application as an optical temperature sensor. Such silicon based hybrids represent an exciting class of functional materials to display thermally triggered optical switching culminated by the characteristics of each of the constituent blocks as well as device compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology.

  19. Characterization of X-ray Lobster Optics with a Hybrid CMOS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Burrows, David N.; Bray, Evan; McQuaide, Maria; Kern, Matthew; Wages, Mitchell; Hull, Samuel; Inneman, Adolf; Hudec, Rene; Stehlikova, Veronika

    2018-01-01

    X-ray lobster optics provide a unique way to focus X-rays onto a small focal plane imager with wide field of view imaging. Such an instrument with angular resolution of a few arcminutes can be used to study GRB afterglows, as well as the variability and spectroscopic characteristics for various astrophysical objects. At Penn State University, we have characterized a lobster optic with an H1RG X-Ray hybrid CMOS detector (100 μm thick Silicon with 18 μm pixel size). The light-weight compact lobster optic with a 25 cm focal length provides two dimensional imaging with ~25 cm2 effective area at 2 keV. We utilize a 47 meter long X-ray beam line at Penn state University to do our experiments where we characterize the overall effective area of the instrument at 1.5 - 8 keV for both on-axis and off-axis angles. In this presentation, we will describe the characterization test stand and methods, as well as the detailed results. While this is simply a proof-of-concept experiment, such an instrument with significant collecting area can be explored for future rocket or CubeSat experiments.

  20. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Deleporte, Emmanuelle, E-mail: Emmanuelle.Deleporte@lpqm.ens-cachan.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent [Laboratoire de Photophysique et Photochimie Supramoleculaires et Macromoleculaires de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France)

    2009-06-15

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}{sup +}) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  1. Double closed-loop resonant micro optic gyro using hybrid digital phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Zhang, Jianjie; Wang, Linglan; Jin, Zhonghe

    2015-06-15

    It is well-known that the closed-loop operation in optical gyros offers wider dynamic range and better linearity. By adding a stair-like digital serrodyne wave to a phase modulator can be used as a frequency shifter. The width of one stair in this stair-like digital serrodyne wave should be set equal to the optical transmission time in the resonator, which is relaxed in the hybrid digital phase modulation (HDPM) scheme. The physical mechanism for this relaxation is firstly indicated in this paper. Detailed theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the HDPM. Simulation and experimental results show that the width of one stair is not restricted by the optical transmission time, however, it should be optimized according to the rise time of the output of the digital-to-analogue converter. Based on the optimum parameters of the HDPM, a bias stability of 0.05°/s for the integration time of 400 seconds in 1 h has been carried out in an RMOG with a waveguide ring resonator with a length of 7.9 cm and a diameter of 2.5 cm.

  2. Performance evaluations of hybrid modulation with different optical labels over PDQ in high bit-rate OLS network systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Li, Y; Kang, T Z; Zhang, T S; Ji, J H; Yang, S W

    2016-11-14

    Two orthogonal modulation optical label switching(OLS) schemes, which are based on payload of polarization multiplexing-differential quadrature phase shift keying(POLMUX-DQPSK or PDQ) modulated with identifications of duobinary (DB) label and pulse position modulation(PPM) label, are researched in high bit-rate OLS network. The BER performance of hybrid modulation with payload and label signals are discussed and evaluated in theory and simulation. The theoretical BER expressions of PDQ, PDQ-DB and PDQ-PPM are given with analysis method of hybrid modulation encoding in different the bit-rate ratios of payload and label. Theoretical derivation results are shown that the payload of hybrid modulation has a certain gain of receiver sensitivity than payload without label. The sizes of payload BER gain obtained from hybrid modulation are related to the different types of label. The simulation results are consistent with that of theoretical conclusions. The extinction ratio (ER) conflicting between hybrid encoding of intensity and phase types can be compromised and optimized in OLS system of hybrid modulation. The BER analysis method of hybrid modulation encoding in OLS system can be applied to other n-ary hybrid modulation or combination modulation systems.

  3. Numerical analysis of intrinsic bistability and chromatic switching in Tm3+ single-doped systems under photon avalanche pumping scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Zhang Xinlu; Chen Lixue

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we predict and numerically demonstrate the intrinsic intensity bistability, spectra bistability and chromatic switching of visible-infrared emission in Tm 3+ single-doped systems that are pumped by the photon avalanche scheme at 648 nm. Based on the coupled rate equation theory, the evolutions of the populations at various Tm 3+ energy levels, emission spectra and fluorescence intensity versus pump excitation are numerically investigated in detail. The results show that intrinsic optical bistability (IOB) associated with emission spectra and luminescence intensity takes place in the vicinity of the avalanche threshold (∼10 kW cm -2 ). When the pump excitation rises above the switching threshold (∼17.5 kW cm -2 ), the chromatic switching between the infrared (1716 nm) and the visible blue (452/469 nm) spectra can be performed. Moreover, the influences of system parameters on IOB and the origin of chromatic switching are discussed. These unique characteristics of Tm 3+ -doped systems would lead to the new possibility of the development of pump-controlled all-solid-state luminescence switches and optical bistability switches.

  4. Bistability, multistability and non-reciprocal light propagation in Thue-Morse multilayered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Victor; Biancalana, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear properties of quasi-periodic photonic crystals based on the Thue-Morse sequence are investigated. The intrinsic spatial asymmetry of these one-dimensional structures for odd generation numbers results in bistability thresholds, which are sensitive to the propagation direction. Along with resonances of perfect transmission, this feature allows us to achieve strongly non-reciprocal propagation and to create an all-optical diode. The salient qualitative features of such optical diode action are readily explained through a simple coupled resonator model. The efficiency of a passive scheme that does not necessitate an additional short pump signal is compared to an active scheme where such a signal is required.

  5. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-02-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce a novel unified expression for the distribution of a single FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading that accounts for pointing errors subject to both types of detection techniques at the receiver side (i.e. heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD)). Then, we provide analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is constant. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of HARQ in improving the performance and reliability of FSO communication systems. All the given results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  7. Study of the hydrolysis reaction of the copper-chloride hybrid thermochemical cycle using optical spectrometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doizi, D.; Borgard, J.M.; Dauvois, V.; Roujou, J.L.; Zanella, Y.; Croize, L.; Cartes, Ph.; Hartmann, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The copper-chloride hybrid thermochemical cycle is one of the best potential low temperature thermochemical cycles for the massive production of hydrogen. It could be used with nuclear reactors such as the sodium fast reactor or the supercritical water reactor. Nevertheless, this thermochemical cycle is composed of an electrochemical reaction and two thermal reactions. Its efficiency has to be compared with other hydrogen production processes like alkaline electrolysis for example. The purpose of this article is to study the viability of the copper chloride thermochemical cycle by studying the hydrolysis reaction of CuCl 2 which is not favoured thermodynamically. To better understand the occurrence of possible side reactions, together with a good control of the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction, the use of optical absorption spectrometries, UV visible spectrometry to detect molecular chlorine which may be formed in side reactions, FTIR spectrometry to follow the concentrations of H 2 O and HCl is proposed. (authors)

  8. All-optical quantum computing with a hybrid solid-state processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Pei; Zhang Fengyang; Li Chong; Song Heshan

    2011-01-01

    We develop an architecture of a hybrid quantum solid-state processing unit for universal quantum computing. The architecture allows distant and nonidentical solid-state qubits in distinct physical systems to interact and work collaboratively. All the quantum computing procedures are controlled by optical methods using classical fields and cavity QED. Our methods have a prominent advantage of the insensitivity to dissipation process benefiting from the virtual excitation of subsystems. Moreover, the quantum nondemolition measurements and state transfer for the solid-state qubits are proposed. The architecture opens promising perspectives for implementing scalable quantum computation in a broader sense that different solid-state systems can merge and be integrated into one quantum processor afterward.

  9. 61.3-Gbps hybrid fiber-wireless in-home network enabled by optical heterodyne and polarization multiplexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Li, F.; Liu, Y.; Yu, J.; Wang, Q.; Oh, C.W.; Jiao, Y.; Tran, N.C.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid fiber-wireless in-home network is proposed to support high-speed multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems operating at millimeter wave (mm-wave) band by employing optical heterodyne (OH) and polarization multiplexing (PolMux). OH enables

  10. A novel scalable and low latency hybrid data center network architecture based on flow controlled fast optical switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Fulong; Guelbenzu, Gonzalo; Calabretta, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel hybrid DCN based on flow-controlled fast optical switches. Results show packet loss < 1.4E-5 and latency < 2.4μs for 100,000 servers (0.3 load). Costs and power consumptions are also compared with current technologies.

  11. Optical properties of alkali halide crystals from all-electron hybrid TD-DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, R., E-mail: ross.webster07@imperial.ac.uk; Harrison, N. M. [Thomas Young Centre, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bernasconi, L. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-07

    We present a study of the electronic and optical properties of a series of alkali halide crystals AX, with A = Li, Na, K, Rb and X = F, Cl, Br based on a recent implementation of hybrid-exchange time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) (TD-B3LYP) in the all-electron Gaussian basis set code CRYSTAL. We examine, in particular, the impact of basis set size and quality on the prediction of the optical gap and exciton binding energy. The formation of bound excitons by photoexcitation is observed in all the studied systems and this is shown to be correlated to specific features of the Hartree-Fock exchange component of the TD-DFT response kernel. All computed optical gaps and exciton binding energies are however markedly below estimated experimental and, where available, 2-particle Green’s function (GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation, GW-BSE) values. We attribute this reduced exciton binding to the incorrect asymptotics of the B3LYP exchange correlation ground state functional and of the TD-B3LYP response kernel, which lead to a large underestimation of the Coulomb interaction between the excited electron and hole wavefunctions. Considering LiF as an example, we correlate the asymptotic behaviour of the TD-B3LYP kernel to the fraction of Fock exchange admixed in the ground state functional c{sub HF} and show that there exists one value of c{sub HF} (∼0.32) that reproduces at least semi-quantitatively the optical gap of this material.

  12. Super-resolution nanofabrication with metal-ion doped hybrid material through an optical dual-beam approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yaoyu; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min

    2014-01-01

    We apply an optical dual-beam approach to a metal-ion doped hybrid material to achieve nanofeatures beyond the optical diffraction limit. By spatially inhibiting the photoreduction and the photopolymerization, we realize a nano-line, consisting of polymer matrix and in-situ generated gold nanoparticles, with a lateral size of sub 100 nm, corresponding to a factor of 7 improvement compared to the diffraction limit. With the existence of gold nanoparticles, a plasmon enhanced super-resolution fabrication mechanism in the hybrid material is observed, which benefits in a further reduction in size of the fabricated feature. The demonstrated nanofeature in hybrid materials paves the way for realizing functional nanostructures

  13. Performance dependence of hybrid x-ray computed tomography/fluorescence molecular tomography on the optical forward problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Damon; Schulz, Ralf; Brooks, Dana; Miller, Eric; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2009-04-01

    Hybrid imaging systems combining x-ray computed tomography (CT) and fluorescence tomography can improve fluorescence imaging performance by incorporating anatomical x-ray CT information into the optical inversion problem. While the use of image priors has been investigated in the past, little is known about the optimal use of forward photon propagation models in hybrid optical systems. In this paper, we explore the impact on reconstruction accuracy of the use of propagation models of varying complexity, specifically in the context of these hybrid imaging systems where significant structural information is known a priori. Our results demonstrate that the use of generically known parameters provides near optimal performance, even when parameter mismatch remains.

  14. Steady state statistical correlations predict bistability in reaction motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis

    2017-03-28

    Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady state distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady state variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady state from experiments such as flow cytometry.

  15. Bubbling and bistability in two parameter discrete systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ambika, G.; Sujatha, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a graphical analysis of the mechanisms underlying the occurrences of bubbling sequences and bistability regions in the bifurcation scenario of a special class of one dimensional two parameter maps. The main result of the analysis is that whether it is bubbling or bistability is decided by the sign of the third derivative at the inflection point of the map function.

  16. Bistable polarization switching in a continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Afzal, R. Sohrab

    1988-01-01

    Bistability in the output power, polarization state, and mode volume of an argon-ion laser pumped single mode ruby laser at 6943 A has been observed. The laser operates in a radially confined mode which exhibits hysteresis and bistability only when the pump polarization is parallel to the c-axis.

  17. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dec. 2001 physics pp. 969–979. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. AJIT KUMAR. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India. Abstract. Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped.

  18. Multistability in Bistable Ferroelectric Materials toward Adaptive Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally thermodynamically bistable ferroic materials are used for nonvolatile operations based on logic gates (e.g., in the form of field effect transistors). But, this inherent bistability in these class of materials limits their applicability for adaptive operations. Emulating biological

  19. An efficient hybrid protection scheme with shared/dedicated backup paths on elastic optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogbou G. Anoh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast recovery and minimum utilization of resources are the two main criteria for determining the protection scheme quality. We address the problem of providing a hybrid protection approach on elastic optical networks under contiguity and continuity of available spectrum constraints. Two main hypotheses are used in this paper for backup paths computation. In the first case, it is assumed that backup paths resources are dedicated. In the second case, the assumption is that backup paths resources are available shared resources. The objective of the study is to minimize spectrum utilization to reduce blocking probability on a network. For this purpose, an efficient survivable Hybrid Protection Lightpath (HybPL algorithm is proposed for providing shared or dedicated backup path protection based on the efficient energy calculation and resource availability. Traditional First-Fit and Best-Fit schemes are employed to search and assign the available spectrum resources. The simulation results show that HybPL presents better performance in terms of blocking probability, compared with the Minimum Resources Utilization Dedicated Protection (MRU-DP algorithm which offers better performance than the Dedicated Protection (DP algorithm.

  20. Enhancing Optically Pumped Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Amplified Spontaneous Emission via Compound Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite has attracted intensive attention from researchers as the gain medium in lasing devices. However, achieving electrically driven lasing remains a significant challenge. Modifying the devices’ structure to enhance the optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE is the key issue. In this work, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are first doped into PEDOT: PSS buffer layer in a slab waveguide device structure: Quartz/PEDOT: PSS (with or w/o Au NPs/CH3NH3PbBr3. As a result, the facile device shows a significantly enhanced ASE intensity and a narrowed full width at half maximum. Based on experiments and theoretical simulation data, the improvement is mainly a result of the compound surface plasmon resonance, including simultaneous near- and far-field effects, both of which could increase the density of excitons excited state and accelerate the radiative decay process. This method is highly significant for the design and development and fabrication of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite lasing diodes.

  1. An Optical Sensor with Polyaniline-Gold Hybrid Nanostructures for Monitoring pH in Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chongdai; Wang, Yangyang; Li, Xuemeng; Jiang, Xueqin; Gao, Panpan; Sun, Kang; Zhou, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhiguang; Jiang, Qing

    2017-03-17

    Saliva contains important personal physiological information that is related to some diseases, and it is a valuable source of biochemical information that can be collected rapidly, frequently, and without stress. In this article, we reported a new and simple localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) substrate composed of polyaniline (PANI)-gold hybrid nanostructures as an optical sensor for monitoring the pH of saliva samples. The overall appearance and topography of the substrates, the composition, and the wettability of the LSPR surfaces were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, infrared spectra, and contact angles measurement, respectively. The PANI-gold hybrid substrate readily responded to the pH. The response time was very short, which was 3.5 s when the pH switched from 2 to 7, and 4.5 s from 7 to 2. The changes of visible-near-infrared (NIR) spectra of this sensor upon varying pH in solution showed that-for the absorption at given wavelengths of 665 nm and 785 nm-the sensitivities were 0.0299 a.u./pH (a.u. = arbitrary unit) with a linear range of pH = 5-8 and 0.0234 a.u./pH with linear range of pH = 2-8, respectively. By using this new sensor, the pH of a real saliva sample was monitored and was consistent with the parallel measurements with a standard laboratory method. The results suggest that this novel LSPR sensor shows great potential in the field of mobile healthcare and home medical devices, and could also be modified by different sensitive materials to detect various molecules or ions in the future.

  2. An Optical Sensor with Polyaniline-Gold Hybrid Nanostructures for Monitoring pH in Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongdai Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Saliva contains important personal physiological information that is related to some diseases, and it is a valuable source of biochemical information that can be collected rapidly, frequently, and without stress. In this article, we reported a new and simple localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR substrate composed of polyaniline (PANI-gold hybrid nanostructures as an optical sensor for monitoring the pH of saliva samples. The overall appearance and topography of the substrates, the composition, and the wettability of the LSPR surfaces were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM images, infrared spectra, and contact angles measurement, respectively. The PANI-gold hybrid substrate readily responded to the pH. The response time was very short, which was 3.5 s when the pH switched from 2 to 7, and 4.5 s from 7 to 2. The changes of visible-near-infrared (NIR spectra of this sensor upon varying pH in solution showed that—for the absorption at given wavelengths of 665 nm and 785 nm—the sensitivities were 0.0299 a.u./pH (a.u. = arbitrary unit with a linear range of pH = 5–8 and 0.0234 a.u./pH with linear range of pH = 2–8, respectively. By using this new sensor, the pH of a real saliva sample was monitored and was consistent with the parallel measurements with a standard laboratory method. The results suggest that this novel LSPR sensor shows great potential in the field of mobile healthcare and home medical devices, and could also be modified by different sensitive materials to detect various molecules or ions in the future.

  3. Structural, electronic, and optical properties of GaInO{sub 3}: A hybrid density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, V., E-mail: wangvei@icloud.com; Ma, D.-M.; Liu, R.-J.; Yang, C.-M. [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xiao, W. [State Key Lab of Nonferrous Metals and Processes, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-01-28

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of GaInO{sub 3} have been studied by first-principles calculations based on Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional theory. The optical properties, including the optical reflectivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and electron energy loss are discussed for radiation up to 60 eV together with the calculated electronic structure. Our results predicted that GaInO{sub 3} displays good transparency over the whole vision region, which is in good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature.

  4. Bistable Si dopants in the GaAs (1 1 0) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakman, E P; Koenraad, P M

    2015-01-01

    In this review, recent work is discussed on bistable Si dopants in the GaAs (1 1 0) surface, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The bistability arises because the dopant atom can switch between a positive and a negative charge state, which are associated with two different lattice configurations. Manipulation of the Si atom charge configuration is achieved by tuning the local band bending with the STM tip. Furthermore, illuminating the sample with a laser also influences the charge state, allowing the operation of the dopant atom as an optical switch. The switching dynamics without illumination is investigated in detail as a function of temperature, lateral tip position, and applied tunneling conditions. A physical model is presented that independently describes the thermal and quantum tunneling contributions to the switching frequency and charge state occupation of a single Si atom. The basic functionality of a memory cell is demonstrated employing a single bistable Si dopant as the active element, using the STM tip as a gate to write and read the information. (topical review)

  5. A hierarchical stochastic model for bistable perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Albert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Viewing of ambiguous stimuli can lead to bistable perception alternating between the possible percepts. During continuous presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur as single events, whereas during intermittent presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur at more or less regular intervals either as single events or bursts. Response patterns can be highly variable and have been reported to show systematic differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Existing models of bistable perception often use detailed assumptions and large parameter sets which make parameter estimation challenging. Here we propose a parsimonious stochastic model that provides a link between empirical data analysis of the observed response patterns and detailed models of underlying neuronal processes. Firstly, we use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM for the times between percept changes, which assumes one single state in continuous presentation and a stable and an unstable state in intermittent presentation. The HMM captures the observed differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, but remains descriptive. Therefore, we secondly propose a hierarchical Brownian model (HBM, which produces similar response patterns but also provides a relation to potential underlying mechanisms. The main idea is that neuronal activity is described as an activity difference between two competing neuronal populations reflected in Brownian motions with drift. This differential activity generates switching between the two conflicting percepts and between stable and unstable states with similar mechanisms on different neuronal levels. With only a small number of parameters, the HBM can be fitted closely to a high variety of response patterns and captures group differences between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, it provides a link to mechanistic models of bistable perception, linking the group

  6. A hierarchical stochastic model for bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Stefan; Schmack, Katharina; Sterzer, Philipp; Schneider, Gaby

    2017-11-01

    Viewing of ambiguous stimuli can lead to bistable perception alternating between the possible percepts. During continuous presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur as single events, whereas during intermittent presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur at more or less regular intervals either as single events or bursts. Response patterns can be highly variable and have been reported to show systematic differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Existing models of bistable perception often use detailed assumptions and large parameter sets which make parameter estimation challenging. Here we propose a parsimonious stochastic model that provides a link between empirical data analysis of the observed response patterns and detailed models of underlying neuronal processes. Firstly, we use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the times between percept changes, which assumes one single state in continuous presentation and a stable and an unstable state in intermittent presentation. The HMM captures the observed differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, but remains descriptive. Therefore, we secondly propose a hierarchical Brownian model (HBM), which produces similar response patterns but also provides a relation to potential underlying mechanisms. The main idea is that neuronal activity is described as an activity difference between two competing neuronal populations reflected in Brownian motions with drift. This differential activity generates switching between the two conflicting percepts and between stable and unstable states with similar mechanisms on different neuronal levels. With only a small number of parameters, the HBM can be fitted closely to a high variety of response patterns and captures group differences between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, it provides a link to mechanistic models of bistable perception, linking the group differences to

  7. Hybrid Perovskite Phase Transition and Its Ionic, Electrical and Optical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Islam, Nazifah; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under normal operation will reach a temperature above ~ 60 °C, across the tetragonal-cubic structural phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). Whether the structural phase transition could result in dramatic changes of ionic, electrical and optical properties that may further impact the PSC performances should be studied. Herein, we report a structural phase transition temperature of MAPbI3thin film at ~ 55 °C, but a striking contrast occurred at ~ 45 °C in the ionic and electrical properties of MAPbI3due to a change of the ion activation energy from 0.7 eV to 0.5 eV. The optical properties exhibited no sharp transition except for the steady increase of the bandgap with temperature. It was also observed that the activation energy for ionic migration steadily increased with increased grain sizes, and reduction of the grain boundary density reduced the ionic migration.

