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Sample records for hybrid approach combining

  1. A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come for p...

  2. A Hybrid Approach to Combine Physically Based and Data-Driven Models in Simulating Sediment Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sewagudde, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for hybrid modelling of sedimentation in a coastal basin or large shallow lake where physically based and data driven approaches are combined. This research was broken down into three blocks. The first block explores the possibility of approxim

  3. A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan;

    2001-01-01

    The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come...... diagnoses. The final result is a short but robust rule based classification scheme, achieving high degree of classification accuracy (exceeding 90% of accuracy for most classes) in a meaningful and user-friendly representation form for the medical expert. The domain of application analyzed through the paper...... is the well-known Pap-Test problem, corresponding to a numerical database, which consists of 450 medical records, 25 diagnostic attributes and 5 different diagnostic classes. Experimental data are divided in two equal parts for the training and testing phase, and 8 mutually dependent rules for diagnosis...

  4. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  5. A Hybrid Approach to Composite Damage and Failure Analysis Combining Synergistic Damage Mechanics and Peridynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    other provision of law. no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of Information if it does not display a ...From - To) 30-06-2017 Performance!Technical Report (Quarterl y) 04/0 I/2017 - 0613012017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER A Hybrid Approach...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Texas A &M Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) 400 Harvey Mitchell Parkway, Suite 300 Ml601473 I

  6. Combination of Biorthogonal Wavelet Hybrid Kernel OCSVM with Feature Weighted Approach Based on EVA and GRA in Financial Distress Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial distress prediction plays an important role in the survival of companies. In this paper, a novel biorthogonal wavelet hybrid kernel function is constructed by combining linear kernel function with biorthogonal wavelet kernel function. Besides, a new feature weighted approach is presented based on economic value added (EVA and grey relational analysis (GRA. Considering the imbalance between financially distressed companies and normal ones, the feature weighted one-class support vector machine based on biorthogonal wavelet hybrid kernel (BWH-FWOCSVM is further put forward for financial distress prediction. The empirical study with real data from the listed companies on Growth Enterprise Market (GEM in China shows that the proposed approach has good performance.

  7. A single-ensemble-based hybrid approach to clutter rejection combining bilinear Hankel with regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Naizhang; Lee, Chin-Hui

    2013-04-01

    Clutter regarded as ultrasound Doppler echoes of soft tissue interferes with the primary objective of color flow imaging (CFI): measurement and display of blood flow. Multi-ensemble samples based clutter filters degrade resolution or frame rate of CFI. The prevalent single-ensemble clutter rejection filter is based on a single rejection criterion and fails to achieve a high accuracy for estimating both the low- and high-velocity blood flow components. The Bilinear Hankel-SVD achieved more exact signal decomposition than the conventional Hankel-SVD. Furthermore, the correlation between two arbitrary eigen-components obtained by the B-Hankel-SVD was demonstrated. In the hybrid approach, the input ultrasound Doppler signal first passes through a low-order regression filter, and then the output is properly decomposed into a collection of eigen-components under the framework of B-Hankel-SVD. The blood flow components are finally extracted based on a frequency threshold. In a series of simulations, the proposed B-Hankel-SVD filter reduced the estimation bias of the blood flow over the conventional Hankel-SVD filter. The hybrid algorithm was shown to be more effective than regression or Hankel-SVD filters alone in rejecting the undesirable clutter components with single-ensemble (S-E) samples. It achieved a significant improvement in blood flow frequency estimation and estimation variance over the other competing filters.

  8. A Hybrid Approach to Composite Damage and Failure Analysis Combining Synergistic Damage Mechanics and Peridynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Publications [1] Z. Chen, S. Niazi , G. Zhang, and F. Bobaru. "Peridynamic Functionally Graded and Porous Materials: Modeling Fracture and Damage", submitted...S. Niazi , G. Zhang, F. Bobaru. "An intermediate homogenization approach for fracture in multiphase composites", to be submitted, (2017). 6

  9. Hybrid approach combining dissipative particle dynamics and finite-difference diffusion model: simulation of reactive polymer coupling and interfacial polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkin, Anatoly V; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V

    2013-10-21

    A novel hybrid approach combining dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and finite difference (FD) solution of partial differential equations is proposed to simulate complex reaction-diffusion phenomena in heterogeneous systems. DPD is used for the detailed molecular modeling of mass transfer, chemical reactions, and phase separation near the liquid∕liquid interface, while FD approach is applied to describe the large-scale diffusion of reactants outside the reaction zone. A smooth, self-consistent procedure of matching the solute concentration is performed in the buffer region between the DPD and FD domains. The new model is tested on a simple model system admitting an analytical solution for the diffusion controlled regime and then applied to simulate practically important heterogeneous processes of (i) reactive coupling between immiscible end-functionalized polymers and (ii) interfacial polymerization of two monomers dissolved in immiscible solvents. The results obtained due to extending the space and time scales accessible to modeling provide new insights into the kinetics and mechanism of those processes and demonstrate high robustness and accuracy of the novel technique.

  10. Hybrid approach combining multiple characterization techniques and simulations for microstructural analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinbas, Firat C.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Kariuki, Nancy; De Andrade, Vincent; Fongalland, Dash; Smith, Linda; Sharman, Jonathan; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasouli, Somaye; Myers, Deborah J.

    2017-03-01

    The cost and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells strongly depend on the cathode electrode due to usage of expensive platinum (Pt) group metal catalyst and sluggish reaction kinetics. Development of low Pt content high performance cathodes requires comprehensive understanding of the electrode microstructure. In this study, a new approach is presented to characterize the detailed cathode electrode microstructure from nm to μm length scales by combining information from different experimental techniques. In this context, nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) is performed to extract the secondary pore space of the electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is employed to determine primary C particle and Pt particle size distributions. X-ray scattering, with its ability to provide size distributions of orders of magnitude more particles than TEM, is used to confirm the TEM-determined size distributions. The number of primary pores that cannot be resolved by nano-CT is approximated using mercury intrusion porosimetry. An algorithm is developed to incorporate all these experimental data in one geometric representation. Upon validation of pore size distribution against gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry data, reconstructed ionomer size distribution is reported. In addition, transport related characteristics and effective properties are computed by performing simulations on the hybrid microstructure.

  11. A hybrid hierarchical approach for brain tissue segmentation by combining brain atlas and least square support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiri, Keyvan; Kazemi, Kamran; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Helfroush, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new semi-automatic brain tissue segmentation method based on a hybrid hierarchical approach that combines a brain atlas as a priori information and a least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The method consists of three steps. In the first two steps, the skull is removed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is extracted. These two steps are performed using the toolbox FMRIB's automated segmentation tool integrated in the FSL software (FSL-FAST) developed in Oxford Centre for functional MRI of the brain (FMRIB). Then, in the third step, the LS-SVM is used to segment grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM). The training samples for LS-SVM are selected from the registered brain atlas. The voxel intensities and spatial positions are selected as the two feature groups for training and test. SVM as a powerful discriminator is able to handle nonlinear classification problems; however, it cannot provide posterior probability. Thus, we use a sigmoid function to map the SVM output into probabilities. The proposed method is used to segment CSF, GM and WM from the simulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Brainweb MRI simulator and real data provided by Internet Brain Segmentation Repository. The semi-automatically segmented brain tissues were evaluated by comparing to the corresponding ground truth. The Dice and Jaccard similarity coefficients, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the quantitative validation of the results. The quantitative results show that the proposed method segments brain tissues accurately with respect to corresponding ground truth.

  12. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  13. New approach for fabricating hybrid-structured metal mesh films for flexible transparent electrodes by the combination of electrospinning and metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jin Woo; Lee, Dong Kyu; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Ahn, Chi Won

    2016-11-01

    In this study, hybrid-structured metal mesh (HMM) films as potential flexible transparent electrodes, composed of aligned micro-sized metal fibers integrated into random network of metal nanofibers, were fabricated by the combination of electrospinning and metal deposition. These naturally fiber-bridged HMMs, with a gold layer thickness of 85 nm, exhibited a high transmittance of around 90% and a sheet resistance of approximately 10 Ω sq-1, as well as favorable mechanical stability under bending stress. These results demonstrate that the approach employed herein is a simple, highly efficient, and facile process for fabricating, uniform, interconnected fiber networks with potential for producing high-performance flexible transparent electrodes.

  14. Integrated approach for hybrid rocket technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Francesco; Bellomo, Nicolas; Pavarin, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid rocket motors tend generally to be simple from a mechanical point of view but difficult to optimize because of their complex and still not well understood cross-coupled physics. This paper addresses the previous issue presenting the integrated approach established at University of Padua to develop hybrid rocket based systems. The methodology tightly combines together system analysis and design, numerical modeling from elementary to sophisticated CFD, and experimental testing done with incremental philosophy. As an example of the approach, the paper presents the experience done in the successful development of a hybrid rocket booster designed for rocket assisted take off operations. It is thought that following the proposed approach and selecting carefully the most promising applications it is possible to finally exploit the major advantages of hybrid rocket motors as safety, simplicity, low cost and reliability.

  15. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...... to discretization manageable and within bounds. A major advantage of our approach is not only that it avoids errors due to numerical computation, but it also gives a better optimal controller. In order to illustrate our approach, we use the real industrial example of an oil pump provided by the German company HYDAC...

  16. Dynamic modelling of an adsorption storage tank using a hybrid approach combining computational fluid dynamics and process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, J.P.B.; Esteves, I.A.A.C.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package has been coupled with the dynamic process simulator of an adsorption storage tank for methane fuelled vehicles. The two solvers run as independent processes and handle non-overlapping portions of the computational domain. The codes exchange data on the boundary interface of the two domains to ensure continuity of the solution and of its gradient. A software interface was developed to dynamically suspend and activate each process as necessary, and be responsible for data exchange and process synchronization. This hybrid computational tool has been successfully employed to accurately simulate the discharge of a new tank design and evaluate its performance. The case study presented here shows that CFD and process simulation are highly complementary computational tools, and that there are clear benefits to be gained from a close integration of the two. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solvatochromic shift of phenol blue in water from a combined Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics and ZINDO approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, N. Arul; Jha, Prakash Chandra; Rinkevicius, Z.; Ruud, Kenneth; Ågren, Hans

    2010-06-01

    The present work addresses the solvatochromic shift of phenol blue (PB) dye. For this purpose the results of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations for PB in gas phase are compared with results obtained for PB in water from CPMD hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (CPMD-QM/MM) calculations. The absorption spectra were obtained using the intermediate neglect of differential overlap/spectroscopic-configuration interaction (INDO/CIS) method and were calculated for a multitude of configurations of the trajectory. The calculated λmax for PB in gas phase was found to be about 535 nm, which is considerably lower than the λmax reported for PB in nonpolar solvents. Different solvation shells for PB in water have been defined based on the solute-all-atoms and solvent center of mass radial distribution function (g(rX-O)). The electronic excitation energies for PB computed in the presence of solvent molecules in an increasing number of solvation shells were calculated in a systematic way to evaluate their contributions to the solvatochrmic shift. The inclusion of solvent molecules in the hydration shell yields a λmax of 640 nm, which contributes to almost 78% of the solvatochromic shift. The inclusion of solvent molecules up to 10 Å in the g(rX-O) rdf yields a λmax of 670 nm which is in good agreement with the experimentally reported value of 654-684 nm. Overall, the present study suggests that the combined CPMD-QM/MM and INDO-CIS approach can be used successfully to model solvatochromic shifts of organic dye molecules.

  18. HYBRID CONTROL APPROACH FOR CONTAINER CRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid control approach is proposed to achieve the desired performance. Firstly a robust input shaper is designed to reduce the transient vibration and residual vibration of the container efficiently. Then a simple fuzzy logic controller is designed to eliminate the residual vibration completely in order to guarantee the positioning precision. Such a hybrid approach is simple in structure and readily realizable. Simulation results verify the fine performance of this hybrid control approach. It can achieve perfect elimination of residual vibration and concise positioning of the container load, and it is robust to parameter variations (mainly for cable length) and external disturbances.

  19. A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. A.

    1983-12-01

    A simulation approach to sizing hybrid photovoltaic and wind systems provides a combination of components to realize zero downtime and minimum initial or life-cycle cost. Using Dayton, OH as a test site for weather data, cost advantages in the neighborhood of four are predicted for a hybrid system with battery storage when compared to a wind-energy-only system for the same electrical load.

  20. A Hybrid Architecture Approach for Quantum Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R.S. Aghaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a general plan of hybrid architecture for quantum algorithms is proposed. Approach: Analysis of the quantum algorithms shows that these algorithms were hybrid with two parts. First, the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the hybrid algorithms was extracted. Then a general plan of hybrid structure was designed. Results: This plan was illustrated the hybrid architecture and the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the algorithms. This general plan was used to increase implementation performance of quantum algorithms. Conclusion/Recommendations: Moreover, simulation results of quantum algorithms on the hybrid architecture proved that quantum algorithms can be implemented on the general plan as well.

  1. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  2. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with bioinformatics method: an integrated functional annotation approach for analysis of differentially expressed immune-genes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badapanda, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach, a PCR based approach which amplifies differentially expressed cDNAs (complementary DNAs), while simultaneously suppressing amplification of common cDNAs, was employed to identify immuneinducible genes in insects. This technique has been used as a suitable tool for experimental identification of novel genes in eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes; whose genomes have been sequenced, or the species whose genomes have yet to be sequenced. In this article, I have proposed a method for in silico functional characterization of immune-inducible genes from insects. Apart from immune-inducible genes from insects, this method can be applied for the analysis of genes from other species, starting from bacteria to plants and animals. This article is provided with a background of SSH-based method taking specific examples from innate immune-inducible genes in insects, and subsequently a bioinformatics pipeline is proposed for functional characterization of newly sequenced genes. The proposed workflow presented here, can also be applied for any newly sequenced species generated from Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms.

  3. A hybrid transfinite element approach for nonlinear transient thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1987-01-01

    A new computational approach for transient nonlinear thermal analysis of structures is proposed. It is a hybrid approach which combines the modeling versatility of contemporary finite elements in conjunction with transform methods and classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. The present study is limited to nonlinearities due to temperature-dependent thermophysical properties. Numerical test cases attest to the basic capabilities and therein validate the transfinite element approach by means of comparisons with conventional finite element schemes and/or available solutions.

  4. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  5. A Hybrid Approach for Correcting Grammatical Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for correcting grammatical errors in the sentences uttered by Korean learners of English. The error correction system plays an important role in GenieTutor, which is a dialogue-based English learning system designed to teach English to Korean students. During the talk with GenieTutor, grammatical error…

  6. Approaches to hybrid synthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek

    All living creatures are made up of cells that have the ability to replicate themselves in a repetitive process called cell division. As these cells mature and divide into two there is an extensive movement of cellular components. In order to perform this essential task that sustains life, cells have evolved machines composed of proteins. Biological motors, such as kinesin, transport intracellular cargo and position organelles in eukaryotic cells via unidirectional movement on cytoskeletal tracts called microtubules. Biomolecular motor proteins have the potential to be used as 'nano-engines' for switchable devices, directed self assembly, controlled bioseparations and powering nano- and microelectromechanical systems. However, engineering such systems requires fabrication processes that are compatible with biological materials such as kinesin motor proteins and microtubules. The first objective of the research was to establish biocompatibility between protein systems and nanofabrication. The second objective was to use current micro- and nanofabrication techniques for patterning proteins at specific locations and to study role of casein in supporting the operation of surface bound kinesin. The third objective was to link kinesin and microtubule system to cellulose nanowhiskers. The effects of micro- and nanofabrication processing chemicals and resists on the functionality of casein, kinesin, and microtubule proteins are systematically examined to address the important missing link of the biocompatibility of micro- and nanofabrication processes needed to realize hybrid system fabrication. It was found that both casein, which is used to prevent motor denaturation on surfaces, and kinesin motors are surprisingly tolerant of most of the processing chemicals examined. Microtubules, however, are much more sensitive. Exposure to the processing chemicals leads to depolymerization, which is partially attributed to the pH of the solutions examined. When the chemicals were

  7. A Hybrid Approach to the Optimization of Multiechelon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sitek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In freight transportation there are two main distribution strategies: direct shipping and multiechelon distribution. In the direct shipping, vehicles, starting from a depot, bring their freight directly to the destination, while in the multiechelon systems, freight is delivered from the depot to the customers through an intermediate points. Multiechelon systems are particularly useful for logistic issues in a competitive environment. The paper presents a concept and application of a hybrid approach to modeling and optimization of the Multi-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem. Two ways of mathematical programming (MP and constraint logic programming (CLP are integrated in one environment. The strengths of MP and CLP in which constraints are treated in a different way and different methods are implemented and combined to use the strengths of both. The proposed approach is particularly important for the discrete decision models with an objective function and many discrete decision variables added up in multiple constraints. An implementation of hybrid approach in the ECLiPSe system using Eplex library is presented. The Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-CVRP and its variants are shown as an illustrative example of the hybrid approach. The presented hybrid approach will be compared with classical mathematical programming on the same benchmark data sets.

  8. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  9. Combined photovoltaic and thermal hybrid collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Solar energy collectors that produce both electric and thermal energy are an attractive alternative to individual thermal and photovoltaic collectors for certain applications and climates. Economic results from a system analysis indicate that hybrid collector systems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial heating loads. Passively cooled photovoltaic panels are best suited for structures located in regions where year-round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal energy demands predominate. Hybrid collectors are to be tested according to ASHRAE standards and a full-system experiment incorporating a photovoltaic array installed at the Solar Energy Research Facility of the University of Texas will be conducted by Lincoln Laboratory.

  10. An oligonucleotide hybridization approach to DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapko, K R; Lysov YuP; Khorlyn, A A; Shick, V V; Florentiev, V L; Mirzabekov, A D

    1989-10-09

    We have proposed a DNA sequencing method based on hybridization of a DNA fragment to be sequenced with the complete set of fixed-length oligonucleotides (e.g., 4(8) = 65,536 possible 8-mers) immobilized individually as dots of a 2-D matrix [(1989) Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 303, 1508-1511]. It was shown that the list of hybridizing octanucleotides is sufficient for the computer-assisted reconstruction of the structures for 80% of random-sequence fragments up to 200 bases long, based on the analysis of the octanucleotide overlapping. Here a refinement of the method and some experimental data are presented. We have performed hybridizations with oligonucleotides immobilized on a glass plate, and obtained their dissociation curves down to heptanucleotides. Other approaches, e.g., an additional hybridization of short oligonucleotides which continuously extend duplexes formed between the fragment and immobilized oligonucleotides, should considerably increase either the probability of unambiguous reconstruction, or the length of reconstructed sequences, or decrease the size of immobilized oligonucleotides.

  11. Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandakumar, A.; Barradas, A.M.C.; Boer, de J.; Moroni, L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Habibovic, P.

    2013-01-01

    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), ele

  12. An Approach with Hybrid Segmental Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Maurya, Raj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Present case report provides an insight into the hybrid segmental mechanics with treatment of 13-year-old male, considering the side effects of sole continuous arch wire sliding mechanics. Patient was diagnosed as a case of skeletal class I jaw relationship, low mandibular plane angle, class II molar relation on right and class I molar relation on left side, anterior cross bite, crowding of 12mm in upper, 5mm in lower arch. He also had proclined upper and lower anteriors by 2mm, convex profile and incompetent lips. Total treatment duration was 20 months, during which segmental canine retraction was performed with TMA (Titanium, Molybdenum, Aluminum) 'T' loop retraction spring followed by consolidation of spaces with continuous arch mechanics. Most of the treatment objectives were met with good intraoral and facial results within reasonable framework of time. This approach used traditional twin brackets, which offered the versatility to use continuous arch-wire mechanics, segmental mechanics and hybrid sectional mechanics.

  13. A combined array-based comparative genomic hybridization and functional library screening approach identifies mir-30d as an oncomir in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Kaur, Sippy; Greshock, Joel; Lassus, Heini; Zhong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yanling; Leminen, Arto; Shao, Zhongjun; Hu, Xiaowen; Liang, Shun; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Huang, Qihong; Bützow, Ralf; Weber, Barbara L; Coukos, George; Zhang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Oncomirs are microRNAs (miRNA) that acts as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Efficient identification of oncomirs remains a challenge. Here we report a novel, clinically guided genetic screening approach for the identification of oncomirs, identifying mir-30d through this strategy. mir-30d regulates tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and migration. The chromosomal locus harboring mir-30d was amplified in more than 30% of multiple types of human solid tumors (n = 1,283). Importantly, higher levels of mir-30d expression were associated significantly with poor clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer patients (n = 330, P = 0.0016). Mechanistic investigations suggested that mir-30d regulates a large number of cancer-associated genes, including the apoptotic caspase CASP3. The guided genetic screening approach validated by this study offers a powerful tool to identify oncomirs that may have utility as biomarkers or targets for drug development.

  14. A Hybrid Approach To Tandem Cylinder Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Aeolian tone generation from tandem cylinders is predicted using a hybrid approach. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to compute the unsteady flow around the cylinders, and the acoustics are calculated using the acoustic analogy. The CFD code is nominally second order in space and time and includes several turbulence models, but the SST k - omega model is used for most of the calculations. Significant variation is observed between laminar and turbulent cases, and with changes in the turbulence model. A two-dimensional implementation of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation is used to predict the far-field noise.

  15. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents), 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass,...

  16. Using a Hybrid Approach to Facilitate Learning Introductory Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Unal

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate students' understanding in introductory programming courses, different types of teaching approaches were conducted. In this study, a hybrid approach including comment first coding (CFC), analogy and template approaches were used. The goal was to investigate the effect of such a hybrid approach on students' understanding in…

  17. Hybrid classifiers methods of data, knowledge, and classifier combination

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a definite and compact knowledge on how hybridization can help improving the quality of computer classification systems. In order to make readers clearly realize the knowledge of hybridization, this book primarily focuses on introducing the different levels of hybridization and illuminating what problems we will face with as dealing with such projects. In the first instance the data and knowledge incorporated in hybridization were the action points, and then a still growing up area of classifier systems known as combined classifiers was considered. This book comprises the aforementioned state-of-the-art topics and the latest research results of the author and his team from Department of Systems and Computer Networks, Wroclaw University of Technology, including as classifier based on feature space splitting, one-class classification, imbalance data, and data stream classification.

  18. A Hybrid Data Association Approach for SLAM in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baifan Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data association is critical for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. In a real environment, dynamic obstacles will lead to false data associations which compromise SLAM results. This paper presents a simple and effective data association method for SLAM in dynamic environments. A hybrid approach of data association based on local maps by combining ICNN and JCBB algorithms is used initially. Secondly, we set a judging condition of outlier features in association assumptions and then the static and dynamic features are detected according to spatial and temporal difference. Finally, association assumptions are updated by filtering out the dynamic features. Simulations and experimental results show that this method is feasible.

  19. Combining Performance and Flexibility for RMS with a Hybrid Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arjan van Zanten; Dick van der Steen; Dennis Koole; Ing. Erik Puik; Patrick Wit; Pascal Muller; Leo van Moergestel; Arjan Groenewegen; John-Jules Meyer; Daniël Telgen

    2013-01-01

    Author supplied Combining Performance and Flexibility for RMS with a Hybrid Architecture Dani¨el Telgen 12? , Leo van Moergestel 1 , Erik Puik 1 , Pascal Muller 1 , Arjan Groenewegen 1 , Dick van der Steen 1 , Dennis Koole 1 , Patrick de Wit 1 , Arjen van Zanten 1 , and John-Jules

  20. Combining Performance and Flexibility for RMS with a Hybrid Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Daniël; Moergestel, Leo van; Puik, Erik; Muller, Pascal; Groenewegen, Arjan; Steen, Dick van der; Koole, Dennis; Wit, Patrick; Zanten, Arjan van; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    Author supplied Combining Performance and Flexibility for RMS with a Hybrid Architecture Dani¨el Telgen 12? , Leo van Moergestel 1 , Erik Puik 1 , Pascal Muller 1 , Arjan Groenewegen 1 , Dick van der Steen 1 , Dennis Koole 1 , Patrick de Wit 1 , Arjen van Zanten 1 , and John-Jules Meyer 2 1 Departm

  1. A COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-xiao Zhou; Xiao-ping Xie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a combined hybrid method is applied to finite element discretization ofplate bending problems. It is shown that the resultant schemes are stabilized, i.e., theconvergence of the schemes is independent of inf-sup conditions and any other patch test.Based on this, two new series of plate elements are proposed.

  2. Combining Online and Hybrid Teaching Environments in German Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Lucrecia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we briefly offer the main characteristics of a hybrid design for Face-to-Face (FtF) and online German courses in the degree of Translation and Interpreting that combines the textbook with activities moderated with technology. We particularly focus on the activities designed for practicing oral production at level A2.2., where we…

  3. Stock selection using a hybrid MCDM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Poklepović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of selecting the right stocks to invest in is of immense interest for investors on both emerging and developed capital markets. Moreover, an investor should take into account all available data regarding stocks on the particular market. This includes fundamental and stock market indicators. The decision making process includes several stocks to invest in and more than one criterion. Therefore, the task of selecting the stocks to invest in can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM problem. Using several MCDM methods often leads to divergent rankings. The goal of this paper is to resolve these possible divergent results obtained from different MCDM methods using a hybrid MCDM approach based on Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Five MCDM methods are selected: COPRAS, linear assignment, PROMETHEE, SAW and TOPSIS. The weights for all criteria are obtained by using the AHP method. Data for this study includes information on stock returns and traded volumes from March 2012 to March 2014 for 19 stocks on the Croatian capital market. It also includes the most important fundamental and stock market indicators for selected stocks. Rankings using five selected MCDM methods in the stock selection problem yield divergent results. However, after applying the proposed approach the final hybrid rankings are obtained. The results show that the worse stocks to invest in happen to be the same when the industry is taken into consideration or when not. However, when the industry is taken into account, the best stocks to invest in are slightly different, because some industries are more profitable than the others.

  4. A Hybrid Ensemble Learning Approach to Star-Galaxy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Edward J; Kind, Matias Carrasco

    2015-01-01

    There exist a variety of star-galaxy classification techniques, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we present a novel meta-classification framework that combines and fully exploits different techniques to produce a more robust star-galaxy classification. To demonstrate this hybrid, ensemble approach, we combine a purely morphological classifier, a supervised machine learning method based on random forest, an unsupervised machine learning method based on self-organizing maps, and a hierarchical Bayesian template fitting method. Using data from the CFHTLenS survey, we consider different scenarios: when a high-quality training set is available with spectroscopic labels from DEEP2, SDSS, VIPERS, and VVDS, and when the demographics of sources in a low-quality training set do not match the demographics of objects in the test data set. We demonstrate that our Bayesian combination technique improves the overall performance over any individual classification method in these scenarios. Thus, s...

  5. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  6. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  7. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2016-06-06

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode -1 (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs -1 (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs -1). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode -1 at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode -1 at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  8. An Architecture for Hybrid Manufacturing Combining 3D Printing and CNC Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Müller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Additive manufacturing processes are often combined with subtractive manufacturing processes to create hybrid manufacturing because it is useful for manufacturing complex parts, for example, 3D printed sensor systems. Currently, several CNC machines are required for hybrid manufacturing: one machine is required for additive manufacturing and one is required for subtractive manufacturing. Disadvantages of conventional hybrid manufacturing methods are presented. Hybrid manufacturing with one CNC machine offers many advantages. It enables manufacturing of parts with higher accuracy, less production time, and lower costs. Using the example of fused layer modeling (FLM, we present a general approach for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into a numerical control for machine tools. The resulting CNC architecture is presented and its functionality is demonstrated. Its application is beyond the scope of this paper.

  9. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents, 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass, fruit shelf life, shape and percentsoluble solids. Additive genetic effects were generally more important than non-additive effects for all traits evaluated. The TOM-542 and TOM-734 lines, from group I, and the TOM-720 line, from group II, presented high general combining ability (GCA estimates for most of the traits of importance for saladette tomatoes, and were therefore considered suitable parents of hybrids of this class. Higher fruit shelf life of TOM-723 as a parental line compared with TOM-720 (Group II, was mainly attributed to the presence in the former of the norA allele, which controls longer fruit shelf life. F1 hybrids (TOM-542 x TOM-720, (TOM-580 x TOM-720, (TOM-734 x TOM-720, and (TOM-727 x TOM-720 showed good performance and fruit quality and thus constitute possible commercial varieties.

  10. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Based on Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. K. Bermani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of automatic recognition of facial expressions deduce a lot of researchers in the late last century and has increased a great interest in the past few years. Several techniques have emerged in order to improve the efficiency of the recognition by addressing problems in face detection and extraction features in recognizing expressions. This paper has proposed automatic system for facial expression recognition which consists of hybrid approach in feature extraction phase which represent a combination between holistic and analytic approaches by extract 307 facial expression features (19 features by geometric, 288 feature by appearance. Expressions recognition is performed by using radial basis function (RBF based on artificial neural network to recognize the six basic emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness in addition to the natural.The system achieved recognition rate 97.08% when applying on person-dependent database and 93.98% when applying on person-independent.

  11. A Fast Hybrid Approach to Air Shower Simulations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, H J; Bleicher, M; Reiter, M; Soff, S; Stöcker, H; Stoecker, Horst

    2003-01-01

    The SENECA model, a new hybrid approach to air shower simulations, is presented. It combines the use of efficient cascade equations in the energy range where a shower can be treated as one-dimensional, with a traditional Monte Carlo method which traces individual particles. This allows one to reproduce natural fluctuations of individual showers as well as the lateral spread of low energy particles. The model is quite efficient in computation time. As an application of the new approach, the influence of the low energy hadronic models on shower properties for AUGER energies is studied. We conclude that these models have a significant impact on the tails of lateral distribution functions, and deserve therefore more attention.

  12. Architectural ideotype of pear seedling in five hybrid combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile GHIDRA

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The architectural ideotype - type of growing - was studied in a topcross experiment with five hybrid combinations in which Cluj 72-2-100 selection, typical spur, was used as a maternal tester. The analyzed seedlings were at the end of their sixth year of vegetation. There were no significant differences among the five hybrid combinations concerning the distributions of F1 seedling in the four accepted ideotypes (columnar, spur, standard, and weeping. A high variability was found for ideotype (between 18.8% in Cluj 72-2-100 x Napoca and 34.4% in Cluj 72-2-100 x Red Bartlett. The participation rate of genotype in the phenotypic manifestation of this character is relatively low. The coefficient of heritability in broad sense was 0.29 and the coefficient of heritability in narrow sense was very low, 0.001.

  13. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  14. A generalized hybrid transfinite element computational approach for nonlinear/linear unified thermal/structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.

    1987-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a new hybrid computational approach for applicability for nonlinear/linear thermal structural analysis. The proposed transfinite element approach is a hybrid scheme as it combines the modeling versatility of contemporary finite elements in conjunction with transform methods and the classical Bubnov-Galerkin schemes. Applicability of the proposed formulations for nonlinear analysis is also developed. Several test cases are presented to include nonlinear/linear unified thermal-stress and thermal-stress wave propagations. Comparative results validate the fundamental capablities of the proposed hybrid transfinite element methodology.

  15. A hybrid BCI speller paradigm combining P300 potential and the SSVEP blocking feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minpeng; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Yin, Tao; Liu, Zhipeng; Ming, Dong

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Hybrid brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been proved to be more effective in mental control by combining another channel of physiologic control signals. Among those studies, little attention has been paid to the combined use of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and P300 potential, both providing the fastest and the most reliable EEG based BCIs. In this paper, a novel hybrid BCI speller is developed to elicit P300 potential and SSVEP blocking (SSVEP-B) distinctly and simultaneously with the same target stimulus. Approach. Twelve subjects were involved in the study and every one performed offline spelling twice in succession with two different speller paradigms for comparison: hybrid speller and control P300-speller. Feature analysis was adopted from the view of time domain, frequency domain and spatial distribution; the performances were evaluated by character accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR). Main results. Signal analysis of the hybrid paradigm shows that SSVEPs are an evident EEG component during the nontarget phase but are dismissed and replaced by P300 potentials after target stimuli. The absence of an SSVEP, called SSVEP-B, mostly appearing in channel Oz, presents a sharp distinction between target responses and nontarget responses. The r2 value of SSVEP-B in channel Oz is comparable to that of P300 in channel Cz. Compared with the control P300-speller, the hybrid speller achieves significantly higher accuracy and ITR with combined features. Significance. The results indicate that the combination of P300 with an SSVEP-B improves target discrimination greatly; the proposed hybrid paradigm is superior to the control paradigm in spelling performance. Thus, our findings provide a new approach to improve BCI performances.

  16. Generator maintenance scheduling in power systems using metaheuristic-based hybrid approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahal, Keshav P. [School of Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford (United Kingdom); Chakpitak, Nopasit [College of Arts, Media and Technology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2007-05-15

    The effective maintenance scheduling of power system generators is very important for the economical and reliable operation of a power system. This represents a tough scheduling problem which continues to present a challenge for efficient optimization solution techniques. This paper presents the application of metaheuristic approaches, such as a genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and their hybrid for generator maintenance scheduling (GMS) in power systems using an integer representation. This paper mainly focuses on the application of GA/SA and GA/SA/heuristic hybrid approaches. GA/SA hybrid uses the probabilistic acceptance criterion of SA within the GA framework. GA/SA/heuristic hybrid combines heuristic approaches within the GA/SA hybrid to seed the initial population. A case study is formulated in this paper as an integer programming problem using a reliability-based objective function and typical problem constraints. The implementation and performance of the metaheuristic approaches and their hybrid for the test case study are discussed. The results obtained are promising and show that the hybrid approaches are less sensitive to the variations of technique parameters and offer an effective alternative for solving the generator maintenance scheduling problem. (author)

  17. On a Variational Approach to Optimization of Hybrid Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multiobjective optimization techniques for a class of hybrid optimal control problems in mechanical systems. We deal with general nonlinear hybrid control systems described by boundary-value problems associated with hybrid-type Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. The variational structure of the corresponding solutions makes it possible to reduce the original “mechanical” problem to an auxiliary multiobjective programming reformulation. This approach motivates possible applications of theoretical and computational results from multiobjective optimization related to the original dynamical optimization problem. We consider first order optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by hybrid mechanical systems and also discuss some conceptual algorithms.

  18. Hybrid grammar-based approach to nonlinear dynamical system identification from biological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, B. A.; Crowe, J. E., Jr.; Voss, H. U.; Crooke, P. S.; Barney, N.; Moore, J. H.

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a grammar-based hybrid approach to reverse engineering nonlinear ordinary differential equation models from observed time series. This hybrid approach combines a genetic algorithm to search the space of model architectures with a Kalman filter to estimate the model parameters. Domain-specific knowledge is used in a context-free grammar to restrict the search space for the functional form of the target model. We find that the hybrid approach outperforms a pure evolutionary algorithm method, and we observe features in the evolution of the dynamical models that correspond with the emergence of favorable model components. We apply the hybrid method to both artificially generated time series and experimentally observed protein levels from subjects who received the smallpox vaccine. From the observed data, we infer a cytokine protein interaction network for an individual’s response to the smallpox vaccine.

  19. Dry Port Location Problem: A Hybrid Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENTALEB Fatimazahra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Choosing a location for a dry port is a problem which becomes more essential and crucial. This study deals with the problem of locating dry ports. On this matter, a model combining multi-criteria (MACBETH and mono-criteria (BARYCENTER methods to find a solution to dry port location problem has been proposed. In the first phase, a systematic literature review was carried out on dry port location problem and then a methodological classification was presented for this research. In the second phase, a hybrid multi-criteria approach was developed in order to determine the best dry port location taking different criteria into account. A Computational practice and a qualitative analysis from a case study in the Moroccan context have been provided. The results show that the optimal location is very convenient with the geographical region and the government policies.

  20. A hybrid ensemble learning approach to star-galaxy classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward J.; Brunner, Robert J.; Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2015-10-01

    There exist a variety of star-galaxy classification techniques, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we present a novel meta-classification framework that combines and fully exploits different techniques to produce a more robust star-galaxy classification. To demonstrate this hybrid, ensemble approach, we combine a purely morphological classifier, a supervised machine learning method based on random forest, an unsupervised machine learning method based on self-organizing maps, and a hierarchical Bayesian template-fitting method. Using data from the CFHTLenS survey (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey), we consider different scenarios: when a high-quality training set is available with spectroscopic labels from DEEP2 (Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Phase 2 ), SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey), VIPERS (VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey), and VVDS (VIMOS VLT Deep Survey), and when the demographics of sources in a low-quality training set do not match the demographics of objects in the test data set. We demonstrate that our Bayesian combination technique improves the overall performance over any individual classification method in these scenarios. Thus, strategies that combine the predictions of different classifiers may prove to be optimal in currently ongoing and forthcoming photometric surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  1. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. A hybrid approach to incorporating climate change and variability into climate scenario for impact assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Strzepek, Kenneth; Schlosser, C. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Traditional 'delta-change' approach of scenario generation for climate change impact assessment to water resources strongly depends on the selected base-case observed historical climate conditions that the climate shocks are to be super-imposed. This method disregards the combined effect of climate change and the inherent hydro-climatological variability in the system. Here we demonstrated a hybrid uncertainty approach in which uncertainties in historical climate variability are combined with...

  3. Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: application to electronic energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C; Markland, Thomas E; Reichman, David R

    2012-02-28

    Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

  4. HybridArc: A novel radiation therapy technique combining optimized dynamic arcs and intensity modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robar, James L., E-mail: james.robar@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Thomas, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    This investigation focuses on possible dosimetric and efficiency advantages of HybridArc-a novel treatment planning approach combining optimized dynamic arcs with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. Application of this technique to two disparate sites, complex cranial tumors, and prostate was examined. HybridArc plans were compared with either dynamic conformal arc (DCA) or IMRT plans to determine whether HybridArc offers a synergy through combination of these 2 techniques. Plans were compared with regard to target volume dose conformity, target volume dose homogeneity, sparing of proximal organs at risk, normal tissue sparing, and monitor unit (MU) efficiency. For cranial cases, HybridArc produced significantly improved dose conformity compared with both DCA and IMRT but did not improve sparing of the brainstem or optic chiasm. For prostate cases, conformity was improved compared with DCA but not IMRT. Compared with IMRT, the dose homogeneity in the planning target volume was improved, and the maximum doses received by the bladder and rectum were reduced. Both arc-based techniques distribute peripheral dose over larger volumes of normal tissue compared with IMRT, whereas HybridArc involved slightly greater volumes of normal tissues compared with DCA. Compared with IMRT, cranial cases required 38% more MUs, whereas for prostate cases, MUs were reduced by 7%. For cranial cases, HybridArc improves dose conformity to the target. For prostate cases, dose conformity and homogeneity are improved compared with DCA and IMRT, respectively. Compared with IMRT, whether required MUs increase or decrease with HybridArc was site-dependent.

  5. Hybrid curation of gene–mutation relations combining automated extraction and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, John D.; Doughty, Emily; Khare, Ritu; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Mishra, Rajashree; Aberdeen, John; Tresner-Kirsch, David; Wellner, Ben; Kann, Maricel G.; Lu, Zhiyong; Hirschman, Lynette

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article describes capture of biological information using a hybrid approach that combines natural language processing to extract biological entities and crowdsourcing with annotators recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to judge correctness of candidate biological relations. These techniques were applied to extract gene– mutation relations from biomedical abstracts with the goal of supporting production scale capture of gene–mutation–disease findings as an open source resource for personalized medicine. Results: The hybrid system could be configured to provide good performance for gene–mutation extraction (precision ∼82%; recall ∼70% against an expert-generated gold standard) at a cost of $0.76 per abstract. This demonstrates that crowd labor platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk can be used to recruit quality annotators, even in an application requiring subject matter expertise; aggregated Turker judgments for gene–mutation relations exceeded 90% accuracy. Over half of the precision errors were due to mismatches against the gold standard hidden from annotator view (e.g. incorrect EntrezGene identifier or incorrect mutation position extracted), or incomplete task instructions (e.g. the need to exclude nonhuman mutations). Conclusions: The hybrid curation model provides a readily scalable cost-effective approach to curation, particularly if coupled with expert human review to filter precision errors. We plan to generalize the framework and make it available as open source software. Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/hybrid-curation-of-gene-mutation-relations-combining-automated PMID:25246425

  6. "Hybrid" and combined percutaneous and surgical intervention to treat selected cardiac patients: a new strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presbitero, P; Gallotti, R; Belli, G; Franciosi, G; Maiello, L; Nicolini, F; Manasse, E; Citterio, E; Carcagnì, A; Foresti, A

    1999-01-01

    The term "hybrid revascularization" describes the combined use of minimally-invasive surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass and percutaneous coronary revascularization in selected cases. The theoretical advantage of a less invasive surgical intervention must be weighted against the need for additional percutaneous procedures, with their own risks and limitations. We describe our initial experience with hybrid revascularization at the Istituto Clinico Humanitas in Milan. From 7/97 to 10/98, twelve patients underwent hybrid revascularization or a combined percutaneous and surgical intervention. A "classic" hybrid approach, consisting of minimally-invasive direct coronary artery bypass to the left anterior descending coronary artery and angioplasty or stenting of arteries in the right coronary artery or circumflex territories, was used in nine patients. In three patients, myocardial revascularization could be completed with percutaneous procedures after bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass (in two patients because of severe aortic calcification) or valve surgery in a patient with two previous bypass operations. In-hospital complications were observed in three patients. Two required urgent median sternotomy (one for impending cardiac tamponade, one for conversion to bypass on extra-corporeal circulation). One patient developed atheroembolism after percutaneous intervention: after hospital discharge, there was a recurrence of symptoms, clinical deterioration with renal failure and eventually death. At a mean follow-up of 152 +/- 91 days (range 17 to 283) after minimally-invasive surgery and 166 +/- 122 days (range 13 to 397) after angioplasty, all surviving patients are well and free of anginal symptoms. Closer collaboration between surgical and interventional operators may offer a novel approach to effective treatment of difficult patient subsets. However, our initial experience suggests that a cautious evaluation of possible risks and benefits must carefully

  7. Hybrid approach to data reduction for multi-sensor hot wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, C. L.; Westphal, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid approach to implementing the calibration equations for a multisensor hot-wire probe is discussed. The approach combines some of the speed of a look-up approach with the moderate storage requirements of direct calculation based on functional fitting. Particular attention is given to timing and storage comparisons for an X-wire probe. The method depends on the oft-employed concept of an effective cooling velocity which is a function only of the bridge output voltage.

  8. Hamiltonian approach to hybrid plasma models

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structures of several hybrid kinetic-fluid models are identified explicitly, upon considering collisionless Vlasov dynamics for the hot particles interacting with a bulk fluid. After presenting different pressure-coupling schemes for an ordinary fluid interacting with a hot gas, the paper extends the treatment to account for a fluid plasma interacting with an energetic ion species. Both current-coupling and pressure-coupling MHD schemes are treated extensively. In particular, pressure-coupling schemes are shown to require a transport-like term in the Vlasov kinetic equation, in order for the Hamiltonian structure to be preserved. The last part of the paper is devoted to studying the more general case of an energetic ion species interacting with a neutralizing electron background (hybrid Hall-MHD). Circulation laws and Casimir functionals are presented explicitly in each case.

  9. Hybrid silicon evanescent approach to optical interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Di; Fang, Alexander W.; Chen, Hui-Wen; Sysak, Matthew N; Koch, Brian R.; Lively, Erica; Raday, Omri; Kuo, Ying-hao; Jones, Richard; Bowers, John E

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the recently developed hybrid silicon evanescent platform (HSEP), and its application as a promising candidate for optical interconnects in silicon. A number of key discrete components and a wafer-scale integration process are reviewed. The motivation behind this work is to realize silicon-based photonic integrated circuits possessing unique advantages of III–V materials and silicon-on-insulator waveguides simultaneously through a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabrication...

  10. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, A.; Iurino, A.; Settanni, G.; Andrisani, A.; Stifanelli, P. F.; Larizza, P.; Mazzia, F.; Mininni, R. M.; Tangaro, S.; Bellotti, R.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  11. A hybrid neurogenetic approach for stock forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yung-Keun; Moon, Byung-Ro

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid neurogenetic system for stock trading. A recurrent neural network (NN) having one hidden layer is used for the prediction model. The input features are generated from a number of technical indicators being used by financial experts. The genetic algorithm (GA) optimizes the NN's weights under a 2-D encoding and crossover. We devised a context-based ensemble method of NNs which dynamically changes on the basis of the test day's context. To reduce the time in processing mass data, we parallelized the GA on a Linux cluster system using message passing interface. We tested the proposed method with 36 companies in NYSE and NASDAQ for 13 years from 1992 to 2004. The neurogenetic hybrid showed notable improvement on the average over the buy-and-hold strategy and the context-based ensemble further improved the results. We also observed that some companies were more predictable than others, which implies that the proposed neurogenetic hybrid can be used for financial portfolio construction.

  12. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  13. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  14. Hybrid silicon evanescent approach to optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Fang, Alexander W.; Chen, Hui-Wen; Sysak, Matthew N.; Koch, Brian R.; Lively, Erica; Raday, Omri; Kuo, Ying-Hao; Jones, Richard; Bowers, John E.

    2009-06-01

    We discuss the recently developed hybrid silicon evanescent platform (HSEP), and its application as a promising candidate for optical interconnects in silicon. A number of key discrete components and a wafer-scale integration process are reviewed. The motivation behind this work is to realize silicon-based photonic integrated circuits possessing unique advantages of III-V materials and silicon-on-insulator waveguides simultaneously through a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabrication process. Electrically pumped hybrid silicon distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflector lasers with integrated hybrid silicon photodetectors are demonstrated coupled to SOI waveguides, serving as the reliable on-chip single-frequency light sources. For the external signal processing, Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators are demonstrated, showing a resistance-capacitance-limited, 3 dB electrical bandwidth up to 8 GHz and a modulation efficiency of 1.5 V mm. The successful implementation of quantum well intermixing technique opens up the possibility to realize multiple III-V bandgaps in this platform. Sampled grating DBR devices integrated with electroabsorption modulators (EAM) are fabricated, where the bandgaps in gain, mirror, and EAM regions are 1520, 1440 and 1480 nm, respectively. The high-temperature operation characteristics of the HSEP are studied experimentally and theoretically. An overall characteristic temperature ( T 0) of 51°C, an above threshold characteristic temperature ( T 1) of 100°C, and a thermal impedance ( Z T ) of 41.8°C/W, which agrees with the theoretical prediction of 43.5°C/W, are extracted from the Fabry-Perot devices. Scaling this platform to larger dimensions is demonstrated up to 150 mm wafer diameter. A vertical outgassing channel design is developed to accomplish high-quality III-V epitaxial transfer to silicon in a timely and dimension-independent fashion.

