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Sample records for hyalophora cecropia pupae

  1. Vegetative propagation of Cecropia obtusifolia (Cecropiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis M. LaPierre

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia is a relatively well-known and well-studied genus in the Neotropics. Methods for the successful propagation of C. obtusifolia Bertoloni. 1840 from cuttings and air layering are described, and the results of an experiment to test the effect of two auxins, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and indole butyric acid (IBA, on adventitious root production in cuttings are presented. In general. C. obtusifolia cuttings respond well to adventitious root production (58.3 % of cuttings survived to root, but air layering was the better method (93 % of cuttings survived to root. The concentration of auxins used resulted in an overall significantly lower quality of roots produced compared with cuttings without auxin treatment. Future experiments using Cecropia could benefit from the use of isogenic plants produced by vegetative propagationCecropia es un género bien conocido y bien estudiado en los Neotrópicos. Se discuten métodos exitosos para la propagación de C. obtusifolia Bertoloni, 1840 de fragmentos de troncos y acodos aéreos. A continuación se presentan los resultados de un experimento para examinar los efectos de dos tipos de hormonas (NAA e IBA en la producción de raíces adventicias en fragmentos de troncos. En general, los fragmentos de C. abtusifalia responden bien en la producción de raíces adventicias (y sobreviven al azar 58.3% de los cortes, pero el método de acodos aéreos funcionó mejor (sobreviven al azar 93 %. El uso de hormonas resultó en raíces de baja calidad en comparación con cortes sin hormonas. Experimentos en el futuro que usan Cecropia pueden beneficiar al usar plantas isogénicas producidas por propagación vegetativa

  2. Distributional patterns of cecropia (Cecropiaceae: a panbiogeographic analysis

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    Franco Rosselli Pilar

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A panbiogeographic analysis of the distributional patterns of 60 species of Cecropia was carried out. Based on the distributional ranges of 36 species, we found eight generalized tracks for Cecropia species. whereas distributional patterns of 24 species were uninformative for the analysis. The major concentration of species of Cecropia is in the Neotropical Andean region. where there are three generalized tracks and two nodes. The northern Andes in Colombia and Ecuador are richer than the Central Andes in Perú. they contain two generalized tracks; one to the west and another to the east, formed by individual tracks of eight species each. There are four generalized tracks outside the Andean region: two in the Amazonian region in Guayana-Pará and in Manaus. one in Roraima. one in Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forest of Brazil and one in Central America. Speciation in Cecropia may be related to the Andean first uplift.Con base en la distribución de 60 especies del género Cecropia, se hizo un análisis panbiogeográfico. Se construyeron 8 trazos generalizados con base en el patrón de distribución de 36 especies; la distribución de las demás especies no aportaba información para la definición de los trazos. La región andina tiene la mayor concentración de especies de Cecropia representada por la presencia de tres trazos generalizados y dos nodos; los dos trazos con mayor número de especies se localizan en su parte norte, en Colombia y Ecuador y el otro en los Andes centrales en Perú. Se encontraron además, cuatro trazos extrandinos: dos en la región amazónica, en Pará-Guayana y en Manaus, uno en Roraima, uno en Serra do Mar en la Selva Atlánfíca del Brasil y uno en Centro América. La especiación en Cecropia parece estar relacionada con el primer levantamiento de los Andes.

  3. Spiracle activity in moth pupae--the role of oxygen and carbon dioxide revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Thomas D; Hetz, Stefan K

    2010-05-01

    After decades of intensive research, the actual mechanism behind discontinuous gas exchange in insects has not been fully understood. One open question concerns the actual way (closed, flutter, and open) of how spiracles respond to tracheal gas concentrations. As the results of a classic paper [Burkett, B.N., Schneiderman, H.A., 1974. Roles of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the control of spiracular function in cecropia pupae. Biological Bulletin 147, 274-293] allow ambiguous interpretation, we thus reexamined the behavior of the spiracles in response to fixed, controlled endotracheal gas concentrations. The tracheal system of diapausing pupae of Attacus atlas (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) was flushed with gas mixtures varying in P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) while the behavior of the spiracles was monitored using changes in the pressure signal. This novel pressure based technique proved to be superior to classic visual observation of single spiracles. A two-dimensional map of the spiracle behavior in response to endotracheal P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) was established. Typically, it contained two distinct regions only, corresponding to "closed" and "open" spiracles. A separate "flutter" region was missing. Because fluttering is commonly observed in moth pupae, we suggest that the intermittent spiracle opening during a flutter phase is an effect of non-steady-state conditions within the tracheal system. For low P(CO(2)) the minimum P(O(2)) resulting in open spiracles was linearly dependent upon P(CO(2)). Above a threshold of 1-1.5 kPa CO(2) the spiracles were open irrespective of P(O(2)). We propose a hypothetical spiracular control model, which is simple and explains the time course of endotracheal partial pressures during all phases of discontinuous gas exchange.

  4. The status of Cecropia (Urticaceae) introductions in Malesia: addressing the confusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conn, B.J.; Hadiah, J.T.; Webber, B.L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the great global movement of plants in the 18th and 19th centuries, many valuable and commercial plants were sent from the Neotropics to Europe as seeds or as live specimens. Cecropia (Urticaceae) was in cultivation in England in 1789, yet species delimitation was not well-understood unti

  5. SOME STRENGTH AND RELATED PROPERTIES OF YAGRUMO HEMBRA (CECROPIA PELTATA) FROM PUERTO RICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluations of several mechanical and physical properties were conducted on specimens from five yagrumo hembra (Cecropia peltata) trees from Puerto...Dense yagrumo hembra resembles North American black cottonwood in both specific gravity and mechanical properties. Total shrinkage from green to the

  6. Life history and environment of Cecropia latiloba in Amazonian floodplains

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    Pia Parolin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia latiloba can be considered to be one of the most efficient colonizers of open areas in the nutrient-rich whitewater floodplains of the Amazon river. Its main strategy to be successful is the high tolerance towards waterlogging and submergence, and the fast vertical growth and reiteration capacity. This, and the tolerance of high irradiation and sediment deposition allow C. latiloba to form large monospecific stands on open sites, and thus the first closed canopy which represents the initial phase of a successional sequence which leads to highly diverse forests. This tree is extremely well adapted to the adverse growth conditions in Amazonian floodplains with prolongued periods of flooding and seedling submergence. The species occurs on the lowest levels in the flooding gradient. Although it belongs to the most often cited species under aspects of taxonomy, species distribution and general descriptions of the ecosystem, little has been published about its ecology. In the present paper the ecological, physiological and phenological characteristics of C. latiloba are described. It is an evergreen species which constantly produces new leaves. With flooding, leaf production is reduced but new leaves are flushed also with prolongued flooding. The peak of flowering and fruiting are in the flooded period. When mature, the fruits are dispersed mainly by water and fish. Seed germination occurs, without dormancy, within 5-13 days after water retreat. In the 7 months before the first flooded period seedlings reach 1 m of height, and height growth increases until a height of 15-20 m is achieved. Photosynthetic assimilation is high, with values of up to 21 mmol CO2m-2s-1 . C. latiloba is a very flood tolerant species, and waterlogged seedlings continuously produce new leaves and adventitiuos rootsCecropia latiloba puede ser considerada una de las especies colonizadoras más eficientes de áreas abiertas en las llanuras inundadas de agua dulce, rica

  7. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a mic...

  8. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a mic...

  9. The Effect of Symbiotic Ant Colonies on Plant Growth: A Test Using an Azteca-Cecropia System: e0120351

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliveira, Karla N; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Kaminski, Lucas A; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Campos, Ricardo I

    2015-01-01

    .... In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry...

  10. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

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    Christopher Exley

    Full Text Available The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD value of 51.0 (33.0 μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  11. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  12. Seasonal variations in the amount of isoorientin and isovitexin in cecropia glaziovii sneth. leaves over a two-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Geison; Caroline F. Ortmann; Eloir P. Schenkel; Reginatto,Flávio H.

    2014-01-01

    Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (Urticaceae) is a common tree from Southeast and South of Brazil, being widely used in traditional medicine to treat heart and respiratory conditions. C-glycosylflavonoids have being described as the major compounds for this genus, however, no seasonality studies of individual flavonoids was conducted for any Cecropia specie. In this work, the content of isoorientin and isovitexin in aqueous extract from the leaves of C glaziovii during a two-year period was determine...

  13. An HPLC-DAD method to quantification of main phenolic compounds from leaves of Cecropia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Geison M. Costa; Caroline F. Ortmann; Eloir P. Schenkel; Reginatto,Flávio H.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of major compounds (chlorogenic acid, isoorientin, orientin and isovitexin) present in the leaves of two Cecropia species, C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya. From the leaves of C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya were isolated the C-glycosylflavones isoorientin and isovitexin and identified on both species chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and the O-glycosylflavonol isoquercitrin...

  14. Redescription of the pupae of Ochlerotatus dorsalis and Ochlerotatus squamiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F

    2011-06-01

    The pupae of Ochlerotatus dorsalis and Oc. squamiger are completely described and illustrated for the first time. Considering the entire pupal morphology, characters to separate the 2 pupae are discussed.

  15. Remote Sensing observations of Cecropia communities along Amazonian rivers: Mapping and monitoring habitat dynamics with time series datasets

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    Quinteros Casaverde, N. L.; McDonald, K.

    2016-12-01

    Riverine habitats host more than 14% of non-aquatic birds in the Amazon basin, some of them considered vulnerable by the UICN due to habitat destruction. Plant species of the genus Cecropia are known for being a late pioneer species in these riverine habitats creating monospecific stands along the Amazonian rivers. Cecropia biomes are thought to have significant impacts on the avifauna communities and their diversity. Nowadays, these habitats are threatened by the on-going development in the Amazonian countries. There are plans to build hydroelectric facilities, damming important tributaries of the Amazon river. Such large scale land cover change threatens Cecropia communities and the habitats they support and associated biodiversity. Thus, it is imperative to understand the fragility of these ecosystems, their extent and spatial distribution, and seasonal influences to their environments. We employ multiple sources of remote sensing data to assess the ability to use high resolution imagery to map Cecropia communities and multi-temporal observations to assess their seasonal dynamics. This research aims to facilitate the understanding of these communities through time series analyses using remote sensing products such as high resolution images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat to identify the Cecropia stands along the rivers and lower resolution products such as satellite-borne radiometers and scatterometers to assess seasonality. Our goal is to employ combined remote sensing data sources at map and monitor these important habitats.

  16. Myxomycetes occurring on Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae in fragments of Atlantic Rainforest Myxomycetes ocorrentes em Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae em fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica

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    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia adenopus (Ambay pumpwood is a frequent native species on the edges of woods and clearings and is considered a pioneer species in re-colonized areas. Despite its distribution from Mexico to Argentina, this substrate has never been examined in detail regarding the presence of Myxomycetes. In the present study, the myxobiota associated with leaf debris of C. adenopus was investigated in two Atlantic Rainforest conservation units located in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte. Five specimens and one plasmodium were obtained directly from the field and 87 were developed in 43.7% of 200 moist-chamber cultures set up separately with blades and petioles. Fifteen species were identified and illustrated. The two predominant groups were representatives of Trichiales and Physarales. Didymium columella-cavum was recorded for the second time in Brazil and in the world.Cecropia adenopus (embaúba é uma espécie nativa, frequente em bordas de matas e clareiras e tida como espécie pioneira em áreas recolonizadas. Apesar de ocorrer desde o México até a Argentina este substrato nunca tinha sido examinado com detalhe quanto à presença de Myxomycetes. No presente estudo, a mixobiota associada a folhas mortas de C. adenopus foi investigada em duas Unidades de Conservação da Floresta Atlântica, situadas no estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Cinco espécimes e um plasmódio foram obtidos diretamente no campo e 87 desenvolveram-se em 43,7% de 200 câmaras-úmidas, montadas com lâminas foliares e pecíolos separadamente. Quinze espécies de Myxomycetes foram identificadas e ilustradas. Os dois grupos predominantes pertencem às ordens Trichiales e Physarales. Didymium columella-cavum foi encontrado pela segunda vez no Brasil e no mundo.

  17. Effects of light and temperature on seed germination in Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Cecropiaceae

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    Godoi Simone

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Cecropia hololeuca were submitted to regimes of constant and alternating temperatures, associated with photoperiods of white light, "shade light" and continuous darkness under controlled conditions in laboratory. Seeds did not germinate at constant temperatures of 10°C to 20°C and above 35°C. Seeds only germinated in the darkness when the temperature was alternated. "Shade light" inhibited germination. We concluded that the regime of alternating temperatures suppressed the light effects on seed germination of this species.

  18. Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Munoz, François; Stevenson, Pablo R; Paine, C E Timothy; Sarmiento, Carolina; Sabatier, Daniel; Heuret, Patrick

    2011-08-22

    Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. We detected significant annual, sub-annual and continuous patterns, and discuss the variation in patterns within and among climatic regions. Although previous studies have suggested that pioneer species generally produce flowers continually throughout the year, we found that at least one third of Cecropia species are characterized by clear annual flowering behaviour. We further investigated the relationships between phenology and climate seasonality, showing strong associations between phenology and seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature. We also verified our results against field survey data gathered from the literature. Our findings indicate that herbarium material is a reliable resource for use in the investigation of large-scale patterns in plant phenology, offering a promising complement to local intensive field studies.

  19. High-speed countercurrent chromatography as a valuable tool to isolate C-glycosylflavones from Cecropia lyratiloba Miquel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R; Moraes, M C C; Castilho, R O; Valente, A P; Carauta, J P P; Lopes, D; Kaplan, M A C

    2003-01-01

    A new apigeninglycoside, apigenin 6-C-galactosyl-6"-O-beta-galactopyranoside (1), isoorientin, and a mixture of orientin and isovitexin were isolated from leaves of Cecropia lyratiloba by high-speed countercurrent chromatography using a solvent system containing ethyl acetate, butanol, methanol and water. The structural elucidation of 1 was based on NMR spectroscopy.

  20. The genus Cecropia: a biological clock to estimate the age of recently disturbed areas in the Neotropics.

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    Paul-Camilo Zalamea

    Full Text Available Forest successional processes following disturbance take decades to play out, even in tropical forests. Nonetheless, records of vegetation change in this ecosystem are scarce, increasing the importance of the chronosequence approach to study forest recovery. However, this approach requires accurate dating of secondary forests, which until now was a difficult and/or expensive task. Cecropia is a widespread and abundant pioneer tree genus of the Neotropics. Here we propose and validate a rapid and straightforward method to estimate the age of secondary forest patches based on morphological observations of Cecropia trees. We found that Cecropia-inferred ages were highly correlated with known ages of the forest. We also demonstrate that Cecropia can be used to accurately date disturbances and propose twenty-one species distributed all over the geographical range of the genus as potential secondary forest chronometer species. Our method is limited in applicability by the maximal longevity of Cecropia individuals. Although the oldest chronosequence used in this study was 20 years old, we argue that at least for the first four decades after disturbance, the method described in this study provides very accurate estimations of secondary forest ages. The age of pioneer trees provides not only information needed to calculate the recovery of carbon stocks that would help to improve forest management, but also provides information needed to characterize the initial floristic composition and the rates of species remigration into secondary forest. Our contribution shows how successional studies can be reliably and inexpensively extended without the need to obtain forest ages based on expensive or potentially inaccurate data across the Neotropics.

  1. Estudo comparativo das madeiras de cecropia palmata (imbaúba) e eucalyptus grandis para produção de celulose e papel

    OpenAIRE

    Pupo, Camyla Heckler [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Much remains to be studied on the Amazonian species, among many varieties can be species with excellent characteristics for the production of pulp and paper that have not yet had their technological potential revealed. The Cecropia palmata is native to the Amazon, which initially presents excellent characteristics for pulp production. Therefore, this study aimed to study the quality of the native wood Cecropia palmata Amazon for the production of pulp and paper, through a comparative study wi...

  2. Description of the pupae of Ochlerotatus flavescens and Ochlerotatus melanimon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F

    2011-06-01

    The previously unknown pupae of Ochlerotatus flavescens and Oc. melanimon are described and illustrated. They will both be included in a forthcoming key to known pupae of genera Aedes and Ochlerotatus in the Nearctic Region. Characters to recognize each are explained.

  3. SILKWORM PUPAE PROTECT AGAINST ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

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    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silkworm (Bombyx mori pupae have long been used as food and medicine in Asian countries. It is reputed for the treatment of numerous neurological disorders related to oxidative stress including stroke. Therefore, we hypothesized that silkworm pupae could attenuate memory impairment and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, we determined the effect of silkworm pupae on the neurodegeneration and memory impairment in animal model of Alzheimer’s disease. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were orally given the silkworm pupae at doses of 60, 90 and 135 mg kg-1 BW 14 days before and 7 days after the bilateral administration of AF64A, a cholinotoxin, via intracerebroventricular route. The animals were determined the memory using Morris water maze test and determined the density of neurons in hippocampus. All doses of silkworm pupae used in this study significantly mitigated the memory impairment and the decreased neurons density in hippocampus. To explore the possible underlying mechanism of the cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect, the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme and the Malondialdehyde (MDA, the oxidative marker were determined respectively. Our results clearly demonstrated that the cognitive enhancing effect of silkworm pupae occurred at least via the increased cholinergic function while its neuroprotective effect occurred via the decrease oxidative stress. In conclusion, silkworm pupae appear to be the potential functional food to protect against Alzheimer’s disease.

  4. Description of the pupa of the Himalayan mosquito, Ochlerotatus pulchriventer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F

    2009-09-01

    The pupa of Ochlerotatus pulchriventer (=Aedes pulchriventer) is described and illustrated for the first time. It was collected at midrange altitudes in the Himalaya Mountains of Nepal. A subspecies from Taiwan is discussed.

  5. Descriptions of the pupae of Ochlerotatus aloponotum and Ochlerotatus campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F

    2011-09-01

    Pupae of 2 western species, Ochlerotatus aloponotum and Oc. campestris, are described and illustrated. Sources of the original descriptions and known stages are given. The relation of Oc. aloponotum to Oc. excrucians and characters to separate them are discussed.

  6. File list: ALL.Pup.20.AllAg.Pupae [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. An HPLC-DAD method to quantification of main phenolic compounds from leaves of Cecropia species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geison M.; Ortmann, Caroline F.; Schenkel, Eloir P.; Reginatto, Flavio H., E-mail: freginatto@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of major compounds (chlorogenic acid, isoorientin, orientin and isovitexin) present in the leaves of two Cecropia species, C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya. From the leaves of C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya were isolated the C-glycosylflavones isoorientin and isovitexin and identified on both species chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and the O-glycosylflavonol isoquercitrin. The C-glycosylflavone orientin was isolated only from C. pachystachya. Chlorogenic acid was the major compound in both species (11.1 mg g{sup -1} of extract of C. glaziovii and 27.2 mg g{sup -1} of extract of C. pachystachya) and for the flavonoids quantified, isovitexin was the main C-glycosylflavonoid for C. glaziovii (4.6 mg g{sup -1} of extract) and isoorientin the main one for C. pachystachya (17.3 mg g{sup -1} of extract). (author)

  15. In vivo potential hypoglycemic and in vitro vasorelaxant effects of Cecropia glazioviistandardized extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paula Arend

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Cecropia glaziovii Snethl, Urticaceae, extracts on the oral glucose tolerance curve, on glycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and vasorelaxant effect after the extraction process, and to standardize the extractive solutions. The effects of the process variables and their interactions were calculated in relation to dry residue, pH, total phenolic results and chemical marker content. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts (400 mg/kg, chlorogenic (2 or 15 mg/kg and caffeic acids (2 mg/kg were investigated on the oral glucose tolerance curve and on glycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of ethanol extracts 4d20 and 8d20 significantly improved glucose tolerance in the hyperglycemic rats. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids, as well as the association of the compounds were able to significantly reduce glycemia after oral gavage treatments. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts did not alter the glycemia. The aqueous extracts (8020 and 9030 and only the higher dose of chlorogenic acid presented a significant effect on serum glucose lowering in diabetic rats. Additionally, the IC50 reveals that the ethanol extracts presented more potent vasodilator effects than the aqueous extracts in aortic rings. This study shows that C. glazioviistandardized extracts exhibits antihyperglycemic action, is able to improve glucose tolerance and has a potent vascular relaxing effect. These results are probably linked to concentrations of the main phenolic compounds of the extracts.

  16. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  17. Differences on post-fire regeneration of the pioneer trees Cecropia glazioui and Trema micrantha in a lowland Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva M Silva-Matos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of natural post-fire succession was carried out in a disturbed vegetation around fragments of the Atlantic Rain Forest (National Biological Reserve of Poço das Antas (22 °30 ’-22 °33 ’S,42 °15 ’-42 °19 ’W, Rio de Janeiro State.All the pre-fire individuals of Cecropia and Trema in the area were numbered with plastic labels.In order to check for the presence of new sprouts and mortality,two other censuses were carried out,at 3 and 12 months after the fire.The dominant species were:Pteridium aquilinum,Panicum maximum,Trema micrantha and Cecropia glazioui. Few days after the passage of fire, grasses and ferns spread their area,while the stands of Trema and Cecropia were completely burned. Most of individuals of Cecropia produced some sprouts while most of individuals of Trema died.However,a great number of seedlings of Trema were recruited while only one single seedling of Cecropia were observed during a period of one year.Most of these seedlings died through the year while the sprouts were already reproducing.The uses of Cecropia in places where fire is recurrent could be more appropriate because of its higher chance of survival and faster recovering ability after fire.Rev.Biol.Trop.53(1-2:1-4.Epub 2005 Jun 24Se realizó un estudio sobre la sucesión natural después del fuego en una vegetación alrededor de fragmentos de la selva lluviosa atlántica (Reserva Biológica Nacional de Poço das Antas (22° 30 ’-22° 33 ’ S, 42° 15’- 42° 19’ W, Estado de Río de Janeiro.Todos los individuos de Cecropia y Trema previos del fuego en el área fueron numerados con marcas plásticas. Se realizaron otros dos censos, 3 y 12 meses después del fuego con el objetivo de detectar mortalidad y buscar la presencia de nuevos brotes. Las especies dominantes fueron: Pteridium aquilinum, Panicum maximum, Trema micrantha y Cecropia glazioui. Pocos días después del paso del fuego,los pastos y helechos se dispersaron por el área, mientras

  18. Redescription of the pupa of Culex (Culex) declarator Dyar and Knab (Diptera, Culicidae), with amendments to key to the Culex pupae of the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F; Day, Jonathan F

    2005-06-01

    The pupa of Culex declarator was partially described and illustrated by Lane. This species was recently discovered in Florida for the first time and a series of individual rearings have resulted in a number of pupae and an opportunity to redescribe it fully, with a complete illustration. Amendment to the key to the Culex pupae of the eastern United States is provided.

  19. Ecdysteroids in the pupae of Opogona sacchari (Bojer), a new invasive alien pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fanghai; ZHANG Guren; WEN Ruizhen; HE Guofeng

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and quantitative variation of ecdysteriods in the pupae of Opogona sacchari (Bojer), a new invasive alien pest, we analyzed the pupal ecdysteroid composition and titers in this pest. The main component of ecdysteriods in the pupae of O. sacchari is 20-hydroxyecdysone. The titre of ecdysteriods in both male pupae and female pupae get higher gradually, and then decreased slowly after reaching a peak (80 ng/pupa). The titre of ecdysteriods was about 30 ng/pupa in the later stage of pupae. The peak of male pupae appeared on the third day, but the peak of female pupae lasted from the second day to the fourth day during pupal developments. The ecdysteroid content was higher in female pupae than in male pupae during specific pupal time (the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th day). We also found that the titre of ecdysteroids in posterior part of pupae was higher than in anterior part of pupae obviously.

  20. A Novel Protein Found in Selenium-rich Silkworm Pupas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel protein was isolated and characterized in selenium-rich silkworm pupas. The peptide mass fingerprint of the protein was found to be new. Partial amino acid sequencing also confirmed to be a new protein. The novel protein had a molecular mass of about 80 kDa in the SDS-PAGE.

  1. Founding weaver ant queens (Oecophylla longinoda) increase production and nanitic worker size when adopting non-nestmate pupae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Offenberg, Joachim; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    of offspring). Forty-five fertilized queens were divided into three treatments: 0 (control), 100 or 300 non-nestmate pupae transplanted to each colony. Pupae transplantation resulted in highly increased growth rates, as pupae were readily adopted by the queens and showed high proportions of surviving (mean...... of 300 pupae increased total colony size more than 10-fold whereas 100 pupae increased the size 5.6 fold, compared to control. This increase was due not only to the individuals added in the form of pupae but also to an increased per capita brood production by the resident queen, triggered by the adopted...... pupae. The size of hatching pupae produced by the resident queen also increased with the number of pupae transplanted, leading to larger nanitic workers in colonies adopting pupae. In conclusion, pupae transplantation may be used to produce larger colonies with larger worker ants and may thus reduce...

  2. Thermographic analysis of waveguide-irradiated insect pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard G.; Hammer, Wayne C.

    1982-01-01

    Pupae of the insect Tenebrio molitor L. were thermographically imaged during waveguide irradiation through longitudinal slots. T. molitor pupae have been subjects of microwave-induced teratology for a number of years, but until now the smallness of the insect has prevented detailed dosimetry. High-resolution thermographic imaging equipment was used to obtain the magnitude and spatial distribution of absorbed microwave energy at three frequencies, 1.3, 5.95, and 10 GHz. The detail of the thermal images obtained is sufficient to show the differential heating of structures as small as a single insect leg. Results show that the electrical properties of the head, thorax, and abdomen are sufficiently different to seriously impair the usefulness of any theoretical dosimetric model of homogeneous composition. Some general features of correlation with a slab model in waveguide are given.

  3. Optical penetration-based silkworm pupa gender sensor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Kamtongdee, Chakkrit

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates for what is believed to be the first time a highly sought-after optical structure for highly-accurate identification of the silkworm pupa gender. The key idea is to exploit a long wavelength optical beam in the red or near infrared spectrum that can effectively and safely penetrate the body of a silkworm pupa. Later on, simple image processing operations via image thresholding, blob filtering, and image inversion processes are applied in order to eliminate the unwanted image noises and at the same time highlight the gender gland. Experimental proof of concept using three 636 nm wavelength light emitting diodes, a two-dimensional web camera, an 8 bit microcontroller board, and a notebook computer shows a very high 95.6% total accuracy in identifying the gender of 45 silkworm pupae with a measured fast identification time of 96.6 ms. Other key features include low cost, low component counts, and ease of implementation and control.

  4. Does exogenic food benefit both partners in an ant-plant mutualism? The case of Cecropia obtusa and its guest Azteca plant-ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier; Orivel, Jérôme; Leroy, Céline

    2012-03-01

    In the mutualisms involving the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa and Azteca ovaticeps or A. alfari, both predatory, the ants defend their host trees from enemies and provide them with nutrients (myrmecotrophy). A. ovaticeps provisioned with prey and then (15)N-enriched food produced more individuals than did control colonies (not artificially provisioned). This was not true for A. alfari colonies, possibly due to differences in the degree of maturity of the colonies for the chosen range of host tree sizes (less than 3m in height). Myrmecotrophy was demonstrated for both Azteca species as provisioning the ants with (15)N-enriched food translated into higher δ(15)N values in host plant tissues, indicating that nitrogen passed from the food to the plant. Thus, the predatory activity of their guest ants benefits the Cecropia trees not only because the ants protect them from defoliators since most prey are phytophagous insects but also because the plant absorbs nutrients.

  5. Larva de quinto estádio e pupa de Caligo martia (Godart (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae Fifth larval instar and pupa of Caligo martia (Godart (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna M. Casagrande

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the fifth larval instar and pupa of Caligo martia (Godart, [1824] from material reared in southern Brasil are described and illustrated. The larvae feed on two species of Cyperaceae. The Caterpillar and pupa appearences are compared with others Caligo species.

  6. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Two Lowland Tropical Forest Species of Cecropia: A First Look at Their Chemical Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Van Huynh; John M. Bevington

    2014-01-01

    The structural chemistry of proanthocyanidin molecules has been investigated in temperate zone plants, but few studies have been done with plants of the Amazonian lowland tropical wet forests where herbivore pressure is more extensive and diverse. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we report unique properties of the proanthocyanidin structural chemistry in two neotropical Cecropia species, C. polystachya, a myrmecophyte with mutualistic ants, and C. sciadophylla, a non-myrmecophyte lacking mu...

  7. [Bahaviour of Solenopsis invicta workers to protect pupae from infection by Metarhizium anisopliae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hua-Long; Lü, Li-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Yang; He, Yu-Rong

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have focused on how ants deal with workers infected by pathogens but how pupae are protected from infection by fungi is not well understood. The behavioral mechanisms adopted by Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ants, RIFA) adult workers to protect pupae against Metarhizium anisopliae infection were studied. We observed the behavioral changes of M. anisopliae infected adult workers in the brood chamber as well as the behavioral changes of healthy workers to fungus exposed pupae. The time of fungus infected workers spent in the pupal chamber reduced significantly from 103.4 s on the first day to 38.5 s on the third day. Moreover, the percentage of time spending on brood care in the pupal chamber reduced significantly from 13.6% on the first day to 3.5% on the third day. When pupae were infected by M. anisopliae, workers performed 5.3 times more grooming to fungus exposed pupae than controls, and the duration of each grooming bout to fungus exposed pupae was 5.2 times longer than controls. Grooming did remove many conidia on the surface of fungus exposed pupae. The mean numbers of conidia on the surface of pupae were 103.1, 51.6 and 31.3 when no workers, two workers and ten workers accompanied a pupa, respectively. The presence of workers resulted in a lower germination rate of conidia on the surface of pupae. The mean germination rates of conidia after 20 h of inoculation on the surface of pupae were 95.1%, 80.4% and 59.9%, in the treatments with no worker, two workers and ten workers respectively. There was a positive correlation between the emergence rate of pupae and the number of accompanying workers. RIFA protect their pupae from infection by M. anisopliae through social be- haviors which enable the sustainable development of their population.

  8. Interação planta-inseto: Aspectos biológicos e ecológicos do mutualismo Cecropia-Azteca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-08-01

    Abstract. A well-known association is the mutualism between plants is between plant species of the genus Cecropia and ants, mostly belonging to the genus Azteca. In this association, the ants nest in domatia present in the hollow trunk of this myrmecophytes and feed on food bodies provided by the plant, known as mullerian bodies. In return, the ants protect the host plant against herbivore attacks and invasion by vines, and nourish it through waste laid in the trunk. However, the effectiveness of this association may vary with several factors, such as the associated ant species and the habitat type of the myrmecophyte. About 10% of Cecropia species lost their attractive characteristics, such as species living in high altitude and inhabit islands. Aspects like associated ant richness and molecular studies show that the colonization of these plants by ants occurred several times and independently by different genera. The selection pressure exerted by some species of ants may have been one of the decisive factors for the development of attractive traits for ants in Cecropia. With the evolution of these features ants might become an effective partner of the plant, facilitating the co-evolution of specific interactions.

  9. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Two Lowland Tropical Forest Species of Cecropia: A First Look at Their Chemical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Van Huynh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural chemistry of proanthocyanidin molecules has been investigated in temperate zone plants, but few studies have been done with plants of the Amazonian lowland tropical wet forests where herbivore pressure is more extensive and diverse. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we report unique properties of the proanthocyanidin structural chemistry in two neotropical Cecropia species, C. polystachya, a myrmecophyte with mutualistic ants, and C. sciadophylla, a non-myrmecophyte lacking mutualistic ants. Our preliminary data suggests the presence of reportedly uncommon propelargonidin subunits in a majority of proanthocyanidin oligomers. The presence of 3-O-gallate proanthocyanidin monomers was also detected in the mass spectra of both species. Unlike other studies that have examined species growing at higher latitudes, oligomers composed of procyanidin, propelargonidin, and their 3-O-gallates were present in both Cecropia species while the presence of oligomers containing prodelphinidin units were absent or at lower levels. These distinctive features may suggest that proanthocyanidins in some tropical plant species may be an untapped source of proanthocyanidin structural complexity that warrants further investigation. Several differences between spectra of the two Cecropia species could also point to the presence of anti-herbivore defense tradeoffs between chemical defense quality and biotic defense between the two species.

  10. Redescription of the pupa of Mallochohelea termophila (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Redescripción de la pupa de Mallochohelea termophila (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pupal exuvia of Mallochohelea termophila (Spinelli is redescribed, photographed and illustrated mainly based on the type-series. Pupae of the type-series were collected with forceps from a thermal stream and were attached to rocks about 200 m from the spring head. Pupae from Uruguay were collected with a dipper in lotic and lentic environments. They were reared to adults in the laboratory. This is the first detailed pupal description of a species of Mallochohelea, and the first record of this species from Uruguay. Similarities and differences with the pupae of Neobezzia are provided.Se describe, fotografía e ilustra la exuvia pupal de Mallochohelea termophila (Spinelli, en especial sobre la base de la serie-tipo. Las pupas de la serie-tipo fueron recolectadas mediante pinzas en un arroyo termal, adheridas a rocas, aproximadamente a 200 m del manatial y las pupas de Uruguay mediante el uso de un cucharón tanto en ambientes lóticos como lénticos. Ellas fueron criadas hasta adultos en el laboratorio. Ésta es la primera descripción detallada de una pupa de una especie de Mallochohelea y el primer registro de la especie para Uruguay. Se destacan semejanzas y diferencias con las pupas de Neobezzia.

  11. Herança e desequilíbrio de ligação em sete locos isoenzimáticos de Cecropia pachystachya. Inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in sevem isozymes loci of Cecropia pachystachya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Arruda RIBAS

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,G6PDH, IDH, PGI, PGM e SKDH, codificandosete locos polimórficos (Acp-3, G6pdh-1, Idh-1,Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2 e Skdh-1, foram investigadospara a herança e desequilíbrio de ligação emCecropia pachystachya Trec. A herança mendelianafoi confirmada para todos os locos avaliados.Desvios significativos da razão de segregaçãoesperada 1:1 foram detectados apenas em umaprogênies de árvore heterozigótica. O desequilíbriode ligação foi examinado para 21 pares de locosisoenzimáticos, não sendo detectados desequilíbriosentre nenhum deles e, assim, estes podem serutilizados em subseqüentes estudos do sistemade reprodução, diversidade e estrutura genética deC. pachystachya.

  12. Physicochemical Properties of Meat Batter Added with Edible Silkworm Pupae (Bombyx mori) and Transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo-Sun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Cheol-Won; Shin, Dong-Min; Han, Sung Gu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of meat batters prepared with fresh pork meat, back fat, water, and salt and formulated with three different amounts (5%, 10%, and 15%) of silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) powder and transglutaminase (TG). Meat batters formulated with silkworm pupae powder showed significantly higher contents of protein and ash than control batter. Addition of silkworm pupae to batter also showed significantly lower cooking loss than the control. Moreover, meat batter containing 15% silkworm pupae showed no significant difference in redness value compared to the control. In addition, pH, viscosity, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were improved after the addition of silkworm pupae. Furthermore, meat batter formulated with TG and silkworm pupae showed improved hardness, gumminess, chewiness and viscosity compared to control batter. Addition of 1% TG with 15% silkworm pupae to meat batter resulted in significantly higher pH, textures, and viscosity. Our data suggest that both silkworm pupae and TG can be added to meat batter to improve its physicochemical properties. Therefore, combination of silkworm pupae and TG could be a new nutritional and functional source for meat products.

  13. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA pvulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment.

  14. Cecropia pachystachya: A Species with Expressive In Vivo Topical Anti-Inflammatory and In Vitro Antioxidant Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ramos Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia pachystachya is a species traditionally used in Brazil to treat inflammation. This work aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of C. pachystachya (CPM and to perform its chemical fingerprint by HPLC-DAD. The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the mouse models of acute ear inflammation induced by croton oil, arachidonic acid, capsaicin, EPP, phenol, and chronic inflammation induced by multiple application of croton oil. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPM was investigated using DPPH, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching, and TBARS assays. HPLC analysis was performed to quantify the antioxidant phenolics orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid previously identified in CPM. CPM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect in the acute models, in some cases comparable to the reference drugs. Histopathological analysis showed a moderate chronic skin anti-inflammatory effect with decrease in vasodilation, edema, cell infiltration, and epidermal hyperproliferation. It also showed strong in vitro antioxidant activity. The contents of orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid were 66.5 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 0.7, and 5.4 ± 0.2 µg/mg extract, respectively. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of CPM could be based on its antioxidant properties, although other effects are probably involved, including COX inhibition and other mechanisms.

  15. Cecropia pachystachya: a species with expressive in vivo topical anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Natália Ramos; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; da Silva, Josiane Mello; Mendes, Renata de Freitas; da Costa, Juliana de Carvalho; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Scio, Elita

    2014-01-01

    Cecropia pachystachya is a species traditionally used in Brazil to treat inflammation. This work aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of C. pachystachya (CPM) and to perform its chemical fingerprint by HPLC-DAD. The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the mouse models of acute ear inflammation induced by croton oil, arachidonic acid, capsaicin, EPP, phenol, and chronic inflammation induced by multiple application of croton oil. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPM was investigated using DPPH, reducing power, β -carotene bleaching, and TBARS assays. HPLC analysis was performed to quantify the antioxidant phenolics orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid previously identified in CPM. CPM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect in the acute models, in some cases comparable to the reference drugs. Histopathological analysis showed a moderate chronic skin anti-inflammatory effect with decrease in vasodilation, edema, cell infiltration, and epidermal hyperproliferation. It also showed strong in vitro antioxidant activity. The contents of orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid were 66.5 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 0.7, and 5.4 ± 0.2 µg/mg extract, respectively. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of CPM could be based on its antioxidant properties, although other effects are probably involved, including COX inhibition and other mechanisms.

  16. Morphology of caterpillars and pupae of European Maculinea species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an identification table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliwinska, Ewa B.; Nowicki, Piotr; Nash, David Richard

    2006-01-01

    the caterpillars of these species for effective conservation. We present the morphology of the larvae and pupae of these three species, and a simple key to their identification. Inter-specific differences among larvae and pupae, and within-species differences among larval instars, are underlined in order to enable...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Beneficial Rice Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac, Gordana; Bertani, Iris; Kojic, Milan; Konrad H. Paszkiewicz; Studholme, David J.; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 is a rhizosphere-colonizing and plant growth-promoting strain isolated from the rhizosphere of rice. This strain has, however, been shown to be pathogenic in two nonmammalian infection models. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa PUPa3.

  18. Redescription of the pupa of Culex restuans and a comparison with Culex nigripalpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F; Day, Jonathan F

    2007-06-01

    The pupa of Culex restuans is redescribed in detail with a chaetotaxal table and a full illustration. The chaetotaxy of the pupa of Cx. restuans is compared with that of Cx. nigripalpus, the primary vector of St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus in Florida.

  19. Redescription of the pupa of Parabezzia balseiroi (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Redescripción de la pupa de Parabezzia balseiroi (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pupa of Parabezzia balseiroi Spinelli & Grogan was described and illustrated using binocular microscope, camera lucida and digital photographs. Pupae were captured along a stream margin in the Parque Provincial E. Tornquist Reserve, Sierra de la Ventana, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Also, additional pupae were observed, measured and photographed on the basis of the type series deposited in the Museo de La Plata. Parabezzia balseiroi is compared with P. alexanderi Wirth, which was also herein studied and photographed from Nearctic specimens.Se describe e ilustra la pupa de Parabezzia balseiroi Spinelli & Grogan, utilizando microscopio binocular, cámara clara y fotografía digital. Las pupas fueron capturadas en el margen de un arroyo en la reserva Parque Provincial E. Tornquist, Sierra de la Ventana, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Asimismo, se observaron, midieron y fotografiaron las pupas de la serie tipo depositadas en el Museo de La Plata. Se compara Parabezzia balseiroi con P. alexanderi Wirth, la cual ha sido también estudiada y fotografiada en este trabajo, sobre la base de ejemplares neárticos.

  20. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-01

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  1. Silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) are new sources of high quality protein and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Katagiri, Mitsuaki; Yamato, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the nutritional value of silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) and the content of α-glucosidase inhibitor. The percentages of total protein and lipid contents by dry weight were 55.6 and 32.2%, respectively. Silkworm pupae protein had high levels of essential amino acids such as valine, methionine and phenylalanine. The contents of essential amino acids in silkworm pupae protein satisfied the FAO/WHO/UNU suggested requirements (2007). In addition, they also possessed n-3 fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid (36.3%), as a major component. The 50% ethanol extract of silkworm pupae contained 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), which is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor. These results suggest that silkworm pupae are a new source of high quality protein, lipid, and α-glucosidase inhibitor.

  2. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.Pupa e adulto macho previamente desconhecidos de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. A pupa de Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972 foi coletada em macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae na Ilha da Marchantaria próximo a Manaus, Brasil e o adulto macho criado foi descrito, fotografado e ilustrado pela primeira vez. Esta é a primeira descrição para a pupa do gênero Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  3. A rotary drum screen with internal screw flights for Eri silkworm pupae

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    Kanjanawanishkul Kiattisin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eri silkworm pupae (Samia ricini are very interesting creatures since they can be developed as a sustainable high protein food source for human beings and animals, and their cocoons can be used for silk production. At present, Thai silk is very famous for its special qualities, whereas the requirement of pupae as food grows increasingly, in particular, canned pupae with seasoning favors. Like other food products, size uniformity is required. Therefore, in this paper, a rotary drum screen with internal screw flights was designed and constructed for separating Eri silkworm pupae into two groups with different sizes. The experiments were conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. The results show that the optimal angular speed of the screen was 20 rpm and the screw pitch value was 10 cm. These parameters resulted in the accuracy percentage of pupa screening of 94.3% and the working capacity of 8.6 kg/h.

  4. MORFOLOGÍA DE LOS FRUTIOLOS DE CECROPIA (CECROPIACEAE DEL PACÍFICO COLOMBIANO Y SU VALOR TAXONÓMICO EN EL ESTUDIO DE DIETAS DE MURCIÉLAGOS

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    Linares Edgar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La textura, junto con la forma y el color (no siempre de fácil interpretación por el ojohumano de los frutiolos son caracteres importantes en la delimitación de las especiesde Cecropia del Pacífi co Colombiano estudiadas en esta investigación. La textura dela superfi cie es el carácter más importante, ya que permite separar dos conjuntos deespecies: textura lisa característica de Cecropia bullata, C. membranacea, C. longipes,C. obtusifolia y textura ampollosa o tuberculada de C. angustifolia, C. hispidissima,C. insignis, C. peltata, C. reticulata, C. virgusa. En este grupo se pueden segregartres subgrupos:débilmente ampollosa (C. reticulata, C. virgusa, ampollosa (C.hispidissima, C. insignis, C. peltata y tuberculada (C. angustifolia. La forma y elcolor son caracteres de menor peso que la textura. A partir de la forma se pudieronorganizar los frutiolos en: ovoides (Cecropia insignis, C. reticulata; ovoideo lanceolados(C. angustifolia, C. bullata, C. virgusa; anchamente ovoides (C. longipes, C.obtusifolia; elipsoides (C. peltata, anchamente elipsoides (C. membranacea yglobosos (C. hispidissima. El color de los frutiolos es más bien constante de acuerdocon la similitud encontrada en los frutiolos de especímenes depositados en lascolecciones del Herbario Nacional Colombiano (COL y en los que se encontraronen los contenidos estomacales de los murciélagos. Los tonos pardos (pardo claros,pardo rojizos, pardo oscuros predominaron, y en un solo caso el negro con un tonorojo central (C. obtusifolia. Las especies de Cecropia y sus respectivos consumidoresfueron: Cecropia angustifolia (consumida por Artibeus jamaicensis, Cecropia peltata(encontrada en los contenidos estomacales y heces de Artibeus jamaicensis, Carolliacastanea y Carollia perspicillata, Cecropia membranacea (consumida por Artibeuslituratus, Platyrrhinus helleri, Carollia castanea y Artibeus jamaicensis y Cecropiaobtusifolia (presente en los contenidos estomacales y heces de

  5. The effect of symbiotic ant colonies on plant growth: a test using an Azteca-Cecropia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla N; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Kaminski, Lucas A; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Campos, Ricardo I

    2015-01-01

    In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry). We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ(15)N), and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area). We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ(15)N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change.

  6. The effect of symbiotic ant colonies on plant growth: a test using an Azteca-Cecropia system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla N Oliveira

    Full Text Available In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry. We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ(15N, and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area. We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ(15N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change.

  7. The Effect of Symbiotic Ant Colonies on Plant Growth: A Test Using an Azteca-Cecropia System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla N.; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Kaminski, Lucas A.; Moreira, Marcelo Z.; Campos, Ricardo I.

    2015-01-01

    In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry). We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ15N), and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area). We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ15N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change. PMID:25811369

  8. Parasitism of Helicoverpa armigera pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae by Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera is a pest that was recently detected in Brazil, which causes significant losses in various crops in different regions of the country. Biological control has been reported to offer a promising alternative in the management of this pest. Thus, this study evaluated the ability of the parasitoids Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae to parasitize pupae of H. armigera in the laboratory. H. armigera pupae were individually exposed to 15 female Trichospilus diatraeae or 15 female Tetrastichus howardi for 24 h. The pupae remained under observation until the emergence of parasitoids. Parasitism by both parasitoids was observed in 100% of the pupae. Further, 100% of Tetrastichus howardi and 90% of Trichospilus diatraeae emerged. The life cycle of Tetrastichus howardi parasitizing pupae of H. armigera was 15 ± 0.0 days, while that of Trichospilus diatraeae was 15.90 ± 0.10 days. The numbers of offspring from Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae were 669.3 ± 33.47 and 816.11 ± 89.22 per pupae, with a sex ratio of 0.91 ± 0.01 and 0.94 ± 0.01, respectively. Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae were shown to successfully parasitize H. armigera pupae in laboratory conditions, suggesting that this host could be used for rearing both parasitoids. However, further detailed studies of the host-parasitoid relationship are needed to assess the feasibility of including these parasitoids in integrated management programs of H. armigera.

  9. Silkworm pupae powder ingestion increases fat metabolism in swim-trained rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Sung Pil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Many researchers are trying to solve the metabolic syndrome by utilizing a variety of nutritional control and exercise. Of those, silkworm pupae peptides are known to inhibit the synthesis of fat. Therefore, we examine the effect of fat metabolism by supplying silkworm pupae (SP) for 5-week in swim-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into four groups as a group (n = 32) fed a normal diet (CO) with exercise training (CE); a group fed a silkworm pupa diet (SPC) with an exerci...

  10. Evaluation of potentical use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” for wood cement board manufacture

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    Vinicius Yurk da Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” wood for wood cement board manufacture. Panels with the density of 1.200 kg/m³ were made, using cement CP V ARI as mineral bonding and wood particles without treatment and treated with immersion in cold water, hot water and sodium hydroxide. The panels were pressed at the pressure of 40 kgf/cm², room temperature and press / clipping time of 24 hours and maturation time of 28 days. The evaluation of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, showed that Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” wood are technically feasible for wood-cement board manufacture. It was also found that the panels of embaúba exhibit some properties superior to those of the paricá, and the particles do not necessarily need treatment.

  11. Insights into the transcriptome of oenocytes from Aedes aegypti pupae

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    Gustavo Ferreira Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oenocytes are ectodermic cells present in the fat body of several insect species and these cells are considered to be analogous to the mammalian liver, based on their role in lipid storage, metabolism and secretion. Although oenocytes were identified over a century ago, little is known about their messenger RNA expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of Aedes aegypti oenocytes. We constructed a cDNA library from Ae. aegypti MOYO-R strain oenocytes collected from pupae and randomly sequenced 687 clones. After sequences editing and assembly, 326 high-quality contigs were generated. The most abundant transcripts identified corresponded to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, whose members have roles primarily related to detoxification and lipid metabolism. In addition, we identified 18 other transcripts with putative functions associated with lipid metabolism. One such transcript, a fatty acid synthase, is highly represented in the cDNA library of oenocytes. Moreover, oenocytes expressed several immunity-related genes and the majority of these genes were lysozymes. The transcriptional profile suggests that oenocytes play diverse roles, such as detoxification and lipid metabolism, and increase our understanding of the importance of oenocytes in Ae. aegypti homeostasis and immune competence.

  12. Constant-dose microwave irradiation of insect pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard G.

    Pupae of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor L. were subjected to microwave irradiation for 1.5-24 hours at power density levels adjusted to produce a total dosage of approximately 1123 J/g in each insect for every experiment. Insects without visible blemishes were exposed in a standing wave irradiation system such that half of them were exposed in the plane of maximum electric field (E field) and the other half were exposed in the plane of maximum magnetic field (H field). Both E field and H field insects exhibited nearly the same specific absorption rate (SAR) for pupal orientation parallel to the magnetic field vector at 5.95 GHz. Irradiations were conducted both with and without the use of a ventilating fan to control the temperature rise in the irradiation chamber. Abnormal development as a result of the microwave exposure was seen only in the high-power, short-duration experiment without chamber ventilation. This result suggests a thermal interaction mechanism for explanation of observed microwave-induced abnormalities. A study of the time course of the average temperature rise in the irradiated insects indicates that teratological effects for this configuration have a temperature threshold of approximately 40°C.

  13. Chave de identificação de pupas de Simuliidae (Diptera do sudeste do Brasil Identification key to pupae of Simuliidae (Diptera from Southeastern of Brazil

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    Leonardo H. Gil-Azevedo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentada uma chave dicotômica de identificação de pupas de Simuliidae com registro de ocorrência para o Sudeste do Brasil. Nós incluímos as 49 espécies que apresentam a pupa descrita. Na chave, além de caracteres comumente usados (e.g. número dos filamentos branquiais, forma do ápice e forma do casulo, foram usados caracteres não usuais (largura e comprimento relativos dos filamentos branquiais; disposição espacial das brânquias; proporção entre comprimento da brânquia e comprimento do casulo; presença e posição do assoalho do casulo. É possível diferenciar 70% das espécies de Simuliidae do Sudeste do Brasil usando apenas caracteres da pupa. Este estágio, muitas vezes, é o único do qual se obtém uma identificação precisa.In this work is given a dichotomic identification key to pupae of Simuliidae recorded from Southeastern Region of Brazil. We included the 49 species which already have their pupae described. In the key, besides characters commonly used (e.g. number of gill filaments, shape of apex and shape of cocoon, we used unusual characters (relative width and length of gill filaments; spacial configuration of gills; proportion of gill length to cocoon length; presence and position of cocoon floor. It is possible to recognize 70% of Simuliidae species from Southeastern Region of Brazil only using pupae characters. Often, this is the unique stage which one can access a precise identification of the species.

