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Sample records for hyalophora cecropia hemolin

  1. Tracheal volume in the pupa of the Saturniid moth Hyalophora cecropia determined with inert gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C R; Kestler, P; Scheid, P

    1980-06-01

    Tracheal volume (VTr) was measured in pupae of the Giant silkworm moth Hyalophora cecropia (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera, Insecta) using inert gas wash-out techniques. The animal was placed in a small vessel that was continuously ventilated (rate, V) by a gas mixture containing 20% O2 in N2; the inflowing (F1) and outflowing gas fractions (FE) of the vessel could be continuously measured by a respiratory mass spectrometer. At the onset of a spiracular constriction period, which was evidenced from the FECO2 trace, the mixture was rapidly replaced by pure Ar. At the subsequent burst, the amount of N2 emerging from the animal, MN2, was calculated from V and the difference (FE--F1)N2. VTr was calculated from MN2 and the N2 concentration in the tracheal system before constriction (assumed to equal that in the ventilating gas before replacement by Ar). Measurements were repeated with N2 and Ar replacing each other. VTr average 48 microliter . g-1 (range 39 to 59) for animals of 5.8 g average body weight (range 3.4 to 9.9), when inert gas solubility in body fluids was accounted for. Both size and stage in pupal development appear to affect VTr. These values show reasonable agreement with literature data, mostly obtained by emptying the tracheal gas space by mechanical compression.

  2. A new look at discontinuous respiration in pupae of Hyalophora cecropia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): Haemocoelic pressure, extracardiac pulsations and O2 consumption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 4 (2010), s. 487-507 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Saturniidae * Hyalophora cecropia * respiratory acidaemia Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2010 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1559

  3. Endocytosis of the major yolk proteins of the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia: Uptake kinetics and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakosky, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The oocytes of Lepidopteran insects take up several yolk proteins in defined proportions even though their relative availability in the hemolymph changes during the several days required to complete yolk formation in all the eggs. There are three hemolymph yolk precursors, vitellogenin, microvitellogenin and lipophorin; one precursor, paravitellogenin is produced in the ovary. The control mechanism for their proportional endocytosis is not known. In this thesis, the author describe the purification of all four proteins and the radiolabeling of the hemolymph precursors. The radiolabeled proteins were tested with an in vitro incubation system to assess the biological activity of the proteins and the reliability of the incubation methods. All of the labeled probes were transferred from the incubation medium to yolk spheres within the oocyte in a saturable, energy-dependent, and stage-specific manner. The rates of uptake were similar to the estimated rates of uptake in situ. The concentration dependence of in vitro uptake was investigated and found to be consistent with in situ concentrations and the composition of yolk in mature eggs. Two precursors, vitellogenin and lipophorin, competed for uptake indicating that they share a common binding site while the third, microvitellin, did not compete with the others. Though vitellogenin and lipophorin competed for uptake, only vitellogenin displayed the unique ability to increase the uptake rate of microvitellin and fluid in vitro

  4. Vegetative propagation of Cecropia obtusifolia (Cecropiaceae

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    Louis M. LaPierre

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia is a relatively well-known and well-studied genus in the Neotropics. Methods for the successful propagation of C. obtusifolia Bertoloni. 1840 from cuttings and air layering are described, and the results of an experiment to test the effect of two auxins, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and indole butyric acid (IBA, on adventitious root production in cuttings are presented. In general. C. obtusifolia cuttings respond well to adventitious root production (58.3 % of cuttings survived to root, but air layering was the better method (93 % of cuttings survived to root. The concentration of auxins used resulted in an overall significantly lower quality of roots produced compared with cuttings without auxin treatment. Future experiments using Cecropia could benefit from the use of isogenic plants produced by vegetative propagationCecropia es un género bien conocido y bien estudiado en los Neotrópicos. Se discuten métodos exitosos para la propagación de C. obtusifolia Bertoloni, 1840 de fragmentos de troncos y acodos aéreos. A continuación se presentan los resultados de un experimento para examinar los efectos de dos tipos de hormonas (NAA e IBA en la producción de raíces adventicias en fragmentos de troncos. En general, los fragmentos de C. abtusifalia responden bien en la producción de raíces adventicias (y sobreviven al azar 58.3% de los cortes, pero el método de acodos aéreos funcionó mejor (sobreviven al azar 93 %. El uso de hormonas resultó en raíces de baja calidad en comparación con cortes sin hormonas. Experimentos en el futuro que usan Cecropia pueden beneficiar al usar plantas isogénicas producidas por propagación vegetativa