  15. A Hybrid Optimization Approach for SRM FINOCYL Grain Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khurram Nisar; Liang Guozhu; Qasim Zeeshan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a method to design and optimize 3D FINOCYL grain (FCG) configuration for solid rocket motors (SRMs). The design process of FCG configuration involves mathematical modeling of the geometry and parametric evaluation of various inde-pendent geometric variables that define the complex configuration. Vh'tually infinite combinations of these variables will satisfy the requirements of mass of propellant, thrust, and burning time in addition to satisfying basic needs for volumetric loading fraction and web fraction. In order to ensure the acquisition of the best possible design to be acquired, a sound approach of design and optimization is essentially demanded. To meet this need, a method is introduced to acquire the finest possible performance. A series of computations are carried out to formulate the grain geometry in terms of various combinations of key shapes inclusive of ellipsoid, cone, cylinder, sphere, torus, and inclined plane. A hybrid optimization (HO) technique is established by associating genetic algorithm (GA) for global solution convergence with sequential quadratic programming (SQP) for further local convergence of the solution, thus achieving the final optimal design. A comparison of the optimal design results derived from SQP, GA, and HO algorithms is presented. By using HO technique, the parameter of propellant mass is optimized to the minimum value with the required level of thrust staying within the constrained burning time, nozzle and propellant parameters, and a fixed length and outer diameter of grain,

  16. Broadband ground-motion simulation using a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.W.; Pitarka, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes refinements to the hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (2004), which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies (f 1 Hz). In our approach, fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time. The prescribed slip distribution is constrained to follow an inverse wavenumber-squared fall-off and the average rupture speed is set at 80% of the local shear-wave velocity, which is then adjusted such that the rupture propagates faster in regions of high slip and slower in regions of low slip. We use a Kostrov-like slip-rate function having a rise time proportional to the square root of slip, with the average rise time across the entire fault constrained empirically. Recent observations from large surface rupturing earthquakes indicate a reduction of rupture propagation speed and lengthening of rise time in the near surface, which we model by applying a 70% reduction of the rupture speed and increasing the rise time by a factor of 2 in a zone extending from the surface to a depth of 5 km. We demonstrate the fidelity of the technique by modeling the strong-motion recordings from the Imperial Valley, Loma Prieta, Landers, and Northridge earthquakes.

  17. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  18. Sentiment Analysis Using Hybrid Approach: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Ashish P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is the process of identifying people’s attitude and emotional state’s from language. The main objective is realized by identifying a set of potential features in the review and extracting opinion expressions about those features by exploiting their associations. Opinion mining, also known as Sentiment analysis, plays an important role in this process. It is the study of emotions i.e. Sentiments, Expressionsthat are stated in natural language. Natural language techniques are applied to extract emotions from unstructured data. There are several techniques which can be used to analysis such type of data. Here, we are categorizing these techniques broadly as ”supervised learning”, ”unsupervised learning” and ”hybrid techniques”. The objective of this paper is to provide the overview of Sentiment Analysis, their challenges and a comparative analysis of it’s techniques in the field of Natural Language Processing

  19. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  20. Hybrid procedure combining clip on wrapping and stent placement for ruptured supraclinoid blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Hirokazu; Narikiyo, Michihisa; Nagayama, Gota; Nagao, Seiya; Tsuboi, Yoshifumi; Kambayashi, Chisaku

    2017-03-01

    Blood blister-like aneurysms of the supraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery are rare, fragile, and thin-walled lesions with a higher rate of rebleeding. Our case underwent a hybrid procedure combining direct surgical and endovascular approach.

  1. Viability of Hybrid Systems A Controllability Operator Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Labinaz, G

    2012-01-01

    The problem of viability of hybrid systems is considered in this work. A model for a hybrid system is developed including a means of including three forms of uncertainty: transition dynamics, structural uncertainty, and parametric uncertainty. A computational basis for viability of hybrid systems is developed and applied to three control law classes. An approach is developed for robust viability based on two extensions of the controllability operator. The three-tank example is examined for both the viability problem and robust viability problem. The theory is applied through simulation to an active magnetic bearing system and to a batch polymerization process showing that viability can be satisfied in practice. The problem of viable attainability is examined based on the controllability operator approach introduced by Nerode and colleagues. Lastly, properties of the controllability operator are presented.

  2. A novel Monte Carlo approach to hybrid local volatility models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. van der Stoep (Anton); L.A. Grzelak (Lech Aleksander); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe present in a Monte Carlo simulation framework, a novel approach for the evaluation of hybrid local volatility [Risk, 1994, 7, 18–20], [Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance, 1998, 1, 61–110] models. In particular, we consider the stochastic local volatility model—see e.g. Lipton et al. [Quant.

  3. Hybrid continuum-atomistic approach to model electrokinetics in nanofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amani, Ehsan, E-mail: eamani@aut.ac.ir; Movahed, Saeid, E-mail: smovahed@aut.ac.ir

    2016-06-07

    In this study, for the first time, a hybrid continuum-atomistic based model is proposed for electrokinetics, electroosmosis and electrophoresis, through nanochannels. Although continuum based methods are accurate enough to model fluid flow and electric potential in nanofluidics (in dimensions larger than 4 nm), ionic concentration is too low in nanochannels for the continuum assumption to be valid. On the other hand, the non-continuum based approaches are too time-consuming and therefore is limited to simple geometries, in practice. Here, to propose an efficient hybrid continuum-atomistic method of modelling the electrokinetics in nanochannels; the fluid flow and electric potential are computed based on continuum hypothesis coupled with an atomistic Lagrangian approach for the ionic transport. The results of the model are compared to and validated by the results of the molecular dynamics technique for a couple of case studies. Then, the influences of bulk ionic concentration, external electric field, size of nanochannel, and surface electric charge on the electrokinetic flow and ionic mass transfer are investigated, carefully. The hybrid continuum-atomistic method is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and investigate more details of the electrokinetics in nanofluidics. - Highlights: • A hybrid continuum-atomistic model is proposed for electrokinetics in nanochannels. • The model is validated by molecular dynamics. • This is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and physics.

  4. A hybrid generative-discriminative approach to speaker diarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulas, A.K.; van Kasteren, T.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a sound probabilistic approach to speaker diarization. We use a hybrid framework where a distribution over the number of speakers at each point of a multimodal stream is estimated with a discriminative model. The output of this process is used as input in a generative model

  5. An integrated hybrid system for genetic analysis combining EWOD sample preparation and magnetic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Des; Dinca, Mihai; Aherne, Margaret; Galvin, Paul [Tyndall National Institute, University College, Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Jary, Dorothee; Peponnet, Christine [CEA-LETI, Department of Technology for Biology and Health, 17 Avenue Des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Cardosa, Filipe; Freitas, Paolo, E-mail: des.brennan@tyndall.ie [INESC-MN, Rua Alves Redol, 9, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-08-17

    Over the last decade microelectronic technologies have delivered significant advances in devices for point of care diagnostics. Complex microfluidic systems integrate components such as valves, pumps etc. to manipulate liquids. In recent years, the drive is to combine biochemical protocols in a single system, delivering 'sample in answer out'. An Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) device offers the possibility to move and manipulate 64nl volumes implementing biochemical processes, while the magnetic sensor facilitates hybridisation detection. We outline an injection molding approach where EWOD and magnetic devices are integrated into a hybrid microfluidic system with the potential to implement 'sample in answer out' biological protocols.

  6. An integrated hybrid system for genetic analysis combining EWOD sample preparation and magnetic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Des; Jary, Dorothee; Peponnet, Christine; Cardosa, Filipe; Freitas, Paolo; Dinca, Mihai; Aherne, Margaret; Galvin, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Over the last decade microelectronic technologies have delivered significant advances in devices for point of care diagnostics. Complex microfluidic systems integrate components such as valves, pumps etc. to manipulate liquids. In recent years, the drive is to combine biochemical protocols in a single system, delivering "sample in answer out". An Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) device offers the possibility to move and manipulate 64nl volumes implementing biochemical processes, while the magnetic sensor facilitates hybridisation detection. We outline an injection molding approach where EWOD and magnetic devices are integrated into a hybrid microfluidic system with the potential to implement "sample in answer out" biological protocols.

  7. DyHAP: Dynamic Hybrid ANFIS-PSO Approach for Predicting Mobile Malware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Firdaus; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2016-01-01

    To deal with the large number of malicious mobile applications (e.g. mobile malware), a number of malware detection systems have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to find the optimum parameters that can be used to facilitate mobile malware identification. We also present a multi agent system architecture comprising three system agents (i.e. sniffer, extraction and selection agent) to capture and manage the pcap file for data preparation phase. In our hybrid approach, we combine an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Evaluations using data captured on a real-world Android device and the MalGenome dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in comparison to two hybrid optimization methods which are differential evolution (ANFIS-DE) and ant colony optimization (ANFIS-ACO).

  8. DyHAP: Dynamic Hybrid ANFIS-PSO Approach for Predicting Mobile Malware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Firdaus; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin

    2016-01-01

    To deal with the large number of malicious mobile applications (e.g. mobile malware), a number of malware detection systems have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to find the optimum parameters that can be used to facilitate mobile malware identification. We also present a multi agent system architecture comprising three system agents (i.e. sniffer, extraction and selection agent) to capture and manage the pcap file for data preparation phase. In our hybrid approach, we combine an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Evaluations using data captured on a real-world Android device and the MalGenome dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in comparison to two hybrid optimization methods which are differential evolution (ANFIS-DE) and ant colony optimization (ANFIS-ACO). PMID:27611312

  9. Combined hybrid functional and DFT+U calculations for metal chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aras, Mehmet; Kılıç, Çetin, E-mail: cetin-kilic@gyte.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey)

    2014-07-28

    In the density-functional studies of materials with localized electronic states, the local/semilocal exchange-correlation functionals are often either combined with a Hubbard parameter U as in the LDA+U method or mixed with a fraction of exactly computed (Fock) exchange energy yielding a hybrid functional. Although some inaccuracies of the semilocal density approximations are thus fixed to a certain extent, the improvements are not sufficient to make the predictions agree with the experimental data. Here, we put forward the perspective that the hybrid functional scheme and the LDA+U method should be treated as complementary, and propose to combine the range-separated Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional with the Hubbard U. We thus present a variety of HSE+U calculations for a set of II-VI semiconductors, consisting of zinc and cadmium monochalcogenides, along with comparison to the experimental data. Our findings imply that an optimal value U{sup *} of the Hubbard parameter could be determined, which ensures that the HSE+U{sup *} calculation reproduces the experimental band gap. It is shown that an improved description not only of the electronic structure but also of the crystal structure and energetics is obtained by adding the U{sup *} term to the HSE functional, proving the utility of HSE+U{sup *} approach in modeling semiconductors with localized electronic states.

  10. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are pre...

  11. HYBRID TREATMENT OF COMPLEX COMBINED CORONARY AND VALVE DISEASE FOR PATIENTS WITH HIGH LEVEL OF OPERATIONAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Aniskevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of results of hybrid treatment of complex combined coronary and valve disease at patients with high level of operational risk between January 2005 and December 2010. The hybrid treatment of complex combined coronary and valve disease, provides performance of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI in a combinati- on valve surgery. 118 patients, with a median age 64.4 ± 8.9 years, are included in research. 2 approaches of a hy- brid method of treatment – 2-Staged (n = 86 and a method «1-stop» (n = 32 are applied. The оperative mortality has made 4.2%. On the basis of the received results were the conclusion is drawn that at high-risk patients with complex combined coronary and valve disease the hybrid method of treatment allows to lower risk of operation. 

  12. A hybrid clustering approach to recognition of protein families in 114 microbial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogarten J Peter

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grouping proteins into sequence-based clusters is a fundamental step in many bioinformatic analyses (e.g., homology-based prediction of structure or function. Standard clustering methods such as single-linkage clustering capture a history of cluster topologies as a function of threshold, but in practice their usefulness is limited because unrelated sequences join clusters before biologically meaningful families are fully constituted, e.g. as the result of matches to so-called promiscuous domains. Use of the Markov Cluster algorithm avoids this non-specificity, but does not preserve topological or threshold information about protein families. Results We describe a hybrid approach to sequence-based clustering of proteins that combines the advantages of standard and Markov clustering. We have implemented this hybrid approach over a relational database environment, and describe its application to clustering a large subset of PDB, and to 328577 proteins from 114 fully sequenced microbial genomes. To demonstrate utility with difficult problems, we show that hybrid clustering allows us to constitute the paralogous family of ATP synthase F1 rotary motor subunits into a single, biologically interpretable hierarchical grouping that was not accessible using either single-linkage or Markov clustering alone. We describe validation of this method by hybrid clustering of PDB and mapping SCOP families and domains onto the resulting clusters. Conclusion Hybrid (Markov followed by single-linkage clustering combines the advantages of the Markov Cluster algorithm (avoidance of non-specific clusters resulting from matches to promiscuous domains and single-linkage clustering (preservation of topological information as a function of threshold. Within the individual Markov clusters, single-linkage clustering is a more-precise instrument, discerning sub-clusters of biological relevance. Our hybrid approach thus provides a computationally efficient

  13. A hybrid approach for probabilistic forecasting of electricity price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Wang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    The electricity market plays a key role in realizing the economic prophecy of smart grids. Accurate and reliable electricity market price forecasting is essential to facilitate various decision making activities of market participants in the future smart grid environment. However, due...... to probabilistic interval forecasts can be of great importance to quantify the uncertainties of potential forecasts, thus effectively supporting the decision making activities against uncertainties and risks ahead. This paper proposes a hybrid approach to construct prediction intervals of MCPs with a two...... electricity price forecasting is proposed in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid method has been validated through comprehensive tests using real price data from Australian electricity market....

  14. A Hybrid Combination Scheme for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhua Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel hybrid combination scheme in cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS, which utilizes the diversity of reporting channels to achieve better throughput performance. Secondary users (SUs with good reporting channel quality transmit quantized local observation statistics to fusion center (FC, while others report their local decisions. FC makes the final decision by carrying out hybrid combination. We derive the closed-form expressions of throughput and detection performance as a function of the number of SUs which report local observation statistics. The simulation and numerical results show that the hybrid combination scheme can achieve better throughput performance than hard combination scheme and soft combination scheme.

  15. Solving University Scheduling Problem Using Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmed Shaikh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In universities scheduling curriculum activity is an essential job. Primarily, scheduling is a distribution of limited resources under interrelated constraints. The set of hard constraints demand the highest priority and should not to be violated at any cost, while the maximum soft constraints satisfaction mounts the quality scale of solution. In this research paper, a novel bisected approach is introduced that is comprisesd of GA (Genetic Algorithm as well as Backtracking Recursive Search. The employed technique deals with both hard and soft constraints successively. The first phase decisively is focused over elimination of all the hard constraints bounded violations and eventually produces partial solution for subsequent step. The second phase is supposed to draw the best possible solution on the search space. Promising results are obtained by implementation on the real dataset. The key points of the research approach are to get assurance of hard constraints removal from the dataset and minimizing computational time for GA by initializing pre-processed set of chromosomes.

  16. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  17. Combining accounting approaches to practice valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzben, D; Finkler, S A

    1998-06-01

    Healthcare organizations that wish to acquire physician or ambulatory care practices can choose from a variety of practice valuation approaches. Basic accounting methods assess the value of a physician practice on the basis of a historical, balance-sheet description of tangible assets. Yet these methods alone are inadequate to determine the true financial value of a practice. By using a combination of accounting approaches to practice valuation that consider factors such as fair market value, opportunity cost, and discounted cash flow over a defined time period, organizations can more accurately assess a practice's actual value.

  18. Viscous QCD matter in a hybrid hydrodynamic+Boltzmann approach

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Huichao; Heinz, Ulrich W

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid transport approach for the bulk evolution of viscous QCD matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented. The expansion of the dense deconfined phase of the reaction is modeled with viscous hydrodynamics while the dilute late hadron gas stage is described microscopically by the Boltzmann equation. The advantages of such a hybrid approach lie in the improved capability of handling large dissipative corrections in the late dilute phase of the reaction, including a realistic treatment of the non-equilibrium hadronic chemistry and kinetic freeze-out. By varying the switching temperature at which the hydrodynamic output is converted to particles for further propagation with the Boltzmann cascade we test the ability of the macroscopic hydrodynamic approach to emulate the microscopic evolution during the hadronic stage and extract the temperature dependence of the effective shear viscosity of the hadron resonance gas produced in the collision. We find that the extracted values depend...

  19. A hybrid approach for addressing ring flexibility in 3D database searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, J

    1997-01-01

    A hybrid approach for flexible 3D database searching is presented that addresses the problem of ring flexibility. It combines the explicit storage of up to 25 multiple conformations of rings, with up to eight atoms, generated by the 3D structure generator CORINA with the power of a torsional fitting technique implemented in the 3D database system UNITY. A comparison with the original UNITY approach, using a database with about 130,000 entries and five different pharmacophore queries, was performed. The hybrid approach scored, on an average, 10-20% more hits than the reference run. Moreover, specific problems with unrealistic hit geometries produced by the original approach can be excluded. In addition, the influence of the maximum number of ring conformations per molecule was investigated. An optimal number of 10 conformations per molecule is recommended.

  20. Optimal design of supply chain network under uncertainty environment using hybrid analytical and simulation modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadamrong, N.; Piyathanavong, V.

    2017-04-01

    Models that aim to optimize the design of supply chain networks have gained more interest in the supply chain literature. Mixed-integer linear programming and discrete-event simulation are widely used for such an optimization problem. We present a hybrid approach to support decisions for supply chain network design using a combination of analytical and discrete-event simulation models. The proposed approach is based on iterative procedures until the difference between subsequent solutions satisfies the pre-determined termination criteria. The effectiveness of proposed approach is illustrated by an example, which shows closer to optimal results with much faster solving time than the results obtained from the conventional simulation-based optimization model. The efficacy of this proposed hybrid approach is promising and can be applied as a powerful tool in designing a real supply chain network. It also provides the possibility to model and solve more realistic problems, which incorporate dynamism and uncertainty.

  1. A hybrid approach using chaotic dynamics and global search algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igeta, Hideki; Hasegawa, Mikio

    Chaotic dynamics have been effectively applied to improve various heuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems in many studies. Currently, the most used chaotic optimization scheme is to drive heuristic solution search algorithms applicable to large-scale problems by chaotic neurodynamics including the tabu effect of the tabu search. Alternatively, meta-heuristic algorithms are used for combinatorial optimization by combining a neighboring solution search algorithm, such as tabu, gradient, or other search method, with a global search algorithm, such as genetic algorithms (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO), or others. In these hybrid approaches, the ACO has effectively optimized the solution of many benchmark problems in the quadratic assignment problem library. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid method that combines the effective chaotic search algorithm that has better performance than the tabu search and global search algorithms such as ACO and GA. Our results show that the proposed chaotic hybrid algorithm has better performance than the conventional chaotic search and conventional hybrid algorithms. In addition, we show that chaotic search algorithm combined with ACO has better performance than when combined with GA.

  2. A hybrid approach to simulating mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarron, Andy P; Raj, Sharad; Hyers, Robert; Kim, Moon K

    2009-12-01

    Empirical studies indicate that a polymer reinforced with nanoscale particles could enhance its mechanical properties such as stiffness and toughness. To give insight into how and why this nanoparticle reinforcement is effective, it is necessary to develop computational models that can accurately simulate the effects of nanoparticles on the fracture characteristics of polymer composites. Furthermore, a hybrid model that can account for both continuum and non-continuum effects will hasten the development of not only new hierarchical composite materials but also new theories to explain their behavior. This paper presents a hybrid modeling scheme for simulating fracture of polymer nanocomposites by utilizing an atomistic modeling approach called Elastic Network Model (ENM) in conjunction with a traditional Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The novelty of this hybrid ENM-FEA approach lies in its ability to model less interesting outer domains with FEA while still accounting for areas of interest such as crack tip reion and the interface between a nanoparticle and the polymer matrix at atomic scale with ENM. Various simulation conditions have been tested to determine the feasibility of the proposed hybrid model. For instance, an iterative result from a uniaxial loading with isotropic properties in an ENM-FEA model shows accuracy and convergence to the analytic solution.

  3. Minimally invasive treatment of the thoracic spine disease: completely percutaneous and hybrid approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrelli, Francesco Ciro; Francesco Ciro, Tamburrelli; Scaramuzzo, Laura; Laura, Scaramuzzo; Genitiempo, Maurizio; Maurizio, Genitiempo; Proietti, Luca; Luca, Proietti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of a limited invasive approach for the treatment of upper thoracic spine disease. Seven patients with type-A thoracic fractures and three with tumors underwent long thoracic stabilization through a minimally invasive approach. Four patients underwent a completely percutaneous approach while the other three underwent a modified hybrid technique, a combination of percutaneous and open approach. The hybrid constructs were realized using a percutaneous approach to the spine distally to the spinal lesion and by open approach proximally. In two patients, the stabilization was extended proximally up to the cervical spine. Clinical and radiographic assessment was performed during the first year after the operation at 3, 6, and 12 months. No technically related complications were seen. The postoperative recovery was rapid even in the tumor patients with neurologic impairment. Blood loss was irrelevant. At one-year follow-up there was no loosening or breakage of the screws or failure of the implants. When technically feasible a completely percutaneous approach has to be taken in consideration; otherwise, a combined open-percutaneous approach could be planned to minimize the invasivity of a completely open approach to the thoracic spine.

  4. Directing Hybrid Structures by Combining Self-Assembly of Functional Block Copolymers and Atomic Layer Deposition: A Demonstration on Hybrid Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Moshe; Frey, Gitti L

    2015-11-24

    The simplicity and versatility of block copolymer self-assembly offers their use as templates for nano- and meso-structured materials. However, in most cases, the material processing requires multiple steps, and the block copolymer is a sacrificial building block. Here, we combine a self-assembled block copolymer template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a metal oxide to generate functional hybrid films in a simple process with no etching or burning steps. This approach is demonstrated by using the crystallization-induced self-assembly of a rod-coil block copolymer, P3HT-b-PEO, and the ALD of ZnO. The block copolymer self-assembles into fibrils, ∼ 20 nm in diameter and microns long, with crystalline P3HT cores and amorphous PEO corona. The affinity of the ALD precursors to the PEO corona directs the exclusive deposition of crystalline ZnO within the PEO domains. The obtained hybrid structure possesses the properties desired for photovoltaic films: donor-acceptor continuous nanoscale interpenetrated networks. Therefore, we integrated the films into single-layer hybrid photovoltaics devices, thus demonstrating that combining self-assembly of functional block copolymers and ALD is a simple approach to direct desired complex hybrid morphologies.

  5. A hybrid approach to device integration on a genetic analysis platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Des; Jary, Dorothee; Kurg, Ants; Berik, Evgeny; Justice, John; Aherne, Margaret; Macek, Milan; Galvin, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Point-of-care (POC) systems require significant component integration to implement biochemical protocols associated with molecular diagnostic assays. Hybrid platforms where discrete components are combined in a single platform are a suitable approach to integration, where combining multiple device fabrication steps on a single substrate is not possible due to incompatible or costly fabrication steps. We integrate three devices each with a specific system functionality: (i) a silicon electro-wetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) device to move and mix sample and reagent droplets in an oil phase, (ii) a polymer microfluidic chip containing channels and reservoirs and (iii) an aqueous phase glass microarray for fluorescence microarray hybridization detection. The EWOD device offers the possibility of fully integrating on-chip sample preparation using nanolitre sample and reagent volumes. A key challenge is sample transfer from the oil phase EWOD device to the aqueous phase microarray for hybridization detection. The EWOD device, waveguide performance and functionality are maintained during the integration process. An on-chip biochemical protocol for arrayed primer extension (APEX) was implemented for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNiP) analysis. The prepared sample is aspirated from the EWOD oil phase to the aqueous phase microarray for hybridization. A bench-top instrumentation system was also developed around the integrated platform to drive the EWOD electrodes, implement APEX sample heating and image the microarray after hybridization.

  6. A bottom-up approach for the synthesis of highly ordered fullerene-intercalated graphene hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios eGournis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research effort on graphene focuses on its use as a building block for the development of new hybrid nanostructures with well-defined dimensions and properties suitable for applications such as gas storage, heterogeneous catalysis, gas/liquid separations, nanosensing and biomedicine. Towards this aim, here we describe a new bottom-up approach, which combines self-assembly with the Langmuir Schaefer deposition technique to synthesize graphene-based layered hybrid materials hosting fullerene molecules within the interlayer space. Our film preparation consists in a bottom-up layer-by-layer process that proceeds via the formation of a hybrid organo-graphene oxide Langmuir film. The structure and composition of these hybrid fullerene-containing thin multilayers deposited on hydrophobic substrates were characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, atomic force microscopy and conductivity measurements. The latter revealed that the presence of C60 within the interlayer spacing leads to an increase in electrical conductivity of the hybrid material as compared to the organo-graphene matrix alone.

  7. A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...

  8. Hybrid simulations: combining atomistic and coarse-grained force fields using virtual sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepiela, Andrzej J; Louhivuori, Martti; Peter, Christine; Marrink, Siewert J

    2011-06-14

    Hybrid simulations, in which part of the system is represented at atomic resolution and the remaining part at a reduced, coarse-grained, level offer a powerful way to combine the accuracy associated with the atomistic force fields to the sampling speed obtained with coarse-grained (CG) potentials. In this work we introduce a straightforward scheme to perform hybrid simulations, making use of virtual sites to couple the two levels of resolution. With the help of these virtual sites interactions between molecules at different levels of resolution, i.e. between CG and atomistic molecules, are treated the same way as the pure CG-CG interactions. To test our method, we combine the Gromos atomistic force field with a number of coarse-grained potentials, obtained through several approaches that are designed to obtain CG potentials based on an existing atomistic model, namely iterative Boltzmann inversion, force matching, and a potential of mean force subtraction procedure (SB). We also explore the use of the MARTINI force field for the CG potential. A simple system, consisting of atomistic butane molecules dissolved in CG butane, is used to study the performance of our hybrid scheme. Based on the potentials of mean force for atomistic butane in CG solvent, and the properties of 1:1 mixtures of atomistic and CG butane which should exhibit ideal mixing behavior, we conclude that the MARTINI and SB potentials are particularly suited to be combined with the atomistic force field. The MARTINI potential is subsequently used to perform hybrid simulations of atomistic dialanine peptides in both CG butane and water. Compared to a fully atomistic description of the system, the hybrid description gives similar results provided that the dielectric screening of water is accounted for. Within the field of biomolecules, our method appears ideally suited to study e.g. protein-ligand binding, where the active site and ligand are modeled in atomistic detail and the rest of the protein

  9. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2017-05-23

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  10. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ferreira Leão; Lisete Chamma Davide; José Marcello Salabert de Campos; Antonio Vander Pereira; Fernanda de Oliveira Bustamante

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and pearl millet (P. glaucum). Tetraploid (AAA'B) and pentaploid (AA'A'BB) chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB) and pearl millet (AA) were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaplo...

  11. Diagnosing Hybrid Systems: a Bayesian Model Selection Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlraith, Sheila A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the problem of monitoring and diagnosing noisy complex dynamical systems that are modeled as hybrid systems-models of continuous behavior, interleaved by discrete transitions. In particular, we examine continuous systems with embedded supervisory controllers that experience abrupt, partial or full failure of component devices. Building on our previous work in this area (MBCG99;MBCG00), our specific focus in this paper ins on the mathematical formulation of the hybrid monitoring and diagnosis task as a Bayesian model tracking algorithm. The nonlinear dynamics of many hybrid systems present challenges to probabilistic tracking. Further, probabilistic tracking of a system for the purposes of diagnosis is problematic because the models of the system corresponding to failure modes are numerous and generally very unlikely. To focus tracking on these unlikely models and to reduce the number of potential models under consideration, we exploit logic-based techniques for qualitative model-based diagnosis to conjecture a limited initial set of consistent candidate models. In this paper we discuss alternative tracking techniques that are relevant to different classes of hybrid systems, focusing specifically on a method for tracking multiple models of nonlinear behavior simultaneously using factored sampling and conditional density propagation. To illustrate and motivate the approach described in this paper we examine the problem of monitoring and diganosing NASA's Sprint AERCam, a small spherical robotic camera unit with 12 thrusters that enable both linear and rotational motion.

  12. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  13. Marketing image categorization using hybrid human-machine combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasambandam, Nathan; Madhu, Himanshu

    2012-03-01

    Marketing instruments with nested, short-form, symbol loaded content need to be studied differently. Image classification in the Web2.0 world can dynamically use a configurable amount of internal and external data as well as varying levels of crowd-sourcing. Our work is one such examination of how to construct a hybrid technique involving learning and crowd-sourcing. Through a parameter called turkmix and a multitude of crowd-sourcing techniques available we show that we can control the trend of metrics such as precision and recall on the hybrid categorizer.

  14. Modelling hybrid stars in quark-hadron approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, S. [FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dexheimer, V. [Kent State University, Department of Physics, Kent, OH (United States); Negreiros, R. [Federal Fluminense University, Gragoata, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    The density in the core of neutron stars can reach values of about 5 to 10 times nuclear matter saturation density. It is, therefore, a natural assumption that hadrons may have dissolved into quarks under such conditions, forming a hybrid star. This star will have an outer region of hadronic matter and a core of quark matter or even a mixed state of hadrons and quarks. In order to investigate such phases, we discuss different model approaches that can be used in the study of compact stars as well as being applicable to a wider range of temperatures and densities. One major model ingredient, the role of quark interactions in the stability of massive hybrid stars is discussed. In this context, possible conflicts with lattice QCD simulations are investigated. (orig.)

  15. Multifunctional hybrids by combining ordered mesoporous materials and macromolecular building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Azzaroni, Omar

    2011-02-01

    This critical review presents and discusses the recent advances in complex hybrid materials that result from the combination of polymers and mesoporous matrices. Ordered mesoporous materials derived from supramolecular templating present high surface area and tailored pore sizes; pore surfaces can be further modified by organic, organometallic or even biologically active functional groups. This permits the creation of hybrid systems with distinct physical properties or chemical functions located in the framework walls, the pore surface, and the pore interior. Bringing polymeric building blocks into the game opens a new dimension: the possibility to create phase separated regions (functional domains) within the pores that can behave as "reactive pockets" of nanoscale size, with highly controlled chemistry and interactions within restricted volumes. The possibilities of combining "hard" and "soft" building blocks to yield these novel nanocomposite materials with tuneable functional domains ordered in space are potentially infinite. New properties are bound to arise from the synergy of both kinds of components, and their spatial location. The main object of this review is to report on new approaches towards functional polymer-inorganic mesostructured hybrids, as well as to discuss the present challenges in this flourishing research field. Indeed, the powerful concepts resulting from the synergy of sol-gel processing, supramolecular templating and polymer chemistry open new opportunities in the design of advanced functional materials: the tailored production of complex matter displaying spatially-addressed chemistry based on the control of chemical topology. Breakthrough applications are expected in the fields of sustainable energy, environment sensing and remediation, biomaterials, pharmaceutical industry and catalysis, among others (221 references).

  16. Hybrid reactor based on combined cavitation and ozonation: from concept to practical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, P R; Mededovic-Thagard, S; McGuire, D; Chapas, G; Blackmon, J; Cathey, R

    2014-03-01

    The present work gives an in depth discussion related to the development of a hybrid advanced oxidation reactor, which can be effectively used for the treatment of various types of water. The reactor is based on the principle of intensifying degradation/disinfection using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, acoustic cavitation, ozone injection and electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Theoretical studies have been presented to highlight the uniform distribution of the cavitational activity and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals in the cavitation zone, as well as higher turbulence in the main reactor zone. The combination of these different oxidation technologies have been shown to result in enhanced water treatment ability, which can be attributed to the enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals, enhanced contact of ozone and contaminants, and the elimination of mass transfer resistances during electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Compared to the use of individual approaches, the hybrid reactor is expected to intensify the treatment process by 5-20 times, depending on the application in question, which can be confirmed based on the literature illustrations. Also, the use of Ozonix® has been successfully proven while processing recycled fluids at commercial sites on over 750 oil and natural gas wells during hydraulic operations around the United States. The superiority of the hybrid process over conventional chemical treatments in terms of bacteria and scale reduction as well as increased water flowability and better chemical compatibility, which is a key requirement for oil and gas applications, has been established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Forecasting conditional climate-change using a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Akbar Akbari; Friedel, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed to forecast the likelihood of climate-change across spatial landscape gradients. This hybrid approach involves reconstructing past precipitation and temperature using the self-organizing map technique; determining quantile trends in the climate-change variables by quantile regression modeling; and computing conditional forecasts of climate-change variables based on self-similarity in quantile trends using the fractionally differenced auto-regressive integrated moving average technique. The proposed modeling approach is applied to states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) in the southwestern U.S., where conditional forecasts of climate-change variables are evaluated against recent (2012) observations, evaluated at a future time period (2030), and evaluated as future trends (2009–2059). These results have broad economic, political, and social implications because they quantify uncertainty in climate-change forecasts affecting various sectors of society. Another benefit of the proposed hybrid approach is that it can be extended to any spatiotemporal scale providing self-similarity exists.

  18. A Hybrid RBF-SVM Ensemble Approach for Data Mining Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major developments in machine learning in the past decade is the ensemble method, which finds highly accurate classifier by combining many moderately accurate component classifiers. This paper addresses using an ensemble of classification methods for data mining applications like intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification. In this research work, new hybrid classification method is proposed for heterogeneous ensemble classifiers using arcing and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble is designed using a Radial Basis Function (RBF and Support Vector Machine (SVM as base classifiers. Here, modified training sets are formed by resampling from original training set; classifiers constructed using these training sets and then combined by voting. The proposed RBF-SVM hybrid system is superior to individual approach for intrusion detection, direct marketing, and signature verification in terms of classification accuracy.

  19. A Low Cost, Hybrid Approach to Data Mining Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will combine a low cost physical modeling approach with inductive, data-centered modeling in an aerosopace relevant context to demonstrate...

  20. A Hybrid Data Mining Approach for Intrusion Detection on Imbalanced NSL-KDD Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Parsaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems aim to detect malicious viruses from computer and network traffic, which is not possible using common firewall. Most intrusion detection systems are developed based on machine learning techniques. Since datasets which used in intrusion detection are imbalanced, in the previous methods, the accuracy of detecting two attack classes, R2L and U2R, is lower than that of the normal and other attack classes. In order to overcome this issue, this study employs a hybrid approach. This hybrid approach is a combination of synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE and cluster center and nearest neighbor (CANN. Important features are selected using leave one out method (LOO. Moreover, this study employs NSL KDD dataset. Results indicate that the proposed method improves the accuracy of detecting U2R and R2L attacks in comparison to the baseline paper by 94% and 50%, respectively.

  1. The hybrid BCI system for movement control by combining motor imagery and moving onset visual evoked potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Li, Hui; Deng, Lili; Yang, Hao; Lv, Xulin; Li, Peiyang; Li, Fali; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Tiejun; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Movement control is an important application for EEG-BCI (EEG-based brain-computer interface) systems. A single-modality BCI cannot provide an efficient and natural control strategy, but a hybrid BCI system that combines two or more different tasks can effectively overcome the drawbacks encountered in single-modality BCI control. Approach. In the current paper, we developed a new hybrid BCI system by combining MI (motor imagery) and mVEP (motion-onset visual evoked potential), aiming to realize the more efficient 2D movement control of a cursor. Main result. The offline analysis demonstrates that the hybrid BCI system proposed in this paper could evoke the desired MI and mVEP signal features simultaneously, and both are very close to those evoked in the single-modality BCI task. Furthermore, the online 2D movement control experiment reveals that the proposed hybrid BCI system could provide more efficient and natural control commands. Significance. The proposed hybrid BCI system is compensative to realize efficient 2D movement control for a practical online system, especially for those situations in which P300 stimuli are not suitable to be applied.

  2. A semiclassical hybrid approach to many particle quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Frank

    2006-07-01

    We analytically derive a correlated approach for a mixed semiclassical many particle dynamics, treating a fraction of the degrees of freedom by the multitrajectory semiclassical initial value method of Herman and Kluk [Chem. Phys. 91, 27 (1984)] while approximately treating the dynamics of the remaining degrees of freedom with fixed initial phase space variables, analogously to the thawed Gaussian wave packet dynamics of Heller [J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1544 (1975)]. A first application of this hybrid approach to the well studied Secrest-Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4556 (1966)] model of atom-diatomic collisions is promising. Results close to the quantum ones for correlation functions as well as scattering probabilities could be gained with considerably reduced numerical effort as compared to the full semiclassical Herman-Kluk approach. Furthermore, the harmonic nature of the different degrees of freedom can be determined a posteriori by comparing results with and without the additional approximation.

  3. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are presented (multiport grain and high mixture ratio which aim at reducing negative effects without enhancing regression rate. Furthermore, fuel material changes and nonconventional geometries of grain and/or injector are presented as methods to increase fuel regression rate. Although most of these approaches are still at the laboratory or concept scale, many of them are promising.

  4. Indoor Wireless Localization-hybrid and Unconstrained Nonlinear Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jayabharathy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a hybrid TOA/RSSI wireless localization is proposed for accurate positioning in indoor UWB systems. The major problem in indoor localization is the effect of Non-Line of Sight (NLOS propagation. To mitigate the NLOS effects, an unconstrained nonlinear optimization approach is utilized to process Time-of-Arrival (TOA and Received Signal Strength (RSS in the location system.TOA range measurements and path loss model are used to discriminate LOS and NLOS conditions. The weighting factors assigned by hypothesis testing, is used for solving the objective function in the proposed approach. This approach is used for describing the credibility of the TOA range measurement. Performance of the proposed technique is done based on MATLAB simulation. The result shows that the proposed technique performs well and achieves improved positioning under severe NLOS conditions.

  5. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer F. Ghanem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  6. A Linear Approach for Depth and Colour Camera Calibration Using Hybrid Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Li Cheng; Xuan Ju; Ruo-Feng Tong; Min Tang; Jian Chang; Jian-Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Many recent applications of computer graphics and human computer interaction have adopted both colour cameras and depth cameras as input devices. Therefore, an effective calibration of both types of hardware taking different colour and depth inputs is required. Our approach removes the numerical difficulties of using non-linear optimization in previous methods which explicitly resolve camera intrinsics as well as the transformation between depth and colour cameras. A matrix of hybrid parameters is introduced to linearize our optimization. The hybrid parameters offer a transformation from a depth parametric space (depth camera image) to a colour parametric space (colour camera image) by combining the intrinsic parameters of depth camera and a rotation transformation from depth camera to colour camera. Both the rotation transformation and intrinsic parameters can be explicitly calculated from our hybrid parameters with the help of a standard QR factorisation. We test our algorithm with both synthesized data and real-world data where ground-truth depth information is captured by Microsoft Kinect. The experiments show that our approach can provide comparable accuracy of calibration with the state-of-the-art algorithms while taking much less computation time (1/50 of Herrera’s method and 1/10 of Raposo’s method) due to the advantage of using hybrid parameters.

  7. Hybrid closure of atrial septal defect: A modified approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Sheth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3.5-year-old girl underwent transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in early infancy during which time her secundum atrial septal defect (ASD was left alone. When she came for elective closure of ASD, she was found to have bilaterally blocked femoral veins. The defect was successfully closed with an Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO; St. Jude Medical, Plymouth, MN, USA using a hybrid approach via a sub-mammary mini-thoracotomy incision without using cardiopulmonary bypass. At the end of 1-year follow-up, the child is asymptomatic with device in a stable position without any residual shunt.

  8. Hybrid-system approach to fault-tolerant quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ashley M.; Huang, Jingjing; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a layered hybrid-system approach to quantum communication that involves the distribution of a topological cluster state throughout a quantum network. Photon loss and other errors are suppressed by optical multiplexing and entanglement purification. The scheme is scalable to large distances, achieving an end-to-end rate of 1 kHz with around 50 qubits per node. We suggest a potentially suitable implementation of an individual node composed of erbium spins (single atom or ensemble) coupled via flux qubits to a microwave resonator, allowing for deterministic local gates, stable quantum memories, and emission of photons in the telecom regime.

  9. [A hybrid approach to surgery for thoracic aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L., de la Motte; Baekgaard, N.; Jensen, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    A 57-year-old male, previously treated surgically with insertion of grafts for type A and B aortic dissection, presented with a pulsatile mass in the jugular fossa. Further examination verified a pseudoaneurysm the inlet of which was located at the proximal anastomotic site of the descending aortic...... graft and a newly developed aneurysm of the aortic arch. Using a left lateral thoracotomy to avoid manipulation of the pseudoaneurysm, we adopted a hybrid approach by first debranching the subclavian and carotid arteries from the descending aorta followed by endoluminal grafting of the aortic arch...

  10. Power Adaptation Based on Truncated Channel Inversion for Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.

  11. An efficient hybrid causative event-based approach for deriving the annual flood frequency distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Mark; Li, Jing; Lambert, Martin; Kuczera, George; Metcalfe, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Flood extremes are driven by highly variable and complex climatic and hydrological processes. Derived flood frequency methods are often used to predict the flood frequency distribution (FFD) because they can provide predictions in ungauged catchments and evaluate the impact of land-use or climate change. This study presents recent work on development of a new derived flood frequency method called the hybrid causative events (HCE) approach. The advantage of the HCE approach is that it combines the accuracy of the continuous simulation approach with the computational efficiency of the event-based approaches. Derived flood frequency methods, can be divided into two classes. Event-based approaches provide fast estimation, but can also lead to prediction bias due to limitations of inherent assumptions required for obtaining input information (rainfall and catchment wetness) for events that cause large floods. Continuous simulation produces more accurate predictions, however, at the cost of massive computational time. The HCE method uses a short continuous simulation to provide inputs for a rainfall-runoff model running in an event-based fashion. A proof-of-concept pilot study that the HCE produces estimates of the flood frequency distribution with similar accuracy as the continuous simulation, but with dramatically reduced computation time. Recent work incorporated seasonality into the HCE approach and evaluated with a more realistic set of eight sites from a wide range of climate zones, typical of Australia, using a virtual catchment approach. The seasonal hybrid-CE provided accurate predictions of the FFD for all sites. Comparison with the existing non-seasonal hybrid-CE showed that for some sites the non-seasonal hybrid-CE significantly over-predicted the FFD. Analysis of the underlying cause of whether a site had a high, low or no need to use seasonality found it was based on a combination of reasons, that were difficult to predict apriori. Hence it is recommended

  12. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  13. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  14. Many-Body Approach to Mesons, Hybrids and Glueballs

    CERN Document Server

    Cotanch, S R; Cotanch, Stephen R.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2000-01-01

    We represent QCD at the hadronic scale by means of an effective Hamiltonian, H, formulated in the Coulomb gauge. As in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, chiral symmetry is dynamically broken, however our approach is renormalizable and also includes confinement through a linear potential with slope specified by lattice gauge theory. We perform a comparative study of alternative many-body techniques for approximately diagonalizing H: BCS for the vacuum ground state; TDA and RPA for the excited hadron states. We adequately describe the experimental meson and lattice glueball spectra and perform the first relativistic, three quasiparticle calculation for hybrid mesons. In general agreement with alternative theoretical approaches, we predict the lightest hybrid states near but above 2 GeV, indicating the two recently observed $J^{PC} = 1^{-+}$ exotics at 1.4 and 1.6 GeV are of a different, perhaps four quark, structure. We also detail a new isospin dependent interaction from $q\\bar{q}$ color octet annihilation (analog...

  15. An Adaptive and Hybrid Approach for Revisiting the Visibility Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ícaro Lins Leitão da Cunha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the visibility problem, which is traditionally known in Computer Graphics and Vision fields as the process of computing a (potentially visible set of primitives in the computational model of a scene. We propose a hybrid solution that uses a dry structure (in the sense of data reduction, a triangulation of the type J1a, to accelerate the task of searching for visible primitives. We came up with a solution that is useful for real-time, on-line, interactive applications as 3D visualization. In such applications the main goal is to load the minimum amount of primitives from the scene during the rendering stage, as possible. For this purpose, our algorithm executes the culling by using a hybrid paradigm based on viewing-frustum, back-face culling and occlusion models. Results have shown substantial improvement over these traditional approaches if applied separately. This novel approach can be used in devices with no dedicated processors or with low processing power, as cell phones or embedded displays, or to visualize data through the Internet, as in virtual museums applications.

  16. A Hybrid Motion Compensation De-interlacing Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Motion compensation de-interlacing is expected to be better than linear techniques; but all the block-based motion compensation de-interlacing methods cause block artifacts. The algorithm proposed in this paper is concerned with reducing the deficiency of motion-compensated interpolation by using adaptive hybrid de-interlacing methods. A spatio-temporal tensor-based approach is used to get more accurate motion field for de-interlacing. Motion vector is assigned for each position with pixel precision; the block artifact is reduced significantly. To deal with the artifacts introduced by motion-compensation when the motion estimation is incorrect, linear techniques are considered by adaptive weighting. Furthermore, directional filter is adapted to preserve details and the edge discontinuity could be eliminated greatly. Our approach is robust to incorrect motion vector estimation.

  17. Proposal: A Hybrid Dictionary Modelling Approach for Malay Tweet Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Nor Azlizawati Binti; Idris, Norisma; Arshi Saloot, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Malay Twitter message presents a special deviation from the original language. Malay Tweet widely used currently by Twitter users, especially at Malaya archipelago. Thus, it is important to make a normalization system which can translated Malay Tweet language into the standard Malay language. Some researchers have conducted in natural language processing which mainly focuses on normalizing English Twitter messages, while few studies have been done for normalize Malay Tweets. This paper proposes an approach to normalize Malay Twitter messages based on hybrid dictionary modelling methods. This approach normalizes noisy Malay twitter messages such as colloquially language, novel words, and interjections into standard Malay language. This research will be used Language Model and N-grams model.

  18. Fuzzy Inspired Hybrid Genetic Approach to Optimize Travelling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the category of algorithm Problems are basically exponential problems. These problems are basically exponential problems and take time to find the solution. In the present work we are optimising one of the common NP complete problem called Travelling Salesman Problem. In our work we have defined a genetic approach by combining fuzzy approach along with genetics. In this work we have implemented the modified DPX crossover to improve genetic approach. The work is implemented in MATLAB environment and obtained results shows the define approach has optimized the existing genetic algorithm results

  19. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  20. A new hybrid algorithm for solving transient combined conduction radiation heat transfer problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabane Raoudha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and the Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM is proposed as an hybrid solver for two dimensional transient conduction and radiation heat transfer problems in an optically emitting, absorbing and scattering medium. The LBM was used to solve the energy equation and the CVFEM was used to compute the radiative information. The advantages of the proposed methodology is to avoid problems that confronted when previous techniques are used to predict radiative heat transfer, essentially, in complex geometries and when there is scattering and/or non-black boundaries surfaces. This method combination, which is applied for the first time to solve this unsteady combined mode of heat transfer, has been found to accurately predict the effects of various thermo-physical parameters such as the scattering albedo, the conduction-radiation parameter and the extinction coefficient on temperature distribution. The results of the LBM-CVFEM combination were found to be in excellent agreement with the LBM-CDM (Collapsed Dimension Methodthis proposed numerical approach include, among others, simple implementation on a computer, accurate CPU time, and capability of stable simulation.