  14. PHOSPHATE AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON THE GROWTH OF Cecropia pachystachya (Trec SEEDLINGS FÓSFORO E INOCULAÇÃO COM FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES NO ESTABELECIMENTO DE MUDAS DE EMBAÚBA (Cecropia pachystachya Trec

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    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (FMA in different levels of P2O5 on the growth of Cecropia pachystachya seedlings in the field. The study consisted of a 5x2 factorial with five levels of P2O5 (zero, 85, 170, 255 and 340 mg.kg-1, with and ithout inoculation with a mixture of FMA. It was used four replications, each one with twelve seedlings. The seeds were sowed in plastic tubes with capacity of 50 cm3 of substratum and stored for 120 days. After this period the seedlings were transplanted to the field, where they remained for another 150 days. Seedling diameter and height were measured at 60 and 120 days, aerial part and root dry matter, and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Diameter, height, leaf area, aerial part dry matter and the number of surviving seedlings were determined after 150 days. None of the factors tested had any effect on seedling growth with one exception; inoculated plants with FMA had more root dry matter. Plants inoculated with smaller doses of P2O5 showed a larger percentage of surviving individuals and more vigorous seedlings. Results suggest that in low fertility soils of and subject to the hydric stress the C. pachystachya seedlings should be inoculated with FMA.

    KEY-WORDS: Native vegetation; mycorrhiza fungi; native species; seedling production; inoculation.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA em diferentes doses de P2O5 na formação de mudas de embaúba (Cecropia pachystachya e no seu estabelecimento em campo. O estudo constou de um experimento fatorial 5x2, sendo cinco doses de P2O5

  15. Tissue culture of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (urticaceae: vegetative micropropagation and plant regeneration from callus Cultura de tecidos de Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (Urticaceae: micropropagação vegetativa e regeneração de plantas via calos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nopper Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia glaziovii is a tree with used in Brazilian popular medicine. Methods allowing the clonal propagation of this species are of great interest for superior genotype multiplication and perpetuation. For this reason, we examined the effect of different culture media and different types of explants on adventitious shoot regeneration from callus and buds of C. glaziovii. Leaves, petioles and stipules obtained from aseptically grown seedlings or from pre-sterilized plants were used to initiate cultures. Adventitious shoot regeneration was achieved when apical and axillary buds were inoculated on gelled Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine alone (BAP (1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mg L-1 or combined with -naphthalene acetic acid (NAA (1.0 or 2.0 mg L-1, after 40 days of culture. Best callus production was obtained after 30 days of petioles' culture on gelled MS medium with 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (5.0 mg L-1 combined with BAP (1.0 mg L-1. Successful shoot regeneration from callus was achieved when MS medium supplemented with zeatin (ZEA (0.1 mg L-1 alone or combined with 2,4-D (1.0 or 5.0 mg L-1 was inoculated with friable callus obtained from petioles. All shoots were rooted by inoculation on MS medium supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (1.0 mg L-1. Rooted plants transferred to potting soil were successfully established. All in vitro regenerated plantlets showed to be normal, without morphological variations, being also identical to the source plant. Our study has shown that C. glaziovii can be propagated by tissue culture methods, allowing large scale multiplication of superior plants for pharmacological purposes.Cecropia glaziovii é uma planta lenhosa, popularmente usada no Brasil como medicinal. Métodos que visem a sua propagação clonal podem ser de grande utilidade na preservação de seus genótipos de elite. Foram examinados efeitos de diferentes reguladores de crescimento e explantes na forma

  16. Description of Himalayan mosquito pupae III. Ochlerotatus gubernatoris and Ochlerotatus unicinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F

    2011-12-01

    The pupae of Ochlerotatus gubernatoris and Oc. unicinctus are described and illustrated for the first time. They were collected in the Himalaya Mountains of Nepal during field trips to the region. Both breed in natural and artificial containers.

  17. Redescription of the pupa of Culex salinarius Coquillett and comparison with Culex nigripalpus Theobald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F; Day, Jonathan F

    2006-09-01

    The pupa of Culex salinarius is redescribed with updated chaetotaxal nomenclature and a full illustration. The pupal chaetotaxy of Cx. salinarius and the similar species Culex nigripalpus is compared.

  18. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  19. Parasitism of Helicoverpa armigera pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira; Juliana Simonato; Daniele Fabiana Glaeser; Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a pest that was recently detected in Brazil, which causes significant losses in various crops in different regions of the country. Biological control has been reported to offer a promising alternative in the management of this pest. Thus, this study evaluated the ability of the parasitoids Tetrastichus howardi and Trichospilus diatraeae to parasitize pupae of H. armigera in the laboratory. H. armigera pupae were individually exposed to 15 female Trichospilus diatraeae ...

  20. Pengaruh Beberapa Ukuran Pupa Penggerek Batang Tebu Terhadap Jumlah Populasi Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Julian Simatupang, “The effect of Pupae Size of Sugarcane Stem Borer on The Tetrastichus sp. Population (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) in Laboratory”, supervised by Ir. Syahrial Oemry, MS. and Ir. Fatimah Zahara. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of some pupae size of sugarcane stem borer on the Tetrastichus sp. population (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) in Laboratory. The research was held at Laboratory of Sugarcane Research and Development Sei Semayang, Binjai...

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  2. Developmental Threshold Temperature and Effective Accumulative Temperature of Pupae and Eggs of Holcocerus hippophaecolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Shixiang; Luo Youqing; Wang Tao; Xu Zhichun; Lu Changkuan

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the occurrence and the developmental regularity of seabuckthorn carpenterworm (Holcocerus hippophaecolus) and predict its population density, the developmental threshold temperature (C) and effective accumulative temperature (K) of the carpenterworm pupae and eggs were analyzed under the conditions of constant and variable temperatures. The results show that the values of C and K of the carpenterworm pupae are (12.1 ± 0.2) °C and (295.2 ± 4.1) day-degrees at constant temperatures, and (15.5 ± 0.4) °C and (202.4 ± 13.1) day-degrees at variable temperatures. However, the values of C and K of the eggs at variable temperatures are (16.7 ± 0.8) °C and (101.5 ± 12.6) day-degrees. The differences of developmental threshold and effective accumulative temperature under the conditions of constant and variable temperatures of the carpenterworm pupae accord with the developmental regularity of most insects in nature. By comparing five different constant temperatures, the conclusion is that the optimum developmental temperature of the pupae is 21 °C when both the pupation of the mature larvae and the eclosion of the pupae are very accordant. Moreover, the percentage of eclosion is over 90%. The average developmental durations of the carpenterworm pupae and eggs are 31 and 16 d at variable temperatures.

  3. Frugivoria de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae e seus efeitos na germinação das sementes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therys Midori Sato

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos frugívoros são componentes fundamentais na manutenção e regeneração de florestas tropicais, pois ao se alimentarem, promovem a mobilidade das sementes dos frutos em que se alimentaram. Muito se discute sobre os efeitos da passagem das sementes no trato digestivo dos morcegos sobre a taxa e velocidade de germinação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros na Estação Experimental de Itirapina para descobrir quais utilizam significativamente os frutos de Cecropia pachystachya. Foi testada a importância dos quirópteros na dispersão e germinação desta espécie de planta. Para isso, os morcegos foram capturados no período de agosto de 2005 a julho de 2006, suas fezes foram recolhidas e as sementes de C. pachystachya separadas. Os testes de germinação foram feitos para duas espécies de morcegos, Artibeus liuratus e Platyrrhinus lineatus, e suas taxas de germinação comparadas com amostras de sementes coletadas da planta (controle. Foram feitos cinco repetições com 30 sementes em cada gerbox para cada teste. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras germinadoras " Mangelsdorf" , com temperatura de 25°C, luminosidade e umidade constante por 40 dias. Houve uma alta porcentagem de germinação das sementes encontradas em A. lituratus (79,3% e não diferiu estatisticamente das sementes controle (76%. Esses resultados foram superiores a P. lineatus (52%. Em relação ao Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, esse resultado foi semelhante, sendo 2,73 para A. lituratus, 2,66 para o controle e 1,80 para P. lineatus. Com esse resultado, tem-se que a passagem das sementes de C. pachystachya pelos morcegos não aumentou a porcentagem, nem a velocidade de germinação delas, quando comparado com o controle, sendo até menor para P. lineatus. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que, o efeito da passagem do trato digestivo dos morcegos na germinação pode sofrer influências que

  4. PENGGUNAAN METODE SURVEI PUPA UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI RISIKO PENULARAN DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI LIMA WILAYAH ENDEMIS DI DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Shinta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Demam berdarah dengue (DBD adalah salah satu masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Untuk saat ini, belum ada obat atau vaksin untuk mencegah DBD. Oleh karena itu pencegahan dan pengendalian vektor menjadi sangat penting. Indikator yang digunakan untuk melakukan surveilans dalam pengawasan kepadatan populasi Ae. aegypti dan memprediksi risiko penularan adalah pupa indeks. Pupa indeks digunakan untuk mengukur HPI, CPI, pupa/orang, pupa/rumah, dan pupa/ kontainer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui habitat reproduksi terbesar, kepadatan penduduk dan persentase pupa di lima kecamatan di DKI Jakarta yaitu Johar Baru (Jakarta Pusat, Tanjung Priok (Jakarta Utara, Kramat Jati (Jakarta Timur, Kebun Jeruk (Jakarta Barat, dan Cilandak (Jakarta Selatan. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dengan teknik stratified random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan habitat pupa Ae. Aegypti, yaitu kontainer air (bak mandi, bak WC, drum, tempayan, bak wudhu, dan bak tandu, wadah air  tidak permanen (barang bekas, bekas sumur, vas/pot bunga, kolam/akuarium, tempat minum unggas, tatakan dispenser, wastafel dan bath tube, habitat alami (potongan bambu dan pelepah daun. Nilai rata-rata indeks pupa di lima wilayah penelitian adalah CPI = 8,45%; HPI = 23,98%; pupa/orang = 0,65; pupa/rumah = 3,58; dan pupa/kontainer = 0,96. Ada konsistensi nomor indeks di semua wilayah penelitian;  Jika indeks HPI tinggi, indeks pupa lainnya akan tinggi juga. Kata kunci: Aedes aegypti, pupa indeks, DBD Abstract Dengue fever is one of the most concerning health problems in Indonesia. For this time, there are merely no known medicines or vaccines to prevent this disease from manifesting. Rigorous studies are still conducted intensively.  Hence, vector prevention and control efforts become very important. Indicator used here to conduct surveillance, measure Ae.aegypti population density and predict transmission risk was pupa index. Pupa index was used to measure HPI, CPI

  5. Avaliação do potencial de utilização da madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" e Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" para produção de painéis aglomerados Evaluation of potential use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" and Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" to particleboard manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba para produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,70 g/cm³, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído e partículas de madeira de Paricá e Embaúba, e mistura destas, em proporções de 75, 50 e 25%. A madeira de Pinus taeda foi utilizada como testemunha. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 40 kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos. Os resultados das avaliações de propriedades de absorção de água, inchamento em espessura, ligação interna, módulo de elasticidade e módulo de ruptura, indicaram que as madeiras de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba são tecnicamente viáveis para produção de painéis aglomerados.This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of the woods Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá and Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba for manufacturing particleboard. Were made panels with the densities of 0.70 g/cm³, using mixtures of urea-formaldehyde resin and wood particles of Paricá and Embaúba, in proportions of 75, 50 and 25%. The Pinus taeda wood was used as the reference. The panels were pressed at the temperature of 160ºC, pressure of 40 kgf/cm², for 8 minutes. The evaluations of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of ruptures, showed that the woods of Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba are technically feasible for particleboard manufacture.

  6. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: fanniidae no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae, no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae is reported. Pupae of F. pusio were collected in traps using human feces to attract the adults. Ten pupae were obtained, of which two were parasitized by S. nigroaenea, thus demonstrating a parasitism rate of 20.0%.

  7. Primeiro relato de Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: pteromalidae) em pupas de fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: fanniidae) no Brasil First report of Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori; Vanessa Alves Alvarenga

    2008-01-01

    Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) em pupas de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae), no Brasil. Pupas de F. pusio foram coletadas em armadilhas utilizando-se fezes humanas como atrativo para os adultos. Obtiveram-se 10 pupas, das quais duas estavam parasitadas por S. nigroaenea, verificando-se uma porcentagem de parasitismo de 20,0%.The first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid Spalangia nigroaenea Cur...

  8. Spatial distribution of Holcocerus hippophaecolus (Lepidopetera: Cossidae) pupae in a seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) stand.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seabuckthorn carpenter moth,Holcocerus hippophaecolus,which has a generation time of four years,is recently becoming one of the major pests of the seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) in Inner Mongolia,Liaoning,Shanxi,Ningxia and Shaanxi of China (Hua et al.,1990).The larvae of the H.hippophaecolus mainly damage the stems and roots of the seabuckthorn,and the mature larvae pupate in the soil.The spatial distribution of the pupae was analyzed by using biostatistics and geostatistics in order to effectively control the insect and further study the spatial distribution of the population.Results show that most of the pupae (90%) had an eclosion time span from early June to the end of July.The sex ratio of the pupae was nearly 1:1 in the woodland samples.In addition,24.3% of the 971 trees investigated had pupae and it ranged from 0 to 4 per tree within a distance of 1.3 m from the base of the stem.90% of the pupae were aggregated within a distance of 1 m from the base of the stem.The pupae show intense spatial aggregation in the sampled woodland which had an 11.1 m spatial dependence and a 90.7% intensity in the local spatial continuity.Moreover,the population presented an intensive spotted distribution and many aggregated spots were found in the woodlands.As for the relationship between grid size and variogram of the pupae,the variations in the range,the intensity of local spatial continuity and the sill were all very low or non-existent when the grid size was 5 m,6 m or 7 m.Whereas,the value of the decisive coefficient was the biggest when the grid size was 5 m making it the ideal grid size.

  9. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae mobile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Williams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

  10. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J; Hodgson, Chris J

    2013-12-17

    It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

  11. PupasView: a visual tool for selecting suitable SNPs, with putative pathological effect in genes, for genotyping purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Lucía; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; de la Cruz, Xavier; Orozco, Modesto; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a web tool, PupasView, for the selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with potential phenotypic effect. PupasView constitutes an interactive environment in which functional information and population frequency data can be used as sequential filters over linkage disequilibrium parameters to obtain a final list of SNPs optimal for genotyping purposes. PupasView is the first resource that integrates phenotypic effects caused by SNPs at both the translational and th...

  12. Effect of extracted housefly pupae peptide mixture on chilled pork preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng; Dang, Xiangli; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Wenqing

    2010-08-01

    The peptide mixture from housefly pupae has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. In this study, the preservation effects of a housefly pupae peptide mixture, nisin, and sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-S) on the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH value of chilled pork were compared. All results showed that a good preservation effect was observed among 3 treatments with the peptide mixture of housefly pupae, nisin, and DHA-S and that there was no significant difference among them. These results indicate that housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative. The results of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the primary mechanism of housefly pupae peptide mixture may be bacterial cytoplasmic membrane lysis and pores induced in the membranes. Practical Applications: Peptide mixture extracted from housefly pupae using low-cost and simple method has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. According to the effect on chilled pork preservation, extracted housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative.

  13. Parasitism and biological aspects of Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae on Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Hidalgo Barbosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Erinnyis ello is one of the main pests of the cassava crop, and its natural enemies including egg, caterpillar, and pupal parasitoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate parasitism and biological aspects of Tetrastichus howardi on E. ello pupae. In general, parasitism and emergence of T. howardi on E. ello pupae was 64%. Cycle duration (egg to adult of T. howardi on E. ello pupae was of 20.12±0.15 days at 25±2°C, 70±10% relative humidity, and 14-h photophase. The progeny of T. howardi by E. ello pupae was of 466±0.44. Longevity of T. howardi females and males was of 15±0.57 and 12±0.93 days, respectively. The sex ratio was of 0.95±0.06, and the ratio of females per female was 44±0.45. T. howardi parasite and develops on E. ello pupae.

  14. [Effects of venom from Sclerodermus sichuanensis Xiao on pupa of Tenebrio molitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Qin, Huan; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua; Xu, Dan-Ping

    2013-11-01

    To explore the regulatory mechanisms of parasitism of Sclerodermus sichuanensis on Tenebrio molitor, the methods of natural parasitism and venom injection were adopted to investigate the effects of the venom from S. sichuanensis on the pupa of T. molitor in the parasitic process. Under venom injection, the paralytic degree of the pupa had a positive correlation with the concentration of injected venom, and the number of recovered pupa had a negative correlation with the injected venom concentration. The T. molitor pupa was in slight and reversible paralysis when injected with 0.01 VRE (venom reservoir equivalent) of venom, and in non-reversible and complete paralysis when 0.2 VRE was injected. The pupa died massively and appeared a wide range of melanization when injected with soil bacterial suspension alone, but the melanization delayed and the mortality declined significantly when the mixed liquor of bacterium and venom was injected. The bacteriostasis of the venom on Staphylococcus aureus was significantly stronger than that on Escherichia coli. Within a definite range of temperature, the paralytic activity decreased significantly with increasing temperature, the bacteriostasis on S. aureus increased significantly, while that on E. coli was opposite. This study showed that the venom from S. sichuanensis had the effects of paralysis, bacteriostasis, inhibiting exuviations, and delaying melanization.

  15. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species.

  16. Fly pupae and puparia as potential contaminants of forensic entomology samples from sites of body discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A; Briggs, C A; Ranson, D L

    2006-11-01

    Fly pupae and puparia may contaminate forensic entomology samples at death scenes if they have originated not from human remains but from animal carcasses or other decomposing organic material. These contaminants may erroneously lengthen post-mortem interval estimates if no pupae or puparia are genuinely associated with the body. Three forensic entomology case studies are presented, in which contamination either occurred or was suspected. In the first case, blow fly puparia collected near the body were detected as contaminants because the species was inactive both when the body was found and when the deceased was last sighted reliably. The second case illustrates that contamination may be suspected at particularly squalid death scenes because of the likely presence of carcasses or organic material. The third case involves the presence at the body discovery site of numerous potentially contaminating animal carcasses. Soil samples were taken along transects to show that pupae and puparia were clustered around their probable sources.

  17. Hemocytes and Enzyme-based Route to Evaluate the Impact of Seed Cocoons Preservation Conditions on Antheraea mylitta Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury DABA-ecorace is commercially exploited in India for tasar silk production. Generally, its cocoons used to preserve in outdoor and indoor conditions. But in recent past, due to global warming, tasar silk zone day time temperature (May-June shoots up and it goes up to 35 to 45C or even more. It cause adverse impact on the survival of tasar silkworm pupae and invite heavy loss to the tasar silk industry. In the present study, hemocyte and enzyme-based methods have been used to evaluate the impact of outdoor and indoor seed cocoon preservation on A. mylitta pupae. Interestingly, differences in Total Hemocyte Count (THC, hemocyte contour/morphology, protein concentration, fat body and hemolymph acid phosphatase (Acp activity of outdoor and indoor preserved pupae have been observed. Marked variation in THC was observed among high, low and median weight pupae. Although, no significant variation was observed in THC of indoor and outdoor preserved female pupae but significant difference was found in male pupae of both the preservation conditions. Differential profile of hemocytes was differing in outdoor and indoor conditions with change in cell-contour. Elevation in immune cell plasmatocytes (PLs numbers was recorded in indoor preserved cocoon. Acp activity in fat body of indoor preserved pupae was higher than outdoor but reverse trend was found in hemolymph. Activity profile Acp vary in male and female with higher, lower and median weight pupae. Protein concentration in hemolymph of outdoor preserved pupae was more in comparison to indoor but this trend was found usually reverse in fat body. In addition, less protein concentration was recorded in fat body and hemolymph of male pupae in contrast to female. It is expected that, based on hemocyte and enzyme-based method impact of cocoon preservation conditions on A. mylitta pupae can be evaluated/observed.

  18. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  19. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Live and Freeze-killed House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine if the reduced suitability of freeze-killed pupae for Pteromalidae, particularly Spalangia cameroni Perkins, is due to freezing, freezing duration or the type of freezer utilized. Processing pupae through freezing had a considerably greater negative effect on ...

  20. Does Tribolium brevicornis cuticular chemistry deter cannibalism and predation of pupae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, T; Dean, J; Michaud, J P; Verheggen, F; Lognay, G; Haubruge, E

    2011-01-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of insects are species-specific and often function as semiochemicals. The activity of Tribolium brevicornis cuticular hydrocarbons as feeding deterrents that ostensibly function to prevent pupal cannibalism and predation was evaluated. The cuticular hydrocarbons of T. brevicornis pupae were characterized and flour disk bioassays conducted with individual and combined extract components incorporated into artificial diets on which Tribolium adults fed for six days. Feeding by T. brevicornis and T. castaneum on flour disks containing cuticular extracts of T. brevicornis pupae resulted in reduced consumption and weight loss relative to feeding on control flour disks. In both cases, feeding deterrence indices exceeded 80% suggesting that T. brevicornis cuticular hydrocarbons could function to deter cannibalism and predation of pupae by larvae and adult beetles. Sixteen different cuticular hydrocarbons were identified in T. brevicornis pupal extracts. Eight of the commercially available linear alkanes were tested individually in feeding trials with eight Tribolium species. One compound (C28) significantly reduced the amount of food consumed by three species compared to control disks, whereas the compounds C25, C26, and C27 elicited increased feeding in some species. Four other compounds had no effect on consumption for any species. When four hydrocarbon mixtures were tested for synergistic deterrence on T. brevicornis and T. castaneum, none significantly influenced consumption. Our results indicate that the cuticular chemistry of T. brevicornis pupae could serve to deter predation by conspecific and congeneric beetles.

  1. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imperiled frosted elfin butterfly, Callophrys irus Godart, is restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where its larval host plants, Lupinus perennis L. and Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. occur. C. irus pupae are noted to reside in both leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape dir...

  2. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Thom

    Full Text Available Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  3. Description of Himalayan mosquito pupae III, Ochlerotatus albolateralis and Ochlerotatus deccanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, Richard F

    2012-03-01

    The pupae of Ochlerotatus albolateralis and Oc. deccanus are described and illustrated for the first time from specimens collected in the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal, breeding in tree holes and bamboo stumps. Chaetotaxal tables and illustrations show the morphology of their setae. Characters to recognize each species are explained.

  4. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Matthew D; Daniels, Jaret C; Kobziar, Leda N; Colburn, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  5. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA (Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931 PUPAE TO ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Razinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, Diptera, Drosophilidae management is difficult mainly because of its short generation time, polyphagy and serrated ovipositor, but also because its larvae can pupate in the orchard soil and are thus protected from insecticide applications. We hypothesized that insect-pathogenic soil fungi could successfully infect Drosophila suzukii pupae in soil environment. We tested several entomopathogenic or soil fungi against pupae in a conidia-spiked soil, b via direct applications of conidia, and c by dipping pupae into conidial suspensions. Metarhizium brunneum Petch strain H.J.S. 1154 significantly reduced fly emergence in conidia spiked soil and bioinsecticide Naturalis (based on entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill. in direct exposure tests. Our attempt to determine IC50 of pupal hatching rate by dipping D. suzukii pupae into conidial suspensions was unsuccessful. We conclude that the pupal stage is probably too brief to allow entomopathogens to cause a significant reduction of fly emergence. According to our results and published articles, the fungal biocontrol potential would probably best be evaluated in spray applications against adult flies.

  6. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa

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    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a seletividade de dezenove agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa em condições laboratoriais (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas. Os agrotóxicos foram pulverizados diretamente sobre ovos e pupas por meio de uma torre de Potter, utilizando a máxima dosagem recomendada para a cultura do pessegueiro. Foi avaliada a viabilidade de ovos e pupas, além da fecundidade e fertilidade de adultos emergidos de pupas tratadas. Os agrotóxicos foram classificados para ovos em função da redução na eclosão e, para pupas, em função do efeito total, conforme a escala de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC. A maioria dos agrotóxicos avaliados (8 inseticidas, 8 fungicidas e 2 herbicidas se mostrou inócua (classe 1 a ovos e pupas, com redução na eclosão de larvas e efeito total em pupas inferiores a 30%. A exceção se deu para o inseticida óleo mineral, que reduziu a eclosão de larvas em 69,55% quando pulverizado em ovos e proporcionou efeito total em pupas de 36,22%, sendo classificado como levemente nocivo (classe 2 a ovos e pupas de C. externa

  7. GROWTH OF POULTRY CHICKS FED ON FORMULATED FEED CONTAINING SILK WORM PUPAE MEAL AS PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT AND COMMERCIAL DIET

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    A. DUTTA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste silkworm pupae (SWP generate vast resources of nutrients for livestock and poultry. In the present investigation, three days old chicks of RIR strain were allocated to five dietary treatments of silk worm pupae meal. The energy budget was prepared from calculated proximate analysis and growth performance of broiler chicks fed with different percentages of silk worm pupae. The result showed that the silkworm powder meal (SWPM is the cheapest and has potential to replace the costly and contaminated fish meal, as the protein source, used in poultry industry.

  8. The respiration rate of the beet armyworm pupae (Spodoptera exigua) after multi-generation intoxication with cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramarz, Paulina; Kafel, Alina

    2003-11-01

    Zinc, but not cadmium, increased the respiration rate of pupae. - The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) were fed on artificial food contaminated with zinc (200 mg kg{sup -1} dry mass) or cadmium (66 mg kg{sup -1} dry mass) for 15 generations. In 15th generation, O{sub 2} output and CO{sub 2} production of pupae were measured. Exposure to cadmium did not cause any effects whilst exposure to zinc led to a significant increase in the respiration rate of pupae. The average respiratory quotient (RQ) did not differ between treatments (ca. 0.7)

  9. Larva de quinto estádio e pupa de Dasyophthalma rusina rusina (Godart (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae Fifth larval instar and pupa of Dasyophthalma rusina rusina (Godart. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae

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    Mirna M. Casagrande

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of the fifth larval instar and pupa of Dasyophthalma rusina rusina (Godart, [1824] from material reared in southern Brasil are described and illustrated. The larva feed on leaves of Geonoma schottiana Martius (Arecaceae.

  10. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver.

  11. BLACK FLY (DIPTERA: SIMULIIDAE PUPAE MICROHABITAT CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ITATIAIA NATIONAL PARK, BRAZIL

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    Isabella Cristina Campos-de-Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia localizado no estado do Rio de Janeiro e teve como objetivo determinar os padrões de preferência de habitat e micro-habitat de pupas de Simuliidae. As coletas foram realizadas em quatro sítios no Parque, sendo medidos pH, luminosidade, condutividade e temperatura da água. As pupas foram identificadas e quantificadas em laboratório e seus padrões de preferência de microhabitat foram determinados por meio de análise de correspondência canônica (CCA, enquanto suas comunidades comparadas quanto às similaridades entre si por meio de um escalonamento métrico não dimensional (NMDS.

  12. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Maria M. RONDEROS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  13. Quality of Sterile Male Tsetse after Long Distance Transport as Chilled, Irradiated Pupae.

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    Momar Talla Seck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness and livestock (nagana. An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts.Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group. To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding. Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group. The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters.The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  14. Utilisation of multiple queens and pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth of weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius) have been increasingly used as biocontrol agents of insect pests and as insect protein for human food and animals. For either of these purposes, mature ant colonies are essential. However, for a newly established colony to develop to a suitable mature...... size takes 3 years, which is too long. Multiple queens and non-nestmate pupae transplantation may be the way to boost early colony growth. An experiment on newly founded O. smaragdina colonies with 2, 3 and 4 founding queens together with transplantation of 0, 30 and 60 non-nestmate pupae from a mature...... donor colony was conducted in 2010 at Darwin, Australia. The survival rates of the imago workers from transplanted pupae ranged between 73 - 97%, suggesting that queens in incipient colonies accepted foreign pupae. Colony size was positively related to the number of founding queens. Compared...

  15. Aestivation and diapause syndromes reduce the water balance requirements for pupae of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the water balance of aestivating (summer), diapausing (winter), and non-diapausing pupae of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Maintaining water requirements during pupal dormancy is particularly important because water cannot be replenished actively by drink...

  16. Interactions between pupae of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) and parasitoids in a Pinus forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, C P; Manti, F; Castiglione, E

    2015-10-01

    Parasitoids are significant enemies of many economically important insects and there is some evidence to suggest that their actions have a role in terminating the outbreaks of forest Lepidoptera populations. In this study, we examined the impact of parasitoids on the pupae of the pine processionary moth, and highlighted the presence of several parasitoid species for this developmental stage. A higher rate of parasitism was found when the pupal density in the soil was reduced, but the rate of parasitism was not influenced by pupal morphological traits or by the presence or absence of a cocoon around a pupa. Of the external factors examined, a delay in the time of descent of larvae from the trees had a positive effect on the level of parasitism. Observational data indicated that dipteran and hymenopteran were the most abundant parasitoids to emerge from moth pupae. Our study highlights the complexity of the parasitoid-host dynamics, and stresses the importance of carefully determining environmental effects on host-parasitoid relations.

  17. The vortex wake of the free-swimming larva and pupa of Culex pipiens (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbury, J

    2001-06-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of free-swimming pupal and larval (final-instar) culicids were investigated using videography and a simple wake-visualisation technique (dyes). In both cases, swimming is based on a technique of high-amplitude, side-to-side (larva) or up-and-down (pupa) bending of the body. The pupa possesses a pair of plate-like abdominal paddles; the larval abdominal paddle consists of a fan of closely spaced bristles which, at the Reynolds numbers involved, behaves like a continuous surface. Wake visualisation showed that each half-stroke of the swimming cycle produces a discrete ring vortex that is convected away from the body. Consecutive vortices are produced first to one side then to the other of the mean swimming path, the convection axis being inclined at approximately 25 degrees away from dead aft. Pupal and larval culicids therefore resemble fish in using the momentum injected into the water to generate thrust. Preliminary calculations for the pupa suggest that each vortex contains sufficient momentum to account for that added to the body with each half-stroke. The possibility is discussed that the side-to-side flexural technique may allow an interaction between body and tail flows in the production of vorticity.

  18. Morphology and Ecological Notes on the Larvae and Pupae of Simulium (Simulium from Korea

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    Sam-Kyu Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of larvae and pupae of twelve species of Simulium (Simulium from Korea are investigated and redescribed. Detailed descriptions of immature stages of each species are provided with photographs. For the Korean members of subgenus Simulium, combinations of the following characteristics can be used to separate them from other Korean subgenera: larval abdomen without a pair of conical-shaped ventral tubercles; postgenal cleft variously shaped, viz., miter shaped, spearhead, bullet shaped or triangular; rectal papillae 3 simple lobe or compound lobes; pupal gill of 6-16 filaments; cocoon shoe, boot or slipper shaped; and head trichomes 3 pairs (1 facial+2 frontal. Habitat information and other ecological aspects of each species are provided. Updated keys to larvae and pupae of the Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are also provided to facilitate species identification. Taxonomic treatment based on external morphologies of larvae and pupae of Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are focused and included in this study. To understand their interspecific relationships, phylogenetic analyses using multiple data from molecule, morphology, and ecology are warranted in future research. Also continued exploration for new character systems is needed to establish more stable boundaries for subgenus and species delimitations.

  19. Nutritional Value of Pupae Versus Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as Food for Rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe; Shelby, Kent S; Coudron, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    Life-table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate that Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are potentially more suitable factitious prey to mass-produce the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more suitable prey than the larvae. P. maculiventris developed faster (23.2 vs. 25.5 d), weighed more (females 80.9 vs. 66.6 mg and males 64.7 vs. 53.7 mg), and had a higher survival rate (0.88 vs. 0.7), fecundity, and reproductive output (87.1 vs. 22.8 eggs/female) when reared on pupae compared with larvae of T. molitor. The total protein content and soluble protein content were significantly higher in pupae (60.2 and 23%, respectively) than larvae (53.1 and 14.4%, respectively). Lipid content was significantly lower in pupae (32.1%) than larvae (35.9%), and larvae had more polyunsaturated fatty acids (83.6 vs. 56.6 mg/g) and less oleic (0.1 mg/g) and steric (6.1 mg/g) acids than pupae (37.3 and 12.3 mg/g, respectively). The total sugar content was not significantly different between pupae and larvae. However, larvae had significantly more fructose than pupae, but pupae had more galactose, glucosamine, glucose, mannose, and trehalose than larvae. Differences in nutritional composition and its impact on predator demographic parameters are potential factors that make the pupal stage a better food source.

  20. The large-scale production of an artificial influenza virus-like particle vaccine in silkworm pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerome, Kuniaki; Sugita, Shigeo; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Hirose, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Sayaka; Majima, Kei; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shibata, Toshikatsu; Poetri, Okti Nadia; Soejoedono, Retno D; Mayasari, Ni L P Ika; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Nerome, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    We successfully established a mass production system for an influenza virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine using a synthetic H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene codon-optimized for the silkworm. A recombinant baculovirus containing the synthetic gene was inoculated into silkworm pupae. Four days after inoculation, the hemagglutination titer in homogenates from infected pupae reached a mean value of 0.8 million hemagglutination units (HAU), approximately 2,000 μg HA protein per pupa, more than 50-fold higher than that produced with an embryonated chicken egg. VLPs ranging from 30 nm to 300 nm in diameter and covered with a large number of spikes were detected in the homogenates. The spikes were approximately 14 nm long, similar to an authentic influenza HA spike. Detailed electron micrographs indicated that the VLP spike density was similar to that of authentic influenza virus particles. The results clearly show that the expression of a single HA gene can efficiently produce VLPs in silkworm pupae. When chickens were immunized with the pupae homogenate, the hemagglutination inhibition titer in their sera reached values of 2,048-8,192 after approximately 1 month. This is the first report demonstrating that a large amount of VLP vaccine could be produced by single synthetic HA gene in silkworm pupae. Our system might be useful for future vaccine development against other viral diseases.

  1. Preferência de Palmistichus elaeisis por pupas de diferentes lepidópteros praga Preference of Palmistichus elaeisis for pupae of some lepidopterous pests

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    Maria Aparecida Leão Bittencourt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hym., Eulophidae, uma espécie de endoparasitóide foi coletado em pupas de Sabulodes sp. (Lep., Geometridae, em área de eucalipto. Foram testadas quatro espécies de lepidópteros-praga: Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Crambidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781 e Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Noctuidae, com o objetivo de estudar a preferência para oviposição, visando a criação massal do parasitóide. Os resultados mostraram que a porcentagem de parasitismo variou de 90% (H. virescens a 100%. Em D. saccharalis, o parasitóide P. elaeisis apresentou a maior razão sexual (0,98 e em H. virescens a menor (0,69. A espécie de hospedeiro influenciou significativamente o tamanho dos machos de P. elaeisis (1,64 mm em S. frugiperda e 1,49 mm em H. virescens, mas não o das fêmeas. O sexo do hospedeiro é importante no total de parasitóides produzidos, enquanto que as espécies do hospedeiro não interferiram no total de parasitóides produzidos.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hym.: Eulophidae was found parasitizing pupae of Sabulodes sp. (Lep.: Geometridae in an Eucalyptus plantation. To study the preference of this parasitoid for pupae of other lepidopteran pests, an experiment was conducted testing the following Lepidoptera species: Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Crambidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781 and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Noctuidae. The percentage of parasitism ranged from 90% (H. virescens to 100%. The highest value for the parasitoid sexual ratio was 0.98 for D. saccharalis, and the lowest was 0.69 for H. virescens. The host species significantly affected the size of P. elaeisis males (1.64 mm in S. frugiperda and 1.49 mm in H. virescens, and not that of females. The sex of the host had significant effect on the total number of parasitoids

  2. Nest structure and occurrence of three species of Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae in non-floodable and floodable pantanal areas Arquitetura de ninho e ocorrência de três espécies de Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae em ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro S. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Cecropia pachystachya trees were examined in non-floodable and floodable areas to investigate the association between C. pachystachya and Azteca ants in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The species Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica, and Azteca alfari were found nesting inside domatia of C. pachystachya. A. ovaticeps was the most frequent species in the trees in the floodable area, while A. isthmica and A. alfari, in the non-floodable area. A. ovaticeps and A. isthmica maintained more entrance/exit holes in comparison to A. alfari. All Azteca species maintained entrance/exit holes in the closest domatia to the apical area of the branch, due to proximity to Müllerian and pearl bodies, suggesting that these species of Azteca were influenced by their environment during evolution and became specialized. All internodal septa of each examined branch were perforated by ants, indicating the branches were inhabited by a single colony.Foram analisadas 30 plantas de Cecropia pachystachya em cada ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar a associação entre formigas Azteca e C. pachystachya. Foram encontradas as espécies Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica e Azteca alfari nidificando nas domáceas da planta. A. ovaticeps foi mais frequente em plantas de área alagável, enquanto A. isthmica e A. alfari em plantas em área não alagável. A. ovaticeps e A. isthmica apresentaram maior quantidade de orifícios de entrada/saída em relação à A. alfari e todas as espécies mantêm próximo da região apical do ramo, orifícios de entrada/saída nas domáceas, devido à proximidade com os corpúsculos müellerianos e pérola. Isto é, essas espécies de Azteca especializaram-se ao longo da evolução influenciadas pelo ambientes. Todos os septos internodais de cada ramo analisados apresentaram-se perfurados pelas formigas, sugerindo que os mesmos são habitados por uma única colônia.

  3. Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae = Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Anghinoni Bocchese

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Osmorcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceirodividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quandocomparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espéciefrugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmenteem áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experimentbeing divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The

  4. Hymenopterous parasitoids attacking Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae in Kohgiluyeh Safflower farms of Iran

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    K. Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Safflower capsule fly (SCF, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae is the most destructive insect pest attacking the Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. plant which are cultivated as an oil crop. It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an integrated pest management program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem. Therefore, in this research work the pupal parasitoids of Safflower capsule fly a main insect pest attacking Safflower plants were identified. The impact of these parasitoids against this pest was evaluated on the varying pest generations and within different locations in Kohgiluyeh province during 2008-2009 seasons. Pupal parasitoid adults of SCF were recorded from fieldreared pupae, which had been collected from heavily infested small flower heads of the first generation as well from large flower heads of the second and third generations. Rate of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten hymenopterous species belonging to different families parasitizing insect pupae were screened as follows: Bracon hebetor (Spinola, 1808 and Bracon luteator (Spinola, 1808 (Braconidae; Isocolus tinctorious (Melika and Gharaei, 2006 (Cynipidae; Pronotalia carlinarum (Szelenyi and Erdos, 1951 (Eulophidae; Eurytoma acroptilae (Zerova, 1986 (Eurytomidae; Ormyrus orientalis (Walker, 1871 (Ormyridae; Colotrechnus viridis (Masi, 1921 and Pteromalus sp. (Walker, 1976 (Pteromalidae; and Antistrophoplex conthurnatus (Zerova, 2000 and Microdontomenus annulatus (Masi, 1899 (Torymidae. The average parasitization rate was 23±1 as revealed through the present study. The highest parasitization rate occurred during the first generation in all localities tested, as well as in years. Statistical

  5. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani.

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    Jia-Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Host and parasitoid interaction is one of the most fascinating relationships of insects, which is currently receiving an increasing interest. Understanding the mechanisms evolved by the parasitoids to evade or suppress the host immune system is important for dissecting this interaction, while it was still poorly known. In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T. molitor pupae was sequenced with focus on immune-related gene, and the non-parasitized and parasitized T. molitor pupae were analyzed by digital gene expression (DGE analysis with special emphasis on parasitoid-induced immune-related genes using Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a single run, 264,698 raw reads were obtained. De novo assembly generated 71,514 unigenes with mean length of 424 bp. Of those unigenes, 37,373 (52.26% showed similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Via analysis of the transcriptome data in depth, 430 unigenes related to immunity were identified. DGE analysis revealed that parasitization by S. guani had considerable impacts on the transcriptome profile of T. molitor pupae, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 3,431 parasitism-responsive transcripts. The expression of a total of 74 unigenes involved in immune response of T. molitor was significantly altered after parasitization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: obtained T. molitor transcriptome, in addition to establishing a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics, has allowed the discovery of a large group of immune genes that might provide a meaningful framework to better understand the immune response in this species and other beetles. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive T. molitor immune gene expression information at the transcriptional level following parasitization, and sheds valuable light on the molecular

  6. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de pupas de Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Espécies de Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 são encontradas em corpos em decomposição, usualmente nas fases fresca, inchamento e murcha. Entre estas espécies, Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 pode ser encontrada em carcaças de ratos e coelhos. A influência de fatores ambientais sobre pupas de O. albuquerquei não tinha sido avaliada até o momento. Desta maneira, o foco deste trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade por modelos de previsão do desenvolvimento de insetos necrófagos em função de fatores abióticos. Colônias de O. albuquerquei foram mantidas em laboratório para a obtenção de pupas. Até o décimo dia de cada mês, 200

  7. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae Morphological traits associated with pupae viability in Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Folgarait

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la relación entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormigas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p ABSTRACT. Pseudacteon Coquillett phorid flies oviposit on Solenopsis Westwood ants and pupate within the ant's head. We have evaluated the relationship between pupae's viability, presence of respiratory horns and the operculum color in four species of Pseudacteon reared on Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel ants. The presence of respiratory horns was significantly associated with pupae's viability for all species considered (p 0,09, except (p < 0,01 when Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier had developed on S. invicta nanitic and reserve workers. Pupae with light-colored opercula were more frequent in P. cultellatus, whereas brown opercula were more frequent for the other species that attack bigger ants. Mimetism can be invoked to explain the similarity in opercula color with that of the head of the parasitized ant as a way to avoid recognition by members of the colony. We conclude that the presence of respiratory horns is necessary for pupae survival of most of the pupae and we suggest to use the presence of respiratory horns as an indicator of the efficiency of rearing protocols for this group of parasitoids. We also recommend using forager ants because other casts do not seem to be appropriate hosts.

  8. Larva de quinto estádio e pupa de Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae Fifth larval instar and pupa of Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidade, Brassolinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Martins Casagrande

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada a descrição da larva de quinto estádio e pupa de Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger, 1877 de material proveniente do sul do Brasil. Os imaturos, exceto ovo, e o adulto são ilustrados. Larvas alimentam-se de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman (Arecaceae.Descriptions of the fifth instar and pupa of Opsiphanes quiteria meridionalis Staudinger, 1877 from material reared in southern Brazil are presented. The immatures, except egg and the adult are illustrated. The larvae feed on leaves of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman (Arecaceae.

  9. In Vivo Bioassay of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Synthesized in B. mori Pupae

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    Hanglian Lan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human growth hormone (hGH has been expressed in prokaryotic expression system with low bioactivity previously. Then the effective B. mori baculovirus system was employed to express hGH identical to mature hGH successfully in larvae, but the expression level was still limited. In this work, the hGH was expressed in B. mori pupae by baculovirus system. Quantification of recombinant hGH protein (BmrhGH showed that the expression of BmrhGH reached the level of approximately 890 μg/mL pupae supernatant solution, which was five times more than the level using larvae. Furthermore, Animals were gavaged with BmrhGH at the dose of 4.5 mg/rat.day, and the body weight gain (BWG of treated group had a significant difference (P<.01 compared with the control group. The other two parameters of liver weight and epiphyseal width were also found to be different between the two groups (P<.05. The results suggested that BmrhGH might be used as a protein drug by oral administration.

  10. In vivo bioassay of recombinant human growth hormone synthesized in B. mori pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hanglian; Nie, Zuoming; Liu, Yue; Lv, Zhengbing; Liu, Yingshuo; Quan, Yanping; Chen, Jianqing; Zhen, Qingliang; Chen, Qin; Wang, Dan; Sheng, Qing; Yu, Wei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Xiangfu; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2010-01-01

    The human growth hormone (hGH) has been expressed in prokaryotic expression system with low bioactivity previously. Then the effective B. mori baculovirus system was employed to express hGH identical to mature hGH successfully in larvae, but the expression level was still limited. In this work, the hGH was expressed in B. mori pupae by baculovirus system. Quantification of recombinant hGH protein (BmrhGH) showed that the expression of BmrhGH reached the level of approximately 890 microg/mL pupae supernatant solution, which was five times more than the level using larvae. Furthermore, Animals were gavaged with BmrhGH at the dose of 4.5 mg/rat.day, and the body weight gain (BWG) of treated group had a significant difference (P < .01) compared with the control group. The other two parameters of liver weight and epiphyseal width were also found to be different between the two groups (P < .05). The results suggested that BmrhGH might be used as a protein drug by oral administration.

  11. Metamorphic changes in abdominal spines of Forcipomyia nigra pupae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Richert, Malwina; Kapusta, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Pupae of Forcipomyia nigra biting midges bear double rows of dorsal and lateral spines. Their arrangement corresponds to the distribution of larval mechanosensory setae. They are serrated simple cuticular structures with tubercles but, in contrast to larval secretory mechanoreceptors, they are not innervated and do not exhibit any pores. The ultrastructure of abdominal spines varies among different pupal stages. They are produced by epidermal cells which fill the interior of the spine. In the youngest pupae epidermal cells are tightly packed and adhere to the cuticle. Then, the cells withdraw from the spinal cavity and the beginning of autophagy is observed. The last stage represents abdominal spines without any cellular material and then apoptosis probably proceeds in the withdrawn epidermal cells. Since the pupal spines occupied the same region of the segment as the larval setae, we consider that the same genes are responsible for their formation as for the formation of epidermal cells but that their mechanosensory and secretory function is no longer needed.

  12. Description of Larva and redescription of Pupa and Adult of Palpomyia guarani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    María M. Ronderos

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Palpomyia guarani Lane, 1946 is described and illustrated by using a phase-contrast and Scanning Electron Microscope, and pupa and adult redescribed by using a phase-contrast stereoscope. Immatures were collected breeding in a tree hole in Bella Vista, Paraguay. Larvae have character states typical of carnivorous larvae. The species is compared with its similar congener Palpomyia columbiana Kieffer, and this record constitutes the first one from Paraguay.Se describe e ilustra la larva de Palpomyia guarani Lane, 1946 utilizando Microscopio de Contraste de Fase y Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se redescriben pupa y adulto usando Microscopio de Contraste de Fase. Los estados inmaduros fueron capturados en Bella Vista, Paraguay, en hueco de árbol, donde se desarrollan. La larva presenta características típicas de larvas carnívoras. La especie se cita por primera vez para Paraguay, y es comparada con su similar cogenérica Palpomyia columbiana Kieffer.

  13. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32↑- and 9↓-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts.

  14. Mosquito mass rearing technology: a cold-water vortex device for continuous unattended separation of Anopheles arabiensis pupae from larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrino, Fabrizio; Gilles, Jérémie R L; Soliban, Sharon M; Nirschl, Anton; Benedict, Quentin E; Benedict, Mark Q

    2011-09-01

    In mass rearing of anopheline mosquitoes, pupae are usually separated from larvae on a daily basis to prevent unwanted adult emergence from trays. Depending on the device and species, 2 physical characteristics have most often been used for separation: buoyant density and size. In this report, we describe a system for continuous separation of Anopheles arabiensis larvae from pupae based on the natural difference in buoyant density and behavior between the 2 stages. We determined that temperatures 4-15 degrees C caused neither mortality nor reduction in likelihood of pupation or emergence. Separation improved as temperatures decreased down to 4 degrees C. We devised and demonstrated a 15 degrees C water vortex separator that we anticipate can process approximately 1 million larvae and pupae per hour with a < 0.3% pupal contamination rate and which operates unattended.

  15. Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2004-01-01

    during sample hydrolysis. Mono- and dichlorotyrosine are also present in cuticular samples from other insect species, such as the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, the moth Hyalophora cecropia, the cockroach Blaberus craniifer, and the bug Rhodnius prolixus, but not in the sclerotized puparial cuticle...... of the blowfly, Calliphora vicina, or in sclerotized ootheca from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Cuticular sclerotization and formation of chlorotyrosines occur simultaneously in locust legs; sclerotized cuticles tend to have a higher content of chlorotyrosines than unsclerotized cuticles...

  16. Host Suitability of House Fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae, Pupae Killed by High or Low Temperature Treatment for a Parastoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

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    Kohei Ogawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish a high quality progeny production system for the house fly parasitoid, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, by stockpiling hosts. We performed two host killing methods before host storage: (i heat-killed by 30 min exposure to 50°C or (ii freeze-killed by 10 min exposure to −80°C. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from nonstored house fly pupae after heat- or freeze-killing was not significantly different from live pupae. When house fly pupae stored at −20°C after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, progeny production was significantly less than live pupae. Moreover, productivity became very low when house fly pupae refrigerated at 3°C after heat- or freeze-killing were supplied to S. endius. On the other hand, when house fly pupae stored at −80°C for 1 year after heat-killing were supplied to S. endius, the average number of parasitoids that emerged was not significantly different from live pupae. The average number of parasitoids that emerged from freeze-killed hosts kept for more than 8 weeks at −80°C was significantly fewer than live pupae. Thus, this study clarified that a higher-quality host can be maintained not only by simply storing at –80°C but also by adding heat treatment before storage.

  17. [Differential survival of Euselasia apisaon Dahman (lepidoptera: riodinidae) pupae at understorey plants in the Eucalyptus plantations of Belo Oriente, MG, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Suelen M; de Faria, Maurício L; Latini, Anderson O

    2010-01-01

    Herbivorous insects may attack eucalyptus causing economic losses. One of these pests is the moth Euselasia apisaon Dahman, a key pest in the basin of middle Rio Doce. Here we studied the survival of pupae of this moth in Eucalyptus and in understorey plants and tested the hypotheses: i) live pupae are more abundant in plants of the understorey than in eucalyptus, ii) there is no difference between the abundance of pupae in different plants of the understorey. We sampled three areas cultivated with eucalyptus in Belo Oriente, MG, and samples were taken in five plots each area, getting five branches of each plant and of five eucalyptus trees that bordered the plot. The proportion of live and dead pupae and the mortality rate were estimated. The abundance of live pupae was higher in the understorey and the mortality rate of pupae was the same among different families of plants of the understorey. It is possible the larger available leaf area of understorey plants justify the greater abundance of live pupae in this habitat, however, avoidance of feeding habitat to finish the life cycle is also a possible explanation. Mortality rate in plants of the understorey points to an equal pressure of natural enemies on the pupae. These appointments help us to understand the dynamics of pests in eucalyptus plantations, providing important information to support actions against pests in natural environments.