  5. Upregulation of the immune protein gene hemolin in the epidermis during the wandering larval stage of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Tin Tin; Shim, Jae-Kyoung; Rhee, In-Koo; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2008-08-01

    Expression of hemolin, which generates an immune protein, was up-regulated in wandering fifth instar larval stage of Plodia interpunctella. The mRNA level peaked in the middle of the wandering stage. Major expression was in the epidermis, rather than in the fat body or gut. To test a possible ecdysteroid effect on hemolin induction we treated with RH-5992, an ecdysteroid agonist, and KK-42, which inhibits ecdysteroid biosynthesis in both feeding and wandering fifth instar larvae. When feeding larvae were treated with RH-5992 the hemolin mRNA level was increased. When wandering larvae were treated with KK-42 its level was reduced. In addition, when KK-42-treated larvae were subsequently treated with RH-5992 the hemolin mRNA level was recovered. These results strongly suggest that ecdysteroid up-regulates the expression of hemolin mRNA. Hormonal and bacterial effects on hemolin induction were further analyzed at the tissue level. Major induction of hemolin mRNA was detected following both RH-5992 treatment and bacterial injection in the epidermis of both feeding and wandering larvae. Minor induction of hemolin was detected in the fat body following a bacterial injection, but not RH-5992 treatment. We infer that in P. interpunctella larvae, the epidermis is the major tissue for hemolin induction in naïve insects and in insects manipulated with bacterial and hormonal treatments.

  6. Secamiento Descendente del Yarumo (Cecropia Tessmanii

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    Obregón Botero. Rafael

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de muchas enfermedades que afectan plantas tropicales, como en el caso del género Cecropia, es muy difícil, debido a la carencia de bibliografía, ya que en muchos géneros no se han adelantado estudios, ni siquiera someros, de sus parásitos o de sus dolencias de origen no parasitario. En el caso presente, no fue posible encontrar dato alguno que pudiera encaminarnos en el estudio de esta nueva enfermedad del yarumo. Creemos, a pesar de que el presente trabajo no representa un estudio completo de problema, que tiene dos aspectos importantes: 1.El iniciar el estudio de los enemigos que pueda tener una planta tan poco estudiada y a la vez de tantas posibilidades como fuente de materia prima. 2.Relacionar los parásitos de este género, con enfermedades de otras plantas que viven en esos mismos climas y medios ambientes, esas ya sí, de reconocida importancia económica, como son las del cacao, el caucho y algunos árboles maderables.

  7. Hemolin expression in the silk glands of Galleria mellonella in response to bacterial challenge and prior to cell disintegration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 9 (2009), s. 781-787 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : cell recognition * hemolin * 20-hydroxyecdysone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2009

  8. Distributional patterns of cecropia (Cecropiaceae: a panbiogeographic analysis

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    Franco Rosselli Pilar

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A panbiogeographic analysis of the distributional patterns of 60 species of Cecropia was carried out. Based on the distributional ranges of 36 species, we found eight generalized tracks for Cecropia species. whereas distributional patterns of 24 species were uninformative for the analysis. The major concentration of species of Cecropia is in the Neotropical Andean region. where there are three generalized tracks and two nodes. The northern Andes in Colombia and Ecuador are richer than the Central Andes in Perú. they contain two generalized tracks; one to the west and another to the east, formed by individual tracks of eight species each. There are four generalized tracks outside the Andean region: two in the Amazonian region in Guayana-Pará and in Manaus. one in Roraima. one in Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forest of Brazil and one in Central America. Speciation in Cecropia may be related to the Andean first uplift.Con base en la distribución de 60 especies del género Cecropia, se hizo un análisis panbiogeográfico. Se construyeron 8 trazos generalizados con base en el patrón de distribución de 36 especies; la distribución de las demás especies no aportaba información para la definición de los trazos. La región andina tiene la mayor concentración de especies de Cecropia representada por la presencia de tres trazos generalizados y dos nodos; los dos trazos con mayor número de especies se localizan en su parte norte, en Colombia y Ecuador y el otro en los Andes centrales en Perú. Se encontraron además, cuatro trazos extrandinos: dos en la región amazónica, en Pará-Guayana y en Manaus, uno en Roraima, uno en Serra do Mar en la Selva Atlánfíca del Brasil y uno en Centro América. La especiación en Cecropia parece estar relacionada con el primer levantamiento de los Andes.