  8. Two-dimensional photonic crystal bandedge laser with hybrid perovskite thin film for optical gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyungrae [Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Seunghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myungjae [Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heonsu, E-mail: hsjeon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-02

    We report optically pumped room temperature single mode laser that contains a thin film of hybrid perovskite, an emerging photonic material, as gain medium. Two-dimensional square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) backbone structure enables single mode laser operation via a photonic bandedge mode, while a thin film of methyl-ammonium lead iodide (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) spin-coated atop provides optical gain for lasing. Two kinds of bandedge modes, Γ and M, are employed, and both devices laser in single mode at similar laser thresholds of ∼200 μJ/cm{sup 2} in pulse energy density. Polarization dependence measurements reveal a clear difference between the two kinds of bandedge lasers: isotropic for the Γ-point laser and highly anisotropic for the M-point laser. These observations are consistent with expected modal properties, confirming that the lasing actions indeed originate from the corresponding PhC bandedge modes.

  9. Optimal Performance Monitoring of Hybrid Mid-Infrared Wavelength MIMO Free Space Optical and RF Wireless Networks in Fading Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barnet Michael

    An optimal performance monitoring metric for a hybrid free space optical and radio-frequency (RF) wireless network, the Outage Capacity Objective Function, is analytically developed and studied. Current and traditional methods of performance monitoring of both optical and RF wireless networks are centered on measurement of physical layer parameters, the most common being signal-to-noise ratio, error rate, Q factor, and eye diagrams, occasionally combined with link-layer measurements such as data throughput, retransmission rate, and/or lost packet rate. Network management systems frequently attempt to predict or forestall network failures by observing degradations of these parameters and to attempt mitigation (such as offloading traffic, increasing transmitter power, reducing the data rate, or combinations thereof) prior to the failure. These methods are limited by the frequent low sensitivity of the physical layer parameters to the atmospheric optical conditions (measured by optical signal-to-noise ratio) and the radio frequency fading channel conditions (measured by signal-to-interference ratio). As a result of low sensitivity, measurements of this type frequently are unable to predict impending failures sufficiently in advance for the network management system to take corrective action prior to the failure. We derive and apply an optimal measure of hybrid network performance based on the outage capacity of the hybrid optical and RF channel, the outage capacity objective function. The objective function provides high sensitivity and reliable failure prediction, and considers both the effects of atmospheric optical impairments on the performance of the free space optical segment as well as the effect of RF channel impairments on the radio frequency segment. The radio frequency segment analysis considers the three most common RF channel fading statistics: Rayleigh, Ricean, and Nakagami-m. The novel application of information theory to the underlying physics of the

  10. Hybrid Optical Devices: The Case of the Unification of the Electrochromic Device and the Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Hybrid Optical Devices, using some flexible optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the organic electronic industry, when manufacturing new technological products. The Hybrid Optical Device is constituted by the union of the electrochromic device and the organic solar cell. The flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, in this hybrid optical device, have been the Poly base (3-hexyl thiophene, P3HT, Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM and Polyaniline, PANI, all being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. In addition, the thin film, obtained by the deposition of PANI, and prepared in perchloric acid solution, has been identified through PANI-X1. In the flexible electrochromic device, the Poly base (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, has been prepared in Propylene Carbonate, PC, being deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO. Also, both devices have been united by an electrolyte solution prepared with Vanadium Pentoxide, V2O5, Lithium Perchlorate, LiClO4, and Polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA. This device has been characterized through Electrical Measurements, such as UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Thus, the result obtained through electrical measurements has demonstrated that the flexible organic photovoltaic solar cell presented the characteristic curve of standard solar cell after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Accordingly, the results obtained with optical and electrical characterization have revealed that the electrochromic device demonstrated some change in optical absorption, when subjected to some voltage difference. Moreover, the inclusion of the V2O5/PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation that this hybrid organic device caused, that is, solar irradiation. Studies on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM have found out that the surface of V2O5/PANI-X1 layers can be strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the

  11. On the bistable zone of milling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-09-28

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Single coil bistable, bidirectional micromechanical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabat, Ned; Guckel, Henry

    1998-09-15

    Micromechanical actuators capable of bidirectional and bistable operation can be formed on substrates using lithographic processing techniques. Bistable operation of the microactuator is obtained using a single coil and a magnetic core with a gap. A plunger having two magnetic heads is supported for back and forth linear movement with respect to the gap in the magnetic core, and is spring biased to a neutral position in which the two heads are on each side of the gap in the core. The single electrical coil is coupled to the core and is provided with electrical current to attract one of the heads toward the core by reluctance action to drive the plunger to a limit of travel in one direction. The current is then cut off and the plunger returns by spring action toward the gap, whereafter the current is reapplied to the coil to attract the other head of the plunger by reluctance action to drive the plunger to its other limit of travel. This process can be repeated at a time when switching of the actuator is required.

  13. Deployable structures using bistable reeled composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daton-Lovett, Andrew J.; Compton-Bishop, Quentin M.; Curry, Richard G.

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes an innovative, patented use of composite materials developed by RolaTube Technology Ltd. to make smart deployable structures. Bi-stable reeled composites (BRCs) can alternate between two stable forms; that of a strong, rigid structure and that of a compact coil of flat-wound material. Bi-stability arises as a result of the manipulation of Poisson's ratio and isotropy in the various layers of the material. BRCs are made of fiber- reinforced composite materials, most often with a thermoplastic matrix. A range of fibers and polymer matrices can be used according to the requirements of the operating environment. Samples of a BRC structure were constructed using layers of unidirectional, fiber-reinforced thermoplastic sheet with the layers at different angles. The whole assembly was then consolidated under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. The properties of the BRC are described and the result of a series of experiments performed on the sample to determine the tensile strength of the BRC structure are reported. A full analysis using finite element methods is being undertaken in collaboration with the University of Cambridge, England. The first commercial use has been to fabricate boom and drive mechanisms for the remote inspection of industrial plant.

  14. Ca++ dependent bistability induced by serotonin in spinal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Kiehn, O.

    1985-01-01

    The plateau potential, responsible for the bistable state of spinal motoneurons, recently described in the decerebrate cat, was suggested to depend on serotonin (Hounsgaard et al. 1984). In an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord of the turtle we now show that serotonin, applied directly...... to the bath, transforms the intrinsic response properties of motoneurons, uncovering a plateau potential and voltage sensitive bistability. The changes induced by serotonin were blocked by Mn++, while the plateau potential and the bistability remained after application of tetrodotoxin. We conclude...... that serotonin controls the expression of a Ca++ dependent plateau potential in motoneurons....

  15. A hybrid active optical system for wave front preservation and variable focal distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocco, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.cocco@elettra.trieste.i [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Bortoletto, Gianluca; Sergo, Rudi; Sostero, Giovanni; Cudin, Ivan [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, 34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-05-01

    A new Free Electron Laser (FEL) user facility, named FERMI-Elettra, is under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy). It is based on a seeded scheme to provide an almost perfect transform limited beam with fully spatial coherence. The wavelength range will be 100-3 nm with fundamental and will go down to 1 nm by using higher harmonics. It will be operative by autumn 2010. The exceptional characteristics of the source must be preserved until the experimental chamber, where a large set of different experiments will be performed. This condition poses very tight requirements to the design of the beamlines and, in particular, to the focusing optics. Here we will present the active optics system developed for Fermi but intended to be used also on the Elettra beamlines. It is based on the adoption of a hybrid active system composed by UHV compatible stepping motors and piezo ceramic actuators. These mirrors are supposed to provide focal distances from 0.8 m to infinity with an angle of incidence up to a few degrees and residual shape errors below 10 or 5 nm (depending on the wavelength). In this way it is possible to work with an almost perfect focused coherent beam as well as with a uniform defocused or unfocused image. The metrology results on the first 400 mm long mirror will be shown and the actuator system described. A strain gauge assembly, calibrated in Elettra by means of a long trace profiler, and controlled by a custom made electronic system developed by us, is used as a direct in situ encoder.

  16. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Tang, Libin; Chang, Hung Chih; Tai, Shih Hsiang; Yang, Po Kang; Lau, Shu Ping; Chen, Lih Juann; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  17. Structure and Optical Properties of Titania-PDMS Hybrid Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Non-Aqueous Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine R. M. Dalod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are attractive due to the combination of properties from the two distinct types of materials. In this work, transparent titania-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid materials with up to 15.5 vol. % TiO2 content were prepared by an in situ non-aqueous method using titanium (IV isopropoxide and hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane as precursors. Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared, Raman, Ultraviolet-visible, ellipsometry and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis allowed to describe in detail the structure and the optical properties of the nanocomposites. Titanium alkoxide was successfully used as a cross-linker and titania-like nanodomains with an average size of approximately 4 nm were shown to form during the process. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites exhibit high transparency and tunable refractive index from 1.42 up to 1.56, depending on the titania content.

  18. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng Lin

    2015-12-18

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  19. Bistable states of TM polarized non-linear waves guided by symmetric layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, D.

    1985-04-01

    Dispersion relations for TM polarized non-linear waves propagating in a symmetric single film optical waveguide are derived. The system consists of a layer of thickness d with dielectric constant epsilon 1 bounded at two sides by a non-linear medium characterized by the diagonal dielectric tensor epsilon 11 =epsilon 22 =epsilon 0 , epsilon 33 =epsilon 0 +α|E 3 | 2 , where E 3 is the normal electric field component. For sufficiently large d/lambda (lambda is the wavelength) we predict bistable states of both symmetric and antisymmetric modes provided that the power flow is the control parameter. (author)

  20. Assessment on the capability of quasi-optical grill to launch lower hybrid waves in iter plasma. UE contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, F.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1998-12-01

    The quasi-optical grill has been considered as a convenient system to launch Lower Hybrid Waves in a reactor-like plasma. In recent years, efforts to study the capability and the efficiency of this launcher have been done in Europe with the intent to test it in a large experimental device. Even if this test is still missing, a wide analysis of different schemes of such a launcher is now available in the literature. This report is devoted to critically review this theoretical analysis and consequently to assess the convenience of using quasi-optical grill in future Tokamaks [it

  1. A multipurpose hybrid conventional/scanning near-field optical microscope for applications in materials science and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, G; Girasole, M; Pompeo, G; Generosi, R; Luce, M; Cricenti, A

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid conventional/scanning near-field optical microscope is presented. The instrument is obtained coupling an Olympus IX-70 inverted optical microscope with a SNOM head, to combine the versatility and ease of use of the conventional microscope with the high-resolution and three-dimensional reconstruction achieved by the SNOM. The head can be run in shear or tapping mode and is optimized to characterize soft, biological samples including living cells in physiological environment by including the SNOM in a cylindrical chamber that insulates it from external noise, while maintaining a controlled temperature and atmosphere

  2. Looking into the crystal ball: future device learning using hybrid e-beam and optical lithography (Keynote Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, S. E.; McNab, S. J.; Sekaric, L.; Babich, I.; Patel, J.; Bucchignano, J.; Rooks, M.; Fried, D. M.; Topol, A. W.; Brancaccio, J. R.; Yu, R.; Hergenrother, J. M.; Doyle, J. P.; Nunes, R.; Viswanathan, R. G.; Purushothaman, S.; Rothwell, M. B.

    2005-05-01

    Semiconductor process development teams are faced with increasing process and integration complexity while the time between lithographic capability and volume production has remained more or less constant over the last decade. Lithography tools have often gated the volume checkpoint of a new device node on the ITRS roadmap. The processes have to be redeveloped after the tooling capability for the new groundrule is obtained since straight scaling is no longer sufficient. In certain cases the time window that the process development teams have is actually decreasing. In the extreme, some forecasts are showing that by the time the 45nm technology node is scheduled for volume production, the tooling vendors will just begin shipping the tools required for this technology node. To address this time pressure, IBM has implemented a hybrid-lithography strategy that marries the advantages of optical lithography (high throughput) with electron beam direct write lithography (high resolution and alignment capability). This hybrid-lithography scheme allows for the timely development of semiconductor processes for the 32nm node, and beyond. In this paper we will describe how hybrid lithography has enabled early process integration and device learning and how IBM applied e-beam & optical hybrid lithography to create the world's smallest working SRAM cell.

  3. Optical Property Characterization of Novel Graphene-X (X=Ag, Au and Cu Nanoparticle Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Ranjan Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation reports new results on optical properties of graphene-metal nanocomposites. These composites were prepared by a solution-based chemical approach. Graphene has been prepared by thermal reduction of graphene oxide (GO at 90°C by hydrazine hydrate in an ammoniacal medium. This ammoniacal solution acts as a solvent as well as a basic medium where agglomeration of graphene can be prevented. This graphene solution has further been used for functionalization with Ag, Au, and Cu nanoparticles (NPs. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM to reveal the nature and type of interaction of metal nanoparticles with graphene. The results indicate distinct shift of graphene bands both in Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies due to the presence of the metal nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopic analysis indicates blue shift of D and G bands in Raman spectra of graphene due to the presence of metal nanoparticles except for the G band of Cu-G, which undergoes red shift, reflecting the charge transfer interaction between graphene sheets and metal nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis also indicates blue shift of graphene absorption peak in the hybrids. The plasmon peak position undergoes blue shift in Ag-G, whereas red shift is observed in Au-G and Cu-G.

  4. New hybrid reverse differential pulse position width modulation scheme for wireless optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Renbo; Liu, Hongzhan; Qiao, Yaojun

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the power efficiency and reduce the packet error rate of reverse differential pulse position modulation (RDPPM) for wireless optical communication (WOC), a hybrid reverse differential pulse position width modulation (RDPPWM) scheme is proposed, based on RDPPM and reverse pulse width modulation. Subsequently, the symbol structure of RDPPWM is briefly analyzed, and its performance is compared with that of other modulation schemes in terms of average transmitted power, bandwidth requirement, and packet error rate over ideal additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. Based on the given model, the simulation results show that the proposed modulation scheme has the advantages of improving the power efficiency and reducing the bandwidth requirement. Moreover, in terms of error probability performance, RDPPWM can achieve a much lower packet error rate than that of RDPPM. For example, at the same received signal power of -28 dBm, the packet error rate of RDPPWM can decrease to 2.6×10-12, while that of RDPPM is 2.2×10. Furthermore, RDPPWM does not need symbol synchronization at the receiving end. These considerations make RDPPWM a favorable candidate to select as the modulation scheme in the WOC systems.

  5. Hybrid electronic tongue based on optical and electrochemical microsensors for quality control of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Capdevila, Fina; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2010-07-01

    A multiparametric system able to classify red and white wines according to the grape varieties and for analysing some specific parameters is presented. The system, known as hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors and a colorimetric optofluidic system. The array of electrochemical sensors is composed of six ISFETs based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, an Au microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand. The optofluidic system is entirely fabricated in polymer technology and comprises a hollow structure, air mirrors, microlenses and self-alignment structures. The data obtained from these sensors has been treated with multivariate advanced tools; Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the patterning recognition and classification of wine samples, and Partial-Least Squares (PLS) regression, for quantification of several chemical and optical parameters of interest in wine quality. The results have demonstrated the utility of this system for distinguishing the samples according to the grape variety and year vintage and for quantifying several sample parameters of interest in wine quality control.

  6. Optical studies of photoactive states in mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites stabilized in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardynal, Beata; Xi, Lifei; Salim, Teddy; Borghardt, Sven; Stoica, Toma; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2015-03-01

    Mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br,Cl) have been demonstrated as very attractive materials for absorbers of solar cells and active layers of light emitting diodes and optically driven lasers. The bandgap of the perovskites can be tuned by mixing halogen atoms in different ratios. In this presentation we study mixed MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br, Cl) particles synthesized directly in protective polymer matrices as light emitters. Both, time integrated and time resolved photoluminescence have been used to study the materials. So synthesized MAX-PbX2 are very stable when measured at room temperature and in air with radiative recombination of photogenerated carriers as the main decay path. In contrast, MAX-PbY2 with mixed halogen atoms display luminescence from sub-bandgap states which saturate at higher excitation levels. The density of these states depends on the used polymer matrix and increases upon illumination. We further compare the MAX-PbY2 synthesized in polymers and as films and show that these states are inherent to the material rather than its microstructure. This works has been supported by EU NWs4LIGHT grant.

  7. A hybrid humidity sensor using optical waveguides on a quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinbo, Kazunari; Otuki, Shunya; Kanbayashi, Yuichi; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Miyadera, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, slab and ridge optical waveguides (OWGs) made of fluorinated polyimides were deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and hybrid sensors using OWG spectroscopy and the QCM technique were prepared. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film with CoCl 2 was deposited on the OWGs, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated. A prism coupler was used to enter a He-Ne laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) to the slab OWG. The output light intensity markedly changed due to chromism of the CoCl 2 as a result of humidity sorption, and this change was dependent on the incident angle of the laser beam to the slab OWG. During the measurement of output light, the QCM frequency was simultaneously monitored. The humidity dependence of the sensor with the slab OWG was also investigated in the range from 15 to 85%. For the sensor with the ridge OWG, white light was entered by butt-coupling, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated by observing the output light spectrum and the QCM frequency.

  8. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, William N.; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional...

  9. Observation of Lorentzian lineshapes in the room temperature optical spectra of strongly coupled Jaggregate/metal hybrid nanostructures by linear two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Sommer, Ephraim; De Sio, Antonietta; Gross, Petra; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Lienau, Christoph; Vasa, Parinda

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the linear optical reflectivity spectra of a prototypical, strongly coupled metal/molecular hybrid nanostructure by means of a new experimental approach, linear two-dimensional optical spectroscopy. White-light, broadband spectral interferometry is used to measure amplitude and spectral phase of the sample reflectivity or transmission with high precision and to reconstruct the time structure of the electric field emitted by the sample upon impulsive excitation. A numerical analysis of this time-domain signal provides a two-dimensional representation of the coherent optical response of the sample as a function of excitation and detection frequency. The approach is used to study a nanostructure formed by depositing a thin J-aggregated dye layer on a gold grating. In this structure, strong coupling between excitons and surface plasmon polaritons results in the formation of hybrid polariton modes. In the strong coupling regime, Lorentzian lineshape profiles of different polariton modes are observed at room temperature. This is taken as an indication that the investigated strongly coupled polariton excitations are predominantly homogeneously broadened at room temperature. This new approach presents a versatile, simple and highly precise addition to nonlinear optical spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of line broadening phenomena. (paper)

  10. Logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.; Birch, Phil M.

    2009-04-01

    θThe window unit in the design of the complex logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter can allow multiple objects of the same class to be detected within the input image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the complex logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter becomes attractive for accommodating the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the overall filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. Logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously in-plane rotation, out-of-plane rotation, scale, log r-θ map translation and shift invariance, and good clutter tolerance by recognizing correctly the different objects within the cluttered scenes. We record in our results additional extracted information from the cluttered scenes about the objects' relative position, scale and in-plane rotation.