  18. Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juares Fuhrmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológicas. Último instar larval e pupa do Hexoplonini sul-americano Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius, 1899 são descritos, ilustrados e disponibilizadas notas biológicas.

  19. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Redescripción del último estadio larval y de la pupa de Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Ronderos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The fourth instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth is redescribed and illustrated by using phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Immatures were collected by placing floating hydrophytes of the genera Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella and Spirodella (Lemnaceae in Berlesse funnels. The hydrophytes were collected in the Chascomús and Los Talas ponds, both in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The larva show features typical of carnivorous larvae, and it is compared with that of B. nobilis (Winnertz and with a similar species of the genus Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. The pupa is compared with its similar congener B. blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  20. Purification and characterization of coacervate-forming cuticular proteins from Papilio xuthus pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Yumi; Nakagawa, Taro; Taoka, Azuma; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2013-07-01

    The Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) pupa expresses novel soluble proteins that undergo reversible temperature-dependent coacervate-formation. We purified two coacervate-forming proteins, PX-1 and PX-4, from the wings of pharate adults. PX-1 and PX-4 form coacervates upon warming. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that these proteins assemble ordered bead-like ultrastructures. We cloned and sequenced PX-1 and PX-4 cDNAs. The PX-1 and PX-4 amino acid sequences contain many hydrophobic residues and show homologies to insect cuticular proteins. Moreover, when recombinant PX-1 and PX-4 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, both recombinant proteins exhibited temperature-dependent coacervation. Furthermore, analyses of truncated mutants of PX-1 suggest that both the Val/Pro-rich region and Gly/lle-rich regions of PX-1 are involved in such coacervation.

  1. Kemampuan Parasitasi Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Pada Beberapa Pupa Penggerek Batang Tebu Di Laboratorium.

    OpenAIRE

    Pulungan, Siti Rahma

    2012-01-01

    Supervised byDharma Bakti and Mena Uly. This study aims to determine the ability of parasiticTetrastichus sp. some sugarcane stem borer in the laboratory.This study used a complete randomized design (CRD) 2 factorial with two replications of 16 treatment A0B1, A1B1, A2B1, A3B1, A4B1, A5B1, A6B1, A7B1 (control, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 pairs to hostPh. castaneae ), A0B2, A1B2, A2B2, A3B2, A4B2, A5B2, A6B2, A7B2 (control, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 pairs to host Chiloauricilius) consist of 5 pupae per tube. The res...

  2. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.

  3. Nutritional value of pupae versus larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as food for rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factitious prey are often more suitable for use in mass production of beneficial insects than natural prey. Life table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are promising as factitious prey to mass produce Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more sui...

  4. Alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for killing pupae and preventing emergence of apple maggot fly (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of methyl bromide, ECO2FUME (phosphine gas + CO2), Vapam (sodium methyldithiocarbamate), chloropicrin, Telone II (1, 3 dichloropropene), and chloropicrin + Telone II on killing the pupae and preventing adult emergence of apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) was determined. In an e...

  5. Founding weaver ant queens (Oecophylla longinoda) increase production and nanitic worker size when adopting non-nestmate pupae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Offenberg, Joachim; Sinzogan, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille) are used commercially to control pest insects and for protein production. In this respect fast colony growth is desirable for managed colonies. Transplantation of non-nestmate pupae to incipient colonies has been shown to boost colony growth. Our objec...

  6. Are the Pupae and Eggs of the Lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Tolerant to Insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of climate change on overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Climate change significantly affects insects' behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature ( T max) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature ( T mean) in March, with a 41.3 % relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0 % relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5 % relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0 % relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2 % because of little precipitation

  8. Desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas crioconservadas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae: avaliação preliminar Reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae on Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae cryopreserved pupae: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Vieira Milward-de-Azevedo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae previamente armazenadas a - 20ºC de temperatura, durante 77 dias, com e sem passagem prévia em nitrogênio líquido (NL por um, três e 15 minutos. O grupo controle foi caracterizado por pupas hospedeiras frescas. Os muscóides foram expostos aos parasitóides durante 72 horas. Utilizou-se a relação de uma pupa muscóide por fêmea parasitóide. A amostra de pupas frescas permitiu a emergência de 15 parasitóides/ pupa, em média, enquanto 10 parasitóides / pupa emergiram dos espécimens prévia e diretamente armazenados em freezer (-20ºC. Observou-se um acentuado decréscimo do desempenho reprodutivo dos microhimenópteros que exploraram os substratos previamente submetidos ao NL durante um, três e 15 minutos (: 6,1; 5,5 e 5,7, respectivamente. A dissecação das pupas hospedeiras revelou um expressivo número de pteromalídeos imaturos, nas amostras que foram expostas ao NL, e de adultos faratos, em todos os tratamentosThe reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae was evaluated on pupae of Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae kept at -20ºC, during 77 days, with and no previous passage for liquid nitrogen (NL by one, three and 15 minutes. Control groups were characterized for fresh pupae hosts. There was one pupa for each parasitoid. The sample of fresh pupae exhibited average of 15 emergent parasitoids / pupa while pupae stored directly at freezer (-20ºC presented an average of 10 emergent parasitoids / pupa. In the samples exposed at one, three and 15 minutes in NL, accentuated decrease was observed on emergent hymenopterans reproductive performance (: 6.1; 5.5 and 5.7 respectively. The dissection of pupae revealed a large number of immature pteromalid in the groups with liquid nitrogen passage and farate adults in

  9. Description of male, pupa and larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, with keys to identify four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuka, W; Takaoka, H; Saeung, A

    2015-09-01

    The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  10. Desenvolvimento dos estágios imaturos de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae em pupas de Lepidoptera Development of immature stages of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae in Lepidoptera pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. L. Bittencourt

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 é um endoparasitóide coletado de pupas de Sabulodes sp. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae. Os estágios imaturos deste parasitóide foram estudados em laboratório (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% UR; fotofase 14 h em pupas dos seguintes lepidópteros: Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Crambidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Noctuidae e Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Geometridae. Observou-se que os ovos e as larvas de 1º ínstar são hialinas e himenopteriformes; as larvas dos 2º, 3º e 4º ínstares são esbranquiçadas e 12 segmentadas. A espécie de hospedeiro não influenciou o número de ínstares.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 is an endoparasitoid collected from pupae of Sabulodes sp. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae. The immature stages of this parasitoid were studied in laboratory (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; 14-hour photoperiod in the following Lepidoptera pupae: Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Crambidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Noctuidae and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Geometridae. It was observed that the eggs and the 1st instar larvae are hyaline and hymenopteriform; 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars larvae are whitish and 12-segmented. The host species did not influence the number of instars.

  11. Using pleometrosis (multiple queens) and pupae transplantation to boost weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) colony growth in ant nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang

    2011-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are increasingly being used for biocontrol and are targeted for future production of insect protein in ant farms. An efficient production of live ant colonies may facilitate the utilization of these ants but the production of mature colonies is hampered by the long...... and no transplantation. Thus, in ant nurseries the use of multiple queens during nest founding as well as transplantation of pupae from foreign colonies may be utilised to decrease the time it takes to produce a colony ready for implementation....... time it takes for newly established colonies to grow to a suitable size. In this study we followed the growth of newly founded O. smaragdina colonies with 2, 3 or 4 founding queens during 12 days of development, following the transplantation of 0, 30 or 60 pupae from a mature donor colony. Colony...

  12. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  13. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Paul W; Campbell, James F

    2012-12-01

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, which is a repellent produced by the beetles. We determined the effect of five different levels of flour conditioning on cannibalism of red flour beetle eggs and pupae by adult and larval stages. Larvae had the highest rates of egg cannibalism (12 eggs eaten over the 4-d period) followed by female adults (seven eggs consumed). Adult males had the lowest rates of cannibalism with only two eggs consumed. Cannibalism of eggs by females was correlated negatively with the level of flour conditioning. There was no effect of flour conditioning on egg or pupal cannibalism by larvae or adult males. Cannibalism by adult females may decrease as the level of flour conditioning increases because females may spend less time tunneling in highly conditioned flour and more time trying to disperse to other areas that are better for oviposition.

  14. A Wolbachia-Sensitive Communication between Male and Female Pupae Controls Gamete Compatibility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Stéphanie M; Schweisguth, François

    2015-09-21

    Gamete compatibility is fundamental to sexual reproduction. Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate gamete compatibility in many arthropod species. In Drosophila, the fertilization of uninfected eggs by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males often results in early developmental arrest. This gamete incompatibility is called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is highest in young males, suggesting that Wolbachia affect sperm properties during male development. Here, we show that Wolbachia modulate testis development. Unexpectedly, this effect was associated with Wolbachia infection in females, not males. This raised the possibility that females influenced testis development by communicating with males prior to adulthood. Using a combinatorial rearing protocol, we provide evidence for such a female-to-male communication during metamorphosis. This communication involves the perception of female pheromones by male olfactory receptors. We found that this communication determines the compatibility range of sperm. Wolbachia interfere with this female-to-male communication through changes in female pheromone production. Strikingly, restoring this communication partially suppressed CI in Wolbachia-infected males. We further identified a reciprocal male-to-female communication at metamorphosis that restricts the compatibility range of female gametes. Wolbachia also perturb this communication by feminizing male pheromone production. Thus, Wolbachia broaden the compatibility range of eggs, promoting thereby the reproductive success of Wolbachia-infected females. We conclude that pheromone communication between pupae regulates gamete compatibility and is sensitive to Wolbachia in Drosophila.

  15. Scanning electron microscopic (Sem studies on fourth instar larva and pupa of Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston (Anophelinae: Culicidae

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    Jagbir Singh Kirti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston is a major vector species of malaria in Indian subcontinent. Taxonomists have worked on its various morphological aspects and immature stages to explore additional and new taxonomic attributes. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies have been conducted on the fourth instar larva and pupa of An. stephensi to find additional taxonomic features for the first time from Punjab state.

  16. Effect of mutual interference on the ability of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to attack and parasitize pupae of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of mutual interference on the attack efficiency and the rate of successful parasitism on the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Female parasitoids (2, 4, 8, 16, or 32) were exposed to 100 fly pupae during 24...... h. The number of pupae that were attacked and the number successfully parasitized increased with the parasitoid density and reached a maximum of similar to 70 and 50, respectively. Parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was about 20 pupae, irrespective of parasitoid density. The per capita rates...... of attack, successful parasitism and parasitoid-induced mortality declined monotonously with parasitoid density. Progeny sex ratio was female biased for all parasitoid densities, but declined significantly with increasing parasitoid density from similar to 70% females at the lowest density to similar to 60...

  17. Environmental consequences of the inhibition in the hatching of pupae of Aedes aegypti by mercury, zinc, and chromium - the abnormal toxicity of zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Soni, R.

    1985-01-01

    In continuation of our studies on the toxicity of heavy metals the authors report the impact of mercury (II), zinc (II), and chromium (VI) on hatching of the pupae of mosquito Aedes aegypti. The studies were carried out in terms of abnormal responses in swimming and flying, incompleteness of the metamorphosis and mortality - all with respect to controls. The toxicity trend with respect to the mortality of pupae in partially or completely hatched conditions, as also with respect to reduction in the number of pupae reaching the mosquito stage was Hg > Zn approx. = Cr. A comparison of lethal doze values of the metals obtained through present experiments with the levels allowable in irrigation waters, indicate that the permissible levels of zinc and chromium are higher by several orders of magnitude than the lowest lethal concentrations for pupae of A. aegypti. The studies thus point to a need for the revision of the existing standards.

  18. Allergenic Characterization of 27-kDa Glycoprotein, a Novel Heat Stable Allergen, from the Pupa of Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Lee, June Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular identities of these proteins, however, could not be determined. IgE reactivity toward a 27-kDa glycoprotein was also increased after heating the protein extract. The recombinant protein was recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic subjects (33.3%). Glycation or aggregation of protein by heating may create new IgE binding epitopes. Heat stable allergens are shown to be important in silkworm allergy. Sensitization to the 27-kDa glycoprotein from silkworm may contribute to elevation of IgE to silkworm.

  19. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  20. Changes of seasonal morph development induced by surgical operations in pupae of the large map butterfly Araschnia burejana Bermer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kae; Kanzaki, Koji; Hinauchi, Mami; Fujishima, Tetsuro; Islam, Abu Taher Md Fayezul; Kitazawa, Chisato; Endo, Katsuhiko; Yamanaka, Akira

    2014-06-01

    The nymphalid butterfly Araschnia burejana and the papilionid butterfly Papilio xuthus exhibit seasonal diphenism comprising spring-morphs that develop from diapause pupae and summer-morphs that develop from non-diapause pupae. The development of seasonal morphs in A. burejana is regulated by the timing of secretion of ecdysteroids for adult development, whereas that in P. xuthus is regulated by the secretion of summer-morph-producing hormone, which is present in the brains and is under control of the photoperiod. We investigated whether a cerebral factor derived from brains plays a significant role in the regulation of seasonal morph development in A. burejana using surgical operations. Pairs of chilled diapause pupae that had been chilled for more than 3 months at 4°C were joined surgically to each other and then developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults. Chilled diapause pupae that were joined with 1-day-old non-diapause pupae developed into summer-morph or summer-like-morph adults. When the brains of non-diapause pupae were removed surgically 6-8 hr after pupation with and without injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone, a large portion of them developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults, respectively. Furthermore, 90% of non-diapause pupae developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults when the neck was ligated within 5 min after pupation. These results indicated that a cerebral factor showing summer-morph-producing hormone activity, which is secreted from the brain in the early pupal stage, in addition to 20-hydroxyecdysone for adult development, play a significant role in the determination of summer-morph development in non-diapause pupae of A. burejana.

  1. Increase of acceptability period of Musca domestic l., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae, irradiated by gamma radiation as host of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia endius, Walker, 1839 (hymenoptera: pteromalidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source used was a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestic L., 1758 and the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity. This experiment was designed to investigate if the non-viabilization M. domestic pupae, using gamma radiation, could build up the acceptability period as host of the pupal parasitoid S. endius. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy respectively. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 days old pupae were irradiated (dose rate: 1,510 Gy/hr) and exposed to the parasitoid S. endius at a proportion of one female parasitoid to five housefly pupae, during different periods after the irradiation. The results allow us to conclude that irradiation increase the acceptability period of the housefly pupae by the parasitoid. The best age to irradiate the housefly pupae was one day. (author)

  2. Ciclo biológico, exigências térmicas e parasitismo de Muscidifurax uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica Life cycle, thermal requirements and parasitism of Muscidifurax uniraptor on house fly pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio José Thomazini

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitóides pupais estão entre os principais responsáveis pela redução populacional de mosca doméstica em aviários, e Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae é um dos principais parasitóides presentes nestes ambientes no Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a duração do ciclo biológico, as exigências térmicas e o parasitismo de M. uniraptor em pupas de Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae em temperaturas constantes. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras climatizadas nas temperaturas de 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 e 32 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% U.R. e 14 h de fotofase. Em cada câmara 200 pupas de mosca doméstica, com 24 a 48 h de idade, foram expostas a 40 parasitóides fêmeas partenogenéticas, com 0 a 24 h de idade, por 24 h. A temperatura influenciou o desenvolvimento e a reprodução de M. uniraptor. O menor valor do período de ovo a adulto foi a 30°C (17 dias e as porcentagens de parasitismo e de emergência de descendentes foram maiores a 28°C, com 87 e 63,5%, respectivamente. A temperatura base encontrada para fêmeas do parasitóide foi de 9,43°C, com uma constante térmica de 366,62 graus-dia (GD. A elevação da temperatura diminui a duração do período de ovo a adulto (entre 18 e 30°C e aumenta o parasitismo (entre 18 e 28°C de M. uniraptor. A faixa de temperatura entre 28 e 30°C é considerada a mais adequada para criação de M. uniraptor em pupas de mosca doméstica.The pupal parasitoids are among the most important organisms responsible for house fly population reduction in poultry farms. Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae is one of the main parasitoids that occur in poultry farms at São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine the life cycle duration, the thermal requirements and the parasitism of M. uniraptor on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae pupae under constant temperatures. The experiment was

  3. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind.

  4. Sobrevivência de pupas de Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório Survival of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae pupae after submersion in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre Maio e Junho de 2008 foi observado a sobrevivência das pupas de Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório. Para este experimento foram utilizadas 480 pupas de mesma idade, sendo estas divididas em oito grupos: o controle não foi submerso e os demais grupos foram submersos de um a sete dias. O aumento do período de submersão diminui a sobrevivência, com um dia de submersão a sobrevivência é de 80%, com dois dias 40%, é de 30% a partir do terceiro dia, no quarto dia cai para 23,34% e no quinto dia fica em 10%. Após este período a mortalidade sobe para 100%. Este padrão pode ser explicado pela curva "U-shaped" que ocorre no consumo de O2 durante o período pupal, onde o consumo é maior no início e no final do período pupal. O tempo de submersão também afeta o tempo de desenvolvimento, aumentando o período pupal. Estes dados têm o potencial para serem utilizados em investigações envolvendo Entomologia Forense, para a estimativa do tempo de submersão de um cadáver.Between May and June of 2008, the survival of the pupae of Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae was observed after submersion in laboratory. For this experiment 480 pupae of same age were used, these were divided in eight groups: the group control was not submerged and the other groups were submerged from one to seven days. The increase of the submersion period reduces the survival, with one day of submersion the survival is of 80%, with two days 40%, of 30% with three days, in the fourth day it falls to 23,34% and in the fifth day it is 10%. After this period the mortality rises to 100%. This pattern can be explained by the curve "U-shaped" that happens in the consumption of O2 during the pupal period, where the consumption is larger at the beginning and at the end of the pupal period. The time of submersion also affects the development time, increasing the pupal period. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of

  5. Molecular characterization and expression of prothoracicotropic hormone during development and pupal diapause in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Qi-Rui; Kang, Le; Xu, Wei-Hua; Denlinger, David L

    2005-06-01

    Using a strategy of rapid amplification of cDNA ends, the cDNA encoding prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was cloned from the brain of Helicoverpa armigera (Hearm). The Hearm-PTTH cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a 226-amino acid preprohormone, which shows high identity with the closely related noctuid moths, Helicoverpa zea (98%) and Heliothis virescens (94%), and low identity with five species of Bombycoidea: Bombyx mori (57%), Manduca sexta (55%), Hyalophora cecropia (52%), Samia cynthia ricini (49%) and Antheraea peryni (48%). Hearm-PTTH cDNA shares important structural characterization known from other PTTHs, such as seven cysteine residues, proteolytic cleavage site, glycosylation site, and hydrophobic regions within the mature peptides. Northern blot analysis indicated a 0.9kb transcript present only in the brain. Using the more sensitive technique of RT-PCR, PTTH mRNA was also detected in the subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, midgut and fat body. During the pupal stage, PTTH mRNA in the brain remained at a constant high level in nondiapausing individuals, was low in diapausing pupae, but increased again at diapause termination. The PTTH protein was detected only in the brain by Western blot analysis. Immunocytochemical results revealed that Hearm-PTTH is localized in two pairs of dorsolateral neurosecretory cells within the brain. Recombinant Hearm-PTTH was successfully expressed in E. coli, and purified recombinant-PTTH was effective in breaking pupal diapause. The results are consistent with a role for PTTH in the regulation of diapause in this species.

  6. Purification and functional characterization of a protein: Bombyx mori human growth hormone like protein in silkworm pupa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Shu, Tejun; Lv, Zhengbing; Nie, Zuoming; Chen, Jian; Chen, Hao; Yu, Wei; Gai, Qijing; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2014-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove large impurity particles. The supernatants were precipitated, resuspended, and passed through a molecular sieve. Further purification by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in pure protein for analysis by MS MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. An alignment with predicted proteins indicated that BmhGH-like protein consisted of two lipoproteins, which we named hGH-L1 and hGH-L2. These proteins belong to the β-trefoil superfamily, with β domains similar to the spatial structure of hGH. Assays with K562 cells demonstrated that these proteins could promote cell division in vitro. To further validate the growth-promoting effects, hGH-L2 was cloned from pupa cDNA to create recombinant silkworm baculovirus vBmNPV-hGH-L2, which was used to infect silkworm BmN cells at low titer. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the protein shortened the G0/G1 phase of the cells, and enabled the cells to rapidly traverse the G1/S phase transition point to enter S phase and promote cell division. Discovery of hGH-like protein in silkworm will once again arouse people's interest in the potential medicinal value of silkworm and establish the basis for the development of new hormone drugs.

  7. Purification and functional characterization of a protein: Bombyx mori human growth hormone like protein in silkworm pupa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqing Chen

    Full Text Available Human growth hormone (hGH is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove large impurity particles. The supernatants were precipitated, resuspended, and passed through a molecular sieve. Further purification by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in pure protein for analysis by MS MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. An alignment with predicted proteins indicated that BmhGH-like protein consisted of two lipoproteins, which we named hGH-L1 and hGH-L2. These proteins belong to the β-trefoil superfamily, with β domains similar to the spatial structure of hGH. Assays with K562 cells demonstrated that these proteins could promote cell division in vitro. To further validate the growth-promoting effects, hGH-L2 was cloned from pupa cDNA to create recombinant silkworm baculovirus vBmNPV-hGH-L2, which was used to infect silkworm BmN cells at low titer. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the protein shortened the G0/G1 phase of the cells, and enabled the cells to rapidly traverse the G1/S phase transition point to enter S phase and promote cell division. Discovery of hGH-like protein in silkworm will once again arouse people's interest in the potential medicinal value of silkworm and establish the basis for the development of new hormone drugs.

  8. Midgut-enriched receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP52F is required for Drosophila development during larva-pupa transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Abirami; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Chen, Dong-Yuan; Chen, Guang-Chao; Meng, Tzu-Ching

    2013-01-01

    To date our understanding of Drosophila receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPs) in the regulation of signal transduction is limited. Of the seven R-PTPs identified in flies, six are involved in the axon guidance that occurs during embryogenesis. However, whether and how R-PTPs may control key steps of Drosophila development is not clear. In this study we investigated the potential role of Drosophila R-PTPs in developmental processes outside the neuronal system and beyond the embryogenesis stage. Through systematic data mining of available microarray databases, we found the mRNA level of PTP52F to be highly enriched in the midgut of flies at the larva-pupa transition. This finding was confirmed by gut tissue staining with a specific antibody. The unique spatiotemporal expression of PTP52F suggests that it is possibly involved in regulating metamorphosis during the transformation from larva to pupa. To test this hypothesis, we employed RNA interference to examine the defects of transgenic flies. We found that ablation of endogenous PTP52F led to high lethality characterized by the pharate adult phenotype, occurring due to post pupal eclosion failure. These results show that PTP52F plays an indispensable role during the larva-pupa transition. We also found that PTP52F could be reclassified as a member of the subtype R3 PTPs instead of as an unclassified R-PTP without a human ortholog, as suggested previously. Together, these findings suggest that Drosophila R-PTPs may control metamorphosis and other biological processes beyond our current knowledge.

  9. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Parker, Andrew C; Blackburn, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    The pros and cons of a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose against all Lepidoptera pupae on all commodities are discussed. The measure of efficacy is to prevent the F1 generation from hatching (F1 egg hatch) when late pupae are irradiated. More data exist for this measure than for others studied, and it is also commercially tenable (i.e., prevention of adult emergence would require a high dose not tolerated by fresh commodities). The dose required to prevent F1 egg hatch provides a liberal margin of security for various reasons. A point at issue is that correctly irradiated adults could be capable of flight and thus be found in survey traps in importing countries resulting in costly and unnecessary regulatory action. However, this possibility would be rare and should not be a barrier to the adoption of this generic treatment. The literature was thoroughly examined and only studies that could reasonably satisfy criteria of acceptable irradiation and evaluation methodology, proper age of pupae, and adequate presentation of raw data were accepted. Based on studies with 34 species in nine families, we suggest an efficacious dose of 400 Gy. However, large-scale confirmatory testing (> or = 30,000 individuals) has only been reported for one species. A dose as low as 350 Gy might suffice if results of more large-scale studies were available or the measure of efficacy were extended beyond prevention of F1 egg hatch, but data to defend measures of efficacy beyond F1 egg hatch are scarce and more would need to be generated.

  10. Comparative descriptions of the pupae of five species of the Culicoides imicola complex (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae from South Africa

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    Hilda Nevill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The viruses causing the economically important livestock diseases of African horse sickness (AHS and bluetongue (BT are transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Cerato po gonidae. In the Old World the most important vectors of these diseases are Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer, 1917 and Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel, 1989. All three of these vectors belong to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia Fox, 1955. This species complex now comprises 12 sibling species; ten occur in sub-Saharan Africa and are difficult to identify (based mostly on subtle variations in the wing patterns and so additional methods of reliable identification are needed. The pupal exuviae of the five commonest sibling species (C. imicola, C. bolitinos, Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel, 1992, Culicoides tuttifrutti Meiswinkel, Cornet & Dyce, 2003 and Culicoides sp. # 107 harvested from a variety of large herbivore dung types and from decaying fruits, are described and illustrated in detail. It is shown that they can be differentiated clearly on a number of morphological characters and, furthermore, are separable into two distinct groups based (principally on the shape of the respiratory organ. A key for identifying and differentiating these five pupae is provided. Also, the pupa of the Oriental-Australasian C. brevitarsis was compared with its allopatric sister taxon, C. bolitinos. Because they share a common larval habitat (cattle and buffalo dung and are almost inseparable in the adult phenotype, the question of their possible synonymy is raised. However, their respective pupae could not be differentiated on gross morphology and so it is argued that this unresolved problem requires a molecular solution.

  11. Effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles from filtrate of Trichoderma harzianum against larvae and pupa of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Padmanabhan, Madanagopal Nalini

    2014-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Therefore, screening for larvicidal and pupicidal activity of microbial extracts attributes could lead to development of new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and safe for nontarget organisms and are ecofriendly. Synthetic chemical insecticides occupy predominant position in control strategies. These hazardous chemicals exert unwarranted toxicity and lethal effects on nontarget organisms, develop physiological resistance in target, and cause adverse environmental effect. For vector control, fungal-mediated natural products have been a priority in this area at present. In the current study, effective larvicidal and pupicidal effect of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an entomopathogenic fungi Trichoderma harzianum against developmental stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti was investigated. An attractive possibility of green nanotechnology is to use microorganisms in the synthesis of nanosilver especially Ag NPs. The mycosynthesized Ag NPs were characterized to find their unique properties through UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by scanning electron microscopy. To analyze the bioefficacy, different test concentrations for extracellular filtrate (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 %) and Ag NPs (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 %) were prepared to a final volume of 200 mL using deionized water; 20 larvae of each instars (I-IV) and pupa were exposed to each test concentration separately which included a set of control (distilled water) group with five replicates. Characterization of the synthesized Ag NPs were about 10-20 nm without aggregation. Susceptibility of larval instars to synthesized Ag NPs was higher than the extracellular filtrate of T. harzianum alone after 24-h exposure, where the highest mortality was recorded as 92 and 96 % for first and second instars and

  12. Description of male, pupa and larva of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli and redescription of the female (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marina; Carlos Rossi, Gustavo; Ricardo Almirón, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The female of Psorophora (Grabhamia) paulli Paterson & Shannon is redescribed, and the pupa, fourth-instar larva and male genitalia are described and illustrated for the first time. Information about the distribution, bionomics and taxonomy is also included. Adults of Ps. paulli can be separated from the other species of the genus and subgenus by its small size. The larva of Ps. paulli is similar to that of Ps. varinervis Edwards and Ps. discolor (Coquillett) but can be separated based on the development of setae 1-X and 5-VIII, the length of the anal papillae and the comb on a sclerotized area.

  13. Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Li, Run-Xi Xia, Huan Wang, Xi-Sheng Li, Yan-Qun Liu, Zhao-Jun Wei, Cheng Lu, Zhong-Huai Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 × 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4% were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2% were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4% were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151 was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination.

  14. Freqüência de larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em armadilhas, Brasil Frequency of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae in traps, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência mensal de larvas e pupas de Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti e de outras espécies de mosquitos e verificar a influência de fatores ambientais dessas espécies em pneus. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Efetuaram-se coletas mensais de formas imaturas, em quatro pneus, no período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Os pneus foram numerados e dispostos em forma de pirâmide, um na base (pneu 1 e os três restantes (2, 3 e 4 inclinados sobre o primeiro. Os pneus 1 e 4 eram mais sombreados, e 2 e 3 eram expostos ao sol, já que não eram alcançados, como os demais, pela sombra de árvores e de um galinheiro próximos a esses pneus. Foram estudadas as variáveis: pluviosidade; temperatura ambiente; volume; pH da água; e condições de isolamento de água em pneus. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 10.310 larvas e 612 pupas. Ae. albopictus foi a espécie predominante tanto na fase larvar quanto na de pupa; Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus foram coletados em todos os meses, sendo mais freqüentes naqueles de maior pluviosidade. A temperatura, a pluviosidade e o volume de água apresentaram diferenças significativas, quando correlacionados ao número de larvas de Ae. aegypti. Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência de larvas quanto ao pH da água. Registrou-se maior número de larvas de Ae. albopictus em pneus mais sombreados. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. albopictus instala-se muito mais freqüentemente em pneus do que Ae. aegypti. Pneus descartados parecem representar importantes focos de manutenção de ambos os Aedes, durante todo o ano. Mesmo próximo uns ao outros, os pneus podem oferecer diferentes condições para a colonização desses mosquitos, de acordo com o volume d'água e a exposição ao sol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the monthly frequency of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoe species in tires, and the influence

  15. Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae: a timeline of external morphological development and a new age and PMI estimation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine; Thorne, Alan; Harvey, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    The minimum postmortem interval (PMI(min)) is commonly estimated using calliphorid larvae, for which there are established age estimation methods based on morphological and development data. Despite the increased duration and sedentary nature of the pupal stage of the blowfly, morphological age estimation methods are poorly documented and infrequently used for PMI determination. The aim of this study was to develop a timeline of metamorphosis, focusing on the development of external morphology (within the puparium), to provide a means of age and PMI estimation for Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) pupae. Under controlled conditions, 1,494 pupae were reared and sampled at regular time intervals. After puparium removal, observations of 23 external metamorphic developments were correlated to age in accumulated degree hours (ADH). Two age estimation methods were developed based on (1) the combination of possible age ranges observed for each characteristic and (2) regression analyses to generate age estimation equations employing all 23 characteristics observed and a subset of ten characteristics most significantly correlated with age. Blind sample analysis indicated that, using the combination of both methods, pupal age could be estimated to within ±500 ADH with 95% reliability.

  16. In vitro infection of pupae with Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto F Boncristiani

    Full Text Available The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.

  17. LD50 and inviably dose of gamma radiation for Musca domestica L., 1758 (diptera: muscidae) pupae aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itepan, Natanael M., E-mail: nmitepan@ifsp.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Sara E.D.Z., E-mail: sarazenitepan@ig.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Biological Control of Domestic Fly 'Eduardo Hiroshi Mizumoto' Laboratory at Entomology and Acarology Department (LEA/ESALQ/USP) and in Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory (LIARE/CENA/USP). The gamma radiation source that was used is a Co-60 irradiator model Gammabeam-650 of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. whose activity in the beginning of the experiments was 9.8x10{sup 13} Bq. (2,644 Ci). The lots of pupae of Musca domestica had been kept in acclimatized room with 25 ± 2 deg C of temperature and 70 ± 5% of relative humidity, until reaching the desired ages. Lots of pupae of M. domestica that had been used, gotten by the flotation process. They had been irradiated with the ages of 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The used doses for 1 day pupae was 0 (control) 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy; for 2 days pupae: 0 (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 Gy; for 3 days pupae: 0 (control), 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280, 320 and 360 Gy; and for 4 days pupae: 0 (control), 40; 80; 120; 160, 200, 240, 280, 320, 360, 400 480 and 520 Gy. The dose rate was about 1,500Gy/hr. At these age intervals, the dose to prevent adult emergence was 25, 220, 360 and 520 Gy and the LD50 was 14.28, 128.04, 243.09 e 353.57 Gy, respectively. (author)

  18. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use.

  19. Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879 Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879

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    Eliane Cristine Vicente

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Os morcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceiro dividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quando comparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espécie frugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmente em áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experiment being divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The

  20. Avaliação do efeito mutagênico do extrato hidroalcoólico bruto, por meio de bioensaios in vivo e prospecção fitoquímica de Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (embaúba, Cecropiaceae Evaluation of mutagenic effect of crude hydroalchoolic extract, using in vivo alive bioassays and phytochemical screening of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (embaúba, Cecropiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Stange

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Cecropia é conhecido popularmente por "embaúba" e apresenta várias espécies medicinais, sendo que estudos com a espécie C. glaziovii Sneth indicam que o extrato aquoso apresenta efeitos broncodilatador, anti-hipertensivo e antidepressivo, provavelmente, atribuídos às catequinas, procianidinas e flavonóides. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os potenciais efeitos tóxico, citotóxicos, clastogênicos e aneugênicos do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de folhas de C. glaziovii, por meio da dose letal média (DL50, da análise de micronúcleo em células de medula óssea de roedores e do teste com Allium cepa e realizar a prospecção fitoquímica. Os resultados demonstraram que as concentrações testadas não causaram toxicidade aguda, nem apresentaram atividade clastogênica e aneugênica, sugerindo que o extrato de C. glaziovii não interferem na divisão celular. A prospecção fitoquímica indicou a presença de taninos, flavonóides, fenóis, antraquinonas, cumarinas, catequinas, proteínas, açúcares redutores, depsídeos/depsidonas e triterpenos. Mesmo assim, esses resultados não prescrevem o consumo terapêutico da espécie, sem continuidade da sua avaliação e do cumprimento de todas as etapas pré-clínicas e clínicas.The genus Cecropia is as known popularly "embaúba" and presents several medical species. Studies with the species C. glaziovii Sneth indicates that the hydroalchoolic extracts presents bronchodilator, anti-hypertensive and antidepressive effects, probably due its contests catechins, procyanidins and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to assess the potential toxic, cytotoxic, clastogenic and aneugenic effects of the crude hydroalchoolic extract of leaves of C. glaziovii, by means of the determination of the median lethal dose (LD50, the analysis of micronucleus in cells from bone marrow of rodents and through the Allium cepa assay, and also to performe the phytochemical screening. The results showed

  1. Ocorrência de multiparasitismo em larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius em condições de campo Occurrence of multiparasitism in third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante experimento de pesquisa envolvendo o parasitismo de larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 em dois locais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, observou-se a ocorrência de multiparasitismo em 1,83% das pupas expostas no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC e em 2,16% expostas no Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. O experimento foi conduzido semanalmente de agosto de 1999 a julho de 2000. Em ambos os locais, houve a co-ocorrência de duas espécies por pupa e os parasitóides encontrados foram os himenópteros Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 e Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836. 72,73% do multiparasitismo ocorreu no ZOO em julho de 2000. Em condições de multiparasitismo, T. zealandicus e P. vindemiae mantiveram seu hábito gregário e solitário, respectivamente, mas N. vitripennis foi encontrado solitário em algumas pupas.During research experiment involving parasitism of third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, it was found 1.83% of multiparasited pupae in Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC and 2.16% in Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. The exposition were conducted weekly from August 1999 to July 2000. The multiparasited pupae contained two Hymenoptera parasitoids species [Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 and either Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 or Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836]. 72.73% of the multiparasitism occurred at ZOO in July. T. zealandicus and P. vindemiae supported their respective gregarious and solitary natural conditions, respectively, but N. vitripennis sometimes behaved as solitary.

  2. Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larva ve pupasının yağ asidi bileşimi

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz TAŞKIN; AKSOYLAR, M. Yaşar

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of last instar larvae and pupae of Tenebrio molitor were analysed by gas chromatographic methods. It was determined that total fatty acid compositions of both stages were contituted C12:0-C18:2 fatty acids. Oleic acid was found as the major fatty acid. Palmitic and linoleic acids also were high pencentage fatty acids.

  3. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  4. Genome Sequence of a Novel Iflavirus from mRNA Sequencing of the Pupa of Bombyx mori Inoculated with Cordyceps militaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Takeshima, Yoshino; Mikamoto, Toshiyuki; Saeki, Jun-David; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y.

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a novel iflavirus from the transcriptome of the Bombyx mori pupa inoculated with the insect-pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris. The assembled iflavirus genome has 10,119 nucleotides, with a 3′-polyadenylated tail, and it encodes a polyprotein composed of 3,004 amino acids. PMID:26383664

  5. Genome Sequence of a Novel Iflavirus from mRNA Sequencing of the Pupa of Bombyx mori Inoculated with Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Takeshima, Yoshino; Mikamoto, Toshiyuki; Saeki, Jun-David; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Dohra, Hideo

    2015-09-17

    We discovered a novel iflavirus from the transcriptome of the Bombyx mori pupa inoculated with the insect-pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris. The assembled iflavirus genome has 10,119 nucleotides, with a 3'-polyadenylated tail, and it encodes a polyprotein composed of 3,004 amino acids.

  6. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae

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    FLORENTINA DÍAZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina.

  7. RNAi KNOCKDOWN OF BmRab3 LED TO LARVA AND PUPA LETHALITY IN SILKWORM Bombyx mori L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Xin, Hu-hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Wang, Mei-xian; Liang, Shuang; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Zhang, Deng-pan; Miao, Yun-gen

    2015-06-01

    Rab3 GTPases are known to play key a role in vesicular trafficking, and express highest in brain and endocrine tissues. In mammals, Rab3 GTPases are paralogs unlike in insect. In this study, we cloned Rab3 from the silk gland tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, and identified it as BmRab3. Our in silico analysis indicated that BmRab3 is an isoform with a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 5.52 and 24.3 kDa, respectively. Further, BmRab3 showed the C-terminal hypervariability for GGT2 site but having two other putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor/GDP dissociation inhibitor interaction sites. Multiple alignment sequence indicated high similarities of BmRab3 with Rab3 isoforms of other species. The phylogeny tree showed BmRab3 clustered between the species of Tribolium castaneum and Aedes aegypti. Meanwhile, the expression analysis of BmRab3 showed the highest expression in middle silk glands (MSGs) than all other tissues in the third day of fifth-instar larva. Simultaneously, we showed the differential expression of BmRab3 in the early instar larva development, followed by higher expression in male than female pupae. In vivo dsRNA interference of BmRab3 reduced the expression of BmRab3 by 75% compared to the control in the MSGs in the first day. But as the worm grew to the third day, the difference of BmRab3 between knockdown and control was only about 10%. The knockdown later witnessed underdevelopment of the larvae and pharate pupae lethality in the overall development of silkworm B. mori L.

  8. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-08

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  9. Ação de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Silva Rogério Antônio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ação de produtos fitossanitários usados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos no Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. Os tratamentos avaliados, em g i.a.L-1 de água, foram: 1- endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE - 1,75, 2- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE -1,2, 3- betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE - 0,013, 4- enxofre (Kumulus 800 PM - 4,0, 5- azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM - 0,31, 6- oxicloreto de cobre (Cuprogarb 500 PM - 5,0 e 7- Testemunha (água. As pulverizações foram realizadas diretamente sobre pupas e adultos do crisopídeo por meio de torre de Potter. As pupas foram colocadas em tubos de vidro e os adultos em gaiolas de PVC, e mantidos em sala climatizada a 25 ? 2degreesC, UR de 70 ? 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por quatro pupas ou um casal de C. externa. Os produtos foram distribuídos nas quatro classes de toxicidade conforme escala estabelecida pela IOBC. O chlorpyrifos mostrou-se levemente nocivo para pupas (classe 2, 30?E?79%, e os demais produtos foram inócuos (classe 1, E99%. Os produtos testados à base de endosulfan, enxofre, azocyclotin e oxicloreto de cobre podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro em associação com C. externa, em função da baixa toxidade apresentada por esses compostos ao predador.

  10. Toxicity assessment of four insecticides with different modes of action on pupae and adults of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a relevant predator of the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Marilina Noelia; Schneider, Marcela Inés; Rimoldi, Federico; Ladux, Lorena Sabrina; Desneux, Nicolas; Ronco, Alicia Estela

    2016-08-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to nontarget organisms including the natural enemies of agricultural pests, thus reducing the biodiversity of agroecosystems. The lethal and sublethal effects of four insecticides with different modes of action-pyriproxyfen, teflubenzuron, acetamiprid, and cypermethrin-were evaluated on pupae and adults of Eriopis connexa, an effective predator in horticultural crops. Pupal survival was reduced by pyriproxyfen (26 %) and cypermethrin (41 %). Malformations in adults emerged from treated pupae were observed after acetamiprid (82.7 and 100 % for 100 and 200 mg a.i./l, respectively), pyriproxyfen (48.6 %), and cypermethrin (13.3 %) treatments. A longer mean oviposition time was also observed in adults emerged from pupae treated with cypermethrin. Moreover, the latter insecticide as well as teflubenzuron did not reduce reproductive parameters, whereas females emerged from pyriproxyfen-treated pupae were not be able to lay eggs even when females showed large abdomens. Upon exposure of adults, survival was reduced to approximately 90 % by acetamiprid, but no reduction occurred with pyriproxyfen, teflubenzuron, or cypermethrin though the fecundity at fifth oviposition time of the female survivors was reduced. Pyriproxyfen decreased the hatching at all the oviposition times tested, whereas fertility was reduced in the fourth and fifth ovipositions by teflubenzuron and in the first and third ovipositions by cypermethrin. In conclusion, all four insecticides tested exhibited lethal or sublethal effects, or both, on E. connexa. The neurotoxic insecticides were more harmful than the insect-growth regulators, and pupae were more susceptible than adults. The toxicity of insecticides on the conservation of predators in agroecosystems of the Neotropical Region is discussed.

  11. 蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸微胶囊的制备及其性质研究%Study on preparation of silkworm pupa silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids microcapsules and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 李建科; 张雅丽

    2012-01-01

    以壳聚糖、乳糖等为壁材,蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸为芯材,通过喷雾干燥法制备微胶囊。以微胶囊包埋率为评价指标,采用旋转曲面法设计正交实验,优化微胶囊壁材配比为:脱油大豆卵磷脂添加量为壳聚糖的13%(w/w),复配壁材乳糖与基础壁材壳聚糖比例为1.42:1.0(w/w),芯材蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸与总壁材质量比0.52:1.0(w/w),此时微胶囊包埋率达到83.31%,效果达到最佳;蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸经微胶囊化后流动性良好,且壁材有效阻隔芯材过氧化,货架期可延长至8个月;模拟胃肠液实验中,被壁材包裹的不饱和脂肪酸在胃液中受到保护缓慢释放,在肠液中可迅速释放。%Encapsulation of silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids with chitosan and lactose as the main wall material was carried out by a spray-drying process.Response Surface Methodology(RSM)was used to study and optimize technological parameters of the ratio of lecithin,ratio of lactose and chitosan and ratio of core and wall materials.The optimal condition was determined as follows:the ratio of lecithin to chitosan of 13%(w/w),ratio of lactose to chitosan of 1.42:1.0(w/w)and ratio of core to wall of 0.52:1.0(w/w),at which the microencapsulation efficiency(MEE)reached 83.31%.The encapsulated silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids produced by this method had good physicochemical properties and dispersibility.The shelf life was extended to 8 months and core material was protected well from oxidation.The release ability was studied.Microcapsules were subjected to an invitro gastrointestinal fluid,in which it showed rapid-release property in intestinal fluid model and sustained-release property in gastric juice.

  12. Larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim, with notes on ecological and behavioural similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Steiner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and illustrates the larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species.

  13. Efecto tóxico de Argemone subfusiformis Ownb. y Tagetes patula Link sobre larvas del IV estadio y pupas de Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Vidal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto tóxico de los extractos etanólicos foliares de Argemone subfusiformis “cardo santo” y Tagetes patula “marigold” sobre larvas IV y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El procesamiento de los extractos y los bioensayos se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú, de abril a diciembre de 2007, basados en los lineamientos metodológicos de la World Health Organization (2005. En larvas, se registró 100% de mortalidad con 76,8 y 153,6 mg/L del extracto de A. subfusiformis a las 12 horas de exposición, mientras que en pupas el mismo porcentaje de mortalidad se alcanzó con 153,6 mg/L a las 24 horas. De otro lado, el 92% y 77% de mortalidad en larvas y pupas respectivamente se registró con el extracto de T. patula al emplear 153,6 mg/L del extracto a las 48 horas. En A. subfusiformis las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y al 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 6,24 y 9,91 mg/L sobre larvas y con 9,45 mg/L. y 16,92 mg/L sobre pupas. En T. patula la CL50 y CL90 a las 48 horas se registraron con 72,21 mg/L. y 137,37 mg/L sobre larvas y con 89,1 mg/L. y 167,38 mg/L sobre para pupas. Según el ANAVA existen diferencias significativas entre los tiempos de exposición y los tratamientos. La susceptibilidad de larvas y pupas de A. aegypti se evidenciaron mediante las rectas probit-logarítmicas que indican efecto tóxico de sus hojas, siendo A. subfusiformis la especie con mayor índice de mortalidad.

  14. A novel angiotensin-І converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate of silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein: Biochemical characterization and molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiongying; Jia, Junqiang; Yan, Hui; Du, Jinjuan; Gui, Zhongzheng

    2015-06-01

    Silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) protein was hydrolyzed using gastrointestinal endopeptidases (pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin). Then, the hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide, Ala-Ser-Leu, with the IC50 value of 102.15μM, was identified by IT-MS/MS. This is the first report of Ala-Ser-Leu from natural protein. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that the peptide is a competitive inhibitor against ACE. The molecular docking studies revealed that the ACE inhibition of Ala-Ser-Leu is mainly attributed to forming very strong hydrogen bonds with the S1 pocket (Ala354) and the S2 pocket (Gln281 and His353). The results indicate that silkworm pupa (B. mori) protein or its gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate could be used as a functional ingredient in auxiliary therapeutic foods against hypertension.

  15. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

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    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae.Methods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. Results: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism.Conclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  16. Canine parvovirus VP2 protein expressed in silkworm pupae self-assembles into virus-like particles with high immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Hu, Gui-qiu; Wang, Hua-lei; Liang, Meng; Liang, Hongru; Guo, He; Zhao, Pingsen; Yang, Yu-jiao; Zheng, Xue-xing; Zhang, Zhi-fang; Zhao, Yong-kun; Gao, Yu-wei; Yang, Song-tao; Xia, Xian-zhu

    2014-01-01

    The VP2 structural protein of parvovirus can produce virus-like particles (VLPs) by a self-assembly process in vitro, making VLPs attractive vaccine candidates. In this study, the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and assembled into parvovirus-like particles in insect cells and pupae. Electron micrographs of VLPs showed that they were very similar in size and morphology when compared to the wild-type parvovirus. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was investigated in mice and dogs. Mice immunized intramuscularly with purified VLPs, in the absence of an adjuvant, elicited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses and were able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against CPV, while the oral administration of raw homogenates containing VLPs to the dogs resulted in a systemic immune response and long-lasting immunity. These results demonstrate that the CPV-VLPs stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, and so CPV-VLPs may be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention of CPV-associated disease.

  17. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae."nMethods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. "nResults: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism."nConclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  18. Canine parvovirus VP2 protein expressed in silkworm pupae self-assembles into virus-like particles with high immunogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng

    Full Text Available The VP2 structural protein of parvovirus can produce virus-like particles (VLPs by a self-assembly process in vitro, making VLPs attractive vaccine candidates. In this study, the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and assembled into parvovirus-like particles in insect cells and pupae. Electron micrographs of VLPs showed that they were very similar in size and morphology when compared to the wild-type parvovirus. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was investigated in mice and dogs. Mice immunized intramuscularly with purified VLPs, in the absence of an adjuvant, elicited CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses and were able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against CPV, while the oral administration of raw homogenates containing VLPs to the dogs resulted in a systemic immune response and long-lasting immunity. These results demonstrate that the CPV-VLPs stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, and so CPV-VLPs may be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention of CPV-associated disease.

  19. Enhancement of the Gelation Properties of Surimi from Yellowtail Seabream (Parargyrops edita, Sparidae) with Chinese Oak Silkworm Pupa, Antheraea pernyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jialin; Fan, Daming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jianlian; Zhou, Wenguo; Zhang, Wenhai; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the textural properties and micromechanism of yellowtail seabream (Parargyrops edita, Sparidae) surimi, with and without Chinese oak silkworm pupa homogenate (SPH), were investigated at different levels. The fresh, freeze-dried, and oven-dried SPH all showed a gel-enhancing ability in suwari (40/90 °C) and modori (67/90 °C) gels, in a concentration-dependent manner. Though the drying treatments can improve the storability of SPH, compared with fresh, the effect of the active substance was weakened. Suwari and modori gels added with 5%(w/w, whole product) fresh SPH had the increase in breaking force and deformation by 37.39% and 47.98%, and 85.14% and 78.49%, respectively, compared with the control gel (without SPH addition). The major myofibrillar protein, especially myosin heavy chain (MHC), was better retained by the addition of SPH. Compared the control group, a finer, denser, and more ordered 3-dimensional gel network microstructure was obtained, and different Df (Fractal dimension) was analyzed by using the box count method. This was found in all samples from 2.838 to 2.864 for suwari gels and 2.795 to 2.857 for modori gels, respectively. Therefore, the modori of yellowtail seabream surimi, linked with endogenous proteases, could be retarded in the presence of SPH, leading to an increase in gel strength. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Flows and Compressions of the Circulatory, Respiratory, and Digestive Systems in Pupae of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Circulatory, respiratory, and digestive motions in Manduca sexta pupae were observed using proton-density weighted and fast-imaging with steady-state free procession magnetic resonance microscopy. Proton-density weighted images clearly differentiated pupal air sacs from the hemolymph and organs because, as expected, the air sacs appeared dark in these images. Steady-state free procession imaging allowed real-time monitoring of respiration and circulation, creating movies of hemolymph circulat...

  2. Ocorrência de Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica L. e Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera, Muscidae no sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K Brandão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was reported the occurrence of Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae in the extreme Southern of Brazil. The collection of pupae was performed in January and February, 2008. The pupae of M. domestica and S. calcitrans were collected from bovine feces using the flotation method. The pupae were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in acclimatized chamber at 27±2ºC with relative air humidity > 70% until the emergence of the flies or the parasitoids. The referred occurrence consists in the first report to Rio Grande do Sul.