  9. Selection of chemical markers for the quality control of medicinal plants of the genus Cecropia.

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    Rivera-Mondragón, Andrés; Ortíz, Orlando O; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Vlietinck, Arnold; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2017-12-01

    Several Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) species are traditionally used in Latin America for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes, arterial hypertension, asthma, bronchitis, anxiety, and inflammation. At present, a number of commercial products based on these plants have been introduced into the market with very little information on methods for guaranteeing their quality and safety. This work proposes potential chemical markers for the quality control of the raw materials of Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Cecropia peltata L., Cecropia glaziovii Snethl., Cecropia pachystachya Trécul, and Cecropia hololeuca Miq. The Herbal Chemical Marker Ranking System (Herb MaRS) developed by the National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM) at the University of Western Sydney was used for selecting chemical markers for the quality control of selected medicinal species of Cecropia. This review covers the period from 1982 to 2016. Chlorogenic acid, flavonoidal glycosides (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and rutin), catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins (B2, B5, and C1), steroids (β-sitosterol), and triterpenoids (α-amyrin, pomolic, tormentic and ursolic acids) were selected as chemical markers for the quality control of the leaves. It is necessary to establish comprehensive standards for guaranteeing quality, safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The selection of adequate chemical markers for quality control purposes requires a good knowledge about the chemical composition of medicinal plants and their associated biological properties. To the best of our knowledge this review article is the first to address the identification and quantitative determination of the chemical markers for the genus Cecropia.

  10. The status of Cecropia (Urticaceae) introductions in Malesia: addressing the confusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conn, B.J.; Hadiah, J.T.; Webber, B.L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the great global movement of plants in the 18th and 19th centuries, many valuable and commercial plants were sent from the Neotropics to Europe as seeds or as live specimens. Cecropia (Urticaceae) was in cultivation in England in 1789, yet species delimitation was not well-understood

  11. Life history and environment of Cecropia latiloba in Amazonian floodplains

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    Pia Parolin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia latiloba can be considered to be one of the most efficient colonizers of open areas in the nutrient-rich whitewater floodplains of the Amazon river. Its main strategy to be successful is the high tolerance towards waterlogging and submergence, and the fast vertical growth and reiteration capacity. This, and the tolerance of high irradiation and sediment deposition allow C. latiloba to form large monospecific stands on open sites, and thus the first closed canopy which represents the initial phase of a successional sequence which leads to highly diverse forests. This tree is extremely well adapted to the adverse growth conditions in Amazonian floodplains with prolongued periods of flooding and seedling submergence. The species occurs on the lowest levels in the flooding gradient. Although it belongs to the most often cited species under aspects of taxonomy, species distribution and general descriptions of the ecosystem, little has been published about its ecology. In the present paper the ecological, physiological and phenological characteristics of C. latiloba are described. It is an evergreen species which constantly produces new leaves. With flooding, leaf production is reduced but new leaves are flushed also with prolongued flooding. The peak of flowering and fruiting are in the flooded period. When mature, the fruits are dispersed mainly by water and fish. Seed germination occurs, without dormancy, within 5-13 days after water retreat. In the 7 months before the first flooded period seedlings reach 1 m of height, and height growth increases until a height of 15-20 m is achieved. Photosynthetic assimilation is high, with values of up to 21 mmol CO2m-2s-1 . C. latiloba is a very flood tolerant species, and waterlogged seedlings continuously produce new leaves and adventitiuos rootsCecropia latiloba puede ser considerada una de las especies colonizadoras más eficientes de áreas abiertas en las llanuras inundadas de agua dulce, rica

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN BIOQUÍMICA PARCIAL DE PROTEÍNAS ALERGIÉNICAS DE FRAXINUS SINENSIS Y CECROPIA SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Adriana; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Leal, Francisco; Hospital Infantil Lorenzita Villegas de Santos, Bogotá

    2013-01-01

    The allergenic capabilities ofthe poli en of Fraxinus sinensis (Urapán) and Cecropia sp. (Y arumo) were determined in patients with respiratory allergies in the city ofBogotá. Of a total of207 patients wbo were subjected to therelevant allergy skin tests, 20 (9.66%) were positive for F. sinensis and 6 (2.9%) for the extract from Cecropia sp. The allergenicity was confirmed by the determination of specific Iinmunoglobulin E (lgE). Of the twenty patients positive for F. sinensis, only 6 ofthem ...