  11. Bistable responses in bacterial genetic networks: Designs and dynamical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Ray, J. Christian J.; Narula, Jatin; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    A key property of living cells is their ability to react to stimuli with specific biochemical responses. These responses can be understood through the dynamics of underlying biochemical and genetic networks. Evolutionary design principles have been well studied in networks that display graded responses, with a continuous relationship between input signal and system output. Alternatively, biochemical networks can exhibit bistable responses so that over a range of signals the network possesses two stable steady states. In this review, we discuss several conceptual examples illustrating network designs that can result in a bistable response of the biochemical network. Next, we examine manifestations of these designs in bacterial master-regulatory genetic circuits. In particular, we discuss mechanisms and dynamic consequences of bistability in three circuits: two-component systems, sigma-factor networks, and a multistep phosphorelay. Analyzing these examples allows us to expand our knowledge of evolutionary design principles for networks with bistable responses. PMID:21385588

  12. Bistable luminescence of trivalent rare-earth ions in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Jose Garcia; Ramirez O, Maria de la; Rodenas, Airan; Jaque, Daniel; Bausa, Luisa; Bettinelli, Marco; Speghini, Adolfo; Cavalli, Enrico; Ivleva, Lioudmila

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have examined three new bistable systems based on the luminescence of three different crystals activated with trivalent rare earth ions. We have focussed our attention on Yb 3+ ions activators, for which the most relevant results are obtained. The first crystal, Sr 0.6 Ba 0.4 Nb 2 O 6 , is a ferroelectric material with a relatively low phase transition temperature (∼370 K), which provides bistability in the luminescence of Yb 3+ ions due to the thermal hysteresis associated with phase transition. The second crystal, LiNbO 3 , provides an intrinsic bistability in the luminescence of Yb 3+ ions, which is driven by changes in the excitation intensity. In the third crystal, NdPO 4 , a new mechanism of excitation intensity driven bistability is obtained when activated with Yb 3+ ions, due to a interplay between the Nd 3+ ↔Yb 3+ energy transfer and back transfer processes

  13. Bifurcation of transition paths induced by coupled bistable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chengzhe; Mitarai, Namiko

    2016-06-07

    We discuss the transition paths in a coupled bistable system consisting of interacting multiple identical bistable motifs. We propose a simple model of coupled bistable gene circuits as an example and show that its transition paths are bifurcating. We then derive a criterion to predict the bifurcation of transition paths in a generalized coupled bistable system. We confirm the validity of the theory for the example system by numerical simulation. We also demonstrate in the example system that, if the steady states of individual gene circuits are not changed by the coupling, the bifurcation pattern is not dependent on the number of gene circuits. We further show that the transition rate exponentially decreases with the number of gene circuits when the transition path does not bifurcate, while a bifurcation facilitates the transition by lowering the quasi-potential energy barrier.

  14. Interaction of multiarmed spirals in bistable media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ya-feng; Ai, Bao-quan; Liu, Fu-cheng

    2013-05-01

    We study the interaction of both dense and sparse multiarmed spirals in bistable media modeled by equations of the FitzHugh-Nagumo type. A dense one-armed spiral is characterized by its fixed tip. For dense multiarmed spirals, when the initial distance between tips is less than a critical value, the arms collide, connect, and disconnect continuously as the spirals rotate. The continuous reconstruction between the front and the back drives the tips to corotate along a rough circle and to meander zigzaggedly. The rotation frequency of tip, the frequency of zigzagged displacement, the frequency of spiral, the oscillation frequency of media, and the number of arms satisfy certain relations as long as the control parameters of the model are fixed. When the initial distance between tips is larger than the critical value, the behaviors of individual arms within either dense or sparse multiarmed spirals are identical to that of corresponding one-armed spirals.

  15. Lattice stretching bistability and dynamic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional lattice model is suggested to describe the experimentally observed plateau in force-stretching diagrams for some macromolecules. This chain model involves the nearest-neighbor interaction of a Morse-like potential (required to have a saturation branch) and a harmonic second......-neighbor coupling. Under an external stretching applied to the chain ends, the intersite Morse-like potential results in the appearance of a double-well potential within each chain monomer, whereas the interaction between the second neighbors provides a homogeneous bistable (degenerate) ground state, at least...... stretched bonds with a double-well potential. This case allows us to explain the existence of a plateau in the force-extension diagram for DNA and α-helix protein. Finally, the soliton dynamics are studied in detail....

  16. A bistable electromagnetically actuated rotary gate microvalve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luharuka, Rajesh; Hesketh, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Two types of rotary gate microvalves are developed for flow modulation in microfluidic systems. These microvalves have been tested for an open flow rate of up to 100 sccm and operate under a differential pressure of 6 psig with flow modulation of up to 100. The microvalve consists of a suspended gate that rotates in the plane of the chip to regulate flow through the orifice. The gate is suspended by a novel fully compliant in-plane rotary bistable micromechanism (IPRBM) that advantageously constrains the gate in all degrees of freedom except for in-plane rotational motion. Multiple inlet/outlet orifices provide flexibility of operating the microvalve in three different flow configurations. The rotary gate microvalve is switched with an external electromagnetic actuator. The suspended gate is made of a soft magnetic material and its electromagnetic actuation is based on the operating principle of a variable-reluctance stepper motor

  17. Cops or Robbers — a Bistable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowski, K.

    The norm game described by Axelrod in 1985 was recently treated with the master equation formalism. Here we discuss the equations, where (i) those who break the norm cannot punish and those who punish cannot break the norm, (ii) the tendency to punish is suppressed if the majority breaks the norm. The second mechanism is new. For some values of the parameters the solution shows the saddle-point bifurcation. Then, two stable solutions are possible, where the majority breaks the norm or the majority punishes. This means, that the norm breaking can be discontinuous, when measured in the social scale. The bistable character is reproduced also with new computer simulations on the Erdös-Rényi directed network.

  18. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  19. Asymmetric Effects on Escape Rates of Bistable System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Mei Dongcheng; Dai Zucheng

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric effects on the escape rates from the stable states x ± in the bistable system are analyzed. The results indicate that the multiplicative noise and the additive noise always enhance the particle escape from stable states x ± of bistable. However, the asymmetric parameter r enhances the particle escape from stable state x + , and holds back the particle escape from stable state x - . (general)

  20. Analytic descriptions of stochastic bistable systems under force ramp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friddle, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    Solving the two-state master equation with time-dependent rates, the ubiquitous driven bistable system, is a long-standing problem that does not permit a complete solution for all driving rates. Here we show an accurate approximation to this problem by considering the system in the control parameter regime. The results are immediately applicable to a diverse range of bistable systems including single-molecule mechanics.

  1. Multi-scale theory-assisted nano-engineering of plasmonic-organic hybrid electro-optic device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Delwin L.; Johnson, Lewis E.; Tillack, Andreas F.; Robinson, Bruce H.; Haffner, Christian; Heni, Wolfgang; Hoessbacher, Claudia; Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Salamin, Yannick; Baeuerle, Benedikt; Josten, Arne; Ayata, Masafumi; Koch, Ueli; Leuthold, Juerg; Dalton, Larry R.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-scale (correlated quantum and statistical mechanics) modeling methods have been advanced and employed to guide the improvement of organic electro-optic (OEO) materials, including by analyzing electric field poling induced electro-optic activity in nanoscopic plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) waveguide devices. The analysis of in-device electro-optic activity emphasizes the importance of considering both the details of intermolecular interactions within organic electro-optic materials and interactions at interfaces between OEO materials and device architectures. Dramatic improvement in electro-optic device performance-including voltage-length performance, bandwidth, energy efficiency, and lower optical losses have been realized. These improvements are critical to applications in telecommunications, computing, sensor technology, and metrology. Multi-scale modeling methods illustrate the complexity of improving the electro-optic activity of organic materials, including the necessity of considering the trade-off between improving poling-induced acentric order through chromophore modification and the reduction of chromophore number density associated with such modification. Computational simulations also emphasize the importance of developing chromophore modifications that serve multiple purposes including matrix hardening for enhanced thermal and photochemical stability, control of matrix dimensionality, influence on material viscoelasticity, improvement of chromophore molecular hyperpolarizability, control of material dielectric permittivity and index of refraction properties, and control of material conductance. Consideration of new device architectures is critical to the implementation of chipscale integration of electronics and photonics and achieving the high bandwidths for applications such as next generation (e.g., 5G) telecommunications.

  2. Does visual attention drive the dynamics of bistable perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Kevin C; Brascamp, Jan; Tadin, Duje; Blake, Randolph

    2016-10-01

    How does attention interact with incoming sensory information to determine what we perceive? One domain in which this question has received serious consideration is that of bistable perception: a captivating class of phenomena that involves fluctuating visual experience in the face of physically unchanging sensory input. Here, some investigations have yielded support for the idea that attention alone determines what is seen, while others have implicated entirely attention-independent processes in driving alternations during bistable perception. We review the body of literature addressing this divide and conclude that in fact both sides are correct-depending on the form of bistable perception being considered. Converging evidence suggests that visual attention is required for alternations in the type of bistable perception called binocular rivalry, while alternations during other types of bistable perception appear to continue without requiring attention. We discuss some implications of this differential effect of attention for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying bistable perception, and examine how these mechanisms operate during our everyday visual experiences.

  3. Genes contribute to the switching dynamics of bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robert W; Patrick, Christopher J; Jiang, Yi; Bernat, Edward; He, Sheng

    2011-03-09

    Ordinarily, the visual system provides an unambiguous representation of the world. However, at times alternative plausible interpretations of a given stimulus arise, resulting in a dynamic perceptual alternation of the differing interpretations, commonly referred to as bistable or rivalrous perception. Recent research suggests that common neural mechanisms may be involved in the dynamics of very different types of bistable phenomena. Further, evidence has emerged that genetic factors may be involved in determining the rate of switch for at least one form of bistable perception, known as binocular rivalry. The current study evaluated whether genetic factors contribute to the switching dynamics for distinctly different variants of bistable perception in the same participant sample. Switching rates were recorded for MZ and DZ twin participants in two different bistable perception tasks, binocular rivalry and the Necker Cube. Strong concordance in switching rates across both tasks was evident for MZ but not DZ twins, indicating that genetic factors indeed contribute to the dynamics of multiple forms of bistable perception.

  4. Activation of Transducin by Bistable Pigment Parapinopsin in the Pineal Organ of Lower Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Wada, Seiji; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Nagata, Takashi; Terakita, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    Pineal organs of lower vertebrates contain several kinds of photosensitive molecules, opsins that are suggested to be involved in different light-regulated physiological functions. We previously reported that parapinopsin is an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive opsin that underlies hyperpolarization of the pineal photoreceptor cells of lower vertebrates to achieve pineal wavelength discrimination. Although, parapinopsin is phylogenetically close to vertebrate visual opsins, it exhibits a property similar to invertebrate visual opsins and melanopsin: the photoproduct of parapinopsin is stable and reverts to the original dark states, demonstrating the nature of bistable pigments. Therefore, it is of evolutionary interest to identify a phototransduction cascade driven by parapinopsin and to compare it with that in vertebrate visual cells. Here, we showed that parapinopsin is coupled to vertebrate visual G protein transducin in the pufferfish, zebrafish, and lamprey pineal organs. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that parapinopsins activated transducin in vitro in a light-dependent manner, similar to vertebrate visual opsins. Interestingly, transducin activation by parapinopsin was provoked and terminated by UV- and subsequent orange-lights irradiations, respectively, due to the bistable nature of parapinopsin, which could contribute to a wavelength-dependent control of a second messenger level in the cell as a unique optogenetic tool. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that parapinopsin was colocalized with Gt2 in the teleost, which possesses rod and cone types of transducin, Gt1, and Gt2. On the other hand, in the lamprey, which does not possess the Gt2 gene, in situ hybridization suggested that parapinopsin-expressing photoreceptor cells contained Gt1 type transducin GtS, indicating that lamprey parapinopsin may use GtS in place of Gt2. Because it is widely accepted that vertebrate visual opsins having a bleaching nature have evolved from non-bleaching opsins

  5. Towards micro-assembly of hybrid MOEMS components on a reconfigurable silicon free-space micro-optical bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargiel, S; Gorecki, C; Rabenorosoa, K; Clévy, C; Lutz, P

    2010-01-01

    The 3D integration of hybrid chips is a viable approach for the micro-optical technologies to reduce the costs of assembly and packaging. In this paper a technology platform for the hybrid integration of MOEMS components on a reconfigurable silicon free-space micro-optical bench (FS-MOB) is presented. In this approach a desired optical component (e.g. micromirror, microlens) is integrated with a removable and adjustable silicon holder which can be manipulated, aligned and fixed in the precisely etched rail of the silicon baseplate by use of a robotic micro-assembly station. An active-based gripping system allows modification of the holder position on the baseplate with nanometre precision. The fabrication processes of the micromachined parts of the micro-optical bench, based on bulk micromachining of standard silicon wafer and SOI wafer, are described. The successful assembly of the holders, equipped with a micromirror and a refractive glass ball microlens, on the baseplate rail is demonstrated.

  6. Beam-splitter switches based on zenithal bistable liquid-crystal gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C; Beccherelli, Romeo; Kriezis, Emmanouil E

    2014-10-01

    The tunable optical diffractive properties of zenithal bistable nematic liquid-crystal gratings are theoretically investigated. The liquid-crystal orientation is rigorously solved via a tensorial formulation of the Landau-de Gennes theory and the optical transmission properties of the gratings are investigated via full-wave finite-element frequency-domain simulations. It is demonstrated that by proper design the two stable states of the grating can provide nondiffracting and diffracting operation, the latter with equal power splitting among different diffraction orders. An electro-optic switching mechanism, based on dual-frequency nematic materials, and its temporal dynamics are further discussed. Such gratings provide a solution towards tunable beam-steering and beam-splitting components with extremely low power consumption.

  7. Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeesh, K.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2013-02-01

    Wide varieties of naturally self-assembled two-dimensional inorganic-organic (IO) hybrid semiconductors, (4-ClC6H4NH3)2PbI4, (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4, (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 (where n = 12, 16, 18), (CnH2n-1NH3)2PbI4 (where n = 3, 4, 5), (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4, NH3(CH2)12NH3PbI4, and (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2PbI4, were fabricated by intercalating structurally diverse organic guest moieties into lead iodide perovskite structure. The crystal packing of all these fabricated IO-hybrids comprises of well-ordered organic and inorganic layers, stacked-up alternately along c-axis. Almost all these hybrids are thermally stable upto 200 °C and show strong room-temperature exciton absorption and photoluminescence features. These strongly confined optical excitons are highly influenced by structural deformation of PbI matrix due to the conformation of organic moiety. A systematic correlation of optical exciton behavior of IO-hybrids with the organic/inorganic layer thicknesses, intercalating organic moieties, and various structural disorders were discussed. This systematic study clearly suggests that the PbI layer crumpling is directly responsible for the tunability of optical exciton energy.

  8. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  9. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, William N; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J

    2007-05-15

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional intracellular electrodes in optical recording experiments. We use it, in combination with a voltage-sensitive dye and photodiode array, to identify neurons participating in the swim motor program of the marine mollusk Tritonia. This microscope design should be applicable to optical recording studies in many preparations.

  10. Near-field characteristics of highly non-paraxial subwavelength optical fields with hybrid states of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui-Pin; Gao Teng-Yue; Chew Khian-Hooi; Dai Chao-Qing; Zhou Guo-Quan; He Sai-Ling

    2017-01-01

    The vectorial structure of an optical field with hybrid states of polarization (SoP) in the near-field is studied by using the angular spectrum method of an electromagnetic beam. Physical images of the longitudinal components of evanescent waves are illustrated and compared with those of the transverse components from the vectorial structure. Our results indicate that the relative weight integrated over the transverse plane of the evanescent wave depends strongly on the number of the polarization topological charges. The shapes of the intensity profiles of the longitudinal components are different from those of the transverse components, and it can be manipulated by changing the initial SoP of the field cross-section. The longitudinal component of evanescent wave dominates the near-field region. In addition, it also leads to three-dimensional shape variations of the optical field and the optical spin angular momentum flux density distributions. (paper)

  11. Nonlinear optical switching of PDA/Ag hybrid materials based on temperature- and pH-responsive threading and dethreading of cyclodextrin polypseudorotaxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Jinan; Wen, Xiaolei; Leng, Jing; Wang, Jin; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology in Anhui Province, Anhui (China)

    2012-11-15

    We developed a novel temperature and pH dual-responsive supramolecular system in which the aggregation and disaggregation of polydiacetylene/silver (PDA/Ag) hybrid nanocrystals can be mediated by environmentally responsive threading and dethreading processes of polypseudorotaxane. The PDA/Ag hybrid nanocrystals provide a nonlinear optical (NLO) property. The host-guest interaction between poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and cyclodextrin (CD) cavities on the surface of the hybrid nanocrystals causes the PDA/Ag hybrid nanocrystals to be sufficiently close to each other for providing an enhanced surface plasmon resonance and a corresponding NLO effect. NLO switching of the colloidal materials can be easily realized by varying temperature and pH. The facile preparation procedures and their response to the surrounding media render these novel hybrid colloidal materials potential candidates for applications in sensors, catalysis and optical/electronic devices. (orig.)

  12. Near infrared optical biosensor based on peptide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrids for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2018-06-01

    A near infrared (NIR) optical biosensor based on peptide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrids for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection was developed. The TNT binding peptide was directly anchored on the sidewall of the SWCNTs using the π-π interaction between the aromatic amino acids and SWCNTs, forming the peptide-SWCNTs hybrids for near infrared absorption spectra measurement. The evidence of the morphology of peptide-SWCNTs hybrids was obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that peptide-SWCNTs hybrids based NIR optical biosensor exhibited sensitive and highly selective for TNT explosive determination, addressing a promising optical biosensor for security application. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Bistable energy harvesting enhancement with an auxiliary linear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, R. L.; Thota, M.; Wang, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work has indicated that linear vibrational energy harvesters with an appended degree-of-freedom (DOF) may be advantageous for introducing new dynamic forms to extend the operational bandwidth. Given the additional interest in bistable harvester designs, which exhibit a propitious snap through effect from one stable state to the other, it is a logical extension to explore the influence of an added DOF to a bistable system. However, bistable snap through is not a resonant phenomenon, which tempers the presumption that the dynamics induced by an additional DOF on bistable designs would inherently be beneficial as for linear systems. This paper presents two analytical formulations to assess the fundamental and superharmonic steady-state dynamics of an excited bistable energy harvester to which is attached an auxiliary linear oscillator. From an energy harvesting perspective, the model predicts that the additional linear DOF uniformly amplifies the bistable harvester response magnitude and generated power for excitation frequencies less than the attachment’s resonance while improved power density spans a bandwidth below this frequency. Analyses predict bandwidths having co-existent responses composed of a unique proportion of fundamental and superharmonic dynamics. Experiments validate key analytical predictions and observe the ability for the coupled system to develop an advantageous multi-harmonic interwell response when the initial conditions are insufficient for continuous high-energy orbit at the excitation frequency. Overall, the addition of an auxiliary linear oscillator to a bistable harvester is found to be an effective means of enhancing the energy harvesting performance and robustness.

  14. A hybrid scanning force and light microscope for surface imaging and three-dimensional optical sectioning in differential interference contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, A

    1995-04-01

    The design of a scanned-cantilever-type force microscope is presented which is fully integrated into an inverted high-resolution video-enhanced light microscope. This set-up allows us to acquire thin optical sections in differential interference contrast (DIC) or polarization while the force microscope is in place. Such a hybrid microscope provides a unique platform to study how cell surface properties determine, or are affected by, the three-dimensional dynamic organization inside the living cell. The hybrid microscope presented in this paper has proven reliable and versatile for biological applications. It is the only instrument that can image a specimen by force microscopy and high-power DIC without having either to translate the specimen or to remove the force microscope. Adaptation of the design features could greatly enhance the suitability of other force microscopes for biological work.

  15. High-capacity optical long data memory based on enhanced Young's modulus in nanoplasmonic hybrid glass composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiming; Xia, Zhilin; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Gu, Min

    2018-03-22

    Emerging as an inevitable outcome of the big data era, long data are the massive amount of data that captures changes in the real world over a long period of time. In this context, recording and reading the data of a few terabytes in a single storage device repeatedly with a century-long unchanged baseline is in high demand. Here, we demonstrate the concept of optical long data memory with nanoplasmonic hybrid glass composites. Through the sintering-free incorporation of nanorods into the earth abundant hybrid glass composite, Young's modulus is enhanced by one to two orders of magnitude. This discovery, enabling reshaping control of plasmonic nanoparticles of multiple-length allows for continuous multi-level recording and reading with a capacity over 10 terabytes with no appreciable change of the baseline over 600 years, which opens new opportunities for long data memory that affects the past and future.