  3. Oral administration of a fusion protein between the cholera toxin B subunit and the 42-amino acid isoform of amyloid-β peptide produced in silkworm pupae protects against Alzheimer's disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    Full Text Available A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42, which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-Aβ42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-Aβ42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-Aβ42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased Aβ deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-Aβ42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD.

  4. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

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    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  5. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill y Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin para el control de pupas de Prodiplosis longifila Gagné en el cultivo de esparrago

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    Carolina Cedano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de los hongos entomopatógenos Baeuveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisioplae sobre la s pupas de Prodiplosis longifila para reducir la población de adultos de este insecto. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación de dos concentraciones diferentes de propágulos (micelio y conidias de cada entomopatógeno, una fue de 1x10 6 propágulos /mililitro (provenientes de 25 kilos de arroz colonizado por el entomopatógeno y la otra de 1x10 7 propágulos /mililitro (provenientes de 40 kilos de arroz colonizado por el entomopatógeno más un testigo sin aplicación. La aplicación se realizó a través del sistema de riego y se inició 15 días después del desaporque (término de cosecha, repitiéndose cada 5 días durante un mes coincidiendo con la etapa de mayor caída de pupas al suelo. El tratamiento de Baeuveria bassiana a la concentración de 1 x10 7 propágulos /mililitro presentó el 5 3 . 4 % de las pupas en el suelo con micelio del hongo. Estos resultados permiten indicar a B. bassiana como un biocontrolador promisorio de esta plaga.

  6. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Hilda Nevill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.

  7. Study and Application on Comprehensive Utilization of Silkworm Pupa%桑蚕蛹的综合利用研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 张成平; 李睿; 孙晓燕; 王永亮

    2012-01-01

    China is the origin of mulberry and sericulture, after thousands of years of history, now is the worlds silkworm industry center. At present our country has rich mulberry and silkworm resources, mulberry field area is about 800 000 hectares, produce per year chrysalis of nearly 700 000 t, raw silk 100 000 t. Now, the development and utilization of sericulture resources has become a very important topic. Silkworm pupa is the main by-product in silkworm mulberry industry, which is rich in nutritional and functional activity of components, and is a kind of important edible insect resources. In recent years, the comprehensive utilization of silkworm pupa resources at home and abroad has become a research hotspot. With the deepening of the research, it has attracted much attention in the food industry, medicine industry and biological engineering, and shows tremendous development potential. This paper will be based on silkworm pupa nutritional and medicinal value of silkworm pupa, the study of comprehensive utilization on primary and deep processing was reviewed in order to provide reference on further promoting the development of silkworm pupa in food and medicinal.%我国是桑蚕业的起源地,历经几千年的历史,现今又是世界桑蚕业的中心.目前,我国有着丰富的蚕桑资源,桑园面积达80多万hm2,年产茧近70万t,生丝10万t,蚕桑资源的开发利用已成为重要的课题.桑蚕蛹是蚕桑业中主要的副产物,具有丰富的营养和功能活性成分,是一种重要的药食兼用昆虫资源.近年来,桑蚕蛹资源的综合开发利用已成为国内外研究热点,并随着研究的不断深入,其在食品业、药品业和生物工程方面的利用已备受关注,具有极大的开发潜力.根据桑蚕蛹的营养价值和药用价值,对桑蚕蛹的初级和深入加工利用研究进行了综述,以期为进一步推进桑蚕蛹食用化和药用化开发提供参考.

  8. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Shi, Wan-Yin; Jhong, Meng-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[Formula: see text] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[Formula: see text] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as [Formula: see text]-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.

  9. Silk and silkworm pupa peptides suppress adipogenesis in preadipocytes and fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Dongsun; Yang, Goeun; Bae, Dae-Kwon; Yang, Yun-Hui; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Dajeong; Kyung, Jangbeen; Yeon, Sungho; Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Jeong-Yong; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Joo, Seong Soo; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to confirm the anti-obesity activity of a silk peptide (SP) and a silkworm pupa peptide (SPP) in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to elucidate their action mechanism(s) in a preadipocyte culture system. In an in vitro mechanistic study, the differentiation and maturation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated with insulin (5 μg/mL), and effects of SP and SPP on the adipogenesis of mature adipocytes were assessed. In an in vivo anti-obesity study, male C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD containing SP or SPP (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0%) for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. Hormonal stimulation of preadipocytes led to a 50-70% increase in adipogenesis. Polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed increases in adipogenesis-specific genes (leptin and Acrp30) and proteins (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Acrp30). The hormone-induced adipogenesis and activated gene expression was substantially inhibited by treatment with SP and SPP (1-50 μg/mL). The HFD markedly increased body weight gain by increasing the weight of epididymal and mesenteric fat. Body and fat weights were significantly reduced by SP and SPP, in which decreases in the area of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of epididymal adipocytes were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic examination, respectively. Long-term HFD caused hepatic lipid accumulation and increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol, in addition to their regulatory factors Acrp30 and leptin. However, SP and SPP recovered the concentrations of Acrp30 and leptin, and attenuated steatosis. SP and SPP inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes and adipogenesis by modulating signal transduction pathways and improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes.

  10. Temperature and refrigeration time of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae pupae affect biological parameters of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae?Temperatura e tempo de refrigeração de pupas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae afetam parâmetros biológicos de Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Luiz Pastori

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de parasitoides em hospedeiros conservados em baixa temperatura, sem perda da qualidade, é importante para criações massais e, por isso, a reprodução de Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae foi avaliada em pupas de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae após armazenamento a 0oC ou 5oC. No experimento um, pupas de A. gemmatalis, com até 24 horas de idade, foram armazenadas a 0oC, 5oC ou 25oC (testemunha por um, três, seis, nove ou 12 dias e expostas ao parasitismo por 10 fêmeas de T. diatraeae por 24 horas. No experimento dois, pupas de A. gemmatalis, com até 24 horas de idade foram expostas ao parasitismo por 10 fêmeas de T. diatraeae por 24 horas e, posteriormente mantidas a 25oC até o parasitoide atingir o estágio de pupa, quando foram armazenados a 0oC, 5oC ou 25oC (testemunha por um, três, seis, nove ou 12 dias. No experimento um, o parasitismo de T. diatraeae em pupas armazenadas de A. gemmatalis foi superior a 90%, exceto a 25oC por 12 dias. A emergência, o número de indivíduos e a longevidade dos descendentes machos e fêmeas da geração F1 reduziram com o armazenamento (0oC ou 5oC. No experimento dois, o armazenamento de parasitoides a 5oC por um dia aumentou a emergência, não alterou o período de duração do ciclo de vida com o número de indivíduos semelhante a testemunha. A razão sexual e a largura da cápsula cefálica de machos e de fêmeas de T. diatraeae foram semelhantes a testemunha nos experimentos. Armazenar a frio (0oC ou 5oC pupas de A. gemmatalis não parasitadas ou contendo o estágio imaturo (pupa do parasitoide no seu interior, por mais de um dia, afeta negativamente a reprodução de T. diatraeae.Development of parasitoids in hosts kept at low temperatures, without loss of quality, is important for mass rearing. Accordingly, reproduction of Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae was evaluated on

  11. Himenópteros parasitóides associados a pupas de Methona themisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Hymenopterous parasitoids associated to pupae of Methona themisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Nardi

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram conhecer a guilda de parasitóides associados a pupas de Methona themisto (Hübner, 1818, avaliando a abundância relativa de cada espécie de parasitóide e o efeito do parasitoidismo na mortalidade do hospedeiro. Foram coletadas 160 pupas de M. themisto, 80 em outubro de 2001 e 80 em outubro de 2002. Essas foram mantidas em temperatura de 25 ± 2,0ºC e fotofase de 14 horas, sendo diariamente observadas, até a emergência de parasitóides ou borboletas. Os seguintes parasitóides foram obtidos das pupas de M. themisto: Brachymeria annulata (Fabricius, 1793, B. mnestor (Walker, 1841 (Chalcididae, Neotheronia sp. (Ichneumonidae, Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1996 e Tetrastichus sp. (Eulophidae. Somente os gêneros Brachymeria e Neotheronia ocorreram nos dois anos de estudo, sendo que o primeiro foi mais abundante em 2001 e o último, em 2002. As outras espécies de parasitóides ocorreram somente no segundo ano de estudo. Este é o primeiro relato da associação de B. annulata, B. mnestor, Neotheronia sp. e P. elaeisis com M. themisto.The goals of this study were to know the parasitoid guild associated to pupae of Methona themisto (Hübner, 1818, evaluate the relative abundance of each species of parasitoid and the effect of parasitism on the host mortality. A total of 160 pupae of M. themisto were collected, 80 in October 2001 and 80 in October 2002. They were maintained at 25 ± 2,0ºC and photophase of 14 hours, daily observed until parasitoid or butterfly emergence. Five parasitoid species were obtained from M. themisto pupae: Brachymeria annulata (Fabricius, 1793, B. mnestor (Walker, 1841 (Chalcididae, Neotheronia sp. (Ichneumonidae, Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993, and Tetrastichus sp. (Eulophidae. Only the genera Brachymeria and Neotheronia occurred in both years of the study, the former was more abundant in 2001 and the latter in 2002. The other species of parasitoids occurred

  12. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  13. Daily thermal fluctuations experienced by pupae via rhythmic nursing behavior increase numbers of mushroom body microglomeruli in the adult ant brain

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    Agustina eFalibene

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Social insects control brood development by using different thermoregulatory strategies. Camponotus mus ants expose their brood to daily temperature fluctuations by translocating them inside the nest following a circadian rhythm of thermal preferences. At the middle of the photophase brood is moved to locations at 30.8°C; 8 h later, during the night, the brood is transferred back to locations at 27.5°C. We investigated whether daily thermal fluctuations experienced by developing pupae affect the neuroarchitecture in the adult brain, in particular in sensory input regions of the mushroom bodies (MB calyces. The complexity of synaptic microcircuits was estimated by quantifying MB-calyx volumes together with densities of presynaptic boutons of microglomeruli (MG in the olfactory lip and visual collar regions. We compared young adult workers that were reared either under controlled daily thermal fluctuations of different amplitudes, or at different constant temperatures. Thermal regimes significantly affected the large (non-dense olfactory lip region of the adult MB calyx, while changes in the dense lip and the visual collar were less evident. Thermal fluctuations mimicking the amplitudes of natural temperature fluctuations via circadian rhythmic translocation of pupae by nurses (amplitude 3.3°C lead to higher numbers of MG in the MB calyces compared to those in pupae reared at smaller or larger thermal amplitudes (0.0, 1.5, 9.6°C, or at constant temperatures (25.4, 35.0°C. We conclude that rhythmic control of brood temperature by nursing ants optimizes brain development by increasing MG densities and numbers in specific brain areas. Resulting differences in synaptic microcircuits are expected to affect sensory processing and learning abilities in adult ants, and may also promote interindividual behavioral variability within colonies.

  14. Daily Thermal Fluctuations Experienced by Pupae via Rhythmic Nursing Behavior Increase Numbers of Mushroom Body Microglomeruli in the Adult Ant Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Roces, Flavio; Rössler, Wolfgang; Groh, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Social insects control brood development by using different thermoregulatory strategies. Camponotus mus ants expose their brood to daily temperature fluctuations by translocating them inside the nest following a circadian rhythm of thermal preferences. At the middle of the photophase brood is moved to locations at 30.8°C; 8 h later, during the night, the brood is transferred back to locations at 27.5°C. We investigated whether daily thermal fluctuations experienced by developing pupae affect the neuroarchitecture in the adult brain, in particular in sensory input regions of the mushroom bodies (MB calyces). The complexity of synaptic microcircuits was estimated by quantifying MB-calyx volumes together with densities of presynaptic boutons of microglomeruli (MG) in the olfactory lip and visual collar regions. We compared young adult workers that were reared either under controlled daily thermal fluctuations of different amplitudes, or at different constant temperatures. Thermal regimes significantly affected the large (non-dense) olfactory lip region of the adult MB calyx, while changes in the dense lip and the visual collar were less evident. Thermal fluctuations mimicking the amplitudes of natural temperature fluctuations via circadian rhythmic translocation of pupae by nurses (amplitude 3.3°C) lead to higher numbers of MG in the MB calyces compared to those in pupae reared at smaller or larger thermal amplitudes (0.0, 1.5, 9.6°C), or at constant temperatures (25.4, 35.0°C). We conclude that rhythmic control of brood temperature by nursing ants optimizes brain development by increasing MG densities and numbers in specific brain areas. Resulting differences in synaptic microcircuits are expected to affect sensory processing and learning abilities in adult ants, and may also promote interindividual behavioral variability within colonies.

  15. Presence of snow coverage and its thickness affected the mortality of overwintering pupae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera causes serious damage to most crops around the world. However, the impacts of snow thickness on the H. armigera overwintering pupae are little known. A field experiment was employed in 2012-2015 at Urumqi, China. At soil depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm, overwintering pupae were embedded with four treatments: no snow cover (NSC), snow cover (SC), increasing snow thickness to 1.5 times the thickness of SC (ISSC-1), and to two times the thickness of SC (ISSC-2). Results suggested that snow cover and increasing snow thickness both significantly increased soil temperatures, which helped to decrease the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) of H. armigera. However, the MOP did not always decrease with increases in snow thickness. The MOPs in NSC and ISSC-1 were the highest and the lowest, respectively, though ISSC-2 had much thicker snow thickness than ISSC-1. A maximum snow thickness of 60 cm might lead to the lowest MOP. The longer the snow cover duration (SCD) at a soil depth of 10 cm in March and April was, the higher the MOP was. A thicker snow cover layer led to a higher soil moisture content (SMC) and a lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR). The highest and the lowest MOP were at a depth of 15 and 10 cm, respectively. The SMC at the depths of 10 and 15 cm had significant effects on MOP. A lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) led to a higher MOP. The DSTR in March of approximately 4.5 °C might cause the lowest MOP. The largest influence factor for the MOPs at depths of 5 and 10 cm and the combined data were the SCDs during the whole experimental period, and for the MOPs at a depth of 15 cm was the soil temperature in November.

  16. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV.

  17. From Pupa to Butterfly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IN front of me is the Floating Stone, an autobiography-like novel written by a farmer writer. With a not very eye-catching cover and a somewhat baffling name, the book is not quite interesting to me. Care-freely, I took up the book and scanned it. Unexpectedly, I was attracted and finished reading the

  18. A new species of Miocene terrestrial gastropod Gastrocopta from Poland and the validity of 'Pupa (Vertigo) suevica'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stworzewicz, E.; Prisyazhnyuk, V.A. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-03-15

    We describe Gastrocopta sandbergeri sp. nov. from the Miocene brown coal deposits of the open-cast mine Belchatow (central Poland) and identify it as conspecific with Pupa (Vertigo) suevica Sandberger, 1875 (nomen nudum) from the Miocene of Steinheim. The new species is most similar to Gastrocopta nouletiana (Dupuy, 1850) but differs in having smaller and always slender shell, less convex whorls, much weaker crest on the body whorl (or even absent) and generally rather weakly developed teeth (6-7) in the aperture.

  19. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyu Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample's assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10(-5, and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10(-5, retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological

  20. Study on the physiology of diapause, cold hardiness and supercooling point of overwintering pupae of the pistachio fruit hull borer, Arimania comaroffi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemani, Marjan; Izadi, Hamzeh; Mahdian, Kamran; Khani, Abbas; Amin Samih, Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    The pistachio fruit hull borer, Arimania comaroffi (Ragonot) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of pistachio orchards in Iran. This pest passes the winter as diapausing pupae. In this study, some physiological changes in relation to environmental temperature were investigated in field collected pupae. The relationship between supercooling point, cold hardiness and physiological changes of a wild population of this pest was also investigated. The glycogen content decreased with decrease in environmental temperature. Decrease in glycogen content was proportional to increase in total body sugar, trehalose, myo-inositol and sorbitol contents. In January with mean ambient temperature of 5.4°C, glycogen (5 mg/g fresh body weight) content was at the lowest level whereas total body sugar (10.3 mg/g fresh body weight), trehalose (8.6 mg/g fresh body weight), myo-inositol (5.3 mg/g fresh body weight) and sorbitol (2.6 mg/g fresh body weight) were at the highest levels. Total body sugar, trehalose, myo-inositol and sorbitol contents increased as mean temperature decreased from 22.7°C in October to 5.4°C in January. Total body lipid decreased during overwintering and reached to the lowest level at the end of March. Supercooling points were decreased from October to January and reached to the lowest level (-16°C) in January with minimum ambient temperature of -10°C. Survival at low temperature after 24 h was also greatest in January with 72% survival at -10°C, 39% survival at -15°C and 0% survival at -20°C. Increase in temperature from February onward, was proportional with increase in supercooling points and decrease in survival rate. Regardless of sampling date, all pupae died after 24 h at -20°C, whereas none pupae died after 24 h at -5°C. This indicates that this insect is freeze-intolerant.

  1. 蝇蛹金小蜂对家蝇蛹的寄生策略%Strategies of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae parasitizing pupae of houseflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中正; 刘继兵; 贺张; 段毕升; 胡好远

    2011-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani is a common parasitoid of housefly ( Musca domestca) pupae. Its preferences for different ages of housefly pupae, life-span, oviposition and number of progeny number were studied. The results show that P. Vindemmiae can parasitize pupae of all ages. Progeny number significantly decreased with increasing host age, and the proportion of dead pupae, from which neither parasitoid wasps nor houseflies emerged, also significantly increased with pupal age. The wasp' s life-span was (11.89 ± 6.99 )d, its reproduction duration was (9. 58 ± 6. 67 )d and the mean number of progeny per female was 33. 74 ± 18. 08. Male progeny had a significantly shorter developmental duration than females. Progeny number decreased at the end of the oviposition period with a higher proportion of males being produced.%蝇蛹金小蜂Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani是家蝇Musca domestica蛹期常见寄生蜂种类.本文探讨蝇蛹金小蜂对寄主日龄的选择策略以及该寄生蜂的寿命、产卵历期和后代数量等规律.结果表明寄生蜂可利用各日龄的蝇蛹,寄生高龄期蝇蛹时,寄生蜂后代产量显著降低,既未出蜂也未出蝇的死亡蝇蛹比例显著增加;寄生蜂寿命为(11.89±6.99)d,产卵历期为(9.58±6.67)d,单个雌蜂后代产量为(33.74±18.08)头,雄性后代的发育历期显著短于雌性后代,随着寄生蜂产卵历期的延长,寄生蜂后代产量下降,雄性后代比例增加.

  2. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Folgarait, Patricia J.; Mónica G. Chirino; Lawrence E Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la rela- ción entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p < 0,01), ...

  3. Study on Extraction of Silkworm Pupa Protein by Alkaline Method%碱法提取蚕蛹蛋白的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 蒋艳忠

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of silkworm pupa protein with alkali from defatted silkworm pupa powder was studied. Single factor and orthogonal experiments were used to study the effects of the parameters such as temperature , time,pH and ration of liquid to solid on the yield of silkworm pupa protein. The results showed that the extrac-tion temperature was the more important factor that affected the effect of extraction,following the ration of liquid to solid and pH and extraction time, the optimal conditions were obtained with orthogonal experiments, as fol lows: extraction temperature was 70 ℃, extraction time was 3.0 h,pH 8.0 and ration of liquid to solid was 14 ∶ 1(mL/g), under these conditions the yield of silkworm pupa protein was 72.42%, the protein content of 86.2%, water content was 11.4%, the protein was light brown, almost no pupal odor.%以脱脂蚕蛹粉为原料研究碱液提取蚕蛹蛋白的工艺。通过单因素实验探讨温度、时间、pH、液固比4个参数对蚕蛹蛋白得率的影响,然后通过正交实验确定了蚕蛹蛋白的较佳提取条件。结果表明,影响提取率的主次关系依次为:温度、液固比、pH、时间。蚕蛹蛋白提取的较优条件为:温度70℃、时间3.0 h、pH 8.0、液固比14∶1(mL/g),在上述条件下蚕蛹蛋白得率为72.42%,蛋白质含量86.2%,含水率为11.4%,所得蛋白为淡褐色,几乎无蛹臭味。

  4. Progeny of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitising pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) of different ages; Progenie de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare e LaSalle (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) parasitando pupas de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera:Bombycidae) de diferentes idades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabricio F.; Favero, Kellen; Grance, Elizangela L.V. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais], e-mail: fabriciofagundes@ufgd.edu.br, e-mail: kellenfavero@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: eli_vargasgrance@yahoo.com.br; Zanuncio, Jose C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: zanuncio@ufv.br; Serrao, Jose E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil), Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: jeserrao@ufv.br; Oliveira, Harley N. [Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: harley@cpao.embrapa.br

    2009-09-15

    Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle is a natural pupal parasitoid of eucalyptus defoliator lepidopterans and is considered a promising biocontrol agent. However, the development of efficient rearing techniques for this natural enemy are fi rst required before it can be used in biocontrol programs. Bombyx mori L. pupae are potential alternative hosts for this parasitoid mass rearing, and they are easy to rear. Therefore, we investigated the most suitable host age and the effects of parasitoid age on progeny production of P. elaeisis. B. mori pupae, 24 h-, 48 h-, 72 h- or 96 h-old were exposed to P. elaeisis females of similar age. The duration of the life cycle (egg-adult) of P. elaeisis was not affected by the age of the parasitizing female; however, the host age affected parasitoid development. The best parasitization was obtained for 72h- to 96h-old parasitoid females when offered to 48h- to 72h-old host pupae, allowing the synchronized rearing of a large number of P. elaeisis offspring. (author)

  5. Correlating Remote Sensing Data with the Abundance of Pupae of the Dengue Virus Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti, in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max J. Moreno-Madriñán

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a geographic transect in Central Mexico, with an elevation/climate gradient, but uniformity in socio-economic conditions among study sites, this study evaluates the applicability of three widely-used remote sensing (RS products to link weather conditions with the local abundance of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Field-derived entomological measures included estimates for the percentage of premises with the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae and the abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae per premises. Data on mosquito abundance from field surveys were matched with RS data and analyzed for correlation. Daily daytime and nighttime land surface temperature (LST values were obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Aqua cloud-free images within the four weeks preceding the field survey. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-estimated rainfall accumulation was calculated for the four weeks preceding the field survey. Elevation was estimated through a digital elevation model (DEM. Strong correlations were found between mosquito abundance and RS-derived night LST, elevation and rainfall along the elevation/climate gradient. These findings show that RS data can be used to predict Ae. aegypti abundance, but further studies are needed to define the climatic and socio-economic conditions under which the correlations observed herein can be assumed to apply.

  6. Rasgos morfológicos asociados a la viabilidad de pupas en parasitoides del género Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. FOLGARAIT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la rela- ción entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y Solenopsis richteri Forel. La presencia de cuernos respiratorios estuvo asociada a la viabilidad de las pupas para las especies consideradas (p 0,09; excepto cuando Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier se desarrolló sobre hormi- gas de la reserva y niñeras de S. invicta (p < 0,01. Los opérculos claros predomi- naron en P. cultellatus; mientras que en las demás especies, que atacan a hormi- gas más grandes, predominaron los opérculos castaños. Debido a que los opérculos presentaron un color similar al de la hormiga parasitada, esto repre- sentaría un mimetismo por parte del parasitoide para evitar ser detectado por el huésped. Dado que los cuernos respiratorios son necesarios para la superviven- cia de la mayoría de las pupas, sugerimos que sean usados como indicadores de eficiencia en los protocolos de cría. Recomendamos usar solo forrajeras dado que las otras castas no parecen ser huéspedes apropiados.

  7. Search efficiency of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor on Musca domestica pupae in dairy cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Indoor releases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girauelt & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were conducted in five organic dairy cattle farms to evaluate the overall effect on parasitism and efficiency at different pupal depths of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae.......9--24.4% could be attributed to Muscidifurax raptor. A naturally occurring ichneumonid, Phygadeuon fumator Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitized 4.1--6.8% of the exposed fly pupae. The placement of house fly pupae at two depths of the bedding, 5--10 and 15--20 cm had no significant effect...... on overall parasitism whereas M. raptor attacked the house fly pupae significantly more when placed in the 5--10 cm stratum (10.0%) compared to the 15--20 cm stratum (3.2%). The two pupal depths had no significant effect on parasitism by S. cameroni and P. fumator. Albeit S. cameroni contributed...

  8. Cuticular and internal n-alkane composition of Lucilia sericata larvae, pupae, male and female imagines: application of HPLC-LLSD and GC/MS-SIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, M; Paszkiewicz, M; Grubba, A; Gąsiewska, D; Boguś, M I; Włóka, E; Wieloch, W; Stepnowski, P

    2012-08-01

    The composition of cuticular and internal n-alkanes in Lucilia sericata larvae, pupae, and male and female imagines were studied. The cuticular and internal lipid extracts were separated by HPLC-LLSD, after which the hydrocarbon fraction was identified by GC/MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) and total ion current (TIC) modes. The cuticular lipids of the larvae contained seven n-alkanes from C23 to C31. The major n-alkane in L. sericata larvae was C29 (42.1%). The total cuticular n-alkane content in the cuticular lipids was 31.46 μg g-1 of the insect body. The internal lipids of L. sericata larvae contained five n-alkanes ranged from C25 to C31. The most abundant compound was C27 (61.71 μg g-1 of the insect body). Eighteen n-alkanes from C14 to C31 were identified in the cuticular lipids of the pupae. The most abundant n-alkanes ranged from C25 to C31; those with odd-numbered carbon chains were particularly abundant, the major one being C29:0 (59.5%). Traces of eight cuticular n-alkanes were present. The internal lipids of L. sericata pupae contained five n-alkanes, ranging from C25 to C31. The cuticular lipids of female imagines contained 17 n-alkanes from C12 to C30. Among the cuticular n-alkanes of females, C27 (47.5%) was the most abundant compound. Four n-alkanes, with only odd-numbered carbon chains, were identified in the internal lipids of females. The lipids from both sexes of L. sericata had similar n-alkane profiles. The cuticular lipids of adult males contained 16 n-alkanes ranging from C13 to C31. C27 (47.9%) was the most abundant cuticular n-alkanes in males. The same n-alkanes only with odd-numbered carbon chains and in smaller quantities of C27 (0.1%) were also identified in the internal lipids of males. The highest amounts of total cuticular n-alkanes were detected in males and females of L. sericata (330.4 and 158.93 μg g-1 of the insect body, respectively). The quantities of total cuticular alcohols in larvae and pupae were smaller (31.46

  9. 蚕蛹蛋白提取与脱臭工艺研究%Study on the extraction and deodorization of protein from silkworm pupa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱英华; 孙卫东; 王玉海; 奏志喧; 陆海勤; 李凯

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm pupa contains abundant completed protein, which contains 18 amino acids, and can be processed and used in food industry. However, due to the characteristic odor of pupa, its appliance in food industry is highly restrained. In order to produce food - grade protein, a deodorization is a must step after extraction. The alkali - method is applied. In the alkali - method, defatted pupa powder is dissolved in alkali solution, and pH is adjusted to pupa protein' s , and then protein precipitation is collected. The best extraction condition is: NaOH 2% , Temp. 70℃ , extracting time 6 hours, and the ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 6. The yield of pupa protein can reach 27.6%, H2O2 is used to deodorize the protein, and the best condition is; H2O23% , Temp. 70℃ , reacting time 10 minutes, and the ratio of solid to liquid 1:4. With the processing of dry - spry, the pale deodorized protein powder is obtained and met the requirement of food industry.%蚕蛹中含有丰富的蛋白质,是一种完全蛋白,富含18种氨基酸,有望作为营养丰富的高蛋白食品进行深入开发.由于蚕蛹本身具有特征性异味,限制了其在食品方面的用途,因此在制备食用级蚕蛹蛋白的工艺中须增加脱臭的步骤.本研究以蚕蛹为原料,经过脱脂之后,采用碱法提取蚕蛹蛋白.将脱脂蚕蛹粉溶解于碱性溶液,再将pH调节至蚕蛹蛋白的等电点(4.5),收集蛋白质沉淀.最佳碱法提取条件为氢氧化钠用量2%、反应温度70℃、反应时间6h、固液比为1∶6.在此条件下制备的脱臭蚕蛹蛋白得率为27.6%.采用氧化脱臭的方法,以双氧水为氧化剂对蚕蛹蛋白进行脱臭,最佳条件为双氧水用量3%、反应温度70℃、反应时间10min、固液比为1∶4.经喷雾干燥后,制得灰白色无嗅蛋白粉末,可满足食品级的要求.

  10. Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-11-01

    Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by Aspergillus terreus against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. The A. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. The ethyl acetate extracts showed lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi (LC50 = 97.410, 102.551, 29.802, and 8.907; LC90 = 767.957, 552.546, 535.474, and 195.677 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 89.584, 74.689, 68.265, and 67.40; LC90 = 449.091, 337.355, 518.793, and 237.347 μg/ml), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 83.541, 84.418, 80.407, and 95.926; LC90 = 515.464, 443.167, 387.910, and 473.998 μg/ml). Pupicidal activity of mycelium extracts was tested against An. stephensi (LC50 = 25.228, LC90 = 140.487), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 54.525, LC90 = 145.366), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 10.536, LC90 = 63.762 μg/ml). At higher concentration (500 μg/ml), mortality starts within the first 6 h of exposure. One hundred percent mortality occurs at 24-h exposure. The overall result observed that effective activity against selected mosquito larvae and pupae after 24 h was a dose and time-dependent activity. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal and pupicidal potential is minimal. The FTIR spectra of ethyl acetate extract reflect prominent peaks (3448.32, 3000.36, 2914.59, 2118.73, 1668.21, 1436.87, 1409.02, 954.33, 901.13, and 704.67 cm(-1)). The spectra showed a sharp absorption band at 1314.66 cm(-1) assigned to wagging vibration of

  11. 蚕蛹多糖脱蛋白方法研究%A Comparative Investigation into Deproteinization Methods for Silkworm Pupa Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍善广; 赖泰君; 孙建华; 刘旭辉; 童张法; 廖丹葵

    2011-01-01

    Protein removal rate and polysaccharide loss rate were used to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Savag' s method, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method, papain method and papain-TCA (papain hydrolysis followed by TCA precipitation) method in deproteinizing silkworm pupa polysaccharides. Papain-TCA method was found to be the best method for the deproteinization of silkworm pupa polysaccharides, and the optimal operating conditions were 1.5 h hydrolysis with papain at an enzyme-to-substrate of 2.0% and 50 ℃ followed by once treatment with TCA. A protein removal rate of 97.98% and a polysaccharide loss rate of 18.76% were achieved under such conditions. Only one absorption peak was observed in the UVvisible scanning spectrum of deporteinized silkworm pupa polysaccharides, indicating the removal of almost all proteins.%以蛋白去除率和多糖损失率为指标,比较Sevag法、三氯乙酸(trichloroacetic acid,TCA)法、木瓜蛋白酶法、木瓜蛋白酶-Sevag联用法和木瓜蛋白酶.TCA联用法脱除蚕蛹多糖蛋白的效果。结果显示:木瓜蛋白酶.TCA联用效果最好,其脱蛋白的最佳条件为木瓜蛋白酶用量[E]/[S]2.0%、酶解温度50℃、酶解反应1.5h、采用TCA法除蛋白1次,此时蛋白去除率为97.98%,多糖损失率为18.76%;紫外光谱扫描定性实验显示脱蛋白的多糖在260-280nm处只有少量吸收,表明大多数蛋白已去

  12. 双酶水解蚕蛹蛋白工艺研究%Study on Technology for Hydrolysis of Silkworm Pupa Protein with Double Enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 蒋艳忠

    2016-01-01

    The technology for silkworm pupa protein hydrolysis by double enzymatic(alkaline protease and pa-pain) was studied.Single factor and orthogonal experiments were used to study the effects of the parameters such as temperature,amount of enzyme,substrate concentration,time,mass ratio of a1kaline protease and papain on the hydrolysis degree of silkworm pupa protein. The results showed that the temperature was the more important factor that affected the effect of hydrolysis,following substrate concentration and time and amount of enzyme and enzyme mass ratio, the optimal conditions were obtained with orthogonal experiments, as follows:the tempera-ture was 55℃, the amount of enzyme was 3.0%, the substrate concentration was 3%, the time was 6 h and the enzyme mass ratio was 4∶1. The hydrolysis degree of silkworm pupa protein under these conditions could be 25.04%.%研究了碱性蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶双酶法水解蚕蛹蛋白的工艺条件。通过单因素试验探讨了温度、加酶量、底物浓度、水解时间、酶质量比(碱性蛋白酶∶木瓜蛋白酶)对蚕蛹蛋白水解效果的影响,然后通过正交试验优化水解工艺务件。结果表明,影响水解率的主次关系依次为:温度、底物浓度、时间、酶用量、酶比。优化的工艺条件为:温度55℃,加酶量3.0%,底物浓度3%,水解时间6 h,酶质量比4∶1,上述条件下蚕蛹蛋白水解率达25.04%。

  13. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Holden

    Full Text Available The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower

  14. Actividades enzimáticas en aislamientos bacterianos de tractos digestivos de larvas y del contenido de pupas de Automeris zugana y Rothschildia lebeau (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Pinto-Tomás

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El tracto digestivo de orugas constituye un microambiente extremo, debido a su elevado pH y presencia de sustancias antimicrobianas secretadas por el insecto o derivadas del tejido vegetal ingerido. Al mismo tiempo, el intestino alberga gran cantidad de alimento, por el cual los microorganismos presentes podrían competir entre sí y con su hospedero. Existe poca información sobre la microbiota asociada con el intestino de orugas tropicales, aunque se ha demostrado la presencia de bacterias de diversos géneros tanto en el intestino como en el interior de pupas. El estudio de las actividades enzimáticas de estos microorganismos constituye un punto de partida en la comprensión de la posible relación metabólica y fisiológica que establecen con sus hospederos, a la vez que permite investigar enzimas con potenciales aplicaciones biotecnológicas. En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia de actividades gelatinolítica, caseinolítica, esterásica, lipolítica, quitinolítica, amilásica, celulolítica y xilanolítica en dos colecciones de aislamientos bacterianos provenientes de tractos digestivos de orugas y de pupas de los lepidópteros Automeris zugana y Rothschildia lebeau. Se utilizaron ensayos bioquímicos tradicionales para detectar enzimas secretadas en condiciones aerobias, en las que ambas colecciones exhibieron un comportamiento enzimático similar. Ningún aislamiento produjo un resultado positivo en todas las pruebas, pero como conjunto ambas colecciones fueron capaces de utilizar todos los sustratos evaluados. Los aislamientos obtenidos de pupas presentaron prácticamente las mismas actividades que sus homólogos provenientes de intestinos. En ambas colecciones fue posible agrupar los aislamientos de acuerdo con su patrón de producción de enzimas. Además de un conjunto heterogéneo de aislamientos poco activos (dos o menos actividades, se destacan dos grupos muy activos (al menos cinco actividades, que manifiestan una aparente

  15. 小峰熊蜂蜂王蛹期发育蛋白质组分析%Proteome analysis of the pupae development of Bombus hypocrita queen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继莲; 彩万志; 彭文君; 吴杰

    2012-01-01

    为了探明小峰熊蜂Bombus hypocrita蜂王蛹期发育蛋白质表达调控方面的特点,揭示其发育的分子机理.采用双向电泳法对小峰熊蜂蜂王蛹期发育进行蛋白质组研究,结果在小峰熊蜂蜂王蛹期的白眼期(A期)、褐眼期(B期)和黑眼期(C期)分别检测到81、80和75个蛋白点,特有蛋白质分别为8个、7个和2个,共有蛋白质为61个,A期到B期有4个蛋白质显著上调,5个显著下调,B期到C期有7个蛋白质显著上调,1个显著下调,A期到C期有10个蛋白质显著上调,有4个显著下调.此外,3个蛋白质是在A、B期表达C期关闭,6个蛋白质A、C期表达,B期关闭,5个蛋白质A期关闭,而B、C期表达.初步表明小峰熊蜂蜂王从蛹期发育到成蜂过程中,不仅需要一些保守蛋白质来调控,而且还需要一些特异蛋白质.%In order to understand the characteristics of protein expression and regulation in pupae of Bombus hypocrite queens and the molecular mechanism of their development, we investigated the proteome of pupae in different developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results show that 81, 80 and 75 proteins were detected in the white-eyed pupal stage (A) , brown-eyed pupal stage (B) and dark-eyed pupal stage ? , respectively. 8, 7 and 2 proteins were specific to the A, B and C stages, respectively. Meanwhile, 61 proteins were present in all three stages, among which 4 were significantly up-expressed and 5 were significantly down-expressed from the A to B stage, 7 were significantly up-expressed and 1 was significantly down-expressed from the B to C stage, and 10 were significantly up-expressed and 4 significantly down-expressed from the B stage to C stage. In addition, 3 proteins were expressed in both A and B stages but not in C stage, 6 proteins were expressed in A stage, silenced in B stage and expressed in C stage, and 5 proteins were silenced in A stage but were expressed in both B and C stage. Our

  16. 微波真空冷冻干燥蜂蛹工艺的研究%Study on microwave vacuum freeze-drying process of Honeybee Pupae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平丽娟; 方晟; 毛建卫; 蔡成岗; 陈文斌

    2013-01-01

    Drying process of Honeybee Pupae by microwave vacuum freeze-drying and Optical fiber/infrared temperature measurement and control system were studied.The microwave intensities were set at 0.20,0.24,0.28, 0.32W/g and the results showed that the optimal dried product were got at 0.28W/g microwave intensity and the highest set temperature of 30℃,after drying 420min,the water content of the dried Honeybee Pupae was 2.84% , the final product was uniform with the original color and good taste flavor,and the electron micrograph showed that the product had sponge porous shape section,The dried Honeybee Pupae rehydrated 1.9 times of water in 20℃ water for Is,rehydrated effect was good,the SOD activity of the dried product slightly increased firstly and then decreased with level of 36.9U/mg protein after dried 420min,and the water content of the product was of 2.84%, Microwave vacuum freeze-drying decreased the drying time for 65% and tow viable microorganisms compared with the traditional vacuum freeze-drying method,while the SOD activity was almost at the same level,%采用微波真空冷冻干燥及光纤/红外温度测试控制等技术集成进行蜂蛹冻干中试工艺研究,用0.20、0.24、0.28、0.32W/g四个微波强度进行工艺优化,获得优化工艺参数为微波强度0.28W/g、最高解析温度30℃,微波冻干时间420min,最终产品水分含量为2.84%,产品品质好,无干瘪变形,保持蜂蛹原有色泽,电镜观察显示切面呈海绵多孔状,口味鲜美,于20℃水中复水1s,复水率达1.9倍,复水效果好,解析干燥过程中蜂蛹超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力呈现先略有增加后有所降低的趋势,蜂蛹冻于至水分含量为2.84%时,SOD活性为36.9U/mg prot,与真空冷冻干燥对比,所需干燥时间减少65%以上,并使存活微生物菌落数显著降低,SOD酶活力相近.

  17. Reproduction of Chouioia cunea Yang on Tenebrio molitor L.Pupae%利用黄粉虫蛹人工繁殖白蛾周氏啮小蜂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明禄; 李时建

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction of Chouioia cunea Yang using pupa of Tenebrio molitor L.as factitious host at(28±0.5) ℃ in laboratory were investigated.Developmental period of C.cunea from egg to adult was 17.2-22.9 d at 28 ℃;proportion of wasps that successfully parasitized host pupa was about 75%.Wasp to host pupa rate significantly influenced percentage of parasitism and pupae with wasp emergence and number of wasps emerged,which achieved maximum value when the ratio of wasp to pupa was 2∶1.The wasp could oviposit on host pupae frozen dead,but only few eggs and larvae of the wasp were found,and they would die within 72 h.%以黄粉虫Tenebrio molitor L.蛹作为白蛾周氏啮小蜂Chouioia cunea Yang的人工寄主,在(28±0.5)℃条件下观察其发育历期,以不同蜂蛹比例进行接种,观察小蜂的寄生情况。结果表明,黄粉虫蛹能够满足白蛾周氏啮小蜂发育的营养需求,发育历期为17.2~22.9d,虽然成功寄生率只有75%左右,但基本可以满足常年大规模繁蜂的需要。不同接蜂比例对寄生率、出蜂蛹率和出蜂量有显著影响,蜂蛹比在2∶1以上较好。白蛾周氏啮小蜂在冷冻致死的黄粉虫蛹上也有产卵行为,但蛹内卵和幼虫量很少,它们在死

  18. 黄斑蕉弄蝶蛹营养成分分析%Analysis of Nutritional Components of Erionota torus Pupa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲正宇; 史军义; 姚俊; 周德群

    2013-01-01

    Erionota torus pupa has rich protein,low fat as well as many kinds and abundant content of mineral elements. It contains 76.0% of protein and 15. 8% of fat. The total amino acid content was 628.2 mg/g of the dry weight,including 45. 1% of the essential amino acids. The element ratio of essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids is 0. 82. The content of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cystine), which is the first limiting amino acid,is 24.4mg/g of protein and accounted for 70. 0% FAO model reference values. Nutritional analysis showed that E. Torus pupa is an insect with high nutritional value and has important economic value and broad market prospect.%通过对黄斑蕉弄蝶蛹的部分营养分析表明,黄斑蕉弄蝶蛹具有高蛋白、低脂肪的特点,蛋白质含量丰富为76.3%、脂肪含量为15.8%;矿质元素种类多且含量丰富;总氨基酸含量较高为628.2 mg/g干重,其中必需氨基酸含量占45.1%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸的比值为0.82,各种必需氨基酸含量均衡,第一限制性氨基酸为含硫氨酸(蛋氨酸和胱氨酸)含量为24.4 mg/g蛋白质,占FAO模式参考值的70.0%.黄斑蕉弄蝶蛹具有较高营养价值,它的食用开发具有巨大的潜力和广阔的市场前景.

  19. Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.

  20. Antibacterial Property and Wound Healing Effect of Silkworm Pupa Chitosan Composite Hydrogel%蚕蛹壳聚糖复合水凝胶的抗菌性能及对创伤的愈合作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大洋; 李晓琴; 汪涛; 蓝广芊

    2012-01-01

    以蚕蛹壳聚糖、蜂蜜和明胶等为基质制备医用复合水凝胶.对以不同配比制备的蚕蛹壳聚糖复合水凝胶、单纯蚕蛹壳聚糖水凝胶、蜂蜜水凝胶的抗菌性能进行比较试验,并以大耳白兔为受试动物,采用切片法检测蚕蛹壳聚糖复合水凝胶对烫伤伤口的愈合作用.结果表明:用质量分数为0.25%的蚕蛹壳聚糖和质量分数为20%的蜂蜜制成的复合水凝胶的杀菌作用明显高于市售烧伤膏和单纯蚕蛹壳聚糖或蜂蜜水凝胶,对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌24h内的抑菌率均达到100%,且持久性好;大耳白兔烫伤伤口经0.25%蚕蛹壳聚糖+20%蜂蜜复合水凝胶处理后12 d可基本愈合,切片观察愈合的伤口表皮无溃疡,局部毛囊增生,且有新生表皮细胞生成.研究结果显示,蚕蛹壳聚糖复合水凝胶具有广谱抗菌性能,可用作创伤敷料.%We used chitosan from silkworm pupa, honey and gelatin to prepare composite hydrogel for medical use. The antibacterial property of silkworm pupa chitosan composite hydrogel with different ingredient ratios was compared with that of pure silkworm pupa chitosan hydrogel and of honey hydrogel. Moreover, the burn wound healing effect of silkworm pupa chitosan composite hydrogel was investigated by using big-ear rabbit as the experimental animal through section-cutting method. The results indicated that the bactericidal performance of composite hydrogel prepared with 0. 25% silkworm pupa chitosan and 20% honey was obviously better than that of the commercial burn cream and pure silkworm pupa chitosan or honey hydrogel. The inhibitory rate to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli reached 100% within 24 h and the inhibition persisted for a long time. The burn wounds in big-ear rabbit were almost healed at 12 d after treatment with composite hydrogel prepared with 0. 25% silkworm pupa chitosan and 20% honey. Histological slice observation showed that there was no

  1. Effects of juvenile hormone and ecdysone on the timing of vitellogenin appearance in hemolymph of queen and worker pupae of Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Roberto Barchuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The caste-specific regulation of vitellogenin synthesis in the honeybee represents a problem with many yet unresolved details. We carried out experiments to determine when levels of vitellogenin are first detected in hemolymph of female castes of Apis mellifera, and whether juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids modulate this process. Vitellogenin levels were measured in hemolymph using immunological techniques. We show that in both castes the appearance of vitellogenin in the hemolymph occurs during the pupal period, but the timing was different in the queen and worker. Vitellogenin appears in queens during an early phase of cuticle pigmentation approximately 60h before eclosion, while in workers the appearance of vitellogenin is more delayed, initiating in the pharate adult stage, approximately 10h before eclosion. The timing of vitellogenin appearance in both castes coincides with a slight increase in endogenous levels of juvenile hormone that occurs at the end of pupal development. The correlation between these events was corroborated by topical application of juvenile hormone. Exogenous juvenile hormone advanced the timing of vitellogenin appearance in both castes, but caste-specific differences in timing were maintained. Injection of actinomycin D prevented the response to juvenile hormone. In contrast, queen and worker pupae that were treated with ecdysone showed a delay in the appearance of vitellogenin. These data suggest that queens and workers share a common control mechanism for the timing of vitellogenin synthesis, involving an increase in juvenile hormone titers in the presence of low levels of ecdysteroids.

  2. Effects of diurnal temperature range on adult size and emergence times from diapausing pupae in Papilio glaucus and p.canadensis (Papilionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Mark Scriber; Brittany Sonke

    2011-01-01

    With recent climate warming trends,both the increase in thermal variance (i.e.,diurnal temperature range; DTR) as well as increased mean temperature may impact many different organisms,especially poikilothermic invertebrates.Predictions of insect developmental rates using degree-days (thermal unit accumulations above the developmental base threshold of the insect) are based on daily mean temperatures,regardless of DTR.However,non-linearity and variance in the means and extremes are often ignored.The role of thermal variance (e.g.,daily temperature extremes and DTR) was evaluated experimentally for two swallowtail butterfly sister species using a common day/night photoperiod of 18:6 h photo:scoto-phase and corresponding daytime thermophase and nighttime cryophase periods of 22:22℃ (constant 22℃),24:16℃,and 26:10℃ (all three treatments had the same daily mean and the same degree-day accumulations).Although developmental rates ofpost-diapause pupae were largely unaffected for both species,our results show that sizes in P.canadensis females (but not males) were smaller in the treatments with more variance (26℃:10℃) compared to constant 22℃.Such potentially significant impacts of size reduction in P.canadensis females were not observed in P.glaucus males or females under the same series ofthermo-period treatments.

  3. Graphitized Porous Carbon for Rapid Screening of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptide GAMVVH from Silkworm Pupa Protein and Molecular Insight into Inhibition Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Mengliang; Sun, Huaju; Liu, Long; Luo, Xuan; Lin, Guoyou; Li, Renbo; Zhao, Zhenxia; Zhao, Zhongxing

    2017-10-04

    A novel hydrophobic hexapeptide with high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was screened from silkworm pupa protein (SPP) hydrolysate via graphitized porous carbon and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Graphitized porous carbon derived from dopamine, possessing high surface area and high graphitic carbon, was used to rapidly screen and enrich hydrophobic peptides from SPP hydrolysate. The ACE inhibition pattern and mechanism of the purified peptide were also systematically studied by the classic Lineweaver-Burk model and by molecular docking/dynamic simulation. The novel hydrophobic hexapeptide was identified as Gly-Ala-Met-Val-Val-His (GAMVVH, IC50 = 19.39 ± 0.21 μM) with good thermal/antidigestive stabilities. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that GAMVVH behaved as a competitive ACE inhibitor. It formed hydrogen bonds with S1 and S2 pockets of ACE and established competitive coordination with Zn(II) of ACE. The synergy of hydrogen bonds with active pockets and Zn(II) coordination efficiently changed the three-dimensional structure of ACE and thus inhibited bioactivity of ACE.

  4. Insecticidal activity of a Moroccan strain of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes LD-37 on larvae, pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samri, S E; Baz, M; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Zitouni, A; El Meziane, A; Barakate, M

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.

  5. Simulium argentiscutum sp. nov. (Diptera: simuliidae, a member of the S. amazonicum-group of species; description of adults, pupa and larva Simulium argentiscutum sp. nov. (Diptera: simuliidae, um membro do grupo de espécies S. amazonicum: descrição dos adultos, pupa e larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John Shelley

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult, pupal and larval morphology of S. argentiscutum sp. nov., a member of the S. amazonicum-group, is compared with S. amazonicum Goeldi and its distribution, biology and medical importance are discussed. S. argentiscutum is one the most important anthropophilic species in the S. amazonicum-group as it is responsible, together with S. amazonicum, for the transmission of Mansonella ozzardi in Brazil.A morfologia dos adultos e da pupa e larva do S. argentiscutum sp. nov., um membro do grupo de espécies S. amazonicum, é comparada com a do S. amazonicum Goeldi e são discutidos da sua distribuição, biologia e importância médica. S. argentiscutum é uma das espécies antropofílicas mais importantes do grupo amazonicum porque é responsável, junto com o S. amazonicum, pela transmissão da mansonelose no Brasil.

  6. Quantitative determination of juvenile hormone III and 20-hydroxyecdysone in queen larvae and drone pupae of Apis mellifera by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Zhang, Jinzhen; Chen, Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a method for the rapid and sensitive analysis of juvenile hormone III (JH III) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in queen larvae and drone pupae samples was presented. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a significant shortening of the leaching time for the extraction of JH III and 20E and satisfactory sensitivity as compared to the conventional shake extraction procedure. After extraction, determination was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operating in electrospray ionization positive ion mode via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) without any clean-up step prior to analysis. A linear gradient consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid, and a ZORBAX SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. The method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, recovery, matrix effects, precision and stability. Drone pupae samples were found to contain 20E at concentrations of 18.0 ± 0.1 ng/g (mean ± SD) and JH III was detected at concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/g (mean ± SD) in queen larvae samples. This validated method provided some practical information for the actual content of JH III and 20E in queen larvae and drone pupae samples.