  1. Financial Time Series Modelling with Hybrid Model Based on Customized RBF Neural Network Combined With Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Falat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors apply feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN of RBF type into the process of modelling and forecasting the future value of USD/CAD time series. Authors test the customized version of the RBF and add the evolutionary approach into it. They also combine the standard algorithm for adapting weights in neural network with an unsupervised clustering algorithm called K-means. Finally, authors suggest the new hybrid model as a combination of a standard ANN and a moving average for error modeling that is used to enhance the outputs of the network using the error part of the original RBF. Using high-frequency data, they examine the ability to forecast exchange rate values for the horizon of one day. To determine the forecasting efficiency, authors perform the comparative out-of-sample analysis of the suggested hybrid model with statistical models and the standard neural network.

  2. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira Leão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and pearl millet (P. glaucum. Tetraploid (AAA'B and pentaploid (AA'A'BB chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB and pearl millet (AA were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaploid and tetraploid genomic combinations showed high level of mixoploidy, in discordance with the expected somatic chromosome set. The pentaploid chromosome number ranged from 20 to 34, and the tetraploid chromosome number from 16 to 28. Chromosome number variation was higher in pentaploid genomic combinations than in tetraploid, and mixoploidy was observed among hexaploids. Genomic combinations 4x and 5x are mixoploid, and the variation of chromosome number within chromosomal race 5x is greater than in 4x.

  3. Administering the Hybrid Department: A National Survey of Combined Communications/Theatre Arts Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin-Royer, Ellen

    1998-01-01

    Studies characteristics of hybrid speech/theater departments that describe themselves as highly cooperative and collegial. Presents perceived advantages and disadvantages of having a combined speech/theater department and results of questions pertaining to administrative difficulties in combined departments. Discusses alternative theories about…

  4. Combined Optimal Sizing and Control for a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal sizing and control of a hybrid tracked vehicle is presented and solved in this paper. A driving schedule obtained from field tests is used to represent typical tracked vehicle operations. Dynamics of the diesel engine-permanent magnetic AC synchronous generator set, the lithium-ion battery pack, and the power split between them are modeled and validated through experiments. Two coupled optimizations, one for the plant parameters, forming the outer optimization loop and one for the control strategy, forming the inner optimization loop, are used to achieve minimum fuel consumption under the selected driving schedule. The dynamic programming technique is applied to find the optimal controller in the inner loop while the component parameters are optimized iteratively in the outer loop. The results are analyzed, and the relationship between the key parameters is observed to keep the optimal sizing and control simultaneously.

  5. A Hybrid Vector Quantization Combining a Tree Structure and a Voronoi Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia data is a popular communication medium, but requires substantial storage space and network bandwidth. Vector quantization (VQ is suitable for multimedia data applications because of its simple architecture, fast decoding ability, and high compression rate. Full-search VQ can typically be used to determine optimal codewords, but requires considerable computational time and resources. In this study, a hybrid VQ combining a tree structure and a Voronoi diagram is proposed to improve VQ efficiency. To efficiently reduce the search space, a tree structure integrated with principal component analysis is proposed, to rapidly determine an initial codeword in low-dimensional space. To increase accuracy, a Voronoi diagram is applied to precisely enlarge the search space by modeling relations between each codeword. This enables an optimal codeword to be efficiently identified by rippling an optimal neighbor from parts of neighboring Voronoi regions. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach improved VQ performance, outperforming other approaches. The proposed approach also satisfies the requirements of handheld device application, namely, the use of limited memory and network bandwidth, when a suitable number of dimensions in principal component analysis is selected.

  6. Mobile 3D quality of experience evaluation: a hybrid data collection and analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, Timo; Häyrynen, Jyrki; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Boev, Atanas; Gotchev, Atanas; Hannuksela, Miska M.

    2011-02-01

    The paper presents a hybrid approach to study the user's experienced quality of 3D visual content on mobile autostereoscopic displays. It combines extensive subjective tests with collection and objective analysis of eye-tracked data. 3D cues which are significant for mobiles are simulated in the generated 3D test content. The methodology for conducting subjective quality evaluation includes hybrid data-collection of quantitative quality preferences, qualitative impressions, and binocular eye-tracking. We present early results of the subjective tests along with eye movement reaction times, areas of interest and heatmaps obtained from raw eye-tracked data after statistical analysis. The study contributes to the question what is important to be visualized on portable auto-stereoscopic displays and how to maintain and visually enhance the quality of 3D content for such displays.

  7. A hybrid least squares support vector machines and GMDH approach for river flow forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, R.; Saad, P.; Shabri, A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid forecasting model, which combines the group method of data handling (GMDH) and the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), known as GLSSVM. The GMDH is used to determine the useful input variables for LSSVM model and the LSSVM model which works as time series forecasting. In this study the application of GLSSVM for monthly river flow forecasting of Selangor and Bernam River are investigated. The results of the proposed GLSSVM approach are compared with the conventional artificial neural network (ANN) models, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, GMDH and LSSVM models using the long term observations of monthly river flow discharge. The standard statistical, the root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of correlation (R) are employed to evaluate the performance of various models developed. Experiment result indicates that the hybrid model was powerful tools to model discharge time series and can be applied successfully in complex hydrological modeling.

  8. Hybrid Analysis Approach for Stochastic Response of Offshore Jacket Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伟良; 郑忠双; 李海波; 张立

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic response of offshore platforms is more serious in hostile sea environment than in shallow sea. In this paper, a hybrid solution combined with analytical and numerical method is proposed to compute the stochastic response of fixed offshore platforms to random waves, considering wave-structure interaction and non-linear drag force. The simulation program includes two steps: the first step is the eigenanalysis aspects associated the structure and the second step is response estimation based on spectral equations. The eigenanalysis could be done through conventional finite element method conveniently and its natural frequency and mode shapes obtained. In the second part of the process, the solution of the offshore structural response is obtained by iteration of a series of coupled spectral equations. Considering the third-order term in the drag force, the evaluation of the three-fold convolution should be demanded for nonlinear stochastic response analysis. To demonstrate this method, a numerical analysis is carried out for both linear and non-linear platform motions. The final response spectra have the typical two peaks in agreement with reality, indicating that the hybrid method is effective and can be applied to offshore engineering.

  9. An Architecture for Hybrid Manufacturing Combining 3D Printing and CNC Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Müller; Elmar Wings

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Additive manufacturing processes are often combined with subtractive manufacturing processes to create hybrid manufacturing because it is useful for manufacturing complex parts, for example, 3D printed sensor systems. Currently, several CNC machines are required for hybrid manufacturing: one machine is required for additive manufacturing and one is required for subtractive manufacturing. Disadvantages of conventional h...

  10. An Architecture for Hybrid Manufacturing Combining 3D Printing and CNC Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Müller; Elmar Wings

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Additive manufacturing processes are often combined with subtractive manufacturing processes to create hybrid manufacturing because it is useful for manufacturing complex parts, for example, 3D printed sensor systems. Currently, several CNC machines are required for hybrid manufacturing: one machine is required for additive manufacturing and one is required for subtractive manufacturing. Disadvantages of conventional h...

  11. A Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Approach to Aeronautical Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Chomos, Gerald J.; Griner, James H.; Mainger, Steven W.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid growth in air travel has been projected to continue for the foreseeable future. To maintain a safe and efficient national and global aviation system, significant advances in communications systems supporting aviation are required. Satellites will increasingly play a critical role in the aeronautical communications network. At the same time, current ground-based communications links, primarily very high frequency (VHF), will continue to be employed due to cost advantages and legacy issues. Hence a hybrid satellite-terrestrial network, or group of networks, will emerge. The increased complexity of future aeronautical communications networks dictates that system-level modeling be employed to obtain an optimal system fulfilling a majority of user needs. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the current and potential future state of aeronautical communications, and is developing a simulation and modeling program to research future communications architectures for national and global aeronautical needs. This paper describes the primary requirements, the current infrastructure, and emerging trends of aeronautical communications, including a growing role for satellite communications. The need for a hybrid communications system architecture approach including both satellite and ground-based communications links is explained. Future aeronautical communication network topologies and key issues in simulation and modeling of future aeronautical communications systems are described.

  12. A hybrid optimization approach in non-isothermal glass molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh-Tuan; Kreilkamp, Holger; Krishnamoorthi, Bharathwaj Janaki; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Intensively growing demands on complex yet low-cost precision glass optics from the today's photonic market motivate the development of an efficient and economically viable manufacturing technology for complex shaped optics. Against the state-of-the-art replication-based methods, Non-isothermal Glass Molding turns out to be a promising innovative technology for cost-efficient manufacturing because of increased mold lifetime, less energy consumption and high throughput from a fast process chain. However, the selection of parameters for the molding process usually requires a huge effort to satisfy precious requirements of the molded optics and to avoid negative effects on the expensive tool molds. Therefore, to reduce experimental work at the beginning, a coupling CFD/FEM numerical modeling was developed to study the molding process. This research focuses on the development of a hybrid optimization approach in Non-isothermal glass molding. To this end, an optimal configuration with two optimization stages for multiple quality characteristics of the glass optics is addressed. The hybrid Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN)-Genetic Algorithm (GA) is first carried out to realize the optimal process parameters and the stability of the process. The second stage continues with the optimization of glass preform using those optimal parameters to guarantee the accuracy of the molded optics. Experiments are performed to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the model for the process development in Non-isothermal glass molding.

  13. Hybrid Heuristic Approaches for Tactical Berth Allocation Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Larsen, Allan; Pacino, Dario;

    Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid ine...... inequalities. And, we propose a hybrid heuristic which combines MM with greedy and search heuristics. Results show that problem can be solved efficiently respect to optimality and computational time.......Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid...

  14. A HYBRID APPROACH TO HUMAN SKIN REGION DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijayanandh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is important in research areas like machine vision and complex security systems. Skin region detection is a vital factor for processing in such systems. Hence the proposed paper focuses on isolating the regions of an image corresponding to human skin region through the hybrid method. This paper intends to combine the skin region detected from RGB and YCbCr color spaces image by the explicit skin color conditions and the skin label cluster identified from CIEL*a*b color space image, which is clustered by Hillclimbing segmentation with K-Means clustering algorithm. Then the resultant image is dilated by arbitrary shape and filtered by the median filter, in order to enhance the skin region and to avoid the noise respectively. The proposed method has been tested on various real images, which contain one or more human beings and the performance of skin region detection is found to be quite satisfactory.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid ARQ with Code Combining in Packet-Oriented CDMA System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENQingchun; FANPingzhi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an extended SNR (signal to noise ratio) concept is proposed to explicate the contribution of code combining to the performance improvement of hybrid ARQ (Automatic repeat request) over the additive white Gaussian noise channel. By extending the Pursley's SNR analysis to hybrid ARQ with code combining in packet-oriented CDMA (Code division multiple access)system, the extended SNR formula is derived, which describes explicitly the SNR variation of the code symbol involved in code combining. It is revealed that the extended SNR formula includes Pursley's SNR formula as a specialcase. Moreover, it is shown that the effective SNR of the combined symbol is increased by a coefficient, which is proportional to the number of repeated replicas involved in the code combining. Based on the extended SNR formula and the resultant SNR variation, a quasi-analytical approximation method is proposed for the performance evaluation of hybrid ARQ with code combining. The residual error rates, average transmission number together with throughput performance are presented by means of numerical analysis and through simulations. It is validated that the extended SNR formula and the resultant quasi-analytical approximations offer a simplified routine to estimate the performance of hybrid ARQ with code combining, particularly for the applications whose reliability performance with respect to the FEC counterpart system could be numerically calculated or evaluated through simulations.

  16. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    Biomass is one of the main natural resources in Sweden. The present low-CO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the Swedish electricity production system (hydro and nuclear) can be retained only by expansion of biofuel applications for energy purposes. Domestic Swedish biomass resources are vast and renewable, but not infinite. They must be utilized as efficiently as possible, in order to make sure that they meet the conditions for sustainability in the future. Application of efficient power generation cycles at low costs is essential for meeting this challenge. This applies also to municipal solid waste incineration with energy extraction, which should be preferred to its dumping in landfills. Hybrid dual-fuel combined cycle units are a simple and affordable way to increase the electric efficiency of biofuel energy utilization, without big investments, uncertainties or loss of reliability arising from complicated technologies. Configurations of such power cycles are very flexible and reliable. Their potential for high electric efficiency in condensing mode, high total efficiency in combined heat and power mode and unrivalled load flexibility is explored in this project. The present report is a literature study that concentrates on certain biomass utilization technologies, in particular the design and performance of hybrid combined cycle power units of various configurations, with gas turbines and internal combustion engines as topping cycles. An overview of published literature and general development trends on the relevant topic is presented. The study is extended to encompass a short overview of biomass utilization as an energy source (focusing on Sweden), history of combined cycles development with reference especially to combined cycles with supplementary firing and coal-fired hybrid combined cycles, repowering of old steam units into hybrid ones and combined cycles for internal combustion engines. The hybrid combined cycle concept for municipal solid waste

  17. OPTIMIZATION APPROACH FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE POWERTRAIN DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhengli; Zhang Jianwu; Yin Chengliang

    2005-01-01

    According to bench test results of fuel economy and engine emission for the real powertrain system of EQ7200HEV car, a 3-D performance map oriented quasi-linear model is developed for the configuration of the powertrain components such as internal combustion engine, traction electric motor, transmission, main retarder and energy storage unit. A genetic algorithm based on optimization procedure is proposed and applied for parametric optimization of the key components by consideration of requirements of some driving cycles. Through comparison of numerical results obtained by the genetic algorithm with those by traditional optimization methods, it is shown that the present approach is quite effective and efficient in emission reduction and fuel economy for the design of the hybrid electric car powertrain.

  18. Mapping Seasonal Evapotranspiration and Root Zone Soil Moisture using a Hybrid Modeling Approach over Vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Estimates of actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) at field scale over the growing season are required for improving agricultural water management, particularly in water limited and drought prone regions. Remote sensing data from multiple platforms such as airborne and Landsat-based sensors can be used to provide these estimates. Combining these data with surface energy balance models can provide ETa estimates at sub- field scale as well as information on vegetation stress and soil moisture conditions. However, the temporal resolution of airborne and Landsat data does not allow for a continuous ETa monitoring over the course of the growing season. This study presents the application of a hybrid ETa modeling approach developed for monitoring daily ETa and root zone available water at high spatial resolutions. The hybrid ETa modeling approach couples a thermal-based energy balance model with a water balance-based scheme using data assimilation. The two source energy balance (TSEB) model is used to estimate instantaneous ETa which can be extrapolated to daily ETa using a water balance model modified to use the reflectance-based basal crop coefficient for interpolating ETa in between airborne and/or Landsat overpass dates. Moreover, since it is a water balance model, the soil moisture profile is also estimated. The hybrid ETa approach is applied over vineyard fields in central California. High resolution airborne and Landsat imagery were used to drive the hybrid model. These images were collected during periods that represented different vine phonological stages in 2013 growing season. Estimates of daily ETa and surface energy balance fluxes will be compared with ground-based eddy covariance tower measurements. Estimates of soil moisture at multiple depths will be compared with measurements.

  19. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research.

  20. Joint Adaptive Modulation and Combining for Hybrid FSO/RF Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, we present and analyze a new transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF communication system based on joint adaptive modulation and adaptive combining. Specifically, the data rate on the FSO link is adjusted in discrete manner according to the FSO link\\'s instantaneous received signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). If the FSO link\\'s quality is too poor to maintain the target bit-error-rate, the system activates the RF link along with the FSO link. When the RF link is activated, simultaneous transmission of the same modulated data takes place on both links, where the received signals from both links are combined using maximal ratio combining scheme. In this case, the data rate of the system is adjusted according to the instantaneous combined SNRs. Novel analytical expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the received SNR for the proposed adaptive hybrid system is obtained. This CDF expression is used to study the spectral and outage performances of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system with that of switch-over hybrid FSO/RF and FSO-only systems employing the same adaptive modulation schemes. © 2015 IEEE.

  1. Non-adaptive and adaptive hybrid approaches for enhancing water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwij, Ineke M.; Peralta, Richard C.

    2008-09-01

    SummaryUsing optimization to help solve groundwater management problems cost-effectively is becoming increasingly important. Hybrid optimization approaches, that combine two or more optimization algorithms, will become valuable and common tools for addressing complex nonlinear hydrologic problems. Hybrid heuristic optimizers have capabilities far beyond those of a simple genetic algorithm (SGA), and are continuously improving. SGAs having only parent selection, crossover, and mutation are inefficient and rarely used for optimizing contaminant transport management. Even an advanced genetic algorithm (AGA) that includes elitism (to emphasize using the best strategies as parents) and healing (to help assure optimal strategy feasibility) is undesirably inefficient. Much more efficient than an AGA is the presented hybrid (AGCT), which adds comprehensive tabu search (TS) features to an AGA. TS mechanisms (TS probability, tabu list size, search coarseness and solution space size, and a TS threshold value) force the optimizer to search portions of the solution space that yield superior pumping strategies, and to avoid reproducing similar or inferior strategies. An AGCT characteristic is that TS control parameters are unchanging during optimization. However, TS parameter values that are ideal for optimization commencement can be undesirable when nearing assumed global optimality. The second presented hybrid, termed global converger (GC), is significantly better than the AGCT. GC includes AGCT plus feedback-driven auto-adaptive control that dynamically changes TS parameters during run-time. Before comparing AGCT and GC, we empirically derived scaled dimensionless TS control parameter guidelines by evaluating 50 sets of parameter values for a hypothetical optimization problem. For the hypothetical area, AGCT optimized both well locations and pumping rates. The parameters are useful starting values because using trial-and-error to identify an ideal combination of control

  2. A hybrid model of anaerobic E. coli GJT001: combination of elementary flux modes and cybernetic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Il; Varner, Jeffery D; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2008-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) in combination with the decomposition of metabolic networks into elementary modes has provided a route to modeling cellular metabolism. It is dependent, however, on the availability of external fluxes such as substrate uptake or growth rate before estimates can become available of intracellular fluxes. The framework classically does not allow modeling of metabolic regulation or the formulation of dynamic models except through dynamic measurement of external fluxes. The cybernetic modeling approach of Ramkrishna and coworkers provides a dynamic framework for modeling metabolic systems because of its focus on describing regulatory processes based on cybernetic arguments and hence has the capacity to describe both external and internal fluxes. In this article, we explore the alternative of developing hybrid models combining cybernetic models for the external fluxes with the flux balance approach for estimation of the internal fluxes. The approach has the merit of the simplicity of the early cybernetic models and hence computationally facile while also providing detailed information on intracellular fluxes. The hybrid model of this article is based on elementary mode decomposition of the metabolic network. The uptake rates for the various elementary modes are combined using global cybernetic variables based on maximizing substrate uptake rates. Estimation of intracellular metabolism is based on its stoichiometric coupling with the external fluxes under the assumption of (pseudo-) steady state conditions. The set of parameters of the hybrid model was estimated with the aid of nonlinear optimization routine, by fitting simulations with dynamic experimental data on concentrations of biomass, substrate, and fermentation products. The hybrid model estimations were tested with FBA (based on measured substrate uptake rate) for two different metabolic networks (one is a reduced network which fixes ATP contribution to the biomass and maintenance

  3. A new DFM approach to combine machining and additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbrat, Olivier; MOGNOL, Pascal; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Design For Manufacturing (DFM) approaches aim to integrate manufacturability aspects during the design stage. Most of DFM approaches usually consider only one manufacturing process, but products competitiveness may be improved by designing hybrid modular products, in which products are seen as 3-D puzzles with modules realized aside by the best manufacturing process and further gathered. A new DFM system is created in order to give quantitative information during the p...

  4. A new DFM approach to combine machining and additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbrat, Olivier; Mognol, Pascal; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Design For Manufacturing (DFM) approaches aim to integrate manufacturability aspects during the design stage. Most of DFM approaches usually consider only one manufacturing process, but products competitiveness may be improved by designing hybrid modular products, in which products are seen as 3-D puzzles with modules realized aside by the best manufacturing process and further gathered. A new DFM system is created in order to give quantitative information during the p...

  5. EMG assisted optimization: a hybrid approach for estimating muscle forces in an indeterminate biomechanical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, J; McGill, S M

    1994-10-01

    There are two basic approaches to estimate individual muscle forces acting on a joint, given the indeterminacy of moment balance equations: optimization and electromyography (EMG) assisted. Each approach is characterized by unique advantages and liabilities. With this in mind, a new hybrid method which combines the advantages of both of these traditional approaches, termed 'EMG assisted optimization' (EMGAO), was described. In this method, minimal adjustments are applied to the individual muscle forces estimated from EMG, so that all moment equilibrium equations are satisfied in three dimensions. The result is the best possible match between physiologically observed muscle activation patterns and the predicted forces, while satisfying the moment constraints about all three joint axes. Several forms of the objective function are discussed and their effect on individual muscle adjustments is illustrated in a simple two-dimensional example.

  6. Facile preparation of hybrid core-shell nanorods for photothermal and radiation combined therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaoyao; Li, Erdong; Cheng, Xiaju; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Shuanglong; Ge, Cuicui; Gu, Hongwei; Pan, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy.The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09102k

  7. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  8. Fast and accurate earthquake location within complex medium using a hybrid global-local inversion approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoying Bai; Rui Zhao; Stewart Greenhalgh

    2009-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for earthquake location is proposed which uses a combined coarse global search and fine local inversion with a minimum search routine, plus an examination of the root mean squares (RMS) error distribution. The method exploits the advantages of network ray tracing and robust formulation of the Frechet derivatives to simultaneously update all possible initial source parameters around most local minima (including the global minimum) in the solution space, and finally to determine the likely global solution. Several synthetic examples involving a 3-D complex velocity model and a challenging source-receiver layout are used to demonstrate the capability of the newly-developed method. This new global-local hybrid solution technique not only incorporates the significant benefits of our recently published hypocenter determination procedure for multiple earthquake parameters, but also offers the attractive features of global optimal searching in the RMS travel time error distribution. Unlike the traditional global search method, for example, the Monte Carlo approach, where millions of tests have to be done to find the final global solution, the new method only conducts a matrix inversion type local search but does it multiple times simultaneously throughout the model volume to seek a global solution. The search is aided by inspection of the RMS error distribution. Benchmark tests against two popular approaches, the direct grid search method and the oct-tree important sampling method, indicate that the hybrid global-local inversion yields comparable location accuracy and is not sensitive to modest level of noise data, but more importantly it offers two-order of magnitude speed-up in computational effort. Such an improvement, combined with high accuracy, make it a promising hypocenter determination scheme in earthquake early warning, tsunami early warning, rapid hazard assessment and emergency response after strong earthquake occurrence.

  9. Hybrid Modelling Approach to Prairie hydrology: Fusing Data-driven and Process-based Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, B.; Nazemi, A.; Elshorbagy, A.; Mazurek, K.; Putz, G.

    2012-04-01

    Modeling the hydrological response in prairie regions, characterized by flat and undulating terrain, and thus, large non-contributing areas, is a known challenge. The hydrological response (runoff) is the combination of the traditional runoff from the hydrologically contributing area and the occasional overflow from the non-contributing area. This study provides a unique opportunity to analyze the issue of fusing the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in a hybrid structure to model the hydrological response in prairie regions. A hybrid SWAT-ANN model is proposed, where the SWAT component and the ANN module deal with the effective (contributing) area and the non-contributing area, respectively. The hybrid model is applied to the case study of Moose Jaw watershed, located in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. As an initial exploration, a comparison between ANN and SWAT models is established based on addressing the daily runoff (streamflow) prediction accuracy using multiple error measures. This is done to identify the merits and drawbacks of each modeling approach. It has been found out that the SWAT model has better performance during the low flow periods but with degraded efficiency during periods of high flows. The case is different for the ANN model as ANNs exhibit improved simulation during high flow periods but with biased estimates during low flow periods. The modelling results show that the new hybrid SWAT-ANN model is capable of exploiting the strengths of both SWAT and ANN models in an integrated framrwork. The new hybrid SWAT-ANN model simulates daily runoff quite satisfactorily with NSE measures of 0.80 and 0.83 during calibration and validation periods, respectively. Furthermore, an experimental assessment was performed to identify the effects of the ANN training method on the performance of the hybrid model as well as the parametric identifiability. Overall, the results obtained in this study suggest that the fusion

  10. Punjabi to Hindi Transliteration System for Proper Nouns Using Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er.Sahil Malhan ,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The language is an effective medium for the communication that conveys the ideas and expression of the human mind. There are more than 5000 languages in the world for the communication. To know all these languages is not a solution for problems due to the language barrier in communication. In this multilingual world with the huge amount of information exchanged between various regions and in different languages in digitized format, it has become necessary to find an automated process to convert from one language to another. Natural Language Processing (NLP is one of the hot areas of research that explores how computers can be utilizing to understand and manipulate natural language text or speech. In the Proposed system a Hybrid approach to transliterate the proper nouns from Punjabi to Hindi is developed. Hybrid approach in the proposed system is a combination of Direct Mapping, Rule based approach and Statistical Machine Translation approach (SMT. Proposed system is tested on various proper nouns from different domains and accuracy of the proposed system is very good.

  11. A Hybrid Approach to Spatial Multiplexing in Multiuser MIMO Downlinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Quentin H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication system, simultaneous transmission to several users requires joint optimization of the transmitted signals. Allowing all users to have multiple antennas adds an additional degree of complexity to the problem. In this paper, we examine the case where a single base station transmits to multiple users using linear processing (beamforming at each of the antenna arrays. We propose generalizations of several previous iterative algorithms for multiuser transmit beamforming that allow multiple antennas and multiple data streams for each user, and that take into account imperfect channel estimates at the transmitter. We then present a new hybrid algorithm that is based on coordinated transmit-receive beamforming, and combines the strengths of nonorthogonal iterative solutions with zero-forcing solutions. The problem of distributing power among the subchannels is solved by using standard bit-loading algorithms combined with the subchannel gains resulting from the zero-forcing solution. The result is a significant performance improvement over equal power distribution. At the same time, the number of iterations required to compute the final solution is reduced.

  12. Combining ptychographical algorithms with the Hybrid Input-Output (HIO) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, A P; Coene, W M J; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P

    2016-12-01

    In this article we combine the well-known Ptychographical Iterative Engine (PIE) with the Hybrid Input-Output (HIO) algorithm. The important insight is that the HIO feedback function should be kept strictly separate from the reconstructed object, which is done by introducing a separate feedback function per probe position. We have also combined HIO with floating PIE (fPIE) and extended PIE (ePIE). Simulations indicate that the combined algorithm performs significantly better in many situations. Although we have limited our research to a combination with HIO, the same insight can be used to combine ptychographical algorithms with any phase retrieval algorithm that uses a feedback function.

  13. Combining Phonics: Approaches for Problem Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    A method of teaching phonics to primary grade disabled readers which combines analytic, synthetic, and linguistic methods is described. The method involves starting with sight words, starting phonics synthetically with consonants, teaching other consonants analytically, adapting linguistic methods for vowels, and encouraging the use of context.…

  14. A hybrid modelling approach to simulating foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Australian livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bradhurst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Australia's freedom from FMD underpins a valuable trade in live animals and animal products. An outbreak of FMD would result in the loss of export markets and cause severe disruption to domestic markets. The prevention of, and contingency planning for, FMD are of key importance to government, industry, producers and the community. The spread and control of FMD is complex and dynamic due to a highly contagious multi-host pathogen operating in a heterogeneous environment across multiple jurisdictions. Epidemiological modelling is increasingly being recognized as a valuable tool for investigating the spread of disease under different conditions and the effectiveness of control strategies. Models of infectious disease can be broadly classified as: population-based models that are formulated from the top-down and employ population-level relationships to describe individual-level behaviour, individual-based models that are formulated from the bottom-up and aggregate individual-level behaviour to reveal population-level relationships, or hybrid models which combine the two approaches into a single model.The Australian Animal Disease Spread (AADIS hybrid model employs a deterministic equation-based model (EBM to model within-herd spread of FMD, and a stochastic, spatially-explicit agent-based model (ABM to model between-herd spread and control. The EBM provides concise and computationally efficient predictions of herd prevalence and clinical signs over time. The ABM captures the complex, stochastic and heterogeneous environment in which an FMD epidemic operates. The AADIS event-driven hybrid EBM/ABM architecture is a flexible, efficient and extensible framework for modelling the spread and control of disease in livestock on a national scale. We present an overview of the AADIS hybrid approach and a description of the model

  15. COARSE-MESH-ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT OF BILINEAR Q4-PLANE ELEMENT BY THE COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小平; 周天孝

    2003-01-01

    The combined hybrid finite element method is of an intrinsic mechanism of enhancing coarse-mesh-accuracy of lower order displacement schemes. It was confirmed that the combined hybrid scheme without energy error leads to enhancement of accuracy at coarse meshes, and that the combination parameter plays an important role in the enhancement. As an improvement of conforming bilinear Q4-plane element, the combined hybrid method adopted the most convenient quadrilateral displacements-stress mode, i. e.,the mode of compatible isoparametric bilinear displacements and pure constant stresses. By adjusting the combined parameter, the optimized version of the combined hybrid element was obtained and numerical tests indicated that this parameter-adjusted version behaves much better than Q4-element and is of high accuracy at coarse meshes. Due to elimination of stress parameters at the elemental level, this combined hybrid version is of the same computational cost as that of Q4 -element.

  16. Syntactic and Sentence Feature Based Hybrid Approach for Text Summarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Y. Sakhare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a significant research in automatic text summarization using feature-based techniques in which most of them utilized any one of the soft computing techniques. But, making use of syntactic structure of the sentences for text summarization has not widely applied due to its difficulty of handling it in summarization process. On the other hand, feature-based technique available in the literature showed efficient results in most of the techniques. So, combining syntactic structure into the feature-based techniques is surely smooth the summarization process in a way that the efficiency can be achieved. With the intention of combining two different techniques, we have presented an approach of text summarization that combines feature and syntactic structure of the sentences. Here, two neural networks are trained based on the feature score and the syntactic structure of sentences. Finally, the two neural networks are combined with weighted average to find the sentence score of the sentences. The experimentation is carried out using DUC 2002 dataset for various compression ratios. The results showed that the proposed approach achieved F-measure of 80% for the compression ratio 50 % that proved the better results compared with the existing techniques.

  17. Hybrid simulations : combining atomistic and coarse-grained force fields using virtual sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rzepiela, Andrzej J.; Louhivuori, Martti; Peter, Christine; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid simulations, in which part of the system is represented at atomic resolution and the remaining part at a reduced, coarse-grained, level offer a powerful way to combine the accuracy associated with the atomistic force fields to the sampling speed obtained with coarse-grained (CG) potentials. I

  18. Regression rate behaviors of HTPB-based propellant combinations for hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Li, Yuelong; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the regression rate behavior of hybrid rocket motor propellant combinations, using hydrogen peroxide (HP), gaseous oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) as the based fuel. In order to complete this research by experiment and simulation, a hybrid rocket motor test system and a numerical simulation model are established. Series of hybrid rocket motor firing tests are conducted burning different propellant combinations, and several of those are used as references for numerical simulations. The numerical simulation model is developed by combining the Navies-Stokes equations with the turbulence model, one-step global reaction model, and solid-gas coupling model. The distribution of regression rate along the axis is determined by applying simulation mode to predict the combustion process and heat transfer inside the hybrid rocket motor. The time-space averaged regression rate has a good agreement between the numerical value and experimental data. The results indicate that the N2O/HTPB and GOX/HTPB propellant combinations have a higher regression rate, since the enhancement effect of latter is significant due to its higher flame temperature. Furthermore, the containing of aluminum (Al) and/or ammonium perchlorate(AP) in the grain does enhance the regression rate, mainly due to the more energy released inside the chamber and heat feedback to the grain surface by the aluminum combustion.

  19. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  20. Dual-action Hybrid Compounds - A New Dawn in the Discovery of Multi-target Drugs: Lead Generation Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmalekia, Azizeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2016-09-27

    Finding high quality beginning compounds is a critical job at the start of the lead generation stage for multi-target drug discovery (MTDD). Designing hybrid compounds as a selective multi-target chemical entity is a challenge, opportunity, and new idea to better act against specific multiple targets. One hybrid molecule is formed by two (or more) pharmacophore group's participation. So, these new compounds often exhibit two or more activities going about as multi-target drugs (mt-drugs) and may have superior safety or efficacy. Application of integrating a range of information and sophisticated new in silico, bioinformatics, structural biology, pharmacogenomics methods may be useful to discover/design, and synthesis of the new hybrid molecules. In this regard, many rational and screening approaches have followed by medicinal chemists for the lead generation in MTDD. Here, we review some popular lead generation approaches that have been used for designing multiple ligands (DMLs). This paper focuses on dual- acting chemical entities that incorporate a part of two drugs or bioactive compounds to compose hybrid molecules. Also, it presents some of key concepts and limitations/strengths of lead generation methods by comparing combination framework method with screening approaches. Besides, a number of examples to represent applications of hybrid molecules in the drug discovery are included.

  1. When Differential Privacy Meets Randomized Perturbation: A Hybrid Approach for Privacy-Preserving Recommender System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiao

    2017-03-21

    Privacy risks of recommender systems have caused increasing attention. Users’ private data is often collected by probably untrusted recommender system in order to provide high-quality recommendation. Meanwhile, malicious attackers may utilize recommendation results to make inferences about other users’ private data. Existing approaches focus either on keeping users’ private data protected during recommendation computation or on preventing the inference of any single user’s data from the recommendation result. However, none is designed for both hiding users’ private data and preventing privacy inference. To achieve this goal, we propose in this paper a hybrid approach for privacy-preserving recommender systems by combining differential privacy (DP) with randomized perturbation (RP). We theoretically show the noise added by RP has limited effect on recommendation accuracy and the noise added by DP can be well controlled based on the sensitivity analysis of functions on the perturbed data. Extensive experiments on three large-scale real world datasets show that the hybrid approach generally provides more privacy protection with acceptable recommendation accuracy loss, and surprisingly sometimes achieves better privacy without sacrificing accuracy, thus validating its feasibility in practice.

  2. Combined power and process. An exergy approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F.J.

    1998-12-31

    This book starts with a chapter on thermodynamics which considers entropy, enthalpy, thermochemical exergy and equilibrium. Chapter 2 addresses exergy analysis of simple steam power and desalination; a modern combined cycle-based CHP system is considered in Chapter 3; while Chapter 4 focuses on fuel and equilibrium fuel cells; and Chapter 5 discusses whisky distillation by heat pump. Practical fuel cell systems for hydrogen, power and heat production is dealt with in Chapter 6; and process integration is examined in the final Chapter. (UK)

  3. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Katharina; De Sanctis, Gianluca; Kohler, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment. In two related papers we show how engineering and data-driven modelling can be combined by developing generic risk models that are calibrated to statistical data on observed fire events. The focus of the present paper is on the calibration procedure....... A framework is developed that is able to deal with data collection in non-homogeneous portfolios of buildings. Also incomplete data sets containing only little information on each fire event can be used for model calibration. To illustrate the capabilities of the proposed framework, it is applied...

  4. Mobile phone use while driving: a hybrid modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Luis; Cantillo, Víctor; Arellana, Julián

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the effects that mobile phone use produces while driving is a topic of great interest for the scientific community. There is consensus that using a mobile phone while driving increases the risk of exposure to traffic accidents. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the drivers' behavior when they decide whether or not to use a mobile phone while driving. For that, a hybrid modeling approach that integrates a choice model with the latent variable "risk perception" was used. It was found that workers and individuals with the highest education level are more prone to use a mobile phone while driving than others. Also, "risk perception" is higher among individuals who have been previously fined and people who have been in an accident or almost been in an accident. It was also found that the tendency to use mobile phones while driving increases when the traffic speed reduces, but it decreases when the fine increases. Even though the urgency of the phone call is the most important explanatory variable in the choice model, the cost of the fine is an important attribute in order to control mobile phone use while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Agricultural Tractor Selection: A Hybrid and Multi-Attribute Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. García-Alcaraz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Usually, agricultural tractor investments are assessed using traditional economic techniques that only involve financial attributes, resulting in reductionist evaluations. However, tractors have qualitative and quantitative attributes that must be simultaneously integrated into the evaluation process. This article reports a hybrid and multi-attribute approach to assessing a set of agricultural tractors based on AHP-TOPSIS. To identify the attributes in the model, a survey including eighteen attributes was given to agricultural machinery salesmen and farmers for determining their importance. The list of attributes was presented to a decision group for a case of study, and their importance was estimated using AHP and integrated into the TOPSIS technique. In this case, one tractor was selected from a set of six alternatives, integrating six attributes in the model: initial cost, annual maintenance cost, liters of diesel per hour, safety of the operator, maintainability and after-sale customer service offered by the supplier. Based on the results obtained, the model can be considered easy to apply and to have good acceptance among farmers and salesmen, as there are no special software requirements for the application.

  6. Enhancement of Hyperspectral Real World Images Using Hybrid Domain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents enhancement of hyperspectral real world images using hybrid domain approach. The proposed method consists of three phases: In first phase the discrete wavelet transform is applied and approximation coefficient is selected. In second phase approximation coefficient of discrete wavelet transform of image is process by automatic contrast adjustment technique and in third phase it takes logarithmic of output of second phase and after that adaptive filtering is applied for image enhancement in frequency domain. To judge the superiority of proposed method the image quality parameters such as measure of enhancement (EME and measure of enhancement factor (EMF is evaluated. Therefore, a better value of EME and EMF implies that the visual quality of the enhanced image is good. Simulation results indicates that proposed method provides better results as compared to other state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms for hyperspectral real world images. The proposed method is efficient and very effective method for contrast enhancement of hyperspectral real world images. This method can also be used in different applications where images are suffering from different contrast problems.

  7. Hybrid Quantum-Classical Approach to Correlated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Bela; Wecker, Dave; Millis, Andrew J.; Hastings, Matthew B.; Troyer, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Recent improvements in the control of quantum systems make it seem feasible to finally build a quantum computer within a decade. While it has been shown that such a quantum computer can in principle solve certain small electronic structure problems and idealized model Hamiltonians, the highly relevant problem of directly solving a complex correlated material appears to require a prohibitive amount of resources. Here, we show that by using a hybrid quantum-classical algorithm that incorporates the power of a small quantum computer into a framework of classical embedding algorithms, the electronic structure of complex correlated materials can be efficiently tackled using a quantum computer. In our approach, the quantum computer solves a small effective quantum impurity problem that is self-consistently determined via a feedback loop between the quantum and classical computation. Use of a quantum computer enables much larger and more accurate simulations than with any known classical algorithm, and will allow many open questions in quantum materials to be resolved once a small quantum computer with around 100 logical qubits becomes available.

  8. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  9. Research Update: Hybrid energy devices combining nanogenerators and energy storage systems for self-charging capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghun; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Jaewoo; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Choi, Chang Ho; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-07-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for nanogenerators as energy harvesting devices utilizing both piezoelectric and triboelectric properties. Most recently, self-charging power units using both nanogenerators and energy storage systems have begun to be investigated for portable and wearable electronics to be used in our daily lives. This review focuses on these hybrid devices with self-charging combined with energy harvesting storage systems based on the most recent reports. In this research update, we will describe the materials, device structures, integration, applications, and research progress up to the present on hybrid devices.

  10. The split system approach to managing time in simulations of hybrid systems having continuous and discrete event components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuruganti, Phani Teja [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Protopopescu, Vladimir A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-02-08

    The efficient and accurate management of time in simulations of hybrid models is an outstanding engineering problem. General a priori knowledge about the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system (i.e. essentially continuous, essentially discrete, or 'truly hybrid') facilitates this task. Indeed, for essentially discrete and essentially continuous systems, existing software packages can be conveniently used to perform quite sophisticated and satisfactory simulations. The situation is different for 'truly hybrid' systems, for which direct application of existing software packages results in a lengthy design process, cumbersome software assemblies, inaccurate results, or some combination of these independent of the designer's a priori knowledge about the system's structure and behavior. The main goal of this paper is to provide a methodology whereby simulation designers can use a priori knowledge about the hybrid model's structure to build a straightforward, efficient, and accurate simulator with existing software packages. The proposed methodology is based on a formal decomposition and re-articulation of the hybrid system; this is the main theoretical result of the paper. To set the result in the right perspective, we briefly review the essentially continuous and essentially discrete approaches, which are illustrated with typical examples. Then we present our new, split system approach, first in a general formal context, then in three more specific guises that reflect the viewpoints of three main communities of hybrid system researchers and practitioners. For each of these variants we indicate an implementation path. Our approach is illustrated with an archetypal problem of power grid control.

  11. Outage Analysis of Practical FSO/RF Hybrid System With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless transmission. We present and analyze a transmission scheme for the hybrid FSO/RF communication system based on adaptive combining. Specifically, only FSO link is active as long as the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the FSO receiver is above a certain threshold level. When it falls below this threshold level, the RF link is activated along with the FSO link and the signals from the two links are combined at the receiver using a dual-branch maximal ratio combiner. Novel analytical expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the received SNR for the proposed hybrid system is obtained. This CDF expression is used to study the system outage performance. Numerical examples are presented to compare the outage performance of the proposed hybrid FSO/RF system with that of the FSO-only and RF-only systems. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  12. Control approach for comfortable power shifting in hybrid transmissions - ML 450 hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger Zetina, Siegfried; Neiss, Konstantin [Daimler AG, Hybrid Development Center, Troy, MI (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The comfortable shifting control in a luxury class vehicle is extremely important, due to competitive automatic transmissions with torque converters; clutch automated manual transmissions and dual clutch transmissions. Hybrid transmissions play a key role in comfort and performance enhancement while at the same time being fuel efficient with the aid of electric machines and battery packs. Here, the alternative to conventional add-on hybrid power head transmissions: the power split hybrid transmission is studied. As a practical example, the Two Mode of the Hybrid Development Center is used within the ML450 Hybrid. For achieving a smooth shifting, there are model based algorithms needed. As objective measure to evaluate the shifting the VDV (Vibration Dose Value) is used. (orig.)

  13. Combining Single (Mixed) Metric Approach and Genetic Algorithm for QoS Routing Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡世余; 谢剑英

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm for the delay constrained least cost path problem is proposed through combination of single (mixed) metric approach and genetic algorithm. Compared with the known genetic algorithm for the same problem, the new algorithm adopts integral coding scheme and new genetic operator, which reduces the search space and improves the efficiency of genetic operation. Meanwhile, the single (mixed) approach accelerates the convergence speed. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm can find near-optimal even optimal solutions within moderate numbers of generations.

  14. Analysis on potential approaches to utilize genic male sterility in plant hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xinqi; Yuan Longping; Xiao Jinhua; Xie fangming

    2005-01-01

    @@ The exploitation of plant heterosis is an effective approach to increasing the food production. The heterotic hybrid varieties in major crops such as rice,cotton, and wheat can show more than 20% yield advantage over best conventional ones under the same cultivation conditions. The difficulties in breeding elite male sterile lines and the inconveniences for commercial hybrid seed production are hampering the development of hybrid crops breeding.

  15. Hybrid Optimization Approach for the Design of Mechanisms Using a New Error Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sedano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid optimization approach for the design of linkages is presented. The method is applied to the dimensional synthesis of mechanism and combines the merits of both stochastic and deterministic optimization. The stochastic optimization approach is based on a real-valued evolutionary algorithm (EA and is used for extensive exploration of the design variable space when searching for the best linkage. The deterministic approach uses a local optimization technique to improve the efficiency by reducing the high CPU time that EA techniques require in this kind of applications. To that end, the deterministic approach is implemented in the evolutionary algorithm in two stages. The first stage is the fitness evaluation where the deterministic approach is used to obtain an effective new error estimator. In the second stage the deterministic approach refines the solution provided by the evolutionary part of the algorithm. The new error estimator enables the evaluation of the different individuals in each generation, avoiding the removal of well-adapted linkages that other methods would not detect. The efficiency, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method are tested for the design of a mechanism in two examples.

  16. Hybrid predictions of railway induced ground vibration using a combination of experimental measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2016-07-01

    Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.

  17. FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION COMBINED WITH IMMUNOFLUORESCENT STAINING FOR RAPID DETECTION OF Nmyc AMPLIFICATION IN NEUROBLASTOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei王伟; Marianne Ifversen; ZHAO Chun-ting赵春亭; WANG Hong-yi汪洪毅; ZHAO Hong-guo赵洪国

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method to improve the detection of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of neuroblastoma patients and analysis of cytogenetic aberration. Methods: Immunofluorescent staining was performed using a cocktail of primary monoclonal neuroblastoma antibodies (14.G2a, 5.1H11). Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied with fluorescent probes specific for Nmyc genes afterwards. A novel computer assisted scanning system for automatic search, image analysis and repositioning of these positive cells was developed. Fifty-six bone marrow and peripheral blood samples from 7 patients were evaluated by this method. Results: Fluorescence in situ hybridization can be combined with immunofluorescent staining in detecting Nmyc amplification in neuroblastoma patients. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results correlated well with data obtained by conventional cytogenetic procedures. Conclusion: The technique described allows search of tumor cells in the bone marrow as well as detection of Nmyc amplification in interphase nuclei.

  18. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery.

  19. Smoothing potential energy surface of proteins by hybrid coarse grained approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yukun; Zhou, Xin; OuYang, ZhongCan

    2017-05-01

    Coarse-grained (CG) simulations can more efficiently study large conformational changes of biological polymers but usually lose accuracies in the details. Lots of different hybrid models involving multiple different resolutions have been developed to overcome the difficulty. Here we propose a novel effective hybrid CG (hyCG) approach which mixes the fine-grained interaction and its average in CG space to form a more smoothing potential energy surface. The hyCG approximately reproduces the potential of mean force in the CG space, and multiple mixed potentials can be further combined together to form a single effective force field for achieving both high efficiency and high accuracy. We illustrate the hyCG method in Trp-cage and Villin headpiece proteins to exhibit the folding of proteins. The topology of the folding landscape and thus the folding paths are preserved, while the folding is boosted nearly one order of magnitude faster. It indicates that the hyCG approach could be applied as an efficient force field in proteins. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB932803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574310), and the Joint NSFC-ISF Research Program, jointly funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 51561145002).

  20. A Hybrid Approach for Segmentation and Tracking of Myxococcus Xanthus Swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxu; Alber, Mark S; Chen, Danny Z

    2016-09-01

    Cell segmentation and motion tracking in time-lapse images are fundamental problems in computer vision, and are also crucial for various biomedical studies. Myxococcus xanthus is a type of rod-like cells with highly coordinated motion. The segmentation and tracking of M. xanthus are challenging, because cells may touch tightly and form dense swarms that are difficult to identify individually in an accurate manner. The known cell tracking approaches mainly fall into two frameworks, detection association and model evolution, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid framework combining these two frameworks into one and leveraging their complementary advantages. Also, we propose an active contour model based on the Ribbon Snake, which is seamlessly integrated with our hybrid framework. Evaluated by 10 different datasets, our approach achieves considerable improvement over the state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms on identifying complete cell trajectories, and higher segmentation accuracy than performing segmentation in individual 2D images.