  16. Evaluation of bistable systems versus matched filters in detecting bipolar pulse signals

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Fabing; Abbott, Derek; Gao, Qisheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough evaluation of a bistable system versus a matched filter in detecting bipolar pulse signals. The detectability of the bistable system can be optimized by adding noise, i.e. the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon. This SR effect is also demonstrated by approximate statistical detection theory of the bistable system and corresponding numerical simulations. Furthermore, the performance comparison results between the bistable system and the matched filter show that...

  17. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Raman Optical Parametric Amplifier in the O- and E-Bands for CWDM PONs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasanthi Peiris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a hybrid Raman-optical parametric amplifier (HROPA operating at the O- and E-bands and designed for coarse wavelength division multiplexed (CWDM passive optical networks (PONs. We present the mathematical model and simulation results for the optimization of this HROPA design. Our analysis shows that separating the two amplification processes allows for optimization of each one separately, e.g., proper selection of pump optical powers and wavelengths to achieve maximum gain bandwidth and low gain ripple. Furthermore, we show that the proper design of optical filters incorporated in the HROPA architecture can suppress idlers generated during the OPA process, as well as other crosstalk that leaks through the passive optical components. The design approach enables error free performance for all nine wavelengths within the low half of the CWDM band, assigned to upstream traffic in a CWDM PON architecture, for all possible transmitter wavelength misalignments (±6 nm from the center wavelength of the channel band. We show that the HROPA can achieve error-free performance with a 170-nm gain bandwidth (e.g., 1264 nm–1436 nm, a gain of >20 dB and a gain ripple of <4 dB.

  18. Helix-sense-selective co-precipitation for preparing optically active helical polymer nanoparticles/graphene oxide hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huajun; Li, Weifei; Shi, Yan; Deng, Jianping

    2017-05-25

    Constructing optically active helical polymer based nanomaterials without using expensive and limited chirally helical polymers has become an extremely attractive research topic in both chemical and materials science. In this study, we prepared a series of optically active helical polymer nanoparticles/graphene oxide (OAHPNs/GO) hybrid nanocomposites through an unprecedented strategy-the co-precipitation of optically inactive helical polymers and chirally modified GO. This approach is named helix-sense-selective co-precipitation (HSSCP), in which the chirally modified GO acted as a chiral source for inducing and further stabilizing the predominantly one-handed helicity in the optically inactive helical polymers. SEM and TEM images show quite similar morphologies of all the obtained OAHPNs/GO nanocomposites; specifically, the chirally modified GO sheets were uniformly decorated with spherical polymer nanoparticles. Circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the preferentially induced helicity in the helical polymers and the optical activity of the nanocomposites. The established HSSCP strategy is thus proven to be widely applicable and is expected to produce numerous functional OAHPNs/GO nanocomposites and even the analogues.

  19. Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: Solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Lei; Yang Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Hu Yongxiang; Baum, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    A new physical-geometric optics hybrid (PGOH) method is developed to compute the scattering and absorption properties of ice particles. This method is suitable for studying the optical properties of ice particles with arbitrary orientations, complex refractive indices (i.e., particles with significant absorption), and size parameters (proportional to the ratio of particle size to incident wavelength) larger than ∼20, and includes consideration of the edge effects necessary for accurate determination of the extinction and absorption efficiencies. Light beams with polygon-shaped cross sections propagate within a particle and are traced by using a beam-splitting technique. The electric field associated with a beam is calculated using a beam-tracing process in which the amplitude and phase variations over the wavefront of the localized wave associated with the beam are considered analytically. The geometric-optics near field for each ray is obtained, and the single-scattering properties of particles are calculated from electromagnetic integral equations. The present method does not assume additional physical simplifications and approximations, except for geometric optics principles, and may be regarded as a 'benchmark' within the framework of the geometric optics approach. The computational time is on the order of seconds for a single-orientation simulation and is essentially independent of the size parameter. The single-scattering properties of oriented hexagonal ice particles (ice plates and hexagons) are presented. The numerical results are compared with those computed from the discrete-dipole-approximation (DDA) method.

  20. Bistability and Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yunrong; Chu, Frances; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Summary Biofilms of Bacillus subtilis consist of long chains of cells that are held together in bundles by an extracellular matrix of exopolysaccharide and the protein TasA. The exopolysaccharide is produced by enzymes encoded by the epsA-O operon and the gene encoding TasA is located in the yqxM-sipW-tasA operon. Both operons are under the control of the repressor SinR. Derepression is mediated by the antirepressor SinI, which binds to SinR with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Paradoxically, in medium promoting derepression of the matrix operons, the overall concentration of SinR in the culture greatly exceeded that of SinI. We show that under biofilm-promoting conditions sinI, which is under the control of the response regulator Spo0A, was expressed only in a small subpopulation of cells, whereas sinR was expressed in almost all cells. Activation of Spo0A is known to be subject to a bistable switch, and we infer that SinI reaches levels sufficient to trigger matrix production only in the subpopulation of cells in which Spo0A is active. Additionally, evidence suggests that sinI is expressed at intermediate, but not low or high, levels of Spo0A activity, which may explain why certain nutritional conditions are more effective in promoting biofilm formation than others. PMID:18047568

  1. Bistability of mangrove forests and competition with freshwater plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Fuller, Douglas O; Teh, Su Yean; Zhai, Lu; Koh, Hock Lye; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Sternberg, L.D.S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytic communities such as mangrove forests and buttonwood hammocks tend to border freshwater plant communities as sharp ecotones. Most studies attribute this purely to underlying physical templates, such as groundwater salinity gradients caused by tidal flux and topography. However, a few recent studies hypothesize that self-reinforcing feedback between vegetation and vadose zone salinity are also involved and create a bistable situation in which either halophytic dominated habitat or freshwater plant communities may dominate as alternative stable states. Here, we revisit the bistability hypothesis and demonstrate the mechanisms that result in bistability. We demonstrate with remote sensing imagery the sharp boundaries between freshwater hardwood hammock communities in southern Florida and halophytic communities such as buttonwood hammocks and mangroves. We further document from the literature how transpiration of mangroves and freshwater plants respond differently to vadose zone salinity, thus altering the salinity through feedback. Using mathematical models, we show how the self-reinforcing feedback, together with physical template, controls the ecotones between halophytic and freshwater communities. Regions of bistability along environmental gradients of salinity have the potential for large-scale vegetation shifts following pulse disturbances such as hurricane tidal surges in Florida, or tsunamis in other regions. The size of the region of bistability can be large for low-lying coastal habitat due to the saline water table, which extends inland due to salinity intrusion. We suggest coupling ecological and hydrologic processes as a framework for future studies.

  2. Fundamental role of bistability in optimal homeostatic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanyu

    2013-03-01

    Bistability is a fundamental phenomenon in nature and has a number of fine properties. However, these properties are consequences of bistability at the physiological level, which do not explain why it had to emerge during evolution. Using optimal homeostasis as the first principle and Pontryagin's Maximum Principle as the optimization approach, I find that bistability emerges as an indispensable control mechanism. Because the mathematical model is general and the result is independent of parameters, it is likely that most biological systems use bistability to control homeostasis. Glucose homeostasis represents a good example. It turns out that bistability is the only solution to a dilemma in glucose homeostasis: high insulin efficiency is required for rapid plasma glucose clearance, whereas an insulin sparing state is required to guarantee the brain's safety during fasting. This new perspective can illuminate studies on the twin epidemics of obesity and diabetes and the corresponding intervening strategies. For example, overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle may represent sudden environmental changes that cause the lose of optimality, which may contribute to the marked rise of obesity and diabetes in our generation.

  3. Dynamic control of a bistable wing under aerodynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgen, Onur; Arrieta, Andres F; Friswell, Michael I; Hagedorn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamic evaluation of a dynamic control technique applied to a bistable unsymmetrical cross-ply composite plate with surface bonded piezoelectric actuators is presented. The plate is clamped on one end to form a low-aspect-ratio wing. A previously proposed dynamic control method, utilizing bending resonance in different stable equilibrium positions, is used to induce snap-through between the two equilibrium states. Compared to quasi-static actuation, driving the bistable plate near resonance using surface bonded piezoelectric materials requires, theoretically, a lower peak excitation voltage to achieve snap-through. First, a set of extensive wind tunnel experiments are conducted on the passive bistable wing to understand the change in the dynamic behavior under various aerodynamic conditions. The passive wing demonstrated sufficient bending stiffness to sustain its shape under aerodynamic loading while preserving the desired bistable behavior. Next, by the use of the resonant control technique, the plate is turned into an effectively monostable structure, or alternatively, both stable equilibrium positions can be reached actively from the other stable equilibrium. Dynamic forward and reverse snap-through is demonstrated in the wind tunnel which shows both the effectiveness of the piezoelectric actuation as well as the load carrying capability of both states of the bistable wing. (paper)

  4. Oscillations in the bistable regime of neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxin, Alex; Compte, Albert

    2016-07-01

    Bistability between attracting fixed points in neuronal networks has been hypothesized to underlie persistent activity observed in several cortical areas during working memory tasks. In network models this kind of bistability arises due to strong recurrent excitation, sufficient to generate a state of high activity created in a saddle-node (SN) bifurcation. On the other hand, canonical network models of excitatory and inhibitory neurons (E-I networks) robustly produce oscillatory states via a Hopf (H) bifurcation due to the E-I loop. This mechanism for generating oscillations has been invoked to explain the emergence of brain rhythms in the β to γ bands. Although both bistability and oscillatory activity have been intensively studied in network models, there has not been much focus on the coincidence of the two. Here we show that when oscillations emerge in E-I networks in the bistable regime, their phenomenology can be explained to a large extent by considering coincident SN and H bifurcations, known as a codimension two Takens-Bogdanov bifurcation. In particular, we find that such oscillations are not composed of a stable limit cycle, but rather are due to noise-driven oscillatory fluctuations. Furthermore, oscillations in the bistable regime can, in principle, have arbitrarily low frequency.

  5. Non-resonant energy harvesting via an adaptive bistable potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinloo, Ashkan Haji; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Narrow bandwidth and easy detuning, inefficiency in broadband and non-stationary excitations, and difficulties in matching a linear harvester’s resonance frequency to low-frequency excitations at small scales, have convinced researchers to investigate nonlinear, and in particular bistable, energy harvesters in recent years. However, bistable harvesters suffer from co-existing low and high energy orbits, and sensitivity to initial conditions, and have recently been proven inefficient when subjected to many real-world random and non-stationary excitations. Here, we propose a novel non-resonant buy-low-sell-high strategy that can significantly improve the harvester’s effectiveness at low frequencies in a much more robust fashion. This strategy could be realized by a passive adaptive bistable system. Simulation results confirm the high effectiveness of the adaptive bistable system following a buy-low-sell-high logic when subjected to harmonic and random non-stationary walking excitations compared to its conventional bistable and linear counterparts. (paper)

  6. Chaos in a new bistable rotating electromechanical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapla Fotsa, R.; Woafo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electromechanical system with rotating arm and bistable potential energy is studied. • The bistability is generated by the interaction of three permanent magnets, one fixed at the end of the arm and two other fixed at equal distance relative to the central position of the arm. • It exhibits dissipative and Hamiltonian chaos. • Such a bistable electromechanical system can be used as the actuation part of chaotic sieves and mixers. - Abstract: A device consisting of an induction motor activating a rotating rigid arm is designed and comprises a bistable potential due to the presence of three permanent magnets. Its mathematical equations are established and the numerical results both in the absence and in the presence of magnets are compared. The generation of chaotic behavior is achieved using two different external excitations: sinewave and square wave. In the presence of magnets, the system presents periodic and dissipative chaotic dynamics. Approximating the global potential energy to a bistable quartic potential, the Melnikov method is used to derive the conditions for the appearance of Hamiltonian chaos. Such a device can be used for industrial and domestic applications for mixing and sieving activities.

  7. Frontoparietal cortex mediates perceptual transitions in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilnhammer, Veith A; Ludwig, Karin; Hesselmann, Guido; Sterzer, Philipp

    2013-10-02

    During bistable vision, perception oscillates between two mutually exclusive percepts despite constant sensory input. Greater BOLD responses in frontoparietal cortex have been shown to be associated with endogenous perceptual transitions compared with "replay" transitions designed to closely match bistability in both perceptual quality and timing. It has remained controversial, however, whether this enhanced activity reflects causal influences of these regions on processing at the sensory level or, alternatively, an effect of stimulus differences that result in, for example, longer durations of perceptual transitions in bistable perception compared with replay conditions. Using a rotating Lissajous figure in an fMRI experiment on 15 human participants, we controlled for potential confounds of differences in transition duration and confirmed previous findings of greater activity in frontoparietal areas for transitions during bistable perception. In addition, we applied dynamic causal modeling to identify the neural model that best explains the observed BOLD signals in terms of effective connectivity. We found that enhanced activity for perceptual transitions is associated with a modulation of top-down connectivity from frontal to visual cortex, thus arguing for a crucial role of frontoparietal cortex in perceptual transitions during bistable perception.

  8. Numerical and experimental study of bistable plates for morphing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, F.; Scarselli, G.; Avanzini, G.; Del Core, G.

    2017-04-01

    This study is concerned with the activation energy threshold of bistable composite plates in order to tailor a bistable system for specific aeronautical applications. The aim is to explore potential configurations of the bistable plates and their dynamic behavior for designing novel morphing structure suitable for aerodynamic surfaces and, as a possible further application, for power harvesters. Bistable laminates have two stable mechanical shapes that can withstand aerodynamic loads without additional constraint forces or locking mechanisms. This kind of structures, when properly loaded, snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains that can also be used for power harvesting scopes. The transition between the stable states of the composite laminate can be triggered, in principle, simply by aerodynamic loads (pilot, disturbance or passive inputs) without the need of servo-activated control systems. Both numerical simulations based on Finite Element models and experimental testing based on different activating forcing spectra are used to validate this concept. The results show that dynamic activation of bistable plates depend on different parameters that need to be carefully managed for their use as aircraft passive wing flaps.

  9. A bistable mechanism for chord extension morphing rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terrence; Frecker, Mary; Gandhi, Farhan

    2009-03-01

    Research efforts have shown that helicopter rotor blade morphing is an effective means to improve flight performance. Previous example of rotor blade morphing include using smart-materials for trailing deflection and rotor blade twist and tip twist, the development of a comfortable airfoil using compliant mechanisms, the use of a Gurney flap for air-flow deflection and centrifugal force actuated device to increase the span of the blade. In this paper we explore the use of a bistable mechanism for rotor morphing, specifically, blade chord extension using a bistable arc. Increasing the chord of the rotor blade is expected to generate more lift-load and improve helicopter performance. Bistable or "snap through" mechanisms have multiple stable equilibrium states and are a novel way to achieve large actuation output stroke. Bistable mechanisms do not require energy input to maintain a stable equilibrium state as both states do not require locking. In this work, we introduce a methodology for the design of bistable arcs for chord morphing using the finite element analysis and pseudo-rigid body model, to study the effect of different arc types, applied loads and rigidity on arc performance.

  10. The derivation of a bistable criterion for double V-beam mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cho-Chun; Chen, Rongshun; Lin, Meng-Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical derivation of the discriminant D as a structural and material criterion for determining whether bistability can occur in micromechanically bistable mechanisms. When D < 0, the mechanism displays bistable behavior if an appropriate force is applied to push the bistable mechanism, whereas when D > 0, bistable behavior cannot occur. The proposed V-beam bistable mechanism was successfully fabricated with various beam lengths and tilted angles. The experiments conducted in this study validated the theoretical study of bistability. A comparison of the theoretical solutions and experimental results shows good agreement. Results further show that to design a bistable V-beam mechanism, the tilted angle should be larger for the same beam length, whereas the beam length should be longer for the same tilted angle. The developed discriminant D can be used to predict if a bistable mechanism can achieve bistable behavior based on structural sizes and material properties. Consequently, researchers can reduce trial-and-error experiments when designing a bistable mechanism. A V-beam with a larger tilted angle of up to 5° was successfully fabricated to act as a bistable mechanism, compared to a 3.5° tilted angle in existing studies. Consequently, the proposed method has the advantages of shorter beam lengths and smaller device areas. (paper)

  11. De-optical-line-terminal hybrid access-aggregation optical network for time-sensitive services based on software-defined networking orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wei; Yang, Hui; Xiao, Hongyun; Yu, Ao; He, Linkuan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Zhen; Du, Yi

    2017-11-01

    With the increase in varieties of services in network, time-sensitive services (TSSs) appear and bring forward an impending need for delay performance. Ultralow-latency communication has become one of the important development goals for many scenarios in the coming 5G era (e.g., robotics and driverless cars). However, the conventional methods, which decrease delay by promoting the available resources and the network transmission speed, have limited effect; a new breakthrough for ultralow-latency communication is necessary. We propose a de-optical-line-terminal (De-OLT) hybrid access-aggregation optical network (DAON) for TSS based on software-defined networking (SDN) orchestration. In this network, low-latency all-optical communication based on optical burst switching can be achieved by removing OLT. For supporting this network and guaranteeing the quality of service for TSSs, we design SDN-driven control method and service provision method. Numerical results demonstrate the proposed DAON promotes network service efficiency and avoids traffic congestion.

  12. Silicon Carbide Lightweight Optics With Hybrid Skins for Large Cryo Telescopes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to manufacture new silicon carbide (SiC) foam-based optics that are composite, athermal and lightweight (FOCAL) that provide...

  13. Multichannel all–optical switch based on a thin slab of resonant two–level emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikov Ramil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility of using a thin layer of inhomogeneously broadened resonant emitters as a multichannel all–optical switch. Switching time from the lower stable branch of the system's bistable characteristics to the upper one and vice versa, which determines the speed of operation of a bistable device, is studied.

  14. Contrast improvement of continuous wave diffuse optical tomography reconstruction by hybrid approach using least square and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rusha; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2015-07-01

    Reconstruction of the absorption coefficient of tissue with good contrast is of key importance in functional diffuse optical imaging. A hybrid approach using model-based iterative image reconstruction and a genetic algorithm is proposed to enhance the contrast of the reconstructed image. The proposed method yields an observed contrast of 98.4%, mean square error of 0.638×10-3, and object centroid error of (0.001 to 0.22) mm. Experimental validation of the proposed method has also been provided with tissue-like phantoms which shows a significant improvement in image quality and thus establishes the potential of the method for functional diffuse optical tomography reconstruction with continuous wave setup. A case study of finger joint imaging is illustrated as well to show the prospect of the proposed method in clinical diagnosis. The method can also be applied to the concentration measurement of a region of interest in a turbid medium.

  15. Electro-optic chaotic system based on the reverse-time chaos theory and a nonlinear hybrid feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingxing; Cheng, Mengfan; Luo, Fengguang; Deng, Lei; Fu, Songnian; Ke, Changjian; Zhang, Minming; Tang, Ming; Shum, Ping; Liu, Deming

    2016-12-12

    A novel electro-optic chaos source is proposed on the basis of the reverse-time chaos theory and an analog-digital hybrid feedback loop. The analog output of the system can be determined by the numeric states of shift registers, which makes the system robust and easy to control. The dynamical properties as well as the complexity dependence on the feedback parameters are investigated in detail. The correlation characteristics of the system are also studied. Two improving strategies which were established in digital field and analog field are proposed to conceal the time-delay signature. The proposed scheme has the potential to be used in radar and optical secure communication systems.

  16. Order reconstruction phenomena and temperature-driven dynamics in a 3D zenithally bistable device

    KAUST Repository

    Raisch, A.

    2014-07-01

    We model the zenithally bistable device (ZBD) in three dimensions (3D), within the Landau-de Gennes theory, and find three stable static states in 3D without an applied field: the vertically aligned nematic (VAN) state, the hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) state and a third, high-tilt state, which we call the THAN state, with an interior and a surface defect. We recover the order reconstruction (OR) phenomenon around the defects in the HAN and THAN states and the 3D THAN and HAN solutions exhibit stable biaxial cylinders connecting defects on opposite faces of the ZBD device. We demonstrate a two-way temperature-driven switching between high-tilt and low-tilt states through controlled heating and cooling procedures in two dimensions (2D), with no applied fields. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  17. Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences Generation for Optical WDM Systems: A Novel Parallel Hybrid Multi-objective Bat Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shonak; Singh, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Neena

    2017-02-01

    In real-life, multi-objective engineering design problems are very tough and time consuming optimization problems due to their high degree of nonlinearities, complexities and inhomogeneity. Nature-inspired based multi-objective optimization algorithms are now becoming popular for solving multi-objective engineering design problems. This paper proposes original multi-objective Bat algorithm (MOBA) and its extended form, namely, novel parallel hybrid multi-objective Bat algorithm (PHMOBA) to generate shortest length Golomb ruler called optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences at a reasonable computation time. The OGRs found their application in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems as channel-allocation algorithm to reduce the four-wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk. The performances of both the proposed algorithms to generate OGRs as optical WDM channel-allocation is compared with other existing classical computing and nature-inspired algorithms, including extended quadratic congruence (EQC), search algorithm (SA), genetic algorithms (GAs), biogeography based optimization (BBO) and big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) optimization algorithms. Simulations conclude that the proposed parallel hybrid multi-objective Bat algorithm works efficiently as compared to original multi-objective Bat algorithm and other existing algorithms to generate OGRs for optical WDM systems. The algorithm PHMOBA to generate OGRs, has higher convergence and success rate than original MOBA. The efficiency improvement of proposed PHMOBA to generate OGRs up to 20-marks, in terms of ruler length and total optical channel bandwidth (TBW) is 100 %, whereas for original MOBA is 85 %. Finally the implications for further research are also discussed.