  7. Storage hexamer utilization in two lepidopterans: differences correlated with the timing of egg formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Pan

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Most insects produce two or more storage hexamers whose constituents and developmental profiles are sufficiently different to suggest specialization in the ways that they support metamorphosis and reproduction. Hexamerin specializations are compared here in the Cecropia moth (Hyalophora cecropia, which produces eggs during the pupal-adult molt, and the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus, which produces eggs under long-day conditions after adult eclosion. In both sexes of both species, reserves of arylphorin (ArH were exhausted by the end of metamorphosis. In Cecropia, the same was true for the high-methionine hexamerins, V-MtH and M-MtH. But in short day Monarch females 20-30% of the pupal reserves of V-MtH and M-MtH survived metamorphosis, persisting until long-day conditions were imposed to stimulate egg formation. Differences in storage sites have been documented in other lepidopterans, with MtH reserves being found primarily in fat body protein granules and the ArH reserve being found primarily in the hemolymph. Similar differences could explain how a fraction of the MtH's, but not of ArH, escapes utilization during metamorphosis in a species with post-eclosion egg formation. No differences in utilization schedules were detected between V- and M-MtH, despite divergent compositions and antigenic reactivity.

  8. 温度、湿度和覆土对小菜蛾羽化的影响%Effects of temperature, soil humidity and soil cover on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) pupae emergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福才; 胡其靖; 江解增; 顾爱祥; 任佳; 杨爱民; 邵久之

    2012-01-01

    XPlutella xylostella is one of the main pests that affect vegetable commodity output. Current treatment by chemical pesticide spray has been considered the effective control of P. xylostella. This treatment has also developed the insecticide resistance, increased pesticide residue risks and threatened pollution-free vegetable production. In the present study, the effects of abio-chemical conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, water-logging and soil cover on P. xylostella pupae eclosion were investigated. The study aimed to elucidate agro-measure control effects, especially those of paddy/dryland rotation and soil plowing, on P. xylostella. The results showed that the rate of pupa emergence exceeded 73% at 26-30 °C, which declined to 46.67% at 34 °C. When treated at 4 °C and then grown at room temperature, the rate of pupae emergence dropped significantly. The longer the 4 °C pretreatment, the lower was the rate of pupae emergence. However, the emergency rate recovered to normal levels after long time of growth at room temperature. When soil moisture was 10% and 20%, the emergence rate was respectively 12.5% and 6.2% of that under normal moisture condition. No pupa emergence was observed within 6 d at soil moisture of 30%. When treated with water-logging for 12 h and 24 h and then returned to surface soil, the rate of emergence of P. xylostella pupae dropped respectively by 25.0% and 50.0% and emergency was delayed too. No pupa emergence was observed under extended treatment time of 36 h. Soil covering also had noticeable effects on P. xylostella pupa emergence. The emergence of pupae was delayed by 2 d when covered at 1 cm depth soil. Pupa did not successfully emerge when soil cover was 1.5 cm deep. The above results suggested that timely irrigation, paddy/dryland rotation and soil plowing were critical control factors of P. xylostella pupae in vegetable fields.%小菜蛾是蔬菜的重要害虫,其非化学控制技术对蔬菜的安全生产非常重

  9. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação das atividades trombolítica e citotóxica de Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Urticaceae, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Dutra GOMES1 ; Rafael Destefani FAITANIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia hololeuca, Lippia alba, e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium são espécies vegetais de ocorrência natural no Brasil, características de regiões de Mata Atlântica e, dentro de suas finalidades medicinais, estão incluídas ação anti-hipertensiva, digestiva e no tratamento de malária. Neste estudo, foram avaliados o perfil fitoquímico e as atividades citotóxica e trombolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas destas espécies vegetais. O perfil químico dos extratos foi obtido por meio de ensaios fitoquímicos clássicos, a fim de identificar as classes químicas presentes. A toxicidade preliminar foi avaliada frente Artemia salina e a atividade trombolítica foi determinada in vitro a partir da lise de coágulo de sangue humano. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de alcaloides e flavonoides nos três extratos investigados. Saponinas, triterpenos e naftoquinonas foram detectados apenas em C. hololeuca. Essa não demonstrou toxicidade frente Artemia salina (DL50 >1000 ppm, enquanto Z. rhoifolium apresentou DL50 igual a 719,44 ppm e L. alba <250 ppm, o que indica atenção quanto à segurança no uso desta planta medicinal. A atividade trombolítica de L. alba e C. hololeuca foi de 6,43 ±2,08 e 9,64 ±1,83 %, respectivamente, mostrando baixa atividade. Por sua vez, Z. rhoifolium alcançou lise de 24,71 ±10,52 %, indicando promissora atividade (p <0,001. A atividade trombolítica de Z. rhoifolium justifica novos estudos, a fim de investigar os componentes responsáveis pela atividade. Perante a literatura, este é o primeiro relato da avaliação da atividade trombolítica destas espécies vegetais. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento químico-biológico das respectivas espécies.

  10. KPNA3-knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak associated with the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) by reducing heat shock factor transport into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wei, Guoqing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Li, Kedong; Zhang, Congfen; Dai, Lishang; Sun, Yu; Liu, Dongran; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

    2016-01-10

    In this study, we investigated the role of karyopherin alpha 3 in the heat shock response in male silkworm pupae. Karyopherin alpha recognizes the classical nuclear location sequence on proteins and transports them into the nucleus by forming a trimetric complex with karyopherin beta. Three predicted karyopherin alphas (KPNA1, KPNA2 and KPNA3) have been identified from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Pull-down assay result showed that KPNA3 can pull down heat shock transcription factor (HSF) from proteins extracted from tissues using non-denature lysis buffer. After 45 °C heat shock on male B. mori pupae for 30 min, we identified two heat shock protein (HSP) mRNA expression peaks correlating with HSP19.9, HSP20.4 and HSP25.4 at 4 h (peak 1) and 24 h (peak 2). The second peak was eliminated after knockdown of KPNA3. Similar results were obtained following knockdown of HSF, which is the trans-activating factor of heat shock. However, KPNA3 knockdown was not accompanied by the decreased HSF protein levels at 24 h after heat shock which were observed following HSF knockdown. We also expressed recombinant protein GST-KPNA3 and His-HSF in Escherichia coli to perform GST pull-down assay and the result confirmed the interaction between KPNA3 and HSF. We concluded that KPNA3 knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak in the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae by reducing HSF transport into the nucleus.

  11. Spiracular control in moth pupae

    OpenAIRE

    Förster, Thomas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Aufgrund ihrer niedrigen Stoffwechselrate zeigen Puppen des Atlasspinners Attacus atlas diskontinuierlichen Gasaustausch (DGC) mit drei deutlich getrennten Phasen. Andererseits sind einzelne Stigmen entweder vollständig offen oder vollständig geschlossen. In dieser Arbeit wurden Attacus Puppen mit künstlichen Gasmischungen perfundiert, um das Steady-State Verhalten der Stigmen zu ermitteln. Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß die Flutterphase des DGC kein Gleichgewichtsverhalten darstellt. Weiterh...

  12. Life history and description of larva and pupa of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910, a scarabaeid feeding on bromeliad tissues in Brazil, to be excluded from Phileurini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertoni, Fabiano F.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Steiner, Josefina; Zillikens, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The third instar larvae and the pupae of Platyphileurus felscheanus Ohaus, 1910 (Phileurini), recently synonymized with Surutu jelineki Endrődi, 1975 (Cyclocephalini), are described and illustrated, and some life history information is given. The larvae were collected and reared in bromeliads in rain forests of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this monotypic genus is reassessed at the tribe level by considering larval and adult morphological characters. Both character sets, being described and illustrated, suggest the placement of Platyphileurus in the tribe Oryctini. PMID:24715774

  13. Research Progress in Bioactive Ingredients and Pharmacological Functions of Silkworm Pupa%蚕蛹的生物活性成分及药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 徐立; 黄先智

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm pupa is a medicinal and edible insect resource abundant in many bioactive constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, rare amino acids, active peptides, chitins, etc. It has such functions as protecting liver, improving immunity, anti- tumor, decreasing blood sugar, blood fat and blood pressure, promoting wound healing and so on. This article summarizes extraction methods and pharmaceutical functions of bioactive compounds from silkworm pupa. Future trends in its research and development are also proposed.%蚕蛹是药食同源性昆虫资源,含有不饱和脂肪酸、稀有氨基酸、活性多肽、甲壳素等多种生物活性成分,具有保肝、提高免疫、抗肿瘤、降血糖、降血脂、降血压、促进伤口愈合等功效。本文对蚕蛹活性成分的提取分离方法及其药理作用研究进行综述,并对其进一步研究与开发进行展望。

  14. 蚕蛹蛋白对模拟高原环境下小鼠的抗疲劳作用%Anti-fatigue function of silkworm pupa protein in simulation plateaucondition mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周思敏; 王锐军; 张钢; 黄庆愿; 李晓莉; 高钰琪; 田怀军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨蚕蛹蛋白对缺氧小鼠的抗疲劳作用,为其抗疲劳作用在高原的应用提供实验室依据.方法 雄性昆明种小鼠80只(n=20),按体重随机分为4组,分别为缺氧对照组、蚕蛹蛋白低剂量组(0.5 g/kg)、中剂量组(2.5 g/kg)和高剂量组(5g/kg).各组小鼠均在模拟5000m高原环境中饲养,连续灌胃10d后测小鼠力竭游泳时间、肝糖原含量、血乳酸及血糖水平.结果 与缺氧对照组比较,蚕蛹蛋白显著延长了小鼠力竭游泳时间、增加肝糖原含量和降低血乳酸曲线下面积(P<0.01),其中以中剂量组效果最佳,而蚕蛹蛋白对血糖水平没有显著影响.结论 蚕蛹蛋白对缺氧小鼠具有延缓疲劳产生和加速疲劳消除的作用.%OBJECTIVE To explore the anti-fatigue effect of the silkworm pupa protein in hypoxia mice and provide experimental foundation for development of anti-fatigue nutritional supplement with silkworm pupa protein in plateau. METHODS 80 male KM mice were randomly divided into four groups: hypoxia control group (HCG), silkworm pupa protein groups in low dosage (ID, 0.5g/kg), in mid dosage (MD, 2.5g/kg) and in high dosage (HD, 5g/kg). Each group had 20 mice. All mice were fed at a simulated elevation of 5 000 meters. After continuous administration for 10 days, the swimming time, glucose and lactic acid concentration in blood and liver glycogen were determined. RESULTS Compared with HCC, the swimming time was significantly prolonged, the area under the blood lactic acid curve was decreased, and liver glycogen was increased in silkworm pupa protein groups, while there was no significant effect on the level of glucose in blood. The effects were particularly prominent in MD. CONCLUSION Silkworm pupa protein could postpone the appearance of fatigue and accelerate the restoration of fatigue.

  15. Velocidade da água e a distribuição de larvas e pupas de Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar (Diptera, Simuliidae e macroinvertebrados associados Water velocity and the distribution of larvae and pupae of Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar (Diptera, Simuliidae and associated macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eloy dos Santos Jr

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a relação entre a velocidade da água e a distribuição dos estágios imaturos de Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar, 1832 e os macroinvertebrados bentônicos associados. As coletas foram realizadas em cinco pontos, no trecho superior do Rio dos Sinos, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A fauna bentônica foi amostrada com substratos artificiais, que permaneceram instalados nos locais de maior corenteza d'água por períodos de 14 dias. Antes do recolhimento dos substratos foram realizadas medidas de velocidade d'água no local da sua instalação. Essas medidas foram agrupadas em três classes: baixa (0,20 a 0,63 m/s, média (0,64 a 1,07 m/s e alta (1,08 a 1,50 m/s para posterior relação com a distribuição da fauna coletada. Para avaliar a influência da velocidade de água sobre a distribuição dos macroinvertebrados e a abundância de C. pertinax foi realizada uma regressão múltipla. As coletas resultaram em 39.598 indivíduos, sendo 33.418 simulídeos e 6.180 macroinvertebrados associados. Entre os simulídeos 5.704 espécimes correspondem a larvas do último ínstar e pupas, dos quais 828 são de C. pertinax. Quanto à distribuição dessa espécie, 30,8% ocorreram na classe de baixa velocidade d'água, 24,9% na velocidade média e 44,3% na alta velocidade. Foi observado que a abundância de C. petinax aumenta à medida que os macroinvertebrados predadores diminuem e os organismos não predadores aumentam (GLM, R² = 0,207; F 2,50 = 6,536; P = 0,003. Esses resultados revelam que os imaturos de C. pertinax têm uma tendência em ocupar um microhábitat com menor ocorrência de predadores.The objective of the current study was to evaluate the distribution of the immature stages of Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar, 1832 and associated bentic macroinvertebrates in relation to water velocity. This study was carried out on the upper course of Sinos river, in Rio Grande do Sul. Seasonal collections of larvae

  16. 噪声扰动下低光照蚕蛹图像恢复算法与试验%Algorithm and experiments of noisy low-illumination silkworm pupa images restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶丹; 李光林; 王峥荣; 邱光应

    2015-01-01

    In the machine vision-based intelligent system for recognizing and sorting male or female silkworm pupa, the quality of silkworm pupa images is the key for accurate recognition. Low illumination and noise,as the main factors degrading silkworm pupa images, can give rise to the loss of images textures and structures to a great extent, which brings a challenge for intelligent system to identify silkworm pupa’s gender. State-of-the-art methods, like Shan’s work, can be ineffective when images are perturbed by noise. The main contribution of our work was the effective elimination of noise by Tikhonov regularization while restoring image contrast and preserving image textures and structures based on the Shan’s modeling. In order to improve the quality of degraded silkworm pupa images, a novel method combining tone mapping with Tikhonov regularization, which was capable of enhancing image contrast and compressing noise simultaneously, was proposed in this paper. According to Shan’s work, it was assumed that Low-illumination image is obtained via dynamically compressing a Low-illumination image. A 3×3 neighborhood of pixels in both images was defined. The linear functions mapping locally radiance in such a 3×3 window of low-illumination silkworm pupa images to that of the desired ones were formulated. The monotonicity of linear functions can preserve local structural information of image. Through integrating these linear functions, the image-level objective function was established to restore image illumination contrast. Further, Tikhonov regularization implemented by the Laplace of Gaussian (LoG) operator was used to obtain the final objective function. Tikhonov regularization could not only smooth noise and preserve structural information of image effectively but also could be beneficial to a stable solution in the iterative processes. The existence and unique of solution of the objective function was addressed via verification of convexity according to D. P

  17. Comparison of the developmental and morphological characteristics of non-, winter- and summer-diapausing pupae of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua ( Diptera : Anthomyiidae)%葱蝇非滞育、冬滞育和夏滞育蛹发育和形态特征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎万顺; 陈斌; 何正波

    2012-01-01

    昆虫非滞育、冬滞育和夏滞育蛹具有不同的生理和发育过程.本研究以葱蝇Delia antiqua作为模式种,以黑腹果蝇Drosophila melanogaster蛹的发育形态特征和命名为参照,用解剖、拍照、长度测量和图像处理等方法系统地比较研究了非滞育、冬滞育和夏滞育蛹的发育历期和形态变化,重点在头外翻和滞育相关发育和形态特征,目的在于弄清非滞育、冬滞育和夏滞育蛹发育和形态特征差异,为滞育发育阶段的识别、滞育分子机理研究奠定形态学基础.冬滞育蛹的滞育前期、滞育期和滞育后期分别为4,85和27 d,夏滞育蛹的滞育前期、滞育期和滞育后期分别为2,8和22 d.从化蛹至头外翻完成为滞育前期,头外翻完成约10 h内复眼中央游离脂肪体可见.头外翻的完成是滞育发生的前提,非滞育、夏滞育和冬滞育蛹头外翻发生在化蛹后的48,36和83 h,在头外翻过程中发育形态没有差异.头外翻的过程为:首先,头囊和胸部附肢从胸腔外翻,头部形态出现;然后,腹部肌肉继续收缩,将血淋巴和脂肪体推进头部及胸部附肢.葱蝇蛹在完成蛹期有效积温约15%时进入冬滞育或夏滞育.在滞育期,蛹的形态一直停留在复眼中央游离脂肪体可见这一形态时期,且冬滞育和夏滞育的蛹在形态上没有区别.在体长、体宽和体重上,冬滞育蛹最大,夏滞育蛹次之,非滞育蛹最小.在滞育后期,在黄色体出现期间,非滞育蛹的马氏管清楚可见,呈绿色,而滞育蛹的马氏管几乎不可见.本研究为认知昆虫滞育生理、从发育历期和形态上推断滞育发育进程提供了依据.%The non-diapausing (ND) , winter-diapausing (WD) and summer-diapausing (SD) pupae have distinguishable physiological and developmental process. In the present study, the developmental duration and morphological changes of ND, WD and SD pupae were comparatively investigated with the onion

  18. Analysis of Nutritional Components of Papilio demoleus Larva,Pupa and Adult%达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文义; 杨志; 史军义; 蒲正宇; 姚俊

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the main nutritional ingredients of larva ,pupa and adult of Papilio demole-us,and provide a theoretical basis for the exploitation of edibility of this insect species .The contents of fat ,pro-tein,mineral elements and amino acids of larva ,pupa and adult were determined by using the national standard methods.The amino acid scores and essential amino acid indexs were analysed .The contents of protein ,fat and mineral element were compared with nutrition contents of common foods .The results showed that P.demoleus larva,pupa and adult contained 5.9%,6.8%and 3.1%of fat,60.1%,78.3%and 78.5%of protein,9.9%, 5.1%and 5.6%of ash,24.1%,9.8%and 12.8%of carbohydrate,respectively.Their total amino acid contents were 519.9 mg/g,648.7 mg/g and 406.5 mg/g,which included 34.2%,30.5%and 29.4%of the essential a-mino acids respectively .The element ratios of essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids were 0.52, 0.44 and 0.42 and their essential amino acid indexes were 0.794,0.853 and 0.546 respectively.P.demoleus is characteristic of high protein,low fat,rich mineral elements etc.in its larva,pupa and adult.However,the quali-ty of protein is common ,and the first limiting amino acid content is very low ,which has a negative effect on the balance of their structure of amino acids .From this analysis,the larva,pupa and adult of P.demoleus have cer-tain nutritional value .%为了探寻达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的主要营养成分,评价它们的营养价值水平,为它们的食用开发提供理论基础。通过运用国家标准检测方法测定达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的水分、脂肪、蛋白质、矿质元素、氨基酸的含量,分析达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的氨基酸评分、必需氨基酸指数,并将它们的蛋白质、脂肪、矿质元素含量与常见食物的含量进行比较分析。结果表明,达摩凤蝶幼虫、蛹和成虫的蛋白质含量分别为60.1%、78.3%和78.5

  19. 蚕体和蛹粉代料培养基上的蛹虫草生长状况与品质检测%Growth and Quality Assessment of Cordyceps militaris Cultured on Bombyx mori Body and on Pupa Powder Substitute Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申鸿; 张龙; 王兵; 徐汉福; 郭涛

    2012-01-01

    To delve cultivation methods for obtaining high yield and quality Cordyceps militaris, we cultured a preferentially selected Cordyceps militaris strain named YCC-XD-2 on Bombyx mori pupae and moths and on pupa powder substitute media in the laboratory and compared growth and cordycepin contents of Cordyceps militaris from different cultivation methods. It was shown that the selected Cordyceps militaris strain could grow well on both Bombyx mori body and on pupa powder substitute media. Specifically, Cordyceps militaris cultured on Bombyx mori moths grew better than that on Bombyx mori pupae, and Cordyceps militaris cultured on sticky rice plus pupa powder grew better than that on other pupa powder substitute media. The contents of cordycepin in sporocarp of Cordyceps militaris cultured on Bombyx mori bodies were significantly higher than those cultured on pupa powder substitute media. It was observed that the mass ratio of cordycepin in sporocarp of Cordyceps militaris cultured on Bombyx mori moth was as high as 21.97 mg/g. Under the same cultural condition, the content of cordycepin in sporocarp was much higher than that in mycelium and in culture medium. These results showed that high quality Cordyceps militaris can be obtained by utilizing Bombyx mori pupa and moth for the cultivation.%在实验室条件下以优选的蛹虫草菌株YCC-XD-2在家蚕蛹、蛾培养基和蛹粉代料培养基上培育蛹虫草,比较不同培养基上的蛹虫草的生长状况和虫草素含量,探究高产优质蛹虫草的培养方式.蛹虫草菌种在蚕体和蛹粉代料培养基上均生长良好,其中:蚕体培养基以蚕蛾培养基上的蛹虫草生长较好;蛹粉代料培养基以糯米+蛹粉培养基上的蛹虫草生长较好.蚕体培养基培育蛹虫草子实体中的虫草素含量显著高于蛹粉代料培养基培育的蛹虫草,其中,蚕蛾培养基培育蛹虫草子实体中的虫草素质量比高达21.97 mg/g.在相同培养条件下,蛹虫草子

  20. Preliminary Study on Lactobacillus Fermentation Manufacturing Tussah Pupa Skin Chitin%利用乳杆菌发酵法制备柞蚕蛹皮甲壳质研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛强; 张海东; 孙继红; 杨淑芳; 张金磊; 孙国庆

    2014-01-01

    Prepare tussah pupa skin chitin using Lactobacillus fermentation ,and examine the protein removal rate and salt removal rate .By single factor test ,the optimal fermentation conditions were determined ,which were as follows :when the fermentation temperature was 32℃ ,Glucose concentration being 10g/100ml ,raw material dosage 5g/100ml ,and in-oculums 8% ,with a fermentation period for 36h ,the desalination and removal of protein ratio can be 61 .88% 70 .92%respectively .%利用乳杆菌发酵法制备柞蚕蛹皮甲壳质,以脱盐率及脱蛋白率为考核指标,通过单因素试验,优化了发酵条件,确定最优条件为:发酵温度32℃,发酵液中葡萄糖的浓度为10g/100mL,原料的添加量按5g/100mL的比例添加,接种量为8%,发酵周期为36h。此条件下脱盐率及脱蛋白率分别可达到70.92%和61.88%。

  1. Autistic-Like Behaviors, Oxidative Stress Status, and Histopathological Changes in Cerebellum of Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism Are Improved by the Combined Extract of Purple Rice and Silkworm Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartnutda Morakotsriwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of autism and the concept of synergistic effect, the benefit of the combined extract of purple rice and silkworm pupae (AP1 for autism disorder was the focus. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of AP1 on autistic-like behaviors, oxidative stress status, and histopathological change of cerebellum in valproic acid (VPA rat model of autism. VPA was injected on postnatal day (PND 14 and the animals were orally given AP1 at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW between PND 14 and PND 40. The autism-like behaviors were analyzed via hot-plate, rotarod, elevated plus-maze, learning, memory, and social behavior tests. Oxidative stress and the histological change in the cerebellum were assessed at the end of study. AP1 treated rats improved behaviors in all tests except that in hot-plate test. The improvement of oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss was also observed in the cerebellum of VPA-treated rats. Our data suggest that AP1 partially reduced autism-like behaviors by improving oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss. Further research is required to identify the active ingredients in AP1 and gender difference effect.

  2. Autistic-Like Behaviors, Oxidative Stress Status, and Histopathological Changes in Cerebellum of Valproic Acid Rat Model of Autism Are Improved by the Combined Extract of Purple Rice and Silkworm Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakotsriwan, Nartnutda; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit

    2016-01-01

    Due to the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of autism and the concept of synergistic effect, the benefit of the combined extract of purple rice and silkworm pupae (AP1) for autism disorder was the focus. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of AP1 on autistic-like behaviors, oxidative stress status, and histopathological change of cerebellum in valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. VPA was injected on postnatal day (PND) 14 and the animals were orally given AP1 at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg(-1) BW between PND 14 and PND 40. The autism-like behaviors were analyzed via hot-plate, rotarod, elevated plus-maze, learning, memory, and social behavior tests. Oxidative stress and the histological change in the cerebellum were assessed at the end of study. AP1 treated rats improved behaviors in all tests except that in hot-plate test. The improvement of oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss was also observed in the cerebellum of VPA-treated rats. Our data suggest that AP1 partially reduced autism-like behaviors by improving oxidative stress and Purkinje cell loss. Further research is required to identify the active ingredients in AP1 and gender difference effect.

  3. Comparison of life table parameters of the laboratory population of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on frozen-killed and fresh housefly pupae%以冷冻和新鲜家蝇蛹为寄主的蝇蛹俑小蜂实验种群生命表参数比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱承节; 贺张; 陈伟; 张仕林; 胡好远

    2014-01-01

    [Aim] This study aims to illustrate the effects of using frozen-preserved housefly (Musca domestica) pupae as hosts on the reproduction of Spalangia endius.[Methods] The survival number,offspring number and sexes of S.endius on fresh housefly pupae and the housefly pupae frozen killed and preserved at-20℃,respectively,were recorded daily,and the life tables were built.The effects of host types on the parasitism rate,offspring number and sex ratio,and parameters of life table were compared and analyzed.[Results] The results showed that the parasitism rate,offspring number,and male proportion of S.endius on the frozen-killed housefly pupae were lower than those of wasps on the fresh housefly pupae (P < 0.01).The longevity and oviposition duration of adults were similar between the two groups (P > 0.05).The parasitism rate and offspring number in both groups decreased with the increasing of female age (P < 0.01).The net reproductive rate (R0) of S.endius on the fresh housefly pupae and frozen-killed pupae was 34.91 and 20.16,and their intrinsic natural increase (rm) was 0.17 and 0.11,respectively.R0and rm were both larger on the fresh housefly pupae than on frozen-killed housefly pupae (P <0.01).The mean generation time (T) and doubling time (DT) of S.endius on the frozen-killed housefly pupae were prolonged compared with those of wasps on the fresh pupae (P <0.01).[Conclusion] Our results indicate that S.endius can use frozen-killed housefly pupae as hosts to finish life history.We believe that the method of frozen-killed hosts would be useful for massively culturing of S.endius.%[目的]为了阐明以冷冻保存家蝇Musca domestica蛹为寄主对繁殖蝇蛹俑小蜂Spalangia endius的影响.[方法]本研究分别利用新鲜和-20℃冷冻保存的家蝇蛹为寄主,记录了小蜂日存活数、日后代数量和性别等,并分别构建了实验种群生命表,分析比较了两种类型家蝇蛹对小蜂寄生率、日后代数量和性比、生

  4. Efeito do tipo de substrato para pupação na dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae Effect of the substrate for pupation in the postfeeding larval dispersal of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    Full Text Available As moscas-varejeiras utilizam substratos discretos e efêmeros para posturas dos ovos e para alimentação das larvas. Após a exaustão de recursos, as larvas começam a procurar por um sítio de pupação no habitat ou por mais fonte de alimento adicional (dispersão larval pós-alimentar. No entanto, o tipo de substrato de dispersão pode afetar este processo; assim, procurou-se avaliar o comportamento de dispersão de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 por meio da localização das pupas em arenas circulares preenchidas com vermiculita, comparando-se com outros estudos feitos em serragem. As arenas foram dividas em 72 setores iguais a partir do centro de dispersão para facilitar a localização das pupas no substrato. A massa, a distância de dispersão do centro de arena, e a profundidade de cada pupa foram determinadas e verificou-se a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância do centro de dispersão. Pôde-se constatar que as larvas com menor massa foram as que percorreram maior distância do centro de dispersão, como também foi observado em estudos anteriores que empregaram outros substratos. O sítio de pupação da maioria dos indivíduos foi entre 2 e 8 cm de profundidade (média 4,96±2,97 cm. Tal estudo do processo de dispersão pode ser útil na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM para corpos humanos em investigações médico-criminais.Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for pupation sites or for additional food sources, a process referred to as postfeeding larval dispersal. However the nature of the substrate can affect this process. Some of the most important aspects of this behavior were here investigated in Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, utilizing a circular arena covered with vermiculite allowing the post-feeding larval dispersal from the center and to comparing with others studies that used

  5. Simuliidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha no Brasil - XII sobre o gênero Thyrsopelma Enderlein, 1934: descrição de T. jeteri Sp.N., considerações sobre o cibário e chave para as pupas Brazilian Simuliidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha - XII about the genus Thyrsopelma Enderlein, 1934: description of the T. jeteri new species, considerations related with cibarium and key for the pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor PY-Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available É acrescentado um novo caráter pupal para a espécie T. hirtipupa (Lutz,1910. É evidenciada a existência de dentes no cibário da fêmea de T. guianense (Wise,1911, principal espécie envolvida na transmissão da filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart,1893 no foco da região amazônica. É proposta uma nova relação para os artículos antenais da larva de T. guianense. É descrita uma nova espécie para o gênero Thyrsopelma Enderlein,1934, T. jeteri sp.n., proveniente da bacia hidrográfica do rio Uruguai, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. São apresentados os parâmetros físico-químicos do criadouro de onde provem o material tipo. É apresentada uma chave para diferenciação das pupas das espécies constantes neste gênero.A new pupal character is increased for T. hirtipupa (Lutz,1910. The existence of teeth is evidenced in the female cibarium of T. guianense (Wise,1911, main species involved in the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart,1893 in the focus of the Amazonian area. A new relationship is proposed among the antenna articles of the T. guianense larva. A new species is described for the genus Thyrsopelma Enderlein,1934, T. jeteri sp.n., collected in Uruguay basin, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The physico-chemical parameters are presented for the type locality. A key is presented for the pupal differentiation inside of Thyrsopelma.

  6. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acids from Silkworm pupa oil and its oxidative stability%蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸提取及氧化稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 李国荣; 李建科; 孟永宏; 马倩倩

    2012-01-01

    以蚕蛹毛油为原料,采用常压碱水皂化制取混合脂肪酸,溶剂法分离高纯度蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸.首先在超量碱、皂化温度、皂化时间单因素实验的基础上采用响应面实验优化常压碱水皂化工艺,得到最佳皂化条件为恒定碱液质量分数15%,超量碱45%,皂化温度98℃,皂化时间3.3h;其次通过甲醇溶剂法得到高纯度蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸工艺条件为恒定结晶温度-10℃,料液比为1∶2.4(混合脂肪酸与溶剂甲醇质量比),甲醇溶液质量分数90%,结晶时间30 min;最后脱色后得到蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸产品,并对其理化指标测定.产品在不同贮存条件下保存32 d考察其氧化稳定性,结果表明在4℃条件下避光保存并添加抗氧化剂的产品稳定性最好.%With the crude Silkworm pupa oil as raw material, saponification under normal pressure and solvent separation at low temperature were used to prepare high purity unsaturated fatty acids. On the basis of single factor experiments, response surface methodology( RSM ) was used to optimize the conditions of saponification process, and the optimal saponification conditions were as follows: constant aqueous alkali mass fraction 15% , extra alkali 45% , saponification time 3. 3 h, saponification temperature 98°C. High purity unsaturated fatty acids was obtained by solvent method under the conditions of -10 °C , mass ratio of fatty acid mixture to solvent methanol 1:2. 4, methanol mass fraction 90% and crystallization time 30 min. After bleaching with activated clay, the product of unsaturated fatty acids was obtained, and its chemicophysical characteristics were determined and oxidative stability was studied. The product added with TBHQ had good stability when it was no exposure to light and air, and stored at 4°C.

  7. Dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar em Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae: profundidade, peso e distância de enterramento para pupação Postfeeding radial larval dispersion in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae: depth, weight and distance of burying for pupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for sites to pupate or for additional food source, process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some aspects of this process were investigated in Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830, utilizing a circular arena to permit the radial dispersion of larvae from the food source in the center. To determine the localization of each pupa, the arena was split into 72 equal sectors from the center. For each pupa, distance from the center of arena, weight and depth were determined. Statistical tests were performed to verify the relation among weight, depth and distance of burying for pupation. It was verified that the larvae that disperse farthest are those with lowest weights. The majority of individuals reached the depth of burying for pupation between 7 and 18 cm. The study of this process of dispersion can be utilized in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI for human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  8. SFE-CO2萃取东北柞蚕蛹油的工艺及脂肪酸成分研究%Investigation on the extraction technology of Northeast tussah pupa oil with SFE-CO2 and analysis of its composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲晓宇; 张四喜; 张晓荧; 宋燕青

    2014-01-01

    目的:本文对东北地区极其丰富的生物资源柞蚕蛹油进行提取工艺研究,并分析其脂肪酸的主要组成成分。方法通过超临界二氧化碳流体(SFE-CO2)萃取法提取东北柞蚕蛹油并利用均匀设计法优化萃取条件,最后通过气象色谱法分析东北柞蚕蛹混合脂肪酸的主要成分。结果确定了SFE-CO2萃取东北柞蚕蛹油的操作条件为:萃取压力50 MPa,萃取温度45℃,萃取时间6 h,东北柞蚕蛹干粉中蛹油的萃取率为17.93%(w/w)。经气相色谱法分析其脂肪酸组成主要为碳十五烷酸37.03%,棕榈酸5.63%,碳十七烷酸32.81%,硬脂酸1.79%,油酸3.75%,亚油酸11.98%,α-亚麻酸7%。结论本文采用SFE-CO2萃取法萃取东北柞蚕油,提取率较高,工艺可靠,为进一步开发东北柞蚕蛹油中的不饱和脂肪酸奠定了基础。%Objective To investigate the extracting technology of the Northeast tussah pupa oil and analyze the composition of the oil. Methods The Northeast tussah pupa were crushed and dried at 60℃. The oil was extracted from the Northeast tussah pupa powder with super critical fluid extraction technology-CO2 (SFE-CO2) at the extracting temperature as 45 ℃,pressure as 50 MPa and operating time as 6 hours according to the results of homogeneous design. The composition of the oil was detected by gas chromatography (GC).Results The extracting rate of the oil from the Northeast tussah pupa powder was 17.93% (w/w)and the percent of compositions of the oil were C15:0 fatty acid 37.03%,hexadecanoic acid 5.63%,C17:0 fatty acid 32.81%,octadecanoic acid 1.79%,leic acid 3.75%,octadecadienoic acid 11.98% and α-1inoleic acid 7.00%. Conclusion The technology of SFE-CO2 can be used in extraction of Northeast tussah pupa with High extraction efficiency.

  9. Expression of the VP2 gene of canine parvovirus in BmN cells/silkworm pupae%犬细小病毒VP2蛋白在家蚕/昆虫细胞中表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡桂秋; 郭鹤; 梁红茹; 冯昊; 王化磊; 郑学星; 赵永坤; 赵丽丽; 杨松涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 犬细小病毒(canine parvovirus,CPV)能够引起犬急性出血性肠炎,在幼犬中的死亡率很高,为我国养犬业和经济动物养殖业带来巨大的经济损失.因而,寻找一种新型、安全、高效的疫苗为细小病毒性肠炎的防控具有重要意义.方法 本研究利用Bac-to-Bac表达系统构建了表达CPV VP2蛋白的重组杆状病毒rBV-D-VP2.该重组病毒感染昆虫细胞和家蚕后,表达CPV VP2蛋白.体外表达的VP2蛋白自动装配成病毒样粒子.随后用蚕蛹中大量组装成的病毒样粒子分别通过口服和肌注两种途径免疫豚鼠.结果 经电镜检测,观察到直径为25 nm大小的球形病毒样粒子,表明重组杆状病毒表达的VP2能形成病毒样粒子,且在大小、形态上与天然病毒相似.间接免疫荧光检测表明成功构建了表达VP2的病毒样粒子.口服和肌注两种途径免疫豚鼠,均产生了血凝抑制效价.结论 本研究为CPV新型亚单位疫苗的研究提供了依据.%Objective Canine parvovirus causes acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in pups,leading to a high mortality rate.This results in vast economic losses for animal breeders.A new safe and effective vaccine to prevent canine parvovirus must be found.Methods A recombinant baculovirus named rBV-D-VP2 was constructed using a Bac-to-Bac expression system.The VP2 protein of canine parvovirus was expressed in insect cells and silkworm pupae and self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs).Silkworm homogenates containing CPV-VLPs were then administered to guinea pigs orally and intramuscularly.Results Electron microscopy showed that the VP2 protein assembled into spherical particles with a diameter of 25 nm; these particles were similar to native CPV in terms of both size and morphology.Indirect immunofluorescence showed that the VP2 protein was successfully expressed in BmN cells.Oral and intramuscular delivery induced a humoral immune response in guinea pigs.Conclusion This study

  10. 蚕蛹蛋白酶解产物体外抗氧化和降血压活性筛选及响应面工艺优化%Screening for Optimal Enzyme for Preparation of Silkworm Pupae Protein Hydrolysate with in vitro Antixodiant and Antihypertensive Activities and Process Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钟兴; 廖丹葵; 孙建华; 黄科林; 孙果宋; 秦伟嘉; 吴志洪; 童张法

    2011-01-01

    In the present study,silkworm pupae protein hydrolysates at different degree of hydrolysis were prepared with alcalase,papain,trypsin,and bromelain,respectively and their scavenging activity against DPPH,superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals and antihypertensive activity were comparatively determined,with the result that hydrolyzing silkworm pupae protein by alcalase to a degree of hydrolysis(DH) of 20% yielded a hydrolysate with better antixodiant and antihypertensive activities.Three main process conditions for the hydrolysis of silkworm pupae protein by alcalase,including temperature,pH and enzyme dosage were further optimized using response surface methodology.The results of response surface analysis indicated that temperature and enzyme dosage had a significant interactive effect on the hydrolysis of silkworm pupae protein and that the optimal hydrolysis conditions for achieving 20% DH and minimizing costs were 51.0 ℃,pH 9.05 and 0.38% enzyme/substrate ratio.Under these conditions,the experimental DH was 20.53%,with an error of less than 5% as compared with the predictive value,and the DPPH radical scavenging rate and ACE inhibitory rate of the obtained hydrolysate were 51.2% and 50.3%,respectively.%以蚕蛹蛋白为原料,使用碱性蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶、菠萝蛋白酶对其进行酶解,采用1,1-一苯基-2-三硝基苯肼自由基(DPPH自由基)法、超氧阴离子自由基(O-2.)法、羟自由基(.OH)法和血压紧张素转化酶(ACE)法对酶解产物进行抗氧化和降血压活性分析,筛选同时具有较强抗氧化和降血压活性的酶解产物,并确定获得较强活性时的水解度,再通过响应面对该水解度下酶解工艺条件进行优化。结果表明:碱性蛋白酶在水解度为20%左右时获得的水解产物抗氧化和降血压效果较好,并由响应面分析结果表明酶解温度和加酶量之间存在显著的交互作用,同时得到最佳酶解

  11. Remediación de suelos contaminados con mercurio utilizando guarumo (Cecropia peltata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Víctor Vidal Durango

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de suelos por el mercurio resultante de la explotación aurífera puede ser remediada mediante la utilización de plantas que lo acumulan en sus tejidos, disminuyendo su impacto sobre los ecosistemas y la salud humana. En este trabajo se determinó la influencia del grado de contaminación, la aplicación de ácido cítrico y tiempo de crecimiento del guarumo, sobre la tasa de remoción de mercurio en suelo. Después de 4 meses de crecimiento, los porcentajes de remoción estuvieron entre 15.7% y 33.7% debido a la capacidad del guarumo para acumular grandes cantidades del metal sin presentar efectos tóxicos considerables, así como al alto contenido de mercurio biodisponible en los suelos contaminados, lo que conllevó también a que el ácido cítrico no tuviera una influencia significativa sobre la recuperación de Hg; por lo cual se concluyó, que el guarumo es una especie con capacidad fitorremediadora.

  12. In vitro phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera, Plukenetia volubilis, Caiophora carduifolia, Cecropia membranacea

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Quino, César; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Laboratorio de Fisiología y Farmacología, Facultad de Odontología, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Muñoz Espinoza, Danny; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, Ecuador; Gómez Herreros, César; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Chau Miranda, Gina; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Cueva Piña, Liliana; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Guardia Ortiz, Eliza; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Saavedra Yucra, Santos; Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Arroyo Acevedo, Jorge; Laboratorio de Farmacología Experimental, Facultad de Medicina Humana, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM, Lima, Perú; Herrera Calderón, Oscar; Facultad de Fisiología y Fisiopatología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga, Ica, Perú

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Antioxidants have shown chemopreventive potential in degenerative, inflammatory, autoimmune, oncology and respiratory distress associated pathologies. Objective. To assess the phytochemical and antioxidant properties in vitro by DPPH and ABTS method. Design. Observational analytical. Location. Laboratory of Experimental Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biological/Chemical Material. Aloe vera leaves, Plukenetia volubilis see...

  13. Distribution of nestin immunoreactive neurons exist in the antennal lobes of drosophila melanogaster pupa%果蝇触角神经叶巢蛋白免疫阳性神经元簇的分布和细胞学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈骏英; 顾怀宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the morphologic and distributive characteristics of nestin-immunoreactive (nestin-ir) neurons in the antennal lobes of Drosophila melanogaster pupas and the relationships among nestin-ir, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. Methods Two kinds of transgenic experimental models were utilized in the study. They were genetically labeled with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in cholinergic neurons and Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) in GABAergic neurons respectively. And the third or fourth day pupas were selected as experimental animals and have their brains dissected. Subsequently, the brains of Drosophila pupas were taken for immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures. Anti-mouse nestin and goat anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies were used in the IHC experiments. Homologus analysis between nestin and all proteins of Drosophila had been done via Blast and ClustalX. Results The nestin-ir neurons were found distributing in the internal and external parts of antennal lobes of Drosophila pupas. These nestin-ir neurons were round and large and classified to the LNs. None of nestin-ir neurons were cross stained with cholinergic neurons and they intermingled with each other in the antennal lobe, while nestin-ir neurons were all GABAergic. Conclusion There is a new cluster of nestin-ir and GABAergic neurons exsited in antennal lobes of Drosophila pupas. The proteins lamin c and lamin of Drosophila respectively had a similarity of 25% and 22% with mouse nestin. The nestin-ir neurons may contain lamin c and lamin or one of the two proteins, which probably share the same antigenic epitopes with nestin, or may contain nestin that have not been discovered so far. The nestin-ir neurons function as inhibitive LNs via releasing GABA. However, further investigations should be made to clarify the definitive biological significances of the nestin-ir neurons.%目的 观察巢蛋白(nestin)免疫阳性神经元在果蝇蛹触角神经叶的分布和表达,并探讨其与胆碱能

  14. 蚕蛹基础日粮中添加不同脂肪源对框鳞镜鲤生长、体成分及健康状况的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LIPID SOURCES IN THE SILKWORM PUPA-BASED DIET FOR MIRROR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. SPECULARIS) ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, BODY COMPOSITION AND HEALTH STATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小飞; 田晶晶; 吉红; 李南充; 钟雷; 方程; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    将324尾健康框鳞镜鲤Cyprinus carpio var. specularis (10.70±0.70) g随机平均分配在室内循环水养殖系统的12个养殖缸里。在蚕蛹基础饲料中分别添加2%的大豆油(SO)、菜籽油(RO)、鱼油(FO)及混合油(MIX,大豆油∶菜籽油∶鱼油=1∶1∶1),配制4组等氮(36.5%)等脂(7.0%)饲料,饲养58d后,探讨框鳞镜鲤对不同脂肪源的利用效果。结果表明:(1)大豆油组终末体重显著大于混和油组,肠长比显著大于其他各组,肥满度和肠指数显著大于鱼油组(P0.05);(3)肝胰脏和肌肉脂肪酸组成基本反映了饲料的脂肪酸组成;肝胰脏PUFA水平大豆油和菜籽油组相近,均显著高于鱼油组(P0.05);(5)组间血清T-SOD活性没有显著差异(P>0.05),大豆油组GSH-XP活性显著大于其他各组(P0.05)。综上所述,框鳞镜鲤对大豆油的利用效果最好,其次是菜籽油、鱼油和混合油利用效果较差。%A total of 324 healthy mirror carps Cyprinus carpio var. specularis [initial weight: (10.70±0.70) g] were randomly and equally distributed in 12 breeding cylinders with the indoor circulating water system. 2% soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), fish oil (FO), and mixed oil (MIX, in which soybean oil, rapeseed oil and fish oil are 1∶1∶1) were added to the silkworm pupa based diet respectively, and four groups of isonitrogenous (36.5%crude protein), and isolipidic (7%crude fat) experimental diets were formulated. They were fed to apparent satiation three times a day for 58 days, and the effects of different lipid sources on growth performance, body composition and health status were dis-cussed. The following results were concluded. Firstly, the final weight of SO group was significantly heavier than that of the MIX group (P0.05). Thirdly, fatty acids composition in hepatopancreas and muscle generally reflected the composition in the diet; polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in hepatopancreas showed similar level between fish fed SO and RO

  15. Tetrastichus giffardianus on pupae of Anastrepha in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Tetrastichus giffardianus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is recorded for the first time parasitizing Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae in fruits of umbu-cajazeira Spondias sp. (Anacardiaceae in Brazil.

  16. Tetrastichus giffardianus on pupae of Anastrepha in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almerinda Amélia Rodrigues Araújo; Paulo Roberto Ramalho Silva; Ranyse Barbosa Querino Silva; Elizangela Pereira da Silva Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Tetrastichus giffardianus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is recorded for the first time parasitizing Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in fruits of umbu-cajazeira Spondias sp. (Anacardiaceae) in Brazil.

  17. Cloning, Expression and Function Analyses of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E(BmeIF4E) Gene from Silkworm Pupa (Bombyx mori)%家蚕真核细胞翻译起始因子(BmeIF4E)基因的克隆、表达及功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于威; 韩剑秋; 张耀洲

    2011-01-01

    The full open reading frame (ORF) of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) was obtained from silkworm(Bombyx mori pupal cDNA library and was named BmeIF4E (GenBank accession No.DN443192).In order to study the biological function of BmeIF4E, the ORF of this gene was cloned and the procaryotic expression recombinant plasmid pET-28a(+)-BmeIF4E was constructed to express His-BmeIF4E fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3).Because the rBmeIF4E in E.coli was soluble, the protein was purified with metal-chelating affinity chromatography directly, rBmeIF4E was used to generate anti-BmeIF4E polyclonal antibodies, to determine the subcellular localization of BmeIF4E.Immnunostaining indicated that BmeIF4E protein could be found in both the cytoplasm and nucleus.The gene expression features in different organizations and different developmental stages were analyzed using Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses.The results showed that BmeIF4E were expressed in all tissues and the expression levels were highest in malpighian tubes,followed by epidermis, fat body, spiracle, ovary, gut and head, and were lowest in the silk glad.Additionally,BmeIF4E expression began during the egg stage, increased during the larvae stage and pupa stage, reached a peak during the moth stage.Furthermore, RNA interference technology was applied to silence the target mRNA and the cell viability was assessed by Western blot and MTT assay.After 72 h of RNAi, the MTT assay indicated that when BmeIF4E was knocked down in Bm5 cells, the cell viability was decreased significantly.BmeIF4E may play an important role in the whole life cycle ofBombyx mori as a valuable house-keeping gene.%本研究从自建的家蚕(Bombyx mori)蛹期cDNA文库中筛选到一条cDNA序列,发现其在序列和结构上与其他物种的真核细胞翻译起始因子钮基因(BmeIF4E)具有较高的相似性,推测可能是家蚕eIF4E基因,将该序列命名为BmeIF4E,GenBank登录号为DN443192.

  18. Effects of acoustic waves on pupas of Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Efeitos das ondas acusticas em pupas de Ceratitis capitata. (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Adilson Camilo de

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research has been to investigate the hypothesis that acoustic waves would provoke a measurable effect on a population of fruit flies, a treatment denominated sonication. Ionizing radiation, the causative agent for the treatment designated by irradiation has been used as a reference, as long as its effects on living beings and particularly on insects are widely known. This research also enquiries into the possible effects of acoustic waves and gamma rays. The experiments of sonication were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo. The experiments of radiation were carried out in the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes - IPEN, located within the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. It has been employed a Gamma cell source model 220 with average activity of 757.069 {+-} 293.484 curies (Ci) and an average doses rate of 3.106 {+-} 0.245 kilo grays per hour (kGy/h). Levels applied to the sonication treatment, in hertz and kilo Hertz were: 0 Hz (control) ; 5.0 Hz; 10.0 Hz; 20.0 Hz; 40.0 Hz; 60.0 Hz; 80.0 Hz; 1.0 k Hz; 2.0 k Hz; 10.0 k Hz; 15.0 k Hz e 20.0 k Hz. Irradiation doses applied in Grays were: 5.0 Gy; 7.5 Gy; 10.0 Gy; 12.5 Gy; 15 Gy; 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy and 200 Gy. It has been used an acoustic tube made of glass - 40.6 cm in length and 9.1 cm in diameter - and sinusoidal waves originated from three acoustic sources, with response in decibels, which sound intensity varied from 93.60 {+-} 1.51 dB to 123.96 {+-} 0.23 dB. Final results have pointed to evidences that would justify the rejection of null hypothesis H{sub 0}, to which the average of the treatments due to acoustic waves do not differ significantly from each other.(author)

  19. Production of transgenic medaka with increased resistance to bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmasik, Aliye; Warr, Gregory; Chen, Thomas T

    2002-06-01

    Cecropins, first identified in silk moth (Hyalophora cecropia), are a group of antimicrobial peptides with bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. In this study we investigated whether (1) this group of antimicrobial peptides could exhibit bactericidal activity toward known fish bacterial pathogens and (2) expression of cecropin transgenes in transgenic medaka (Oryzias latipas) could result in increasing resistance of the transgenic fish to infection by fish bacterial pathogens. Cecropin gene construct containing silk moth preprocecropin B, procecropin B and cecropin B, and porcine cecropin P1 driven by a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were transfected into chinook salmon embryonic cells (CHSE-214) by lipofection, and the resulting permanent transformants were collected. In an "inhibition zone" assay medium isolated from each transformant exhibited strong bactericidal activity toward known fish bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Vibrio anguillarum. The same cecropin transgene constructs were introduced into newly fertilized medaka eggs by electroporation to produce transgenic fish. About 40% to 60% of the embryos survived from electroporation, and about 5% to 11% of the surviving fish were shown to contain cecropin transgenes by polymerase chain reaction analysis of genomic DNA samples isolated from presumptive transgenic fish. These P1 transgenic fish were used as founder stocks, and following generations of successive breeding, a total of 20 F2 families of transgenic fish were established. Expression of cecropin transgenes was detected in the F2 transgenics by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA isolated from different F2 fish showed that cecropin transgenes were integrated into the genomes of F2 transgenic fish. To determine whether transgenic fish carrying cecropin transgenes could exhibit resistance to infection by known fish bacterial

  20. Biology and Description of the Larva and Pupa of Anopheles (Cellia) elegans James (1903),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Ramakrishnan. 1963. Experimental susceptibility of Anophe line mosquitoes to simian malaria in N the Nilgiris , Madras State, South India. Indian J...simian malaria in the Nilgiris , Madras State, India. Indian J. Malariol. 17:243-247. Colless, D.H. 1956. The Anopheles leucoph ,rus group. Trans. R

  1. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  2. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  3. Pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth in the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Sinzogan, Antonio; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are currently used for biological control in fruit plantations in Australia, Asia and Africa and for protein production in Asia. To further improve the technology and implement it on a large scale, effective and fast production of live colonies is desirable. Early colony developme...