  1. A hybrid approach based on EP and PSO for proficient solving of Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R LAL RAJA SINGH,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Unit Commitment Problem (UCP is a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem used in the scheduling operation of power systemgenerating units subjected to demand and reserve requirement constraints for achieving minimum operating cost. The task of the UCproblem is to determine the on/off state of the generating units at every hour interval of the planning period for optimally transmitting the load and reserve among the committed units. The importance for the necessity of a more effective optimal solution to the UCP problem is increasing with the regularly varying demand. Hereby, we propose a hybrid approach which solves the unit commitment problem subjectedto necessary constraints and gives the optimal commitment of the units. The possible combination of demand and their correspondingoptimal generation schedule can be determined by the PSO algorithm. Being a global optimization technique, Evolutionary Programming(EP for solving Unit Commitment Problem, operates on a method, which encodes each unit’s operating schedule with respect to up/down time. When the demand over a time horizon is given as input to the network it successfully gives the schedule of each unit’s commitment that satisfies the demands of all the periods and results in minimum total cost. Because hybridization is dominating, this approach for solving the unit commitment problem is more effective.

  2. Molecular paleoparasitological hybridization approach as effective tool for diagnosing human intestinal parasites from scarce archaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples.

  3. Hybrid approach for attenuation correction in PET/MR scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Ribeiro, A., E-mail: afribeiro@fc.ul.pt [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Rota Kops, E.; Herzog, H. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Almeida, P. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-01-11

    Aim: Attenuation correction (AC) of PET images is still one of the major limitations of hybrid PET/MR scanners. Different methods have been proposed to obtain the AC map from morphological MR images. Although, segmentation methods normally fail to differentiate air and bone regions, while template or atlas methods usually cannot accurately represent regions anatomically different from the template image. In this study a feed forward neural network (FFNN) algorithm is presented which directly outputs the attenuation coefficients by non-linear regression of the images acquired with an ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence guided by the template-based AC map (TAC-map). Materials and methods: MR as well as CT data were acquired in four subjects. The UTE images and the TAC-map were the inputs of the presented FFNN algorithm for training as well as classification. The resulting attenuation maps were compared with CT-based, PNN-based and TAC maps. All the AC maps were used to reconstruct the PET emission data which were then compared for the different methods. Results: For each subject dice coefficients D were calculated between each method and the respective CT-based AC maps. The resulting Ds show higher values for all FFNN-based tissues comparatively to both TAC-based and PNN-based methods, particularly for bone tissue (D=0.77, D=0.51 and D=0.71, respectively). The AC-corrected PET images with the FFNN-based map show an overall lower relative difference (RD=3.90%) than those AC-corrected with the PNN-based (RD=4.44%) or template-based (RD=4.43%) methods. Conclusion: Our results show that an enhancement of current methods can be performed by combining both information of new MR image sequence techniques and general information provided from template techniques. Nevertheless, the number of tested subjects is statistically low and current analysis for a larger dataset is being carried out.

  4. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Roland; Abbasi, Mahdi; Figuli, Roxana; Rigdahl, Mikael; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests. PMID:28336857

  5. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Roland; Abbasi, Mahdi; Figuli, Roxana; Rigdahl, Mikael; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2017-01-24

    The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  6. A Hybrid Lifetime Extended Directional Approach for WBANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changle; Yuan, Xiaoming; Yang, Li; Song, Yueyang

    2015-11-05

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) can provide real-time and reliable health monitoring, attributing to the human-centered and sensor interoperability properties. WBANs have become a key component of the ubiquitous eHealth (electronic health) revolution that prospers on the basis of information and communication technologies. The prime consideration in WBAN is how to maximize the network lifetime with battery-powered sensor nodes in energy constraint. Novel solutions in Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are imperative to satisfy the particular BAN scenario and the need of excellent energy efficiency in healthcare applications. In this paper, we propose a hybrid Lifetime Extended Directional Approach (LEDA) MAC protocol based on IEEE 802.15.6 to reduce energy consumption and prolong network lifetime. The LEDA MAC protocol takes full advantages of directional superiority in energy saving that employs multi-beam directional mode in Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) and single-beam directional mode in Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) for alternative in data reservation and transmission according to the traffic varieties. Moreover, the impacts of some inherent problems of directional antennas such as deafness and hidden terminal problem can be decreased owing to that all nodes generate individual beam according to user priorities designated. Furthermore, LEDA MAC employs a Dynamic Polled Allocation Period (DPAP) for burst data transmissions to increase the network reliability and adaptability. Extensive analysis and simulation results show that the proposed LEDA MAC protocol achieves extended network lifetime with improved performance compared with IEEE 802.15.6.

  7. Production of fragments with and without strangeness within a combined BUU+SMM approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitanos, T; Mosel, U

    2008-01-01

    The formation of hypernuclei in hadron-induced reactions and in heavy-ion collisions within a combination of a covariant transport model and a statistical fragmentation approach is investigated. We study the applicability and limitations of such a hybrid approach by comparing fragmentation data in heavy-ion collisions and proton induced reactions. It turns out that the combined approach describes fairly well multiplicities and momentum spectra of fragments. We thus extend the model by including strangeness degrees of freedom in the fragmentation process, modeled by a phase-space coalescence method. We provide theoretical predictions on spectra and on inclusive cross sections of light hypernuclei for the future experiments on hypernuclear physics at the new GSI facility.

  8. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  9. System Study on Hydrothermal Gasification Combined with a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Toonssen, Richard; Aravind, P.V.; Smit, Gerton; Woudstra, Nico; Verkooijen, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The application of wet biomass in energy conversion systems is challenging, since in most conventional systems the biomass has to be dried. Drying can be very energy intensive especially when the biomass has a moisture content above 50 wt% on a wet basis. The combination of hydrothermal biomass gasification and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) gas turbine (GT) hybrid system could be an efficient way to convert very wet biomass into electricity. Therefore, thermodynamic evalu...

  10. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heberle; Dieter Brüggemann

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a combined heat and power generation (CHP) case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency...

  11. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    Gandzha S.A.; Kiessh I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  12. Very-short-term wind power prediction by a hybrid model with single- and multi-step approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, E.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Very-short-term wind power prediction (VSTWPP) has played an essential role for the operation of electric power systems. This paper aims at improving and applying a hybrid method of VSTWPP based on historical data. The hybrid method is combined by multiple linear regressions and least square (MLR&LS), which is intended for reducing prediction errors. The predicted values are obtained through two sub-processes:1) transform the time-series data of actual wind power into the power ratio, and then predict the power ratio;2) use the predicted power ratio to predict the wind power. Besides, the proposed method can include two prediction approaches: single-step prediction (SSP) and multi-step prediction (MSP). WPP is tested comparatively by auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model from the predicted values and errors. The validity of the proposed hybrid method is confirmed in terms of error analysis by using probability density function (PDF), mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and means square error (MSE). Meanwhile, comparison of the correlation coefficients between the actual values and the predicted values for different prediction times and window has confirmed that MSP approach by using the hybrid model is the most accurate while comparing to SSP approach and ARMA. The MLR&LS is accurate and promising for solving problems in WPP.

  13. Maize forage aptitude: Combining ability of inbred lines and stability of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Máximo Bertoia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of forage maize should combine improvement achieved for grain with the specific needs of forage hybrids. Production stability is important when maize is used for silage if the planting area is not in the ideal agronomic environment. The objectives of the present research were: (i to quantify environmental and genetic and their interaction effects on maize silage traits; (ii to identify possible heterotic groups for forage aptitude and suggest the formation of potential heterotic patterns, and (iii to identify suitable inbred line combinations for producing hybrids with forage aptitude. Forty-five hybrids derived from diallelic crosses (without reciprocals among ten inbred lines of maize were evaluated in this study. Combined ANOVA over environments showed differences between genotypes (G, environments (E, and their interactions (GEI. Heritability (H2, and genotypic and phenotypic correlations were estimated to evaluate the variation in and relationships between forage traits. Postdictive and predictive AMMI models were fitted to determine the importance of each source of variation, G, E, and GEI, and to select genotypes simultaneously on yield, quality and stability. A predominance of additive effects was found in the evaluated traits. The heterotic pattern Reid-BSSS × Argentine flint was confirmed for ear yield (EY and harvest index (HI. High and broad genetic variation was found for stover and whole plant traits. Some inbred lines had genes with differential breeding aptitude for ear and stover. Stover and ear yield should be the main breeding objectives in maize forage breeding.

  14. Maize forage aptitude: Combining ability of inbred lines and stability of hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Máximo; Bertoia; Mónica; Beatriz; Aulicino

    2014-01-01

    Breeding of forage maize should combine improvement achieved for grain with the specific needs of forage hybrids. Production stability is important when maize is used for silage if the planting area is not in the ideal agronomic environment. The objectives of the present research were:(i) to quantify environmental and genetic and their interaction effects on maize silage traits;(ii) to identify possible heterotic groups for forage aptitude and suggest the formation of potential heterotic patterns, and(iii) to identify suitable inbred line combinations for producing hybrids with forage aptitude. Forty-five hybrids derived from diallelic crosses(without reciprocals) among ten inbred lines of maize were evaluated in this study. Combined ANOVA over environments showed differences between genotypes(G), environments(E), and their interactions(GEI). Heritability(H2), and genotypic and phenotypic correlations were estimated to evaluate the variation in and relationships between forage traits. Postdictive and predictive AMMI models were fitted to determine the importance of each source of variation, G, E, and GEI, and to select genotypes simultaneously on yield, quality and stability. A predominance of additive effects was found in the evaluated traits. The heterotic pattern Reid-BSSS × Argentine flint was confirmed for ear yield(EY) and harvest index(HI). High and broad genetic variation was found for stover and whole plant traits. Some inbred lines had genes with differential breeding aptitude for ear and stover. Stover and ear yield should be the main breeding objectives in maize forage breeding.

  15. Cell-specific detection of microRNA expression during cardiomyogenesis by combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Mikael; Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2011-01-01

    . However, although several miRNAs have been identified as differentially regulated during cardiac development and disease, their distinct cell-specific localization remains largely undetermined, likely owing to a lack of adequate methods. We therefore report the development of a markedly improved approach...... combining fluorescence-based miRNA-in situ hybridization (miRNA-ISH) with immunohistochemistry (IHC). We have applied this protocol to differentiating embryoid bodies (EBs) as well as embryonic and adult mouse hearts, to detect miRNAs that were upregulated during EB cardiomyogenesis, as determined by array...... present highlight the importance of determining exact cell-specific localization of miRNAs by sequential miRNA-ISH and IHC in studies aiming at understanding the role of miRNAs and their targets. This approach will hopefully aid in identifying relevant miRNA targets of both the heart and other organs....

  16. A Systemic Approach Integrating Driving Cycles for the Design of Hybrid Locomotives

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Amine; Sareni, Bruno; Roboam, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Driving cycles are essential in hybrid locomotive design by conditioning their size and performance. This paper introduces a new systemic approach to hybrid locomotive design, taking real-world driving cycles into account. The proposed approach first exploits clustering analysis with the aim of identifying classes corresponding to particular sets of driving cycles. Then, a synthesis process of a reduced and representative profile from each class of driving cycles is pr...

  17. A Hybrid Analytical/Simulation Modeling Approach for Planning and Optimizing Mass Tactical Airborne Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A HYBRID ANALYTICAL/ SIMULATION MODELING APPROACH FOR PLANNING AND OPTIMIZING MASS TACTICAL AIRBORNE OPERATIONS by DAVID DOUGLAS BRIGGS M.S.B.A...COVERED MAY 1995 TECHNICAL REPORT THESIS 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS A HYBRID ANALYTICAL SIMULATION MODELING APPROACH FOR PLANNING AND...are present. Thus, simulation modeling presents itself as an excellent alternate tool for planning because it allows for the modeling of highly complex

  18. A Hybrid Prognostic Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-An Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery is a core component of many systems such as satellite, spacecraft, and electric vehicles and its failure can lead to reduced capability, downtime, and even catastrophic breakdowns. Remaining useful life (RUL prediction of lithium-ion batteries before the future failure event is extremely crucial for proactive maintenance/safety actions. This study proposes a hybrid prognostic approach that can predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries using physical laws and data-driven modeling simultaneously. In this hybrid prognostic approach, the relevant vectors obtained with the selective kernel ensemble-based relevance vector machine (RVM learning algorithm are fitted to the physical degradation model, which is then extrapolated to failure threshold for estimating the RUL of the lithium-ion battery of interest. The experimental results indicated that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach can accurately predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries. Empirical comparisons show that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach using the selective kernel ensemble-based RVM learning algorithm performs better than the hybrid prognostic approaches using the popular learning algorithms of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs like the conventional backpropagation (BP algorithm and support vector machines (SVMs. In addition, an investigation is also conducted to identify the effects of RVM learning algorithm on the proposed hybrid prognostic approach.

  19. A hybrid method for flood simulation in small catchments combining hydrodynamic and hydrological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Vasilis; Tsakiris, George

    2016-09-01

    The study presents a new hybrid method for the simulation of flood events in small catchments. It combines a physically-based two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the hydrological unit hydrograph theory. Unit hydrographs are derived using the FLOW-R2D model which is based on the full form of two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations, solved by a modified McCormack numerical scheme. The method is tested at a small catchment in a suburb of Athens-Greece for a storm event which occurred in February 2013. The catchment is divided into three friction zones and unit hydrographs of 15 and 30 min are produced. The infiltration process is simulated by the empirical Kostiakov equation and the Green-Ampt model. The results from the implementation of the proposed hybrid method are compared with recorded data at the hydrometric station at the outlet of the catchment and the results derived from the fully hydrodynamic model FLOW-R2D. It is concluded that for the case studied, the proposed hybrid method produces results close to those of the fully hydrodynamic simulation at substantially shorter computational time. This finding, if further verified in a variety of case studies, can be useful in devising effective hybrid tools for the two-dimensional flood simulations, which are lead to accurate and considerably faster results than those achieved by the fully hydrodynamic simulations.

  20. A Fast Hybrid Algorithm Approach for the Exact String Matching Problem Via Berry Ravindran and Alpha Skip Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Almazroi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: String matching algorithm had been an essential means for searching biological sequence database. With the constant expansion in scientific data such as DNA and Protein; the development of enhanced algorithms have even become more critical as the major concern had always been how to raise the performances of these search algorithms to meet challenges of scientific information. Approach: Therefore a new hybrid algorithm comprising Berry Ravindran (BR and Alpha Skip Search (ASS is presented. The concept is based on BR shift function and combines with ASS to ensure improved performance. Results: The results obtained in percentages from the proposed hybrid algorithm displayed superior results in terms of number of attempts and number of character comparisons than the original algorithms when various types of data namely DNA, Protein and English text are applied to appraise the hybrid performances. The enhancement of the proposed hybrid algorithm performs better at 71%, 60% and 63% when compared to Berry-Ravindran in DNA, Protein and English text correspondingly. Moreover the rate of enhancement over Alpha Skip Search algorithm in DNA, Protein and English text are 48%, 28% and 36% respectively. Conclusion: The new proposed hybrid algorithm is relevant for searching biological science sequence database and also other string search systems.

  1. DESIGN OF THE THREE-LEVEL MULTICRITERIAL STRATEGY OF HYBRID MARINE POWER PLANT CONTROL FOR A COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Budashko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficiency of hybrid ships power plants (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC by various criteria for energy management systems strategies. Methodology. Based on the classification system topologies SPP CPC for mechanical, electrical and hybrid types of motors schematic diagrams of management strategies for the criterion of minimum power consumption are defined. Changing the technical component of the traditional approach to building hybrid ships electric power systems (SEPS SPP CPC the principle of modifying the structure of SEPS is applied with the integration of additional static alternative power source as dynamic reserve, which allowed to meet modern requirements for energy efficiency, levels of vibration, noise and degradation effects produced to SPP CPC, in all areas of the energy for the transfer of power from energy to propellers. Modeling of power transmission of energy to propellers in MatLab/Simulink is conducted, using blocks of optimization library and definition of identity markers. Results. Major advantages and disadvantages SPP CPC depending on the topology of energy distribution systems are determined. According to the chosen structure system electricity characteristics were obtained in the process of power transmission SPP CPC and power systems and their control strategies in terms of increased efficiency and eliminate these drawbacks. And finally, mathematical apparatus for research in terms of the development of methods for designing and managing SPP hybrid CPC to reduced fuel consumption, emissions into the environment and improving maintainability, flexibility and comfort level are improved. Originality. The methodology for improving SPP CPC implementation by developing methods of identification markers mutually influencing processes in SPP CPC and the development of implementing these methods of settlement and information systems. Practical value. The method enables iterative optimization parameters SPP CPC, it

  2. A top-down approach for construction of hybrid polymer-virus gene delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Joshua D; Vu, Halong N; Pack, Daniel W

    2010-05-21

    Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids remains the primary hurdle for human gene therapy. While many researchers have attempted to re-engineer viruses to be suited for gene delivery, others have sought to develop non-viral alternatives. We have developed a complementary approach in which viral and synthetic components are combined to form hybrid nanoparticulate vectors. In particular, we complexed non-infectious retrovirus-like particles lacking a viral envelope protein, from Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-VLP) or human immunodeficiency virus (H-VLP), with poly-L-lysine (PLL) or polyethylenimine (PEI) over a range of polymer/VLP ratios. At appropriate stoichiometry (75-250 microg polymer/10(6) VLP), the polymers replace the function of the viral envelope protein and interact with the target cell membrane, initiate cellular uptake and facilitate escape from endocytic vesicles. The viral particle, once in the cytosol, efficiently completes its normal infection process including integration of viral genes with the host genome as demonstrated by long-term (at least 5 weeks) transgene expression. In addition, hybrid vectors comprising H-VLP were shown to be capable of infecting non-dividing cells.

  3. Ultrasound thermal mapping based on a hybrid method combining physical and statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ben-Ting; Shieh, Jay; Huang, Chang-Wei; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Chen, Shing-Ru; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive temperature measurement of tissues deep inside the body has great potential for clinical applications, such as temperature monitoring during thermal therapy and early diagnosis of diseases. We developed a novel method for both temperature estimation and thermal mapping that uses ultrasound B-mode radiofrequency data. The proposed method is a hybrid that combines elements of physical and statistical models to achieve higher precision and resolution of temperature variations and distribution. We propose a dimensionless combined index (CI) that combines the echo shift differential and signal intensity difference with a weighting factor relative to the distance from the heat source. In vitro experiments verified that the combined index has a strong linear relationship with temperature variation and can be used to effectively estimate temperature with an average relative error thermal therapy and could easily be integrated into existing ultrasound systems. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Hybrid Approach for Scheduling and Replication based on Multi-criteria Decision Method in Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Hadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing environments have emerged following the demand of scientists to have a very high computing power and storage capacity. One among the challenges imposed in the use of these environments is the performance problem. To improve performance, scheduling and replicating techniques are used. In this paper we propose an approach to task scheduling combined with data replication decision based on multi criteria principle. This is to improve performance by reducing the response time of tasks and the load of system. This hybrid approach is based on a non-hierarchical model that allows scalability.

  5. Hybrid-impulsive second order sliding mode control: Lyapunov approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shtessel, Y.; Glumineau, A.; Plestan, F.; Weiss, M.

    2013-01-01

    A perturbed nonlinear system of relative degree two controlled by discontinuous-impulsive feedbacks is studied. The hybrid-impulsive terms serve to drive instantaneously the system trajectories to the origin or to its small vicinity. In particular, impulsive-twisting control exhibits an uniform exac

  6. Hybrid-impulsive second order sliding mode control: Lyapunov approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shtessel, Y.; Glumineau, A.; Plestan, F.; Weiss, M.

    2013-01-01

    A perturbed nonlinear system of relative degree two controlled by discontinuous-impulsive feedbacks is studied. The hybrid-impulsive terms serve to drive instantaneously the system trajectories to the origin or to its small vicinity. In particular, impulsive-twisting control exhibits an uniform

  7. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  8. Using a Hybrid Approach for a Leadership Cohort Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Maxine A.

    2013-01-01

    Because information technology continues to change rapidly, Extension is challenged with learning and using technology appropriately. We assert Extension cannot shy away from the challenges but must embrace technology because audiences and external forces demand it. A hybrid, or blended, format of a leadership cohort program was offered to public…

  9. Genomic comparison of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by combination of suppression subtractive hybridization and DNA microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Dongsheng; Qin, Long

    2006-01-01

    a combination of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and comparative genomic hybridization with DNAs from a diverse panel of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. SSH followed by BLAST analysis revealed 112 SSH fragments specific to strain ATCC29833, compared to the genomic sequence data of Y...

  10. A combination of extended fuzzy AHP and fuzzy GRA for government E-tendering in hybrid fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  11. Multi-drug delivery system based on alginate/calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Long; Wang, Chao-Qun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

    2014-11-01

    A facile strategy to prepare nano-sized drug carriers for co-delivery of multiple types of drugs in combination chemotherapy was developed. Inorganic/organic hybrid alginate/CaCO3 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation in an aqueous solution under very mild conditions. A hydrophilic drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and a hydrophobic drug (paclitaxel, PTX) were co-encapsulated in the hybrid nanoparticles. For comparison, PTX loaded nanoparticles and DOX loaded nanoparticles were also prepared. The measurement based on dynamic light scattering indicated all nanoparticles had a mean size less than 200 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The morphology of the nanoparticles was observed by TEM. The in vitro drug release study showed that the release of DOX and PTX from the dual drug loaded nanoparticles could be effectively sustained. The tumor cell inhibitory effect of the drug loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells and MCF-7/ADR cells. The dual drug loaded nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced cell uptake and nuclear localization as compared with the single drug loaded nanoparticles. As a result, the dual drug loaded nanoparticles had a significantly enhanced cell inhibitory effect, especially for drug resistant tumor cells. These results indicated that alginate/CaCO3 hybrid nanoparticles have promising applications for the co-delivery of drugs with different physicochemical properties in combination chemotherapy to overcome multidrug resistance.

  12. Development of a Hybrid Atomic Force Microscopic Measurement System Combined with White Light Scanning Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotang Hu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid atomic force microscopic (AFM measurement system combined with white light scanning interferometry for micro/nanometer dimensional measurement is developed. The system is based on a high precision large-range positioning platform with nanometer accuracy on which a white light scanning interferometric module and an AFM head are built. A compact AFM head is developed using a self-sensing tuning fork probe. The head need no external optical sensors to detect the deflection of the cantilever, which saves room on the head, and it can be directly fixed under an optical microscopic interferometric system. To enhance the system’s dynamic response, the frequency modulation (FM mode is adopted for the AFM head. The measuring data can be traceable through three laser interferometers in the system. The lateral scanning range can reach 25 mm × 25 mm by using a large-range positioning platform. A hybrid method combining AFM and white light scanning interferometry is proposed to improve the AFM measurement efficiency. In this method, the sample is measured firstly by white light scanning interferometry to get an overall coarse morphology, and then, further measured with higher resolution by AFM. Several measuring experiments on standard samples demonstrate the system’s good measurement performance and feasibility of the hybrid measurement method.

  13. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  14. Performance of astronomical beam combiner prototypes fabricated by hybrid sol-gel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Askari; Leite, A M P; Alexandre, D; Reynaud, F; Marques, P V S; Garcia, P J V; Moreira, P J

    2010-04-26

    Integrated optics coaxial two, three and four telescope beam combiners have been fabricated by hybrid sol-gel technology for astronomical applications. Temporal and spectral analyses of the output interferometric signal have been performed, and their results are in mutual good agreement. The results of the characterization method employed are cross-checked using contrast measurements obtained independently, demonstrating that the chromatic differential dispersion is the main contributer to contrast reduction. The mean visibility of the fabricated devices is always higher than 95 %, obtained using a source with spectral bandwidth of 50 nm. These results show the capability of hybrid sol-gel technology for fast prototyping of complex chip designs used in astronomical applications.

  15. General and specific combining abilities in a maize (Zea mays L.) test-cross hybrid panel: relative importance of population structure and genetic divergence between parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larièpe, A; Moreau, L; Laborde, J; Bauland, C; Mezmouk, S; Décousset, L; Mary-Huard, T; Fiévet, J B; Gallais, A; Dubreuil, P; Charcosset, A

    2017-02-01

    General and specific combining abilities of maize hybrids between 288 inbred lines and three tester lines were highly related to population structure and genetic distance inferred from SNP data. Many studies have attempted to provide reliable and quick methods to identify promising parental lines and combinations in hybrid breeding programs. Since the 1950s, maize germplasm has been organized into heterotic groups to facilitate the exploitation of heterosis. Molecular markers have proven efficient tools to address the organization of genetic diversity and the relationship between lines or populations. The aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent marker-based evaluations of population structure and genetic distance may account for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability components in a population composed of 800 inter and intra-heterotic group hybrids obtained by crossing 288 inbred lines and three testers. Our results illustrate a strong effect of groups identified by population structure analysis on both GCA and SCA components. Including genetic distance between parental lines of hybrids in the model leads to a significant decrease of SCA variance component and an increase in GCA variance component for all the traits. The latter suggests that this approach can be efficient to better estimate the potential combining ability of inbred lines when crossed with unrelated lines, and limits the consequences of tester choice. Significant residual GCA and SCA variance components of models taking into account structure and/or genetic distance highlight the variation available for breeding programs within structure groups.

  16. A new DFM approach to combine machining and additive manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Kerbrat, Olivier; Hascoët, Jean-Yves; 10.1016/j.compind.2011.04.003

    2011-01-01

    Design For Manufacturing (DFM) approaches aim to integrate manufacturability aspects during the design stage. Most of DFM approaches usually consider only one manufacturing process, but products competitiveness may be improved by designing hybrid modular products, in which products are seen as 3-D puzzles with modules realized aside by the best manufacturing process and further gathered. A new DFM system is created in order to give quantitative information during the product design stage of which modules will benefit in being machined and which ones will advantageously be realized by an additive process (such as Selective Laser Sintering or laser deposition). A methodology for a manufacturability evaluation in case of a subtractive or an additive manufacturing process is developed and implemented in a CAD software. Tests are carried out on industrial products from automotive industry.

  17. Facile approach to prepare Pt decorated SWNT/graphene hybrid catalytic ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayavan, Sundar, E-mail: sundarmayavan@cecri.res.in [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M. [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Sim, Jun-Bo [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Min, E-mail: sungmin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Pt NPs were in situ synthesized onto CNT–graphene support in aqueous solution. • The as-prepared material was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment. • Catalyst ink is active toward methanol oxidation. • This approach realizes both scalable and greener production of hybrid catalysts. - Abstract: Platinum nanoparticles were in situ synthesized onto hybrid support involving graphene and single walled carbon nanotube in aqueous solution. We investigate the reduction of graphene oxide, and platinum nanoparticle functionalization on hybrid support by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared platinum on hybrid support was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment and is active toward methanol oxidation. This work realizes both scalable and greener production of highly efficient hybrid catalysts, and would be valuable for practical applications of graphene based fuel cell catalysts.

  18. Strongly Interacting Matter at Finite Chemical Potential: Hybrid Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, C. P.

    2013-06-01

    Search for a proper and realistic equation of state (EOS) for strongly interacting matter used in the study of the QCD phase diagram still appears as a challenging problem. Recently, we constructed a hybrid model description for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) as well as hadron gas (HG) phases where we used an excluded volume model for HG and a thermodynamically consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase. The hybrid model suitably describes the recent lattice results of various thermodynamical as well as transport properties of the QCD matter at zero baryon chemical potential (μB). In this paper, we extend our investigations further in obtaining the properties of QCD matter at finite value of μB and compare our results with the most recent results of lattice QCD calculation.

  19. Recent advances on hybrid approaches for designing intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Pedrycz, Witold; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for diverse areas of application, such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of type-2 fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new models and applications for type-2 fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques to achieve optimization of complex optimization problems in diverse areas of application. The third part contains pape...

  20. Transparent and flexible conducting hybrid film combined with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-coated polymer and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daesung; Ko, Yong-Hun; Cho, Jumi; Adhikari, Prashanta Dhoj; Lee, Su Il; Kim, Yooseok; Song, Wooseok; Jung, Min Wook; Jang, Sung Won; Lee, Seung Youb; An, Ki-Seok; Park, Chong-Yun

    2015-12-01

    A simple approach to fabricate graphene hybrid film consisted of Graphene/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is presented, using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for enhancement of conductivity. The SAMs of APTES was prepared on ultraviolet-ozone (UVO)-irradiated PET films via wet chemical technique. The density of APTES was saturated after UV treatment time of 1 h for PET films; the carrier density and the optical transmittance were 9.3 × 10 12/cm2 and 82% for pristine graphene and 1.16 × 1013/cm2 and 86% for graphene hybrid films, respectively, and experienced at inflection point at 30 min in UV treatment time. This behavior can be explained by surface morphology transition due to coalescence or clustering of mobile and low-molecular-weight oxidized components of PET.

  1. Active diagnosis of hybrid systems - A model predictive approach

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A method for active diagnosis of hybrid systems is proposed. The main idea is to predict the future output of both normal and faulty model of the system; then at each time step an optimization problem is solved with the objective of maximizing the difference between the predicted normal and faulty outputs constrained by tolerable performance requirements. As in standard model predictive control, the first element of the optimal input is applied to the system and the whole procedure is repeate...

  2. Edge turbulence measurement in Heliotron J using a combination of hybrid probe system and fast cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, N., E-mail: nishino@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Zang, L. [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Takeuchi, M. [JAEA, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Mizuuchi, T.; Ohshima, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasajima, K.; Sha, M. [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Mukai, K. [NIFS, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Lee, H.Y. [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Konoshima, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Sano, F. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The hybrid probe system (a combination of Langmuir probes and magnetic probes), fast camera and gas puffing system were installed at the same toroidal section to study edge plasma turbulence/fluctuation in Heliotron J, especially blob (intermittent filament). Fast camera views the location of the probe head, so that the probe system yields the time evolution of the turbulence/fluctuation while the camera images the spatial profile. Gas puff at the same toroidal section was used to control the plasma density and simultaneous gas puff imaging technique. Using this combined system the filamentary structure associated with magnetic fluctuation was found in Heliotron J at the first time. The other kind of fluctuation was also observed at another experiment. This combination measurement enables us to distinguish MHD activity and electro-static activity.

  3. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  4. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Nieto, Paulino José García; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; Suárez, Victor Manuel González

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  5. A hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-based prognostic approach of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; García Nieto, Paulino José; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Victor Manuel

    2015-03-23

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  6. Combined transnasal and transoral endoscopic approaches to the craniovertebral junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I H El-Sayed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe and evaluate a new technique of a combined endoscope-assisted transnasal and transoral approach to decompress the craniovertebral junction. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort of patients requiring an anterior decompression at the craniovertebral junction over a 12-month period was studied. Eleven patients were identified and included in the study. Eight of the patients had an endoscopic approach [endonasal (2, endooral (2, and combined (4]. Four of the 8 patients in the endoscopic group had a prior open transoral procedure at other institutions. These 8 patients were compared with a contemporary group of 3 patients who had an open, transoral-transpalatal approach. Charts, radiographic images, and pathologic diagnosis were reviewed. We evaluated the following issues: airway obstruction, dysphagia, velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI, length of hospital stay (LOS, adequate decompression, and the need for revision surgery. Results: Adequate anterior decompression was achieved in all the patients. The endoscopic cohort had a reduced LOS (P = 0.014, reduced need for prolonged intubation/tracheotomy (P =0.024 and a trend toward reduced VPI (P = 0.061 when compared with the open surgery group. None of the patients required a revision surgery. Conclusion: Proper choice of endoscopic transnasal, transoral, or combined approaches allows anterior decompression at the craniovertebral junction, while avoiding the need to split the palate. A combined transnasal-transoral approach appears to reduce procedure-related morbidity compared with open, transoral, and transpalatal surgeries.

  7. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  8. A Hybrid Machine Learning Method for Fusing fMRI and Genetic Data: Combining both Improves Classification of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a hybrid machine learning method to classify schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data. The method consists of four stages: (1 SNPs with the most discriminating information between the healthy controls and schizophrenia patients are selected to construct a support vector machine ensemble (SNP-SVME. (2 Voxels in the fMRI map contributing to classification are selected to build another SVME (Voxel-SVME. (3 Components of fMRI activation obtained with independent component analysis (ICA are used to construct a single SVM classifier (ICA-SVMC. (4 The above three models are combined into a single module using a majority voting approach to make a final decision (Combined SNP-fMRI. The method was evaluated by a fully-validated leave-one-out method using 40 subjects (20 patients and 20 controls. The classification accuracy was: 0.74 for SNP-SVME, 0.82 for Voxel-SVME, 0.83 for ICA-SVMC, and 0.87 for Combined SNP-fMRI. Experimental results show that better classification accuracy was achieved by combining genetic and fMRI data than using either alone, indicating that genetic and brain function representing different, but partially complementary aspects, of schizophrenia etiopathology. This study suggests an effective way to reassess biological classification of individuals with schizophrenia, which is also potentially useful for identifying diagnostically important markers for the disorder.

  9. Combining ability studies for yield and yield components trait in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Padmavathi, P.V. Satyanarayana , Lal Ahamed M.,Y. Ashoka Rani and V. Srinivasa Rao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifty two hybrids were generated from crossing four CMS lines and thirteen restorer lines in line x tester design. Crosses along with parents were evaluated for yield and yield component traits during rabi, 2011 at RARS, Jagtial, Andhra Pradesh. Predominance of non additive gene action was recorded for all the characters. Among CMS lines APMS 9A andAPMS 10A and in testers viz., MTU II-110-9-1-1-1-1, MTU II -187-6-1-1, MTU II-143-26-2, MTU II-290-42-1 and MTU II-283-7-1-1 were found to be good general combiners for grain yield and yield component traits. The crosses APMS 10A x MTU II-290-42-1, APMS 6A x MTU II -187-6-1-1 and PMS 6A x MTU II-110-9-1-1-1-1 were identified as most promising hybrids for grain yield plant-1. These hybrids can be tested over locations before their commercial cultivation.

  10. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Cycle Combined Absorption Heat Transformer and Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Otsuka, Shin-Ichi; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of hybrid cycles which combined the single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and four kinds of absorption heat transformers were proposed. It is possible that each of these hybrid cycles gets high temperature and low temperature from one cycle, simultaneously. As basic cycle of absorption heat transformer, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption heat transformer and two kinds of two-stage absorption heat transformer. As a working medium-absorbent system, H2O-LiBr system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3 system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3-LiCl system, H2O-LiBr-C2H6O2 system and H2O-LiNO3-LiCl system were adopted. Using these five kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  11. Aesthethic and masticatory rehabilitation on post mandibular resection with combination of hollow obturator and hybrid prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Rachman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replacing tooth lost caused by caries, periodontal disease, trauma and neoplasm including ameloblastoma which requires mandibular resection is important. Purpose: The aim of the study to rehabilitation of post mandibular resection with combination of hollow obturator and hybrid prosthesis. Case: A patient 25 years old, male, for having prosthesis to cover defect due to post right mandibular resection. Case Management: In this presented case, mandibular plate was applied due to spreading defect with losing almost a half body of mandible (class II modification 2 according to cantor and curtis classification. The design of therapy was mandibular obturator using hybrid prosthesis (removable partial denture metal frame and fixed splint crown with precision attachment with hollow obturator. The application was based on several advantages: good aesthetic performance, retention, stability, lighter weight and equal share of vertical load for teeth on non surgical site. The result of control I, II, III, showed that aesthetic performance, masticatory function, speech and swallowing were in good condition. Conclusion: The design of mandibular obturator using hybrid denture with hollow obturator could rehabilitate aesthetic performance, masticatory function, speech and swallowing for patient with post mandibular resection.

  12. Analyzing Dynamic Task-Based Applications on Hybrid Platforms: An Agile Scripting Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Pinto, Vinicius; Stanisic, Luka; Legrand, Arnaud; Mello Schnorr, Lucas; Thibault, Samuel; Danjean, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis techniques to evaluate the performance of HPC task-based applications on hybrid architectures. Our approach is based on composing modern data analysis tools (pjdump, R, ggplot2, plotly), enabling an agile and flexible scripting framework with minor development cost. We validate our proposal by analyzing traces from the full-fledged implementation of the Cholesky decomposition available in the MORSE library running on a hybrid (CPU/GPU) platform. The a...

  13. Fuzzy hybrid MCDM approach for selection of wind turbine service technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Kumar Bose; Nikhil Chandra Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    This research paper is aimed to present a fuzzy Hybrid Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology for selecting employees. The present study aspires to present the hybrid approach of Fuzzy multiple MCDM techniques with tactical viewpoint to support the recruitment process of wind turbine service technicians. The methodology is based on the application of Fuzzy ARAS (Additive Ratio Assessment) and Fuzzy MOORA (Multi-Objective Optimization on basis of Ratio Analysis) which are integrated...

  14. Control and fault diagnosis based sliding mode observer of a multicellular converter: Hybrid approach

    KAUST Repository

    Benzineb, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the diagnosis of a three cell converter is developed. The hybrid nature of the system represented by the presence of continuous and discrete dynamics is taken into account in the control design. The idea is based on using a hybrid control and an observer-type sliding mode to generate residuals from the observation errors of the system. The simulation results are presented at the end to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. © 2013 FEI STU.

  15. Mixed model approaches for the identification of QTLs within a maize hybrid breeding program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Boer, M.; Totir, L.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Wright, D.; Winkler, C.; Podlich, D.; Boldman, K.; Baumgarten, R.; Smalley, M.; Arbelbide, M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cooper, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two outlines for mixed model based approaches to quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in existing maize hybrid selection programs are presented: a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The methods use the in-silico-mapping procedure developed

  16. An hybrid and non-modern approach to urban studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Grau i Solés

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the so-called Forat de la Vergonya urban controversy and the urban transformation process of a neighborhood in Barcelona: el Casc Antic. Drawing on inputs from Actor-Network Theory (ANT, the city is explored as a multiple urban assemblage. Besides, we analyze the dichotomous nature of the modern notion of politics. Especially, the role of object-subject dichotomy is explored. Through the analysis of citizen participation opportunities we propose a new hybrid notion of citizen participation and urban policy.

  17. Active diagnosis of hybrid systems - A model predictive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Ravn, Anders P.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;

    2009-01-01

    A method for active diagnosis of hybrid systems is proposed. The main idea is to predict the future output of both normal and faulty model of the system; then at each time step an optimization problem is solved with the objective of maximizing the difference between the predicted normal and faulty...... outputs constrained by tolerable performance requirements. As in standard model predictive control, the first element of the optimal input is applied to the system and the whole procedure is repeated until the fault is detected by a passive diagnoser. It is demonstrated how the generated excitation signal...

  18. HYBRID AND INTEGRATED APPROACH TO SHORT TERM LOAD FORECASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Rothe,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The forecasting of electricity demand has become one of the major research fields in Electrical Engineering. In recent years, much research has been carried out on the application of artificial intelligence techniques to the Load-Forecasting problem. Various Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques used for load forecasting are Expert systems, Fuzzy, Genetic Algorithm, Artificial Neural Network (ANN. This research work is an attempt to apply hybrid and ntegrated effort to forecast load. Regression, Fuzzy and Neural alongwith Genetic Algorithm will empower the analysts to strongly forecast fairly accurate load demand on hourly base.

  19. Evaluation of hybrid fusion 2+ approach for providing air-to-air situational awareness and threat assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangjin David; Wiesenfeld, Eric; Colony, Mike

    2006-05-01

    Modern combat aircraft pilots increasingly rely on high-level fusion models (JDL Levels 2/3) to provide real-time engagement support in hostile situations. These models provide both Situational Awareness (SA) and Threat Assessment (TA) based on data and the relationships between the data. This information represents two distinct classes of uncertainty: vagueness and ambiguity. To address the needs associated with modeling both of these types of data uncertainty, an innovative hybrid approach was recently introduced, combining probability theory and possibility theory into a unified computational framework. The goal of this research is to qualitatively and quantitatively address the advantages and disadvantages of adopting this hybrid framework as well as identifying instances in which the combined model outperforms or is more appropriate than more classical inference approaches. To accomplish this task, domain specific models will be developed using different theoretical approaches and conventions, and then evaluated in comparison to situational ground truth to determine their accuracy and fidelity. Additionally, the performance tradeoff between accuracy and complexity will be examined in terms of computational cost to determine both the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.

  20. Automated classification of tropical shrub species: a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Miraemiliana; Chang, Siow-Wee; Abu, Arpah; Yap, Hwa Jen; Yong, Kien-Thai

    2017-01-01

    Plants play a crucial role in foodstuff, medicine, industry, and environmental protection. The skill of recognising plants is very important in some applications, including conservation of endangered species and rehabilitation of lands after mining activities. However, it is a difficult task to identify plant species because it requires specialized knowledge. Developing an automated classification system for plant species is necessary and valuable since it can help specialists as well as the public in identifying plant species easily. Shape descriptors were applied on the myDAUN dataset that contains 45 tropical shrub species collected from the University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia. Based on literature review, this is the first study in the development of tropical shrub species image dataset and classification using a hybrid of leaf shape and machine learning approach. Four types of shape descriptors were used in this study namely morphological shape descriptors (MSD), Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Hu invariant moments (Hu) and Zernike moments (ZM). Single descriptor, as well as the combination of hybrid descriptors were tested and compared. The tropical shrub species are classified using six different classifiers, which are artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and directed acyclic graph multiclass least squares twin support vector machine (DAG MLSTSVM). In addition, three types of feature selection methods were tested in the myDAUN dataset, Relief, Correlation-based feature selection (CFS) and Pearson's coefficient correlation (PCC). The well-known Flavia dataset and Swedish Leaf dataset were used as the validation dataset on the proposed methods. The results showed that the hybrid of all descriptors of ANN outperformed the other classifiers with an average classification accuracy of 98.23% for the myDAUN dataset, 95.25% for the Flavia dataset and 99

  1. Monitoring hemodynamics and oxygenation of the kidney in rats by a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and invasive probe approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Cantow, Kathleen; Arakelyan, Karen; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Flemming, Bert; Skalweit, Angela; Ladwig, Mechthild; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a hybrid approach to investigate the dynamics of perfusion and oxygenation in the kidney of rats under pathophysiologically relevant conditions. Our approach combines near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in the renal cortex, and an invasive probe method for measuring total renal blood flow by an ultrasonic probe, perfusion by laser-Doppler fluxmetry, and tissue oxygen tension via fluorescence quenching. Hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation were determined from experimental data by a Monte Carlo model. The hybrid approach was applied to investigate and compare temporal changes during several types of interventions such as arterial and venous occlusions, as well as hyperoxia, hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by different mixtures of the inspired gas. The approach was also applied to study the effects of the x-ray contrast medium iodixanol on the kidney.

  2. Prediction of a service demand using combined forecasting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting facilitates cutting down operational and management costs while ensuring service level for a logistics service provider. Our case study here is to investigate how to forecast short-term logistic demand for a LTL carrier. Combined approach depends on several forecasting methods simultaneously, instead of a single method. It can offset the weakness of a forecasting method with the strength of another, which could improve the precision performance of prediction. Main issues of combined forecast modeling are how to select methods for combination, and how to find out weight coefficients among methods. The principles of method selection include that each method should apply to the problem of forecasting itself, also methods should differ in categorical feature as much as possible. Based on these principles, exponential smoothing, ARIMA and Neural Network are chosen to form the combined approach. Besides, least square technique is employed to settle the optimal weight coefficients among forecasting methods. Simulation results show the advantage of combined approach over the three single methods. The work done in the paper helps manager to select prediction method in practice.

  3. A hybrid approach to urine drug testing using high-resolution mass spectrometry and select immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Marin, Stephanie J; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Lawlor, Bryan G; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2015-02-01

    The major objective of this research was to propose a simplified approach for the evaluation of medication adherence in chronic pain management patients, using liquid chromatography time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, performed in parallel with select homogeneous enzyme immunoassays (HEIAs). We called it a "hybrid" approach to urine drug testing. The hybrid approach was defined based on anticipated positivity rates, availability of commercial reagents for HEIAs, and assay performance, particularly analytical sensitivity and specificity for drug(s) of interest. Subsequent to implementation of the hybrid approach, time to result was compared with that observed with other urine drug testing approaches. Opioids, benzodiazepines, zolpidem, amphetamine-like stimulants, and methylphenidate metabolite were detected by TOF mass spectrometry to maximize specificity and sensitivity of these 37 drug analytes. Barbiturates, cannabinoid metabolite, carisoprodol, cocaine metabolite, ethyl glucuronide, methadone, phencyclidine, propoxyphene, and tramadol were detected by HEIAs that performed adequately and/or for which positivity rates were very low. Time to result was significantly reduced compared with the traditional approach. The hybrid approach to urine drug testing provides a simplified and analytically specific testing process that minimizes the need for secondary confirmation. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  4. A hybrid solution approach for a multi-objective closed-loop logistics network under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Tu, Nan; Miao, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    The design of closed-loop logistics (forward and reverse logistics) has attracted growing attention with the stringent pressures of customer expectations, environmental concerns and economic factors. This paper considers a multi-product, multi-period and multi-objective closed-loop logistics network model with regard to facility expansion as a facility location-allocation problem, which more closely approximates real-world conditions. A multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming formulation is linearized by defining new variables and adding new constraints to the model. By considering the aforementioned model under uncertainty, this paper develops a hybrid solution approach by combining an interactive fuzzy goal programming approach and robust counterpart optimization based on three well-known robust counterpart optimization formulations. Finally, this paper compares the results of the three formulations using different test scenarios and parameter-sensitive analysis in terms of the quality of the final solution, CPU time, the level of conservatism, the degree of closeness to the ideal solution, the degree of balance involved in developing a compromise solution, and satisfaction degree.

  5. A Hybrid 3D Learning-and-Interaction-based Segmentation Approach Applied on CT Liver Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Danciu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical volume segmentation in various imaging modalities using real 3D approaches (in contrast to slice-by-slice segmentation represents an actual trend. The increase in the acquisition resolution leads to large amount of data, requiring solutions to reduce the dimensionality of the segmentation problem. In this context, the real-time interaction with the large medical data volume represents another milestone. This paper addresses the twofold problem of the 3D segmentation applied to large data sets and also describes an intuitive neuro-fuzzy trained interaction method. We present a new hybrid semi-supervised 3D segmentation, for liver volumes obtained from computer tomography scans. This is a challenging medical volume segmentation task, due to the acquisition and inter-patient variability of the liver parenchyma. The proposed solution combines a learning-based segmentation stage (employing 3D discrete cosine transform and a probabilistic support vector machine classifier with a post-processing stage (automatic and manual segmentation refinement. Optionally, an optimization of the segmentation can be achieved by level sets, using as initialization the segmentation provided by the learning-based solution. The supervised segmentation is applied on elementary cubes in which the CT volume is decomposed by tilling, thus ensuring a significant reduction of the data to be classified by the support vector machine into liver/not liver. On real volumes, the proposed approach provides good segmentation accuracy, with a significant reduction in the computational complexity.