  18. Gold nanorods-silicone hybrid material films and their optical limiting property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfang; Qi, Yanhai; Hao, Xiongwen; Peng, Xue; Li, Dongxiang

    2015-10-01

    As a kind of new optical limiting materials, gold nanoparticles have optical limiting property owing to their optical nonlinearities induced by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Gold nanorods (GNRs) possess transversal SPR absorption and tunable longitudinal SPR absorption in the visible and near-infrared region, so they can be used as potential optical limiting materials against tunable laser pulses. In this letter, GNRs were prepared using seed-mediated growth method and surface-modified by silica coating to obtain good dispersion in polydimethylsiloxane prepolymers. Then the silicone rubber films doped with GNRs were prepared after vulcanization, whose optical limiting property and optical nonlinearity were investigated. The silicone rubber samples doped with more GNRs were found to exhibit better optical limiting performance.

  19. Design of a bistable switch to control cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Diego A; Chaves, Madalena

    2015-12-06

    Bistable switches are widely used in synthetic biology to trigger cellular functions in response to environmental signals. All bistable switches developed so far, however, control the expression of target genes without access to other layers of the cellular machinery. Here, we propose a bistable switch to control the rate at which cells take up a metabolite from the environment. An uptake switch provides a new interface to command metabolic activity from the extracellular space and has great potential as a building block in more complex circuits that coordinate pathway activity across cell cultures, allocate metabolic tasks among different strains or require cell-to-cell communication with metabolic signals. Inspired by uptake systems found in nature, we propose to couple metabolite import and utilization with a genetic circuit under feedback regulation. Using mathematical models and analysis, we determined the circuit architectures that produce bistability and obtained their design space for bistability in terms of experimentally tuneable parameters. We found an activation-repression architecture to be the most robust switch because it displays bistability for the largest range of design parameters and requires little fine-tuning of the promoters' response curves. Our analytic results are based on on-off approximations of promoter activity and are in excellent qualitative agreement with simulations of more realistic models. With further analysis and simulation, we established conditions to maximize the parameter design space and to produce bimodal phenotypes via hysteresis and cell-to-cell variability. Our results highlight how mathematical analysis can drive the discovery of new circuits for synthetic biology, as the proposed circuit has all the hallmarks of a toggle switch and stands as a promising design to control metabolic phenotypes across cell cultures. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Large-Scale Analysis of Network Bistability for Human Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tetsuya; Matsuyama, Shinako; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interaction and gene regulatory networks are likely to be locked in a state corresponding to a disease by the behavior of one or more bistable circuits exhibiting switch-like behavior. Sets of genes could be over-expressed or repressed when anomalies due to disease appear, and the circuits responsible for this over- or under-expression might persist for as long as the disease state continues. This paper shows how a large-scale analysis of network bistability for various human cancers can identify genes that can potentially serve as drug targets or diagnosis biomarkers. PMID:20628618

  1. The Necker-Zeno model for bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker-Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal non-locality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. BRIEF COMMUNICATION: Electrothermal bistability tuning in a large displacement micro actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Y.; Krylov, S.; Ilic, B.

    2010-11-01

    We report on an approach allowing simple yet efficient tuning of the bistability properties in large displacement micro actuators. The devices fabricated from silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers using a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)-based process incorporate elastic suspension realized as a pair of beams initially curved in-plane and are operated electrostatically by a comb-drive transducer. The curvature of beam and therefore the stability characteristics of the suspension are controlled by passing a current through the suspension and resistive heating the beam material. Experimental results, which are in good agreement with the finite elements model predictions, demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested approach and show that the application of a small tuning current increases the device deflection from 42 to 56 µm, allows adjustment of the critical snap-through and snap-back voltages and makes it possible the control of latching without an additional electrode. The approach can be efficiently implemented in electrical and optical switches and threshold inertial and mass sensors where the use of long displacement actuators with an adjustable bistability range is beneficial.

  3. A hybrid optic-fiber sensor network with the function of self-diagnosis and self-healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shibo; Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hongxia

    2014-11-01

    We develop a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing optical fiber network with distributed fiber-optic sensors and quasi-distributed FBG sensor arrays which detect vibrations, temperatures and strains at the same time. The network has the ability to locate the failure sites automatically designated as self-diagnosis and make protective switching to reestablish sensing service designated as self-healing by cooperative work of software and hardware. The processes above are accomplished by master-slave processors with the help of optical and wireless telemetry signals. All the sensing and optical telemetry signals transmit in the same fiber either working fiber or backup fiber. We take wavelength 1450nm as downstream signal and wavelength 1350nm as upstream signal to control the network in normal circumstances, both signals are sent by a light emitting node of the corresponding processor. There is also a continuous laser wavelength 1310nm sent by each node and received by next node on both working and backup fibers to monitor their healthy states, but it does not carry any message like telemetry signals do. When fibers of two sensor units are completely damaged, the master processor will lose the communication with the node between the damaged ones.However we install RF module in each node to solve the possible problem. Finally, the whole network state is transmitted to host computer by master processor. Operator could know and control the network by human-machine interface if needed.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  5. A polypeptide-DNA hybrid with selective linking capability applied to single molecule nano-mechanical measurements using optical tweezers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moayed

    Full Text Available Many applications in biosensing, biomaterial engineering and single molecule biophysics require multiple non-covalent linkages between DNA, protein molecules, and surfaces that are specific yet strong. Here, we present a novel method to join proteins and dsDNA molecule at their ends, in an efficient, rapid and specific manner, based on the recently developed linkage between the protein StrepTactin (STN and the peptide StrepTag II (ST. We introduce a two-step approach, in which we first construct a hybrid between DNA and a tandem of two STs peptides (tST. In a second step, this hybrid is linked to polystyrene bead surfaces and Maltose Binding Protein (MBP using STN. Furthermore, we show the STN-tST linkage is more stable against forces applied by optical tweezers than the commonly used biotin-Streptavidin (STV linkage. It can be used in conjunction with Neutravidin (NTV-biotin linkages to form DNA tethers that can sustain applied forces above 65 pN for tens of minutes in a quarter of the cases. The method is general and can be applied to construct other surface-DNA and protein-DNA hybrids. The reversibility, high mechanical stability and specificity provided by this linking procedure make it highly suitable for single molecule mechanical studies, as well as biosensing and lab on chip applications.

  6. Hybrid PAPR reduction scheme with Huffman coding and DFT-spread technique for direct-detection optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Miao; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Hui; Wan, Qiuzhen; Jiang, LeYong; Yang, Lin; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Lin

    2018-01-01

    High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signal is a major drawback in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) system. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel hybrid scheme, combined the Huffman coding and Discrete Fourier Transmission-Spread (DFT-spread), in order to reduce high PAPR in a 16-QAM short-reach intensity-modulated and direct-detection OOFDM (IMDD-OOFDM) system. The experimental results demonstrated that the hybrid scheme can reduce the PAPR by about 1.5, 2, 3 and 6 dB, and achieve 1.5, 1, 2.5 and 3 dB receiver sensitivity improvement compared to clipping, DFT-spread and Huffman coding and original OFDM signals, respectively, at an error vector magnitude (EVM) of -10 dB after transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF). Furthermore, the throughput gain can be of the order of 30% by using the hybrid scheme compared with the cases of without applying the Huffman coding.

  7. THE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN TURBULENT BISTABLE FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazol, Adriana; Kim, Jongsoo

    2013-01-01

    We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Σ-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100 pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50 pc. At low densities (n ∼ –3 ), the n-PDF is well described by a lognormal distribution for an average local Mach number ranging from ∼0.2 to ∼5.5. As a consequence of the nonlinear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution of the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well-known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n ∼> 7.1 cm –3 ) goes from ∼1.1 to ∼16.9 and the shape of the high-density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case, the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities, the Σ-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all of the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different from those of the isothermal case.

  8. Structural, optical, and improved photocatalytic properties of CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Ravikumar, R.V.S.S.N.; Srinivas, Ganganagunta; Shim, Jaesool; Cho, Migyung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS, SnO_2, and a CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst were synthesized using a two-step technique. • The dislocation density, strain values are higher for CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst. • The CdS/SnO_2 has a higher surface area and smaller crystallite size compared to pristine CdS. • The CdS/SnO_2 catalyst greatly reduced recombination of electron and hole pairs. - Abstract: CdS, SnO_2 and CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst nanostructure were synthesized using a two-step (co-precipitation/hydrothermal) method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface analysis (BET), photoluminescence spectra (PL), UV–Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photocatalytic activity. The band gap energies calculated from the DRS results are 3.30, 2.15, and 2.99 eV for pristine SnO_2, CdS, and the CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst, respectively. The CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst showed more efficient charge carrier separation and improved photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO). The highest degradation rate constant was achieved for the CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst (0.02434 min"−"1) compared to CdS (0.01381 min"−"1) and SnO_2 (0.00878 min"−"1). The present study provides insights for improving the photocatalytic activity and photo-stability of CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst.

  9. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: dr@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  10. Effect of Refractive Index of Substrate on Fabrication and Optical Properties of Hybrid Au-Ag Triangular Nanoparticle Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the nanosphere lithography (NSL method was used to fabricate hybrid Au-Ag triangular periodic nanoparticle arrays. The Au-Ag triangular periodic arrays were grown on different substrates, and the effect of the refractive index of substrates on fabrication and optical properties was systematically investigated. At first, the optical spectrum was simulated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA numerical method as a function of refractive indexes of substrates and mediums. Simulation results showed that as the substrates had the refractive indexes of 1.43 (quartz and 1.68 (SF5 glass, the nanoparticle arrays would have better refractive index sensitivity (RIS and figure of merit (FOM. Simulation results also showed that the peak wavelength of the extinction spectra had a red shift when the medium’s refractive index n increased. The experimental results also demonstrated that when refractive indexes of substrates were 1.43 and 1.68, the nanoparticle arrays and substrate had better adhesive ability. Meanwhile, we found the nanoparticles formed a large-scale monolayer array with the hexagonally close-packed structure. Finally, the hybrid Au-Ag triangular nanoparticle arrays were fabricated on quartz and SF5 glass substrates and their experiment extinction spectra were compared with the simulated results.

  11. Integrated Optical Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids for Photonics-on-a-Chip Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana R; Vicente, Carlos M S; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Silva, Nuno J O; Tacão, Marta; Costa, João P da; Lima, Mário; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2018-03-12

    The development of portable low-cost integrated optics-based biosensors for photonics-on-a-chip devices for real-time diagnosis are of great interest, offering significant advantages over current analytical methods. We report the fabrication and characterization of an optical sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to monitor the growing concentration of bacteria in a liquid medium. The device pattern was imprinted on transparent self-patternable organic-inorganic di-ureasil hybrid films by direct UV-laser, reducing the complexity and cost production compared with lithographic techniques or three-dimensional (3D) patterning using femtosecond lasers. The sensor performance was evaluated using, as an illustrative example, E. coli cell growth in an aqueous medium. The measured sensitivity (2 × 10 -4 RIU) and limit of detection (LOD = 2 × 10 -4 ) are among the best values known for low-refractive index contrast sensors. Furthermore, the di-ureasil hybrid used to produce this biosensor has additional advantages, such as mechanical flexibility, thermal stability, and low insertion losses due to fiber-device refractive index mismatch (~1.49). Therefore, the proposed sensor constitutes a direct, compact, fast, and cost-effective solution for monitoring the concentration of lived-cells.

  12. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  13. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  14. Electrical bistabilities and memory stabilities of nonvolatile bistable devices fabricated utilizing C60 molecules embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Lee, Dong Ik; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on Al/fullerene (C 60 ) molecules embedded in polymethyl methacrylate/Al devices at 300 K showed a current bistability due to the existence of the C 60 molecules. The on/off ratio of the current bistability for the memory devices was as large as 10 3 . The retention time of the devices was above 2.5 x 10 4 s at room temperature, and cycling endurance tests on these devices indicated that the ON and OFF currents showed no degradation until 50 000 cycles. Carrier transport mechanisms for the nonvolatile bistable devices are described on the basis of the I-V experimental and fitting results.

  15. Density functional theory study of the conformation and optical properties of hybrid Au(n)-dithienylethene systems (n = 3, 19, 25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihey, Arnaud; Kloss, Benedikt; Perrier, Aurélie; Maurel, François

    2014-07-03

    We present a theoretical study of Aun-dithienylethene hybrid systems (n = 3, 19, 25), where the organic molecule is covalently linked to a nanometer-scaled gold nanoparticle (NP). We aim at gaining insights on the optical properties of such photochromic devices and proposing a size-limited gold aggregate model able to recover the optical properties of the experimental system. We thus present a DFT-based calculation scheme to model the ground-state (conformation, energetic parameters) and excited-state properties (UV-visible absorption spectra) of this type of hybrid systems. Within this framework, the structural parameters (adsorption site, orientation, and internal structure of the photochrome) are found to be slightly dependent on the size/shape of the gold aggregate. The influence of the gold fragment on the optical properties of the resulting hybrid system is then discussed with the help of TD-DFT combined with an analysis of the virtual orbitals involved in the photochromic transitions. We show that, for the open hybrid isomer, the number of gold atoms is the key parameter to recover the photoactive properties that are experimentally observed. On the contrary, for hybrid closed systems, the three-dimensional structure of the metallic aggregate is of high impact. We thus conclude that Au25 corresponds to the most appropriate fragment to model nanometer-sized NP-DTE hybrid device.

  16. Optically active charge transfer in hybrids of Alq3 nanoparticles and MoS2 monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Ganesh; Dhakal, Krishna P.; Neupane, Guru P.; Jo, Seong Gi; Kim, Hyun; Seo, Changwon; Lee, Young Hee; Joo, Jinsoo; Kim, Jeongyong

    2017-05-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid structures have been widely studied because of their enhanced physical and chemical properties. Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (1L-TMDs) and organic nanoparticles can provide a hybridization configuration between zero- and two-dimensional systems with the advantages of convenient preparation and strong interface interaction. Here, we present such a hybrid system made by dispersing π-conjugated organic (tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(III)) (Alq3) nanoparticles (NPs) on 1L-MoS2. Hybrids of Alq3 NP/1L-MoS2 exhibited a two-fold increase in the photoluminescence of Alq3 NPs on 1L-MoS2 and the n-doping effect of 1L-MoS2, and these spectral and electronic modifications were attributed to the charge transfer between Alq3 NPs and 1L-MoS2. Our results suggested that a hybrid of organic NPs/1L-TMD can offer a convenient platform to study the interface interactions between organic and inorganic nano objects and to engineer optoelectronic devices with enhanced performance.

  17. Bistable flow spectral analysis. Repercussions on jet pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilan Moreno, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The most important thing in this paper, is the spectral characterization of the bistable flow in a Nuclear Power Plant. → This paper goes deeper in the effect of the bistable flow over the jet pump and the induced vibrations. → The jet pump frequencies are very close to natural jet pump frequencies, in the 3rd and 6th mode. - Abstract: There have been many attempts at characterizing and predicting bistable flow in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Nevertheless, in most cases the results have only managed to develop models that analytically reproduce the phenomenon (). Modeling has been forensic in all cases, while the capacity of the model focus on determining the exclusion areas on the recirculation flow map. The bistability process is known by its effects given there is no clear definition of its causal process. In the 1980s, Hitachi technicians () managed to reproduce bistable flow in the laboratory by means of pipe geometry, similar to that which is found in recirculation loops. The result was that the low flow pattern is formed by the appearance of a quasi stationary, helicoidal vortex in the recirculation collector's branches. This vortex creates greater frictional losses than regions without vortices, at the same discharge pressure. Neither the behavior nor the dynamics of these vortices were characterized in this paper. The aim of this paper is to characterize these vortices in such a way as to enable them to provide their own frequencies and their later effect on the jet pumps. The methodology used in this study is similar to the one used previously when analyzing the bistable flow in tube arrays with cross flow (). The method employed makes use of the power spectral density function. What differs is the field of application. We will analyze a Loop B with a bistable flow and compare the high and low flow situations. The same analysis will also be carried out on the loop that has not developed the bistable flow (Loop A) at the same moments

  18. Computer Tomography and Hybrid Optical/Digital Methods for Aerodynamic Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-28

    Industrial Applications of Corn- on Axisymnnietric Flame ’Iempnlw res Measured by Holo- puted Tornographv arid NMI? Imiaging (Optical Society of graphic...Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. Escuela de Ingenieria . Santiago, equal. The optical path length difference (OPD) be- Chile. tween the two rays

  19. Hybrid graphene/silicon integrated optical isolators with photonic spin–orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jingwen; Sun, Xiankai; Xi, Xiang; Yu, Zejie

    2016-01-01

    Optical isolators are an important building block in photonic computation and communication. In traditional optics, isolators are realized with magneto-optical garnets. However, it remains challenging to incorporate such materials on an integrated platform because of the difficulty in material growth and bulky device footprint. Here, we propose an ultracompact integrated isolator by exploiting graphene's magneto-optical property on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The photonic nonreciprocity is achieved because the cyclotrons in graphene experiencing different optical spins exhibit different responses to counterpropagating light. Taking advantage of cavity resonance effects, we have numerically optimized a device design, which shows excellent isolation performance with the extinction ratio over 45 dB and the insertion loss around 12 dB at a wavelength near 1.55 μm. Featuring graphene's CMOS compatibility and substantially reduced device footprint, our proposal sheds light on monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices.

  20. Pattern formation in the bistable Gray-Scott model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazin, W.; Rasmussen, K.E.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a computer simulation study of a variety of far-from-equilibrium phenomena that can arise in a bistable chemical reaction-diffusion system which also displays Turing and Hopf instabilities. The Turing bifurcation curve and the wave number for the patterns of maximum linear grow...

  1. Dynamics of a bistable Miura-origami structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Li, Suyi; Ji, Huimin; Wang, K. W.

    2017-05-01

    Origami-inspired structures and materials have shown extraordinary properties and performances originating from the intricate geometries of folding. However, current state of the art studies have mostly focused on static and quasistatic characteristics. This research performs a comprehensive experimental and analytical study on the dynamics of origami folding through investigating a stacked Miura-Ori (SMO) structure with intrinsic bistability. We fabricate and experimentally investigated a bistable SMO prototype with rigid facets and flexible crease lines. Under harmonic base excitation, the SMO exhibits both intrawell and interwell oscillations. Spectrum analyses reveal that the dominant nonlinearities of SMO are quadratic and cubic, which generate rich dynamics including subharmonic and chaotic oscillations. The identified nonlinearities indicate that a third-order polynomial can be employed to approximate the measured force-displacement relationship. Such an approximation is validated via numerical study by qualitatively reproducing the phenomena observed in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of the bistable SMO resemble those of a Helmholtz-Duffing oscillator (HDO); this suggests the possibility of applying the established tools and insights of HDO to predict origami dynamics. We also show that the bistability of SMO can be programmed within a large design space via tailoring the crease stiffness and initial stress-free configurations. The results of this research offer a wealth of fundamental insights into the dynamics of origami folding, and provide a solid foundation for developing foldable and deployable structures and materials with embedded dynamic functionalities.