  4. Description of the Pupa of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) Grossbecki Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Illinois Nat. 25:83-126. Hist. Surv. 24:1-96. Darsie , R.F., Jr . and R.A. Ward. 1981. Iden- Siverly, R.E. 1972. Mosquitoes of...Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 16:227- onomists’ glossary of mosquito anatomy. 270. Plexus Publ. Inc., Marlton, New Jersey. Ward, R.A. and R.F. Darsie , Jr ...Knight and Stone 1977, Knight 1978, Wood Maryland, Prince George’s County, Fort et al. 1979, Darsie and Ward 1981, Ward Washington, coll. no. BH 901, 28

  5. Parasitization by Schleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs on the surface and inject venom into the host. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects emerge from changes in expression of genes...

  6. Pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth in the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouagoussounon, Issa; Sinzogan, Antonio; Offenberg, Joachim;

    2013-01-01

    Oecophylla ants are currently used for biological control in fruit plantations in Australia, Asia and Africa and for protein production in Asia. To further improve the technology and implement it on a large scale, effective and fast production of live colonies is desirable. Early colony developme...

  7. Immunogene and viral transcript dynamics during parasitic Varroa destructor mite infection of developing honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Ryan D; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-05-15

    The ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite is a major contributor to the ongoing honey bee health crisis. Varroa interacts with honey bee viruses, exacerbating their pathogenicity. In addition to vectoring viruses, immunosuppression of the developing honey bee hosts by Varroa has been proposed to explain the synergy between viruses and mites. However, the evidence for honey bee immune suppression by V. destructor is contentious. We systematically studied the quantitative effects of experimentally introduced V. destructor mites on immune gene expression at five specific time points during the development of the honey bee hosts. Mites reproduced normally and were associated with increased titers of deformed wing virus in the developing bees. Our data on different immune genes show little evidence for immunosuppression of honey bees by V. destructor. Experimental wounding of developing bees increases relative immune gene expression and deformed wing virus titers. Combined, these results suggest that mite feeding activity itself and not immunosuppression may contribute to the synergy between viruses and mites. However, our results also suggest that increased expression of honey bee immune genes decreases mite reproductive success, which may be explored to enhance mite control strategies. Finally, our expression data for multiple immune genes across developmental time and different experimental treatments indicates co-regulation of several of these genes and thus improves our understanding of the understudied honey bee immune system. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Differing Success of Defense Strategies in Two Parasitoid Wasps in Protecting Their Pupae Against a Secondary Hyperparasitoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-01-01

    During their larval development, endoparasitoids are known to dispose of host resources in several different ways. Some parasitoid wasps consume most or all tissues of the host, whereas others consume a small fraction of host resources and either ensure that the host moves away from the pupation sit

  9. Utilisation of multiple queens and pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth of weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius) have been increasingly used as biocontrol agents of insect pests and as insect protein for human food and animals. For either of these purposes, mature ant colonies are essential. However, for a newly established colony to develop to a suitable mature...

  10. Using pleometrosis (multiple queens) and pupae transplantation to boost weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) colony growth in ant nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang

    2011-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are increasingly being used for biocontrol and are targeted for future production of insect protein in ant farms. An efficient production of live ant colonies may facilitate the utilization of these ants but the production of mature colonies is hampered by the long t...

  11. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    .... Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha...

  12. A New Species of Culex (Eumelanomyia) from India with Descriptions of Pupae and Larvae of Cx. pluvialis Barraud and Cx. iphis Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Barraud and Cx. <@is Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)l Sunthorn Sirivanakarn 2 ABSTRACT. All known stages of CuZex Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India and the...specimens collected by Be N. Mohan in the Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India in 1974 and by Eb L. Peyton and Y,-M. Huang in Sri Lanka in 1975% These collec...of topotypic specimens of CUZSX in the Nilgiri Hills have been a valuable contribution to the taxonomic knowledge of several Indian species. The

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Male White Wax Scale Pupae%白蜡虫雄虫真蛹转录组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑惠; 亓倩; 孙涛; 王雪庆; 杨璞; 冯颖

    2016-01-01

    Objective]To obtain the transcriptomic data and characterize the transcriptome of pupal stage of male white wax scale insect,Ericerus pela.[Method]The high-throughput sequencing was performed by Illumina HiSeq 2 000,and bioinformatics analysis were carried out subsequently.Three heat shock protein genes (hsps)were se-lected for expression profile analysis cross different developmental stages using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).[Result]The transcriptomic sequencing generated 63 957 unigenes,63 272 open reading frame (ORF), and 9 561simple sequence repeat (SSR)markers.The average length of the unigenes was 674 bp.A total of 14 327 unigenes were annotated in different databases.The Gene Ontology (GO)and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)analysis showed that the putative function of many genes coincided the physiological charac-terization of pupal stage.[Conclusion]The data and analysis of the transcriptome could lay a foundation for further gene functional research and proteomic analysis of E.pela.%[目的]蛹期对于白蜡虫雄虫发育和交配具有重要意义,但目前缺乏对于白蜡虫真蛹基因转录情况的分析,本研究旨在获得白蜡虫真蛹转录组数据,了解其转录组特征。[方法]采用Illumina HiSeq 2000进行高通量测序,并进行生物信息学分析;采用荧光定量PCR(qRT-PCR)检测3个热激蛋白基因(hsp)在不同虫态中的表达动态。[结果]共获得63957条unigene、63272个开放阅读框(ORF)、9561个SSR分子标记,unigene平均长度674 bp,共有14327条unigene获得了注释,Gene Ontology(GO)注释和 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG)注释分析表明,很多基因参与的功能与白蜡虫蛹期的生理特征吻合。[结论]该转录组数据为白蜡虫基因功能鉴定和蛋白组学分析研究奠定了数据基础。

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Musca domestic pupae Lectin%家蝇蛹凝集素的分离工艺和性质的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小红; 陈一; 张燕; 陈锦英

    2003-01-01

    通过缓冲液浸提、戊二醛固定化红细胞吸附、亲和层析和凝胶过滤等方法,从家蝇蛹中分离纯化出一种对半乳糖专一的凝集素.结果表明,亲和层析后,SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳检测家蝇蛹凝集素(MPL)分子质量为84 ku.SephadexG-200凝胶过滤后,MPL分子质量为86 ku.家蝇蛹凝集素专一性识别D-半乳糖,其血凝活力对热不稳定,不依赖Ca2+,在pH 6~9之间稳定.家蝇蛹凝集素对Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis和Salmonella typhi有抑制作用.

  15. Characteristic properties of proteins from pre-ecdysial cuticle of larvae and pupae of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2002-01-01

    proteins, indicating that the two proteins interact during aggregation. The Tenebrio larval/pupal cuticular proteins are characterized by an abundance of hydrophobic amino acid residues, and especially their contents of alanine and proline are high. The behaviour of the cuticular proteins in solution...... resembles that of another hydrophobic protein, tropoelastin, and it seems reasonable to suggest that similar interactions govern the folding and aggregation of the peptide chains in the two types of proteins. The proline and alanine rich chain segments in the pharate cuticular proteins are suggested to form...... a series of beta-turns and to fold into a relatively open structure at low temperatures, giving water access to the hydrophobic residues and making the proteins water soluble. At increased temperatures the structure of the ordered water layer surrounding the hydrophobic groups breaks down, and the peptide...

  16. Molecular identification and functional characterisation of uncoupling protein 4 in larva and pupa fat body mitochondria from the beetle Zophobas atratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2012-08-01

    Uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) is a member of the UCP subfamily that mediates mitochondrial uncoupling, and sequence alignment predicts the existence of UCP4 in several insects. The present study demonstrates the first molecular identification of a partial Zophobas atratus UCP4-coding sequence and the functional characterisation of ZaUCP4 in the mitochondria of larval and pupal fat bodies of the beetle. ZaUCP4 shows a high similarity to predicted insect UCP4 isoforms and known mammalian UCP4s, both at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels. Bioenergetic studies clearly demonstrate UCP function in mitochondria from larval and pupal fat bodies. In non-phosphorylating mitochondria, ZaUCP activity was stimulated by palmitic acid and inhibited by the purine nucleotide GTP. In phosphorylating mitochondria, ZaUCP4 activity decreased the yield of oxidative phosphorylation. ZaUCP4 was immunodetected with antibodies raised against human UCP4 as a single 36-kDa band. A lower expression of ZaUCP4 at the level of mRNA and protein and a decreased ZaUCP4 activity were observed in the Z. atratus pupal fat body compared with the larval fat body. The different expression patterns and activity of ZaUCP4 during the larval-pupal transformation indicates an important physiological role for UCP4 in insect fat body development and function during insect metamorphosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of AeaHsp26 and AeaHsp83 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae and Pupae in Response to Heat Shock Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    suppressing expression of Hsp23 and Hsp70 in ßies by using RNAi does not alter the decision to enter diapause or the duration of diapause in insects , it...in insects , including mosquitoes, and may have a cu- mulative role in responding to stress induced by ele- vated temperature (Mahroof et al. 2005...response to stress condi- tions other than temperature in human cells andmany other animals and insects including mosquitoes (Mosser et al. 1988

  18. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  19. Study on Ultrafiltration membrane for separation the silkworm pupa protein%分离蚕蛹蛋白超滤膜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雄辉

    2007-01-01

    采用聚乙烯醇(PVA)为膜材料,以聚乙二醇(PEG)为致孔剂,利用相转化法制备超滤(UF)膜用于分离蚕蛹蛋白.研究了不同分子量的PEG对成膜的影响;不同比例的PVA/PEG-1000条件下,不同PVA成型浓度所成膜对蚕蛹蛋白的截留情况.结果显示,PEG-1000对PVA-PEG超滤膜的改性有较好的作用,得到无色透明、机械强度较高的膜.当PVA/PEG-1000<9时,得到的是半透明膜;而在PVA/PEG-1000≥9时,得到的膜透明度高;当PVA浓度不同时成型,即使膜的成分相同,膜的性能也有很大的不同:在PVA的浓度为5%时,膜的截留率在PVA/PEG-1000=12时最好,达83.47%;在PVA的浓度为10%时,膜的截留率在PVA/PEG-1000=3时最好,达83.76%;在PVA的浓度为15%时,其截留率比较高,虽都没有超过80%,但比较稳定.

  20. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The insect predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou), is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Life history parameters were not as good for A. chinensis when reared on an artificial diet compared to Chinese oak silk moth p...

  1. Changing The Pupa To Butterfly--On The Rejuvenate Of Chinese magic%化蛹为蝶--试论中国魔术的复兴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢虎; 章莉

    2003-01-01

    中国魔术曾经有过辉煌的过去,然而到了现代却因种种原因落后于世界.我们不该冷落了中华艺术百花园中的这朵奇葩,我们应该借鉴发达国家的成功经验,使中国魔术再度辉煌.

  2. Redescription of larva, pupa and imago male of Chironomus (Chironomus) salinarius Kieffer from the saline rivers of the Lake Elton basin (Russia), its karyotype and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel Zorina, Oksana V; Istomina, Albina G; Kiknadze, Iya I; Zinchenko, Tatiana D; Golovatyuk, Larisa V

    2014-07-29

    Cytology and ecology of Chironomus (Chironomus) salinarius Kieffer, 1915 (Diptera, Chironomidae) was examined from material collected in the saline rivers of the Lake Elton basin (Volgograd region, Russia). Larvae of salinarius-type were identified as C. salinarius on the basis of their karyotype. The species is redescribed on the basis of all metamorphic stages. The reared imago and karyotype were obtained from larvae of the same population. The karyotype of C. salinarius, detailed mapping of the 5 chromosome arms A, C, D, E, F and characteristics of chromosome polymorphism are provided. Information on distribution and ecology of C. salinarius from the saline rivers (total mineralization 6.8-31.6 g l-1) of the Lake Elton basin is also given. Chironomus salinarius is a common in the saline rivers and occurs in sediments with high silt content. On the basis of recent samplings C. salinarius appears to be very abundant in saline, mesotrophic as well as in eutrophic rivers. Chironomus salinarius accounted for 49-66% of total abundance of zoobenthos in water with salinity up to 13-31.6 g l-1.

  3. Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus (Diptera: Culicidae), not the malaria vector we thought it was: Revised male and female morphology; larva, pupa, and male genitalia characters; and molecular verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARRISON, BRUCE A.; RUIZ-LOPEZ, FREDDY; FALERO, GUILLERMO CALDERON; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; PECOR, JAMES E.; WILKERSON, RICHARD C.

    2015-01-01

    The name Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus Zavortink, commonly used for an important malaria vector in the eastern cordillera of the Andes, is here corrected to An. pholidotus Zavortink. We discovered that An. (Ker.) specimens from Peru, and reared-associated specimens from Ecuador, had unambiguous habitus characters that matched those on the male holotype of An. lepidotus. However, the specimens do not exhibit characters of the female allotype and female paratypes of An. lepidotus, which are actually An. pholidotus. Our specimens are the first correctly associated females of An. lepidotus, which allow us to provide a new morphological interpretation for the adult habitus of this species. This finding is also corroborated by molecular data from a portion of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene and ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2). The pupal stage of An. lepidotus is described for the first time, and additional larval characters are also noted. Diagnostic morphological characters for the adult, pupal, and larval stages of An. pholidotus are provided to separate the two species. All stages of An. lepidotus are easily separated from other currently known species in subgenus Kerteszia and a new key to the females of An. (Kerteszia) is given. Previously published distribution, bionomics, and medical significance data are corrected and enhanced. PMID:26726290

  4. In-vitro infection of pupae with Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus suggests variation for susceptibility and disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An exper...

  5. Ocorrência de Polypedilum (Tripodura amataura Bidawid-Kafka, 1996 (Diptera; Chironomidae em Aquascypha hydrophora (berk. Reid (Fungi; Stereaceae, com descrição da pupa na Amazônia Central, Brasil Occurrence of Polypedilum (Tripodura amataura Bidawid-Kafka, 1996 (diptera; chironomidae in Aquascypha hydrophora (berk. Reid (Fungi; Stereaceae, with description of the pupae in the Central Amazonian, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Serpa-Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro larvas foram coletadas em água retida pelo fungo Aquascypha hydrophora (Berk. Reid (Fungi: Stereaceae fixo em troncos de árvores eretas, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Amazonas, Brasil. Das larvas coletadas, apenas um exemplar desenvolveu até a fase adulta, sendo identificado como Polypedilum (Tripodura amataura Bidawid-Kafka, 1996. Esta é a primeira descrição para uma forma imatura deste gênero, e também o primeiro registro em micotelmata.Four larvae were collected in water with the fungus Aquascyphahydrophora (Berk. Reid (Fungi: Stereaceae, fixed in tree trunks found in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. Only one specimem reached the adult phase, which was identified as Polypedilum (Tripodura amataura Bidawid-Kafka, 1996. This is the first description of an immature form of this genus, and also the first registered in mycotelmata.

  6. A temporary social parasite of tropical plant-ants improves the fitness of a myrmecophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Céréghino, Régis; Roux, Olivier; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Guerrero, Roberto J.; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Orivel, Jérôme; Boulay, Raphaël

    2010-10-01

    Myrmecophytes offer plant-ants a nesting place in exchange for protection from their enemies, particularly defoliators. These obligate ant-plant mutualisms are common model systems for studying factors that allow horizontally transmitted mutualisms to persist since parasites of ant-myrmecophyte mutualisms exploit the rewards provided by host plants whilst providing no protection in return. In pioneer formations in French Guiana, Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are known to be mutualists of myrmecophytic Cecropia ( Cecropia ants). Here, we show that Azteca andreae, whose colonies build carton nests on myrmecophytic Cecropia, is not a parasite of Azteca- Cecropia mutualisms nor is it a temporary social parasite of A. alfari; it is, however, a temporary social parasite of A. ovaticeps. Contrarily to the two mutualistic Azteca species that are only occasional predators feeding mostly on hemipteran honeydew and food bodies provided by the host trees, A. andreae workers, which also attend hemipterans, do not exploit the food bodies. Rather, they employ an effective hunting technique where the leaf margins are fringed with ambushing workers, waiting for insects to alight. As a result, the host trees’ fitness is not affected as A. andreae colonies protect their foliage better than do mutualistic Azteca species resulting in greater fruit production. Yet, contrarily to mutualistic Azteca, when host tree development does not keep pace with colony growth, A. andreae workers forage on surrounding plants; the colonies can even move to a non- Cecropia tree.

  7. Effects of fly pupae cold storage on the parasitization and reproduction of Nasonia vitripennis%蝇蛹冷藏对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂寄生和繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠; 史卫峰; 叶恭银; 胡萃; 于爱莲

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究蝇蛹冷藏对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂寄生和繁殖的影响.方法 观察丽蝇蛹集金小蜂对4℃冷藏三种蝇蛹的寄生率、出蜂率、平均出蜂数和丽蝇蛹集金小蜂后代的雌蜂比.结果 冷藏后,三种蝇蛹的寄生率、出蜂率、平均出蜂数和丽蝇蛹集金小蜂后代的雌蜂比均显著低于对照蛹,考查指标与冷藏时间均呈负相关关系.结论 蝇蛹冷藏可对丽蝇蛹集金小蜂的寄生和繁殖产生负面影响.

  8. 雄蜂蛹多肽对S180肉瘤小鼠免疫功能的影响%Effects of Drone Pupae Peptide on Immune Function of Mice with S180 Sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴关海; 童晔玲; 杨锋

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察雄蜂蛹多肽对S180肉瘤小鼠免疫功能的影响.方法:ICR小鼠皮下接S180细胞悬液造模,雄蜂蛹多肽3组小鼠按250、500、1000mg/kg 3个剂量连续灌胃雄蜂蛹多肽10天,分别观察其对抑瘤率、T淋巴细胞转化功能、自然杀伤细胞活性(NK活性)、巨噬细胞吞噬功能及溶血素含量的影响.结果:雄蜂蛹多肽具有明显提高S180肉瘤小鼠T淋巴细胞转化功能(P<0.05~0.01)、提高NK细胞活性(P<0.05)、明显提高巨噬细胞吞噬功能(P<0.05~0.01)及提高荷瘤小鼠溶血素含量作用(P<0.01~0.001).结论:雄蜂蛹多肽具有提高荷瘤小鼠免疫功能的作用.

  9. tudy on Content of Vitamin A and D3 in Prepupa and Pupa of Italian Honeybee Drone by HPLC%意蜂雄蜂前蛹和蛹维生素A和D3含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚蜜; 林发旺; 叶聿瑞; 荆战星

    2009-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法测定了意蜂雄蜂前蛹(卵起第11日)和蛹(卵起第22日)的维生素A和D3含量.结果显示:意蜂雄蜂前蛹和蛹的维生素A含量分别为44.536μg/g和43.106 μg/g;维生素D3含量分别为139.905 6μg/g和132.061 3 μg/g;雄蜂前蛹和蛹维生素A和D3的含量差异均不显著(P>0.05).

  10. 家蚕蛹体表预处理对高雄山虫草感染效果的影响%Effects of Pretreatment on the Infection Rate of Spraying Hyphal Bodies of Cordyceps takaomontana to Silkworm Pupae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建东; 王玉荣; 韩燕峰; 梁宗琦

    2013-01-01

    采用体表感染法以高雄山虫草茵丝段侵染家蚕蛹,对家蚕蛹体表进行预处理以提高感染率.试验研究了不同消毒剂、黏附分散剂和细菌发酵液预处理家蚕蛹体表后对感染的促进作用.结果表明:供试表面消毒剂提高感染率的能力为:5%聚维酮碘>3%过氧化氢>2%的汞溴红>0.5%碘伏>75%乙醇;0.05%吐温-80对高雄山虫草感染家蚕蛹有一定促进作用.不同浓度的高岭土与细菌发酵液无促进感染的作用.

  11. Preliminary study on the change rhythm of population quantity of Tetrastichus nigricoxae parasitizing Micromelalopha troglodyta pupae%白蛾黑基啮小蜂种群数量变化规律的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 郭同斌; 宋明辉; 杜伟; 王虎诚; 郭加忠

    2015-01-01

    选择徐州市林果场、云龙区和新沂市等受杨小舟蛾危害较重的不同类型杨树林分的未放蜂区(CK)和放蜂区,分别测定白蛾黑基啮小蜂在自然和人工释放2种状态下的种群数量变化.结果表明,该蜂林间自然种群数量以越冬代最高,对杨小舟蛾越冬蛹的寄生率高达(22.2±5.8)%,极显著高于第1~4代蛹(3.4%~6.4%);于越冬代和第2代害虫蛹期人工释放该蜂,释放后当代小蜂种群数量明显上升,可显著提高释放当代(越冬代和第2代)害虫蛹的寄生率,并对释放后各代害虫蛹具有一定的持续寄生效果;各代小蜂室温下的羽化进度均与相应世代寄主蛹发育进度相吻合.

  12. The Effective Accumulated and Threshold Temperatures for the Pupa of Tetrastichus planipennisi%白蜡吉丁啮小蜂蛹期发育起点温度和有效积温的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 王志英; 熊忠平; 谢淑萍

    2009-01-01

    白蜡吉丁啮小蜂是蛀干害虫白蜡窄吉丁的重要寄生性天敌,寄生于寄主幼虫的体内,为人工聚殖和应用于生物防治,在7个温度梯度下观测了白蜡吉丁啮小蜂蛹的发育速率,并应用"最小二乘法"测得该小蜂蛹期的发育起点温度为(16.823±1.381)℃,有效积温为(78.851±0.442)日度.

  13. Effect of venom from Tetrastichus sp.on the development of Ostrinia furnacalis host pupae%啮小蜂毒液对寄主亚洲玉米螟蛹发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丹青; 邱鸿贵; 茅洪新; 符文俊

    2004-01-01

    假寄生和毒液注射实验表明啮小蜂Tetrastichus sp.毒液能永久麻痹亚洲玉米螟蛹Ostriniafurnacalis,较高剂量的毒液对亚洲玉米螟蛹有不同程度的麻痹作用.麻痹的蛹在室温下较长时间内不腐烂和干化.低剂量毒液能延长亚洲玉米螟蛹期1~3 d,导致畸形成虫.啮小蜂初产卵转移寄主实验证实毒液可以帮助啮小蜂卵在亚洲玉米螟蛹体内的发育,啮小蜂初产卵在转移寄主体内发育到羽化时间为25 d,比它们在原寄主内的羽化时间增加8 d左右,初产蜂卵与1个毒液储液囊当量的毒液同时注入转移寄主体内,初产卵的羽化时间明显缩短,死亡率降低.

  14. Different uses of the honeybee queen brood, workerbee larva and drone pupa%蜂王幼虫、工蜂幼虫和雄蜂蛹的新用途

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁公

    2007-01-01

    刚取出的蜂王幼虫表面粘附着少量蜂王浆,其体内含有丰富的蛋白质、多种氨基酸和维生素、脂肪、激素(保幼激素和蜕皮激素)以及其它活性物质,所以是高级天然营养品。

  15. Studies on the Selective Parasitism Mechanism of Mites to Drone and Drone-Pupa by ISSR%运用ISSR分析蜂螨对雄蜂及雄蜂蛹的选择性寄生机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘益波; 吴小波; 颜伟玉; 曾志将

    2010-01-01

    以被大蜂螨(Varroa destructor)寄生的意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica)为实验材料,分别采集有螨雄蜂、无螨雄蜂、有螨雄蜂蛹和无螨雄蜂蛹各40只,运用ISSR(inter-simple sequence repeat)标记对各样品进行DNA扩增,通过fine-dox3型凝胶成像系统分析各条带的片段大小,计算各特异性条带在有螨与无螨样品中的概率.结果表明:有些特异性条带在有螨与无螨样品中的概率差异极显著(P<0.01),由此推测,这些条带可能与蜂螨的选择性寄生有关.

  16. Efficacy of 2 kinds of insect growth regulators against larvae and pupae of Musca domestica%2种昆虫生长调节剂对家蝇发育抑制效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晨熹; 董晓静; 张丽平; 高原; 张岱岳; 王伟; 秦娜

    2010-01-01

    目的 摸索2种生长调节剂对家蝇控制所需剂量,为今后蝇类防治提供依据.方法 将猪粪堆成面积1 m 2 厚0.15 m的粪堆,分别将吡丙醚、灭蝇胺按不同剂量均匀喷洒到猪粪堆上,并在施药前后定期观察蝇蛆蛹的数量,计算出其相应的相关密度指数及羽化抑制率.结果 在施药后的3~24 d,吡丙醚施药剂量按0.1 g a.i/m 2 ,其羽化抑制率为25.55%~86.31%,0.15、0.3 g a.i/m 2 时为52.61%~100%;灭蝇胺0.5g a.i/m 2 其羽化抑制率在18.34%~86.03%,施药后26 d时为24.18%;0.75 g a.i/m 2 时为78.85%~100%,施药后24 d为100%;1、2 g a.i/m 2 为77.88%~100%,后二者剂量24 d后均为100%.结论 由于昆虫生长调节剂毒性低,使用安全,无交叉抗性,持效期长,在控制蝇类孳生中值得推广应用.

  17. 割雄蜂蛹对蜂群生产力和繁殖力及分蜂性的影响%Effects of drone pupae excised on the colony productivity, reproductive capacity and swarming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志将; 吴桂生; 张中印; 郭冬生

    2000-01-01

    以意大利蜜蜂为材料,把定期割雄蜂蛹的蜂群作为试验组,不割雄蜂蛹的蜂群作为对照组,定期测定两组蜂群的生产力、繁殖力及分蜂性.结果表明:两组蜂群的产浆量、繁殖力及分蜂性都差异不显著,但对照组的产蜜量比试验组高8.4%~10.0%.由以上结果,作者提出:在养蜂生产中,养蜂者不必割雄蜂蛹.

  18. Larval cannibalism and pupal defense against cannibalism in two species of tenebrionid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio; Kurauchi, Toshiaki

    2009-08-01

    Cannibalism of pupae by larvae has been documented In many species of Insects, but the features of larval cannibalism and pupal defensive mechanisms against larval cannibalism have been largely Ignored. Pupae of tenebrionld beetles rotate their abdominal segments in a circular motion in response to the tactile stimulation of appendages, including legs, antennae, maxillary pulps, and wings. When the pupal abdominal rotation responses of Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus were completely blocked by transecting the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the pupae, the appendages of the paralytic pupae became initial, major targets for attack by larval cannibals. The majority of 20 paralytic pupae was cannibalized by 100 larvae within 6 h, and almost all the pupae were killed within 2-3 days. In contrast, only a few pupae of Z. atratus and several pupae of T. molitor were cannibalized when the VNC was Intact. The abdominal rotation response of the pupae thus functions as an effective defense against larval cannibalism.

  19. Crecimiento y mortalidad en juveniles de siete especies arbóreas en un bosque muy húmedo tropical intervenido de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sáenz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron por un período de cuatro años los patrones de crecimiento en diámetro y altura, así como la mortalidad de brinzales (individuos e 0.30 m altura y Diameter and height growth patterns, as well as the incidence of seedling (individuals e0.3 m and <1.5 m in height and sapling (individual e1.5 m in height and 9.9 cm DBH mortality were studied for four years in a forest under two types of silvicultural intervention. The study is based on anual measurements of individuals from the two size categories marked one year after harvest. In the case of the seedlings, the parameters evaluated were: total height and diameter at 10 cm from the base. For the sapling category, the diameter at 1.30 m was also measured. The Clark and Clark methodology was used to evaluate the crown illumination index of all individuals. Seven tree species were studied: Cecropia (two species, Cecropia insignis Liebm. and Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Laetia procera (Poepp. Eichler, Rollinia pittieri Saff, Apeiba membranacea Spruce ex Benth., Virola koschnyi Warb. y Virola sebifera Aubl. The Cecropia spp. seedlings showed the highest diameter and height growth rates, with annual mean increments in diameter of 7.8 mm/years and height of 188 cm/years. The L. procera saplings had the greatest diameter and height growth, with rates of 7.0 mm/year and 86 cm/year, respectively. Only in the case of Cecropia spp. and V. sebifera are diameter and height growth significantly correlated with the crown light index. Seedlings had the highest mortality rates in all species except Cecropia spp. and R. pittieri, where the sapling mortality was greater.

  20. A New Species of Neotropical Carpenter Ant in the Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Apparently without Major Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mackay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carpenter ants from Ecuador, which apparently has an obligatory relationship with the ant plants Cecropia membranacea Trécul, C. herthae Diels and C. marginalis Cuatrec. The workers are relatively small and hairy, and based on a number of collections, it does not appear to have major workers. We compare the new species to Camponotus balzani, to which it appears to be similar and which has normal major workers, and also lives in Cecropia spp.

  1. The Preimaginal Stages of Cryptotylus unicolor (Wiedemann and Tabanus nebulosus ornativentris Kroeber (Tabanidae-Diptera-Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coscarón S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A larva with peculiar very long pubescence on the integument, the pupa of Cryptotylus unicolor, and the larva and pupa of Tabanus nebulosus ornativentris are described and illustrated

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... find any live larva or pupa of Leucoptera malifoliella, they must reject the entire grower lot for... service. If the inspections reveal any live larva or pupa of Leucoptera malifoliella, the entire grower... larva or pupa of Leucoptera malifoliella, they will reject the entire inspection unit for shipment...

  3. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Karla; Harper Tisha; Lans Cheryl; Bridgewater Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Pe...

  4. Seasonal change in pupation behaviour and pupal mortality in a swallowtail butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour has evolved to render cryptic pupae. Apart from characteristics of the pupation site, the photoperiod experienced by larvae is important in determining pupal colour, long and short photophases eliciting the formation of green and brown pupae, respectively. This seasonal polyphenismis often correlated with developmental pathway, green pupae developing directly and brown pupae entering into diapause. From 1996 to 2000, immature stages of Iphiclides podalirius were monitored on natural hostplants in NE Spain. Larvae were followed to the pupation site and pupal colour, characteristics of the pupation site and the fate of pupae were recorded. Before August, pupae were non-diapausing green while in early August they were dimorphic, after which, they were brown and overwintered. As theory predicts, differences in pupation sites in successive generations were found in relation to pupal colour. Green pupae occurred on the hostplants and brown pupae were found among the leaf litter. Mortality ranged from 14.3 to 100%. Bird predation was the major mortality factor for green pupae and was also important for brown pupae. Results suggest that preference for pupation sites in the litter in diapausing broods evolved to avoid strong bird predation on the hostplants. Preference for sites above ground level in summer generations may have evolved in response to both non-visual (small mammals and visual (avian predators.

  5. Study on Shortern Forecast of Micromelopha troglodyta%杨小舟蛾短期预测预报研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽伟; 王福维; 李晓颖; 高立军; 李贞淑; 陈域横

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the bionomics of Micromelopha troglodyta.The pest has 2 generations a year and overwinters in pupa in the fallen leaves.In the food lack condition,the last instar larvae is compelled to pupate in advance,the mass of the pupa is much lighter than that of normal pupa.If the mass of the pupa is below 90 mg,it can not emerge.The mathematical model between the probability of the female and the pupa mass is Yi=-6.22+3.256 logXi.The mathematical model between amount of the female eggs and the pupa mass is Yi'=-1 886.3+1 014.4 logXi.Applying these mathematical models,we can forecast the population dynamics of M.troglodyta.

  6. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, C H; Pereira, L A; Filho, O M

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which was collected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individuals emerging from the same pupae.

  7. Analysis list: psq [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available psq Pupae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/psq.1.tsv htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/psq.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ps...q.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/psq.Pupae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Pupae.gml ...

  8. A description of preimaginal stages of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 (Apionidae, Curculionoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiliang Wang; Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga; Da-Kang Zhou; Runzhi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The preimaginal stages including egg, mature larva and pupa of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 were described and figured, diagnostic characters of larva and pupa were discussed, and corresponding biological information was supplied. The nomenclature of frontal setae in the larva compared with curculionid weevils, the absence of the hypopharyngeal bracon in the larva, and the metafemoral setae in the pupa were discussed. Common and different characters among the lar...

  9. Primeiro relato de Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) no Brasil First report of Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; Miranda, J.M.; V.A Costa

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the first occurrence of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil. Chicken manure samples, collected at two-week interval, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by the method of flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. In the study, ten pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Fanniidae) were obtained, two of which yielded the parasitoid M. raptor...

  10. Observation of Clinical Curative Effect of Pupa Oil α-linoleic Acid Ethyl Estre Soft Gelatin Capsule to Treat Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease%蛹油α-亚麻酸乙酯胶丸治疗非酒精性脂肪性肝病患者的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀玲; 项岫秀; 李伟娟; 张慧芹; 俞芳; 刘阁玲

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察蛹油α-亚麻酸乙酯胶丸治疗非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)患者的临床疗效.方法:观察治疗前后肝功能、血脂、瘦素.胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)的变化.结果:治疗前后肝功能、血脂有显著性下降(P<0.05),瘦素、HOMA-IR水平下降(P<0.05),治疗组与对照组比较有统计学意义.结论:蛹油α-亚麻酸乙酯胶丸通过[]改善靶组织对胰岛素的敏感性,减轻非酒精性脂肪性肝病的胰岛素抵抗,调节血脂,从而减轻非酒精性脂肪性肝病的肝损害,为临床治疗提供理论依据.

  11. 椰扁甲啮小蜂寄生后椰心叶甲蛹血淋巴蛋白质双向电泳图谱分析%Analysis of hemolymph protein patterns from Brontispa longissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) pupae parasitized by Tetrastichus brontispae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎; 林健荣; 符悦冠; 彭正强; 金启安

    2009-01-01

    分析昆虫被寄生蜂寄生后血淋巴蛋白质组分及组分含量变化,从蛋白质水平分析寄生蜂寄生引起寄主昆虫的生理变化,有利于探索寄生蜂调控寄主的机理.以椰心叶甲Brontispa longissima和椰扁甲啮小蜂Tetrastichus brontispae为研究材料,采用蛋白质双向电泳技术及图像分析技术分析了椰心叶甲蛹被椰扁甲啮小蜂寄生后不同时期血淋巴蛋白质图谱及其变化情况.结果表明:寄生后0.5,1,2,3和4 d,被寄生蛹血淋巴共检测到的蛋白斑点数分别为982,926,712,636和680个,其中特异性蛋白斑点的数量分别为650,400,336,229和150个;同期未被寄生蛹血淋巴共检测到的到的蛋白斑点数分别为645,817,640,873和940个,其中特异性蛋白斑点的数量分别为313,291,264,466和410个;被寄生蛹和同期未被寄生蛹能匹配的蛋白斑点分别为332,526,376,407和530对.被寄生蛹血淋巴蛋白斑点数量的异常变化表明寄主的生理功能受到了严重的影响.

  12. 啮小蜂寄生对亚洲玉米螟蛹血细胞包囊反应的影响及毒液对蛹的毒性研究%The effect of parasitism of Tetrastichus sp.on the encapsulation response of its host,Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée pupae and toxicity of its venom to pupal host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丹青; 邱鸿贵; 茅洪新; 王高平; 符文俊

    2004-01-01

    试验结果表明,亚洲玉米螟蛹血细胞具有很强的包囊异物的能力.Sephadex A-25珠被注入蛹内24 h后的被包囊率高达89.4%.啮小蜂寄生早期(寄生0~2 h后)不影响寄主蛹的血细胞免疫反应,寄生后期(寄生24和48 h后)玉米螟蛹的血细胞免疫反应受到一定影响.γ射线辐射处理的啮小蜂寄生蛹包囊能力的变化与正常啮小蜂寄生蛹相似,随着寄生后时间延长而下降.啮小蜂毒液对亚洲玉米螟蛹的血细胞免疫反应有抑制作用,且具有一定的毒性.

  13. Zhou Tetrastichus white moth Antheraea pernyi pupa from the host body Within a bee habits and the forest after the release of observational studies%白蛾周氏啮小蜂从寄主柞蚕蛹体爬出后的习性及林间释放的观察研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘发邦; 韩瑞东; 郭光智; 王绍文; 朱九军; 郭斐

    2009-01-01

    白蛾周氏啮小蜂是寄生于美国白蛾蛹体内的天敌昆虫.为探索该小蜂的林间释放最佳效果,我们对白蛾周氏啮小蜂的出蜂时间、出蜂孔数、出蜂蚕蛹的数量、出蜂后的存活时间、林间释放等内容进行了观察,总结出了在释放白蛾周氏啮小蜂防治美国白蛾的过程中应注意的技术环节.

  14. Effect of parasitism of Tetrastichus nigricoxae Yang on the encapsulation response of its host, Micromelalopha troglodyta Graeser pupae and toxicity of its venom to pupal host%白蛾黑基啮小蜂寄生对杨小舟蛾蛹血细胞包囊反应的影响及其毒液对蛹的毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于艳华; 郭加忠; 郭同斌; 宋明辉; 颜学武

    2015-01-01

    测定了白蛾黑基啮小蜂(Tetrastichus nigricoxae)的寄生对寄主杨小舟蛾(Micromelalopha troglodyta蛹血细胞包囊反应的影响及其毒液对蛹的毒性.结果表明,杨小舟蛾蛹血细胞具有很强的包囊异物能力,而在白蛾黑基啮小蜂毒液的作用下这种能力会丧失,因而白蛾黑基啮小蜂的卵能在寄主蛹中顺利完成世代发育,而不被包囊.Sephadex A-25珠被注入蛹内24h后的被包囊率高达94.00%.白蛾黑基啮小蜂寄生早期(寄生0~2h后)不影响寄主蛹的血细胞免疫反应,寄生后期(寄生24,48 h后)杨小舟蛾蛹的血细胞免疫反应受到较大影响.γ射线辐射处理的白蛾黑基啮小蜂寄生蛹包囊能力的变化与正常白蛾黑基啮小蜂寄生蛹相似,随着寄生后时间延长而下降.白蛾黑基啮小蜂毒液对杨小舟蛾蛹的血细胞免疫反应有抑制作用,且具有一定的毒性.

  15. Gregarious pupation act as a defensive mechanism against cannibalism and intraguild predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Claudia; Fréchette, Bruno; Labrie, Geneviève; Dumont, François; Lucas, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Coccinellid pupae use an array of defensive strategies against their natural enemies. This study aims to assess the efficiency of gregarious pupation as a defensive mechanism against intraguild predators and cannibals in coccinellid. The study was designed specifically (i) to determine the natural occurrence of gregarious pupation in the field for different coccinellid species, and (ii) to evaluate the adaptive value of gregarious pupation as a defensive mechanism against 2 types of predators (i.e., cannibals and intraguild predators). In the field, gregarious pupation consisted of a group of 2-5 pupae. The proportion of gregarious pupation observed varied according to species, the highest rate being observed with Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coccinellidae; 14.17%). Gregarious pupation had no impact on the probability that intraguild predators and cannibals locate pupae. Intraguild predation occurred more often in site with gregarious pupation, while cannibalism occurred as often in site with gregarious pupation as in site with isolated pupa. However, for a specific pupa, the mortality rate was higher for isolated pupae than for pupae located in a gregarious pupation site both in the presence of intraguild predators and in the presence of cannibals. The spatial location of pupae within the group had no impact on mortality rate. Since it reduces the risk of predation, it is proposed that gregarious pupation act as a defensive mechanism for H. axyridis pupae. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on potato epilachnid, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata(F), (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Pt. 1. Radiosensitivity of different developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J.K.; Kumar, A. (Himachal Pradesh Univ., Simla (India). Dept. of Bio-sciences)

    1983-03-01

    It is evident from the present study that after 30 Gy irradiation of eggs, grubs, pupae and adults, the resulting adults were sterile. The larval stage appears to be most radiosensitive as suggested by lower larval survival and adult malformations. Mature pupae were quite radioresistant and there was no malformation of adults such as found after irradiation of immature pupae. Moreover, this stage is very easy to handle during irradiation. These results indicate that for sterile insect techniques either mature pupae or adults are the ideal stages for irradiation of H. vigintioctopunctata with minimum somatic damage.

  17. Tres especies nuevas de Simulium Latreille de la región Neotropical: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum sp.n., (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum sp.n. y sumapazense sp.n. (Diptera, Simuliidae Três espécies novas de Simulium Latreille da região neotropical: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum sp.n., (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum sp.n. e sumapazense sp.n. (Diptera, Simuliidae Three new species of Simulium Latreille of the Neotropical region: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum sp.n., (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum sp.n. and sumapazense sp.n. (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixto Coscarón

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Tres especies nuevas son descriptas: Simulium (Hemicnetha crisatalinum proveniente de Roraima, Brasil (hembra, macho, pupa y larva; pertenciente al el grupo brachycladum; (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum de Junin, Perú (hembra, macho, pupa y larva; pertenciente al el grupo lahillei; (Grenieriella sumapazense proveniente de Cundinamarca, Colombia y descripta con base en la pupa y parte del macho.Três espécies novas são descritas: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum proveniente de Roraima, Brasil (fêmea, macho, pupa e larva; pertencente ao grupo brachycladum; (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum de Junín, Perú (fêmea, macho, pupa e larva; pertencente ao grupo lahillei; sumapazense proveniente de Cundinamarca, Colombia e descrita com base na pupa e parte do macho.Three new species are described and illustrated: Simulium (Hemicnetha cristalinum from Roraima, Brazil, (female, male, pupa and larva belonging to the brachycladum group; (Grenieriella wygodzinskyorum from Junín, Perú (female, male, pupa and larva belonging to the lahillei group and of the sumapazense from Cundinamarca, Colombia, the pupa, and part of the male are described.

  18. Seed predation, disease and germination on landslides in Neotropical lower montane wet forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myster, R.W. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico). Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies

    1997-02-01

    Seed mortality (caused by predators and pathogens) and germination were compared between Puerto Rico and Costa Rica on landslides in lower montane wet forest. Seeds of six common species on five Puerto Rican landslides and four common species on two Costa Rican landslides were used with a Cecropia species and a Gonzalagunia species included at both sites. In the Puerto Rican experiments Cecropia schreberiana was the only species to show significant seed predation (which was due to insects), pathogens grew from all species and fewer seeds were lost to predators than pathogens. Also in Puerto Rico mean germination across all species was 57% before dispersal (filled seeds collected while still on the tree) and 71% after, with Phytolacca rivinoides seeds germinating most abundantly, followed in descending order by Ocotea leucoxylon, Cecropia spec., Miconia racemosa, Palicourea riparia and Gonzalagunia spicata. In the Costa Rican experiments three species had significant predation: Cecropia polyphlebia and Urera caracasana (both due to insects) and Witheringia coccoloboides (due to mammals); pathogenic disease caused more seed loss than predation, and germination was high (61% pre-dispersal, 69% post-dispersal). Similarities between these island and mainland sites included (1) percentage of seeds lost to predation and percentage lost to pathogens (all in the 5-15% range), (2) generalist pathogens which claimed more seeds than predators and (3) majority germination with a general increase after dispersal. Finally sites were dissimilar only in the number of species with significant predation loss and whether it was by insects or mammals, casting doubt on the traditional island/mainland dichotomy. 62 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Late Holocene history of savanna gallery forest from Carimagua area, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrio; Hooghiemstra; Behling; van der Borg K

    2000-09-01

    The pollen record of a 65cm long core Laguna Carimagua-Bosque (4 degrees 04'N, 70 degrees 13'W) shows the late Holocene environmental history from a lake located within the gallery forest of the savannas of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia. Nine AMS radiocarbon dates of the organic deposits show that the core represents the period from ca. 1300(14)CyrBP to the present. The lake evolved from an active drainage system.During the period from ca. 1300 to 875(14)CyrBP (zone CMB-Ia), Mauritia-dominated swamp and gallery forest was present, dominated by Cecropia, and later also Acalypha and Alchornea. From 875 to 700(14)CyrBP (zone CMB-Ib), the lake was completely surrounded by gallery forest. Mauritiella and Cecropia occurred around the lake. Cecropia pioneer forest reached its greatest abundance and became gradually replaced by a more species-rich gallery forest, including Acalypha, Alchornea, Euterpe/Geonoma, Moraceae/Urticaceae, Piperaceae, and Virola. From 700 to 125(14)CyrBP (zone CMB-II), Cecropia lost its dominant role, and Mauritiella palms became more frequent. The main vegetation categories were swamp forest, gallery forest, understory elements, savanna shrubs and trees, and grass savanna. From 125(14)CyrBP to recent (zone CMB-III), the plant diversity in the gallery forest became highest, Mauritiella became very abundant, and among the savanna elements, woody Didymopanax increased.Comparison of four pollen records from savanna sites shows that pollen of savanna vegetation is markedly underrepresented in lake sediments when the lake lies within the gallery forest. As most of the drainage system of a savanna is hidden by gallery forest, we also expect a significant underrepresentation of the savanna ecosystem in river-transported pollen assemblages.

  20. Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age and position in two tropical pioneer tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Mulkey, Stephen S; Samaniego, Mirna; Joseph Wright, S

    2002-12-01

    The effect of leaf age on photosynthetic capacity, a critical parameter in the theory of optimal leaf longevity, was studied for two tropical pioneer tree species, Cecropia longipes and Urera caracasana, in a seasonally dry forest in Panama. These species continuously produce short-lived leaves (74 and 93 d, respectively) during the rainy season (May-December) on orthotropic branches. However, they differ in leaf production rate, maximum number of leaves per branch, light environment experienced by the leaves, leaf mass per unit area, and nitrogen content. Light-saturated photosynthetic rates for marked leaves of known ages (±1 wk) were measured with two contrasting schemes (repeated measurements vs. chronosequence within branch), which overall produced similar results. In both species, photosynthetic rates and nitrogen use efficiency were negatively correlated with leaf age and positively correlated with light availability. Photosynthetic rates declined faster with leaf age in Cecropia than in Urera as predicted by the theory. The rate of decline was faster for leaves on branches with faster leaf turnover rates. Nitrogen per unit leaf area decreased with leaf age only for Urera. Leaf mass per unit area increased with leaf age, either partly (in Cecropia) or entirely (in Urera) due to ash accumulation.

  1. Morfologia externa dos estágios imaturos de heliconíneos neotropicais: V. Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae External morphology of the immature stages of neotropical heliconians: V. Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis S. da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As estruturas externas do ovo, larva e pupa de Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908] são descritas e ilustradas, baseadas em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.The external features of egg, larva and pupa of Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, [1908] are described and illustrated, based upon light and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Biolarvicidal and pupicidal activity of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd.(Family:Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract and microbial insecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae(Metsch.)against malaria fever mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was made to determine the biological activity of Acalypha alnifolia leaf extract and the microbial insecticide Metarizhium anisopliae against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Ethanolic A. alnifolia leaf extract tested against 1st through 4th instars and pupae o...

  3. Mauritinus seferi Bondar, 1960: bionomy, description of immature stages and redescription of adult (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Márcio Luís Leitão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mature larvae of Mauritinus seferi Bondar, 1960 were collected in the mesocarp of murity palm (Mauritia flexuosa Linnaeus, in the State of Pará, Brazil. Larvae were reared to pupa and adults in the laboratory. Mature larva and pupa are described and adult redescribed. Adult and immature are illustrated for the first time. Observations about bionomy are included and discussed.

  4. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van der Beek, Eline M.

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUPA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUPA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet

  5. Remarkable similarity in body mass of a secondary hyperparasitoid Lysibia nana and its primary parasitoid host Cotesia glomerata emerging from cocoons of a comparable size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Witjes, L.M.A.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Lysibia nana is a solitary, secondary idiobiont hyperparasitoid that attacks newly cocooned pre-pupae and pupae of several closely related gregarious endoparasitoids in the genus Cotesia, including C. glomerata. Prior to oviposition, the female wasp injects paralysing venom into the host, thus preve

  6. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) that were exposed as young flies to filter paper (3.75 % a.i.) or sugar (0.01-0.1 %) treated with pyriproxyfen produced significantly fewer F1 pupae than untreated flies but adult emergence success from pupae was unaffected. In contrast, treatment of larval re...

  7. The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure. C. jejuni was transmitted from infected larvae to pupae, but not to the adult stage. Infected larvae maintained...... at 25 degrees C had mean bacterial numbers of 6.5 +/- 0.2 SE log(10) (colony forming units [CFU]/g) that subsequently dropped to 3.6 +/- 0.3 SE log(10) (CFU/g) 8 h after infection. Pupae originating from infected larvae contained mean bacterial numbers of 5.3 +/- 0.1 SE log(10) (CFU...... in older pupae (4 or 48 h). Conversely, there was a reduced expression of the digestive enzyme, lysozyme, in pupae and adults compared with larvae....

  8. FUMIGANT EFFICACY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AND EUGENOL ON THE PUPAL STAGE OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fumigant efficacy of 1,8-cineole and eugenol compounds was tested on the pupal stage of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Effects of those compounds were determined as mortality as well as impact on development of treated male and female pupae. Also differences in sensitivity to the tested compounds between sexes of T. castaneum pupae were assessed. Compounds were tested at 3 doses rate 0.34, 0.86 and 1.71 ml L-1 vol. at 30±1°C and 70±10% r.h. during 48 h. Compounds toxicity was expressed in two action modes: lethal, and as an impediment to normal metamorphosis of pupae into adult stage, forming "adultoids" and deformed adults (at both sexes. Male pupae were generally more sensitive to both tested compounds. Overall, better efficiency was performed with 1,8-cineole, while eugenol had not accomplished promising effect on the tested pupae.