  6. A hybrid deterministic-probabilistic approach to model the mechanical response of helically arranged hierarchical strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraldi, M.; Perrella, G.; Ciervo, M.; Bosia, F.; Pugno, N. M.

    2017-09-01

    Very recently, a Weibull-based probabilistic strategy has been successfully applied to bundles of wires to determine their overall stress-strain behaviour, also capturing previously unpredicted nonlinear and post-elastic features of hierarchical strands. This approach is based on the so-called ;Equal Load Sharing (ELS); hypothesis by virtue of which, when a wire breaks, the load acting on the strand is homogeneously redistributed among the surviving wires. Despite the overall effectiveness of the method, some discrepancies between theoretical predictions and in silico Finite Element-based simulations or experimental findings might arise when more complex structures are analysed, e.g. helically arranged bundles. To overcome these limitations, an enhanced hybrid approach is proposed in which the probability of rupture is combined with a deterministic mechanical model of a strand constituted by helically-arranged and hierarchically-organized wires. The analytical model is validated comparing its predictions with both Finite Element simulations and experimental tests. The results show that generalized stress-strain responses - incorporating tension/torsion coupling - are naturally found and, once one or more elements break, the competition between geometry and mechanics of the strand microstructure, i.e. the different cross sections and helical angles of the wires in the different hierarchical levels of the strand, determines the no longer homogeneous stress redistribution among the surviving wires whose fate is hence governed by a ;Hierarchical Load Sharing; criterion.

  7. A Hybrid Stochastic Approach for Self-Location of Wireless Sensors in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canovas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Indoor location systems, especially those using wireless sensor networks, are used in many application areas. While the need for these systems is widely proven, there is a clear lack of accuracy. Many of the implemented applications have high errors in their location estimation because of the issues arising in the indoor environment. Two different approaches had been proposed using WLAN location systems: on the one hand, the so-called deductive methods take into account the physical properties of signal propagation. These systems require a propagation model, an environment map, and the position of the radio-stations. On the other hand, the so-called inductive methods require a previous training phase where the system learns the received signal strength (RSS in each location. This phase can be very time consuming. This paper proposes a new stochastic approach which is based on a combination of deductive and inductive methods whereby wireless sensors could determine their positions using WLAN technology inside a floor of a building. Our goal is to reduce the training phase in an indoor environment, but, without an loss of precision. Finally, we compare the measurements taken using our proposed method in a real environment with the measurements taken by other developed systems. Comparisons between the proposed system and other hybrid methods are also provided.

  8. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W.; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such “hybrid microscopy” methods—combining physical and optical magnifications—can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes (“mini-microscopes”), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics—a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)—is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  9. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-15

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such "hybrid microscopy" methods--combining physical and optical magnifications--can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes ("mini-microscopes"), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics--a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)--is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  10. Infrared exploration of the architectural heritage: from passive infrared thermography to hybrid infrared thermography (HIRT approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfarra, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, infrared thermographic approaches have been considered either passive or active. In the latter case, the heat flux is historically attributed to a non-natural heat source. The use of the sun has recently been incorporated into the active approach thanks to multi-temporal inspections. In this paper, an innovative hybrid thermographic (HIRT approach is illustrated. It combines both the time component and the solar source to obtain quantitative information such as the defect depth. Thermograms were obtained by inspecting the facade of the Santa Maria Collemaggio church (L’Aquila, Italy, whereas quantitative results related to the sub-superficial discontinuities were obtained thanks to the use of advanced techniques. Experimental results linked to passive approach (i.e., the mosaicking procedure of the thermograms performed by selecting a set of historic churches are also included in order to explain, when and where, the hybrid procedure should be used.Hasta la fecha, los enfoques sobre la termografía infrarroja han sido considerados, o pasivos, o activos. En este último caso, el flujo de calor se obtiene a través de una fuente de calor no natural. El uso de energía solar ha sido recientemente incorporado al enfoque activo gracias a los estudios multitemporales. En este trabajo, se ilustra un enfoque innovador de la termografía híbrida (HIRT. Se combina tanto el componente de tiempo y la fuente de energía solar para recuperar la información cuantitativa así como la profundidad del defecto. Las imágenes térmicas se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de la fachada de la Iglesia de Santa María Collemaggio (L’Aquila, Italia, mientras que los resultados cuantitativos inherentes a las discontinuidades sub-superficiales se obtuvieron gracias al uso de otras técnicas avanzadas. Los resultados experimentales vinculados al enfoque pasivo (es decir, el proceso de mosaico de las imágenes térmicas derivan de un conjunto de Iglesias

  11. Combined laparoscopic and open extraperitoneal approach to scrotal hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferzli, G S; Rim, S; Edwards, E D

    2013-04-01

    Laparoscopic repair of scrotal hernias is often a difficult endeavor to successfully complete. The longstanding nature of these hernias often results in significant adhesions and anatomic distortion of the inguinal floor. These two issues make reduction of the hernia arduous and subsequent reinforcement of the parietal sac difficult. We have previously described techniques to increase the chances of success when attempting laparoscopic repair of scrotal hernias. Here, we describe some of those techniques as well as a combined laparoscopic and open approach to achieve a robust preperitoneal repair of incarcerated scrotal hernias when the usual totally extraperitoneal approach does not work. We performed a retrospective review of 1890 TEP hernia repairs we performed from 1990 to 2010. Rate of conversion to an open approach or a combined laparoscopic and open approach was examined. Incidence of complications or recurrences was assessed over a 12-month follow-up period. Among the 1890 TEP repairs, 94 large scrotal hernias were identified. Of these, nine cases (9.5 %) required conversion to an open procedure due to an incarcerated and indurated omentum. Three were completed with a conventional open preperitoneal whereas six patients (6.4 %) underwent repair with the combined approach. In this group, no recurrences or complications were found over a 12-month period. In cases where a large scrotal hernia may be difficult or dangerous to reduce laparoscopically, immediate conversion to an open repair may not be necessary. A combined laparoscopic and open approach can greatly assist in the visualization and dissection of the preperitoneal space, thereby facilitating reduction of the hernia and placement of the mesh.

  12. Combining ability analysis for yield and fibre quality parameters in intraspecific hybrids of G. hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Saravanan, N.A., R. Ravikesavan and T.S. Raveendran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Four genetically diverse jassid resistant varieties viz., SRT 1, Khandwa 2, KC 2 and SVPR 3 (Females i.e lines were crossedwith three standard varieties viz., MCU 5, MCU 7 and MCU 12 (male parents i.e., testers in line x tester fashion for estimationin combining ability effects of twelve economic characters including fibre quality traits like 2.5% span length, bundle strength,fibre fineness, uniformity ratio and elongation percentage. Non-additive type of gene action was found relatively more importantfor all the characters. The jassid resistant parent KC 2 was a good combiner for boll weight, lint index, seed index and bundlestrength besides seed cotton yield. While the parents SRT 1 and MCU 5 were found to be good general combiner for 2.5 per centspan length. On the basis of sca effects the combinations KC 2 x MCU 5, KC 2 x MCU 12 and Khandwa 2 x MCU 5 were thebest hybrids for combining high yield, quality and jassid resistance.

  13. Chimera: A hybrid approach to numerical loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Diener, Peter; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    The existence of a quantum bounce in isotropic spacetimes is a key result in loop quantum cosmology (LQC), which has been demonstrated to arise in all the models studied so far. In most of the models, the bounce has been studied using numerical simulations involving states which are sharply peaked and which bounce at volumes much larger than the Planck volume. An important issue is to confirm the existence of the bounce for states which have a wide spread, or which bounce closer to the Planck volume. Numerical simulations with such states demand large computational domains, making them very expensive and practically infeasible with the techniques which have been implemented so far. To overcome these difficulties, we present an efficient hybrid numerical scheme using the property that at the small spacetime curvature, the quantum Hamiltonian constraint in LQC, which is a difference equation with uniform discretization in volume, can be approximated by a Wheeler-DeWitt differential equation. By carefully choosi...

  14. Hybrid Quantum-Classical Approach to Quantum Optimal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xinhua; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2017-04-14

    A central challenge in quantum computing is to identify more computational problems for which utilization of quantum resources can offer significant speedup. Here, we propose a hybrid quantum-classical scheme to tackle the quantum optimal control problem. We show that the most computationally demanding part of gradient-based algorithms, namely, computing the fitness function and its gradient for a control input, can be accomplished by the process of evolution and measurement on a quantum simulator. By posing queries to and receiving answers from the quantum simulator, classical computing devices update the control parameters until an optimal control solution is found. To demonstrate the quantum-classical scheme in experiment, we use a seven-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance system, on which we have succeeded in optimizing state preparation without involving classical computation of the large Hilbert space evolution.

  15. Assessing a Bayesian Approach for Detecting Exotic Hybrids between Plantation and Native Eucalypts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Larcombe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus is grown extensively in plantations outside its native range in Australia. Concerns have been raised that the species may pose a genetic risk to native eucalypt species through hybridisation and introgression. Methods for identifying hybrids are needed to enable assessment and management of this genetic risk. This paper assesses the efficiency of a Bayesian approach for identifying hybrids between the plantation species E. globulus and E. nitens and four at-risk native eucalypts. Range-wide DNA samples of E. camaldulensis, E. cypellocarpa, E. globulus, E. nitens, E. ovata and E. viminalis, and pedigreed and putative hybrids (n = 606, were genotyped with 10 microsatellite loci. Using a two-way simulation analysis (two species in the model at a time, the accuracy of identification was 98% for first and 93% for second generation hybrids. However, the accuracy of identifying simulated backcross hybrids was lower (74%. A six-way analysis (all species in the model together showed that as the number of species increases the accuracy of hybrid identification decreases. Despite some difficulties identifying backcrosses, the two-way Bayesian modelling approach was highly effective at identifying F1s, which, in the context of E. globulus plantations, are the primary management concern.

  16. Hybrid neuroprosthesis for the upper limb: combining brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Grimm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related range of motion and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD and electromyography (EMG activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e. induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p=0.028 or EMG (p=0.021 modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related range of motion (p=0.009 and the movement-related brain modulation (p=0

  17. Photothermal and biodegradable polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites as drug carriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Wang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Jiachen

    2017-03-15

    To develop photothermal and biodegradable nanocarriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer, polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites had been successfully fabricated via surface initiated polymerization of aniline onto porous silicon nanoparticles in our experiments. As-prepared polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites could be well dispersed in aqueous solution without any extra hydrophilic surface coatings, and showed a robust photothermal effect under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Especially, after an intravenous injection into mice, these biodegradable porous silicon-based nanocomposites as non-toxic agents could be completely cleared in body. Moreover, these polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites as drug carriers also exhibited an efficient loading and dual pH/NIR light-triggered release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, a model anticancer drug). Most importantly, assisted with NIR laser irradiation, polyaniline/PSiNPs nanocomposites with loading DOX showed a remarkable synergistic anticancer effect combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy, whether in vitro or in vivo. Therefore, based on biodegradable PSiNPs-based nanocomposites, this combination approach of chemo-photothermal therapy would have enormous potential on clinical cancer treatments in the future.

  18. FROM ENERGY IMPROVEMENT TO ACCURACY ENHANCEMENT:IMPROVEMENT OF PLATE BENDING ELEMENTS BY THE COMBINED HYBRID METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ping Xie

    2004-01-01

    By following the geometric point of view in mechanics, a novel expression of the combined hybrid method for plate bending problems is introduced to clarify its intrinsic mechanism of enhancing coarse-mesh accuracy of conforming or nonconforming plate elements.By adjusting the combination parameter α∈ (0, 1) and adopting appropriate bending moments modes, reduction of energy error for the discretized displacement model leads to enhanced numerical accuracy. As an application, improvement of Adini's rectangle is discussed. Numerical experiments show that the combined hybrid counterpart of Adini's element is capable of attaining high accuracy at coarse meshes.

  19. Hybrid Estimation of State and Input for Linear Continuous Time-varying Systems: A Game Theory Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiao-Jun; WENGZheng-Xin; TIANZuo-Hua; SHISong-Jiao

    2005-01-01

    The H∞ hybrid estimation problem for linear continuous time-varying systems is investigated in this paper, where estimated signals are linear combination of state and input. Design objective requires the worst-case energy gain from disturbance to estimation error be less than a prescribed level. Optimal solution of the hybrid estimation problem is the saddle point of a two-player zero sum differential game. Based on the differential game approach, necessary and sufficient solvable conditions for the hybrid estimation problem are provided in terms of solutions to a Riccati differential equation. Moreover, one possible estimator is proposed if the solvable conditions are satisfied.The estimator is characterized by a gain matrix and an output mapping matrix that reflects the internal relations between the unknown input and output estimation error. Both state and unknown inputs estimation are realized by the proposed estimator. Thus, the results in this paper are also capable of dealing with fault diagnosis problems of linear time-varying systems. At last, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed approach.

  20. Hybrid input function estimation using a single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Shoghi, Kooresh I.

    2009-02-01

    A hybrid blood input function (BIF) model that incorporates region of interests (ROIs) based peak estimation and a two exponential tail model was proposed to describe the blood input function. The hybrid BIF model was applied to the single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) optimization based approach for BIF estimation using time activity curves (TACs) obtained from ROIs defined at left ventricle (LV) blood pool and myocardium regions of dynamic PET images. The proposed BIF estimation method was applied with 0, 1 and 2 blood samples as constraints for BIF estimation using simulated small animal PET data. Relative percentage difference of the area-under-curve (AUC) measurement between the estimated BIF and the true BIF was calculated to evaluate the BIF estimation accuracy. SIMO based BIF estimation using Feng's input function model was also applied for comparison. The hybrid method provided improved BIF estimation in terms of both mean accuracy and variability compared to Feng's model based BIF estimation in our simulation study. When two blood samples were used as constraints, the percentage BIF estimation error was 0.82 +/- 4.32% for the hybrid approach and 4.63 +/- 10.67% for the Feng's model based approach. Using hybrid BIF, improved kinetic parameter estimation was also obtained.

  1. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  2. Modelling the World Wool Market: A Hybrid Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of the world wool market that merges two modelling traditions: the partialequilibrium commodity-specific approach and the computable general-equilibrium approach. The model captures the multistage nature of the wool production system, and the heterogeneous nature of raw wool, processed wool and wool garments. It also captures the important wool producing and consuming regions of the world. We illustrate the utility of the model by estimating the effects of tariff barriers o...

  3. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetan Blandin; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Joaquim Comas; Ignasi Rodriguez-Roda; Pierre Le-Clech

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be ...

  4. A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, N. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Letang, J.-M. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or {gamma}-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results.

  5. Hybrid Enhanced Epidermal SpaceSuit Design Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Joseph M.

    A Space suit that does not rely on gas pressurization is a multi-faceted problem that requires major stability controls to be incorporated during design and construction. The concept of Hybrid Epidermal Enhancement space suit integrates evolved human anthropomorphic and physiological adaptations into its functionality, using commercially available bio-medical technologies to address shortcomings of conventional gas pressure suits, and the impracticalities of MCP suits. The prototype HEE Space Suit explored integumentary homeostasis, thermal control and mobility using advanced bio-medical materials technology and construction concepts. The goal was a space suit that functions as an enhanced, multi-functional bio-mimic of the human epidermal layer that works in attunement with the wearer rather than as a separate system. In addressing human physiological requirements for design and construction of the HEE suit, testing regimes were devised and integrated into the prototype which was then subject to a series of detailed tests using both anatomical reproduction methods and human subject.

  6. Hybrid Approach to State Estimation for Bioprocess Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimvydas Simutis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An improved state estimation technique for bioprocess control applications is proposed where a hybrid version of the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF is employed. The underlying dynamic system model is formulated as a conventional system of ordinary differential equations based on the mass balances of the state variables biomass, substrate, and product, while the observation model, describing the less established relationship between the state variables and the measurement quantities, is formulated in a data driven way. The latter is formulated by means of a support vector regression (SVR model. The UKF is applied to a recombinant therapeutic protein production process using Escherichia coli bacteria. Additionally, the state vector was extended by the specific biomass growth rate µ in order to allow for the estimation of this key variable which is crucial for the implementation of innovative control algorithms in recombinant therapeutic protein production processes. The state estimates depict a sufficiently low noise level which goes perfectly with different advanced bioprocess control applications.

  7. Hybrid Approach to State Estimation for Bioprocess Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimvydas Simutis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An improved state estimation technique for bioprocess control applications is proposed where a hybrid version of the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF is employed. The underlying dynamic system model is formulated as a conventional system of ordinary differential equations based on the mass balances of the state variables biomass, substrate, and product, while the observation model, describing the less established relationship between the state variables and the measurement quantities, is formulated in a data driven way. The latter is formulated by means of a support vector regression (SVR model. The UKF is applied to a recombinant therapeutic protein production process using Escherichia coli bacteria. Additionally, the state vector was extended by the specific biomass growth rate µ in order to allow for the estimation of this key variable which is crucial for the implementation of innovative control algorithms in recombinant therapeutic protein production processes. The state estimates depict a sufficiently low noise level which goes perfectly with different advanced bioprocess control applications.

  8. Multi-level and hybrid modelling approaches for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardini, R; Politano, G; Benso, A; Di Carlo, S

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, high-throughput techniques allowed for the extraction of a huge amount of data from biological systems, unveiling more of their underling complexity. Biological systems encompass a wide range of space and time scales, functioning according to flexible hierarchies of mechanisms making an intertwined and dynamic interplay of regulations. This becomes particularly evident in processes such as ontogenesis, where regulative assets change according to process context and timing, making structural phenotype and architectural complexities emerge from a single cell, through local interactions. The information collected from biological systems are naturally organized according to the functional levels composing the system itself. In systems biology, biological information often comes from overlapping but different scientific domains, each one having its own way of representing phenomena under study. That is, the different parts of the system to be modelled may be described with different formalisms. For a model to have improved accuracy and capability for making a good knowledge base, it is good to comprise different system levels, suitably handling the relative formalisms. Models which are both multi-level and hybrid satisfy both these requirements, making a very useful tool in computational systems biology. This paper reviews some of the main contributions in this field.

  9. Hybrid genetic algorithm approach for selective harmonic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahidah, Mohamed S.A. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100, Jalan Multimedia-Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Agelidis, Vassilios G. [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Rao, Machavaram V. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama-Melaka (Malaysia)

    2008-02-15

    The paper presents an optimal solution for a selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulated (SHE-PWM) technique suitable for a high power inverter used in constant frequency utility applications. The main challenge of solving the associated non-linear equations, which are transcendental in nature and, therefore, have multiple solutions, is the convergence, and therefore, an initial point selected considerably close to the exact solution is required. The paper discusses an efficient hybrid real coded genetic algorithm (HRCGA) that reduces significantly the computational burden, resulting in fast convergence. An objective function describing a measure of the effectiveness of eliminating selected orders of harmonics while controlling the fundamental, namely a weighted total harmonic distortion (WTHD) is derived, and a comparison of different operating points is reported. It is observed that the method was able to find the optimal solution for a modulation index that is higher than unity. The theoretical considerations reported in this paper are verified through simulation and experimentally on a low power laboratory prototype. (author)

  10. Modeling and Control of Cogeneration Power Plants: A Hybrid System Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ferrari-Trecate (Giancarlo); E. Gallestey (Eduardo); P. Letizia (Paolo); M. Spedicato (Matteo); M. Morari (Manfred); M. Antoine (Marc)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the short term scheduling optimization of a combined cycle power plant is accomplished by exploiting hybrid systems, i.e. systems evolving according to continuous dynamics, discrete dynamics, and logic rules. Discrete features of a power plant are, for instance, the possibi

  11. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Herbert-Acero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel framework for the aerodynamic design and optimization of blades for small horizontal axis wind turbines (WT. The framework is based on a state-of-the-art blade element momentum model, which is complemented with the XFOIL 6.96 software in order to provide an estimate of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of small WT (SWT rotors for a wide range of operational conditions. The design variables are (1 the airfoil shape at the different blade span positions and the radial variation of the geometrical variables of (2 chord length, (3 twist angle, and (4 thickness along the blade span. A wind tunnel validation study of optimized rotors based on the NACA 4-digit airfoil series is presented. Based on the experimental data, improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, the cut-in wind speed, and the amount of material used during the manufacturing process were achieved. Recommendations for the aerodynamic design of SWT rotors are provided based on field experience.

  12. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC, and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  13. Combined Hybrid DFE and CCK Remodulator for Medium-Range Single-Carrier Underwater Acoustic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialin Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced modulation and channel equalization techniques are essential for improving the performance of medium-range single-carrier underwater acoustic communications. In this paper, an enhanced detection scheme, hybrid time-frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (DFE combined with complementary code keying (CCK remodulator, is presented. CCK modulation technique provides strong tolerance to intersymbol interference caused by multipath propagation in underwater acoustic channels. The conventional hybrid DFE, using a frequency domain feedforward filter and a time domain feedback filter, provides good performance along with low computational complexity. The error propagation in the feedback filter, caused by feedbacking wrong decisions prior to CCK demodulation, may lead to great performance degradation. In our proposed scheme, with the help of CCK coding gain, more accurate remodulated CCK chips can be used as feedback. The proposed detection scheme is tested by the practical ocean experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed detection scheme ensures robust communications over 10-kilometre underwater acoustic channels with the data rate at 5 Kbits/s in 3 kHz of channel bandwidth.

  14. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO₂ concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO₂ photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO₂ particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  15. Structure-based virtual screening of the nociceptin receptor: hybrid docking and shape-based approaches for improved hit identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Pankaj R; Polgar, Willma E; Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2014-10-27

    The antagonist-bound crystal structure of the nociceptin receptor (NOP), from the opioid receptor family, was recently reported along with those of the other opioid receptors bound to opioid antagonists. We recently reported the first homology model of the 'active-state' of the NOP receptor, which when docked with 'agonist' ligands showed differences in the TM helices and residues, consistent with GPCR activation after agonist binding. In this study, we explored the use of the active-state NOP homology model for structure-based virtual screening to discover NOP ligands containing new chemical scaffolds. Several NOP agonist and antagonist ligands previously reported are based on a common piperidine scaffold. Given the structure-activity relationships for known NOP ligands, we developed a hybrid method that combines a structure-based and ligand-based approach, utilizing the active-state NOP receptor as well as the pharmacophoric features of known NOP ligands, to identify novel NOP binding scaffolds by virtual screening. Multiple conformations of the NOP active site including the flexible second extracellular loop (EL2) loop were generated by simulated annealing and ranked using enrichment factor (EF) analysis and a ligand-decoy dataset containing known NOP agonist ligands. The enrichment factors were further improved by combining shape-based screening of this ligand-decoy dataset and calculation of consensus scores. This combined structure-based and ligand-based EF analysis yielded higher enrichment factors than the individual methods, suggesting the effectiveness of the hybrid approach. Virtual screening of the CNS Permeable subset of the ZINC database was carried out using the above-mentioned hybrid approach in a tiered fashion utilizing a ligand pharmacophore-based filtering step, followed by structure-based virtual screening using the refined NOP active-state models from the enrichment analysis. Determination of the NOP receptor binding affinity of a selected set

  16. OPTIMISATION OF BUFFER SIZE FOR ENHANCING QOS OF VIDEO TRAFFIC USING CROSS LAYERED HYBRID TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matilda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming is gaining importance, with the wide popularity of multimedia rich applications in the Internet. Video streams are delay sensitive and require seamless flow for continuous visualization. Properly designed buffers offer a solution to queuing delay. The diagonally opposite QoS metrics associated with video traffic poses an optimization problem, in the design of buffers. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [1] and deals with the design of buffers. It aims at finding the optimum buffer size for enhancing QoS offered to video traffic. Network-centric QoS provisioning approach, along with hybrid transport layer protocol approach is adopted, to arrive at an optimum size which is independent of RTT. In this combinational approach, buffers of routers and end devices are designed to satisfy the various QoS parameters at the transport layer. OPNET Modeler is used to simulate environments for testing the design. Based on the results of simulation it is evident that the hybrid transport layer protocol approach is best suited for transmitting video traffic as it supports the economical design.

  17. Application of a single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approach to pharmacokinetic model building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Eric A; Sale, Mark E; Pollock, Bruce G; Belani, Chandra P; Egorin, Merrill J; Ivy, Percy S; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Manuck, Stephen B; Marder, Stephen R; Muldoon, Matthew F; Scher, Howard I; Solit, David B; Bies, Robert R

    2012-08-01

    A limitation in traditional stepwise population pharmacokinetic model building is the difficulty in handling interactions between model components. To address this issue, a method was previously introduced which couples NONMEM parameter estimation and model fitness evaluation to a single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm for global optimization of the model structure. In this study, the generalizability of this approach for pharmacokinetic model building is evaluated by comparing (1) correct and spurious covariate relationships in a simulated dataset resulting from automated stepwise covariate modeling, Lasso methods, and single-objective hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to covariate identification and (2) information criteria values, model structures, convergence, and model parameter values resulting from manual stepwise versus single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to model building for seven compounds. Both manual stepwise and single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to model building were applied, blinded to the results of the other approach, for selection of the compartment structure as well as inclusion and model form of inter-individual and inter-occasion variability, residual error, and covariates from a common set of model options. For the simulated dataset, stepwise covariate modeling identified three of four true covariates and two spurious covariates; Lasso identified two of four true and 0 spurious covariates; and the single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm identified three of four true covariates and one spurious covariate. For the clinical datasets, the Akaike information criterion was a median of 22.3 points lower (range of 470.5 point decrease to 0.1 point decrease) for the best single-objective hybrid genetic-algorithm candidate model versus the final manual stepwise model: the Akaike information criterion was lower by greater than 10 points for four compounds and differed by less than 10 points for three

  18. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  19. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  20. White organic light emitting devices with hybrid emissive layers combining phosphorescence and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Gangtie; Chen Xiaolan; Wang Lei; Zhu Meixiang; Zhu Weiguo [Key Lab of Environmental-friendly Chemistry and Application of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Wang Liduo; Qiu Yong [Key Lab of Organic-Optoelectronics and Molecular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: lgt@xtu.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    We fabricated a white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) by hybrid emissive layers which combined phosphorescence with fluorescence. In this device, the thin layer of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-(t-butyl)-6-(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran played the role of undoped red emissive layer which was inserted between two blue phosphorescence emissive layers. The blue phosphorescent dye was bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C{sup 2}] (picolinato) Ir(III), which was doped in the host material, N, N'-dicarbazolyl-1, 4-dimethene-benzene. The WOLED showed stable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates and a high efficency of 9.6 cd A{sup -1} when the current density was 1.8 A m{sup -2}. The maximum luminance of the device achieved was 17 400 cd m{sup -2} when the current density was 3000 A m{sup -2}.

  1. Combined Laser Beam Welding and Brazing Process for Aluminium Titanium Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, F.; Grden, M.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    The current state of the art in light-weight construction is - for the case of aircraft structures - the use of either aluminium or titanium. Whereas aluminium is light-weight and less expensive, titanium offers superior corrosion properties at higher cost. In order to combine the advantages of both materials, a hybrid Ti-Al structure is proposed for e.g. seat-track application. In this paper, an overview of the results from this research work and the accompanying thermo-mechanical simulations will be reported and discussed. On the basis of the development of an appropriate system technology, the process development will be described, focusing on the main influencing parameters of the process on joint properties.

  2. CP-Miner : A hybrid Approach for Colorectal Polyp Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. M. Vanitha,; Prof. P. Tamije Selvy; Dr. V.Palanisamy,; Prof. AR.Sivakumaran

    2010-01-01

    Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC) is the new generation technique for detecting colorectal polyps using volumetric CT data combined with Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system. The aim of this paper is to detail the implementation of a fully integrated CP-Minersystem that is able to identify the polyps in the CT data. The CP-Miner system has a multistage implementation whose main system components are: 1. Interpolation, 2. Automatic Colon Segmentation,3.Feature extraction, 4.Polyp Detecti...

  3. Hybrid systems modelling and simulation in DESTECS: a co-simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Yunyun; Broenink, Johannes F.; Klumpp, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the modelling methodology and tooling in DESTECS (www.destecs.org) - Design Support and Tooling for Embedded Control Software - project as a novel modelling approach for hybrid systems from an executable model perspective. It provides a top-level structure for the system model

  4. On the Use of Hybrid Development Approaches in Software and Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Münch, Jürgen; Diebold, Philipp;

    2016-01-01

    embody this framework with more agile (and/or lean) practices to keep their flexibility. The paper at hand provides insights into the HELENA study with which we aim to investigate the use of “Hybrid dEveLopmENt Approaches in software systems development”. We present the survey design and initial findings...

  5. The business case for condition-based maintenance: a hybrid (non-) financial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiddens, W.W.; Tinga, T.; Braaksma, A.J.J.; Brouwer, O.; Cepin, Marko; Bris, Radim

    2017-01-01

    Although developing business cases is key for evaluating project success, the costs and benefits of condition-based maintenance (CBM) implementations are often not explicitly defined and evaluated. Using the design science methodology, we developed a hybrid business case approach to help managers

  6. A Hybrid Column Generation approach for an Industrial Waste Collection Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Kristian; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    2014-01-01

    , real-world problem instances. Results indicate that the hybrid column generation outperforms a purely heuristic approach in terms of both running time and solution quality. High quality solutions to problems containing up to 100 orders can be solved in approximately 15 minutes....

  7. Assessing the Impacts of a Hybrid ``Flipped'' Approach to University Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris; Paulson, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Over the course of several years, the physics faculty at James Madison University has been gradually reforming the introductory calculus-based physics sequence to a hybrid model using a ``flipped classroom'' approach. The content traditionally delivered during lecture was divided into approximately 150 short (5-10 minute) videos. For homework, students are assigned 3-5 videos to watch before each class session. These assignments are combined with in-class activities including gouger problem solving and the tutorials developed by the University of Washington group to provide the students with focused guidance on concepts and skills that students traditionally have left our classes not having mastered. For the fall semester course on mechanics, the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was used to evaluate student outcomes. For the spring semester course on E&M and optics, the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) was used. Student reaction to the course structure was generally positive though there were some complaints in the student evaluations at the end of each semester. However, a positive impact on student outcomes was observed based on the Hake gains on the FCI.

  8. A Hybrid MCDM Approach for Strategic Project Portfolio Selection of Agro By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Debnath

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing size of the population, society faces several challenges for sustainable and adequate agricultural production, quality, distribution, and food safety in the strategic project portfolio selection (SPPS. The initial adaptation of strategic portfolio management of genetically modified (GM Agro by-products (Ab-Ps is a huge challenge in terms of processing the agro food product supply-chain practices in an environmentally nonthreatening way. As a solution to the challenges, the socio-economic characteristics for SPPS of GM food purchasing scenarios are studied. Evaluation and selection of the GM agro portfolio management are the dynamic issues due to physical and immaterial criteria involving a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM approach, combining modified grey Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL, Multi-Attributive Border Approximation area Comparison (MABAC and sensitivity analysis. Evaluation criteria are grouped into social, differential and beneficial clusters, and the modified DEMATEL procedure is used to derive the criteria weights. The MABAC method is applied to rank the strategic project portfolios according to the aggregated preferences of decision makers (DMs. The usefulness of the proposed research framework is validated with a case study. The GM by-products are found to be the best portfolio. Moreover, this framework can unify the policies of agro technological improvement, corporate social responsibility (CSR and agro export promotion.

  9. Online energy management strategy of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles based on data fusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daming; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Gao, Fei; Ravey, Alexandre; Matraji, Imad; Godoy Simões, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Energy management strategy plays a key role for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs), it directly affects the efficiency and performance of energy storages in FCHEVs. For example, by using a suitable energy distribution controller, the fuel cell system can be maintained in a high efficiency region and thus saving hydrogen consumption. In this paper, an energy management strategy for online driving cycles is proposed based on a combination of the parameters from three offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers using data fusion approach. The fuzzy logic controllers are respectively optimized for three typical driving scenarios: highway, suburban and city in offline. To classify patterns of online driving cycles, a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM) is used to provide probabilistic classification results. Based on the classification results of the online driving cycle, the parameters of each offline optimized fuzzy logic controllers are then fused using Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory, in order to calculate the final parameters for the online fuzzy logic controller. Three experimental validations using Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) platform with different-sized FCHEVs have been performed. Experimental comparison results show that, the proposed PSVM-DS based online controller can achieve a relatively stable operation and a higher efficiency of fuel cell system in real driving cycles.

  10. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology.

  11. Real-time assessment of hybridization between wolves and dogs: combining noninvasive samples with ancestry informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Raquel; López-Bao, José Vicente; Castro, Diana; Llaneza, Luís; Lopes, Susana; Silva, Pedro; Ferrand, Nuno

    2015-03-01

    Wolves and dogs provide a paradigmatic example of the ecological and conservation implications of hybridization events between wild and domesticated forms. However, our understanding of such implications has been traditionally hampered by both high genetic similarity and the difficulties in obtaining tissue samples (TS), which limit our ability to assess ongoing hybridization events. To assess the occurrence and extension of hybridization in a pack of wolf-dog hybrids in northwestern Iberia, we compared the power of 52 nuclear markers implemented on TS with a subset of 13 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) typed in noninvasive samples (NIS). We demonstrate that the 13 AIMs are as accurate as the 52 markers that were chosen without regard to the power to differentiate between wolves and dogs, also having the advantage of being rapidly screened on NIS. The efficiency of AIMs significantly outperformed ten random sets of similar size and an additional commercial set of 18 markers. Bayesian clustering analysis implemented on AIMs and NIS identified nine hybrids, two wolves and two dogs. Four hybrids were unambiguously assigned to F1xWolf backcrosses. Our approach (AIMs + NIS) overcomes previous difficulties related to sample availability and informative power of markers, allowing a quick identification of wolf-dog hybrids in the first phases of hybridization episodes. This provides managers with a reliable tool to evaluate hybridization and estimate the success of their actions. This approach may be easily adapted for other pairs of wild/domesticated species, thus improving our understanding of the introgression of domestication genes into natural populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spin injection across a hybrid heterojunction: Theoretical understanding and experimental approach (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.M.; Nitta, J.; Jensen, Ane

    2002-01-01

    Spin injection across a hybrid ferromagnet/semiconductor junction has proven to be difficult, unlike in an all-metal junction used in giant magnetoresistance devices. The difference responsible is highlighted in a simple model. We perform spin-injection-detection experiments on devices with two...... ferromagnetic contacts on a two-dimensional electron gas confined in an InAs quantum well. We demonstrate that spin injection allows the hybrid device to combine both the advantage of the ferromagnet as well as that of the semiconductor....

  13. Gene expression profiling of osteoclast differentiation by combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Jaerang; Altmann, Curtis R; Socci, Nicholas D; Merkov, Lubomir; Kim, Nacksung; So, Hongseob; Lee, Okbok; Takami, Masamichi; Brivanlou, Ali H; Choi, Yongwon

    2002-08-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balanced action of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Multinucleated, mature osteoclasts develop from hematopoietic stem cells via the monocyte-macrophage lineage, which also give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells. Despite their distinct physiologic roles in bone and the immune system, these cell types share many molecular and biochemical features. To provide insights into how osteoclasts differentiate and function to control bone metabolism, we employed a systematic approach to profile patterns of osteoclast-specific gene expression by combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis. Here we examined how gene expression profiles of mature osteoclast differ from macrophage or dendritic cells, how gene expression profiles change during osteoclast differentiation, and how Mitf, a transcription factor critical for osteoclast maturation, affects the gene expression profile. This approach revealed a set of genes coordinately regulated for osteoclast function, some of which have previously been implicated in several bone diseases in humans.

  14. ANN Approach for State Estimation of Hybrid Systems and Its Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijoh Vellayikot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel artificial neural network based state estimator has been proposed to ensure the robustness in the state estimation of autonomous switching hybrid systems under various uncertainties. Taking the autonomous switching three-tank system as benchmark hybrid model working under various additive and multiplicative uncertainties such as process noise, measurement error, process–model parameter variation, initial state mismatch, and hand valve faults, real-time performance evaluation by the comparison of it with other state estimators such as extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman Filter was carried out. The experimental results reported with the proposed approach show considerable improvement in the robustness in performance under the considered uncertainties.

  15. Enhanced NLO response in BODIPY-coumarin hybrids: density functional theory approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YOGESH ERANDE; NAGAIYAN SEKAR

    2017-09-01

    We have thoroughly investigated the first, second and third polarizability characteristics of four hybrid chromophores by spectroscopic and computational methods. B3LYP, CAMB3LYP and BHandHLYP functionals in combination with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set were used to evaluate the polarizability and hyperpolarizability characteristics of these chromophores. Generalized Mulliken Hush analysis and frontier molecular orbital electronic distribution images of chromophores obtained from Density functional theory computation has established the charge transfer characteristics of these hybrid chromophores. On the basis of charge transfer characteristic, these red absorbing and NIR emissive chromophores possess high nonlinear optical response. Comparison of isolated units with their analogous hybrid chromophores shows that fusion ofcoumarin with BODIPY enhances the nonlinear optical response.

  16. A Hybrid Sensing Approach for Pure and Adulterated Honey Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Zakaria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0% gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5% using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data.

  17. CP-Miner : A hybrid Approach for Colorectal Polyp Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. M. Vanitha,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC is the new generation technique for detecting colorectal polyps using volumetric CT data combined with Computer Aided Detection (CAD system. The aim of this paper is to detail the implementation of a fully integrated CP-Minersystem that is able to identify the polyps in the CT data. The CP-Miner system has a multistage implementation whose main system components are: 1. Interpolation, 2. Automatic Colon Segmentation,3.Feature extraction, 4.Polyp Detection. The proposed system has the aim to reduce the number of false positives than the existing system. The developed system provides 100% sensitivity for polyps greater than 6mm, provides 83.33% sensitivity for polyps within 3 to 6mm, 69.23% sensitivity for polyps less than 3mm. The overall sensitivityof the CP-Miner system is 84.18%.

  18. Design of new phenothiazine-thiadiazole hybrids via molecular hybridization approach for the development of potent antitubercular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasad, Jurupula; Nayak, Nagabhushana; Dalimba, Udayakumar

    2015-12-01

    A new library of phenothiazine and 1,3,4-thiadiazole hybrid derivatives (5a-u) was designed based on the molecular hybridization approach and the molecules were synthesized in excellent yields using a facile single-step chloro-amine coupling reaction between 2-chloro-1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)ethanones and 2-amino-5-subsituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibition activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB). Compounds 5 g and 5 n were emerged as the most active compounds of the series with MIC of 0.8 μg/mL (∼ 1.9 μM). Also, compounds 5a, 5b, 5c, 5e, 5l and 5m (MIC = 1.6 μg/mL), and compounds 5j, 5k and 5o (MIC = 3.125 μg/mL) showed significant inhibition activity. The structure-activity relationship demonstrated that an alkyl (methyl/n-propyl) or substituted (4-methyl/4-Cl/4-F) phenyl groups on the 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring enhance the inhibition activity of the compounds. The cytotoxicity study revealed that none of the active molecules are toxic to a normal Vero cell line thus proving the lack of general cellular toxicity. Further, the active molecules were subjected to molecular docking studies with target enzymes InhA and CYP121.

  19. DataBus-based hybrid routing approach for orbit access networks in lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Meng, Ke; Deng, Julia

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges for lunar exploration missions is how to achieve dynamic and robust routing. To reduce the development cost, it is desirable to leverage existing technologies, such as routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and delay tolerant networks (DTN). However, these technologies are developed for the Earth environment and hence need further investigation for the lunar environment. To support robust access and dynamic mission operations, we propose a DataBus-based Hybrid Routing (DBHR) approach that combines MANET reactive routing protocol (such as AODV) and DTN-based bundle delivery. Our DBHR approach is designed for a tiered architecture where remote nodes communicate with upper-tier gateways through data carriers (DataBus) using short-range radio interfaces. Our scheme explores the (non)availability of the end-to-end path between two peers using MANET routing and provides diverse route options based upon different parameters. This interaction between hop-by-hop DTN technologies and end-to-end MANET protocol will result in a reliable and robust routing protocol for orbit access and improve the overall communication capabilities. To evaluate its performance, we implemented our proposed scheme on commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) routers with the custom OpenWRT and tailored IBR-DTN bundle protocol distribution. The on-demand service request and grant mechanisms are also developed in our implementation to allow certain DTN nodes to reserve the future access opportunities. Finally, we demonstrate the achieved capabilities and performance gains through experiments on a hardware test bed that consists of several COTS routers with our implementation.

  20. Can we reconstruct Arctic sea ice back to 1900 with a hybrid approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brönnimann

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The variability and trend of Arctic sea ice since the mid 1970s is well documented and linked to rising temperatures. However, much less is known for the first half of the 20th century, when the Arctic also underwent a period of strong warming. For studying this period in atmospheric models, gridded sea ice data are needed as boundary conditions. Current data sets (e.g., HadISST provide a historical climatology, but may not be suitable when interannual-to-decadal variability is important, as they are interpolated and relaxed towards a (historical climatology to fill in gaps, particularly in winter. Regional historical sea ice information exhibits considerable variability on interannnual-to-decadal scales, but is only available for summer and not in gridded form. Combining the advantages of both types of information could be used to constrain model simulations in a more realistic way. Here we discuss the feasibility of reconstructing year-round gridded Arctic sea ice from 1900 to 1953 from historical information and a coupled climate model. We decompose sea ice variability into centennial (due to climate forcings, decadal (coupled processes in the ocean-sea ice system and interannual time scales (atmospheric circulation. The three time scales are represented by a historical climatology from HadISST (centennial, a closest analogue approach using the coupled control run of the CCSM-3.0 model (decadal, and a statistical reconstruction based on high-pass filtered data (interannual variability, respectively. Results show that differences in the model climatology, the length of the control run, and inconsistent historical data strongly limit the quality of the product. However, with more realistic and longer simulations becoming available in the future as well as with improved historical data, useful reconstructions are possible. We suggest that hybrid approaches, using both statistical reconstruction methods and numerical models, may find wider

  1. A hybrid nudging-ensemble Kalman filter approach to data assimilation. Part I: application in the Lorenz system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid data assimilation approach combining nudging and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF for dynamic analysis and numerical weather prediction is explored here using the non-linear Lorenz three-variable model system with the goal of a smooth, continuous and accurate data assimilation. The hybrid nudging-EnKF (HNEnKF computes the hybrid nudging coefficients from the flow-dependent, time-varying error covariance matrix from the EnKF's ensemble forecasts. It extends the standard diagonal nudging terms to additional off-diagonal statistical correlation terms for greater inter-variable influence of the innovations in the model's predictive equations to assist in the data assimilation process. The HNEnKF promotes a better fit of an analysis to data compared to that achieved by either nudging or incremental analysis update (IAU. When model error is introduced, it produces similar or better root mean square errors compared to the EnKF while minimising the error spikes/discontinuities created by the intermittent EnKF. It provides a continuous data assimilation with better inter-variable consistency and improved temporal smoothness than that of the EnKF. Data assimilation experiments are also compared to the ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS. The HNEnKF has similar or better temporal smoothness than that of the EnKS, and with much smaller central processing unit (CPU time and data storage requirements.

  2. Hybrid approach to AAA: bilateral "banana" technique to preserve hypogastric artery in complex anatomy aorto-biiliac aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Arochena, N; Molina Herrero, F; Carbalho Fernandez, C; Rodriguez Feijoo, G; Fernandez Lebrato, R; Barrios Castro, A; Garcia Fernandez, I

    2011-01-01

    The surgical approach for hypogastric preservation in aorto-iliac aneurysm (AAA) open repair (OR) has been described and performed with different techniques but all of them represent a higher mortality and potencial complications to the procedure; this is even more critical in bilateral disease. Since the introduction of the first endograft, a continuous development has occurred, such as the stent graft with specific branch designed for preserving antegrade flow in the hypogastric artery. On highly angulated and tortuous iliac anatomies, the use of Sandwich-Graft technique, as described by Armando Lobato, represents a valid alternative to iliac branch. The hybrid approach could be a good treatment option in young patients with AAA affecting hypogastric arteries. We present the technical description and a case report of bilateral "banana" technique perfor- med with flexible covered stent (Viabahn(®) WL Gore) to preserve both hypogastric arteries combined with open repair in a 52 years old patient. Technical report and Results: A bilateral retrograde endograft was implanted from both external ilac arteries to hypo- gastric artery excluding bilateral common iliac aneurysms followed by an open repair to the AAA (aneurismectomy + aorto bifemoral by-pass) with good inmediate and short-midterm follow up (12 months) This hybrid technique could be a good approach to hypogastric preservation in low risk and young patients reducing potencial complications of hypogastric artery oclusion.

  3. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing.

  4. A Bayesian approach to combining animal abundance and demographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks, S. P.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In studies of wild animals, one frequently encounters both count and mark-recapture-recovery data. Here, we consider an integrated Bayesian analysis of ring¿recovery and count data using a state-space model. We then impose a Leslie-matrix-based model on the true population counts describing the natural birth-death and age transition processes. We focus upon the analysis of both count and recovery data collected on British lapwings (Vanellus vanellus combined with records of the number of frost days each winter. We demonstrate how the combined analysis of these data provides a more robust inferential framework and discuss how the Bayesian approach using MCMC allows us to remove the potentially restrictive normality assumptions commonly assumed for analyses of this sort. It is shown how WinBUGS may be used to perform the Bayesian analysis. WinBUGS code is provided and its performance is critically discussed.

  5. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B.

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing. PMID:27847783

  6. Hybrid approach for left-sided colonic carcinoma obstruction; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinswangwatanakul Vitoon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, there are several approaches to manage left-sided colonic carcinoma obstruction, such as tumor resection with primary anastomosis, tumor resection with end-colostomy and loop-colostomy. Recently, colonic stent insertion was introduced as a bridge prior to definite surgery. We demonstrated a hybrid approach for obstructed sigmoid carcinoma using colonic stent, followed by single incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC. A 58 year-old man presented with complete left-sided colonic obstruction. He underwent emergency colonoscopy with metallic stent placement. One week later, he was performed SILC. He recovered well after the operation without any postoperative complications. The pathological result showed adequacy of oncologic resection. This hybrid approach of colonic stent insertion and SILC can be safely performed.

  7. Combined approach to the inverse protein folding problem. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben A. Abagyan

    2000-06-01

    The main scientific contribution of the project ''Combined approach to the inverse protein folding problem'' submitted in 1996 and funded by the Department of Energy in 1997 is the formulation and development of the idea of the multilink recognition method for identification of functional and structural homologues of newly discovered genes. This idea became very popular after they first announced it and used it in prediction of the threading targets for the CASP2 competition (Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction).

  8. Combination approaches with immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Swart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, immune checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death-1 (PD-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune checkpoint blockade, aimed at increasing response-rates to the single treatments.

  9. A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, T M L

    2006-10-20

    Projected anthropogenic warming and increases in CO2 concentration present a twofold threat, both from climate changes and from CO2 directly through increasing the acidity of the oceans. Future climate change may be reduced through mitigation (reductions in greenhouse gas emissions) or through geoengineering. Most geoengineering approaches, however, do not address the problem of increasing ocean acidity. A combined mitigation/geoengineering strategy could remove this deficiency. Here we consider the deliberate injection of sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. This action could substantially offset future warming and provide additional time to reduce human dependence on fossil fuels and stabilize CO2 concentrations cost-effectively at an acceptable level.