  2. Dynamics of a bistable Miura-origami structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Li, Suyi; Ji, Huimin; Wang, K W

    2017-05-01

    Origami-inspired structures and materials have shown extraordinary properties and performances originating from the intricate geometries of folding. However, current state of the art studies have mostly focused on static and quasistatic characteristics. This research performs a comprehensive experimental and analytical study on the dynamics of origami folding through investigating a stacked Miura-Ori (SMO) structure with intrinsic bistability. We fabricate and experimentally investigated a bistable SMO prototype with rigid facets and flexible crease lines. Under harmonic base excitation, the SMO exhibits both intrawell and interwell oscillations. Spectrum analyses reveal that the dominant nonlinearities of SMO are quadratic and cubic, which generate rich dynamics including subharmonic and chaotic oscillations. The identified nonlinearities indicate that a third-order polynomial can be employed to approximate the measured force-displacement relationship. Such an approximation is validated via numerical study by qualitatively reproducing the phenomena observed in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of the bistable SMO resemble those of a Helmholtz-Duffing oscillator (HDO); this suggests the possibility of applying the established tools and insights of HDO to predict origami dynamics. We also show that the bistability of SMO can be programmed within a large design space via tailoring the crease stiffness and initial stress-free configurations. The results of this research offer a wealth of fundamental insights into the dynamics of origami folding, and provide a solid foundation for developing foldable and deployable structures and materials with embedded dynamic functionalities.

  3. Reversal Negativity and Bistable Stimuli: Attention, Awareness, or Something Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaite, Monika; Koivisto, Mika; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Revonsuo, Antti

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguous (or bistable) figures are visual stimuli that have two mutually exclusive perceptual interpretations that spontaneously alternate with each other. Perceptual reversals, as compared with non-reversals, typically elicit a negative difference called reversal negativity (RN), peaking around 250 ms from stimulus onset. The cognitive…

  4. Kerr nonlinearity and plasmonic bistability in graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Yan, Wei; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    due to field enhancement, and the total nonlinearity is significantly affected by the field inhomogeneity of the plasmonic excitation. Finally, we discuss the emergence of a plasmonic bistability which exists for energies red-shifted relative to the linear resonance. Our results offer insights...

  5. Drag force actuated bistable microswitches for flow sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, W.J.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents bistable microswitches with Au contacts with the aim to combine them with artificial hairs for flow sensing. The Au contacts are applied on both ends of a silicon nitride beam, suspended by a torsional bar at its center. The beam is provided with electrodes for electrostatic

  6. Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) for binary robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follador, M; Conn, A T; Rossiter, J

    2015-01-01

    Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) are devices derived from the union of the concepts of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures and bistable systems. This article presents this novel approach to active, elastic and bistable structures. BiMES are based on dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), which act as antagonists and provide the actuation for switching between the two equilibrium positions. A central elastic beam is the backbone of the structure and is buckled into the minimum energy configurations by the action of the two DEAs. The theory and the model of the device are presented, and also its fabrication process. BiMES are considered as fundamental units for more complex structures, which are presented and fabricated as proof of concept. Two different ways of combining the multiple units are proposed: a parallel configuration, to make a simple gripper, and a serial configuration, to generate a binary device. The possibility of using the bistable system as a continuous bender actuator, by modulating the actuation voltage of the two DEAs, was also investigated. (paper)

  7. Phenomenological approach to bistable behavior of Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, K.; Nara, S.; Hamanaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of unbiased Josephson junction with external electromagnetic field in the presence of externally applied uniform magnetic field is theoretically examined by means of phenomenological treatment. It is proposed that an irradiated junction with suitably chosen parameters shows a bistable behavior of voltage across the junction as a function of the radiation intensity

  8. Hybrid Radio/Free-Space Optical Design for Next Generation Backhaul Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    high data rate and a relatively low cost. The FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions, e.g., rain, fog, and line-of-sight. This paper combines both the RF and FSO advantages and proposes a hybrid RF/FSO backhaul solution. It considers

  9. Hybrid diffractive-refractive optical system design of head-mounted display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan

    2005-02-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality is designed in this paper. Considering the factors, such as the optical performance, the utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world, the feelings of users when he wears it and etc., a structure of the optical see-through is adopted. With the characteristics of the particular negative dispersive and the power of realizing random-phase modulation, the diffractive surface is helpful for optical system of reducing weight, simplifying structure and etc., and a diffractive surface is introduced in our optical system. The optical system with 25 mm eye relief, 12 mm exit pupil and 20° (H)x15.4° (V) field-of-view is designed. The utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world are 1/4 and 1/2, respectively. The angular resolution of display is 0.27 mrad and it less than that of the minimum of human eyes. The diameter of this system is less than 46mm, and it applies the binocular. This diffractive-refractive optical system of see-through head-mounted display not only satisfies the demands of user"s factors in structure, but also with high resolution, very small chromatic aberration and distortion, and satisfies the need of augmented reality. In the end, the parameters of the diffractive surface are discussed.

  10. A Review of Hybrid Fiber-Optic Distributed Simultaneous Vibration and Temperature Sensing Technology and Its Geophysical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid; Potter, David K

    2017-11-01

    Distributed sensing systems can transform an optical fiber cable into an array of sensors, allowing users to detect and monitor multiple physical parameters such as temperature, vibration and strain with fine spatial and temporal resolution over a long distance. Fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) systems have been developed for various applications with varied spatial resolution, and spectral and sensing range. Rayleigh scattering-based phase optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) for vibration and Raman/Brillouin scattering-based OTDR for temperature and strain measurements have been developed over the past two decades. The key challenge has been to find a methodology that would enable the physical parameters to be determined at any point along the sensing fiber with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, yet within acceptable frequency range for dynamic vibration, and temperature detection. There are many applications, especially in geophysical and mining engineering where simultaneous measurements of vibration and temperature are essential. In this article, recent developments of different hybrid systems for simultaneous vibration, temperature and strain measurements are analyzed based on their operation principles and performance. Then, challenges and limitations of the systems are highlighted for geophysical applications.

  11. A Review of Hybrid Fiber-Optic Distributed Simultaneous Vibration and Temperature Sensing Technology and Its Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Miah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Distributed sensing systems can transform an optical fiber cable into an array of sensors, allowing users to detect and monitor multiple physical parameters such as temperature, vibration and strain with fine spatial and temporal resolution over a long distance. Fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS and distributed temperature sensing (DTS systems have been developed for various applications with varied spatial resolution, and spectral and sensing range. Rayleigh scattering-based phase optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR for vibration and Raman/Brillouin scattering-based OTDR for temperature and strain measurements have been developed over the past two decades. The key challenge has been to find a methodology that would enable the physical parameters to be determined at any point along the sensing fiber with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, yet within acceptable frequency range for dynamic vibration, and temperature detection. There are many applications, especially in geophysical and mining engineering where simultaneous measurements of vibration and temperature are essential. In this article, recent developments of different hybrid systems for simultaneous vibration, temperature and strain measurements are analyzed based on their operation principles and performance. Then, challenges and limitations of the systems are highlighted for geophysical applications.

  12. Integration of optically active Neodymium ions in Niobium devices (Nd:Nb): quantum memory for hybrid quantum entangled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, O. M.; Chao, D.; Djapic, N.; Sims, P.; Liu, B.; Sharma, S.; Lerum, L.; Fahem, M.; Dinh, V.; Zlatanovic, S.; Lynn, B.; Torres, C.; Higa, B.; Moore, J.; Upchurch, A.; Cothern, J.; Tukeman, M.; Barua, R.; Davidson, B.; Ramirez, A. D.; Rees, C. D.; Anant, V.; Kanter, G. S.

    2017-08-01

    Optically active rare-earth Neodymium (Nd) ions are integrated in Niobium (Nb) thin films forming a new quantum memory device (Nd:Nb) targeting long-lived coherence times and multi-functionality enabled by both spin and photon storage properties. Nb is implanted with Nd spanning 10-60 keV energy and 1013-1014 cm-2 dose producing a 1- 3% Nd:Nb concentration as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning confocal photoluminescence (PL) at 785 nm excitation are made and sharp emission peaks from the 4F3/2 -red shift and increased broadening to a 4.8 nm linewidth. Nd:Nb is photoconductive and responds strongly to applied fields. Furthermore, optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements are presented spanning near-infrared telecom band. The modulation of the emission intensity with magnetic field and microwave power by integration of these magnetic Kramer type Nd ions is quantified along with spin echoes under pulsed microwave π-π/2 excitation. A hybrid system architecture is proposed using spin and photon quantum information storage with the nuclear and electron states of the Nd3+ and neighboring Nb atoms that can couple qubit states to hyperfine 7/2 spin states of Nd:Nb and onto NIR optical levels excitable with entangled single photons, thus enabling implementation of computing and networking/internet protocols in a single platform.

  13. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate

  14. Radio-frequency transparent demodulation for broadband hybrid wireless-optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Alemany, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    A novel demodulation technique which is transparent to radio-frequency (RF) carrier frequency is presented and experimentally demonstrated for multigigabit wireless signals. The presented demodulation technique employs optical single-sideband filtering, coherent detection, and baseband digital si...

  15. Refractive index modulation of SU-8 polymer optical waveguides by means of hybrid photothermal process

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Miranda, D.; Castillón, F. F.; Sánchez-Sánchez, J. J.; Angel-Valenzuela, J. L.; Márquez, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of multimode polymer optical waveguides obtained using a SU-8-2005 polymer by means of photolithographic process. Critical information about refractive index modulation of polymer waveguides as function of fabrication parameters as pre-baked and ultraviolet exposure times is presented. Physical properties of the waveguides were determined by means prism-coupling technique, optical and SEM microscopy. Este trabajo describe la fabrica...

  16. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Angbo

    2008-12-08

    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  17. Structural, electronic and optical properties of silver delafossite oxides: A first-principles study with hybrid functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Persson, Clas

    2013-01-01

    Ternary delafossite compounds are potential materials for optoelectronic devices. Employing a first-principles method, we calculate the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the silver based compounds AgMO 2 (M=Al, Ga or In), which crystallize in delafossite structure. Our calculations show that these AgMO 2 oxides have indirect band gaps and the gap energies are in the region of 1.6–3.0 eV whereas, the lowest direct band gap energies are estimated in the range of 2.6–4.3 eV. Furthermore, we find that AgMO 2 compounds exhibit a strong anisotropy for the dielectric function and absorption spectra. The absorption onset for these compounds occurs well above the band gap energies. Overall, we show that the hybrid functional improves the lattice parameters and band gap energies and the calculated values are in good agreement with the experimental values

  18. Spin exchange optical pumping based polarized 3He filling station for the Hybrid Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C Y; Tong, X; Brown, D R; Culbertson, H; Graves-Brook, M K; Hagen, M E; Kadron, B; Lee, W T; Robertson, J L; Winn, B

    2013-06-01

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC) is a new direct geometry spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This instrument is equipped with polarization analysis capability with 60° horizontal and 15° vertical detector coverages. In order to provide wide angle polarization analysis for this instrument, we have designed and built a novel polarized (3)He filling station based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. It is designed to supply polarized (3)He gas to HYSPEC as a neutron polarization analyzer. In addition, the station can optimize the (3)He pressure with respect to the scattered neutron energies. The depolarized (3)He gas in the analyzer can be transferred back to the station to be repolarized. We have constructed the prototype filling station. Preliminary tests have been carried out demonstrating the feasibility of the filling station. Here, we report on the design, construction, and the preliminary results of the prototype filling station.

  19. A self-starting hybrid optoelectronic oscillator generating ultra low jitter 10-GHz optical pulses and low phase noise electrical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating ultra low noise 15-ps-wide pulses at 10 GHz. It is based on a hybrid optoelectronic oscillator comprising a fiber extended cavity mode-locked diode laser which injection locks a self-oscillating heterojunction bipolar...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of optical and electrical composite hybrid PVAl/CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.S.; Aquino, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aiming to develop new hybrid nanocomposite materials that present the physical properties of both components which allows to be applied in a variety of areas of nanotechnology among them in photonics, optoelectronics and sensor. The hybrid organic / inorganic PVAl / CdS is compound of a polymer matrix the polyvinyl alcohol (PVAl) and phase second cadmium sulfide (CdS), the synthesis was to did using the 'hydrothermal method' with five different concentrations of CdS between 0.05 and 0.7% (w/w). The hybrid solution obtained is to put sth down on glass substrate by the method 'Casting' so we get films with thicknesses ranging from 20 and 150 μm. The morphology of the films was characterized by X ray diffraction (DRX) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). And the influence of CdS on the dielectric behavior in the films of PVAl / CdS, as dielectric relaxation (relaxation frequencies) were characterized by impedance spectroscopy. (author)

  1. Improved Optical and Morphological Properties of Vinyl-Substituted Hybrid Silica Materials Incorporating a Zn-Metalloporphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Dudás

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on a novel class of hybrid materials exhibiting enhanced optical properties and high surface areas that combine the morphology offered by the vinyl substituted silica host, and the excellent absorption and emission properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridylporphyrin-Zn(II tetrachloride as a water soluble guest molecule. In order to optimize the synthesis procedure and the performance of the immobilized porphyrin, silica precursor mixtures of different compositions were used. To achieve the requirements regarding the hydrophobicity and the porous structure of the gels for the successful incorporation of porphyrin, the content of vinyltriacetoxysilane was systematically changed and thoroughly investigated. Substitution of the silica gels with organic groups is a viable way to provide new properties to the support. An exhaustive characterization of the synthesized silica samples was realised by complementary physicochemical methods, such as infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis and photoluminescence, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si-MAS-NMR transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, nitrogen absorption (BET, contact angle (CA, small angle X ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS. All hybrids showed an increase in emission intensity in the wide region from 575 to 725 nm (Q bands in comparison with bare porphyrin. By simply tuning the vinyltriacetoxysilane content, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic profile of the hybrid materials was changed, while maintaining a high surface area. Good control of hydrophobicity is important to enhance properties such as dispersion, stability behaviour, and resistance to water, in order to achieve highly dispersible systems in water for biomedical applications.

  2. All-optically tunable EIT-like dielectric metasurfaces hybridized with thin phase change material layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, Emilija; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), a pump-induced narrow transparency window within the absorption region of a probe, had offered new perspectives in slow-light control in atomic physics. For applications in nanophotonics, the implementation on chip-scaled devices has later been obtained by mimicking this effect by metallic metamaterials. High losses in visible and near infrared range of metal-based metamaterialls have recently opened a new field of all-dielectric metamaterials; a proper configuration of high refractive index dielectric nanoresonators can mimick this effect without losses to get high Q, slow-light response. The next step would be the ability to tune their optical response, and in this work we investigate thin layers of phase change materials (PCM) for all-optical control of EIT-like all-dielectric metamaterials. PCM can be nonvolatively and reversibly switched between two stable phases that differ in optical properties by applying a visible laser pulse. The device is based on Si nanoresonators covered by a thin layer of PCM GeTe; optical and transient thermal simulations have been done to find and optimize the fabrication parameters and switching parameters such as the intensity and duration of the pulse. We have found that the EIT-like response can be switched on and off by applying the 532nm laser pulse to change the phase of the upper GeTe layer. We strongly believe that such approach could open new perspectives in all-optically controlled slow-light metamaterials.

  3. Preparation, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized graphene @ gold nanorods nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Ning, Tingyin; Han, Yanshun; Sheng, Yingqiang; Li, Chonghui; Zhao, Xiaofei; Lu, Zhengyi; Man, Baoyuan; Jiao, Yang; Jiang, Shouzhen

    2018-03-01

    The methods of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and seed-mediated growth were used to obtain graphene and gold nanorods (GNRs), respectively. We fabricate graphene @ gold nanorods (G@GNRs) nanocomposites by successively using dropping and transferring methods Through SEM, Raman spectra and TEM analysis, the number of graphene layers is 6-7. The diameter of gold nanorods (GNRs) is about 10 nm and the average aspect ratio is 6.5. In addition, we systematically investigate their nonlinear optical responses by using open-aperture Z-scan technique. In contrast with graphene and GNRs, the G@GNRs nanocomposites exhibit excellent nonlinear optical response with a modulation depth of about 51% and a saturable intensity of about 6.23 GW/cm2. The results suggest that the G@GNRs nanocomposites could potentially be used as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation.

  4. Effect of a spiral phase on a vector optical field with hybrid polarization states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Zhao, Tingyu; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Gu, Bing; Zhou, Guoquan

    2015-01-01

    The propagation dynamics of a vector field with inhomogeneous states of polarization (SoP) imposed a vortex is studied using the angular spectrum method. The evolution of SoP in the cross section of the field during propagation is analyzed numerically by the Stokes polarization parameters. The results indicate that SoP in the field cross section rotate along the propagation axis during propagation due to the existence of a vortex. In addition, the interaction between the phase singularity and the polarization singularity leads to the creation or annihilation of the optical field in the central region. In particular, the distributions of the transverse energy flow and both spin and orbital optical angular momentum fluxes in the cross section of the vortex vector optical field depend sensitively on both the vortex and polarization topology charges. (paper)

  5. Hybrid plasmonic systems: from optical transparencies to strong coupling and entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen K.

    2018-02-01

    Classical electrodynamics and quantum mechanical models of quantum dots and molecules interacting with plasmonic systems are discussed. Calculations show that just one quantum dot interacting with a plasmonic system can lead to interesting optical effects, including optical transparencies and more general Fano resonance features that can be tailored with ultrafast laser pulses. Such effects can occur in the limit of moderate coupling between quantum dot and plasmonic system. The approach to the strong coupling regime is also discussed. In cases with two or more quantum dots within a plasmonic system, the possibility of quantum entanglement mediated through the dissipative plasmonic structure arises.

  6. A facile synthesis of C{sub 60}-organosilicon hybrid polymers: Considering their tunable optical properties for spin-on-silicon hardmask materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin-Kyu; Dao, Tung Duy; Kim, Ye-Seul; Jeong, Hyun-Dam, E-mail: hdjeong@chonnam.ac.kr

    2016-09-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high refractive index have attracted considerable attention for many optoelectronic applications, including spin-on-type hardmask for ArF lithography (193 nm). In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of a C{sub 60}-embedded organosilicon hybrid polymer, C{sub 60}-embedded poly-xylene-hexamethyltrisiloxane hybrid (C{sub 60}-PXS), of tunable optical properties. C{sub 60} was covalently bonded to the PXS backbone through Pt-catalyzed hydrosilylation, in which the PXS was formed possibly by unexpected transition metal-catalyzed benzylic C−H silylation and oxygenation of the o-xylene. The C{sub 60}-PXS thin films fabricated using a spin-coating method showed much higher refractive index by 5–22% according to the curing temperatures, than the PXS thin films containing no C{sub 60}. In particular, the C{sub 60}-PXS thin film cured at 350 °C showed the refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) at 193 nm to be 1.61 and 0.29 that are very close to the optimum values for the Si-hardmask. This implies the high applicability of the C{sub 60}-embedded organosilicon hybrid polymer, C{sub 60}-PXS, for the spin-on Si-hardmask in ArF lithography. - Highlights: • A facile synthetic route for C{sub 60}-embedded organosilicon hybrid polymer was presented. • The hybrid polymer showed much higher refractive index than the polymer without C{sub 60}. • The hybrid polymer is highly applicable for Si-hardmask in terms of optical properties. • It is believed that the properties of the hybrid polymer can be further optimized.

  7. Hybrid UWB and WiMAX radio-over-multi-mode fibre for in-building optical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J; Llorente, R

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the use of hybrid WiMedia-defined ultra-wideband (UWB) and IEEE 802.16d WiMAX radio-over-fibre is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for multi-mode based in-building optical networks with the advantage of great immunity to optical transmission impairments. In the proposed approach, spectral coexistence of both signals must be achieved with negligible mutual interference. The experimental study performed addressed an indoor configuration with 50 μm multi-mode fibres (MMF) and 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) transmitters. The results indicate that the impact of the wireless convergence in radio-over-multi-mode fibre (RoMMF) is significant for UWB transmissions, mainly due to MMF dispersion and electrooptical (EO) devices with limited bandwidth. On the other hand, WiMAX transmission is feasible for a 300 m MMF and 30 m wireless link in the presence of UWB, with −31 dBm WiMAX EVM. (paper)

  8. Optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with hybrid mode-locking and a broad tunable range of repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honglei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shijie; Yang, Lijun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-12-01

    We present an optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with a broad repetition rate tuning range based on a hybrid mode-locked oscillator. We lock two comb modes to narrow-linewidth reference lasers in turn to investigate the best performance of control loops. The control bandwidth of fast and slow piezoelectric transducers reaches 70 kHz, while that of pump current modulation with phase-lead compensation is extended to 32 kHz, exceeding laser intrinsic response. Eventually, simultaneous lock of both loops is realized to totally phase-stabilize the comb, which will facilitate precision dual-comb spectroscopy, laser ranging, and timing distribution. In addition, a 1.8-MHz span of the repetition rate is achieved by an automatic optical delay line that is helpful in manufacturing a secondary comb with a similar repetition rate. The oscillator is housed in a homemade temperature-controlled box with an accuracy of ±0.02  K, which not only keeps high signal-to-noise ratio of the beat notes with reference lasers, but also guarantees self-starting at the same mode-locking every time.