  9. Effects of Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) venom and parasitism on nutritional content regulation in host Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Xu, Dan-Ping; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which the wasp Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao regulates the physiology and biochemistry of its host, effects of S. sichuanensis venom and parasitism on host the Tenebrio molitor L. pupae were examined. Significant differences in nutritional content were noted between parasitized and non-parasitized pupae and between venom- and phosphate buffered saline-injected pupae. When pupae were injected with venom, the fat body could not be disintegrated into granules; however, when pupae were parasitized, fat-body disintegration occurred. Electrophoresis showed no differences in hemolymph protein content between parasitized pupae and those injected with venom, indicating that the wasp did not have narrow-spectrum peptides. These findings confirmed that S. sichuanensis was a typical idiobiont ectoparasitoid wasp, and that nutrient regulation was similar between idiobiont and koinobiont wasps. The strong similarities between the two treatments suggest that venom injection is a major factor responsible for changes in host nutrient content. The wasp fed mainly on reducing sugars, free amino acids, and fat-body tissues; larval fat bodies were derived from hemolymph and from host tissue. Our findings suggest that lipid catabolism might be accelerated, and that lipid biosynthesis might be inhibited, when host pupae are parasitized or injected with venom. In addition to venom, physiological and biochemical changes that occur during the parasitic process might be caused by venom, ovarian proteins, saliva, or secretions.

  10. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Ol

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05677-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available UI5806.b1 B.anynana_wing.0-3d_nosize Bicyclus a... 56 3e-08 3 ( DY771512 ) 5TH_new02_K05 Bicyclus anynana wings...e Bicyclus a... 56 4e-08 3 ( DY769609 ) 72H_new21_B16 Bicyclus anynana wings - 72H pupae ... 56 4e-08 3 ( GE...abdomen_nosize Bicyclus any... 56 5e-08 3 ( DY768320 ) 48H_new18_J20 Bicyclus anynana wings... - 48H pupae ... 56 5e-08 3 ( DY768991 ) 72H_new19_G22 Bicyclus anynana wings - 72H pupae ... 56 5

  12. A description of preimaginal stages of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 (Apionidae, Curculionoidea

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    Zhiliang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The preimaginal stages including egg, mature larva and pupa of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 were described and figured, diagnostic characters of larva and pupa were discussed, and corresponding biological information was supplied. The nomenclature of frontal setae in the larva compared with curculionid weevils, the absence of the hypopharyngeal bracon in the larva, and the metafemoral setae in the pupa were discussed. Common and different characters among the larvae of P. botanicum, Aspidapion radiolus (Marsham, 1802 and A. aeneum (Fabricius, 1775 were also provided.

  13. A description of preimaginal stages of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 (Apionidae, Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Alonso-Zarazaga, M A; Zhou, Dakang; Zhang, Runzhi

    2013-01-01

    The preimaginal stages including egg, mature larva and pupa of Pseudaspidapion botanicum Alonso-Zarazaga & Wang, 2011 were described and figured, diagnostic characters of larva and pupa were discussed, and corresponding biological information was supplied. The nomenclature of frontal setae in the larva compared with curculionid weevils, the absence of the hypopharyngeal bracon in the larva, and the metafemoral setae in the pupa were discussed. Common and different characters among the larvae of Pseudaspidapion botanicum, Aspidapion radiolus (Marsham, 1802) and Aspidapion aeneum (Fabricius, 1775) were also provided.

  14. Immatures of Epilachna Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae

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    Sonia A. Casari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of the pupa and redescription of the larva of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius, collected for the first time on Brugmansia suaveoleus (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd. Bercht. and J. Presl (Solanaceae (trombeteiro, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil, is presented. The diagnoses of the described pupae of E. clandestina (Mulsant, E. paenulata (Germar and E. spreta (Mulsant, based on specimens examined, and that of E. cacica Guérin, based on the literature, are presented. A comparison among the known larvae and pupae of this genus is also presented. This is the first description of immatures of E. vigintioctopunctata from the Western Hemisphere.

  15. Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae como inimigo natural de Archisepsis scabra (Loew (Diptera: Sepsidae em fezes bovinas Spalangia drosophilae (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as natural enemy of Archisepsis scabra (Loew (Diptera: Sepsidae in catlle dung

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    C.H. Marchiori

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports, for the first time, the occurrence of the parasite Spalangia drosophilae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in pupae of Archisepsis scabra (Diptera: Sespsidae found in cow manure in the municipality of Cachoeira Dourada, GO, Brazil (18º29´S and 49º´W. Manure samples, collected at two-week intervals, were taken to the laboratory, and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of adult flies or their parasites. The parasitism prevalence was 5.7%.

  16. Primeiro relato de Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae no Brasil First report of Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    C.H. Marchiori

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first occurrence of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil. Chicken manure samples, collected at two-week interval, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by the method of flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. In the study, ten pupae of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Fanniidae were obtained, two of which yielded the parasitoid M. raptorellus . The percentage of parasitism was 5.0%.

  17. SEARCHING AND PARASITISM OF Diatraea saccharalis (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE BY Trichospilus diatraeae (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE

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    Elizangela Leite Vargas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian and Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae to search and parasitize Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae pupae in sugarcane stalks was evaluated. To analyze the ability for search and parasitism were used stalks of sugarcane (20 cm where it was introduced a pupa of D. saccharalis (T1; a pupa and a caterpillar (T2 or a pupa and fecal matter (T3. Each stalk was placed in a transparent plastic bottle with 21 females of T. diatraeae. These pupae were isolated, after 72 h, in glass tubes at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10 % relative humidity, 14:10 light/dark. The experiment was developed in an entirely casualized design with three treatments and 12 repetitions. Percentage of D. saccharalis pupa parasitized by T. diatraeae was 50.00 %, 83.33 % and 16.66 % in the T1, T2 and T3, respectively (c2 = 3.896, p=0.04. The presence of D. saccharalis caterpillars favored searching and parasitism of this host.La capacidad de Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian y Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae para buscar y parasitar las pupas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en los tallos de la caña de azúcar fue estudiada. Para analizar la habilidad de búsqueda y parasitismo fueron utilizados tallos de la caña de azúcar (20 cm donde se introdujo una pupa de D. saccharalis (T1; pupas y orugas (T2 o pupa y residuos fecales (T3. Cada tallo fue colocado en una botella plástica transparente con 21 hembras de T. diatraeae. Esas pupas fueron individualizadas, luego de 72 h, en tubos de vidrio a 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10 % UR y 14 h de foto período. El experimento se desarrolló en un diseño completamente al azar, con tres tratamientos y 12 repeticiones. Los porcentajes de pupas de D. saccharalis parasitados por T. diatraeae fueron del 50,00 %, 83,33 % y 16,66 % en el T1, T2 y T3, respectivamente (c2 = 3.896, p = 0,04. La presencia de D. saccharalis en los tallos de ca

  18. Caterpillars and fungal pathogens: two co-occurring parasites of an ant-plant mutualism.

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    Olivier Roux

    Full Text Available In mutualisms, each interacting species obtains resources from its partner that it would obtain less efficiently if alone, and so derives a net fitness benefit. In exchange for shelter (domatia and food, mutualistic plant-ants protect their host myrmecophytes from herbivores, encroaching vines and fungal pathogens. Although selective filters enable myrmecophytes to host those ant species most favorable to their fitness, some insects can by-pass these filters, exploiting the rewards supplied whilst providing nothing in return. This is the case in French Guiana for Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae as Pseudocabima guianalis caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae can colonize saplings before the installation of their mutualistic Azteca ants. The caterpillars shelter in the domatia and feed on food bodies (FBs whose production increases as a result. They delay colonization by ants by weaving a silk shield above the youngest trichilium, where the FBs are produced, blocking access to them. This probable temporal priority effect also allows female moths to lay new eggs on trees that already shelter caterpillars, and so to occupy the niche longer and exploit Cecropia resources before colonization by ants. However, once incipient ant colonies are able to develop, they prevent further colonization by the caterpillars. Although no higher herbivory rates were noted, these caterpillars are ineffective in protecting their host trees from a pathogenic fungus, Fusarium moniliforme (Deuteromycetes, that develops on the trichilium in the absence of mutualistic ants. Therefore, the Cecropia treelets can be parasitized by two often overlooked species: the caterpillars that shelter in the domatia and feed on FBs, delaying colonization by mutualistic ants, and the fungal pathogen that develops on old trichilia. The cost of greater FB production plus the presence of the pathogenic fungus likely affect tree growth.

  19. Alfa-glucosidase-inhibiting activity of some Mexican plants used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Becerra-Jiménez, Jaime; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2008-02-28

    Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disease, which accounts for 9% of deaths worldwide. The aim of oral therapy is to reach normoglycemia to prevent later complications. Among glucose-lowering medications, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors delay the absorption of ingested carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks. In the present study, we tested the butanolic extracts of four Mexican plants with respect to their alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity, without excluding other possible mechanisms of action. The plants Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham, Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev and Malmea depressa (Baill) R.E. Fries are used in traditional medicine to treat type 2 diabetes. In previous studies, we have demonstrated these plants' hypoglycemic activity and determined the phytochemical composition of their extracts. Our results in n-STZ diabetic rats loaded with maltose showed that Malmea and Acosmium extracts decreased plasma glucose significantly from 30 min on resembling the effect of acarbose. Cecropia extract produced the highest reduction of plasma glucose, and at 90 min, the glucose level was lower than the fasting level, which suggests another mechanism of action. Equisetum did not exert any effect. In vitro assays of alpha-glucosidase activity showed an IC(50) of 14 microg/ml for Cecropia, 21 microg/ml for Malmea, and 109 microg/ml for Acosmium, which were lower than that of acarbose (128 microg/ml). Equisetum did not show any significant effect on this assay, either. These results contribute to understand the mechanism of action of these plants on glucose metabolism.

  20. Mobility in Natural Environments. Report 1. Vegetation Override Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    Annona spragnei 204 252 56 .2.4 3.2 96800 240340 176023 C Cordia alliodora 130 237 72 2.4 35 36980 147440 86024 A Zanthoxylum sp 176 279 126 2.3 2.8...504056 C Byrsonimacrassiloba 77 396 144 4.5 5.1 201600 1224960 420057 C Cordia alliodora 292 452 69 4.5 6.0 199500 1358800 350058 C Cecropia sp 307...Coch/osperino vitifohlimi 544 652 96 5.5 8.1 358400 882000 56002 A Cordia a/hoofora 428 564 137 5.1 7.1 288000 1058400 48003 A Sheeha zonensis 324 480

  1. Germinação de sementes após a passagem pelo trato gastrointestinal de morcegos (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Karla Rossaneis

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes espécies vegetais dos gêneros Piper, Solanum, Cecropia e Ficusapós sua passagem pelo trato gastrointes-tinal dos morcegos frugívoros Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspi-cillata e Sturnira lilium. Os morcegos foram capturados no Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, na cidade de Londrina (PR). Para cada espécie vegetal foram considerados o controle e quatro tratamentos, formados pelas sementes obtidas das fezes ...

  2. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Cavalcanti Brito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redesneblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus

  3. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351 Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Gazarini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redes-neblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp. , Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007 to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus

  4. Palynological reconstruction of the rain forest in French Guiana during the past 3000 years; Reconstitution palynologique de la foret guyanaise au cours des 3000 dernieres annees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledru, M.P.; Fournier, M.; Martin, L. [ORSTOM, 93 - Bondy (France); Charles-Dominique, P.; Riera, B. [Laboratoire d`ecologie generale, URA, CNRS, 91 - Brunoy (France); Tardy, Ch. [Laboratoire de paleobotanique, URA, CNRS, Institut de botanique 34 - Montpellier (France)

    1997-03-01

    Pollen analysis has been carried out on a core drilled in a peaty palm swamp forest in the rain forest of French Guiana. This has brought new data on the variations of the forest cover during the past 3000 years. Momentary peaks of the pioneer species Cecropia frequency give evidence of two phases of relatively open vegetation: on between 2124 - 1679 and 1525 - 1375 calibrated years B.P. and another shorter one around 658-424 yrs B.P. cal. The first one appears to be due to the combined incidence of a dry climatic period and of forest fires of human origins. (authors). 13 refs.

  5. Flora Polínica da Reserva do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (São Paulo, Brasil). Família: Urticaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa,Angela Maria da Silva; Ferreira,Lucileide Garces; Ribeiro,Vanessa Betyna da Silva; Gaglioti,André Luiz; Romaniuc Neto,Sergio; Guido,Barbara Melissa de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO No presente trabalho foram estudados os grãos de pólen de 11 espécies pertencentes à família Urticaceae (Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw., Cecropia glaziovii (Snethl), C. hololeuca (Miq), C. pachystachya Trécul, Coussapoa microcarpa ( Shott) Rizzini, Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew, Phenax sonneratti (Poir.) Wedd., Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm., Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd., U. caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb., U. nitida (Vell.) Brack). Para todos os táxons estudados, são apresentadas des...

  6. Manduca sexta gloverin binds microbial components and is active against bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Xue; Yi, Hui-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    Hyalophora gloveri gloverin is a glycine-rich and heat stable antimicrobial protein with activity mainly against Escherichia coli. However, Spodoptera exigua gloverin is active against a Gram-positive bacterium but inactive against E. coli. In this study, we investigated expression profile, binding ability and antimicrobial activity of Manduca sexta gloverin (MsGlv). Msglv transcript was detected in several tissues of naïve larvae with higher levels in the midgut and testis. Expression of Msglv mRNA in larvae was up-regulated by active Spätzle-C108 and peptidoglycans (PGs) of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the activation was blocked by pre-injection of antibody to M. sexta Toll, suggesting that Msglv expression is regulated by the Toll-Spätzle pathway. Recombinant MsGlv bound to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and PG, and laminarin, but not to E. coli PG or mannan. MsGlv was active against Bacillus cereus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans, but was almost inactive against E. coli and S. aureus. Our results suggest that gloverins are active against some bacteria and fungi.

  7. Induction of a gloverin-like antimicrobial polypeptide in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis challenged by septic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.C. Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is an important pest for Brazilian sugarcane. In the present study, we detected two distinct spots in hemolymph from septic injured larvae (HDs1 and HDs2, which are separated by 2DE gel electrophoresis. Both spots were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, which revealed the sequence VFGTLGSDDSGLFGK present in both HDs1 and HDs2. This sequence had homology and 80% identity with specific Lepidoptera antimicrobial peptides called gloverins. Analyses using the ImageMaster 2D software showed pI 8.94 of the HDs1 spot, which is similar to that described to Hyalophora gloveri gloverin (pI 8.5. Moreover, the 14-kDa molecular mass of the spot HDs1 is compatible to that of gloverins isolated from the hemolymph of Trichoplusia ni, Helicoverpa armigera and H. gloveri. Antimicrobial assays with partially purified fractions containing the HDs1 and HDs2 polypeptides demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli. This is the first report of antimicrobial polypeptides in D. saccharalis, and the identification of these peptides may help in the generation of new strategies to control this pest.

  8. Induction of a gloverin-like antimicrobial polypeptide in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis challenged by septic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J L C; Barbosa, J F; Bravo, J P; Souza, E M de; Huergo, L F; Pedrosa, F O; Esteves, E; Daffre, S; Fernandez, M A

    2010-05-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest for Brazilian sugarcane. In the present study, we detected two distinct spots in hemolymph from septic injured larvae (HDs1 and HDs2), which are separated by 2DE gel electrophoresis. Both spots were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, which revealed the sequence VFGTLGSDDSGLFGK present in both HDs1 and HDs2. This sequence had homology and 80% identity with specific Lepidoptera antimicrobial peptides called gloverins. Analyses using the ImageMaster 2D software showed pI 8.94 of the HDs1 spot, which is similar to that described to Hyalophora gloveri gloverin (pI 8.5). Moreover, the 14-kDa molecular mass of the spot HDs1 is compatible to that of gloverins isolated from the hemolymph of Trichoplusia ni, Helicoverpa armigera and H. gloveri. Antimicrobial assays with partially purified fractions containing the HDs1 and HDs2 polypeptides demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli. This is the first report of antimicrobial polypeptides in D. saccharalis, and the identification of these peptides may help in the generation of new strategies to control this pest.

  9. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  10. Student Assistant’s Final Report Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Smyrna, DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major objective of this phase of the work of student assistant was to keep track of the relative populations of mosquito larvae and pupae on the marsh, and thus...

  11. response of anopheles gambiae detoxification enzymes to levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    enzymes to levels of various physico-chemical environmental factors present in their breeding sites. ... the sampled larvae were reared to pupae and adult life stages. Levels of 7 ...... established the role of agriculture as source of selection ...

  12. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  13. MOSAIC VIRUS DISEASE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causing yield loss through direct feeding, production of honeydew ... whiteflies and associated virus diseases on cassava in the Neotropics is .... whitefly exit holes, parasite exit holes and dead pupae found on ... A leurd frog hettys. T o--- Triate ...

  14. GETDB: 113651 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available - random epidermis, meso. weak epidermal not in discs. (s.g.) segmental expression in leg, ap stripes...ult GFP segmental expression in leg, ap stripes in notum, and other. stronger in pupa. Lethality - Also know

  15. Karyotypic studies of four species of the blackfly, Simulium (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mallory

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... have sibling species evolved in the genus with cytological evidence showing that ... Anopheles (Davidson, 1974), Culex and many of the fruitflies of the ... Some of the pupae of the various species were reared to adulthood.

  16. High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHOEBE

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... InUganda, earlier mosquito studies from forests including. Zika focused ..... from Turdus pelios and Culex annulioris from Sus scrofa. For both ... species in the genus Coquillettidia have been reported to .... adults and pupae.

  17. Insecticidal activity of Artemisia annua L. (CBGE/CHNA/09/ LTNGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Anopheles gambiae 4th instar larvae, pupae and adult females. The effects of the ... artesunate, have been studied for their efficacy as ... genus Plasmodium. It is widespread in ..... late 3rd instar larvae of Culex papiens (Wild strain) By WHO ...

  18. against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Key words: Ricinus communis, Spodoptera frugiperda, insecticidal, insectistatic, castor oil, ricinine. ... (Tinzaara et al., 2006), Culex pipiens, Aedes caspius, .... of the pupae phase duration is termed “developing inhibition” and.

  19. West Nile Virus Positive Blood Donation and Subsequent Entomological Investigation, Austria, 2014: e0126381

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolanta Kolodziejek; Bernhard Seidel; Christof Jungbauer; Katharina Dimmel; Michael Kolodziejek; Ivo Rudolf; Zdenek Hubálek; Franz Allerberger; Norbert Nowotny

    2015-01-01

      The detection of West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in a blood donation from Vienna, Austria, as well as in Culex pipiens pupae and egg rafts, sampled close to the donor's residence, is reported...

  20. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matowo Pc

    al., 1999). The occurrence of insecticide resistant Culex mosquitoes has also been reported in Wete, ... Emerged pupae were sucked from the larval containers .... Key: aWHO criteria for assessing susceptibility to insecticides of mosquitoes; ...

  1. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a... fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  2. Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada a Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae no Brasil Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro C. Angelo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae which causes galls on Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821 is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female. The gall is characterized and some biological notes are given.

  3. Development of hyperparasitoid wasp Lysibia nana (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in a multitrophic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Witjes, L.M.A.; Wagenaar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Lysibia nana Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a solitary hyperparasitoid that attacks newly cocooned prepupae and pupae of braconid wasps in the subfamily Microgastrinae. One of its preferred hosts is Cotesia glomerata L. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of white but

  4. Sabethes (Peytonulus luxodens, a New Species of Sabethini (Diptera: Culicidae from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Clinton R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult male, larva and pupa of Sabethes (Peytonulus luxodens, a new species from Ecuador, are described. The species is distinguished from Sabethes aurescens (Lutz, which it closely resembles in all life stages

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 437 ... ... profile of conventional grade outbred albino mice (Mus musculus) ... Vol 2, No 3 (2005), Seasonal Testicular Histology And Reproductive Cycle Of The ... of Aedes aegypti pupae to neem seed kernal extracts, Abstract.

  6. Laboratory Rearing of the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    developed for a regular supply of eggs, larvae, pupae and adult moths for research ... Emerged moths (1-day old) were set in 5 cylindrical plastic cages (15 .... contain appropriate nutrients for late instars that normally feed on young or.

  7. Discrimination by Coptera haywardi (Hymenoptera:Diapriidae) of hosts previously attacked by conspecifies or by the larval parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coptera haywardi (Oglobin) is an endoparasitoid of fruit fly pupae that could find itself in competition with other parasitoids, both con- and heterospecific, already resident inside hosts. In choice bioassays, ovipositing C. haywardi females strongly discriminated against conspecifically parasitise...

  8. Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... larvae, then pupae, and then they become adult mosquitos. The males live for about a week to ... can live for months. What health problems can mosquito bites cause? Most mosquito bites are harmless, but ...

  9. Entomopathogenic fungi recorded from the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Harding, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were recorded from field samples of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis, an invasive coccinellid that has recently arrived in Denmark. Larvae, pupae and adults were found to be infected by Isaria farinosa, Beauveria bassiana and species of Lecanicillium...

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15315-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available romosome 21q21.1-q21.... 50 0.16 1 ( DY765203 ) 24H_new11_A13 Bicyclus anynana wings - 24H pupae ... 26 0.29... 48H_new18_D09 Bicyclus anynana wings - 48H pupae ... 26 0.47 5 ( DY766484 ) 24H_new14_J21 Bicyclus anynana wings

  11. Morfologia externa dos estágios imaturos de heliconíneos neotropicais: VI. Dione moneta moneta Hübner (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconines: VI. Dione moneta moneta Hübner (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Kaminski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As estruturas externas do ovo, larva e pupa de Dione moneta moneta Hübner, 1825 são descritas e ilustradas, baseadas em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura.The external features of the egg, larva and pupa of Dione moneta moneta Hübner, 1825 are described and illustrated, based upon light and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: VIII. Philaethria wernickei (Röber (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae Morfologia externa dos estágios imaturos de heliconíneos neotropicais: VIII. Philaethria wernickei (Röber (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R. Barão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The external features of egg, larva, and pupa of Philaethria wernickei (Röber, 1906 are described and illustrated, based upon light and scanning electron microscopy.As estruturas externas do ovo, larva e pupa de Philaethria wernickei (Röber, 1906 são descritas e ilustradas, baseadas em microscopia ótica e eletrônica de varredura.

  13. Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitóide de dípteros muscóides coletado em Itumbiara, Goiás Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitoid of muscoids dipterous collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the occurrence of parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae parasitizing pupae of flies (Diptera in different substrata in Itumbiara, Goiás. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of flies or their parasitoids. From May 1998 through April 2002, 737 parasitoids were collected in human feces, cattle liver, chicken, fish and cattle kidney. The prevalence of parasitism was 67.8%.

  14. Revision of the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    mosquitoes, VII. A- Culex ( Culex ) with banded proboscis and tarsi. B-Anopheles: the pupae of three rare species; the leucosphyrus-subgroup. Monthly...description of the adults, male and female, male genitalia, pupa and fourth-instar larva are provided for each taxon in addition to bionomics...distribution data and systematic discussion for each species, including diagnostic characters. Identification keys for females and fourth-instar larvae are

  15. Diet-induced over-expression of flightless-I protein and its relation to flightlessness in Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Il Kyu; Chang, Chiou Ling; Li, Qing X

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is among the most economically important pests worldwide. Understanding nutritional requirement helps rearing healthy medfly for biocontrol of its population in fields. Flight ability is a high priority criterion. Two groups of medfly larvae were reared with two identical component diets except one with fatty acids (diet A) and another without it (diet B). Adults from larvae reared on diet B demonstrated 20±8% of normal flight ability, whereas those from larvae reared on diet A displayed full flight ability of 97±1%. Proteomes were profiled to compare two groups of medfly pupae using shotgun proteomics to study dietary effects on flight ability. When proteins detected in pupae A were compared with those in pupae B, 233 and 239 proteins were, respectively, under- and over-expressed in pupae B, while 167 proteins were overlapped in both pupae A and B. Differential protein profiles indicate that nutritional deficiency induced over-expression of flightless-I protein (fli-I) in medfly. All proteins were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to create 13 biological networks and 17 pathways of interacting protein clusters in human ortholog. Fli-I, leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing G protein-coupled receptor 2, LRR protein soc-2 and protein wings apart-like were over-expressed in pupae B. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, protocadherin-like wing polarity protein stan and several Wnt pathway proteins were under-expressed in pupae B. These results suggest down-regulation of the Wnt/wingless signaling pathway, which consequently may result in flightlessness in pupae B. The fli-I gene is known to be located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) region on chromosome 17, and thus, we speculate that nutritional deficiency might induce over-expression of fli-I (or fli-I gene) and be associated with human SMS. However, more evidence would be needed to confirm our speculation.

  16. Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae como parasitóide de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae no Brasil Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as a parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Diptera: Fanniidae found in chicken dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Manure samples, collected at two weeks intervals, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. The parasitism was 1.3%.

  17. Life cycle of Phoebemima ensifera Tippmann (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae Ciclo vital de Phoebemima ensifera Tippmann (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An account of host plant selection, larval development and behaviour, and behaviour of adult Phoebemima ensifera. Illustrations of the host plant, plant parts, larva, pupa, and adult are provided.Descreve-se a seleção da planta hospedeira, desenvolvimento e comportamento larval, e comportamento do adulto de Phoebemima ensifera. Ilustrações da planta-hospedeira, larva, pupa e adultos são fornecidas.

  18. Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) como parasitóide de Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) no Brasil Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori

    2007-01-01

    This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as parasitoid of Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) found in chicken dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Manure samples, collected at two weeks intervals, were taken to the laboratory and the pupae were extracted by water flotation. Each pupa was placed in capsules of colorless gelatin until the emergence of dipterous or their parasitoids. The parasitism was 1.3%.

  19. USAFSAM Review and Analysis of Radiofrequency Radiation Bioeffects Literature: Second Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Rosenbaum, and W. F. Pickard THE RELATION OF TERATOGENESIS IN TENEBRIO MOLITOR TO THE INCIDENCE OF LOW-LEVEL MICROWAVES IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory...Teratogenic and developmental abnormalities; ’N VIVO; TENEBRIO MOLITOR (DARKLING BEETLE) Effect type: Abnormalities in emergent adult beetles due to RFR...early pupae of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor . Each pupa was inserted in a waveguide and irradiated therein at waveguide powers of 80 mW for

  20. Hama Dan Penyakit Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Ameilia Zuliyanti

    2011-01-01

    HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TANAMAN KELAPA SAWIT 1. Kumbang Badak (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Bagian Tanaman yang diserang : pupus daun (daun tombak). Stadia hama yang merugikan : kumbang. Siklus Hidup Siklus hidupnya berlangsung sekitar 5 – 6 bulan, masa inkubasi 2 minggu, masa Instar 3 minggu, masa pupa 3 minggu, masa kelangsungan seksual 3 minggu, pra pupa 3 – 4 bulan. Larva berkembang pada kayu lapuk,bekas tumbangan pohon sawit, kompos dan hampir pada semua bahan organik yang sedang ...

  1. A new genus and species of gall midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Um novo gênero e espécie de mosquito galhador (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associado com Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkiamyia paraensis, a new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae that induces galls on Parkia pendula is described (larva, pupa, male,female and gall based on material from Pará (Brazil.Parkiamyia paraensis, um novo gênero e espécie de Cecidomyiidae é descrita (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material do Pará (Brasil.

  2. Florística e estrutura de fragmento florestal em área de transição na Amazônia Matogrossense no município de Sinop Floristics and structure of a forest fragment at a transitional zone at the Amazon in Mato Grosso State, Municipality of Sinop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia de Aguiar Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A fragmentação do ambiente é intensa na amazônia matogrossense e é esperado como consequência, além do desaparecimento da vegetação original, que a flora dos fragmentos seja transicional, com elementos de floresta amazônica e de cerrado e que já apresentem elevada presença de famílias e espécies pioneiras. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição florística e obter parâmetros fitossociológicos de componentes arbóreos presentes em um fragmento urbano no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso com vistas a confirmar sua classificação como vegetação de transição e detectar indícios de perturbação pela fragmentação. A vegetação foi amostrada pela instalação de 25 parcelas permanentes de 20 x 20m, onde foram amostrados os indivíduos com CAP igual ou superior a 15 cm à altura de 1,30m do solo. A densidade total da área foi de 1555 ind./ha, distribuídos em 37 famílias botânicas, 81 gêneros e 113 espécies. A família mais representativa foi Leguminosae com 14 espécies. As espécies que mais contribuíram em abundância e apresentaram maior frequência foram: Cecropia sciadophylla, Cecropia sp., Bellucia grossularioides e Vismia guianensis. O índice de Shannon (H' foi de 3,55, considerado alto para uma floresta de transição. A equabilidade de Pielou foi de 0,75, sugerindo grande dominância de poucas espécies. As espécies que mais se destacaram em ordem decrescente de VI (% foram Cecropia sp., Bellucia grossularioides, Qualea ingens, Cecropia sciadophylla, Vismia guianensis, Miconia prasina, Trattinickia burserifolia, Unonopsis guatterioides e Schefflera vinosa. O remanescente apresenta uma flora mista amazônica e de cerrado, confirmando ser ecótono e a abundância de pioneiras sugere distúrbios. Esta floresta protege espécies madeireiras e frutíferas com grande potencial para uso múltiplo, podendo ser um espaço educativo com vistas a conservação e manejo sustentável.Fragmentation is intense in

  3. Differential host use in two highly specialized ant-plant associations: evidence from stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S T; Sagers, C L

    2004-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to examine variation in ant use of plant resources in the Cecropia obtusifolia / Azteca spp. association in Costa Rica. Tissue of ants, host plants and symbiotic pseudococcids were collected along three elevation transects on the Pacific slope of Costa Rica's Cordillera Central, and were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition. Worker carbon and nitrogen signatures were found to vary with elevation and ant colony size, and between Azteca species groups. Ants in the A. constructor species group appear to be opportunistic foragers at low elevations, but rely more heavily on their host plants at high elevations, whereas ants in the A. alfari species group consume a more consistent diet across their distribution. Further, isotope values indicate that both ant species groups acquire more nitrogen from higher trophic levels at low elevation and when ant colonies are small. Provisioning by the host is a substantial ecological cost to the interaction, and it may vary, even in a highly specialized association. Nonetheless, not all specialized interactions are equivalent; where interaction with one ant species group appears conditional upon the environment, the other is not. Differential host use within the Cecropia-Azteca association suggests that the ecological and evolutionary benefits and costs of association may vary among species pairs.

  4. A liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-APPI-MS/MS) method for the determination of triterpenoids in medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobo, Luciana Assis; Viana, Carine; Lameira, Osmar Alves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado

    2016-08-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry with toluene as a dopant was developed for the determination of triterpenes in medicinal plant extracts. The 12 compounds determined have been shown to exhibit biological activity, such as gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-tumor effects. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure photoionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.4 to 157.9 µg l(-1) and 1.3 to 526.4 µg l(-1) , respectively. The method was validated and applied to extracts of five medicinal plants species (Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H.Gentry, Bauhinia variegata var variegata, Bauhinia variegata var alboflava, Cecropia obtuse Trécul and Cecropia palmate Willd) from the Amazonian region. The concentrations of the six triterpenes quantified in the samples ranged from 0.424 mg kg(-1) for ursolic acid to 371.96 mg kg(-1) for β-amyrin, which were quantified by using the standard addition method (n = 3). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Late Holocene rainforest disturbance in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, M -P.

    2001-06-01

    Palm swamp forest sediments collected in French Guiana provide new data about late Holocene rainforest. Two cores were collected in 'Les Nouragues' ecological station (4 degrees 05'N, 52 degrees 40'W). The lithology shows two different types of sediment, organic peat in the upper part and oxidized clay with low organic content and lacking pollen in the lower part, both separated by a gravel horizon. Radiocarbon dates show that this gravel horizon could have been deposited between 4500 and 3000yrBP. Pollen analysis carried out on the organic sediments record rainforest disturbances between ca 1520-1380 and 1060-860cal yrBP suggested by the presence of the pioneer tree species Cecropia together with other shade intolerant genera. Cecropia is recorded for a period that lasts between 660 and 320 years. This abnormal duration for presence of a pioneer species in rainforest is explained by brief and repeated changes in the composition of the canopy asssociated to perturbations of the palm swamp.

  6. Late Holocene paleoenvironments of the floodplain of the Solimões River, Central Amazonia, based on the palynological record of Lake Cabaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Paula Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core PD-67 of 160 cm depth was collected from the delta of Lake Cabaliana situated on the Solimões River. Seventeen samples were removed for palynological and sedimentological analysis and three for radiocarbon analysis. Two dry periods, both in the Late Holocene, were observed (2800-2550 cal yr BP, 1450-550 cal yr BP separated by a wetter phase (2550-1450 cal yr BP. In 2800-2550 cal yr BP, varzea forests of Alchornea, Symmeria, Cecropia, Alternanthera and Asteraceae were predominant. Beginning in 2,550-1450 cal yr BP, the varzea was characterized by pioneer elements, such as Cassia, Laetia, Mabea, Symmeria and Cecropia, and by the expansion of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Sagittaria, Montrichardia and Asteraceae. In 1450-550 cal yr BP the succession of varzea continued with Pseudobombax, Laetia, Luehea/Lueheopsis and Ryanaea increasing simultaneously with the terra firme vegetation of Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Styrax, Scleronema, Anthurium, Araceae, pteridophytes and Pariana. The successional dynamics at Lake Cabaliana indicated that the local varzea had become established recently, and is composed of a mosaic of different successional stages of vegetation influenced mainly by flood pulse and variation in rainfall. It is therefore possible to propose that the recent climate history of Central Amazonia reflects changes in rainfall patterns in the basin.

  7. Biological object recognition in μ-radiography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, A.; Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Sopko, V.; Benes, J.; Zeman, J.; Jandejsek, I.

    2015-03-01

    This study presents an applicability of real-time microradiography to biological objects, namely to horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and following image processing focusing on image segmentation and object recognition. The microradiography of insects (such as horse chestnut leafminer) provides a non-invasive imaging that leaves the organisms alive. The imaging requires a high spatial resolution (micrometer scale) radiographic system. Our radiographic system consists of a micro-focus X-ray tube and two types of detectors. The first is a charge integrating detector (Hamamatsu flat panel), the second is a pixel semiconductor detector (Medipix2 detector). The latter allows detection of single quantum photon of ionizing radiation. We obtained numerous horse chestnuts leafminer pupae in several microradiography images easy recognizable in automatic mode using the image processing methods. We implemented an algorithm that is able to count a number of dead and alive pupae in images. The algorithm was based on two methods: 1) noise reduction using mathematical morphology filters, 2) Canny edge detection. The accuracy of the algorithm is higher for the Medipix2 (average recall for detection of alive pupae =0.99, average recall for detection of dead pupae =0.83), than for the flat panel (average recall for detection of alive pupae =0.99, average recall for detection of dead pupae =0.77). Therefore, we conclude that Medipix2 has lower noise and better displays contours (edges) of biological objects. Our method allows automatic selection and calculation of dead and alive chestnut leafminer pupae. It leads to faster monitoring of the population of one of the world's important insect pest.

  8. Compatibility of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae with Commercial Products Under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Barrera Mojica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse white fly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum one of the major pests of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions, but, Its mainly controlled with chemical insecticides. However, there are alternative control strategies as entomopathogens fungi and parasitoids (Encarsia formosa. In this study we evaluated the compatibility of commercial product with adults and pupae of E. formosa under laboratory conditions. Eight treatments were evaluated for adults and pupae of the parasitoid, including two concentrations of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (5 x 107 and 5 x 109 conidia/ml, commercial doses of four chemical products commonly used to control pests on tomato crops and two controls. These treatments were applied directly on parasitoids, and their mortality rate on adults and pupae were recorded daily. There was no difference in E. formosa pupae among relative with the Bacillus thuringiensis products (p > 0.05, indicating that its compatible with the parasitoid pupae under laboratory conditions. Finally, it was found that products with active ingredients of Tiocyclam hidrogenoxalato and B. thuringiensis are incompatibles with E. formosa adults under laboratory conditions.COMPATIBILIDAD DE Encarsia formosa (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE CON PRODUCTOS COMERCIALES EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, es una de las principales plagas de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero y es controlada principalmente con insecticidas químicos. Sin embargo, existen estrategias alternativas de control como hongos entomopatógenos (Beauveria bassiana y enemigos naturales como parasitoides (Encarsia formosa. En el presente estudio se evaluó la compatibilidad de productos comerciales con adultos y pupas de E. formosa bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos para pupas y adultos del parasitoide, incluyendo dos concentraciones del hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria

  9. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  10. Evaluación de Spalangia endius y Muscidifurax sp. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae como controladores de Musca domestica en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Inciso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se comparó la actividad parasitoide de las microavispas Spalangia endius y Muscidifurax sp. sobre el estadio pupal de Musca domestica. La mejor temperatura para la crianza fue de 25 °C. El ciclo de S. endius se completó en 22,6 días, mientras en Muscidifurax sp. en 14,8 días. La duración del ciclo fue inversamente relacionada con la temperatura, siendo mayor en las hembras que en los machos. La longevidad fue similar en ambas especies de microavispas (20,7 días en S. endius y 18,6 días en Muscifurax sp..La oviposicion de S. endius a los 15 días fue sobre 175 pupas de M. domestica, valor mayor que Muscidifurax que parasitó 140 pupas en 16 días. En ambas especies la mayor postura ocurrió al tercer día. Las pupas de M. domestica de dos días de maduración fueron las mas parasitadas con 66,4% de parasitismo efectivo por S. endius y 60,2% por Muscidifurax sp. El número óptimo de pupas de M. domestica fue 10 (10:1. Se concluye que en condiciones de laboratorio, Spalangia endius puede ser un eficiente controlador biológico de pupas de Musca domestica.

  11. Archisepsis scabra (Loew 1861 (Diptera: Sepsidae, new host for the parasitoid Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae in Brazil Archisepsis scabra (Loew, 1861 (Diptera: Sepsidae, novo hospedeiro para o parasitóide Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the first occurrence of the parasitoid Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae in pupae of Archisepsis scabra (Loew, 1861 (Diptera: Sepsidae in cattle dung in Brazil. The experiment was carried out in Monte Alegre, MG. One obtained the pupae through the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult dipterous or their parasitoids. Fourty seven pupae of A. scabra were obtained, two of which yielded the parasitoid T. coxalis. The percentage of parasitism was 4.3%.Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, relatar a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Triplasta coxalis (Ashmead, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae como inimigo natural de Archisepsis scabra (Loew, 1861 (Diptera: Sepsidae em fezes bovinas no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado em Monte Alegre, MG. As pupas foram separadas pelo método de flutuação e individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina onde foram mantidas até a emergência dos dípteros e/ou dos parasitóides. Obtiveram-se 47 pupas de A. scabra, das quais emergiram dois parasitóides pertencentes à espécie T. coxalis. A porcentagem de parasitismo foi de 4,3%.

  12. Prothoracicotropic hormone acts as a neuroendocrine switch between pupal diapause and adult development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Akira; Ohsumi, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Katuji; Okamoto, Naoki; Yamada, Nobuto; Tateishi, Ken; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Diapause is a programmed developmental arrest that has evolved in a wide variety of organisms and allows them survive unfavorable seasons. This developmental state is particularly common in insects. Based on circumstantial evidence, pupal diapause has been hypothesized to result from a cessation of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secretion from the brain. Here, we provide direct evidence for this classical hypothesis by determining both the PTTH titer in the hemolymph and the PTTH content in the brain of diapause pupae in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae. For this purpose, we cloned the PTTH gene, produced PTTH-specific antibodies, and developed a highly sensitive immunoassay for PTTH. While the hemolymph PTTH titer in non-diapause pupae was maintained at high levels after pupation, the titer in diapause pupae dropped to an undetectable level. In contrast, the PTTH content of the post-pupation brain was higher in diapause animals than in non-diapause animals. These results clearly demonstrate that diapause pupae have sufficient PTTH in their brain, but they do not release it into the hemolymph. Injecting PTTH into diapause pupae immediately after pupation induced adult development, showing that a lack of PTTH is a necessary and sufficient condition for inducing pupal diapause. Most interestingly, in diapause-destined larvae, lower hemolymph titers of PTTH and reduced PTTH gene expression were observed for 4 and 2 days, respectively, prior to pupation. This discovery demonstrates that the diapause program is already manifested in the PTTH neurons as early as the mid final instar stage.

  13. Identification of the starting point for spermatogenesis resumption in the post-diapause development of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo-Irie, M; Yamaguchi, T; Tanaka, Y; Yamazaki, I; Irie, M; Mohri, H; Shimoda, M

    2011-06-01

    The resumption of spermatogenesis in post-diapause development was examined in the sweet potato hornworm (Agrius convolvuli) with in vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation experiments used to determine the starting point. Diapausing pupae were "overwintered" by chilling at 10 °C for over 4 months, after which they initiated post-diapause development by transferring the pupae to 25 °C with a 12-h light/12-h dark photoperiod. The testes of living, post-diapause pupae were injected with BrdU, which is incorporated into newly synthesized DNA strands. During the first 2 days after diapause termination, the nuclei of spermatogonia and spermatocytes failed to label with BrdU. However, on day 3 of post-diapause pupae (PDP3), labeling studies showed that cell proliferation was initiated by spermatogonia, but not by spermatocytes. In both hemolymph and testes, ecdysteroid concentrations rose gradually, reaching 0.3 μg/ml hemolymph at PDP3. These results led to the following three conclusions. The spermatogonial cell division is highly suppressed during diapause. After a long-term diapause, spermatogenesis resumes in the spermatogonia but not in the spermatocytes of diapause-terminated pupae. Cell division begins in advance of peak ecdysteroid concentrations. The latter result indicates that in post-diapause development, high concentrations of the hormone are not required to initiate spermatogonial proliferation.

  14. Influence of generation and photoperiod on larval development of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Francesco; Floreani, Chiara; Barro, Paola; Zandigiacomo, Pietro; Montà, Laura Dalla

    2010-10-01

    The influence of generation (under field conditions) and photoperiod (under laboratory conditions) on Lobesia botrana larvae development was studied. Some larvae were collected during three annual generations in two grape-growing areas of northeastern Italy, and others were individually reared in the laboratory from egg to pupa on an artificial diet under two different photoperiod conditions (respectively, daylight 16 h/d [long day {LD}] and 14 h/d [short day {SD}]). The mandible lengths of collected larvae were measured and the data analyzed morphometrically to determine the number of larval instars. In the laboratory study, the number of larval moultings, the mandible length of each instar, the development time from hatching larva to pupa, and the pupal weight were considered. The measurement of mandible lengths of larvae collected in the field indicated the existence of five larval instars in all three annual generations, but the size of the two oldest larval instars was significantly higher for third-generation larvae than for the previous generations. Under laboratory conditions, the larvae usually exhibited five instars, but the mandible lengths of larvae and the pupa size were greater for individuals reared under SD. These also took a greater number of days to develop from hatching larvae to pupae. Because a larger size of the final larval instar occurs in individuals that produce diapausing pupae under SD in both the laboratory and the field, a positive association between larval size and the probability of surviving the winter can be inferred.

  15. Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cameron S; Simonsen, Thomas J; Abel, Richard L; Hall, Martin J R; Schwyn, Daniel A; Wicklein, Martina

    2012-07-10

    We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected.

  16. Susceptibility of biological stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, to entomopathogenic fungi (Hyphomycetes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Sahagún, C. A.; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R.; Molina-Ochoa, J.; Galindo-Velasco, E.; López-Edwards, M.; Rebolledo-Domínguez, O.; Cruz-Vázquez, C.; Reyes-Velázquez, W. P.; Skoda, S. R.; Foster, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    The susceptibility of the egg, pupa, and adult of Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) to isolates of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Groups of 20 eggs than 4 h old, pupae less than 48h old and adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension of each isolate. Eggs, pupae and adults of horn fly were susceptible to these entomopathogenic fungi. For treated eggs, the isolates Ma3, Ma 15, Ma25, Pfr1, and Pfr8 reduced adult emergence to 3.8% to 6.3% in comparison with the control (72%). The mortality of pupae infected by the isolates Ma2, Ma25, and Pfr10 ranged between 50% and 71.3%. Mortality of adults after treatment with the isolates Ma6, Ma 10, Ma 14, Ma 15, Pfr 1, Pfr 9, Pfr 10, Pfr 11, and Pfr12 were higher than 90%. The isolate Ma6 produced the lowest LC50 against adult horn flies (8.08 × 102conidia/ml). These findings supported the hypotheses that isolates of M. anisopliae, and P. fumosoroseus are pathogenic against the different biological stages of horn flies by reducing adult emergence when applied on groups of eggs and pupae, and producing mortality when applied to adults. PMID:17119632

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12612-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D645891 ) SSPG279 SS pectin Sclerotinia sclerotiorum cDNA s... 74 3e-14 3 ( DY769740 ) 72H_new21_H13 Bicyclus anynana wings... EST023734 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library 6 Tric... 50 8e-14 5 ( DY769013 ) 72H_new19_H20 Bicyclus anynana wings... - 72H pupae ... 54 9e-14 4 ( DY764469 ) CPP_new10_G10 Bicyclus anynana wings... - CPP Bicycl... 54 9e-14 4 ( DY765841 ) 24H_new12_N03 Bicyclus anynana wings - 24H pupae ... 54 9e-14 4 (... DY766822 ) 24H_old01_A17 Bicyclus anynana wings - 24H pupae ... 54 9e-14 4 ( DY770246 ) 72H_new22_O24 Bicyclus anynana wings

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05280-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ing.0-3d_nosize Bicyclus a... 58 9e-12 2 ( DY767772 ) 48H_new17_B03 Bicyclus anynana wings - 48H pupae ... 5...8 9e-12 2 ( DY770769 ) 72H_old01_J14 Bicyclus anynana wings - 72H pupae ... 58 9e-12 2 ( GE735992 ) CBUG2667... ) 24H_new11_L16 Bicyclus anynana wings - 24H pupae ... 58 9e-12 2 ( GE700631 ) CBUI4046.g1 B.anynana_wing.0..._wing.LCPP_nosize Bicyclus a... 58 9e-12 2 ( DY772175 ) 5TH_new04_G18 Bicyclus anynana wings - 5TH instar...

  19. First report of Paraganaspis egeria Díaz & Gallardo (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae parasiting horn fly, Haematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae in the Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchiori C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Paraganapis egeria Diaz & Gallardo (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae parasitando pupas de Haematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae na região Neotropical. As fezes bovinas foram coletadas nas pastagens da Fazenda Canchim da Embrapa de São Carlos-SP, de abril de 1993 a abril de 1994. As pupas foram separadas das fezes bovinas por flutuação em baldes com água. As recolhidas foram acondicionadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência dos dípteros ou dos seus parasitóides. Foram obtidas 718 pupas de H. irritans, das quais duas emergiram parasitóides. Constatou-se parasitismo de 0,26%.

  20. Productividad del vector del dengue aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), en Girardot-Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá Espinosa, Lucas Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Girardot, Cundinamarca es un municipio hiperendémico para dengue. Se determinó la productividad de su vector Aedes aegypti en una época de lluvia (Feb-May, 2011) y otra de sequía (Ago-Sept, 2011). Se estimaron los índices de pupas por persona (IPP), pupas por hectárea (IPH) y se estimó el tamaño corporal del insecto para cada tipo de sitio de cría usando estimación del tamaño del centroide. De todas las pupas recolectadas, los predios aportaron el 94% (n=7098) y los espacios públicos el 6% (n...

  1. Imaturos de Simuliidae (Diptera, Nematocera e caracterização de seus criadouros no Parque Estadual Intervales, SP, Brasil Immature stages of Simuliidae (Diptera, Nematocera and characterization of its habitats in the Parque Estadual Intervales, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Pepinelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Larvas e pupas de Simuliidae foram coletadas em seis córregos do Parque Estadual Intervales em dois períodos (agosto/2001 e fevereiro/2002. Ao todo, 13 espécies foram identificadas. S. nogueirai e S. subclavibranchium foram as espécies mais freqüentes e abundantes. Um maior número de larvas e pupa foi coletado na estação chuvosa (fevereiro/2002 em substratos orgânicos (folhas, galhos e troncos.Larvae and pupae of Simuliidae species living in Parque Estadual Intervales streams were collected in two periods (August/2001 and February/2002 in six streams of the Rio Ribeira basin segment inside the biological reserve. Thirteen species were identified. S. nogueirai and S. subclavibranchium were the most frequent and abundant species. The Simuliidae abundance was higher in the wet season (February/2002 and in organic substrates (leaves, woods, stems.

  2. Spectral imaging analysis for silkworm gender classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sa-Ngiamsak, Chiranut

    2013-05-01

    We examine the effect of different wavelength spectra in the performance of our optical penetration-based silkworm pupa sex identification system. With available low-cost light emitting diodes (LEDs), each emitting different wavelength spectra at 468 nm, 565 nm, 639 nm, 940 nm, and broad white light, we find that the body of the silkworm pupa can block blue and near infrared light while allowing green and red light pass through. In particular, the red light can clearly highlight an important organ called "chitin gland" of the female, leading to high accuracy of silkworm gender identification. In our experiment with 120 silkworm pupae, measured high average 92.8% and lower average 87.5% accuracies in identifying silkworm gender are obtained under red and white light LEDs, respectively.

  3. Highly accurate and fast optical penetration-based silkworm gender separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2015-07-01

    Based on our research work in the last five years, this paper highlights our innovative optical sensing system that can identify and separate silkworm gender highly suitable for sericulture industry. The key idea relies on our proposed optical penetration concepts and once combined with simple image processing operations leads to high accuracy in identifying of silkworm gender. Inside the system, there are electronic and mechanical parts that assist in controlling the overall system operation, processing the optical signal, and separating the female from male silkworm pupae. With current system performance, we achieve a very highly accurate more than 95% in identifying gender of silkworm pupae with an average system operational speed of 30 silkworm pupae/minute. Three of our systems are already in operation at Thailand's Queen Sirikit Sericulture Centers.

  4. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the biology and ultrastructure of haemocytes of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Galleridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kholy, Eman M.S. [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M., E-mail: nahlasalem97@yahoo.co [Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    This study was carried out on fully grown pupae of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., {gamma}-irradiated to 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The four doses given to male parents in the F{sub 1} generation decreased the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatching and the percentage of mating in both the male and female lines; the effects increased with the dose. Dose dependence of the reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatching among the female line pairings (female descendants of irradiated parental male pupae) was more significant than among the male line pairings (male descendants of irradiated parental male pupae). We also examined morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of the cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were found.