  10. Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving Combined Utility Regret Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Monzon, Andres; Di Ciommo, Floridea;

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms...... in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b...

  11. Testers for combining ability and selection of papaya hybrids resistant to fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva Terra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resistance represents a sustainable alternative to disease control in papaya crop. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the use of testers to estimate combining ability and select hybrids resistant to black spot, phoma spot and chocolatespot. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two replications and 20 plants per plot. The severity ofphoma spot and black spot on leaves and the lesion area of black spot and chocolate spot on fruits were evaluated in twoseasons. The combining ability of the following crosses is negative for all traits: tester ‘JS 12’ with ‘Sunrise Solo’ and ‘Kaphoro SoloPV’; tester ‘Americano’ with ‘Caliman M5’, ‘Sunrise Solo’, ’Baixinho de Santa Amália’ and ‘Waimanalo’; and tester ‘Maradol’with ‘Caliman G’, ‘Caliman AM’ and ‘Sunrise Solo PT’. These results may be useful in breeding for disease resistance byhybridization.

  12. A Matheuristic Approach Combining Local Search and Mathematical Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lagos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel matheuristic approach is presented and tested on a well-known optimisation problem, namely, capacitated facility location problem (CFLP. The algorithm combines local search and mathematical programming. While the local search algorithm is used to select a subset of promising facilities, mathematical programming strategies are used to solve the subproblem to optimality. Proposed local search is influenced by instance-specific information such as installation cost and the distance between customers and facilities. The algorithm is tested on large instances of the CFLP, where neither local search nor mathematical programming is able to find good quality solutions within acceptable computational times. Our approach is shown to be a very competitive alternative to solve large-scale instances for the CFLP.

  13. Hybrid energy storage: the merging of battery and supercapacitor chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, D P; Ayyad, O; Ruiz, V; Gómez-Romero, P

    2015-04-07

    The hybrid approach allows for a reinforcing combination of properties of dissimilar components in synergic combinations. From hybrid materials to hybrid devices the approach offers opportunities to tackle much needed improvements in the performance of energy storage devices. This paper reviews the different approaches and scales of hybrids, materials, electrodes and devices striving to advance along the diagonal of Ragone plots, providing enhanced energy and power densities by combining battery and supercapacitor materials and storage mechanisms. Furthermore, some theoretical aspects are considered regarding the possible hybrid combinations and tactics for the fabrication of optimized final devices. All of it aiming at enhancing the electrochemical performance of energy storage systems.

  14. A hybrid approach for the automated finishing of bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Ali; Klammer, Aaron A; Robins, William P; Chin, Chen-Shan; Webster, Dale; Paxinos, Ellen; Hsu, David; Ashby, Meredith; Wang, Susana; Peluso, Paul; Sebra, Robert; Sorenson, Jon; Bullard, James; Yen, Jackie; Valdovino, Marie; Mollova, Emilia; Luong, Khai; Lin, Steven; LaMay, Brianna; Joshi, Amruta; Rowe, Lori; Frace, Michael; Tarr, Cheryl L; Turnsek, Maryann; Davis, Brigid M; Kasarskis, Andrew; Mekalanos, John J; Waldor, Matthew K; Schadt, Eric E

    2012-07-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technology have improved our ability to characterize most genomic diversity. However, accurate resolution of large structural events is challenging because of the short read lengths of second-generation technologies. Third-generation sequencing technologies, which can yield longer multikilobase reads, have the potential to address limitations associated with genome assembly. Here we combine sequencing data from second- and third-generation DNA sequencing technologies to assemble the two-chromosome genome of a recent Haitian cholera outbreak strain into two nearly finished contigs at >99.9% accuracy. Complex regions with clinically relevant structure were completely resolved. In separate control assemblies on experimental and simulated data for the canonical N16961 cholera reference strain, we obtained 14 scaffolds of greater than 1 kb for the experimental data and 8 scaffolds of greater than 1 kb for the simulated data, which allowed us to correct several errors in contigs assembled from the short-read data alone. This work provides a blueprint for the next generation of rapid microbial identification and full-genome assembly.

  15. A Hybrid FEM-ANN Approach for Slope Instability Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Chauhan, Nikhil Kumar; Sarkar, K.

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of slope stability is one of the most critical aspects for the life of a slope. In any slope vulnerability appraisal, Factor Of Safety (FOS) is the widely accepted index to understand, how close or far a slope from the failure. In this work, an attempt has been made to simulate a road cut slope in a landslide prone area in Rudrapryag, Uttarakhand, India which lies near Himalayan geodynamic mountain belt. A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted to predict FOS of the slope. In ANN, a three layer, feed- forward back-propagation neural network with one input layer and one hidden layer with three neurons and one output layer has been considered and trained using datasets generated from numerical analysis of the slope and validated with new set of field slope data. Mean absolute percentage error estimated as 1.04 with coefficient of correlation between the FOS of FEM and ANN as 0.973, which indicates that the system is very vigorous and fast to predict FOS for any slope.

  16. A Hybrid FEM-ANN Approach for Slope Instability Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Chauhan, Nikhil Kumar; Sarkar, K.

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of slope stability is one of the most critical aspects for the life of a slope. In any slope vulnerability appraisal, Factor Of Safety (FOS) is the widely accepted index to understand, how close or far a slope from the failure. In this work, an attempt has been made to simulate a road cut slope in a landslide prone area in Rudrapryag, Uttarakhand, India which lies near Himalayan geodynamic mountain belt. A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted to predict FOS of the slope. In ANN, a three layer, feed- forward back-propagation neural network with one input layer and one hidden layer with three neurons and one output layer has been considered and trained using datasets generated from numerical analysis of the slope and validated with new set of field slope data. Mean absolute percentage error estimated as 1.04 with coefficient of correlation between the FOS of FEM and ANN as 0.973, which indicates that the system is very vigorous and fast to predict FOS for any slope.

  17. Camera calibration approach using circle-square-combined target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuqiang Zhou; Yexin Wang; Yi Cui; Haishu Tan

    2012-01-01

    Calibrating a small field camera is a challenging task because the traditional target with visible feature points that fit the limited space is difficult and costly to manufacture. We demonstrate a novel combined target used in camera calibration. The tangent points supplied by one circle located at the center of a square are used as invisible features, and the perspective projection invariance is proved. Both visible and invisible features extracted by the proposed feature extraction algorithm are used to solve the calibration. The target supplies a sufficient number of feature points to satisfy the requirements of calibration within a limited space. Experiments show that the approach can achieve high robustness and considerable accuracy. This approach has potential for computer vision applications particularly in small fields of view.%Calibrating a small field camera is a challenging task because the traditional target with visible feature points that fit the limited space is difficult and costly to manufacture.We demonstrate a novel combined target used in camera calibration.The tangent points supplied by one circle located at the center of a square are used as invisible features,and the perspective projection invariance is proved.Both visible and invisible features extracted by the proposed feature extraction algorithm are used to solve the calibration.The target supplies a sufficient number of feature points to satisfy the requirements of calibration within a limited space.Experiments show that the approach can achieve high robustness and considerable accuracy.This approach has potential for computer vision applications particularly in small fields of view.

  18. New MPPT algorithm for PV applications based on hybrid dynamical approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, S.

    2016-10-24

    This paper proposes a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic applications using the multicellular converter as a stage of power adaptation. The proposed MPPT technique has been designed using a hybrid dynamical approach to model the photovoltaic generator. The hybrid dynamical theory has been applied taking advantage of the particular topology of the multicellular converter. Then, a hybrid automata has been established to optimize the power production. The maximization of the produced solar energy is achieved by switching between the different operative modes of the hybrid automata, which is conditioned by some invariance and transition conditions. These conditions have been validated by simulation tests under different conditions of temperature and irradiance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been then evaluated by comparison with standard MPPT techniques numerically and by experimental tests under varying external working conditions. The results have shown the interesting features that the hybrid MPPT technique presents in terms of performance and simplicity for real time implementation.

  19. Modelling biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays: a hybrid semi-parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Rui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a method for modelling dynamical biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays. Since the fundamental mechanisms leading to such delays are many times unknown, non conventional modelling approaches become necessary. Herein, a hybrid semi-parametric identification methodology is proposed in which discrete time series are incorporated into fundamental material balance models. This integration results in hybrid delay differential equations which can be applied to identify unknown cellular dynamics. Results The proposed hybrid modelling methodology was evaluated using two case studies. The first of these deals with dynamic modelling of transcriptional factor A in mammalian cells. The protein transport from the cytosol to the nucleus introduced a delay that was accounted for by discrete time series formulation. The second case study focused on a simple network with distributed time delays that demonstrated that the discrete time delay formalism has broad applicability to both discrete and distributed delay problems. Conclusions Significantly better prediction qualities of the novel hybrid model were obtained when compared to dynamical structures without time delays, being the more distinctive the more significant the underlying system delay is. The identification of the system delays by studies of different discrete modelling delays was enabled by the proposed structure. Further, it was shown that the hybrid discrete delay methodology is not limited to discrete delay systems. The proposed method is a powerful tool to identify time delays in ill-defined biochemical networks.

  20. An improved yeast two-hybrid approach for detection of interacting proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Bingbing; Shi Yan; Huo Keke

    2006-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid approach is popularly used nowadays as an important technical method in the field of studying protein-protein interactions.Although yeast two-hybrid system is obviously advantageous in searching interacting proteins and setting up the network of proteins interaction.not all of proteins can use routine yeast two-hybrid method to search interacting proteins.Many important proteins,such as some nucleoprotein transcriptional factor,carry out the regular method and construct the bait-BD vector to screen the library containing AD vector.However,it usually results in failures because it contains the activate domain and can self-activate the reporter gene.In this study,we changed the research strategy,fused the bait gene(FOXA3)with the AD vector to screen the library containing BD vector,so that we constructed a two-hybrid library containing BD vector and Can bypass the interference of self-activation.And we used this two-hybrid library to screen FOXA3.a hepatocyte nuclear factor,and found out an interacting protein:complement component C3.

  1. Hybrid empirical--theoretical approach to modeling uranium adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Larry C.; Grossman, Christopher; Fjeld, Robert A.; Coates, John T.; Elzerman, Alan W

    2004-05-01

    An estimated 330 metric tons of U are buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of U transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of U fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms were measured for 14 sediment samples collected from sedimentary interbeds underlying the SDA. The adsorption data were fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter is statistically identical for all 14 sediment samples and the Freundlich K{sub f} parameter is correlated to sediment surface area (r{sup 2}=0.80). These findings suggest an efficient approach to material characterization and implementation of a spatially variable reactive transport model that requires only the measurement of sediment surface area. To expand the potential applicability of the measured isotherms, a model is derived from the empirical observations by incorporating concepts from surface complexation theory to account for the effects of solution chemistry. The resulting model is then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected in the vadose zone at the SDA based on the range in measured pore water chemistry. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth.

  2. A new hybrid method--combined heat flux method with Monte-Carlo method to analyze thermal radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new hybrid method, Monte-Carlo-Heat-Flux (MCHF) method, was presented to analyze the radiative heat transfer of participating medium in a three-dimensional rectangular enclosure using combined the Monte-Carlo method with the heat flux method. Its accuracy and reliability was proved by comparing the computational results with exact results from classical "Zone Method".

  3. Hybrid approach in a difficult case of pseudoaneurysm of right common carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dilip; Chakraborty, Saujatya; Banerjee, Sunip

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old gentleman, who presented with a symptomatic pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery. Because of high surgical risk, endovascular approach was decided upon. However, taking hardware across the lesion via the aortic arch provided us with insurmountable difficulties. Therefore, a hybrid approach was resorted to, in which an arteriotomy was done in the carotid artery followed by direct implantation of the stent. We were thus able to create a favorable trade-off between the high surgical risk of a full surgical procedure and the peri-operative benefit of an endovascular approach.

  4. Hybrid phase retrieval approach for reconstruction of in-line digital holograms without twin image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Fucai; Wang, Yunxin

    2011-09-01

    A hybrid phase retrieval approach is proposed to address the twin image problem in the reconstruction of in-line digital holograms. The approach is a variant iterative transform algorithm and exploits two mostly natural constraints of a sample, namely, the finite transmission and the finite support. Here, the initial sample support estimate is first refined by applying the finite transmission constraint with phase flipping. The approach provides better reconstruction than if only the finite transmission constraint is used and improve the convergence rate of Fienup's algorithm owing to a better estimate of support especially for strong samples with complex structures. Both simulation and experimental results are presented.

  5. Two-dimensional magnetic modeling of ferromagnetic materials by using a neural networks based hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Laudani, A.; Lozito, G.M.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A. [Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via V. Volterra 62, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a hybrid neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. That approach aims to be coupled together with numerical treatments of magnetic hysteresis such as FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, allowing a complete computer simulation with acceptable run times. The proposed Hybrid Neural System consists of four inputs representing the magnetic induction and magnetic field components at each time step and it is trained by 2D and scalar measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the Hybrid Neural System returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. Within the Hybrid Neural System, a suitably trained neural network is used for predicting the hysteretic behavior of the material to be modeled. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for symmetric, non-symmetric and minor loops are presented.

  6. GISH, AFLP and PCR-RFLP analysis of an intergeneric somatic hybrid combining Goutou sour orange and Poncirus trifoliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C H; Chen, C L; Guo, W W; Deng, X X

    2004-11-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybrids combining Goutou sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) with trifoliate orange Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf] were produced by electrofusion and their genetic inheritance analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Sixteen mini-calluses were obtained after 20 days of culture; they all developed into embryoids on EME500 medium. Following several subcultures on shoot induction medium for a total culture period of 6 months, shoots regenerated. The plants grew vigorously with a well-developed root system and exhibited the trifoliate leaf character of P. trifoliata. Ploidy analysis verified that all of the regenerates were tetraploids (2 n=4 x=36) as expected. GISH analysis confirmed that 18 chromosomes came from trifoliate orange and the remaining 18 from Goutou sour orange, as with most symmetric somatic hybrid plants; moreover, chromosome translocations were also observed in one plant. AFLP analysis of 16 regenerates and their fusion parents indicated that all of the somatic hybrids except one were genetically uniform. Analysis of the somatic hybrid cytoplasmic genomes with universal primers revealed that their chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) banding patterns were identical to those of the mesophyll parent trifoliate orange, while their mitochondria (mt) genomes were of the callus parent sour orange. The potential of GISH in Citrus somatic hybrid analysis is discussed.

  7. Microwave-irradiation-assisted hybrid chemical approach for titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis: microbial and cytotoxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Rajendran, Bhavapriya; Avadhani, Ganesh S; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. It is used for protection against UV exposure due to its light-scattering properties and high refractive index. Though TNPs are increasingly used, the synthesis of TNPs is tedious and time consuming; therefore, in the present study, microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach was used for TNP synthesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that TNPs can be synthesized only in 2.5 h; however, the commonly used chemical approach using muffle furnace takes 5 h. The activity of TNP depends on the synthetic protocol; therefore, the present study also determined the effect of microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach synthetic protocol on microbial and cytotoxicity. The results showed that TNP has the best antibacterial activity in decreasing order from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The IC50 values of TNP for HCT116 and A549 were found to be 6.43 and 6.04 ppm, respectively. Cell death was also confirmed from trypan blue exclusion assay and membrane integrity loss was observed. Therefore, the study determines that the microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach is time-saving; hence, this technique can be upgraded from lab scale to industrial scale via pilot plant scale. Moreover, it is necessary to find the mechanism of action at the molecular level to establish the reason for greater bacterial and cytotoxicological toxicity. Graphical abstract A graphical representation of TNP synthesis.

  8. Mixed model approaches for the identification of QTLs within a maize hybrid breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Boer, Martin; Totir, L Radu; Bink, Marco; Wright, Deanne; Winkler, Christopher R; Podlich, Dean; Boldman, Keith; Baumgarten, Andy; Smalley, Matt; Arbelbide, Martin; ter Braak, Cajo J F; Cooper, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Two outlines for mixed model based approaches to quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in existing maize hybrid selection programs are presented: a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The methods use the in-silico-mapping procedure developed by Parisseaux and Bernardo (2004) as a starting point. The original single-point approach is extended to a multi-point approach that facilitates interval mapping procedures. For computational and conceptual reasons, we partition the full set of relationships from founders to parents of hybrids into two types of relations by defining so-called intermediate founders. QTL effects are defined in terms of those intermediate founders. Marker based identity by descent relationships between intermediate founders define structuring matrices for the QTL effects that change along the genome. The dimension of the vector of QTL effects is reduced by the fact that there are fewer intermediate founders than parents. Furthermore, additional reduction in the number of QTL effects follows from the identification of founder groups by various algorithms. As a result, we obtain a powerful mixed model based statistical framework to identify QTLs in genetic backgrounds relevant to the elite germplasm of a commercial breeding program. The identification of such QTLs will provide the foundation for effective marker assisted and genome wide selection strategies. Analyses of an example data set show that QTLs are primarily identified in different heterotic groups and point to complementation of additive QTL effects as an important factor in hybrid performance.

  9. Urgent hybrid approach in treatment of the acute myocardial infarction complicated by the ventricular septal rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević-Radovanović Mina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ventricular septal rupture (VSR in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI is a rare but very serious complication, still associated with high mortality, despite significant improvements in pharmacological and surgical treatment. Therefore, hybrid approaches are introduced as new therapeutical options. Case Outline. We present an urgent hybrid approach, consisting of the initial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI of the infarct-related artery, followed by immediate surgical closure of the ventricular septal rupture, for treatment of high risk, hemodynamically unstable female patient with AMI caused by one-vessel disease and complicated by VSR and cardiogenic shock. Since the operative risk was also very high (EUROSCORE II 37%, this therapeutic decision was based on the assumption that preoperative PCI could promptly establish blood flow and thereby lessen the risks, duration and complexity of urgent cardiosurgical intervention, performed on the same day. This approach proved to be successful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifteenth postoperative day in stable condition. Conclusion. In selected cases, with high operative risk and unstable hemodynamic state due to AMI complicated by VSR, urgent hybrid approach consisting of the initial PCI followed by surgical closure of VSR may represent an acceptable treatment option and contribute to the treatment of this complex group of patients.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Particle Mixing in Dispersed Gas-Liquid-Solid Flows using a Combined Volume of Fluid and Discrete Particle Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, Niels G.; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid model is presented for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid-solid flows using a combined Volume Of Fluid (VOF) and Discrete Particle (DP) approach applied for respectively dispersed gas bubbles and solid particles present in the continuous liquid phase. The hard sphere DP mo

  11. Direct numerical simulation of particle mixing in dispersed gas-liquid-solid flows using a combined volume of fluid and discrete particle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, Niels G.; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid model is presented for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid-solid flows using a combined Volume Of Fluid (VOF) and Discrete Particle (DP) approach applied for respectively dispersed gas bubbles and solid particles present in the continuous liquid phase. The hard sphere DP mo

  12. Combined effects of local and nonlocal hybridization on formation and condensation of excitons in the extended Falicov-Kimball model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkašovský, Pavol

    2017-04-01

    We study the combined effects of local and nonlocal hybridization on the formation and condensation of the excitonic bound states in the extended Falicov-Kimball model by the density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) method. Analysing the resultant behaviours of the excitonic momentum distribution N(q) we found, that unlike the local hybridization V, which supports the formation of the q=0 momentum condensate, the nonlocal hybridization Vn supports the formation of the q = π momentum condensate. The combined effect of local and nonlocal hybridization further enhances the excitonic correlations in q=0 as well as q = π state, especially for V and Vn values from the charge-density-wave (CDW) region. Strong effects of local and nonlocal hybridization are observed also for other ground-state quantities of the model such as the f-electron density, or the density of unbound d-electrons, which are generally enhanced with increasing V and Vn. The same calculations performed for nonzero values of f-level energy Ef revealed that this model can yield a reasonable explanation for the pressure-induced resistivity anomaly observed experimentally in TmSe0.45Te0.55 compound.

  13. Analysis of Heterosis, Combining Ability and Heritability of Cadmium Content in Brown Rice of Three-line Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were used as parents in an incomplete diallet cross and six restorer lines of rice design (Nc II design). Thirty hybrid combinations with the same growth period were selected as experimental ma- terials to investigate the heterosis, combined ability and heredity of Cd content in brown rice of indica hybrid rice. According to the results, Cd content in brown rice showed a significantly negative heterosis; the general combining ability and specific combination ability of Cd content in CMS and restorer lines both reached extremely significant level (P〈0.01), indicating that both genetic improvement of parents and e- valuation of combinations are important to the breeding of hybrid combinations with low accumulation of Cd; the broad-sense heritabitity and narrow-sense heritability of Cd content were both relatively high with slight differences, which respectively reached 97.73% and 80.10%, indicating that Cd content in brown rice mainly de- pends on the additive action of genes; in addition, parent improvement showed bet- ter effect on the selection of early generation.

  14. A hybridGaussian-discrete variable representation approach to molecular continuum processes II: application to photoionization of diatomic Li2+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N; Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2008-08-01

    We describe an approach for studying molecular photoionization with a hybrid basis that combines the functionality of analytic basis sets to represent electronic coordinates near the nuclei of a molecule with numerically-defined grid-based functions. We discuss the evaluation of the various classes of two-electron integrals that occur in a hybrid basis consisting of Gaussian type orbitals (GTOs) and discrete variable representation (DVR) functions. This combined basis is applied to calculate single photoionization cross sections for molecular Li_2+, which has a large equilibrium bond distance (R=5.86a_0). The highly non-spherical nature of Li_2+ molecules causes higher angular momentum components to contribute significantly to the cross section even at low photoelectron energies, resulting in angular distributions that appear to be f-wave dominated near the photoionization threshold. At higher energies, where the de Broglie wavelength of the photoelectron becomes comparable with the bond distance, interference effects appear in the photoionization cross section. These interference phenomena appear at much lower energies than would be expected for diatomic targets with shorter internuclear separations.

  15. An FEM-Based State Estimation Approach to Nonlinear Hybrid Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For hybrid positioning systems (HPSs, the estimator design is a crucial and important problem. In this paper, a finite-element-method- (FEM- based state estimation approach is proposed to HPS. As the weak solution of hybrid stochastic differential model is denoted by the Kolmogorov's forward equation, this paper constructs its interpolating point through the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Then, it approaches the solution with biquadratic interpolation function to obtain a prior probability density function of the state. A posterior probability density function is gained through Bayesian formula finally. In theory, the proposed scheme has more advantages in the performance of complexity and convergence for low-dimensional systems. By taking an illustrative example, numerical experiment results show that the new state estimator is feasible and has good performance than PF and UKF.

  16. Modelling the creep behaviour of tempered martensitic steel based on a hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Surya Deo, E-mail: surya.yadav@tugraz.at [Institute of Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Sonderegger, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.sonderegger@tugraz.at [Institute of Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Stracey, Muhammad, E-mail: strmuh001@myuct.ac.za [Centre for Materials Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa); Poletti, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.poletti@tugraz.at [Institute of Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-04-26

    In this work, we present a novel hybrid approach to describe and model the creep behaviour of tempered martensitic steels. The hybrid approach couples a physically based model with a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model. The creep strain is modelled describing the motions of three categories of dislocations: mobile, dipole and boundary. The initial precipitate state is simulated using the thermodynamic software tool MatCalc. The particle radii and number densities are incorporated into the creep model in terms of Zener drag pressure. The Orowan's equation for creep strain rate is modified to account for tertiary creep using softening parameters related to precipitate coarsening and cavitation. For the first time the evolution of internal variables such as dislocation densities, glide velocities, effective stresses on dislocations, internal stress from the microstructure, subgrain size, pressure on subgrain boundaries and softening parameters is discussed in detail. The model is validated with experimental data of P92 steel reported in the literature.

  17. A hybrid approach to analyse a beam-soil structure under a moving random load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, L. T.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Kennedy, D.

    2016-11-01

    To study the stochastic response of a beam-soil structure under a moving random load, a hybrid approach based on the pseudo-excitation method and the wavelet method is proposed. Using the pseudo-excitation method, the non-stationary random vibration analysis is transformed into a conventional moving harmonic load problem. Analytical solutions of the power spectral density and standard deviation of vertical displacement are derived in an integral form. However, the integrand is singular and highly oscillatory, and the computational time is an important consideration because a large number of frequency points must be computed. To calculate the response accurately and efficiently, a wavelet approach is introduced. Numerical results show that the frequency band which brings the most significant response is dependent on the load velocity. The hybrid method provides a useful tool to estimate the ground vibration caused by traffic loads.

  18. A hybrid hopfield network-simulated annealing approach for frequency assignment in satellite communications systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, Sancho; Santiago-Mozos, Ricardo; Bousoño-Calzón, Carlos

    2004-04-01

    A hybrid Hopfield network-simulated annealing algorithm (HopSA) is presented for the frequency assignment problem (FAP) in satellite communications. The goal of this NP-complete problem is minimizing the cochannel interference between satellite communication systems by rearranging the frequency assignment, for the systems can accommodate the increasing demands. The HopSA algorithm consists of a fast digital Hopfield neural network which manages the problem constraints hybridized with a simulated annealing which improves the quality of the solutions obtained. We analyze the problem and its formulation, describing and discussing the HopSA algorithm and solving a set of benchmark problems. The results obtained are compared with other existing approaches in order to show the performance of the HopSA approach.

  19. A hybrid MCDM framework combined with DEMATEL-based ANP to evaluate enterprise technological innovation capabilities assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jong Kuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficient evaluation of technological innovation capabilities of enterprises is an important factor to enhance competitiveness. This paper aims to assess and to rank technological innovation evaluation criteria in order to provide a practical insight of systematic analysis by gathering the qualified experts’ opinions combined with three methods of multi-criteria decision making approach. A framework is proposed and uses a novel hybrid multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM model to address the dependence relationships of criteria with the aid of the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL, analytical network process (ANP and VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje. The study reports that the interaction between criteria is essential and influences technological innovation capabilities; furthermore, this ranking development of technological innovation capabilities assessment is also one of key management tools for managements of other related high- tech enterprises. Managers can then judge the need to improve and determine which criteria provide the most effective direction towards improvement.

  20. A hybrid approach to survival model building using integration of clinical and molecular information in censored data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ickwon; Kattan, Michael W; Wells, Brian J; Yu, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    In medical society, the prognostic models, which use clinicopathologic features and predict prognosis after a certain treatment, have been externally validated and used in practice. In recent years, most research has focused on high dimensional genomic data and small sample sizes. Since clinically similar but molecularly heterogeneous tumors may produce different clinical outcomes, the combination of clinical and genomic information, which may be complementary, is crucial to improve the quality of prognostic predictions. However, there is a lack of an integrating scheme for clinic-genomic models due to the P ≥ N problem, in particular, for a parsimonious model. We propose a methodology to build a reduced yet accurate integrative model using a hybrid approach based on the Cox regression model, which uses several dimension reduction techniques, L₂ penalized maximum likelihood estimation (PMLE), and resampling methods to tackle the problem. The predictive accuracy of the modeling approach is assessed by several metrics via an independent and thorough scheme to compare competing methods. In breast cancer data studies on a metastasis and death event, we show that the proposed methodology can improve prediction accuracy and build a final model with a hybrid signature that is parsimonious when integrating both types of variables.

  1. A multinomial logit model-Bayesian network hybrid approach for driver injury severity analyses in rear-end crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Ma, Jianming; Wei, Heng; Guan, Hongzhi

    2015-07-01

    Rear-end crash is one of the most common types of traffic crashes in the U.S. A good understanding of its characteristics and contributing factors is of practical importance. Previously, both multinomial Logit models and Bayesian network methods have been used in crash modeling and analysis, respectively, although each of them has its own application restrictions and limitations. In this study, a hybrid approach is developed to combine multinomial logit models and Bayesian network methods for comprehensively analyzing driver injury severities in rear-end crashes based on state-wide crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. A multinomial logit model is developed to investigate and identify significant contributing factors for rear-end crash driver injury severities classified into three categories: no injury, injury, and fatality. Then, the identified significant factors are utilized to establish a Bayesian network to explicitly formulate statistical associations between injury severity outcomes and explanatory attributes, including driver behavior, demographic features, vehicle factors, geometric and environmental characteristics, etc. The test results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid approach performs reasonably well. The Bayesian network reference analyses indicate that the factors including truck-involvement, inferior lighting conditions, windy weather conditions, the number of vehicles involved, etc. could significantly increase driver injury severities in rear-end crashes. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insights for developing effective countermeasures to reduce rear-end crash injury severities and improve traffic system safety performance.

  2. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisheng Zhang; Mei Wang; Bangyang Wei; Daniel(Jian) Sun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and...

  3. Tandem cylinder flow and noise predictions using a hybrid RANS/LES approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Weinmann; Sandberg, R.D.; Doolan, C.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a novel hybrid RANS/LES methodology for accurate flow and noise predictions of the NASA Tandem Cylinder Experiment is investigated. The proposed approach, the modified Flow Simulation Methodology (FSM), is based on scaling the turbulence viscosity and the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate with a damping function. This damping function consists of three individual components, a function based on the Kolmogorov length-scale ensuring correct behaviour in the direct nu...

  4. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisheng Zhang; Mei Wang; Bangyang Wei; Daniel (Jian) Sun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and...

  5. An Alternate Vista in Rehabilitation of Cranial Defects: Combining Digital and Manual Techniques to Fabricate a Hybrid Cranioplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Nanda, Aditi; Koli, Dheeraj; Verma, Mahesh; Singh, Hukum; Bishnoi, Ishu; Pathak, Pooja; Gupta, Ankur

    2015-06-01

    The desired features of a cranioplast include providing an acceptable contour, continuity with the remaining skull (marginal adaptation), improvising the aesthetic outcome, providing a strengthened prosthesis to avoid fracture in case of repeat trauma, and protecting the remaining neurological structures. Combining digital and manual techniques to fabricate a hybrid polymethylmethacrylate cranioplast during the rehabilitation of a pediatric patient with cranial defect has been described. Utilization of digital techniques (rapid prototyping to obtain skull analog) and manual (hand) sculpting of the prosthesis strengthened with glass fiber enabled the authors to fabricate a hybrid cranioplast. Satisfactory outcome was achieved.

  6. HYBRID MM/MoL APPROACH FOR ANALYZING A COAXIAL FED MONOPOLE ANTENNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new hybrid technique is presented, which combines the Mode Matching(MM) method with the Method of Lines (MoL) to analyze a coaxial fed monopole antenna.The monopole antenna is dealt with using the MoL, while the MM method is used to analyze the coaxial feed system.Then, the two sub-problems are combined by enforcing point matching at the common regional interfaces.The input impedance is computed and compared with the measured data reported in literature, and the excellent agreement is observed.

  7. HYBRID MM/MoL APPROACH FOR ANALYZING A COAXIAL FED MONOPOLE ANTENNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baohua; Ji Yicai; Liu Qizhong

    2002-01-01

    A new hybrid technique is presented, which combines the Mode Matching (MM) method with the Method of Lines (MoL) to analyze a coaxial fed monopole antenna. The monopole antenna is dealt with using the MoL, while the MM method is used to analyze the coaxial feed system. Then, the two sub-problems are combined by enforcing point matching at the common regional interfaces. The input impedance is computed and compared with the measured data reported in literature, and the excellent agreement is observed.

  8. Combination of Hybrid Chaotic Encryption and LDPC for Secure Transmission of Images over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona F. M. Mursi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Robust and secure transmission strategy for high quality image through wireless networks is considered a great challenge. However, the majority of encrypted image transmission schemes don't consider well the effect of bit errors occurring during transmission. These errors are due to the factors that affect the information such as noise and multipath propagation. That should be handled by an efficient channel coding scheme. Our proposed scheme is based on combining hybrid chaotic encryption, which is based on two-dimensional chaotic maps which is utilized for data security, with an error correction technique based on the Low Density Parity Check (LDPC code. The LDPC is employed as channel coding for data communication in order to solve the problem of the channel’s limited bandwidth and improve throughput. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves a high degree of robustness against channel impairments and wide varieties of attacks as wells as improved reliability of the wireless channel. In addition, LDPC is utilized for error correction in order to solve the limitations of wireless channels.

  9. A hybrid approach for treating fluorided water and biogeophysical monitoring of treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    A laboratory experiment has been conducted for investigating the possibility of development of novel techniques for treating fluoride contamination and monitoring of physico-chemical alterations caused by biogeochemical processes in the media. In the present study, high adsorption capacity and ion-exchange property of natural zeolites have been utilized in treating fluoride contamination. The preset goals are achieved by designing and constructing experimental setup consisting of three columns, first one is filled with 450 ppm fluorided water prepared by dissolving sodium fluoride in deionized water, the second is filled with zeolite and fluorided water, and the third is filled with zeolite, fluorided water, sodium lactate and the bacterial seed. The first and the second columns were poisoned with sodium azide for preventing the growth of microorganisms. The self-potential (SP) signals associated with physico-chemical alterations in natural zeolite induced by biogeochemical processes are measured by using Cu-CuSO4 gel electrodes. Liquid-phase analysis of samples from column two and three show the reduced concentrations of fluoride and aluminum and it indicates the possibility of precipitation of insoluble aluminum fluoride. This is further confirmed by the presence of fluoride and aluminum in the solid samples as detected by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The distinct SP of the order of -50 mV and 200 mV have been associated with biostimulated fluoride remediation and geochemical fluoride remediation processes respectively. Thus, there is a possibility of non-invasive monitoring of fluoride remediation processes driven by both microbes and chemical processes. It is found that after thirty-day nitrate and sulfate is introduced in column two due chemical interaction between water and natural zeolite. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that a hybrid approach, a combination of ion exchange and adsorption properties of natural zeolite and the bioremediation is more

  10. A Hybrid Approach for Co-Channel Speech Segregation based on CASA, HMM Multipitch Tracking, and Medium Frame Harmonic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Mohy Eldin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid approach for co-channel speech segregation. HMM (hidden Markov model is used to track the pitches of 2 talkers. The resulting pitch tracks are then enriched with the prominent pitch. The enriched tracks are correctly grouped using pitch continuity. Medium frame harmonics are used to extract the second pitch for frames with only one pitch deduced using the previous steps. Finally, the pitch tracks are input to CASA (computational auditory scene analysis to segregate the mixed speech. The center frequency range of the gamma tone filter banks is maximized to reduce the overlap between the channels filtered for better segregation. Experiments were conducted using this hybrid approach on the speech separation challenge database and compared to the single (non-hybrid approaches, i.e. signal processing and CASA. Results show that using the hybrid approach outperforms the single approaches.

  11. A Hybrid Latent Class Analysis Modeling Approach to Analyze Urban Expressway Crash Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Wang, Xuesong; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2017-02-07

    Crash risk analysis is rising as a hot research topic as it could reveal the relationships between traffic flow characteristics and crash occurrence risk, which is beneficial to understand crash mechanisms which would further refine the design of Active Traffic Management System (ATMS). However, the majority of the current crash risk analysis studies have ignored the impact of geometric characteristics on crash risk estimation while recent studies proved that crash occurrence risk was affected by the various alignment features. In this study, a hybrid Latent Class Analysis (LCA) modeling approach was proposed to account for the heterogeneous effects of geometric characteristics. Crashes were first segmented into homogenous subgroups, where the optimal number of latent classes was identified based on bootstrap likelihood ratio tests. Then, separate crash risk analysis models were developed using Bayesian random parameter logistic regression technique; data from Shanghai urban expressway system were employed to conduct the empirical study. Different crash risk contributing factors were unveiled by the hybrid LCA approach and better model goodness-of-fit was obtained while comparing to an overall total crash model. Finally, benefits of the proposed hybrid LCA approach were discussed.

  12. An efficient fusion approach for combining human and machine decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Robinson, Ryan M.; Nothwang, William D.; Marathe, Amar R.

    2016-05-01

    A novel approach for the fusion of heterogeneous object classification methods is proposed. In order to effectively integrate the outputs of multiple classifiers, the level of ambiguity in each individual classification score is estimated using the precision/recall relationship of the corresponding classifier. The main contribution of the proposed work is a novel fusion method, referred to as Dynamic Belief Fusion (DBF), which dynamically assigns probabilities to hypotheses (target, non-target, intermediate state (target or non-target) based on confidence levels in the classification results conditioned on the prior performance of individual classifiers. In DBF, a joint basic probability assignment, which is obtained from optimally fusing information from all classifiers, is determined by the Dempster's combination rule, and is easily reduced to a single fused classification score. Experiments on RSVP dataset demonstrates that the recognition accuracy of DBF is considerably greater than that of the conventional naive Bayesian fusion as well as individual classifiers used for the fusion.

  13. Combining genomic and proteomic approaches for epigenetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yumiao; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype that do not change the DNA sequence. In this review, current methods, both genomic and proteomic, associated with epigenetics research are discussed. Among them, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing and other ChIP-based techniques are powerful techniques for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins, histone post-translational modifications or nucleosome positions. However, mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly being used in functional biological studies and has proved to be an indispensable tool to characterize histone modifications, as well as DNA–protein and protein–protein interactions. With the development of genomic and proteomic approaches, combination of ChIP and mass spectrometry has the potential to expand our knowledge of epigenetics research to a higher level. PMID:23895656

  14. Effect of probiotic preparation for chemical composition of meat cocks different combinations of hybrid chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment were verified the application of probiotic preparation through a water supply for feeding of cock’s hybrids Ross 308, Hubbard JV and Cobb 500 in the chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the carcass. Probiotic was based on the strain Lactobacillus fermentum with containing of 1.109 cfu.g−1 and potentially components of maltodextrin and oligofructose in 1% concentration. Length of feeding period was 42 days. Cocks were fed an ad libitum with the same starter mixture HYD-01 to 21th day and from 22nd to 42nd day of feeding with mixture HYD-02 in powdery form. The average of protein content of breast muscle was highest in Hubbard JV hybrid (23.93 g.100 g−1, lower in Cobb 500 hybrid (23.90 g.100 g−1 and lowest in Ross 308 hybrid (23.73 g.100 g−1, without significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 between hybrids and hybrids groups. Effect of probiotics had increased the protein content (P ≥ 0.05 in breast muscle of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 cocks and at the Hubbard JV only lower doses application during the feeding. The average of fat content in 100 g of breast muscle was lowest in Cobb 500 hybrid (1.09 g, higher in Hubbard JV hybrid (1.28 g and highest in Ross 308 hybrid (1.35 g. Effect of probiotic to reduce fat content in breast muscle of cocks was at Ross 308 hybrid (1.33 and 1.23 g.100 g−1, Cobb 500 hybrid (0.98 and 1.02 g.100 g−1 and in second experimental group at Hubbard JV hybrid (1.03 g.100 g−1 statistically significant (P ≥ 0.05 in compared with control group, but significantly (P ≤ 0.05 between hybrids Cobb 500 and Hubbard JV in the first test groups. The average of energy value in 100 g of breast muscle was highest in Hubbard JV hybrid (449.24 kJ, lower in Ross 308 hybrid (448.40 kJ and lowest in Cobb 500 hybrid (441.45 kJ, without significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 between hybrids and hybrids groups. The average of protein content of the femur was highest in Ross 308 hybrid (18.56 g.100

  15. Hybrid Kalman Filter: A New Approach for Aircraft Engine In-Flight Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a uniquely structured Kalman filter is developed for its application to in-flight diagnostics of aircraft gas turbine engines. The Kalman filter is a hybrid of a nonlinear on-board engine model (OBEM) and piecewise linear models. The utilization of the nonlinear OBEM allows the reference health baseline of the in-flight diagnostic system to be updated to the degraded health condition of the engines through a relatively simple process. Through this health baseline update, the effectiveness of the in-flight diagnostic algorithm can be maintained as the health of the engine degrades over time. Another significant aspect of the hybrid Kalman filter methodology is its capability to take advantage of conventional linear and nonlinear Kalman filter approaches. Based on the hybrid Kalman filter, an in-flight fault detection system is developed, and its diagnostic capability is evaluated in a simulation environment. Through the evaluation, the suitability of the hybrid Kalman filter technique for aircraft engine in-flight diagnostics is demonstrated.

  16. Ferulic acid-carbazole hybrid compounds: Combination of cholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and neuroprotection as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Chen, Mohao; Liu, Zhikun; Fang, Xubin; Gou, Shaohua; Chen, Li

    2016-02-15

    In order to search for novel multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents, a series of ferulic acid-carbazole hybrid compounds were designed and synthesized. Ellman's assay revealed that the hybrid compounds showed moderate to potent inhibitory activity against the cholinesterases. Particularly, the AChE inhibition potency of compound 5k (IC50 1.9μM) was even 5-fold higher than that of galantamine. In addition, the target compounds showed pronounced antioxidant ability and neuroprotective property, especially against the ROS-induced toxicity. Notably, the neuroprotective effect of 5k was obviously superior to that of the mixture of ferulic acid and carbazole, indicating the therapeutic effect of the hybrid compound is better than the combination administration of the corresponding mixture.

  17. Hybrid Block Copolymers Constituted by Peptides and Synthetic Polymers: An Overview of Synthetic Approaches, Supramolecular Behavior and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Puiggalí

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid block copolymers based on peptides and synthetic polymers, displaying different types of topologies, offer new possibilities to integrate the properties and functions of biomacromolecules and synthetic polymers in a single hybrid material. This review provides a current status report of the field concerning peptide-synthetic polymer hybrids. The first section is focused on the different synthetic approaches that have been used within the last three years for the preparation of peptide-polymer hybrids having different topologies. In the last two sections, the attractive properties, displayed in solution or in the solid state, together with the potential applications of this type of macromolecules or supramolecular systems are highlighted.

  18. Research on consistency measurement and weight estimation approach of hybrid uncertain comparison matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The consistency measurement and weight estimation approach of the hybrid uncertain comparison matrix in the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are studied. First, the decision-making satisfaction membership function is defined based on the decision making's allowable error. Then, the weight model based on the maximal satisfactory consistency idea is suggested, and the consistency index is put forward. Moreover, the weight distributing value model is developed to solve the decision making misleading problem since the multioptimization solutions in the former model. Finally, the weights are ranked based on the possibility degree approach to obtain the ultimate order.

  19. A hybrid approach to calculate the Shielding Failure-Caused Trip-out Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning has become a big threat to the safe operation of the main transmission line. Reasonable and accurate calculation of shielding failure rate plays important role in transmission line and tower design. This paper proposes a hybrid approach to calculate the shielding failure-caused trip-out rate, based on the typical electro-geometric model and the regulation method. The case study prove the validity and correctness of this approach, by comparing with the actual operation shielding failure rate.

  20. A Hybrid Wavelet Transform Based Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jujie Wang

    2014-01-01

    It is important to improve the accuracy of wind speed forecasting for wind parks management and wind power utilization. In this paper, a novel hybrid approach known as WTT-TNN is proposed for wind speed forecasting. In the first step of the approach, a wavelet transform technique (WTT) is used to decompose wind speed into an approximate scale and several detailed scales. In the second step, a two-hidden-layer neural network (TNN) is used to predict both approximated scale and detailed scales,...

  1. Characteristics of one-year-old shoots of peach hybrids from the crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Aleksandar R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-year research (2011-2012 of the most important morphological characteristics of 1-year-old shoots in eight peach hybrids obtained from a crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni were shown in this paper. The following characteristics were studied in tested hybrids: length and diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flowers and vegetative buds per shoot, ratio of flower to vegetative buds, number of flower buds per node and 1-m length of a shoot. The properties of sylleptic shoots on one-year-old shoots have also been studied. The significant differences were determined among the hybrids for parameters such as the diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flower and vegetative buds per shoot. Hybrids FH1 and FH6 were characterized by the highest density of flower buds, so that they are singled out as potentially the most yielding. These hybrids may be of interest for growing in areas where there is a risk of frost and in the domain of breeding when creating new peach cultivars of high yield potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063: Primena novih genotipova i tehnoloških inovacija u cilju unapređenja voćarske i vinogradarske proizvodnje

  2. Ultrasound thermal mapping based on a hybrid method combining cross-correlation and zero-crossing tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Wei; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Ben-Ting; Shieh, Jay; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid method for estimating temperature with spatial mapping using diagnostic ultrasound, based on detection of echo shifts from tissue undergoing thermal treatment, is proposed. Cross-correlation and zero-crossing tracking are two conventional algorithms used for detecting echo shifts, but their practical applications are limited. The proposed hybrid method combines the advantages of both algorithms with improved accuracy in temperature estimation. In vitro experiments were performed on porcine muscle for preliminary validation and temperature calibration. In addition, thermal mapping of rabbit thigh muscle in vivo during high-intensity focused ultrasound heating was conducted. Results from the in vitro experiments indicated that the difference between the estimated temperature change by the proposed hybrid method and the actual temperature change measured by the thermocouple was generally less than 1 °C when the increase in temperature due to heating was less than 10 °C. For the in vivo study, the area predicted to experience the highest temperature coincided well with the focal point of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer. The computational efficiency of the hybrid algorithm was similar to that of the fast cross-correlation algorithm, but with an improved accuracy. The proposed hybrid method could provide an alternative means for non-invasive monitoring of limited temperature changes during hyperthermia therapy.

  3. HyVE-hybrid vibro-electrotactile stimulation-is an efficient approach to multi-channel sensory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alonzo, Marco; Dosen, Strahinja; Cipriani, Christian; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    An important reason for the abandonment of commercial actuated hand prostheses by the users is the lack of sensory feedback. Wearable afferent interfaces capable of providing electro- or vibro-tactile stimulation have high potential to restore the missing tactile and/or proprioceptive information to the user. By definition, these devices can elicit single modality (i.e., either vibrotactile or electrotactile) substitute sensations. In a recent research we have presented a novel approach comprising hybrid vibro-electrotactile (HyVE) combined stimulation, in order to provide multimodal sensory feedback. An important advantage of this approach is in the size of the design: the HyVE interface is much more compact than two separated single-modality interfaces, since electro- and vibro-tactile stimulators are placed one on top of the other. The HyVE approach has been previously tested in healthy subjects and has shown to provide a range of hybrid stimuli that could be properly discriminated. However, this approach has never been assessed as a method to provide multi-channel stimuli, i.e., stimuli from a variety of stimulators, mapping information from a multitude of sensors on a prosthesis. In this study, the ability of ten healthy subjects to discriminate stimuli and patterns of stimuli from four different five-channel interfaces applied on their forearms was evaluated. We showed that multiple HyVE units could be used to provide multi-channel sensory information with equivalent performance (∼95 percent for single stimuli and ∼80 percent for pattern) to single modality interfaces (vibro- or electro-tactile) larger in size and with better performance than vibrotactile interfaces (i.e., 73 percent for single stimuli and 69 percent for pattern) with the same size. These results are promising in relation to the current availability of multi-functional prostheses with multiple sensors.