  9. Elaboration, structural, vibrational and optical investigation of a two-dimensional self-assembled organic–inorganic hybrid compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammak, T.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.; Abid, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of a hybrid organic/inorganic material with the formula (C 4 N 3 H 16 )Cl[CuCl 4 ] were elaborated and studied by X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. The crystals consist of a self-assembled multilayer structure with a Pnam space group. The structure is built up from the staking of infinite two-dimensional layers of CuCl 6 corner-sharing octahedra, separated by organic (C 4 N 3 H 16 ) 3+ chains. Such a structure may be regarded as a multi quantum well system, in which CuCl 6 layers act as semiconductor wells and the organic molecules act as insulator barriers Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. For optical investigations, thin films have been prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the material. Optical absorption spectra shows characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 300 and 380 nm, whereas the photoluminescence spectra shows a bleu intense emission around 420 nm, associated to radiative recombination of confined excitons in the CuCl 6 Quantum wells.

  10. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems...

  11. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Plasma in Hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Jelínek, Miroslav; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. 292-298 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010110 Keywords : optical emission spectroscopy * pulsed laser deposition * RF discharge Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  12. Optical and electrical effects of plasmonic nanoparticles in high-efficiency hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Fei; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Xi; Wang, Ling; Shi, Ye; Shi, Minmin; Li, Han-Ying; Jen, Alex K-Y; Chen, Jun-Wu; Cao, Yong; Chen, Hong-Zheng

    2013-10-28

    Plasmonics have been proven to be an effective way to harness more incident light to achieve high efficiency in photovoltaic devices. Herein, we explore the possibility that plasmonics can be utilized to enhance light trapping and power conversion efficiency (PCE) for polymer-quantum dot (QD) hybrid solar cells (HSCs). Based on a low band-gap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and a CdSe QD bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) system, gold nanoparticles were doped at different locations of the devices. Successfully, an improved PCE of 3.20 ± 0.22% and 3.16 ± 0.15% was achieved by doping the hole transporting layer and the active layer, respectively, which are among the highest values reported for CdSe QD based HSCs. A detailed study of processing, characterization, microscopy, and device fabrication is conducted to understand the underlying mechanism for the enhanced device performance. The success of this work provides a simple and generally applicable approach to enhance light harnessing of polymer-QD hybrid solar cells.

  13. Modeling bistable behaviors in morphing structures through finite element simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaohang; Zheng, Huang; Chen, Wenzhe; Chen, Zi

    2014-01-01

    Bistable structures, exemplified by the Venus flytrap and slap bracelets, can transit between different configurations upon certain external stimulation. Here we study, through three-dimensional finite element simulations, the bistable behaviors in elastic plates in the absence of terminate loads, but with pre-strains in one (or both) of the two composite layers. Both the scenarios with and without a given geometric mis-orientation angle are investigated, the results of which are consistent with recent theoretical and experimental studies. This work can open ample venues for programmable designs of plant/shell structures with large deformations, with applications in designing bio-inspired robotics for biomedical research and morphing/deployable structures in aerospace engineering.

  14. Coupling-induced oscillations in nonhomogeneous, overdamped, bistable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Mayra; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Palacios, Antonio; Bulsara, Adi; Kho, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Coupling-induced oscillations in a homogeneous network of overdamped bistable systems have been previously studied both theoretically and experimentally for a system of N (odd) elements, unidirectionally coupled in a ring topology. In this work, we extend the analysis of this system to include a network of nonhomogeneous elements with respect to the parameter that controls the topology of the potential function and the bistability of each element. In particular, we quantify the effects of the nonhomogeneity on the onset of oscillations and the response of the network to external (assumed to be constant and very small) perturbations, using our (recently developed) coupled core fluxgate magnetometer as a representative system. The potential applications of this work include signal detection and characterization for a large class of sensor systems

  15. Coupling-induced oscillations in nonhomogeneous, overdamped, bistable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Mayra [Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)], E-mail: mayra.alina@yahoo.com; In, Visarath [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 71730, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)], E-mail: visarath.in@navy.mil; Longhini, Patrick [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 71730, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)], E-mail: longhini@navy.mil; Palacios, Antonio [Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)], E-mail: palacios@euler.sdsu.edu; Bulsara, Adi [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 71730, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)], E-mail: bulsara@spawar.navy.mil; Kho, Andy [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 71730, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)], E-mail: kho@spawar.navy.mil

    2008-06-09

    Coupling-induced oscillations in a homogeneous network of overdamped bistable systems have been previously studied both theoretically and experimentally for a system of N (odd) elements, unidirectionally coupled in a ring topology. In this work, we extend the analysis of this system to include a network of nonhomogeneous elements with respect to the parameter that controls the topology of the potential function and the bistability of each element. In particular, we quantify the effects of the nonhomogeneity on the onset of oscillations and the response of the network to external (assumed to be constant and very small) perturbations, using our (recently developed) coupled core fluxgate magnetometer as a representative system. The potential applications of this work include signal detection and characterization for a large class of sensor systems.

  16. A minimal model of burst-noise induced bistability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Falk

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of intrinsic noise on stable states of a one-dimensional dynamical system that shows in its deterministic version a saddle-node bifurcation between monostable and bistable behaviour. The system is a modified version of the Schlögl model, which is a chemical reaction system with only one type of molecule. The strength of the intrinsic noise is varied without changing the deterministic description by introducing bursts in the autocatalytic production step. We study the transitions between monostable and bistable behavior in this system by evaluating the number of maxima of the stationary probability distribution. We find that changing the size of bursts can destroy and even induce saddle-node bifurcations. This means that a bursty production of molecules can qualitatively change the dynamics of a chemical reaction system even when the deterministic description remains unchanged.

  17. Mathematical modeling of Myosin induced bistability of Lamellipodial fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, S; Manhart, A; Schmeiser, C

    2017-01-01

    For various cell types and for lamellipodial fragments on flat surfaces, externally induced and spontaneous transitions between symmetric nonmoving states and polarized migration have been observed. This behavior is indicative of bistability of the cytoskeleton dynamics. In this work, the Filament Based Lamellipodium Model (FBLM), a two-dimensional, anisotropic, two-phase continuum model for the dynamics of the actin filament network in lamellipodia, is extended by a new description of actin-myosin interaction. For appropriately chosen parameter values, the resulting model has bistable dynamics with stable states showing the qualitative features observed in experiments. This is demonstrated by numerical simulations and by an analysis of a strongly simplified version of the FBLM with rigid filaments and planar lamellipodia at the cell front and rear.

  18. Waterbomb base: a symmetric single-vertex bistable origami mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Brandon H; Lund, Jason M; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L; Lang, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The origami waterbomb base is a single-vertex bistable origami mechanism that has unique properties which may prove useful in a variety of applications. It also shows promise as a test bed for smart materials and actuation because of its straightforward geometry and multiple phases of motion, ranging from simple to more complex. This study develops a quantitative understanding of the symmetric waterbomb base's kinetic behavior. This is done by completing kinematic and potential energy analyses to understand and predict bistable behavior. A physical prototype is constructed and tested to validate the results of the analyses. Finite element and virtual work analyses based on the prototype are used to explore the locations of the stable equilibrium positions and the force–deflection response. The model results are verified through comparisons to measurements on a physical prototype. The resulting models describe waterbomb base behavior and provide an engineering tool for application development. (paper)

  19. Novel piezoelectric bistable oscillator architecture for wideband vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W Q; Badel, A; Formosa, F; Wu, Y P; Agbossou, A

    2013-01-01

    Bistable vibration energy harvesters are attracting more and more interest because of their capability to scavenge energy over a large frequency band. The bistable effect is usually based on magnetic interaction or buckled beams. This paper presents a novel architecture based on amplified piezoelectric structures. This buckled spring–mass architecture allows the energy of the dynamic mass to be converted into electrical energy in the piezoelectric materials as efficiently as possible. Modeling and design are performed and a normalized expression of the harvester behavior is given. Chirp and band-limited noise excitations are used to evaluate the proposed harvester’s performances. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement. A method of using a spectrum plot for investigating the interwell motion is presented. The effect of the electric load impedance matching strategy is also studied. Results and comparisons with the literature show that the proposed device combines a large bandwidth and a high power density. (paper)

  20. Bistable dark solitons of a cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a report on exact analytical bistable dark spatial solitons of a nonlinear Helmholtz equation with a cubic-quintic refractive-index model. Our analysis begins with an investigation of the modulational instability characteristics of Helmholtz plane waves. We then derive a dark soliton by mapping the desired asymptotic form onto a uniform background field and obtain a more general solution by deploying rotational invariance laws in the laboratory frame. The geometry of the new soliton is explored in detail, and a range of new physical predictions is uncovered. Particular attention is paid to the unified phenomena of arbitrary-angle off-axis propagation and nondegenerate bistability. Crucially, the corresponding solution of paraxial theory emerges in a simultaneous multiple limit. We conclude with a set of computer simulations that examine the role of Helmholtz dark solitons as robust attractors.

  1. A Redox-Active Bistable Molecular Switch Mounted inside a Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qishui; Sun, Junling; Li, Peng; Hod, Idan; Moghadam, Peyman Z; Kean, Zachary S; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-11-02

    We describe the incorporation of a bistable mechanically interlocked molecule (MIM) into a robust Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, by employing a post-synthetic functionalization protocol. On average, close to two bistable [2]catenanes can be incorporated per repeating unit of the hexagonal channels of NU-1000. The reversible redox-switching of the bistable [2]catenanes is retained inside the MOF, as evidenced by solid-state UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. This research demonstrates that bistable MIMs are capable of exhibiting robust dynamics inside the nanopores of a MOF.

  2. Modeling Bistable Composite Laminates for Piezoelectric Morphing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Darryl V. Murray; Oliver J. Myers

    2013-01-01

    A sequential modeling effort for bistable composite laminates for piezoelectric morphing structures is presented. Thin unsymmetric carbon fiber composite laminates are examined for use of morphing structures using piezoelectric actuation. When cooling from the elevated cure temperature to room temperature, these unsymmetric composite laminates will deform. These postcure room temperature deformation shapes can be used as morphing structures. Applying a force to these deformed laminates will c...

  3. Spatial effect on stochastic dynamics of bistable evolutionary games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Kohaku H Z; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kato, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the lifetimes of metastable states in bistable evolutionary games (coordination games), and examine how they are affected by spatial structure. A semiclassical approximation based on a path integral method is applied to stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with and without spatial structure, and the lifetimes of the metastable states are evaluated. It is shown that the population dependence of the lifetimes is qualitatively different in these two models. Our result indicates that spatial structure can accelerate the transitions between metastable states. (paper)

  4. A Precise Temperature-Responsive Bistable Switch Controlling Yersinia Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Aaron Mischa; Schuster, Franziska; Roselius, Louisa; Klein, Johannes; Bücker, René; Herbst, Katharina; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Pisano, Fabio; Wittmann, Christoph; Münch, Richard; Müller, Johannes; Jahn, Dieter; Dersch, Petra

    2016-12-01

    Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range. The temperature range in which bistability is observed is defined by the degradation and synthesis rate of the regulator, and is further adjustable via a nutrient-responsive regulator. The thermoresponsive switch is also characterized by a hysteretic behavior in which activation and deactivation occurred on vastly different time scales. Mathematical modeling accurately mirrored the experimental behavior and predicted that the thermoresponsiveness of this sophisticated bistable switch is mainly determined by the thermo-triggered increase of RovA proteolysis. We further observed RovA ON and OFF subpopulations of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the Peyer's patches and caecum of infected mice, and that changes in the RovA ON/OFF cell ratio reduce tissue colonization and overall virulence. This points to a bet-hedging strategy in which the thermoresponsive bistable switch plays a key role in adapting the bacteria to the fluctuating conditions encountered as they pass through the host's intestinal epithelium and suggests novel strategies for the development of antimicrobial therapies.

  5. A Precise Temperature-Responsive Bistable Switch Controlling Yersinia Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Mischa Nuss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different biomolecules have been identified in bacterial pathogens that sense changes in temperature and trigger expression of virulence programs upon host entry. However, the dynamics and quantitative outcome of this response in individual cells of a population, and how this influences pathogenicity are unknown. Here, we address these questions using a thermosensing virulence regulator of an intestinal pathogen (RovA of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model. We reveal that this regulator is part of a novel thermoresponsive bistable switch, which leads to high- and low-invasive subpopulations within a narrow temperature range. The temperature range in which bistability is observed is defined by the degradation and synthesis rate of the regulator, and is further adjustable via a nutrient-responsive regulator. The thermoresponsive switch is also characterized by a hysteretic behavior in which activation and deactivation occurred on vastly different time scales. Mathematical modeling accurately mirrored the experimental behavior and predicted that the thermoresponsiveness of this sophisticated bistable switch is mainly determined by the thermo-triggered increase of RovA proteolysis. We further observed RovA ON and OFF subpopulations of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the Peyer's patches and caecum of infected mice, and that changes in the RovA ON/OFF cell ratio reduce tissue colonization and overall virulence. This points to a bet-hedging strategy in which the thermoresponsive bistable switch plays a key role in adapting the bacteria to the fluctuating conditions encountered as they pass through the host's intestinal epithelium and suggests novel strategies for the development of antimicrobial therapies.

  6. Stochastic dynamics of a delayed bistable system with multiplicative noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, Nguyen Tien, E-mail: dung-nguyentien10@yahoo.com, E-mail: dungnt@fpt.edu.vn [Department of Mathematics, FPT University, No 8 Ton That Thuyet, My Dinh, Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper we investigate the properties of a delayed bistable system under the effect of multiplicative noise. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution and show that its moments are uniformly bounded. Then, we study stochastic dynamics of the solution in long time, the lower and upper bounds for the paths and an estimate for the average value are provided.

  7. Traveling waves in the discrete fast buffered bistable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Je-Chiang; Sneyd, James

    2007-11-01

    We study the existence and uniqueness of traveling wave solutions of the discrete buffered bistable equation. Buffered excitable systems are used to model, among other things, the propagation of waves of increased calcium concentration, and discrete models are often used to describe the propagation of such waves across multiple cells. We derive necessary conditions for the existence of waves, and, under some restrictive technical assumptions, we derive sufficient conditions. When the wave exists it is unique and stable.

  8. Quantum teleportation and entanglement. A hybrid approach to optical quantum information procesing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Physics; Loock, Peter van [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Optik

    2011-07-01

    Unique in that it is jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist, this monograph presents universal quantum computation based on quantum teleportation as an elementary subroutine and multi-party entanglement as a universal resource. Optical approaches to measurement-based quantum computation are also described, including schemes for quantum error correction, with most of the experiments carried out by the authors themselves. Ranging from the theoretical background to the details of the experimental realization, the book describes results and advances in the field, backed by numerous illustrations of the authors' experimental setups. Aimed at researchers, physicists, and graduate and PhD students in physics, theoretical quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and quantum information. (orig.)

  9. 850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO...... communications are considered as an alternative and promising mean complementing the traditional optical communications in many applications where the use of fiber cable is not justified. This next generation FSO communication systems have attracted much interest recently, and the inclusion of beams carrying OAM...... modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by M turbulence is coupled...

  10. Design and optimization of carbon-nanotube-material/dielectric hybrid nonlinear optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xin; Zheng, Zheng; Lu, Zhiting; Zhu, Jinsong; Zhou, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear optical characteristics of highly nonlinear waveguides utilizing carbon nanotube composite materials are investigated theoretically. The extremely high nonlinearity and relatively high loss of the carbon nanotube materials are shown to greatly affect the performance of such waveguides for nonlinear optical applications, in contrast to waveguides using conventional nonlinear materials. Different configurations based on applying the carbon nanotube materials to the popular ridge and buried waveguides are thoroughly studied, and the optimal geometries are derived through simulations. It is shown that, though the nonlinear coefficient is often huge for these waveguides, the loss characteristics can significantly limit the maximum achievable accumulated nonlinearity, e.g. the maximum nonlinear phase shift. Our results suggest that SOI-based high-index-contrast, carbon nanotube cladding waveguides, rather than the currently demonstrated low-contrast waveguides, could hold the promise of achieving significantly higher accumulated nonlinearity

  11. Optical-response properties in hybrid optomechanical systems with quadratic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Jian; Wang, Xin; Liu, Li-Na; Liu, Wen-Xiao; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical-response properties of the four-mode quadratically coupled optomechanical system (OMS), in which two standard OMSs with quadratic coupling are coupled to each other via a common waveguide. In the presence of a strong control field applied to one cavity and a weak probe field applied to the other, we show that by suitably tuning the system parameters, there appears the normal mode splitting, optomechanically induced absorption, and double or triple electromagnetically induced transparency phenomena in the probe absorption spectrum. In particular, the explicit physical explanations for those fantastic phenomena are detailed discussed. Moreover, we also show that our proposal can be exploited to implement the optical switch as well as the slow and fast light effects.

  12. Optical Flow in a Smart Sensor Based on Hybrid Analog-Digital Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Agís, Rodrigo; Ros, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations) using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip). Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane) and digital (NIOS II) processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane) stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II) stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system’s performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains. PMID:22319283

  13. Optical Flow in a Smart Sensor Based on Hybrid Analog-Digital Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guzmán

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip. Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane and digital (NIOS II processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system’s performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains.

  14. Accuracy of two optical chlorophyll meters in predicting chemical composition and in vitro ruminal organic matter degradability of Brachiaria hybrid, Megathyrsus maximus, and Paspalum atratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Hughes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 2 optical chlorophyll meters: FieldScout CM 1,000 NDVI and Yara N-Tester, in predicting neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN and in vitro ruminal organic matter degradability (IVOMD of 3 tropical grasses. Optical chlorophyll measurements were taken at 3 stages (4, 8 and 12 weeks of regrowth in Brachiaria hybrid, and Megathyrsus maximus and at 6 and 12 weeks of regrowth in Paspalum atratum (cv. Ubon. Optical chlorophyll measurements showed the highest correlation (r = 0.57 to 0.85 with NDF concentration. The FieldScout CM 1,000 NDVI was better than the Yara N-Tester in predicting NDF (R2 = 0.70 and ADF (R2 = 0.79 concentrations in Brachiaria hybrid and NDF (R2 = 0.79 in M. maximus. Similarly, FieldScout CM 1,000 NDVI produced better estimates of 24 h IVOMD (IVOMD24h in Brachiaria hybrid (R2 = 0.81 and IVOMD48h in Brachiaria hybrid (R2 = 0.65 and M. maximus (R2 = 0.75. However, these prediction models had relatively low concordance correlation coefficients, i.e., CCC >0.90, but random errors were the main source of bias. It was, therefore, concluded that both optical chlorophyll meters were poor and unreliable predictors of ADIN and ADL concentrations. Overall, the FieldScout CM 1,000 NDVI shows potential to produce useful estimates of IVOMD24h and ADF in Brachiaria hybrid and IVOMD48h and NDF concentrations in M. maximus.

  15. Structural and Optical Properties of Spray Coated Carbon Hybrid Materials Applied to Transparent and Flexible Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wroblewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and flexible electrodes were fabricated with cost-effective spray coating technique on polyethylene terephthalate foil substrates. Particularly designed paint compositions contained mixtures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene platelets to achieve their desired rheology and electrooptical layers parameters. Electrodes were prepared in standard technological conditions without the need of clean rooms or high temperature processing. The sheet resistance and optical transmittance of fabricated layers were tuned with the number of coatings; then the most suitable relation of these parameters was designated through the figure of merit. Optical measurements were performed in the range of wavelengths from 250 to 2500 nm with a spectrophotometer with the integration sphere. Spectral dependence of total and diffusive optical transmission for thin films with graphene platelet covered by multiwalled carbon nanotubes was designated which allowed determining the relative absorbance. Layer parameters such as thickness, refractive index, energy gap, and effective reflectance coefficient show the correlation of electrooptical properties with the technological conditions. Moreover the structural properties of fabricated layers were examined by means of the X-ray diffraction.