  5. Natural History and Comparative Morphology of Immatures of Gamelia anableps (C. Felder & R. Felder) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, Hemileucinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, S S; Otero, L S; Freitas, A V L

    2016-12-16

    Egg, larva, and pupa of Gamelia anableps (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1874) are described for the first time and the chaetotaxy of the first instar provided. Eggs and selected structures of larvae and pupae were also investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. Eggs are laid in clusters, are ellipsoidal and laterally flat. Larvae passed through eight instars in about 78 days. Pupation occurs inside a poorly organized cocoon of yellowish silk. The dark brown pupa is cylindrical in shape with appendages firmly fused together and to the body wall. The chaeotaxy is compared with other Saturniidae species belongining to Hemileucinae, Ceratocampinae, and Saturniinae and the natural history of G. anableps compared with other Saturniidae.

  6. BIOACTIVITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.

  7. [Modulating effect of weak combined magnetic fields on duration of mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor metamorphosis stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V V; Sheĭman, I M; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that an exposure of pupae of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor to the combined static (42 μT) and very weak alternating (250 nT) magnetic fields exerts different influence, depending on the frequency of the alternating magnetic field, on duration of metamorphosis processes in these insects. For instance, an exposure of pupae to weak combined magnetic fields, adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for glutaminic acid (4,4 Hz), stimulates metamorphosis process--a transitional stage from pupae to imago lasts shorter. An inhibiting effect was observed when adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for Ca2 (32,2 Hz). At some frequencies this effect is not seen. For instance, an exposure at a frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for K+ (16,5 Hz) exerts no noticeable effect on the duration of the pupal metamorphosis stage.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves extract on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dass

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic and chemical insecticides to control mosquitoes result in environment hazards and development of resistance in vector species. This research work is about an alternative mosquito control method that is considered as safe to environment and non-target species and also bio-degradable. Hence an attempt was made to study the larvicidal effect of the extract of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves on III and IV instar larva and pupa of Culex quinquefasciatus. The LC50 value of Murraya exotica for III and IV instar larvae and pupae is 135.539 ppm, 154.361 ppm and 178.571 ppm respectively. Likewise for Lawsonia inermis it is 139.057 for III instar, 163.630 for IV instar and 188.151 for the pupa. Of these, two plants Murraya exotica plant extract is more effective than the Lawsonia inermis.

  9. PLANTAS HOSPEDEIRAS DE Thyrinteina arnobia (LEPIDOPTERA: GEOMETRIDAE AFETAM O DESENVOLVIMENTO DO PARASITOIDE Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silma da Silva Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do parasitismo e a biologia da prole do parasitoide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare e La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae em pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae quando criadas em plantas de Psidium guajava ou Eucalyptus cloeziana. Ovos de T. arnobia foram coletados e colocados em sacos de tecido tipo organza envolvendo galhos de plantas de P. guajava (T1 e E. cloeziana (T2 até as lagartas alcançarem a fase de pupa. Trinta pupas de cada tratamento foram individualizadas em tubos de vidro e expostas ao parasitismo por quatro fêmeas de P. elaeisis por 24 h. Avaliaram-se a emergência da progênie do parasitoide por pupa; a porcentagem de parasitismo, pupas mortas e de adultos de T. arnobia emergidos; a duração do ciclo de vida (ovo-adulto;a longevidade; a razão sexual; e o tamanho da cápsula cefálica e do corpo do parasitoide. A porcentagem de parasitismo, a emergência de P. elaeisis por pupa, a longevidade das fêmeas e o tamanho da cápsula cefálica e do corpo dos machos do parasitoide foram menores quando seu hospedeiro foi criado em plantas de eucalipto. Isso pode ter ocorrido devido à grande quantidade de compostos do metabolismo secundário presentes nesta planta, que podem ser acumulados no corpo do herbívoro ao se alimentar, afetando negativamente o inimigo natural. Palmistichus elaeisis mostrou-se mais adaptado à mirtácea nativa da América P. guajava.

  10. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Suefuji, Masaki; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2012-06-15

    The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless ("ergatoid") males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection at the colony level rather than the individual level.

  11. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremer Sylvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid” males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection

  12. The influence of late-stage pupal irradiation and increased irradiated: un-irradiated male ratio on mating competitiveness of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, M E H; Knols, B G J

    2009-06-01

    Competitiveness of released males in genetic control programmes is of critical importance. In this paper, we explored two scenarios to compensate for the loss of mating competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation in males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. First, competition experiments with a higher ratio of irradiated versus un-irradiated males were performed. Second, pupae were irradiated just prior to emergence and male mating competitiveness was determined. Males were irradiated in the pupal stage with a partially or fully-sterilizing dose of 70 or 120 Gy, respectively. Pupae were irradiated aged 20-26 h (young) as routinely performed, or the pupal stage was artificially prolonged by cooling and pupae were irradiated aged 42-48 h (old). Irradiated males competed at a ratio of 3:1:1 to un-irradiated males for mates in a large cage design. At the 3:1 ratio, the number of females inseminated by males irradiated with 70 Gy as young pupae was similar to the number inseminated by un-irradiated males for the majority of the replicates. At 120 Gy, significantly fewer females were inseminated by irradiated than by un-irradiated males. The irradiation of older pupae did not result in a significantly improved male mating competitiveness compared to the irradiation of young pupae. Our findings indicate that the loss of competitiveness after pupal stage irradiation can be compensated for by a threefold increase of irradiated males, but only for the partially-sterilizing dose. In addition, cooling might be a useful tool to facilitate handling processes of large numbers of mosquitoes in genetic control programmes.

  13. Aedes aegypti entomological indices in an endemic area for dengue in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

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    Eliane A Favaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most productive types of properties and containers for Aedes aegypti and the spatial distribution of entomological indices. METHODS: Between December 2006 and February 2007, the vector's immature forms were collected to obtain entomological indices in 9,875 properties in the Jaguare neighborhood of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. In March and April 2007, a questionnaire about the conditions and characteristics of properties was administered. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with the presence of pupae at the properties. Indices calculated per block were combined with a geo-referenced map, and thematic maps of these indices were obtained using statistical interpolation. RESULTS: The properties inspected had the following Ae. aegypti indices: Breteau Index = 18.9, 3.7 larvae and 0.42 pupae per property, 5.2 containers harboring Ae. aegypti per hectare, 100.0 larvae and 11.6 pupae per hectare, and 1.3 larvae and 0.15 pupae per inhabitant. The presence of yards, gardens and animals was associated with the presence of pupae. CONCLUSIONS: Specific types of properties and containers that simultaneously had low frequencies among those positive for the vector and high participation in the productivity of larvae and pupae were not identified. The use of indices including larval and pupal counts does not provide further information beyond that obtained from the traditional Stegomyia indices in locations with characteristics similar to those of São José do Rio Preto. The indices calculated per area were found to be more accurate for the spatial assessment of infestation. The Ae. aegypti infestation levels exhibited extensive spatial variation, indicating that the assessment of infestation in micro areas is needed.

  14. Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activities of Alizarin Isolated from Roots of Rubia cordifolia Against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M R; Reegan, A D; Ganesan, P; Sivasankaran, K; Paulraj, M G; Balakrishna, K; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2016-08-01

    The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

  15. Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica

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    Jorge E Lopez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854 fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum, and Vismia constituted 85% of all plants found in fecal samples. Feeding niche breadth differed significantly among the six most common species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata, Dermanura sp., and Glossophaga commissarisi. All species, except for Dermanura sp., showed a diet dominated by one or two plant species. This suggests a pattern of resource partitioning at a generic level, in which Carollia consumed mainly Piper, Artibeus consumed Ficus and Cecropia, and Glossophaga consumed Vismia. Cluster analysis revealed higher values of food niche overlap in congeneric species than among species of different genera. Results show that if food is a limiting factor, mechanisms other than trophic selection must reduce interspecific interference or competition for food in this frugivorous bat guild. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 301-313. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos los hábitos alimentarios de 15 especies de murciélagos frugívoros en la Estación Biológica La Selva. Se analizó 854 muestras de heces y 169 muestras de restos de frutos y semillas en comederos. Durante ocho meses de estudio, se identificó 47 especies de frutos, que fueron consumidos por los murciélagos. Cinco géneros de plantas (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum y Vismia constituyeron el 85% de los hallazgos en las muestras de heces y los comederos. La amplitud de nicho trófico difirió significativamente entre las seis especies de murciélagos frugívoros más frecuentemente capturados (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata

  16. Seed dispersal by bats in a disturbed area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Queila S. Garcia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectó semillas de heces de murciélagos en la cuenca del río Piracicaba, Brasil, de julio de 1995 a mayo de 1996. Estos habitan un área con plantas pioneras y de sucesión secundaria tardía. Seis de las 16 especies de murciélagos dispersan plantas de 14 especies y siete familias. La mayor diversidad de dieta correspondió a Artbeus lituratus y Carollia perspicillata y la planta más frecuente fue Cecropia glaziovii. Los murciélagos actúan como dispersores de plantas de la sucesión secundaria inicial.

  17. Efeito da temperatura e a participação do fitocromo no controle da germinação de sementes de embaúba

    OpenAIRE

    Godoi,Simone; Takaki,Massanori

    2005-01-01

    A embaúba é considerada uma espécie pioneira que ocorre na mata Atlântica, principalmente em borda da mata ou em matas secundárias. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a análise da influência da temperatura e do modo de ação da luz através de curva de fluência resposta, para a melhor compreensão do comportamento das sementes desta espécie. Através de incubações isotérmicas foi determinada que a temperatura ótima de germinação de sementes de Cecropia glaziovi, situa-se entre 25 e 30ºC e a s...

  18. New Meliolaceae from the Brazilian Atlantic forest 2: species on host families Annonaceae, Cecropiaceae, Meliaceae, Piperaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Tiliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Danilo Batista; Firmino, André Luiz; Ferreira-Junior, Walnir Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini

    2013-01-01

    Continuing the study of black mildews in fragments of the Atlantic forest, three new species and five new records are described herein. Irenopsis luheae-grandiflorae, Meliola vicosensis and Meliola xylopia-sericiae are new species. Cecropia hololeuca, Piper gaudichaudianum and Trichilia lepidota are new hosts for Asteridiella leucosykeae, Asteridiella glabroides and Meliola trichiliae respectively. Asteridiella obesa and Meliola psychotriae var. chiococcae are reported for the first time from Brazil. The new species are described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopy and tables with main characteristics of morphologically similar specimens with species collected in Viçosa are provided. Other species belonging to Meliolaceae collected on hosts belonging to the Annonaceae, Meliaceae and Tiliaceae in Brazil also were studied.

  19. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

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    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  20. Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-14

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome which affects more and more people in all countries over the world. In México, it is commonly treated with herbal extracts. Such treatment may be of considerable benefit especially during the early stages of the illness. In this review, we discuss species commonly used in México in the treatment of diabetes. A total of 306 species have records of a popular use in the treatment of this syndrome in México. Seven of these species--Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. (Cecropiaceae), Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham (Equisetaceae), Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev (Fabaceae), Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché (Cucurbitaceae), Agarista mexicana (Hemsl.) Judd. (Ericaeae), Brickellia veronicaefolia (Kunth) A. Gray (Asteraceae), Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem. (Bignoniaceae)--are discussed in greater detail, highlighting our current knowledge about these botanicals, but also the enormous gaps in our knowledge, most notably as it relates to the species' toxicology, the pharmacokinetics of its active constituents and their metabolism.

  1. Frugivory by phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a restored area in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.

  2. The relative importance of above- versus belowground competition for tree growth during early succession of a tropical moist forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breugel, Michiel van; van Breugel, Paulo; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    fertility in Southern Mexico, using the premise that competition for light is size-asymmetric, unlike competition for nutrients. Plant growth is thus expected to be disproportionally impeded by larger neighbors. We studied how growth and survival of 3.5-5.5 m tall saplings of Cecropia peltata......Competition between neighboring plants plays a major role in the population dynamics of tree species in the early phases of humid tropical forest succession. We evaluated the relative importance of above-versus below-ground competition during the first years of old-field succession on soil with low...... in diameter and height growth of the target saplings. Most growth variables were strongly affected by the neighbors bigger than the focal trees with no significant additive effect of the smaller neighbors, indicating asymmetric competition. Smaller neighbors did have a small but significant additive effect...

  3. Avaliação da atividade leishmanicida in vitro de plantas medicinais Evaluation of the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of medicinal plants

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    Jeamile L. Bezerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na busca de novos agentes leishmanicidas, avaliamos em culturas de promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas de Tephrosia cinerea (L. Pers. (Fabaceae, Dichorisandra sp (Commelinaceae, Syzygium jambolanum DC. (Myrtaceae, Julocroton triqueter (Lam. Didr. var. triqueter (Euphorbiaceae, Passiflora edulis Sims(Passifloraceae, Cecropia sp (Cecropiaceae, Chenopodium ambrosioides L.(Chenopodiaceae, Pedilanhus tithymaloides (L. Poit (Euphorbiaceae, Peristrophe angustifolia Nees(Acanthaceae e o extrato aquoso do mesocarpo de Orbignya phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae. As promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis foram cultivadas em presença de 31,3; 63,5; 125,0; 250,0 e 500,0 µg/mL dos extratos por 24 horas. Ao final desse período foi calculada a concentração inibitória do crescimento (CI50 em relação às culturas não tratadas com os extratos. Os extratos das espécies J. triqueter, Dichorisandra sp e T. cinerea apresentaram maior eficácia em induzir a morte das promastigotas, com CI50 de 29,5; 32,9 e 43,6 µg/mL, respectivamente. P. edulis, C. ambrosioides e S. jambolanum apresentaram eficácia moderada com CI50 de 150,1; 151,9 e 166,6 µg/mL, respectivamente. P. tithymaloides e O. phalerata apresentaram baixo efeito leishmanicida com CI50 >500 µg/mL, enquanto Peristrophe angustifolia e Cecropia spnão apresentaram efeito. Dessa forma, dos dez extratos testados, três apresentaram uma expressiva atividade leishmanicida in vitro.Searching for new leishmanicidal agents, promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis were cultured with the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the Tephrosia cinerea (L. Pers. (Fabaceae, Dichorisandra sp (Commelinaceae, Syzygium jambolanum DC. (Myrtaceae, Julocroton triqueter (Lam. Didr. var. triqueter (Euphorbiaceae, Passiflora edulis Sims(Passifloraceae, Cecropia sp (Cecropiaceae, Chenopodium ambrosioides L.(Chenopodiaceae, Pedilanhus tithymaloides (L. Poit (Euphorbiaceae

  4. Effects on microhymenopteran progeny of different host exposure periods (Chrysomya megacephala, Calliphoridae to the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

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    Renata da Silva Mello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption that exposure of the host to parasitoid for long periods could provoke superparasitism, the aim of this work was to test the consequences on the immature development time, productivity of parasitoids per pupa, sex ratio and rate of parasitism of Nasonia vitripennis bred in Chrysomya megacephala pupae. Each individual pupa was placed in a glass tube with one parasitoid female for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h period of exposure, under controlled laboratory conditions. Twenty replicates of each period were performed. ANOVA with a 5% significance level was applied. The 72 h exposure caused the immature development time to increase. The mean parasitoids emergence per pupa did not vary significantly with the time of exposure. There were a significantly higher number of females than males and a trend in sex ratio deviation towards the females in all of the treatments. An increase in the number of unviable pupae rates were observed with increased exposure time.Para testar a hipótese que longos períodos de exposição do hospedeiro ao parasitóide podem ocasionar o superparasitismo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo testar as conseqüências sobre o tempo de desenvolvimento do imaturo, a produtividade de parasitóides, razão sexual e taxa de parasitismo de Nasonia vitripennis criadas em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala. Cada pupa foi individualizada e alocada em um tudo de ensaio com uma fêmea de N. vitripennis por 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h, sob condições laboratoriais controladas. Foram realizadas 20 réplicas para cada período de exposição. ANOVA com significância de 5 % foi aplicada. A exposição de 72 h causou um aumento no tempo desenvolvimento. A média de emergência de parasitóides não variou significativamente entre os tempos de exposição. Houve um número significativamente maior de fêmeas e uma tendência ao desvio da razão sexual para fêmeas em todos os tratamentos. Foi verificado um aumento no número de pupas invi

  5. Control enfocado de Aedes aegypti en localidades de alto riesgo de transmisión de dengue en Morelos, México Targeted treatment of Aedes aegypti at localities with high risk for dengue transmission, Morelos, Mexico

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    Alejandro Villegas-Trejo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la importancia relativa de los tipos de criadero de Aedes aegypti para proponer intervenciones de control enfocadas en Morelos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron muestreos transversales con colecta de pupas en Cuautla, Jojutla y Tlaquiltenango en temporada de sequía (1713 casas y lluvias (1677 del año 2008. La importancia relativa de cada tipo de criadero se determinó por su contribución (% a la producción pupal total por localidad. RESULTADOS: En Cuautla, la mayoría de pupas se recolectaron en temporada de sequía de tanques/pilas (48.5%, tambos y botes/cubetas (15% c/u; en lluvias, los diversos chicos (21.3%, botes/cubetas (19.3% y macetas/macetones (12.9% fueron más productivos. En Jojutla y Tlaquiltenango, 97% de las pupas se colectaron de macetas/macetones en secas; durante las lluvias la mayoría de pupas se recolectaron de diversos chicos (26.3%, trastes de cocina/lavado (13.9%, botes/cubetas (12.9% y macetas/macetones (12.7%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevención y control del vector del dengue deben basarse en este tipo de evidencias para focalizar las acciones sobre los criaderos más productivos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative importance of Aedes aegyti breeding sites for potential targeted dengue control interventions in Morelos. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional entomological surveys were conducted and collection of Ae. aegypti pupae was taken from all water-holding containers in Cuautla, Jojutla and Tlaquiltenango during dry (1 713 households and rainy (1 677 seasons in 2008. Relative importance of different types of breeding sites was determined by the contribution (% to total pupae production within each locality. RESULTS: In Cuautla most pupae during the dry season were found in wash basins (48.5%, tanks and buckets/pots (15% each; during the rainy season, diverse small items (21.3%, buckets/pots (19.3% and plant pots (12.9% were more productive. In Jojutla and Tlaquiltenango, 97% of

  6. The effect of queen and worker adoption on weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) queen fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim; Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2012-01-01

    Incipient ant colonies are often under fierce competition, making fast growth crucial for survival. To increase production, colonies can adopt multiple queens (pleometrosis), fuse with other colonies or rob brood from neighboring colonies. However, different adoption strategies might have different...... impacts such as future queen fecundity or future colony size. O. smaragdina queen production was measured in incipient colonies with 2, 3 or 4 founding queens, following the transplantation of 0, 30 or 60 pupae from a donor colony. Pupae developed into mature workers, resulting in increased worker...... increased the colony’s future production, but not the production of individual queens....

  7. The pupal morphology of the Carabus (s. l. (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the southwestern Iberian peninsula

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    Cárdenas, A. M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The pupae of Carabus (s. l. of the south-west Iberian peninsula are described. The study was carried out with pupae of Macrothorax rugosus (Fabricius, 1792, Hadrocarabus dufouri (Dejean, 1831, H. lusitanicus (Fabricius, 1801 and Rhabdotocarabus melancholicus (Fabricius, 1798 reared in the laboratory from adults caught in the field. By determining and testing various morphological structures, all three genera were identified. These results indicate that the presence or absence of setae on the pronotum, the distribution of hairs on the abdominal tergi and the development of tergal expansions from urotergi are the most significant features for identification.

  8. Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae as parasitoid of Diptera, in Brazil

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    Marchiori C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo determinou as espécies de hospedeiros do parasitóide Pachycrepoideusvindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em fezes humanas, rins e fígado de bovino, peixe e frutos. As pupas, obtidas pelo método de flutuação, foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 15,7%. Este trabalho registra a primeira ocorrência de Pachycrepoideusvindemiae em pupas de Peckiachrysostoma.

  9. Neolasioptera ramicola, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera associated with Physalis angulata (Solanaceae Neolasioptera ramicola, uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera associada com Physalis angulata (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neolasioptera ramicola Maia, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera that induces stem galls on Physalis angulata (Solanaceae is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall based on material from Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Neolasioptera ramicola Maia, uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera que induz galhas caulinares em Physalis angulata (Solanaceae é descrita e ilustrada (larva, pupa, male, fêmea e galha com base em material coletado em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

  10. Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

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    Sônia A. Casari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of Acanthocinini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. Larva and pupa of Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar, 1928, collected in trunks of Pinus elliottii Engelm., and Paratenthras martinsi Monné, 1998, collected in spathes of Scheelea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng. Burret, are described and illustrated. Larva and pupa of Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, collected in Hymenaea corbaril L., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Pterogyne nitens Tul., are redescribed and illustrated. A table with all described immatures of Lamiinae, and a comparison among the immatures of Acanthocinini are presented. Biological notes and new records are also included.

  11. Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia, with keys to 21 species of the Simulium asakoae species-group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, H; Sofian-Azirun, M; Ya'cob, Z; Hashim, R

    2014-02-14

    Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) brinchangense and S. (G.) tanahrataense, are described on the basis of reared adult females, males, pupae and larvae from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. These new species are assigned to the asakoae species-group within Simulium (Gomphostilbia) and taxonomic notes are given to distinguish each new species from six known species in Malaysia. Revised keys to identify all 21 species including 13 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The species diversity of the asakoae species-group in Cameron's Highlands is briefly noted.

  12. Systematics, host plants, and life histories of three new Phyllocnistis species from the central highlands of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Phyllocnistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kawahara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from the central highlands of Costa Rica: Phyllocnistis drimiphaga sp. n., P. maxberryi sp. n., and P. tropaeolicola sp. n. Larvae of all three are serpentine leaf miners. Phyllocnistis drimiphaga feeds on Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae, P. maxberryi on Gaiadendron punctatum (Loranthaceae, and P. tropaeolicola on Tropaeolum emarginatum (Tropaeolaceae. All specimens were collected as larvae or pupae in their mines and reared in captivity. Parasitoid wasps were reared from P. drimiphaga and P. maxberryi. Description of the adults, pupae, and life histories are supplemented with photographs, illustrations, and scanning electron micrographs.

  13. ¿MULTIPLICAR Tetrastichus howardi (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE EN LA ORUGA DE LA SEDA AFECTA SU BIOLOGÍA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahara Gabriela Piñeyro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa multiplicación sucesiva de parasitoides en hospederos alternativos, puede afectar las características biológicas y comprometer los sistemas de cría masiva de estos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la multiplicación de Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae en pupas del hospedero alternativo Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, durante tres generaciones. Y si eso afecta su desempeño reproductivo, cuando se cría, posteriormente, en pupas del hospedero natural Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. Las informaciones obtenidas en este estudio pueden mejorar y facilitar el control biológico de plagas, principalmente, con la utilización de parasitoides, debido a que T. howardi parasita y se desarrolla en pupas de B. mori. De forma general, la multiplicación de T. howardi durante tres generaciones en pupas del hospedero alternativo B. mori no compromete las características biológicas de este parasitoide cuando se multiplica en su hospedero natural D. saccharalis a los efectos de su utilización en programas de control biológico.ABSTRACTThe successive multiplication of parasitoids in alternative hosts can affect the biological characteristics and compromise the systems for massive rearing. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the multiplication of Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff, 1893 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae in pupae of the alternative host Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae for three generations, affects its reproductive performance, when are reared, then in pupae of the natural host Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. The information obtained in this study can improve and facilitate the biological control of pests, mainly with the use of parasitoids, due to the fact that T. howardi parasite and develops into pupae of B. mori. In general, the multiplication of T. howardi for three generations in the alternative

  14. Immature stages of the butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae

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    Eduardo P. Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa morphology, larval and oviposition behavior, and host plant of the "eighty-eight" butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (C. Felder, 1862 are described. Eggs are laid singly under leaf, and have pronounced vertical ribs ending up in a crown. Larvae of early instars construct stick-like frass chains where they rest when not feeding. Late instars are green with reduced body scoli and long branched head scoli. Pupae are entirely green, and pupation occurs on the upper leaf surface. In general, morphology and behavior of immature stages are similar to those of related species in the tribe Callicorini.

  15. Diet-induced over-expression of flightless-I protein and its relation to flightlessness in Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

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    Il Kyu Cho

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata is among the most economically important pests worldwide. Understanding nutritional requirement helps rearing healthy medfly for biocontrol of its population in fields. Flight ability is a high priority criterion. Two groups of medfly larvae were reared with two identical component diets except one with fatty acids (diet A and another without it (diet B. Adults from larvae reared on diet B demonstrated 20±8% of normal flight ability, whereas those from larvae reared on diet A displayed full flight ability of 97±1%. Proteomes were profiled to compare two groups of medfly pupae using shotgun proteomics to study dietary effects on flight ability. When proteins detected in pupae A were compared with those in pupae B, 233 and 239 proteins were, respectively, under- and over-expressed in pupae B, while 167 proteins were overlapped in both pupae A and B. Differential protein profiles indicate that nutritional deficiency induced over-expression of flightless-I protein (fli-I in medfly. All proteins were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA to create 13 biological networks and 17 pathways of interacting protein clusters in human ortholog. Fli-I, leucine-rich repeat (LRR-containing G protein-coupled receptor 2, LRR protein soc-2 and protein wings apart-like were over-expressed in pupae B. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, protocadherin-like wing polarity protein stan and several Wnt pathway proteins were under-expressed in pupae B. These results suggest down-regulation of the Wnt/wingless signaling pathway, which consequently may result in flightlessness in pupae B. The fli-I gene is known to be located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS region on chromosome 17, and thus, we speculate that nutritional deficiency might induce over-expression of fli-I (or fli-I gene and be associated with human SMS. However, more evidence would be needed to confirm our speculation.

  16. Encontro de anofelinos do subgênero Nyssorhynchus em recipientes artificiais, Maricá, RJ, Brasil

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    Carreira-Alves João R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Registram-se o encontro de larvas e uma pupa de anofelinos em recipientes artificiais desativados. Foram encontradas larvas de Anopheles argyritarsis em uma caixa d'água abandonada, na localidade de Pedregulho, distrito de Ponta Negra, e uma pupa de Anopheles aquasalis em um recipiente experimental, a céu aberto, no distrito de Itaipuaçu, onde ocorreram três casos de malária em 1997. Ambos os encontros ocorreram no município de Maricá, RJ, Brasil.

  17. Analysis list: pan [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pan Embryo,Larvae,Pupae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target.../pan.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/pan.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/dm3/target/pan.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Larvae.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/pan.Pupae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  18. Desenvolvimento Pós-embrionário de Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae em Diferentes Dietas, sob Condições de Laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-embryonic Development of Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae, in Different Diets, under Laboratory Conditions - The performance of various diets (bovine meat, fish- sardine, shrimp, dog faeces, and banana in Ophyra aenescens development was evaluated. The biology was studied in an incubator (BOD at 27±1oC and 80±10% of RH. The developmental time from larvae to adult, the developmental time and viability of larvae and pupae, the weight of pupae as well as the sex ratio of the emerging adults were also determined. Beef and shrimp were the more efficient diets for rearing O. aenescens.

  19. 桑蚕活蛹的最适冷藏期研究%Research on the Best Period of Refrigerated Storage for Alive Silkworm Chrysalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义安; 王晓芬; 刘俊凤; 刘斌彬; 杜周和

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究桑蚕活蛹的冷藏技术问题,为利于桑蚕活蛹的食用化利用途径拓展.[方法]将刚化蛹的蚕蛹6h收集1次,分别单独存放,在不同的蛹龄时放入冰箱(2℃)中冷藏60d左右.[结果]蛹龄≤12h的蚕蛹I、Ⅱ区的蛹色均有不同程度的变深;蛹龄<24h的蚕蛹,其存活率很低;蛹龄=48h的蚕蛹,其外观在冷藏前后几乎无变化;蛹龄≥192 h的蚕蛹冷藏后无蚕蛹存活,同时出现了蚕蛹蛋白腐败后特有的蛹臭味.[结论]桑蚕在化蛹48h后用2℃冷藏可达60d以上.%[Objective] The ways for the practical utilization of the freshly living pupa would be expanded through the research on the technique of alive silkworm chrysalis refrigeration. [Method] The silkworm chrysalis, just pupated, was collected at each interval of 6 hours, and, stored separately in the refrigerator( 2 ℃) for about 60 days depending on the different pupae ages. [ Results] The color of the pupa with the age ≤ 12 hours was darker. The survival rate of the pupa with the age <24 hours was very low. The appearance of the pupa with the age = 48 hours was almost no change before and after its cold storage. The survival rate of the pupa with the age < 192 hours was zero and meanwhile the unique bad smell of silkworm pupae protein appeared. [ Conclusion] The silkworm pupa, after 48 hours of its pupation, could be refrigerated at 2 ℃ for 60 days or more.

  20. Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae) - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Valente, Ana Carolina Dos Santos; Luna-Dias, Antonio Paulino A; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Marchon-Silva, Verônica

    2012-08-01

    A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres). This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C.) subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  1. Susceptibility of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Antoinette P; Manrakhan, Aruna

    2009-01-01

    The potential of entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and Steinernema khoisanae, to infect pupariating larvae, pupae and adults of Ceratitis capitata and Ceratitis rosa was investigated in laboratory bioassays. Pupariating larvae and adult flies were susceptible to nematode infection, with no infection recorded for the pupae. Pupariating larvae of C. capitata were generally more susceptible to infection than those of C. rosa. Significantly more larvae of C. capitata were infected by H. bacteriophora. For C. rosa, highest infectivity of larvae was obtained with H. zealandica. In contrast, adults of both species were highly infected by S. khoisanae.

  2. Simulium (Chirostilbia brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Maia-Herzog

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres. This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C. subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  3. The role of minerals in food selection in a black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) population in Belize following a major hurricane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Alison M; Pavelka, Mary S M

    2012-11-01

    As plants may contain low levels of some minerals including sodium, copper, and phosphorous, herbivores may become deficient in these nutrients. In 2001, Hurricane Iris hit the Monkey River Forest in Belize causing substantial damage to the food supply of the black howler monkey population (Alouatta pigra) living there. This included an 18-month absence in fruit production and a complete loss of figs that are high in calcium. In this article, we describe the post-hurricane diet of this monkey population and compare the mineral content of food items to each other and to recommendations for non-human primates [NRC 2003]. We also investigate food selection in relation to potentially limiting minerals. Behavioral data from four groups of howlers (2002-2006) and samples of all ingested food items were collected and a sample of 99 plant from 18 food species was analyzed for mineral content. Unexpectedly, the post-hurricane diet contained more mature leaves than new leaves despite the availability of new leaves. Leaves contained higher amounts of minerals than reproductive parts and with the exception of Cecropia peltata stems, plant parts were low in sodium. Cecropia peltata is a pioneer species that grows following habitat disturbance thus the ingestion of these stems may be a potential mechanism to avoid sodium deficiency in this damaged forest. Calcium and zinc were found above recommended values in most food items; however, both positively predicted food selection, which may reflect a difference between their abundance and their bioavailability. However, as mature leaves contained more calcium than other plant parts, their high post-hurricane consumption may also be a response to the absence of figs and the need to find an alternate calcium source. This study highlights how habitat disturbance may affect mineral abundance and the dietary choices of primates.

  4. Citogenética de Angiospermas coletadas em Pernambuco: V Cytogenetics of Angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco: V

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    Andrea Pedrosa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 33 espécies, entre nativas e introduzidas, pertencentes a 20 famílias de angiospermas ocorrentes no Estado de Pernambuco. A caracterização cariotípica da maioria das espécies foi baseada no número e morfologia cromossômica, padrão de condensação de cromossomos profásicos e estrutura de núcleo interfásico. Cinco espécies tiveram seus números cromossômicos determinados pela primeira vez, sendo elas: Cereus jamacaru (2n=22, Clitoria fairchildiana (2n=22, Eugenia luschnathiana (2n=22, Licania tomentosa (2n=22 e Spondias tuberosa (n=16. No caso de Licania tomentosa esta é a primeira citação de número cromossômico para o gênero. Das outras 28 espécies, três (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; e Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 apresentaram números cromossômicos diferentes dos registrados previamente na literatura.Thirty three native and introduced species from 20 families of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco were analysed. The karyotype description of the majority of the species was based on chromosome number and morphology, condensation pattern of prophase chromosomes as well as interphase nuclear structure. In five species (Cereus jamacaru, 2n=22; Clitoria fairchildiana, 2n=22; Eugenia luschnathiana, 2n=22; Licania tomentosa, 2n=22; and Spondias tuberosa, n=16 the chromosome number is reported here for the first time. In the case of Licania tomentosa, this is also the first report for the genus. Among the other 28 species, three (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; and Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 showed chromosome numbers different from what has previously been reported.

  5. Fruits as unusual food items of the carnivorous bat Chrotopterus auritus (Mammalia, Phyllostomidae from southeastern Brazil Frutos como item alimentar não habitual do morcego carnívoro Chrotopterus auritus (Mammalia, Phyllostomidae da região sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We record here the occurrence of seeds of several plant species in feces found inside the day roost of Chrotoperus auritus, at the Estação Experimental de Itirapina, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in July 2001. The roost was used by only one adult female, non pregnant, during about a month. In the feces, fur of rodent (Muridae, bone fragments, fragments of Scarabaeidae and other beetles and insects, leaves (not determined and many seeds of Piperaceae (Piper sp., Urticaceae (Cecropia sp. and Solanaceae (Solanum spp. and Cestrum sp. were found. In the gut content, insect fragments, fur of rodent (Muridae and plant remains were found. It was discussed why this carnivorous bat would be consuming plant items.Relatamos aqui a ocorrência de sementes de diversas espécies de plantas em fezes encontradas num abrigo diurno de C. auritus, localizado na Estação Experimental de Itirapina, São Paulo, em julho de 2001. O abrigo era utilizado por apenas uma fêmea adulta não grávida durante cerca de um mês. Nas fezes, foram encontrados pêlos de roedor (Muridae, fragmentos de ossos, fragmentos de Scarabaeidae e de outros Coleópteros e insetos, folhas (não identificáveis e muitas sementes de Piperaceae (Piper sp., Urticaceae (Cecropia sp. e Solanaceae (Solanum spp. e Cestrum sp.. No trato digestivo foram encontrados fragmentos de insetos, pêlos de roedores (Muridae e restos de vegetais. Discute-se porque esse morcego carnívoro poderia estar consumindo itens vegetais.

  6. Plantas utilizadas na medicina popular brasileira com potencial atividade antifúngica Plants with potencial antifungal activity employed in Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fenner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico etnobotânico sobre plantas utilizadas pela população brasileira no tratamento de sinais e sintomas relacionados às infecções fúngicas. Foram citadas 409 espécies, distribuídas em 98 famílias, com maior concentração em Fabaceae e Asteraceae. Para as dez espécies mais citadas, foi realizada uma busca relativa a estudos de atividade antifúngica na base de dados MEDLINE-PubMed. Somente foram encontrados estudos para Phytolacca americana L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mirabilis jalapa L., Schinus molle L. Entre as dez espécies mais utilizadas, seis correspondem a espécies nativas: Anacardium occidentale L., Cecropia peltata L., Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthinfolius Raddi, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo.The aim of this work was to draw up a list of plants used by Brazilian population for the treatment of signs and symptoms related to fungal infections and to verify the existence of scientific data related to the antifungal activity in the databasis MEDLINE-PubMed. Four hundread and nine species were listed, which are distributed in ninety eight families, mainly Fabaceae and Asteraceae. Among the more frequently mentioned species (10, only four were evaluated regarding to the antifungal activity: Phytolacca americana L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mirabilis jalapa L. and Schinus molle L. From those ten species, six are native (Anacardium occidentale L., Cecropia peltata L., Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo.

  7. Botanical profile of bee pollen from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil Perfil botânico do pólen apícola proveniente do litoral sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos da Costa Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the botanical origin of pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera L. in Canavieiras municipality, Bahia state. It provides a list of polliniferous plant species from the Atlantic Forest biome that are important for the development of regional apiculture. Using the acetolysis method, 35 bee-pollen samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that pollen types Elaeis (23.99%, Mimosa pudica (22.78% and Cecropia (13.68% were the most abundant among the samples. These also showed the highest relative frequencies of the material studied and were important pollen sources for bees in the study area.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a origem botânica das bolotas de pólen coletadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera L. no município de Canavieiras, Bahia, gerando uma lista de plantas poliníferas pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica e importantes para o desenvolvimento da apicultura regional. Foram analisadas palinologicamente 35 amostras de pólen apícola, utilizando-se o processo de acetólise para, em seguida, serem feitas análises qualitativas e quantitativas. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos polínicos Elaeis (23,99%, Mimosa pudica (22,78% e Cecropia (13,68% foram os mais abundantes no pólen apícola analisado. Estes tipos polínicos também apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de todo o material estudado e representam importantes plantas fontes de pólen para as abelhas na área estudada.

  8. A new avocado pest in Central America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a key to the Lepidoptera larvae threatening avocados in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptaspasma perseana Gilligan & Brown, new species, is described and illustrated from Mexico and Guatemala. The species is a potential pest of fruit of cultivated avocado, Persea americana (Lauraceae). Images of adults, male secondary structures, male and female genitalia, eggs, larvae, and pupae a...

  9. Efficacy of agnique (mmf) monomolecular surface film against immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis patton and Culex spp (diptera: culicidae) in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Al; Hassan, A Abu; Salmah, M R Che; Rahman, W A

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of the larvicidal and pupicidal agent (Agnique) MMF was evaluated against larvae of An. arabiensis and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions in Bahary Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. At an applied dosage of 0.25 ml/m2, MMF resulted in 89.4, 79.8 and 88.2% reductions in L3-L4 instars An. arabiensis and 63.5% in Culex larvae (all stages) 24 to 72 hours post-treatment. Pupae were completely eliminated (100%) within 24 hours posttreatment. The earlier instars (L1-L2) of An. arabiensis were more tolerant with a 62.5% reduction at 72 hours post-treatment compared to (L3-L4) instars and pupae. At 7-days post-treatment Agnique gave a 57.5% reduction in L1-L2 and 92.6% in L3-L4 instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 57.3% and 86.4% in Culex larvae and pupae, respectively. We conclude that Agnique can perform effectively against L3-L4 instars and pupae of An. arabiensis for only 1 week, and 3 to 4 days against L1-L2 instars of Culex spp.

  10. Descrição das fases imaturas do Phlebotomus bahiensis Mangabeira & Sherlock, 1961: (Diptera, Psychodidae

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    Italo A. Sherlock

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the egg, larva and pupa of P. bahiensis Mangabeira & Sherlock, 1961, from material collected in Salvador, Bahia. As it was oberved, they do not present any morphological characteristic that would separate them from other species. The Authors call attention for the presence of an anomalous cerda in the larva.

  11. File list: InP.Pup.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.05.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016169,SR...X016163,SRX016168,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Pup.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.20.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016163,SR...X016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Pup.05.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.05.AllAg.AllCell dm3 Input control Pupae SRX016169,SRX016163,SRX016168,SRX0...16164,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.05.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Pup.20.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.20.AllAg.AllCell dm3 Input control Pupae SRX016163,SRX016164,SRX016169,SRX0...16168,SRX016165,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.20.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Pup.10.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.10.AllAg.AllCell dm3 Input control Pupae SRX016165,SRX016163,SRX016164,SRX0...16169,SRX016168,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.10.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Pup.05.GFP.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.05.GFP.AllCell dm3 TFs and others GFP Pupae SRX032125,SRX030964,SRX016162,S...RX030962 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.05.GFP.AllCell.bed ...

  17. Vertical transmission of Bartonella schoenbuchensis in Lipoptena cervi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de A.; Docters van Leeuwen, A.; Jahfari, S.; Takken, W.; Foldvari, M.; Dremmel, L.; Sprong, H.; Foldvari, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) is a hematophagous ectoparasite of cervids, which is considered to transmit pathogens between animals and occasionally to humans. The principal life stage that is able to parasitize new hosts is a winged ked that just emerged from a pupa. To faci

  18. Eavesdropping on cooperative communication within an ant-butterfly mutualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgar, Mark A.; Nash, David Richard; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2016-01-01

    of the Australian lycaenid butterfly, Jalmenus evagoras, form an obligate association with several species of attendant ants, including Iridomyrmex mayri. Ants protect the caterpillars and pupae, and in return are rewarded with nutritious secretions. Female and male adult butterflies use ants as signals...

  19. Concept-Focused Teaching: Using Big Ideas to Guide Instruction in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main problems we face in science teaching is that students are learning isolated facts and missing central concepts. For instance, consider what you know about life cycles. Chances are that you remember something about butterflies and stages, such as egg, larva, pupa, adult. But what's the take-home idea that we should have learned…

  20. Molecular characters and expression analysis of a new isoform of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... tissues were dissected in insect saline (0.75% NaCl) from larvae, pupae, and adults and ... myeloblastosis virus (AMV, Takara, Japan). Two specific ..... In mammals, MEF2 can bind directly to the promoters or enhancers of the ...

  1. 76 FR 51929 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... become an adult, since the adults are not wood borers. The larva remains within the stem, becomes a pupa... also abut or overlap in that area. The beetle is a wood borer, dependent on, and found only in... in small groups, on the leaves or stems of living elderberry shrubs (Barr 1991, p. 4). The...

  2. 77 FR 60237 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... not wood borers. The larva remains within the stem, becomes a pupa, and finally emerges from its... in the southern San Joaquin Valley. This subspecies is a wood borer that is dependent on its host... also abut or overlap in that area. The valley elderberry longhorn beetle is a wood borer, dependent...

  3. Parasitóides de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius coletados em Itumbiara, Goiás Parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Marchiori

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinadas as espécies de parasitóides associadas com Chrysomya megacephala, coletados com isca de rins de bovino, em Itumbiara, Estado de Goiás. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação, individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 18,6%. Brachymeria podagrica, Nasonia vitripennis e Pachycrepoideus vindemiae apresentaram uma freqüência de 8,6%, 8,6% e 1,4%, respectivamente. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Brachymeria podagrica em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala.This study determined the species of parasitoids associated with Chrysomya megacephala, collected on bovine kidney baits, in Itumbiara, State of Goias, Brazil. The pupae were obtained by flotation. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The overall prevalence of parasitism was 18.6%. Brachymeria podagrica, Nasonia vitripennis and Pachycrepoideus vindemiae presented frequencies of 8.6%, 8.6% and 1.4%, respectively. This work reports for the first time the occurrence of Brachymeria podagrica in pupae of Chrysomya megacephala.

  4. Food source provisioning and susceptibility of immature and adult Tribolium castaneum on concrete partially treated with chlorfenapyr (Phantom®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted in which adults, pupae, and 4-week-old larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed separately on concrete arenas partially treated (14.4 % of the total area) with the insecticide chlorfenapyr (Phantom®) at 1.1 g active ingredient/...

  5. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds in vinasse, a byproduct of sugarcane-ethanol distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable fli...

  6. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  7. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in tejocote (Crataegus mexicana) orchard soils and their pathogenicity against Rhagoletis pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Reyes, E; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Sánchez-Escudero, J; Nieto-Angel, R

    2014-11-01

    To determine the abundance and diversity of entomopathogenic fungi in tejocote orchard soils and evaluate their ability to infect Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh., the main pest of tejocote. Surveys were made in two locations in Mexico state and two in Puebla state. Soil from selected locations was baited for entomopathogenic fungi with Galleria mellonella (L.). All isolates were identified morphologically to genus level and to species level using Bloc and elongation factor 1-α gene sequence information, respectively; Beauveria bassiana ((Bals.-Criv.) Vuill.), B. pseudobassiana (S.A. Rehner & Humber) and Metarhizium robertsii (J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber) were found, with B. bassiana being the most abundant and widely distributed. Pathogenicity of five selected B. bassiana isolates and three M. robertsii isolates was evaluated against larvae and pupae of R. pomonella. All isolates infected larvae resulting in an average mortality of 35%. Pupae were not susceptible; however, adults emerging from inoculated pupae did die due to infection. At least three species of entomopathogenic fungi are present in the soil from tejocote orchards, with B. bassiana being the most abundant and widely distributed. Rhagoletis pomonella larvae were more susceptible to infection than pupae. Our study has produced new information about the distribution of entomopathogenic fungi in cultivated soils from this region of North America, contributing to a better understanding of their natural occurrence and underpinning the development of biological control approaches. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. File list: InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016163,SR...X016167,SRX016169,SRX016164,SRX016165,SRX016168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell dm3 Input control Input control Pupae SRX016165,SR...X016163,SRX016164,SRX016169,SRX016168,SRX016167 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Pup.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  10. Larval Performance and Adult Attraction of Delia platura (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) in a Native and an Introduced Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patricia C; Keil, Clifford B; Stevenson, Philip C; Mina, Diego; Samaniego, Servio; Peralta, Eduardo; Mazon, Nelson; Chancellor, Timothy C B

    2017-02-01

    Delia platura Meigen is an important pest in crops around the world. Its host range includes almost 50 species, and it can develop in soil organic matter. In Ecuador, D. platura is a serious problem for the crop, Lupinus mutabilis Sweet (Chocho), and it also attacks broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). After broccoli is harvested, crop residue is mixed with soil or collected and stored close to Chocho fields. The objectives of this study were to determine the adaptive responses of larvae reared on different hosts and whether D. platura females are preferentially attracted to germinating L. mutabilis seeds or broccoli residue. Accordingly, larval performance and attraction of female D. platura reared on broccoli residue and L. mutabilis seeds were evaluated. The number of larvae, pupae, and adults were higher when reared on broccoli. Conversely, pupal weight was higher and time from larva to pupa, pupa to adult, and total life cycle were longer in flies reared on L. mutabilis. Although D. platura developed more quickly on broccoli, L. mutabilis was also a good host since pupae were heavier compared with flies reared on broccoli. Delia platura females reared on broccoli preferred broccoli residue to L. mutabilis in an olfactometer. Volatiles from broccoli residue in soil may attract D. platura females and stimulate oviposition on L. mutabilis seeds. Environmentally benign production of L. mutabilis crops with minimal insecticide applications may require the elimination of fresh broccoli residue as fertilizer in soils where L. mutabilis is cultivated.

  11. Neuropeptide-like precursor 4 is uniquely expressed during pupal diapause in the flesh fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization comparing brains from diapausing and nondiapausing pupae of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, suggested that the gene encoding neuropeptide-like precursor 4 (Nplp4) was uniquely expressed during diapause. We have sequenced the full-length cDNA encoding Npl...

  12. Gene cloning, characterization and expression and enzymatic activities related to trehalose metabolism during diapause of the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Hao, You-Jin; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Ren, Shuang; Si, Feng-Ling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    Trehalose represents the main hemolymph sugar in many insects, and it functions in energy metabolism and protection in extreme environmental conditions. To gain an insight into trehalose functions in Delia antiqua diapausing pupae, genes encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphatase (TPP) and trehalase (TRE) were identified and characterized. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences indicated that these genes were highly similar to each homolog from Diptera insects. Gene expressions and their enzyme activities were also investigated. The differential expressions of TPS and TPP shared very similar trends for summer and winter diapausing pupae. Their enzyme activities were consistent with the gene expressions. Trehalose concentrations in summer- and winter-diapausing pupae were lower at the initial phase (4.37-5.09μg/mg) but increased gradually and peaked in the maintenance phase (10.59-14.36μg/mg); the concentrations then declined in the quiescence phase. We speculated that a higher trehalose content during the maintenance stage may contribute to protein and/or biological membrane stabilization in winter or to desiccation resistance in the summertime. Diapause termination requires a decrease in the trehalose concentration to promote pupal-adult development. The glucose content also varied during the diapausing processes. Our results provide an overview of the differential expression levels of trehalose metabolic enzymes, confirming the important roles of trehalose in diapausing pupae of the onion maggot. Further work remains to explore its actual functions.

  13. As espécies neotropicais da família Simuliidae Schiner, 1864 (Diptera-Nematocera: I. Simulim (Eusimulium orbitale Lutz, 1910, Simulium (Eusimulium pintoi n. sp. e Simulium nigrimanum MACQUART, 1837, sp. inquirendae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vulcano d'Andretta

    1945-08-01

    Full Text Available Os AA. iniciam com o presente trabalho uma série de publicações com o fim de rever as espécies neotropicais da família Simuliidae. Fazem a revisão bibliográfica, a redescrição do macho, fêmea, pupa, larva, e elegem os neótipos de S. (E orbitale LUTZ, 1910. Descrevem S. (E. pintoi n. sp. de macho, fêmea, pupa e larva; consideram S. nigrimanum MACQ., 1837 como sp. inquirendae.The present paper initiates a serial, in which the authors propose revising the neotropical species of Simuliidae. In this first contribution, a bibliographical survey, and redescriptions of the male, female, pupa and larva of S. (E. orbitale LUTZ, 1910, are presented; a full description of S. (E. pintoi n. sp. based on male, female, pupa and larva is given; S. nigrimanum MACQ. 1837 is considered a sp. inquirendae.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of horse blood supplemented with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of horse blood supplemented with ..... proportion of lighter pupae (<22 mg) produced by the flies fed human blood .... Vreysen, M.J., Saleh, K.M., Ali, M.Y., Abdulla, A.M., Zhu, Z.R., Juma, K.G., ...

  15. File list: Oth.Pup.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others mod(mdg4) Pupae http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Pup.05.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Pup.05.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others mod(mdg4) Pupae http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.Pup.05.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  17. Effects of relative humidity, temperature, and population density on production of cuticular hydrocarbons in housefly Musca domestica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N; Den Otter, CJ

    The production of cuticular hydrocarbons by both males and females of Musca domestica L. under very wet conditions (90% relative humidity) compared to the production at 50 and 20% relative humidity is delayed up to at least 3 days after emergence from the pupae. Eight days after emergence, however,

  18. A new species of Gadirtha Walker (Nolidae: Collomeninae): a proposed biological control agent of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) (Euphorbiaceae) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadirtha fusca, new species, is described from Hong Kong. Adult, male and female genitalia, larva, and pupa are described, illustrated, and compared with Gadirtha impingens Walker. Species is a possible biological control agent for Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small, Euphorbiaceae) in the ...

  19. Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Zhang, S.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Insects have been proposed as a high-quality, efficient and sustainable dietary protein source. The present study evaluated the protein quality of a selection of insect species. Insect substrates were housefly pupae, adult house cricket, yellow mealworm larvae, lesser mealworm larvae, Morio worm lar

  20. How Varroa Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, Katherine A.; Saldivar, Eduardo; Vega, Rodrigo; Westmiller, Stephanie; Douglas, Angela E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroadestructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. Varroa‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecin) was either not significantly different between Varroa-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in Varroa-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of Varroa on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in Varroa-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high Varroa abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore Varroa. PMID:26466617