  4. A Hybrid Approach Using an Artificial Bee Algorithm with Mixed Integer Programming Applied to a Large-Scale Capacitated Facility Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Cabrera G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a hybridization of two different approaches applied to the well-known Capacitated Facility Location Problem (CFLP. The Artificial Bee algorithm (BA is used to select a promising subset of locations (warehouses which are solely included in the Mixed Integer Programming (MIP model. Next, the algorithm solves the subproblem by considering the entire set of customers. The hybrid implementation allows us to bypass certain inherited weaknesses of each algorithm, which means that we are able to find an optimal solution in an acceptable computational time. In this paper we demonstrate that BA can be significantly improved by use of the MIP algorithm. At the same time, our hybrid implementation allows the MIP algorithm to reach the optimal solution in a considerably shorter time than is needed to solve the model using the entire dataset directly within the model. Our hybrid approach outperforms the results obtained by each technique separately. It is able to find the optimal solution in a shorter time than each technique on its own, and the results are highly competitive with the state-of-the-art in large-scale optimization. Furthermore, according to our results, combining the BA with a mathematical programming approach appears to be an interesting research area in combinatorial optimization.

  5. Discovery of novel Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors using a hybrid protocol of virtual screening approaches based on SVM model, pharmacophore and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hua-Lin; Wang, Ze-Rong; Li, Lin-Li; Cheng, Chuan; Ji, Pan; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Hui; Zou, Jun; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2012-09-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase has emerged as a potential target for the treatment for B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Discovery of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors has thus attracted much attention recently. In this investigation, we introduced a hybrid protocol of virtual screening methods including support vector machine model-based virtual screening, pharmacophore model-based virtual screening and docking-based virtual screening for retrieving new Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors from commercially available chemical databases. Performances of the hybrid virtual screening approach were evaluated against a test set, which results showed that the hybrid virtual screening approach significantly shortened the overall screening time, and considerably increased the hit rate and enrichment factor compared with the individual method (SB-VS, PB-VS and DB-VS) or their combinations by twos. This hybrid virtual screening approach was then applied to screen several chemical databases including Specs (202,408 compounds) and Enamine (980,000 compounds) databases. Thirty-nine compounds were selected from the final hits and have been shifted to experimental studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Manufacturing Combining Artificial Intelligence and Finite Element Method

    CERN Document Server

    Quiza, Ramón; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and the finite element method (FEM) are both powerful computing tools, which are extensively used for modeling and optimizing manufacturing processes. The combination of these tools has resulted in a new flexible and robust approach as several recent studies have shown. This book aims to review the work already done in this field as well as to expose the new possibilities and foreseen trends. The book is expected to be useful for postgraduate students and researchers, working in the area of modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  7. Combined fluorescent-chromogenic in situ hybridization for identification and laser microdissection of interphase chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Paz

    Full Text Available Chromosome territories constitute the most conspicuous feature of nuclear architecture, and they exhibit non-random distribution patterns in the interphase nucleus. We observed that in cell nuclei from humans with Down Syndrome two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. To systematically investigate whether the proximally positioned chromosomes were always the same in all cells, we developed an approach consisting of sequential FISH and CISH combined with laser-microdissection of chromosomes from the interphase nucleus and followed by subsequent chromosome identification by microsatellite allele genotyping. This approach identified proximally positioned chromosomes from cultured cells, and the analysis showed that the identity of the chromosomes proximally positioned varies. However, the data suggest that there may be a tendency of the same chromosomes to be positioned close to each other in the interphase nucleus of trisomic cells. The protocol described here represents a powerful new method for genome analysis.

  8. A Monte Carlo Resampling Approach for the Calculation of Hybrid Classical and Quantum Free Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave-Ayland, Christopher; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Essex, Jonathan W

    2017-02-14

    Hybrid free energy methods allow estimation of free energy differences at the quantum mechanics (QM) level with high efficiency by performing sampling at the classical mechanics (MM) level. Various approaches to allow the calculation of QM corrections to classical free energies have been proposed. The single step free energy perturbation approach starts with a classically generated ensemble, a subset of structures of which are postprocessed to obtain QM energies for use with the Zwanzig equation. This gives an estimate of the free energy difference associated with the change from an MM to a QM Hamiltonian. Owing to the poor numerical properties of the Zwanzig equation, however, recent developments have produced alternative methods which aim to provide access to the properties of the true QM ensemble. Here we propose an approach based on the resampling of MM structural ensembles and application of a Monte Carlo acceptance test which in principle, can generate the exact QM ensemble or intermediate ensembles between the MM and QM states. We carry out a detailed comparison against the Zwanzig equation and recently proposed non-Boltzmann methods. As a test system we use a set of small molecule hydration free energies for which hybrid free energy calculations are performed at the semiempirical Density Functional Tight Binding level. Equivalent ensembles at this level of theory have also been generated allowing the reverse QM to MM perturbations to be performed along with a detailed analysis of the results. Additionally, a previously published nucleotide base pair data set simulated at the QM level using ab initio molecular dynamics is also considered. We provide a strong rationale for the use of the Monte Carlo Resampling and non-Boltzmann approaches by showing that configuration space overlaps can be estimated which provide useful diagnostic information regarding the accuracy of these hybrid approaches.

  9. Adoption of the hybrid CTO approach by a single non-CTO operator: procedural and clinical outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vo, Minh N; McCabe, James M; Lombardi, William L; Ducas, John; Ravandi, Amir; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-01-01

    ...) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) has not been described. Consecutive patients who underwent CTO-PCI by a single operator using the "hybrid" approach between 2012 and 2013 formed the analytic cohort...

  10. A novel approach identifying hybrid sterility QTL on the autosomes of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Christopher T D; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    When species interbreed, the hybrid offspring that are produced are often sterile. If only one hybrid sex is sterile, it is almost always the heterogametic (XY or ZW) sex. Taking this trend into account, the predominant model used to explain the genetic basis of F1 sterility involves a deleterious interaction between recessive sex-linked loci from one species and dominant autosomal loci from the other species. This model is difficult to evaluate, however, as only a handful of loci influencing interspecies hybrid sterility have been identified, and their autosomal genetic interactors have remained elusive. One hindrance to their identification has been the overwhelming effect of the sex chromosome in mapping studies, which could 'mask' the ability to accurately map autosomal factors. Here, we use a novel approach employing attached-X chromosomes to create reciprocal backcross interspecies hybrid males that have a non-recombinant sex chromosome and recombinant autosomes. The heritable variation in phenotype is thus solely caused by differences in the autosomes, thereby allowing us to accurately identify the number and location of autosomal sterility loci. In one direction of backcross, all males were sterile, indicating that sterility could be entirely induced by the sex chromosome complement in these males. In the other direction, we identified nine quantitative trait loci that account for a surprisingly large amount (56%) of the autosome-induced phenotypic variance in sterility, with a large contribution of autosome-autosome epistatic interactions. These loci are capable of acting dominantly, and thus could contribute to F1 hybrid sterility.

  11. A Hybrid Acoustic and Pronunciation Model Adaptation Approach for Non-native Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoo Rhee; Kim, Hong Kook

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid model adaptation approach in which pronunciation and acoustic models are adapted by incorporating the pronunciation and acoustic variabilities of non-native speech in order to improve the performance of non-native automatic speech recognition (ASR). Specifically, the proposed hybrid model adaptation can be performed at either the state-tying or triphone-modeling level, depending at which acoustic model adaptation is performed. In both methods, we first analyze the pronunciation variant rules of non-native speakers and then classify each rule as either a pronunciation variant or an acoustic variant. The state-tying level hybrid method then adapts pronunciation models and acoustic models by accommodating the pronunciation variants in the pronunciation dictionary and by clustering the states of triphone acoustic models using the acoustic variants, respectively. On the other hand, the triphone-modeling level hybrid method initially adapts pronunciation models in the same way as in the state-tying level hybrid method; however, for the acoustic model adaptation, the triphone acoustic models are then re-estimated based on the adapted pronunciation models and the states of the re-estimated triphone acoustic models are clustered using the acoustic variants. From the Korean-spoken English speech recognition experiments, it is shown that ASR systems employing the state-tying and triphone-modeling level adaptation methods can relatively reduce the average word error rates (WERs) by 17.1% and 22.1% for non-native speech, respectively, when compared to a baseline ASR system.

  12. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative......, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index....... Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization....

  13. A hybrid approach for integrated healthcare cooperative purchasing and supply chain configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Nazaré; Claro, João; Pinho de Sousa, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative and flexible approach for recommending the number, size and composition of purchasing groups, for a set of hospitals willing to cooperate, while minimising their shared supply chain costs. This approach makes the financial impact of the various cooperation alternatives transparent to the group and the individual participants, opening way to a negotiation process concerning the allocation of the cooperation costs and gains. The approach was developed around a hybrid Variable Neighbourhood Search (VNS)/Tabu Search metaheuristic, resulting in a flexible tool that can be applied to purchasing groups with different characteristics, namely different operative and market circumstances, and to supply chains with different topologies and atypical cost characteristics. Preliminary computational results show the potential of the approach in solving a broad range of problems.

  14. A Hybrid Reduction Approach for Enhancing Cancer Classification of Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. Mahmoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hybrid machine learning (MLreduction approach to enhance cancer classification accuracy of microarray data based on two ML gene ranking techniques (T-test and Class Separability (CS. The proposed approach is integrated with two ML classifiers; K-nearest neighbor (KNN and support vector machine (SVM; for mining microarray gene expression profiles. Four public cancer microarray databases are used for evaluating the proposed approach and successfully accomplish the mining process. These are Lymphoma, Leukemia SRBCT, and Lung Cancer. The strategy to select genes only from the training samples and totally excluding the testing samples from the classifier building process is utilized for more accurate and validated results. Also, the computational experiments are illustrated in details and comprehensively presented with literature related results. The results showed that the proposed reduction approach reached promising results of the number of genes supplemented to the classifiers as well as the classification accuracy.

  15. Fast 3d Hybrid Seismic Modeling: Ray-fd Approach For Elastic Models With Locally Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprsal, I.; Brokesova, J.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.

    Hybrid approaches may find broad applications wherever full source, path,and site effects modeling methods are too expensive. A new efficient hybrid method allowing to compute seismic wavefield in large 3D elastic models containing a complex local structure embedded in a large, but considerably simpler, structure is designed. This hybrid method combines the ray approach in the large simple structure with the finite difference (FD) approach in the local complex structure. The hybrid method is based on two successive steps. In the 1st one, the source and path information is carried by wavefield propagating in the large simple structure. This wavefield, calculated by the ray method, is incident at the points along a two-fold formal boundary (excitation box, EB) surrounding that part of the model which is to be replaced by the complex medium in the 2nd step. 3D rays are necessary due to ar- bitrary source-EB configuration, even in case the 1st step structure is less dimensional (2D, 1D, homogeneous). Along EB, the ray endpoints may be distributed sparsely thanks to relative simplicity of the structure. This reduces computer time requirements and also the size of the excitation file saved on the disk. The ray wavefield along EB provides (after interpolation in space and time) the input for the second step consisting in calculating the complete wavefield by the 3D FD method on irregular grids. The FD computational domain contains the EB and its close vicinity. The 2nd step model differs from the 1st step model only inside the EB where the local complex structure is inserted. To verify the consistency between the 1st and the 2nd step binding, the 2nd step computation can be performed on (unchanged) 1st step model ('replication test'). This should give the same wavefield as the 1st step inside, and zero wavefield outside the EB. The EB remains fully permeable for all waves propagating within the FD domain. Provided the 1st step structure does not contain too many layers

  16. Polyoxometalate-biomolecule conjugates: a new approach to create hybrid drugs for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Kuan; Cheng, Yi-Xing; Su, Ming-Ming; Xiao, Yu; Hu, Min-Biao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qian

    2013-03-01

    Some polyoxometalate (POM) clusters have demonstrated attractive anticancer properties. Unfortunately, their cytotoxicity upon normal cell is one of fateful side effects obstructing their further clinic application as inorganic drugs. In this communication, we report a new approach to create hybrid drugs potentially for cancer therapeutics. At first, the POM cluster bioconjugates were created by attaching the bioactive ligands on an amine grafted POM via simple amidation reaction. The cytotoxicity study with breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and non-cancerous breast epithelial cell (MCF-10A) showed that rationally selected ligands with cancer-cell targeting ability on POM-biomolecule conjugates can impart enhanced anti-tumor activity and selectivity, thus representing a new concept to develop novel POM-biomolecule hybrid drugs with the potential synergistic effect: increased bioactivity and lower side effect.

  17. A general approach to synthesize asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles by interfacial reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Perez, Maria Teresa; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yijing; Babu, Taarika; Gong, Jinlong; Nie, Zhihong

    2012-02-29

    Asymmetric multicomponent nanoparticles (AMNPs) offer new opportunities for new-generation materials with improved or new synergetic properties not found in their individual components. There is, however, an urgent need for a synthetic strategy capable of preparing hybrid AMNPs with fine-tuned structural and compositional complexities. Herein, we report a new paradigm for the controllable synthesis of polymer/metal AMNPs with well-controlled size, shape, composition, and morphology by utilizing interfacial polymerization. The hybrid AMNPs display a new level of structural-architectural sophistication, such as controlled domain size and the number of each component of AMNPs. The approach is simple, versatile, cost-effective, and scalable for synthesizing large quantities of AMNPs. Our method may pave a new route to the design and synthesis of advanced breeds of building blocks for functional materials and devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Motion Planning for Vibration Reducing of Free-floating Redundant Manipulators Based on Hybrid Optimization Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yihuan; LI Daokui; TANG Guojin

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal motion planning for vibration reducing of flee-floating flexible redundant manipulators.Firstly,dynamic model of the system is established based on Lagrange method,and the motion planning model for vibration reducing is proposed.Secondly,a hybrid optimization approach employing Gauss pseudospectral method(GPM) and direct shooting method(DSM),is proposed to solve the motion planning problem.In this approach,the motion planning problem is transformed into a non-linear parameter optimization problem using GPM,and genetic algorithm(GA) is employed to locate the approximate solution.Subsequently,an optimization model is formulated based on DSM,and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm is used to obtain the accurate solution,with the approximate solution as an initial reference solution.Finally,several numerical simulations are investigated,and the global vibration or residual vibration of flexible link is obviously reduced by the joint trajectory which is obtained by the hybrid optimization approach.The numerical simulation results indicate that the approach is effective and stable to the motion planning problem of vibration reducing.

  19. Surgical Management of Combined Intramedullary Arteriovenous Malformation and Perimedullary Arteriovenous Fistula within the Hybrid Operating Room after Five Years of Performing Focus Fractionated Radiotherapy: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEKKA, Masayuki; SEKI, Toshitaka; HIDA, Kazutoshi; OSANAI, Toshiya; HOUKIN, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) shunts occur on the spinal cord surface and can be treated surgically or by endovascular embolization. In contrast, the nidus of an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is located in the spinal cord and is difficult to treat surgically or by endovascular techniques. The benefits of radiotherapy for treating intramedullary AVM have been published, but are anecdotal and consist largely of case reports. We present a case of combined cervical intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF which received surgical treatment within a hybrid operating room (OR) after 5 years of focus fractionated radiotherapy. A 37-year-old male presented with stepwise worsening myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography revealed intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF at the C3 to C5 levels. In order to reduce nidus size and blood flow, we first performed focal fractionated radiotherapy. Five years later, the lesion volume was reduced. Following this, direct surgery was performed by an anterior approach using corpectomy in the hybrid OR. The spinal cord was monitored by motor-evoked potential throughout the surgery. Complete obliteration of the fistulous connection was confirmed by intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography and intraoperative angiography, preserving the anterior spinal artery. We conclude that surgical treatment following focal fractionated radiotherapy may become one strategy for patients who are initially deemed ineligible for endovascular embolization and surgical treatment. Furthermore, the hybrid OR enables safe and precise treatment for spinal vascular disorders in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery. PMID:25367581

  20. Surgical management of combined intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and perimedullary arteriovenous fistula within the hybrid operating room after five years of performing focus fractionated radiotherapy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekka, Masayuki; Seki, Toshitaka; Hida, Kazutoshi; Osanai, Toshiya; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) shunts occur on the spinal cord surface and can be treated surgically or by endovascular embolization. In contrast, the nidus of an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is located in the spinal cord and is difficult to treat surgically or by endovascular techniques. The benefits of radiotherapy for treating intramedullary AVM have been published, but are anecdotal and consist largely of case reports. We present a case of combined cervical intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF which received surgical treatment within a hybrid operating room (OR) after 5 years of focus fractionated radiotherapy. A 37-year-old male presented with stepwise worsening myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography revealed intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF at the C3 to C5 levels. In order to reduce nidus size and blood flow, we first performed focal fractionated radiotherapy. Five years later, the lesion volume was reduced. Following this, direct surgery was performed by an anterior approach using corpectomy in the hybrid OR. The spinal cord was monitored by motor-evoked potential throughout the surgery. Complete obliteration of the fistulous connection was confirmed by intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography and intraoperative angiography, preserving the anterior spinal artery. We conclude that surgical treatment following focal fractionated radiotherapy may become one strategy for patients who are initially deemed ineligible for endovascular embolization and surgical treatment. Furthermore, the hybrid OR enables safe and precise treatment for spinal vascular disorders in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery.

  1. A hybrid design-based and model-based sampling approach to estimate the temporal trend of spatial means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper launches a hybrid sampling approach, entailing a design-based approach in space followed by a model-based approach in time, for estimating temporal trends of spatial means or totals. The underlying space–time process that generated the soil data is only partly described, viz. by a linear

  2. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Cho, Hyeongrak; Shin, Yonghyun; Jang, Yongsun; Lee, Sangho

    2015-12-29

    This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes).

  3. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Cho, Hyeongrak; Shin, Yonghyun; Jang, Yongsun; Lee, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)–reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes). PMID:26729176

  4. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO–reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes.

  5. An integrated/hybrid D-GNSS/LORAN-C sensor combination as basis for a reliable and economic transport telematic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, C. [Wasser- und Schiffahrtsdirektion Nord, Kiel (Germany); Maurer, M. [MAN Technologie AG, Augsburg (Germany); Niklasch, N. [ViCon Engineering GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Richert, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Systems like Vessel traffic services must be seen as critical infrastructure for the safety of navigation. Thus such systems should not be based on technology, that solely depends on a GNSS position determination sensor. A very high potential for an enhancement of accuracy and integrity for traffic management systems is seen in a hybrid receiver technology where GNSS, LORAN-C and Eurofix are combined. Such a combined receiver can be able to overcome the technical and institutional shortcomings. In this presentation an overview is given over the german Radionavigation Concept for Maritime Safety and some results of software and hardware design for an integrated receiver, based on a full digital processing software radio approach. (orig.)

  6. Ecophysiological Analysis of Microorganisms in Complex Microbial Systems by Combination of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Extracellular Staining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kragelund, Caroline; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Ecophysiological analysis and functions of single cells in complex microbial systems can be examined by simple combinations of Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification with various staining techniques targeting functional phenotypes. In this chapter, we describe methods and protocols optimized for the study of extracellular enzymes, surface hydrophobicity and specific surface structures. Although primarily applied to the study of microbes in wastewater treatment (activated sludge and biofilms), the methods may also be used with minor modifications in several other ecosystems.

  7. A combined approach for comparative exoproteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrivens James H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial exported proteins represent key components of the host-pathogen interplay. Hence, we sought to implement a combined approach for characterizing the entire exoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep and goats. Results An optimized protocol of three-phase partitioning (TPP was used to obtain the C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteins, and a newly introduced method of data-independent MS acquisition (LC-MSE was employed for protein identification and label-free quantification. Additionally, the recently developed tool SurfG+ was used for in silico prediction of sub-cellular localization of the identified proteins. In total, 93 different extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified with high confidence by this strategy; 44 proteins were commonly identified in two different strains, isolated from distinct hosts, then composing a core C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteome. Analysis with the SurfG+ tool showed that more than 75% (70/93 of the identified proteins could be predicted as containing signals for active exportation. Moreover, evidence could be found for probable non-classical export of most of the remaining proteins. Conclusions Comparative analyses of the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis strains, in addition to comparison with other experimentally determined corynebacterial exoproteomes, were helpful to gain novel insights into the contribution of the exported proteins in the virulence of this bacterium. The results presented here compose the most comprehensive coverage of the exoproteome of a corynebacterial species so far.

  8. A Hybrid Wetland Map for China: A Synergistic Approach Using Census and Spatially Explicit Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun; You, Liangzhi; Liu, Junguo; Zhang, Mingxiang

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands play important ecological, economic, and cultural roles in societies around the world. However, wetland degradation has become a serious ecological issue, raising the global sustainability concern. An accurate wetland map is essential for wetland management. Here we used a fuzzy method to create a hybrid wetland map for China through the combination of five existing wetlands datasets, including four spatially explicit wetland distribution data and one wetland census. Our results show the total wetland area is 384,864 km2, 4.08% of China’s national surface area. The hybrid wetland map also shows spatial distribution of wetlands with a spatial resolution of 1 km. The reliability of the map is demonstrated by comparing it with spatially explicit datasets on lakes and reservoirs. The hybrid wetland map is by far the first wetland mapping that is consistent with the statistical data at the national and provincial levels in China. It provides a benchmark map for research on wetland protection and management. The method presented here is applicable for not only wetland mapping but also for other thematic mapping in China and beyond. PMID:23110105

  9. A Hybrid Approach to Processing Big Data Graphs on Memory-Restricted Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Harshvardhan,

    2015-05-01

    With the advent of big-data, processing large graphs quickly has become increasingly important. Most existing approaches either utilize in-memory processing techniques that can only process graphs that fit completely in RAM, or disk-based techniques that sacrifice performance. In this work, we propose a novel RAM-Disk hybrid approach to graph processing that can scale well from a single shared-memory node to large distributed-memory systems. It works by partitioning the graph into sub graphs that fit in RAM and uses a paging-like technique to load sub graphs. We show that without modifying the algorithms, this approach can scale from small memory-constrained systems (such as tablets) to large-scale distributed machines with 16, 000+ cores.

  10. Photo-Ionization of Noble Gases: A Demonstration of Hybrid Coupled Channels Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pramod Majety

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here an application of the recently developed hybrid coupled channels approach to study photo-ionization of noble gas atoms: Neon and Argon. We first compute multi-photon ionization rates and cross-sections for these inert gas atoms with our approach and compare them with reliable data available from R-matrix Floquet theory. The good agreement between coupled channels and R-matrix Floquet theory show that our method treats multi-electron systems on par with the well established R-matrix theory. We then apply the time dependent surface flux (tSURFF method with our approach to compute total and angle resolved photo-electron spectra from Argon with linearly and circularly polarized 12 nm wavelength laser fields, a typical wavelength available from Free Electron Lasers (FELs.

  11. Treatment of premature ejaculation: a new combined approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Kurkar

    2015-01-01

    Causes of PE differ considerably. In this paper, we compared the outcomes of two single treatment lines together with a combination of both. The combination therapy was more effective than either line alone.

  12. Monthly reservoir inflow forecasting using a new hybrid SARIMA genetic programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeeni, Hamid; Bonakdari, Hossein; Ebtehaj, Isa

    2017-03-01

    Forecasting reservoir inflow is one of the most important components of water resources and hydroelectric systems operation management. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models have been frequently used for predicting river flow. SARIMA models are linear and do not consider the random component of statistical data. To overcome this shortcoming, monthly inflow is predicted in this study based on a combination of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and gene expression programming (GEP) models, which is a new hybrid method (SARIMA-GEP). To this end, a four-step process is employed. First, the monthly inflow datasets are pre-processed. Second, the datasets are modelled linearly with SARIMA and in the third stage, the non-linearity of residual series caused by linear modelling is evaluated. After confirming the non-linearity, the residuals are modelled in the fourth step using a gene expression programming (GEP) method. The proposed hybrid model is employed to predict the monthly inflow to the Jamishan Dam in west Iran. Thirty years' worth of site measurements of monthly reservoir dam inflow with extreme seasonal variations are used. The results of this hybrid model (SARIMA-GEP) are compared with SARIMA, GEP, artificial neural network (ANN) and SARIMA-ANN models. The results indicate that the SARIMA-GEP model ( R 2=78.8, VAF =78.8, RMSE =0.89, MAPE =43.4, CRM =0.053) outperforms SARIMA and GEP and SARIMA-ANN ( R 2=68.3, VAF =66.4, RMSE =1.12, MAPE =56.6, CRM =0.032) displays better performance than the SARIMA and ANN models. A comparison of the two hybrid models indicates the superiority of SARIMA-GEP over the SARIMA-ANN model.

  13. Monthly reservoir inflow forecasting using a new hybrid SARIMA genetic programming approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamid Moeeni; Hossein Bonakdari; Isa Ebtehaj

    2017-03-01

    Forecasting reservoir inflow is one of the most important components of water resources and hydroelectric systems operation management. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models have been frequently used for predicting river flow. SARIMA models are linear and do not consider the random component of statistical data. To overcome this shortcoming, monthly inflow is predicted in this study based on a combination of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) andgene expression programming (GEP) models, which is a new hybrid method (SARIMA–GEP). To this end, a four-step process is employed. First, the monthly inflow datasets are pre-processed. Second, the datasets are modelled linearly with SARIMA and in the third stage, the non-linearity of residual seriescaused by linear modelling is evaluated. After confirming the non-linearity, the residuals are modelled in the fourth step using a gene expression programming (GEP) method. The proposed hybrid model is employed to predict the monthly inflow to the Jamishan Dam in west Iran. Thirty years’ worth of site measurements of monthly reservoir dam inflow with extreme seasonal variations are used. The results of this hybrid model (SARIMA–GEP) are compared with SARIMA, GEP, artificial neural network (ANN) and SARIMA–ANN models. The results indicate that the SARIMA–GEP model (R2=78.8, VAF=78.8, RMSE=0.89, MAPE=43.4, CRM=0.053) outperforms SARIMA and GEP and SARIMA– ANN (R2=68.3, VAF=66.4, RMSE=1.12, MAPE=56.6, CRM=0.032) displays better performance than the SARIMA and ANN models. A comparison of the two hybrid models indicates the superiority of SARIMA–GEP over the SARIMA–ANN model.

  14. Hybrid partial least squares and neural network approach for short-term electrical load forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shukang YANG; Ming LU; Huifeng XUE

    2008-01-01

    Intelligent systems and methods such as the neural network (NN) are usually used in electric power systems for short-term electrical load forecasting. However, a vast amount of electrical load data is often redundant, and linearly or nonlinearly correlated with each other. Highly correlated input data can result in erroneous prediction results given out by an NN model. Besides this, the determination of the topological structure of an NN model has always been a problem for designers. This paper presents a new artificial intelligence hybrid procedure for next day electric load forecasting based on partial least squares (PLS) and NN. PLS is used for the compression of data input space, and helps to determine the structure of the NN model. The hybrid PLS-NN model can be used to predict hourly electric load on weekdays and weekends. The advantage of this methodology is that the hybrid model can provide faster convergence and more precise prediction results in comparison with abductive networks algorithm. Extensive testing on the electrical load data of the Puget power utility in the USA confirms the validity of the proposed approach.

  15. Broadband ground motion simulation using a paralleled hybrid approach of Frequency Wavenumber and Finite Difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Wei, S.

    2016-12-01

    The serious damage of Mexico City caused by the 1985 Michoacan earthquake 400 km away indicates that urban areas may be affected by remote earthquakes. To asses earthquake risk of urban areas imposed by distant earthquakes, we developed a hybrid Frequency Wavenumber (FK) and Finite Difference (FD) code implemented with MPI, since the computation of seismic wave propagation from a distant earthquake using a single numerical method (e.g. Finite Difference, Finite Element or Spectral Element) is very expensive. In our approach, we compute the incident wave field (ud) at the boundaries of the excitation box, which surrounding the local structure, using a paralleled FK method (Zhu and Rivera, 2002), and compute the total wave field (u) within the excitation box using a parallelled 2D FD method. We apply perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing condition to the diffracted wave field (u-ud). Compared to previous Generalized Ray Theory and Finite Difference (Wen and Helmberger, 1998), Frequency Wavenumber and Spectral Element (Tong et al., 2014), and Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element hybrid method (Monteiller et al., 2013), our absorbing boundary condition dramatically suppress the numerical noise. The MPI implementation of our method can greatly speed up the calculation. Besides, our hybrid method also has a potential use in high resolution array imaging similar to Tong et al. (2014).

  16. Fuzzy-hybrid land vehicle driveline modelling based on a moving window subtractive clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, J. T.; Knowles, K.; Tsourdos, A.; White, B. A.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, the fuzzy-hybrid modelling (FHM) approach is used and compared to the input-output system Takagi-Sugeno (TS) modelling approach which correlates the drivetrain power flow equations with the vehicle dynamics. The output power relations were related to the drivetrain bounded efficiencies and also to the wheel slips. The model relates also to the wheel and ground interactions via suitable friction coefficient models relative to the wheel slip profiles. The wheel slip had a significant efficiency contribution to the overall driveline system efficiency. The peak friction slip and peak coefficient of friction values are known a priori during the analysis. Lastly, the rigid body dynamical power has been verified through both simulation and experimental results. The mathematical analysis has been supported throughout the paper via experimental data for a specific electric robotic vehicle. The identification of the localised and input-output TS models for the fuzzy hybrid and the experimental data were obtained utilising the subtractive clustering (SC) methodology. These results were also compared to a real-time TS SC approach operating on periodic time windows. This article concludes with the benefits of the real-time FHM method for the vehicle electric driveline due to the advantage of both the analytical TS sub-model and the physical system modelling for the remaining process which can be clearly utilised for control purposes.

  17. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and base stations (BS. With the hybrid model, the Log Distance Path Loss (LDPL model was used to estimate the pedestrian density from raw network data, and retrieve information with the Gaussian Progress (GP through supervised learning. Temporal-spatial prediction of the pedestrian data was carried out with Machine Learning (ML approaches. Finally, a case study of a real Central Business District (CBD scenario in Shanghai, China using records of millions of cell phone users was conducted. The results showed that the new approach significantly increases the utility and capacity of the mobile network. A more reasonable overcrowding detection and alert system can be developed to improve safety in subway lines and other hotspot landmark areas, such as the Bundle, People’s Square or Disneyland, where a large passenger flow generally exists.

  18. Fuzzy hybrid MCDM approach for selection of wind turbine service technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Kumar Bose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is aimed to present a fuzzy Hybrid Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM methodology for selecting employees. The present study aspires to present the hybrid approach of Fuzzy multiple MCDM techniques with tactical viewpoint to support the recruitment process of wind turbine service technicians. The methodology is based on the application of Fuzzy ARAS (Additive Ratio Assessment and Fuzzy MOORA (Multi-Objective Optimization on basis of Ratio Analysis which are integrated through group decision making (GDM method in the model for selection of wind turbine service technicians’ ranking. Here a group of experts from different fields of expertise are engaged to finalize the decision. Series of tests are conducted regarding physical fitness, technical written test, practical test along with general interview and medical examination to facilitate the final selection using the above techniques. In contrast to single decision making approaches, the proposed group decision making model efficiently supports the wind turbine service technicians ranking process. The effectiveness of the proposed approach manifest from the case study of service technicians required for the maintenance department of wind power plant using Fuzzy ARAS and Fuzzy MOORA. This set of potential technicians is evaluated based on five main criteria.

  19. AEROSTATIC AND AERODYNAMIC MODULES OF A HYBRID BUOYANT AIRCRAFT: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach is essential for the estimation of the requirements of aerodynamic and aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. Such aircrafts have two different modules to balance the weight of aircraft; aerostatic module and aerodynamic module. Both these modules are to be treated separately for estimation of the mass budget of propulsion systems and required power. In the present work, existing relationships of aircraft and airship are reviewed for its further application for these modules. Limitations of such relationships are also disussed and it is precieved that it will provide a strating point for better understanding of design anatomy of such aircraft.

  20. Investigation of the Magnetotail and Inner Magnetosphere with Combined Global Hybrid and CIMI Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, X.; Perez, J. D.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The interconnection between the Earth's inner and outer magnetospheric regions is calculated by coupling an existing 3-D global hybrid simulation code to an existing ring current and radiation belt code, the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere/Ionosphere (CIMI) model. In the hybrid simulation, the global dynamics are driven by the solar wind and a southward IMF, and the simulation domain includes the plasma regions from x=-60RE to +20RE . Evolution of the magnetotail is revealed in the hybrid simulation. The response of the ring current and radiation belts is calculated by coupling the CIMI model to the global hybrid model. The hybrid simulation results provide the CIMI model with the magnetic field and electric potential at the high-latitude ionosphere boundary and plasma density and full ion phase space distribution function at the outer boundary at the equator. Our simulation shows that the ion velocity distributions in the tail are non-Maxwellian, with the existence of multiple ion beams, which have a significant impact on the ring current and the convection electric field. Detailed results will be presented for cases with various IMF and solar wind conditions, and the simulation will be compared with satellite observations.

  1. A Combined Approach to Measure Micropollutant Behaviour during Riverbank Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Saracevic, Ernis; Derx, Julia; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as natural treatment process. The advantages of RBF over surface water abstraction are the elimination of for example suspended solids, biodegradable compounds (like specific micropollutants), bacteria and viruses (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002). However, in contrast to its importance, remarkably less is known on the respective external (e.g. industrial or municipal sewage) and the internal (e.g. wildlife and agricultural influence) sources of contaminants, the environmental availability and fate of the various hazardous substances, and its potential transport during soil and aquifer passage. The goal of this study is to get an insight in the behaviour of various micropollutants and microbial indicators during riverbank filtration. Field measurements were combined with numerical modelling approaches. The study area comprises an alluvial backwater and floodplain area downstream of Vienna. The river is highly dynamic, with discharges ranging from 900 m3/s during low flow to 11000 m3/s during flood events. Samples were taken in several monitoring wells along a transect extending from the river towards a backwater river in the floodplain. Three of the piezometers were situated in the first 20 meters away from the river in order to obtain information about micropollutant behaviour close to the river. A total of 9 different micropollutants were analysed in grab samples taken under different river flow conditions (n=33). Following enrichment using SPE, analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Faecal indicators (E. coli and enterococci) and bacterial spores were enumerated in sample volumes of 1 L each using cultivation based methods (ISO 16649-1, ISO 7899-2:2000 and ISO 6222). The analysis showed that some compounds, e.g. ibuprofen and diclofenac, were only found in the river. These compounds were already degraded in the first ten meters away from the river. Analysis of

  2. Simulation of dose deposition in stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy: a fast approach combining Monte Carlo and deterministic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smekens, F; Freud, N; Letang, J M; Babot, D [CNDRI (Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Adam, J-F; Elleaume, H; Esteve, F [INSERM U-836, Equipe 6 ' Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Medicale' , Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble (France); Ferrero, C; Bravin, A [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: francois.smekens@insa-lyon.fr

    2009-08-07

    A hybrid approach, combining deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, is proposed to compute the distribution of dose deposited during stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy treatment. The proposed approach divides the computation into two parts: (i) the dose deposited by primary radiation (coming directly from the incident x-ray beam) is calculated in a deterministic way using ray casting techniques and energy-absorption coefficient tables and (ii) the dose deposited by secondary radiation (Rayleigh and Compton scattering, fluorescence) is computed using a hybrid algorithm combining MC and deterministic calculations. In the MC part, a small number of particle histories are simulated. Every time a scattering or fluorescence event takes place, a splitting mechanism is applied, so that multiple secondary photons are generated with a reduced weight. The secondary events are further processed in a deterministic way, using ray casting techniques. The whole simulation, carried out within the framework of the Monte Carlo code Geant4, is shown to converge towards the same results as the full MC simulation. The speed of convergence is found to depend notably on the splitting multiplicity, which can easily be optimized. To assess the performance of the proposed algorithm, we compare it to state-of-the-art MC simulations, accelerated by the track length estimator technique (TLE), considering a clinically realistic test case. It is found that the hybrid approach is significantly faster than the MC/TLE method. The gain in speed in a test case was about 25 for a constant precision. Therefore, this method appears to be suitable for treatment planning applications.

  3. Forecasting Crude Oil Prices using Discrete Wavelet Transform with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average and Least Square Support Vector Machine Combination Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurull Qurraisha Nadiyya Md-Khair

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid time series forecasting approach is proposed consisting of wavelet transform as the data decomposition method with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA andLeast Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM combination as the forecasting method to enhance the accuracy in forecasting the crude oil spot prices (COSP series. In brief, the original COSP is divided into a more stable constitutive series using discrete wavelet transform (DWT. These respective sub-series are then forecasted using ARIMA and LSSVM combination method and lastly, all forecasted components are combined back togetherto acquire the original forecasted series. The datasets consist of monthly COSP series from West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent North Sea (Brent. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, several comparisons are made with the single forecasting approaches, a hybrid forecasting approach and also some existing forecasting approaches that utilize COSP series as the dataset by comparing the Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE acquired. From the results, the proposed approach has managed to outperform the other approaches with smaller MAE and RMSE values which signify better forecasting accuracy. Ultimately, the study proves that the integration of data decomposition with forecasting combination method could increase the accuracy of COSP series forecasting.

  4. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index. HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases. Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization.

  5. A hybrid strategy in selecting diverse combinations of innovative sustainable materials for asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron Colbert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This project integrates recent innovations of recycled materials used in designing and building sustainable pavements. An increasing environmental awareness and the demand for improving economic and construction efficiencies, through measures such as construction warrantees and goals to reduce air pollution under the Kyoto Protocol, have increased the efforts to implement sustainable materials in roadways. The objective of this research is to develop a systematic approach toward selecting optimum combinations of sustainable materials for the construction of asphalt pavements. The selected materials, warm mix asphalt (WMA, recycled asphalt shingles (RAS, and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP were incorporated in this study. The results of this research are intended to serve as guidelines in the selection of the mixed sustainable materials for asphalt pavements. The approach developed from this project draws upon previous research efforts integrating graphical modeling with optimizing the amount of sustainable materials based on the performance. With regard to moisture susceptibility and rutting potential test results, as well as the MIM analysis based on a 95% confidence interval, the rutting performance and moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures are not significantly different regardless of the percentages of RAS, RAP, or WMA. The optimum mixture choices could be made by the plant emission rankings with consideration of the optimal WMA types, percentages of RAS/RAP, and WMA production temperatures. The WMA mixtures prepared with 75% RAP and Advera® WMA have produced the lowest CO2 emissions among the investigated mixture types.

  6. Solution Approach to Automatic Generation Control Problem Using Hybridized Gravitational Search Algorithm Optimized PID and FOPID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAHIYA, P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of hybrid opposition based disruption operator in gravitational search algorithm (DOGSA to solve automatic generation control (AGC problem of four area hydro-thermal-gas interconnected power system. The proposed DOGSA approach combines the advantages of opposition based learning which enhances the speed of convergence and disruption operator which has the ability to further explore and exploit the search space of standard gravitational search algorithm (GSA. The addition of these two concepts to GSA increases its flexibility for solving the complex optimization problems. This paper addresses the design and performance analysis of DOGSA based proportional integral derivative (PID and fractional order proportional integral derivative (FOPID controllers for automatic generation control problem. The proposed approaches are demonstrated by comparing the results with the standard GSA, opposition learning based GSA (OGSA and disruption based GSA (DGSA. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to study the robustness of DOGSA tuned controllers in order to accommodate variations in operating load conditions, tie-line synchronizing coefficient, time constants of governor and turbine. Further, the approaches are extended to a more realistic power system model by considering the physical constraints such as thermal turbine generation rate constraint, speed governor dead band and time delay.

  7. A Hybrid Intelligent Diagnosis Approach for Quick Screening of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Multiple Neuropsychological Rating Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological testing is an effective means for the screening of Alzheimer’s disease. Multiple neuropsychological rating scales should be used together to get subjects’ comprehensive cognitive state due to the limitation of a single scale, but it is difficult to operate in primary clinical settings because of the inadequacy of time and qualified clinicians. Aiming at identifying AD’s stages more accurately and conveniently in screening, we proposed a computer-aided diagnosis approach based on critical items extracted from multiple neuropsychological scales. The proposed hybrid intelligent approach combines the strengths of rough sets, genetic algorithm, and Bayesian network. There are two stages: one is attributes reduction technique based on rough sets and genetic algorithm, which can find out the most discriminative items for AD diagnosis in scales; the other is uncertain reasoning technique based on Bayesian network, which can forecast the probability of suffering from AD. The experimental data set consists of 500 cases collected by a top hospital in China and each case is determined by the expert panel. The results showed that the proposed approach could not only reduce items drastically with the same classification precision, but also perform better on identifying different stages of AD comparing with other existing scales.

  8. Hybrid Feature Selection Based Weighted Least Squares Twin Support Vector Machine Approach for Diagnosing Breast Cancer, Hepatitis, and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Tomar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a necessity for analysis of a large amount of data in many fields such as healthcare, business, industries, and agriculture. Therefore, the need of the feature selection (FS technique for the researchers is quite evident in many fields of science, especially in computer science. Furthermore, an effective FS technique that is best suited to a particular learning algorithm is of great help for the researchers. Hence, this paper proposes a hybrid feature selection (HFS based efficient disease diagnostic model for Breast Cancer, Hepatitis, and Diabetes. A HFS is an efficient method that combines the positive aspects of both Filter and Wrapper FS approaches. The proposed model adopts weighted least squares twin support vector machine (WLSTSVM as a classification approach, sequential forward selection (SFS as a search strategy, and correlation feature selection (CFS to evaluate the importance of each feature. This model not only selects relevant feature subset but also efficiently deals with the data imbalance problem. The effectiveness of the HFS based WLSTSVM approach is examined on three well-known disease datasets taken from UCI repository with the help of predictive accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and geometric mean. The experiment confirms that our proposed HFS based WLSTSVM disease diagnostic model can result in positive outcomes.

  9. Use of Methanation for Optimization of a Hybrid Plant Combining Two-Stage Biomass Gasification, SOFCs and a Micro Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of the two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a micro gas turbine (MGT) was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant is a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...

  10. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Method Combined with Hybrid All-Atom and Coarse-Grained Model: Theory and Application on Redox Potential Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2016-04-12

    We developed a new multiresolution method that spans three levels of resolution with quantum mechanical, atomistic molecular mechanical, and coarse-grained models. The resolution-adapted all-atom and coarse-grained water model, in which an all-atom structural description of the entire system is maintained during the simulations, is combined with the ab initio quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics method. We apply this model to calculate the redox potentials of the aqueous ruthenium and iron complexes by using the fractional number of electrons approach and thermodynamic integration simulations. The redox potentials are recovered in excellent accordance with the experimental data. The speed-up of the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model renders it computationally more attractive. The accuracy depends on the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model used in the combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical method. We have used another multiresolution model, in which an atomic-level layer of water molecules around redox center is solvated in supramolecular coarse-grained waters for the redox potential calculations. Compared with the experimental data, this alternative multilayer model leads to less accurate results when used with the coarse-grained polarizable MARTINI water or big multipole water model for the coarse-grained layer.

  11. Economic challenges of hybrid microgrid: An analysis and approaches for rural electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah, Mohammad; Mahmud, Khizir; Koçar, Günnur; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul; Salehin, Sayedus

    2017-06-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of three renewable resources: biogas, wind energy and solar energy, utilizing solar PV panels, a biogas generator, and a wind turbine, respectively, to analyze the technical and economic challenges of a hybrid micro-gird. The integration of these sources has been analyzed and optimized based on realistic data for a real location. Different combinations of these sources have been analyzed to find out the optimized combination based on the efficiency and the minimum cost of electricity (COE). Wind and solar energy are considered as the primary sources of power generation during off-peak hours, and any excess power is used to charge a battery bank. During peak hours, biogas generators produce power to support the additional demand. A business strategy to implement the integrated optimized system in rural areas is discussed.

  12. Hybrid dynamic modeling of Escherichia coli central metabolic network combining Michaelis–Menten and approximate kinetic equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Rafael S.; Machado, Daniel; Rocha, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    , represent nowadays the limiting factor in the construction of such models. In this study, we compare four alternative modeling approaches based on Michaelis–Menten kinetics for the bi-molecular reactions and different types of simplified rate equations for the remaining reactions (generalized mass action...... using the hybrid model composed of Michaelis–Menten and the approximate lin-log kinetics indicate that this is a possible suitable approach to model complex large-scale networks where the exact rate laws are unknown....

  13. HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENT CHARACTERS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L. HYBRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAMESH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the components of genetic variation were worked out by Kempthorne method from a Line x Tester analysis in castor for fourteen plant type related traits. The analysis for combining ability revealed significant mean sum of squares of both general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA for all the characters which indicated the presence of both additive and non-additive gene actions. The ratio of GCA variance and SCA variance ratio revealed the predominance of non-additive gene action for all the traits except plant height up to primary spike, no. of nodes up to primary spike, no. of capsules/primary spike and total spike length of secondary. JP-87 was good general combiner for most of the characters including seed yield. The line DCS-106 was also a good general combiner for early flowering, days to maturity and number of capsules on secondary spike. Cross JP-87 × RG-1740/A was a good specific combiner for seed yield per plant and for other yield component. The hybrid DPC-9 × RG-156 with good specific combining ability for days to maturity can be used for yield improvement in castor. In general for yield and other yield attributing traits the promising hybrids with high heterosis were JP-87 × RG-1740/A, JP-87 × DCS-106, DPC-17 × RG-156, DPC-17 × DCS-106 and DPC-17 × DCS-107 were on par with the check. These cross combinations could be utilized for further use in breeding programme for improvement in yield of castor.

  14. Nitrate and ammonium ions removal from groundwater by a hybrid system of zero-valent iron combined with adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Park, Won-Bae; Khan, Moonis Ali; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kim, Yongje; Cho, Yunchul; Choi, Jaeyoung; Song, Hocheol; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2012-04-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)(-)) is a commonly found contaminant in groundwater and surface water. It has created a major water quality problem worldwide. The laboratory batch experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of HCl-treated zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) combined with different adsorbents as hybrid systems for simultaneous removal of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) ions from aqueous solution. The maximum NO(3)(-) removal in combined Fe(0)-granular activated carbon (GAC), Fe(0)-filtralite and Fe(0)-sepiolite systems was 86, 96 and 99%, respectively, at 45 °C for 24 h reaction time. The NO(3)(-) removal rate increased with the increase in initial NO(3)(-) concentration. The NO(3)(-) removal efficiency by hybrid systems was in the order of sepiolite > filtralite > GAC. The NH(4)(+) produced during the denitrification process by Fe(0) was successfully removed by the adsorbents, with the removal efficiency in the order of GAC > sepiolite > filtralite. Results of the present study suggest that the use of a hybrid system could be a promising technology for achieving simultaneous removal of NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) ions from aqueous solution.