  16. Bistable flapping of flexible flyers in oscillatory flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Biological and bio-inspired flyers move by shape actuation. The direct control of shape variables for locomotory purposes is well studied. Less is known about indirect shape actuation via the fluid medium. Here, we consider a flexible Λ-flyer in oscillatory flow that is free to flap and rotate around its fixed apex. We study its motion in the context of the inviscid vortex sheet model. We first analyze symmetric flapping about the vertical axis of gravity. We find that there is a finite value of the flexibility that maximizes both the flapping amplitude and elastic energy storage. Our results show that rather than resonance, the flyer relies on fluidic effects to optimize these two quantities. We then perturb the flyer away from the vertical and analyze its stability. Four distinct types of rolling behavior are identified: mono-stable, bistable, bistable oscillatory rotations and chaotic dynamics. We categorize these types of behavior in terms of the flyer's and flow parameters. In particular, the transition from mono-stable to bistable behavior occurs at a constant value of the product of the flow amplitude and acceleration. This product can be interpreted as the ratio of fluidic drag to gravity, confirming the fluid role in this transition.

  17. Interplay of bistable kinetics of gene expression during cellular growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P

    2009-01-01

    In cells, the bistable kinetics of gene expression can be observed on the level of (i) one gene with positive feedback between protein and mRNA production, (ii) two genes with negative mutual feedback between protein and mRNA production, or (iii) in more complex cases. We analyse the interplay of two genes of type (ii) governed by a gene of type (i) during cellular growth. In particular, using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we show that in the case where gene 1, operating in the bistable regime, regulates mutually inhibiting genes 2 and 3, also operating in the bistable regime, the latter genes may eventually be trapped either to the state with high transcriptional activity of gene 2 and low activity of gene 3 or to the state with high transcriptional activity of gene 3 and low activity of gene 2. The probability to get to one of these states depends on the values of the model parameters. If genes 2 and 3 are kinetically equivalent, the probability is equal to 0.5. Thus, our model illustrates how different intracellular states can be chosen at random with predetermined probabilities. This type of kinetics of gene expression may be behind complex processes occurring in cells, e.g., behind the choice of the fate by stem cells

  18. Bistable switches control memory and plasticity in cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Walker, Brandon L.; Iannaccone, Stephen; Bhatt, Devang; Kennedy, Patrick J.; Tse, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Development of stem and progenitor cells into specialized tissues in multicellular organisms involves a series of cell fate decisions. Cellular differentiation in higher organisms is generally considered irreversible, and the idea of developmental plasticity in postnatal tissues is controversial. Here, we show that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in a human bone marrow stromal cell-derived myogenic subclone suppresses their myogenic ability and converts them into satellite cell-like precursors that respond to osteogenic stimulation. Clonal analysis of the induced osteogenic response reveals ultrasensitivity and an “all-or-none” behavior, hallmarks of a bistable switch mechanism with stochastic noise. The response demonstrates cellular memory, which is contingent on the accumulation of an intracellular factor and can be erased by factor dilution through cell divisions or inhibition of protein synthesis. The effect of MAPK inhibition also exhibits memory and appears to be controlled by another bistable switch further upstream that determines cell fate. Once the memory associated with osteogenic differentiation is erased, the cells regain their myogenic ability. These results support a model of cell fate decision in which a network of bistable switches controls inducible production of lineage-specific differentiation factors. A competitive balance between these factors determines cell fate. Our work underscores the dynamic nature of cellular differentiation and explains mechanistically the dual properties of stability and plasticity associated with the process. PMID:19366677

  19. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J

    2013-08-27

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision--and perception at large--is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images--a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception.

  20. Covalent Immobilization of Peroxidase onto Hybrid Membranes for the Construction of Optical Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Yotova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to covalently immobilize horse radish peroxidase (HRP onto new hybrid membranes synthesized by the sol-gel method based on silica precursors, dendrimers and cellulose derivatives. This new system will be used for designing biosensor. For investigation of the properties of membranes, HRP was used as a modeling enzyme. Kinetic parameters, pH and temperature optimum were determined, and the structure of the membranes surface was examined. Results showed higher relative and residual activity of HRP immobilized onto membranes with cellulose acetate butyrate with high molecular weight CAB/H. This novel biosensor could offer a simple, cheap and rapid tool with enhanced sensing performance as well as having potentials to find application in medicine, pharmacy, food and process control and environmental monitoring.

  1. QUASI-OPTICAL 3-dB HYBRID FOR FUTURE HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    Phase-controlled wave combiners-commutators and isolators for protecting rf sources against reflection from the accelerating structure can be built using a 3-dB hybrid built around a metallic grating used in a ''magic-Y'' configuration. Models of the magic-Y were designed and tested, both at 34.272 GHz using the Omega-P Ka-band magnicon, and at 11.424 GHz using the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon. All elements of the magic-Y were optimized analytically and numerically. A non-vacuum 34 GHz model of the magic Y was built and tested experimentally at a low power. An engineering design for the high power (vacuum) compressor was configured. Similar steps were taken for the 11-GHz version

  2. Hybrid quantum gates between flying photon and diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers assisted by optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Lu Long, Gui

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid quantum gates hold great promise for quantum information processing since they preserve the advantages of different quantum systems. Here we present compact quantum circuits to deterministically implement controlled-NOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates between a flying photon qubit and diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers assisted by microcavities. The target qubits of these universal quantum gates are encoded on the spins of the electrons associated with the diamond NV centers and they have long coherence time for storing information, and the control qubit is encoded on the polarizations of the flying photon and can be easily manipulated. Our quantum circuits are compact, economic, and simple. Moreover, they do not require additional qubits. The complexity of our schemes for universal three-qubit gates is much reduced, compared to the synthesis with two-qubit entangling gates. These schemes have high fidelities and efficiencies, and they are feasible in experiment. PMID:26271899

  3. A Practical Approach to Improve Optical Channel Utilization Period for Hybrid FSO/RF Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Akbulut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid FSO/RF systems, mostly a hard switching mechanism is preferred in case of the FSO signal level falls below to the predefined threshold. In this work, a computationally simple approach is proposed to increase the utilization of the FSO channels bandwidth advantage. For the channel, clear air conditions have been supposed with the atmospheric turbulence. In this approach, FSO bit rate is adaptively changed to achieve desired BER performance. An IM/DD modulation, OOK (NRZ format has been used to show the benefit of the proposed method. Furthermore, to be more realistic with respect to the atmospheric turbulence variations within a day, some experimental observations have been followed up.

  4. Optical properties of hybrid quantum-well–dots nanostructures grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintairov, S. A., E-mail: mintairov@scell.ioffe.ru; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Maximov, M. V. [St. Petersburg Academic University (Russian Federation); Rouvimov, S. S. [University of Notre Dame (United States); Zhukov, A. E. [St. Petersburg Academic University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The deposition of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As with an indium content of 0.3–0.5 and an average thickness of 3–27 single layers on a GaAs wafer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at low temperatures results in the appearance of thickness and composition modulations in the layers being formed. Such structures can be considered to be intermediate nanostructures between ideal quantum wells and quantum dots. Depending on the average thickness and composition of the layers, the wavelength of the photoluminescence peak for the hybrid InGaAs quantum well–dots nanostructures varies from 950 to 1100 nm. The optimal average In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As thicknesses and compositions at which the emission wavelength is the longest with a high quantum efficiency retained are determined.

  5. Experimental chaotic quantification in bistable vortex induced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.

    2017-02-01

    The study of energy harvesting by means of vortex induced vibration systems has been initiated a few years ago and it is considered to be potential as a low water current energy source. The energy harvester is realized by exposing an elastically supported blunt structure under water flow. However, it is realized that the system will only perform at a limited operating range (water flow) that is attributed to the resonance phenomenon that occurs only at a frequency that corresponds to the fluid flow. An introduction of nonlinear elements seems to be a prominent solution to overcome the problem. Among many nonlinear elements, a bistable spring is known to be able to improve the harvested power by a vortex induced vibrations (VIV) based energy converter at the low velocity water flows. However, it is also observed that chaotic vibrations will occur at different operating ranges that will erratically diminish the harvested power and cause a difficulty in controlling the system that is due to the unpredictability in motions of the VIV structure. In order to design a bistable VIV energy converter with improved harvested power and minimum negative effect of chaotic vibrations, the bifurcation map of the system for varying governing parameters is highly on demand. In this study, chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter enhanced by a bistable stiffness element are quantified in a wide range of the governing parameters, i.e. damping and bistable gap. Chaotic vibrations of the bistable VIV energy converter are simulated by utilization of a wake oscillator model and quantified based on the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent. Ultimately, a series of experiments of the system in a water tunnel, facilitated by a computer-based force-feedback testing platform, is carried out to validate the existence of chaotic responses. The main challenge in dealing with experimental data is in distinguishing chaotic response from noise-contaminated periodic responses as noise will smear

  6. High capacity hybrid optical fiber-wireless links in 75–300GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Seamless convergence of fiber-optic and the wireless networks is of great interest for enabling transparent delivery of broadband services to users in different locations, including both metropolitan and rural areas. Current demand of bandwidth by end-users, especially using mobile devices......, is seeding the need to use bands located at the millimeter-wave region (30–300 GHz), mainly because of its inherent broadband nature. In our lab, we have conducted extensive research on high-speed photonic-wireless links in the W-band (75–110GHz). In this paper, we will present our latest findings...

  7. Scanning a DNA molecule for bound proteins using hybrid magnetic and optical tweezers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn T J van Loenhout

    Full Text Available The functional state of the genome is determined by its interactions with proteins that bind, modify, and move along the DNA. To determine the positions and binding strength of proteins localized on DNA we have developed a combined magnetic and optical tweezers apparatus that allows for both sensitive and label-free detection. A DNA loop, that acts as a scanning probe, is created by looping an optically trapped DNA tether around a DNA molecule that is held with magnetic tweezers. Upon scanning the loop along the λ-DNA molecule, EcoRI proteins were detected with ~17 nm spatial resolution. An offset of 33 ± 5 nm for the detected protein positions was found between back and forwards scans, corresponding to the size of the DNA loop and in agreement with theoretical estimates. At higher applied stretching forces, the scanning loop was able to remove bound proteins from the DNA, showing that the method is in principle also capable of measuring the binding strength of proteins to DNA with a force resolution of 0.1 pN/[Formula: see text]. The use of magnetic tweezers in this assay allows the facile preparation of many single-molecule tethers, which can be scanned one after the other, while it also allows for direct control of the supercoiling state of the DNA molecule, making it uniquely suitable to address the effects of torque on protein-DNA interactions.

  8. Low Intensity Post Process Tuning of Optical Properties of Polymer-Plasmonic Nanoparticle Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Clare; Park, Kyoungweon; Vaia, Richard

    The ability to fabricate flat optics with graded refractive indices through patterned plasmonic properties is attractive for compact photonics devices. Because simultaneous self-assembly of different nanostructures within a singular film is challenging, recent efforts have shifted towards post processing methods. For example, lasers coupled to surface plasmon resonances (SPR) can induce reshaping, but often times require intense power densities that damage the matrix. Herein, we demonstrate a lower temperature approach to nanostructure reshaping based on photo-thermal triggered local redox chemistry. Xe-lamp is shown to provide volume-conserved reshaping of gold nanrods (AuNRs) dispersed within polyvinyl alcohol . Within seconds, the aspect ratio can be reduced from 5.5 to 1 (>500 nm shift in the LSPR) while maintaining particle dispersion and alignment. Using the irradiation profile and matrix thermal diffusivity, gradient resolutions of 3 nm LSPR shift per micron are seen both spatially and through thickness. Furthermore, the polarization sensitivity of the LSPR enables polarization control in reshaping. Such scalable and energy efficient plasmonic post processes will be crucial to optical-nanocomposites into future technologies. National Academy of Sciences, NRC.

  9. Real-time dual-polarization transmission based on hybrid optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Artur N.; Alimi, Isiaka A.; Ferreira, Ricardo M.; Shahpari, Ali; Lima, Mário; Monteiro, Paulo P.; Teixeira, António L.

    2018-01-01

    We present experimental work on a gigabit-capable and long-reach hybrid coherent UWDM-PON plus FSO system for supporting different applications over the same fiber infrastructure in the mobile backhaul (MBH) networks. Also, for the first time, we demonstrate a reconfigurable real-time DSP transmission/reception of DP-QPSK signals over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and FSO links. The receiver presented is based on a commercial field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The considered communication links are based on 20 UDWDM channels with 625 Mbaud and 2.5 GHz channel spacing. We are able to demonstrate the lowest sampling rate required for digital coherent PON by employing four 1.25 Gsa/s ADCs using an electrical front-end receiver that offers only 1 GHz analog bandwidth. We achieved this by implementing a phase and polarization diversity coherent receiver combined with the DP-QPSK modulation formats. The system performance is estimated in terms of receiver sensitivity. The results show the viability of coherent PON and flexible dual-polarization supported by software-defined transceivers for the MBH.

  10. Covalent immobilization of rabbit-antiaflatoxin-antibodies onto the poly-acrylamideacrylonitrile as well as hybrid material UREASIL and developing an optical immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavova M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe a covalent immobilization of antibodies onto the poly- acrylamide-acrylonitrile or hybrid material UREASIL and creation of optical immunosensor for determination of aflatoxin Bl. For this purpose, mouse-anti-aflatoxin B1 antibodies with oxidized carbohydrate moieties were covalently immobilized on the membranes of polyacrylamide- polyacrylonitrile copolymer, as well as the hybrid material UREASIL. To determine the affinity> binding of the immobilized antibody with afatoxin Bl was used "sandwich" method. Associated with the immobilized antibody sought ingredients interact with a surplus of secondary’ signal antibodies. The described method has been developed as a model system, which can easily be applied for the determination of aflatoxins in samples of different origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that in the establishment of biosensor was used hybrid material UREASIL.

  11. A IR-Femtosecond Laser Hybrid Sensor to Measure the Thermal Expansion and Thermo-Optical Coefficient of Silica-Based FBG at High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Litong; Lv, Dajuan; Yang, Minghong; Xiong, Liangming; Luo, Jie

    2018-01-26

    In this paper, a hybrid sensor was fabricated using a IR-femtosecond laser to measure the thermal expansion and thermo-optical coefficient of silica-based fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The hybrid sensor was composed of an inline fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) cavity and a type-II FBG. Experiment results showed that the type-II FBG had three high reflectivity resonances in the wavelength ranging from 1100 to 1600 nm, showing the peaks in 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 μm, respectively. The thermal expansion and thermo-optical coefficient (1.3 μm, 1.5 μm) of silica-based FBG, under temperatures ranging from 30 to 1100 °C, had been simultaneously calculated by measuring the wavelength of the type-II FBG and FFPI cavity length.

  12. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  13. Morphological and optical properties of MnS/polyvinylcarbazole hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloto, Nosipho, E-mail: nmoloto@csir.co.z [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Coville, Neil J. [School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Sinha Ray, Suprakas [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Moloto, Makwena J. [School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    This communication describes two methods for the synthesis of manganese sulfide/polyvinylcarbazole (MnS/PNVC) nanocomposites. The first method (method 1) involves initially the removal of the Hexadecylamine (HDA) molecules in the HDA-capped MnS nanoparticles, followed by the dispersion of the bare MnS (3 wt%) into PNVC. The FE-SEM and FT-IR established a strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymer while the absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed improved properties. The second method (method 2) is an in situ synthesis of MnS/PNVC composite. The method is similar to the single source precursor method but utilizes PNVC as the capping agent. The FE-SEM micrograph, EDX and FT-IR confirmed the formation of the composite. The optical properties confirm the role of PNVC to be that of a capping agent.

  14. Hybrid microtransmitter for free-space optical spacecraft communication: design, manufacturing, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Sara; Palmer, Kristoffer; Kratz, Henrik; Thornell, Greger

    2009-02-01

    Optical intra-communication links are investigated by several currently operational qualification missions. Compared with RF communication systems, the optical domain obtains a wider bandwidth, enables miniaturized spacecraft and reduced power consumption. In this project, a microtransmitter is designed and manufactured for formation flying spacecraft with transmission rates of 1 Gbit/s. Simulations in Matlab and Simulink show that a BER of 10-9 can be achieved with aperture sizes of 1 cm and a transmitter output peak power of 12 mW for a distance of 10 km. The results show that the performance of the communication link decreases due to mechanical vibrations in the spacecraft together with a narrow laser beam. A dual-axis microactuator designed as a deflectable mirror has been developed for the laser beam steering where the fabrication is based on a double-sided, bulk micromachining process. The mirror actuates by joints consisting of v-grooves filled with SU-8 polymer. The deflection is controlled by integrated resistive heaters in the joints causing the polymer to expand thermally. Results show that the mirror actuates 20-30° in the temperature interval 25-250°C. Flat Fresnel lenses made of Pyrex 7740 are used to collimate the laser beam. These lenses are simulated in the Comsol software and optimized for a 670 nm red VCSEL. The lenses are manufactured using lithography and reactive ion etching. All tests are made in a normal laboratory environment, but the effect of the space environment is discussed.

  15. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  16. Take it of leave it : Mechanisms underlying bacterial bistable regulatory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebring, Jeroen; Sorg, Robin; Herber, Martijn; Kuipers, Oscar; Filloux, Alain A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bistable switches occur in regulatory networks that can exist in two distinct stable states. Such networks allow distinct switching of individual cells. In bacteria these switches coexist with regulatory networks that respond gradually to environmental input. Bistable switches play key roles in high

  17. Configurational rearrangements of bistable centers in covalent semiconductors - phase transitions of the second type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyukovich, V.A.; Karas', V.I.; Lomako, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new radiation configurational-bistable defect diffring from the known similar defects by the fact that it possessestemperature inversion of states is detected in gallium arsenide. Configurational-bistable rearrangements are shown to be considered as phase transitions of the second type

  18. Bistable traveling waves for a competitive-cooperative system with nonlocal delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanling; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of bistable traveling waves for a competitive-cooperative reaction and diffusion system with nonlocal time delays. The existence of bistable waves is established by appealing to the theory of monotone semiflows and the finite-delay approximations. Then the global stability of such traveling waves is obtained via a squeezing technique and a dynamical systems approach.

  19. Risk Prevention of Spreading Emerging Infectious Diseases Using a HybridCrowdsensing Paradigm, Optical Sensors, and Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry

    2018-04-10

    The risk of spreading diseases within (ad-hoc)crowds and the need to pervasively screen asymptomatic individuals to protect the population against emerging infectious diseases, request permanentcrowd surveillance., particularly in high-risk regions. Thecase of Ebola epidemic in West Africa in recent years has shown the need for pervasive screening. The trend today in diseases surveillance is consisting of epidemiological data collection about emerging infectious diseases using social media, wearable sensors systems, or mobile applications and data analysis. This approach presents various limitations. This paper proposes a novel approach for diseases monitoring and risk prevention of spreading infectious diseases. The proposed approach, aiming at overcoming the limitation of existing disease surveillance approaches, combines the hybrid crowdsensing paradigm with sensing individuals' bio-signals using optical sensors for monitoring any risks of spreading emerging infectious diseases in any (ad-hoc) crowds. A proof-of-concept has been performed using a drone armed with a cat s60 smartphone featuring a Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) camera. According to the results of the conducted experiment, the concept has the potential to improve the conventional epidemiological data collection. The measurement is reliable, and the recorded data are valid. The measurement error rates are about 8%.

  20. The polarization and the fundamental sensitivity of 39K (133Cs)-85Rb-4He hybrid optical pumping spin exchange relaxation free atomic magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Hua; Jing, Dong-Yang; Wang, Liang-Liang; Li, Yang; Quan, Wei; Fang, Jian-Cheng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-07-28

    The hybrid optical pumping spin exchange relaxation free (SERF) atomic magnetometers can realize ultrahigh sensitivity measurement of magnetic field and inertia. We have studied the 85 Rb polarization of two types of hybrid optical pumping SERF magnetometers based on 39 K- 85 Rb- 4 He and 133 Cs- 85 Rb- 4 He respectively. Then we found that 85 Rb polarization varies with the number density of buffer gas 4 He and quench gas N 2 , pumping rate of pump beam and cell temperature respectively, which will provide an experimental guide for the design of the magnetometer. We obtain a general formula on the fundamental sensitivity of the hybrid optical pumping SERF magnetometer due to shot-noise. The formula describes that the fundamental sensitivity of the magnetometer varies with the number density of buffer gas and quench gas, the pumping rate of pump beam, external magnetic field, cell effective radius, measurement volume, cell temperature and measurement time. We obtain a highest fundamental sensitivity of 1.5073 aT/Hz 1/2 (1 aT = 10 -18 T) with 39 K- 85 Rb- 4 He magnetometer between above two types of magnetometers when 85 Rb polarization is 0.1116. We estimate the fundamental sensitivity limit of the hybrid optical pumping SERF magnetometer to be superior to 1.8359 × 10 -2 aT/Hz 1/2 , which is higher than the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of 1 aT/Hz 1/2 of K SERF atomic magnetometer.