  15. Description of the Charge Transfer States at the Pentacene/C60 Interface: Combining Range-Separated Hybrid Functionals with the Polarizable Continuum Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2016-06-24

    Density functional theory (DFT) approaches based on range-separated hybrid functionals are currently methods of choice for the description of the charge-transfer (CT) states in organic donor/acceptor solar cells. However, these calculations are usually performed on small-size donor/acceptor complexes and as result do not account for electronic polarization effects. Here, using a pentacene/C60 complex as a model system, we discuss the ability of long-range corrected (LCR) hybrid functionals in combination with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to determine the impact of the solid-state environment on the CT states. The CT energies are found to be insensitive to the interactions with the dielectric medium when a conventional time-dependent DFT/PCM (TDDFT/PCM) approach is used. However, a decrease in the energy of the CT state in the framework of LRC functionals can be obtained by using a smaller range-separated parameter when going from an isolated donor/acceptor complex to the solid-state case.

  16. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulations: Combining Long-Period Deterministic Synthetics with High-Frequency Multiple S-to-S Backscattering

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2010-09-20

    We present a new approach for computing broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetic seismograms by combining high-frequency (HF) scattering with low-frequency (LF) deterministic seismograms, considering finite-fault earthquake rupture models embedded in 3D earth structure. Site-specific HF-scattering Green\\'s functions for a heterogeneous medium with uniformly distributed random isotropic scatterers are convolved with a source-time function that characterizes the temporal evolution of the rupture process. These scatterograms are then reconciled with the LF-deterministic waveforms using a frequency-domain optimization to match both amplitude and phase spectra around the target intersection frequency. The scattering parameters of the medium, scattering attenuation ηs, intrinsic attenuation ηi, and site-kappa, as well as frequency-dependent attenuation, determine waveform and spectral character of the HF-synthetics and thus affect the hybrid broadband seismograms. Applying our methodology to the 1994 Northridge earthquake and validating against near-field recordings at 24 sites, we find that our technique provides realistic broadband waveforms and consistently reproduces LF ground-motion intensities for two independent source descriptions. The least biased results, compared to recorded strong-motion data, are obtained after applying a frequency-dependent site-amplification factor to the broadband simulations. This innovative hybrid ground-motion simulation approach, applicable to any arbitrarily complex earthquake source model, is well suited for seismic hazard analysis and ground-motion estimation.

  17. Nonspecific hybridization scaling of microarray expression estimates: a physicochemical approach for chip-to-chip normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Hans; Brücker, Jan; Burden, Conrad J

    2009-03-05

    The problem of inferring accurate quantitative estimates of transcript abundances from gene expression microarray data is addressed. Particular attention is paid to correcting chip-to-chip variations arising mainly as a result of unwanted nonspecific background hybridization to give transcript abundances measured in a common scale. This study verifies and generalizes a model of the mutual dependence between nonspecific background hybridization and the sensitivity of the specific signal using an approach based on the physical chemistry of surface hybridization. We have analyzed GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray data taken from a set of five benchmark experiments including dilution, Latin Square, and "Golden spike" designs. Our analysis concentrates on the important effect of changes in the unwanted nonspecific background inherent in the technology due to changes in total RNA target concentration and/or composition. We find that incremental changes in nonspecific background entail opposite sign incremental changes in the effective specific binding constant. This effect, which we refer to as the "up-down" effect, results from the subtle interplay of competing interactions between the probes and specific and nonspecific targets at the chip surface and in bulk solution. We propose special rules for proper normalization of expression values considering the specifics of the up-down effect. Particularly for normalization one has to level the expression values of invariant expressed probes. Existing heuristic normalization techniques which do not exclude absent probes, level intensities instead of expression values, and/or use low variance criteria for identifying invariant sets of probes lead to biased results. Strengths and pitfalls of selected normalization methods are discussed. We also find that the extent of the up-down effect is modified if RNA targets are replaced by DNA targets, in that microarray sensitivity and specificity are improved via a decrease in

  18. A simplified computational fluid-dynamic approach to the oxidizer injector design in hybrid rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Giuseppe D.; Malgieri, Paolo; Carmicino, Carmine; Savino, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Fuel regression rate in hybrid rockets is non-negligibly affected by the oxidizer injection pattern. In this paper a simplified computational approach developed in an attempt to optimize the oxidizer injector design is discussed. Numerical simulations of the thermo-fluid-dynamic field in a hybrid rocket are carried out, with a commercial solver, to investigate into several injection configurations with the aim of increasing the fuel regression rate and minimizing the consumption unevenness, but still favoring the establishment of flow recirculation at the motor head end, which is generated with an axial nozzle injector and has been demonstrated to promote combustion stability, and both larger efficiency and regression rate. All the computations have been performed on the configuration of a lab-scale hybrid rocket motor available at the propulsion laboratory of the University of Naples with typical operating conditions. After a preliminary comparison between the two baseline limiting cases of an axial subsonic nozzle injector and a uniform injection through the prechamber, a parametric analysis has been carried out by varying the oxidizer jet flow divergence angle, as well as the grain port diameter and the oxidizer mass flux to study the effect of the flow divergence on heat transfer distribution over the fuel surface. Some experimental firing test data are presented, and, under the hypothesis that fuel regression rate and surface heat flux are proportional, the measured fuel consumption axial profiles are compared with the predicted surface heat flux showing fairly good agreement, which allowed validating the employed design approach. Finally an optimized injector design is proposed.

  19. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling. PMID:27376337

  20. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan Blandin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forward osmosis (FO is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants, FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  1. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis-Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R D; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  2. Study on the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Cláudio; Barreras, Jorge V.; de Castro, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles. In particular, the aim is to find the number of battery (and supercapacitor) cells to propel a light vehicle to run two different standard driving cycles....... Despite the same tendency, when a hybrid vehicle is taken into account, the influence of the battery models is dependent on the sizing strategy. In this work, two sizing strategies are evaluated: dynamic programming and filter-based. For the latter, the complexity of the battery model has a clear....... Three equivalent circuit models are considered to simulate the battery electrical performance: linear static, non-linear static and non-linear with first-order dynamics. When dimensioning a battery-based vehicle, less complex models may lead to a solution with more battery cells and higher costs...

  3. Genetic analysis to identify good combiners for ToLCV resistance and yield components in tomato using interspecific hybridization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh K. Singh; N. Rai; Major Singh; S. N. Singh; K. Srivastava

    2014-12-01

    The interspecific hybridization for tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) resistance was carried out among 10 genetically diverse tomato genotypes (diversified by 50 SSR markers). Among the 10 parents, four susceptible cultivars of Solanum lycopersicum were crossed with six resistant wilds, such as S. pimpinellifolium, S. habrochaites, S. chemielewskii, S. ceraseforme, S. peruvianum and S. chilense in a line × tester mating design. All the 24 hybrids and their parents were grown in the field and glasshouse conditions to determine the general-combining abilities (GCA) and specific-combining abilities (SCA). The variances due to SCA and GCA showed both additive and nonadditive gene effects. Based on GCA estimates, EC-520061 and WIR-5032 were good general combiners while based on SCA estimates, PBC × EC-520061 and PBC × EC-521080 were best specific combiners for coefficient of infection and fruit yield per plant in both the environments. These lines could be selected and utilized in ToLCV resistance and high yield breeding programme for improving the traits.

  4. Effective pathfinding for four-wheeled robot based on combining Theta* and hybrid A* algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Геннадійович Михалько

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective pathfinding algorithm based on Theta* and Hybrid A* algorithms was developed for four-wheeled robot. Pseudocode for algorithm was showed and explained. Algorithm and simulator for four-wheeled robot were implemented using Java programming language. Algorithm was tested on U-obstacles, complex maps and for parking problem

  5. Reconfigurable Equiplets Operating System A Hybrid Architecture to Combine Flexibility and Performance for Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Moergestel, leo van; Bakker, Tommas; Meyer, John-Jules

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: Abstract—The growing importance and impact of new technologies are changing many industries. This effect is especially noticeable in the manufacturing industry. This paper explores a practical implementation of a hybrid architecture for the newest generation of manufacturing systems

  6. Combining coordination and supramolecular chemistry for the formation of uranyl-organic hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deifel, N. P.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Three hybrid compounds have been synthesized through hydrothermal reactions of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with 4-halobenzoic acid (X = Cl, Br, I). The formation of these compounds utilizes a composite synthesis methodology that explicitly employs aspects of both coordination chemistry and supramolecular chemistry (namely halogen---halogen interactions).

  7. Reconfigurable Equiplets Operating System A Hybrid Architecture to Combine Flexibility and Performance for Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniël Telgen; Ing. Erik Puik; Leo van Moergestel; John-Jules Meyer; Tommas Bakker

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: Abstract—The growing importance and impact of new technologies are changing many industries. This effect is especially noticeable in the manufacturing industry. This paper explores a practical implementation of a hybrid architecture for the newest generation of manufacturing

  8. Hybrid Neural Network Approach Based Tool for the Modelling of Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Laudani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid neural network approach based tool for identifying the photovoltaic one-diode model is presented. The generalization capabilities of neural networks are used together with the robustness of the reduced form of one-diode model. Indeed, from the studies performed by the authors and the works present in the literature, it was found that a direct computation of the five parameters via multiple inputs and multiple outputs neural network is a very difficult task. The reduced form consists in a series of explicit formulae for the support to the neural network that, in our case, is aimed at predicting just two parameters among the five ones identifying the model: the other three parameters are computed by reduced form. The present hybrid approach is efficient from the computational cost point of view and accurate in the estimation of the five parameters. It constitutes a complete and extremely easy tool suitable to be implemented in a microcontroller based architecture. Validations are made on about 10000 PV panels belonging to the California Energy Commission database.

  9. Output Tracking Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Fliess Functional Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The output tracking problem is investigated for a nonlinear affine system with multiple modes of continuous control inputs. We convert the family of nonlinear affine systems under consideration into a switched hybrid system by introducing a multiple-valued logic variable. The Fliess functional expansion is adopted to express the input and output relationship of the switched hybrid system. The optimal switching control is determined for a multiple-step output tracking performance index. The proposed approach is applied to a multitarget tracking problem for a flight vehicle aiming for one real target with several decoys flying around it in the terminal guidance course. These decoys appear as apparent targets and have to be distinguished with the approaching of the flight vehicle. The guidance problem of one flight vehicle versus multiple apparent targets should be considered if no large miss distance might be caused due to the limitation of the flight vehicle maneuverability. The target orientation at each time interval is determined. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Process planning optimization on turning machine tool using a hybrid genetic algorithm with local search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A turning machine tool is a kind of new type of machine tool that is equipped with more than one spindle and turret. The distinctive simultaneous and parallel processing abilities of turning machine tool increase the complexity of process planning. The operations would not only be sequenced and satisfy precedence constraints, but also should be scheduled with multiple objectives such as minimizing machining cost, maximizing utilization of turning machine tool, and so on. To solve this problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed to generate optimal process plans based on a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. An operation precedence graph is used to represent precedence constraints and help generate a feasible initial population of hybrid genetic algorithm. Encoding strategy based on data structure was developed to represent process plans digitally in order to form the solution space. In addition, a local search approach for optimizing the assignments of available turrets would be added to incorporate scheduling with process planning. A real-world case is used to prove that the proposed approach could avoid infeasible solutions and effectively generate a global optimal process plan.

  11. A hybrid moment equation approach to gas-grain chemical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Fujun

    2011-01-01

    [Context] The stochasticity of grain chemistry requires special care in modeling. Previously methods based on the modified rate equation, the master equation, the moment equation, and Monte Carlo simulations have been used. [Aims] We attempt to develop a systematic and efficient way to model the gas-grain chemistry with a large reaction network as accurately as possible. [Methods] We present a hybrid moment equation approach which is a general and automatic method where the generating function is used to generate the moment equations. For large reaction networks, the moment equation is cut off at the second order, and a switch scheme is used when the average population of certain species reaches 1. For small networks, the third order moments can also be utilized to achieve a higher accuracy. [Results] For physical conditions in which the surface reactions are important, our method provides a major improvement over the rate equation approach, when benchmarked against the rigorous Monte Carlo results. For eithe...

  12. A Hybrid Multiobjective Evolutionary Approach for Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses multiobjective flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP with three simultaneously considered objectives: minimizing makespan, minimizing total workload, and minimizing maximal workload. A hybrid multiobjective evolutionary approach (H-MOEA is developed to solve the problem. According to the characteristic of FJSP, a modified crowding distance measure is introduced to maintain the diversity of individuals. In the proposed H-MOEA, well-designed chromosome representation and genetic operators are developed for FJSP. Moreover, a local search procedure based on critical path theory is incorporated in H-MOEA to improve the convergence ability of the algorithm. Experiment results on several well-known benchmark instances demonstrate the efficiency and stability of the proposed algorithm. The comparison with other recently published approaches validates that H-MOEA can obtain Pareto-optimal solutions with better quality and/or diversity.

  13. CAPACITATED LOT SIZING AND SCHEDULING PROBLEMS USING HYBRID GA/TS APPROACHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The capacitated lot sizing and scheduling problem that involves in determining the production amounts and release dates for several items over a given planning horizon are given to meet dynamic order demand without incurring backloggings. The problem considering overtime capacity is studied. The mathematical model is presented, and a genetic algorithm (GA) approach is developed to solve the problem. The initial solutions are generated after using heuristic method. Capacity balancing procedure is employed to stipulate the feasibility of the solutions. In addition, a technique based on Tabu search (TS) is inserted into the genetic algorithm to deal with the scheduled overtime and help the convergence of algorithm. Computational simulation is conducted to test the efficiency of the proposed hybrid approach, which turns out to improve both the solution quality and execution speed.

  14. Hybrid Approach for the Public Transportation Time Dependent Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ander; Arbelaitz, Olatz; Vansteenwegen, Pieter; Souffriau, Wouter; Linaza, Maria Teresa

    The Time Dependent Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (TDOPTW) consists of a set of locations with associated time windows and scores. Visiting a location allows to collect its score as a reward. Traveling time between locations varies depending on the leave time. The objective is to obtain a route that maximizes the obtained score within a limited amount of time. In this paper we target the use of public transportation in a city, where users may move on foot or by public transportation. The approach can also be applied to the logistic sector, for example to the multimodal freight transportation. We apply an hybrid approach to tackle the problem. Experimental results for the city of San Sebastian show we are able to obtain valid routes in real-time.

  15. TIPS Placement via Combined Transjugular and Transhepatic Approach for Cavernous Portal Vein Occlusion: Targeted Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanel Jourabchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We report a novel technique which aided recanalization of an occluded portal vein for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS creation in a patient with symptomatic portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. Some have previously considered cavernous transformation a contraindication to TIPS. Case Presentation. 62-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, portal hypertension and recurrent variceal bleeding presents with melena and hematemesis. The patient was severely anemic, hemodynamically unstable, and required emergent portal decompression. Attempts to recanalize the main portal vein using traditional transjugular access were unsuccessful. After percutaneous transhepatic right portal vein access and navigation of a wire through the occluded main portal vein, an angioplasty balloon was inflated at the desired site of shunt takeoff. The balloon was targeted and punctured from the transjugular approach, and a wire was passed into the portal system. TIPS placement then proceeded routinely. Conclusion. Although occlusion of the portal vein increases difficulty of performing TIPS, it should not be considered an absolute contraindication. We have described a method for recanalizing an occluded portal vein using a combined transhepatic and transjugular approach for TIPS. This approach may be useful to relieve portal hypertension in patients who fail endoscopic and/or surgical therapies.

  16. Development and functional analysis of novel genetic promoters using DNA shuffling, hybridization and a combination thereof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Ranjan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of novel synthetic promoters with enhanced regulatory activity is of great value for a diverse range of plant biotechnology applications. METHODOLOGY: Using the Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (F and the sub-genomic transcript promoter (FS sequences, we generated two single shuffled promoter libraries (LssF and LssFS, two multiple shuffled promoter libraries (LmsFS-F and LmsF-FS, two hybrid promoters (FuasFScp and FSuasFcp and two hybrid-shuffled promoter libraries (LhsFuasFScp and LhsFSuasFcp. Transient expression activities of approximately 50 shuffled promoter clones from each of these libraries were assayed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi protoplasts. It was observed that most of the shuffled promoters showed reduced activity compared to the two parent promoters (F and FS and the CaMV35S promoter. In silico studies (computer simulated analyses revealed that the reduced promoter activities of the shuffled promoters could be due to their higher helical stability. On the contrary, the hybrid promoters FuasFScp and FSuasFcp showed enhanced activities compared to F, FS and CaMV 35S in both transient and transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis plants. Northern-blot and qRT-PCR data revealed a positive correlation between transcription and enzymatic activity in transgenic tobacco plants expressing hybrid promoters. Histochemical/X-gluc staining of whole transgenic seedlings/tissue-sections and fluorescence images of ImaGene Green™ treated roots and stems expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of the FuasFScp and FSuasFcp promoters also support the above findings. Furthermore, protein extracts made from protoplasts expressing the human defensin (HNP-1 gene driven by hybrid promoters showed enhanced antibacterial activity compared to the CaMV35S promoter. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSION: Both shuffled and hybrid promoters developed in the present study can be used as molecular tools to

  17. Combining Campbell Standards and the Realist Evaluation Approach: The Best of Two Worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leeuw, Frans L.; Bogaerts, Stefan; Nijssen, Laura T. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an approach to systematic reviews that combines the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice standards and the realist notion of contexts-mechanisms-outcomes (CMO) configurations. Both approaches have their advantages and drawbacks, and the authors will make a case for combining both approaches to profit from their advantages…

  18. Combining Campbell Standards and the Realist Evaluation Approach: The Best of Two Worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leeuw, Frans L.; Bogaerts, Stefan; Nijssen, Laura T. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an approach to systematic reviews that combines the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice standards and the realist notion of contexts-mechanisms-outcomes (CMO) configurations. Both approaches have their advantages and drawbacks, and the authors will make a case for combining both approaches to profit from their advantages…

  19. Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated metastatic breast cancer needs aggressive treatment due to its reduced response to anticancer treatment and hence low survival and quality of life. Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. Widely studied drug delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, and water-soluble polymers can concurrently carry multiple anticancer drugs in one platform. These carriers can provide improved target specificity achieved by passive and/or active targeting mechanisms.

  20. Newer approaches in topical combination therapy for acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lisa W; Vender, Ronald B

    2011-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease involving the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology is multifactorial and complex, including obstruction of the pilosebaceous unit due to increased sebum production, abnormal keratinization, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and inflammation. Topical agents are the most commonly used therapy for acne. First generation topicals mainly consist of single agent retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and antibacterials that target comedones, P. acnes, and inflammation. Novel topical therapies include combination products with advanced vehicle formulations that target multiple acne pathophysiologies and offer simplified treatment regimes. For example, the combination of clindamycin and tretinoin in a unique vehicle formulation allows for progressive follicle penetration and decreased irritation, resulting in increased efficacy. Furthermore, adapalene or clindamycin with BPO combinations target comedones, inflammation, and P. acnes synergistically. These newer combination products have the potential to increase both efficacy and patient adherence when compared with single agent treatment.

  1. An information theoretic approach for combining neural network process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, D V.; Bartlett, E B.; Seagrave, R C.

    1999-07-01

    Typically neural network modelers in chemical engineering focus on identifying and using a single, hopefully optimal, neural network model. Using a single optimal model implicitly assumes that one neural network model can extract all the information available in a given data set and that the other candidate models are redundant. In general, there is no assurance that any individual model has extracted all relevant information from the data set. Recently, Wolpert (Neural Networks, 5(2), 241 (1992)) proposed the idea of stacked generalization to combine multiple models. Sridhar, Seagrave and Barlett (AIChE J., 42, 2529 (1996)) implemented the stacked generalization for neural network models by integrating multiple neural networks into an architecture known as stacked neural networks (SNNs). SNNs consist of a combination of the candidate neural networks and were shown to provide improved modeling of chemical processes. However, in Sridhar's work SNNs were limited to using a linear combination of artificial neural networks. While a linear combination is simple and easy to use, it can utilize only those model outputs that have a high linear correlation to the output. Models that are useful in a nonlinear sense are wasted if a linear combination is used. In this work we propose an information theoretic stacking (ITS) algorithm for combining neural network models. The ITS algorithm identifies and combines useful models regardless of the nature of their relationship to the actual output. The power of the ITS algorithm is demonstrated through three examples including application to a dynamic process modeling problem. The results obtained demonstrate that the SNNs developed using the ITS algorithm can achieve highly improved performance as compared to selecting and using a single hopefully optimal network or using SNNs based on a linear combination of neural networks.

  2. Design of miniature hybrid target recognition system with combination of FPGA+DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shishang; Li, Xiujian; Jia, Hui; Hu, Wenhua; Nie, Yongming; Chang, Shengli

    2010-10-01

    With advantages of flexibility, high bandwidth, high spatial resolution and high-speed parallel operation, the opto-electronic hybrid target recognition system can be applied in many civil and military areas, such as video surveillance, intelligent navigation and robot vision. A miniature opto-electronic hybrid target recognition system based on FPGA+DSP is designed, which only employs single Fourier lens and with a focal length. With the precise timing control of the FPGA and images pretreatment of the DSP, the system performs both Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform with all optical process, which can improve recognition speed and reduce the system volume remarkably. We analyzed the system performance, and a method to achieve scale invariant pattern recognition was proposed on the basis of lots of experiments.

  3. One hybrid model combining singular spectrum analysis and LS + ARMA for polar motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Xin; Wei, Xiaobei; Li, Wudong

    2017-01-01

    Accurate real-time polar motion parameters play an important role in satellite navigation and positioning and spacecraft tracking. To meet the needs for real-time and high-accuracy polar motion prediction, a hybrid model that integrated singular spectrum analysis (SSA), least-squares (LS) extrapolation and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was proposed. SSA was applied to separate the trend, the annual and the Chandler components from a given polar motion time series. LS extrapolation models were constructed for the separated trend, annual and Chandler components. An ARMA model was established for a synthetic sequence that contained the remaining SSA component and the residual series of LS fitting. In applying this hybrid model, multiple sets of polar motion predictions with lead times of 360 days were made based on an IERS 08 C04 series. The results showed that the proposed method could effectively predict the polar motion parameters.

  4. Unique combination of zero-one-two dimensional carbon-titania hybrid for cold cathode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.; Kumar, D.; Das, N. S.; Sarkar, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    A unique multi-dimensional hybrid system has been developed by incorporating titania nanoparticle into chemically synthesized amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs)-amorphous graphene composites. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy; Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The microscopic studies confirm the attachment of the TiO2 nanoparticles on carbon structures. The performance of the both the pure and hybrid samples as cold cathode emitter has been investigated and it has been found that cold emission performance of the pure carbon system improves considerably after TiO2 nanoparticles being added to it giving a turn on field as low as 2.1 V/μm and enhancement factor 2746. The enhancement of field emission characteristic after TiO2 addition was justified from the 'ANSYS- Maxwell' software based simulation study.

  5. Taxonomic identification of mediterranean pines and their hybrids based on the high resolution melting (HRM and trnL approaches: from cytoplasmic inheritance to timber tracing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ganopoulos

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate the assessment and monitoring of local biodiversity in an era of climate and environmental change. Herein, we evaluate the utility of the plastid trnL marker for species identification applied to Mediterranean pines (Pinus spp.. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species biodiversity. Furthermore, High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis was exploited as a molecular fingerprint for fast and accurate discrimination of Pinus spp. DNA sequence variants. The trnL approach and the HRM analyses were extended to wood samples of two species (Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris with excellent results, congruent to those obtained using leaf tissue. Both analyses demonstrate that hybrids from the P. brutia (maternal parent × P. halepensis (paternal parent cross, exhibit the P. halepensis profile, confirming paternal plastid inheritance in Group Halepensis pines. Our study indicates that a single one-step reaction method and DNA marker are sufficient for the identification of Mediterranean pines, their hybrids and the origin of pine wood. Furthermore, our results underline the potential for certain DNA regions to be used as novel biological information markers combined with existing morphological characters and suggest a relatively reliable and open taxonomic system that can link DNA variation to phenotype-based species or hybrid assignment status and direct taxa identification from recalcitrant tissues such as wood samples.

  6. Combining Quality of Service and Topology Control in Directional Hybrid Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    concept of a global information grid (GIG) that will provide the network-centric environment necessary to achieve the goal of integrating traditional...together form high bandwidth capabilities for hybrid communication networks, suggest the potential for global connectivity while avoiding some of...included in the network and which links each commodity should flow on. The MILP can be solved using any linear solver application. We use XPRESS -MP

  7. A new approach for the development of diabatic potential energy surfaces: Hybrid block-diagonalization and diabatization by ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenbrink, Nils; Venghaus, Florian; Williams, David; Eisfeld, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    A new diabatization method is presented, which is suitable for the development of accurate high-dimensional coupled potential energy surfaces for use in quantum dynamics studies. The method is based on the simultaneous use of adiabatic wave function and energy data, respectively, and combines block-diagonalization and diabatization by ansatz approaches. It thus is called hybrid diabatization. The adiabatic wave functions of suitable ab initio calculations are projected onto a diabatic state space and the resulting vectors are orthonormalized like in standard block-diagonalization. A parametrized diabatic model Hamiltonian is set up as an ansatz for which the block-diagonalization data can be utilized to find the optimal model. Finally, the parameters are optimized with respect to the ab initio reference data such that the deviations between adiabatic energies and eigenvalues of the model as well as projected state vectors and eigenvectors of the model are minimized. This approach is particularly advantageous for problems with a complicated electronic structure where the diabatic state space must be of higher dimension than the number of calculated adiabatic states. This is an efficient way to handle problems with intruder states, which are very common for reactive systems. The use of wave function information also increases the information content for each data point without additional cost, which is beneficial in handling the undersampling problem for high-dimensional systems. The new method and its performance are demonstrated by application to three prototypical systems, ozone (O3), methyl iodide (CH3I), and propargyl (H2CCCH).

  8. Hybrid Forecasting Approach Based on GRNN Neural Network and SVR Machine for Electricity Demand Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weide Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate electric power demand forecasting plays a key role in electricity markets and power systems. The electric power demand is usually a non-linear problem due to various unknown reasons, which make it difficult to get accurate prediction by traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel hybrid forecasting method for managing and scheduling the electricity power. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR, the proposed new method, combines ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, seasonal adjustment (S, cross validation (C, general regression neural network (GRNN and support vector regression machine optimized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSVR. The main idea of EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is respectively to forecast waveform and trend component that hidden in demand series to substitute directly forecasting original electric demand. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is used to predict the one week ahead half-hour’s electricity demand in two data sets (New South Wales (NSW and Victorian State (VIC in Australia. Experimental results show that the new hybrid model outperforms the other three models in terms of forecasting accuracy and model robustness.

  9. A Hybrid Technique Based on Combining Fuzzy K-means Clustering and Region Growing for Improving Gray Matter and White Matter Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Afifi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a hybrid approach based on combining fuzzy k-means clustering, seed region growing, and sensitivity and specificity algorithms to measure gray (GM and white matter (WM tissue. The proposed algorithm uses intensity and anatomic information for segmenting of MRIs into different tissue classes, especially GM and WM. It starts by partitioning the image into different clusters using fuzzy k-means clustering. The centers of these clusters are the input to the region growing (SRG method for creating the closed regions. The outputs of SRG technique are fed to sensitivity and specificity algorithm to merge the similar regions in one segment. The proposed algorithm is applied to challenging applications: gray matter/white matter segmentation in magnetic resonance image (MRI datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed technique produces accurate and stable results.

  10. Application of a hybrid method combining grey model and back propagation artificial neural networks to forecast hepatitis B in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Xiaojun; Yan, Yu; Huang, Daizheng

    2015-01-01

    Accurate incidence forecasting of infectious disease provides potentially valuable insights in its own right. It is critical for early prevention and may contribute to health services management and syndrome surveillance. This study investigates the use of a hybrid algorithm combining grey model (GM) and back propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) to forecast hepatitis B in China based on the yearly numbers of hepatitis B and to evaluate the method's feasibility. The results showed that the proposal method has advantages over GM (1, 1) and GM (2, 1) in all the evaluation indexes.

  11. Toxicogenomics of bromobenzene hepatotoxicity: A combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Stierum, R.H.; Slijper, M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Toxicogenomics is a novel approach integrating the expression analysis of thousands of genes (transcriptomics) or proteins (proteomics) with classical methods in toxicology. Effects at the molecular level are related to pathophysiological changes of the organisms, enabling detailed comparison of

  12. Toxicogenomics of bromobenzene hepatotoxicity: a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Stierum, R.H.; Slijper, M.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Ommen, van B.

    2003-01-01

    Toxicogenomics is a novel approach integrating the expression analysis of thousands of genes (transcriptomics) or proteins (proteomics) with classical methods in toxicology. Effects at the molecular level are related to pathophysiological changes of the organisms, enabling detailed comparison of

  13. Toxicogenomics of bromobenzene hepatotoxicity: a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Stierum, R.H.; Slijper, M.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Ommen, van B.

    2003-01-01

    Toxicogenomics is a novel approach integrating the expression analysis of thousands of genes (transcriptomics) or proteins (proteomics) with classical methods in toxicology. Effects at the molecular level are related to pathophysiological changes of the organisms, enabling detailed comparison of mec

  14. Toxicogenomics of bromobenzene hepatotoxicity: A combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, W.H.M.; Stierum, R.H.; Slijper, M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Toxicogenomics is a novel approach integrating the expression analysis of thousands of genes (transcriptomics) or proteins (proteomics) with classical methods in toxicology. Effects at the molecular level are related to pathophysiological changes of the organisms, enabling detailed comparison of mec

  15. Drell-Yan production at forward rapidities: a hybrid factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the Drell-Yan production of dileptons at high energies in the forward rapidity region of proton-proton collisions in a hybrid high-energy approach. This approach uses unintegrated gluon distributions in one proton and collinear quark/antiquark distributions in the second proton. We compute various distributions for the case of low-mass dilepton production and compare to the LHCb and ATLAS experimental data on dilepton mass distributions. In distinction to dipole approaches, we include four Drell-Yan structure functions as well as cuts at the level of lepton kinematics. The impact of the interference structure functions is rather small for typical experimental cuts. We find that both side contributions ($g q/\\bar q$ and $q/\\bar q g$) have to be included even for the LHCb rapidity coverage which is in contradiction with what is usually done in the dipole approach. We present results for different unintegrated gluon distributions from the literature. Some of them include saturation effects, but we see...

  16. An Automated Real-Time System for Opinion Mining using a Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajit Mukherjee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel idea is being presented to perform Opinion Mining in a very simple and efficient manner with the help of the One-Level-Tree (OLT based approach. To recognize opinions specific for features in customer reviews having a variety of features commingled with diverse emotions. Unlike some previous ventures entirely using one-time structured or filtered data but this is solely based on unstructured data obtained in real-time from Twitter. The hybrid approach utilizes the associations defined in Dependency Parsing Grammar and fully employs Double Propagation to extract new features and related new opinions within the review. The Dictionary based approach is used to expand the Opinion Lexicon. Within the dependency parsing relations a new relation is being proposed to more effectively catch the associations between opinions and features. The three new methods are being proposed, termed as Double Positive Double Negative (DPDN, Catch-Phrase Method (CPM & Negation Check (NC, for performing criteria specific evaluations. The OLT approach conveniently displays the relationship between the features and their opinions in an elementary fashion in the form of a graph. The proposed system achieves splendid accuracy across all domains and also performs better than the state-of-the-art systems.

  17. Combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches in understanding pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.

    1996-01-01

    of qualitative research while the advantage of quantified survey data is their reliability. This paper argues for combining qualitative and quantitative methods to improve concurrent validity of results by triangulating interviews, observations or focus group data with short surveys for validation of main...... findings. Furthermore, with specific scientific assumptions, combining methods can aid in estimating minimum sample size required for theoretical generalizations from even a qualitative sample. This is based on measures of how accurately subjects describe a given social phenomenon and degree of agreement...... between subjects about such descriptions. These are components of a Cultural Consensus Theory. Examples of the usefulness of combining methods are presented for descriptions of pain by dentists and patients and by ethnicity....

  18. A Hybrid Approach to Solve a Model of Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Tokhmehchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a closed-loop supply chain network, including plants, demand centers, as well as collection centers, and disposal centers. In forward flow, the products are directly sent to demand centers, after being produced by plants, but in the reverse flow, reused products are returned to collection centers and, after investigating, are partly sent to disposal centers and the other part is resent to plants for remanufacturing. The proposed mathematical model is based on mixed-integer programming and helps minimizing the total cost. Total costs include the expenditure of establishing new centers, producing new products, cargo transport in the network, and disposal. The model aims to answer these two questions. (1 What number and in which places the plants, collection centers, and disposal centers will be constructed. (2 What amount of products will be flowing in each segment of the chain, in order to minimize the total cost. Four types of tuned metaheuristic algorithms were used, which are hybrid forms of genetic and firefly algorithms. Finally an adequate number of instances are generated to analyse the behavior of proposed algorithms. Computational results reveal that iterative sequentialization hybrid provides better solution compared with the other approaches in large size.

  19. A hybrid CPU-GPGPU approach for real-time elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Deka, Sthiti; Righetti, Raffaella

    2011-12-01

    Ultrasound elastography is becoming a widely available clinical imaging tool. In recent years, several real- time elastography algorithms have been proposed; however, most of these algorithms achieve real-time frame rates through compromises in elastographic image quality. Cross-correlation- based elastographic techniques are known to provide high- quality elastographic estimates, but they are computationally intense and usually not suitable for real-time clinical applications. Recently, the use of massively parallel general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) for accelerating computationally intense operations in biomedical applications has received great interest. In this study, we investigate the use of the GPGPU to speed up generation of cross-correlation-based elastograms and achieve real-time frame rates while preserving elastographic image quality. We propose and statistically analyze performance of a new hybrid model of computation suitable for elastography applications in which sequential code is executed on the CPU and parallel code is executed on the GPGPU. Our results indicate that the proposed hybrid approach yields optimal results and adequately addresses the trade-off between speed and quality.

  20. Dynamic Analysis and Design Optimization of Series Hydraulic Hybrid System through Power Bond Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of natural gas and crude oil resources has been declining over the years. In automobile sector, the consumption of crude oil is 63% of total crude oil production in the world. Hence, automobile industries are placing more emphasis on energy efficient hydraulic hybrid systems, which can replace their conventional transmission systems. Series hydraulic hybrid system (SHHS is a multidomain mechatronics system with two distinct power sources that includes prime mover and hydropneumatic accumulator. It replaces the conventional transmission system to drive the vehicle. The sizing of the subsystems in SHHS plays a major role in improving the energy efficiency of the vehicle. In this paper, a power bond graph approach is used to model the dynamics of the SHHS. The obtained simulation results indicate the energy flow during various modes of operations. It also includes the dynamic response of hydropneumatic accumulator, prime mover, and system output speed. Further, design optimization of the system is carried out to optimize the process parameters for maximizing the system energy efficiency. This leads to increase in fuel economy and environmentally friendly vehicle.

  1. A hybrid approach to monthly streamflow forecasting: Integrating hydrological model outputs into a Bayesian artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Greer B.; Gibbs, Matthew S.; Dandy, Graeme C.; Maier, Holger R.

    2016-09-01

    Monthly streamflow forecasts are needed to support water resources decision making in the South East of South Australia, where baseflow represents a significant proportion of the total streamflow and soil moisture and groundwater are important predictors of runoff. To address this requirement, the utility of a hybrid monthly streamflow forecasting approach is explored, whereby simulated soil moisture from the GR4J conceptual rainfall-runoff model is used to represent initial catchment conditions in a Bayesian artificial neural network (ANN) statistical forecasting model. To assess the performance of this hybrid forecasting method, a comparison is undertaken of the relative performances of the Bayesian ANN, the GR4J conceptual model and the hybrid streamflow forecasting approach for producing 1-month ahead streamflow forecasts at three key locations in the South East of South Australia. Particular attention is paid to the quantification of uncertainty in each of the forecast models and the potential for reducing forecast uncertainty by using the hybrid approach is considered. Case study results suggest that the hybrid models developed in this study are able to take advantage of the complementary strengths of both the ANN models and the GR4J conceptual models. This was particularly the case when forecasting high flows, where the hybrid models were shown to outperform the two individual modelling approaches in terms of the accuracy of the median forecasts, as well as reliability and resolution of the forecast distributions. In addition, the forecast distributions generated by the hybrid models were up to 8 times more precise than those based on climatology; thus, providing a significant improvement on the information currently available to decision makers.

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Treated by Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Combination with Psychological Approaches in 310 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Junhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion combined with a psychological approach on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods: The treatment was given by acupuncture plus moxibustion combined with a psychological approach based on differentiation of symptoms and signs in 310 cases. Results: Of 310 cases observed, 275 cases (88.7%) were clinically cured,28 cases (9%) improved, and 7 cases (2.3%) failed. Conclusion: Acupuncture plus moxibustion combined with a psychological approach is an effective therapy for CFS.

  3. Hybrid: A Definitional Two-Level Approach to Reasoning with Higher-Order Abstract Syntax

    CERN Document Server

    Felty, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Combining higher-order abstract syntax and (co)induction in a logical framework is well known to be problematic. Previous work described the implementation of a tool called Hybrid, within Isabelle HOL, which aims to address many of these difficulties. It allows object logics to be represented using higher-order abstract syntax, and reasoned about using tactical theorem proving and principles of (co)induction. In this paper we describe how to use it in a multi-level reasoning fashion, similar in spirit to other meta-logics such as Twelf. By explicitly referencing provability in a middle layer called a specification logic, we solve the problem of reasoning by (co)induction in the presence of non-stratifiable hypothetical judgments, which allow very elegant and succinct specifications of object logic inference rules.

  4. Hybrid Feature Extraction-based Approach for Facial Parts Representation and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouabhia, C.; Tebbikh, H.

    2008-06-01

    Face recognition is a specialized image processing which has attracted a considerable attention in computer vision. In this article, we develop a new facial recognition system from video sequences images dedicated to person identification whose face is partly occulted. This system is based on a hybrid image feature extraction technique called ACPDL2D (Rouabhia et al. 2007), it combines two-dimensional principal component analysis and two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with neural network. We performed the feature extraction task on the eyes and the nose images separately then a Multi-Layers Perceptron classifier is used. Compared to the whole face, the results of simulation are in favor of the facial parts in terms of memory capacity and recognition (99.41% for the eyes part, 98.16% for the nose part and 97.25 % for the whole face).

  5. Wind Power Forecasting techniques in complex terrain: ANN vs. ANN-CFD hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Mana, Matteo; Burlando, Massimiliano; Meißner, Cathérine; Piccioni, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Due to technology developments, renewable energies are becoming competitive against fossil sources and the number of wind farms is growing, which have to be integrated into power grids. Therefore, accurate power forecast is needed and often operators are charged with penalties in case of imbalance. Yet, wind is a stochastic and very local phenomenon, and therefore hard to predict. It has a high variability in space and time and wind power forecast is challenging. Statistical methods, as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), are often employed for power forecasting, but they have some shortcomings: they require data sets over several years and are not able to capture tails of wind power distributions. In this work a pure ANN power forecast is compared against a hybrid method, based on the combination of ANN and a physical method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The validation case is a wind farm sited in southern Italy in a very complex terrain, with a wide spread turbine layout.

  6. Critical Task Re-assignment under Hybrid Scheduling Approach in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Gopalakrishnan T R

    2012-01-01

    Embedded hard real time systems require substantial amount of emergency processing power for the management of large scale systems like a nuclear power plant under the threat of an earth quake or a future transport systems under a peril. In order to meet a fully coordinated supervisory control of multiple domains of a large scale system, it requires the scenario of engaging multiprocessor real time design. There are various types of scheduling schemes existing for meeting the critical task assignment in multiple processor environments and it requires the tracking of faulty conditions of the subsystem to avoid system underperformance from failure patterns. Hybrid scheduling usually engages a combined scheduling philosophy comprising of a static scheduling of a set of tasks and a highly pre-emptive scheduling for another set of tasks in different situations of process control. There are instances where highly critical tasks need to be introduced at a least expected catastrophe and it cannot be ensured to meet a...

  7. Hybrid metabolic flux analysis: combining stoichiometric and statistical constraints to model the formation of complex recombinant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Paula M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stoichiometric models constitute the basic framework for fluxome quantification in the realm of metabolic engineering. A recurrent bottleneck, however, is the establishment of consistent stoichiometric models for the synthesis of recombinant proteins or viruses. Although optimization algorithms for in silico metabolic redesign have been developed in the context of genome-scale stoichiometric models for small molecule production, still rudimentary knowledge of how different cellular levels are regulated and phenotypically expressed prevents their full applicability for complex product optimization. Results A hybrid framework is presented combining classical metabolic flux analysis with projection to latent structures to further link estimated metabolic fluxes with measured productivities. We first explore the functional metabolic decomposition of a baculovirus-producing insect cell line from experimental data, highlighting the TCA cycle and mitochondrial respiration as pathways strongly associated with viral replication. To reduce uncertainty in metabolic target identification, a Monte Carlo sampling method was used to select meaningful associations with the target, from which 66% of the estimated fluxome had to be screened out due to weak correlations and/or high estimation errors. The proposed hybrid model was then validated using a subset of preliminary experiments to pinpoint the same determinant pathways, while predicting the productivity of independent cultures. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate our hybrid metabolic flux analysis framework is an advantageous tool for metabolic identification and quantification in incomplete or ill-defined metabolic networks. As experimental and computational solutions for constructing comprehensive global cellular models are in development, the contribution of hybrid metabolic flux analysis should constitute a valuable complement to current computational platforms in bridging the

  8. A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Thermal Management Approach for Three-Dimensional Network-on-Chip Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Ranjita; Risco-Martin, Jose Luis; Turuk, Ashok Kumar; Pangracious, Vinod; Ayala, Jose L; Majumdar, Amartya

    2017-05-15

    Three-dimensional network-on-chip systems are getting popular among the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturer because of reduced latency, heterogeneous integration of technologies on a single chip, high yield, and consumption of less interconnecting power. However, the addition of functional units in the Z-direction has resulted in higher on-chip temperature and appearance of local hotspots on the die. The increase in temperature degrades the performance, lifetime, reliability, and increases the maintenance cost of 3-D ICs. To keep the heat within an acceptable limit, floorplanning is the widely accepted solution. Proper arrangement of functional units across different layers can lead to uniform thermal distribution in the chip. For systems with high density of elements, few hotspots cannot be eliminated in the floorplanning approach. To overcome, liquid microchannel cooling technology has emerged as an efficient and scalable solution for 3-D network-on-chip. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid algorithm combining both floor-planning, and liquid microchannel placement to alleviate the hotspots in high-density systems. A mathematical model is proposed to deal with heat transfer due to diffusion, and convention. The proposed approach is independent of topology. Three different topologies: 3-D stacked homogeneous mesh architecture, 3-D stacked heterogeneous mesh architecture, and 3-D stacked ciliated mesh architecture are considered to check the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in hotspot reduction. A thermal comparison is made with and without the proposed thermal management approach for the above architectures considered. It is observed that there is a significant reduction in on-chip temperature when the proposed thermal management approach is applied.

  9. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China: A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  10. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  11. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  12. Heterogeneity in consumer preference data: A combined approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Brockhoff, Per M. B.; Erichsen, Lars

    1997-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the problem of heterogeneity in consumer data and various ways of coping with it analytically. It will present a new model that combines latent class regression analysis with randon coefficient regression mod together with principal components regression...

  13. Heterogeneity in consumer preference data: A combined approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Brockhoff, Per M. B.; Erichsen, Lars

    1997-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the problem of heterogeneity in consumer data and various ways of coping with it analytically. It will present a new model that combines latent class regression analysis with randon coefficient regression mod together with principal components regression. Fi...

  14. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-05-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted.

  15. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S M; Au-Yeung, Steve C F; To, Kenneth K W

    2016-05-06

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted.

  16. Combining Explicit and Symbolic Approaches for Better On-the-Fly LTL Model Checking

    CERN Document Server

    Duret-Lutz, Alexandre; Poitrenaud, Denis; Thierry-Mieg, Yann

    2011-01-01

    We present two new hybrid techniques that replace the synchronized product used in the automata-theoretic approach for LTL model checking. The proposed products are explicit graphs of aggregates (symbolic sets of states) that can be interpreted as B\\"uchi automata. These hybrid approaches allow on the one hand to use classical emptiness-check algorithms and build the graph on-the-fly, and on the other hand, to have a compact encoding of the state space thanks to the symbolic representation of the aggregates. The Symbolic Observation Product assumes a globally stuttering property (e.g., LTL \\ X) to aggregate states. The Self-Loop Aggregation Product} does not require the property to be globally stuttering (i.e., it can tackle full LTL), but dynamically detects and exploits a form of stuttering where possible. Our experiments show that these two variants, while incomparable with each other, can outperform other existing approaches.

  17. Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Development and Testing Final Report- Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2005-05-06

    This report summarizes the results of a research and development (R&D) program to design and optimize an active desiccant-vapor compression hybrid rooftop system. The primary objective was to combine the strengths of both technologies to produce a compact, high-performing, energy-efficient system that could accommodate any percentage of outdoor air and deliver essentially any required combination of temperature and humidity, or sensible heat ratio (SHR). In doing so, such a product would address the significant challenges imposed on the performance capabilities of conventional packaged rooftop equipment by standards 62 and 90.1 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The body of work completed as part of this program built upon previous R&D efforts supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and summarized by the Phase 3b report ''Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC Units'' (Fischer and Sand 2002), in addition to Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000; and Fischer and Sand 2004. All initial design objectives established for this development program were successfully achieved. The performance flexibility desired was accomplished by a down-sized active desiccant wheel that processes only a portion of the supply airflow, which is pre-conditioned by a novel vapor compression cycle. Variable-speed compressors are used to deliver the capacity control required by a system handling a high percentage of outdoor air. An integrated direct digital control system allows for control capabilities not generally offered by conventional packaged rooftop systems. A 3000-cfm prototype system was constructed and tested in the SEMCO engineering test laboratory in Columbia, MO, and was found to operate in an energy-efficient fashion relative to more conventional systems. Most important, the system offered the capability to independently control the supply air temperature and

  18. A Combined Entropy/Phase-Field Approach to Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg J. Schmitz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Terms related to gradients of scalar fields are introduced as scalar products into the formulation of entropy. A Lagrange density is then formulated by adding constraints based on known conservation laws. Applying the Lagrange formalism to the resulting Lagrange density leads to the Poisson equation of gravitation and also includes terms which are related to the curvature of space. The formalism further leads to terms possibly explaining nonlinear extensions known from modified Newtonian dynamics approaches. The article concludes with a short discussion of the presented methodology and provides an outlook on other phenomena which might be dealt with using this new approach.

  19. Structure service life assessment under combined loading using probability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Kepka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a basic research approach for probabilistic assessment of vehicle structure fatigue endurance under multiaxial loading. One representative welded structural detail of the bottom joint plate of an articulated bus was selected for the case study. The character of the loading on the joint during a service test is analyzed and discussed. The methodology for estimation of the damage level in the joint builds on deterministic procedures for railway vehicle assessment based on shear, longitudinal and transverse stress components. This approach based on the equivalent stress and particular load capacity factors was expanded to include the probabilistic perspective

  20. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...