  13. Enemigos naturales de Stenoma cecropia (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) en palma de aceite, en el suroccidente de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    SENDOYA-CORRALES, CARLOS ANDRÉS; BUSTILLO-PARDEY, ALEX ENRIQUE

    2016-01-01

    Stenoma cecropia infesta las nuevas siembras del híbrido interespecífico (Elaeis oleifera x E. guineensis) de palma de aceite en la zona de Tumaco (Nariño). Sus infestaciones afectan grandes extensiones de palma y causan defoliaciones de importancia económica. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar los factores bióticos y abióticos que afectan las poblaciones de la plaga a través de muestreos secuenciales quincenales, siguiendo un sistema móvil de desplazamiento 2 x 2, que...

  14. Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Munoz, François; Stevenson, Pablo R; Paine, C E Timothy; Sarmiento, Carolina; Sabatier, Daniel; Heuret, Patrick

    2011-08-22

    Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. We detected significant annual, sub-annual and continuous patterns, and discuss the variation in patterns within and among climatic regions. Although previous studies have suggested that pioneer species generally produce flowers continually throughout the year, we found that at least one third of Cecropia species are characterized by clear annual flowering behaviour. We further investigated the relationships between phenology and climate seasonality, showing strong associations between phenology and seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature. We also verified our results against field survey data gathered from the literature. Our findings indicate that herbarium material is a reliable resource for use in the investigation of large-scale patterns in plant phenology, offering a promising complement to local intensive field studies.

  15. The genus Cecropia: a biological clock to estimate the age of recently disturbed areas in the Neotropics.

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    Paul-Camilo Zalamea

    Full Text Available Forest successional processes following disturbance take decades to play out, even in tropical forests. Nonetheless, records of vegetation change in this ecosystem are scarce, increasing the importance of the chronosequence approach to study forest recovery. However, this approach requires accurate dating of secondary forests, which until now was a difficult and/or expensive task. Cecropia is a widespread and abundant pioneer tree genus of the Neotropics. Here we propose and validate a rapid and straightforward method to estimate the age of secondary forest patches based on morphological observations of Cecropia trees. We found that Cecropia-inferred ages were highly correlated with known ages of the forest. We also demonstrate that Cecropia can be used to accurately date disturbances and propose twenty-one species distributed all over the geographical range of the genus as potential secondary forest chronometer species. Our method is limited in applicability by the maximal longevity of Cecropia individuals. Although the oldest chronosequence used in this study was 20 years old, we argue that at least for the first four decades after disturbance, the method described in this study provides very accurate estimations of secondary forest ages. The age of pioneer trees provides not only information needed to calculate the recovery of carbon stocks that would help to improve forest management, but also provides information needed to characterize the initial floristic composition and the rates of species remigration into secondary forest. Our contribution shows how successional studies can be reliably and inexpensively extended without the need to obtain forest ages based on expensive or potentially inaccurate data across the Neotropics.

  16. An HPLC-DAD method to quantification of main phenolic compounds from leaves of Cecropia species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Geison M.; Ortmann, Caroline F.; Schenkel, Eloir P.; Reginatto, Flavio H.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of major compounds (chlorogenic acid, isoorientin, orientin and isovitexin) present in the leaves of two Cecropia species, C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya. From the leaves of C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya were isolated the C-glycosylflavones isoorientin and isovitexin and identified on both species chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and the O-glycosylflavonol isoquercitrin. The C-glycosylflavone orientin was isolated only from C. pachystachya. Chlorogenic acid was the major compound in both species (11.1 mg g -1 of extract of C. glaziovii and 27.2 mg g -1 of extract of C. pachystachya) and for the flavonoids quantified, isovitexin was the main C-glycosylflavonoid for C. glaziovii (4.6 mg g -1 of extract) and isoorientin the main one for C. pachystachya (17.3 mg g -1 of extract). (author)

  17. Some triterpenic compounds in extracts of Cecropia and Bauhinia species for different sampling years

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    Marcella Emilia Pietra Schmidt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the chemical composition of triterpenes in widespread used folk medicine species, through the development and validation of eleven compounds using HPLC-UV detection. The compounds were separated using isocratic elution, on a reverse phase column (Kinetex C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v/v, flow-rate of 0.5 ml/min and detection in 210 nm. Diverse validation parameters were successfully evaluated. The samples of Bauhinia variegata L., B. variegata var. candida Voigt, Fabaceae, Cecropia palmata Willd. and C. obtusa Trécul, Urticaceae, collected in 2012, 2013 and 2014 from Amazon were treated with two different solvents (ethyl acetate and chloroform and analyzed by the proposed method. Stigmasterol, lupeol, β-sitosterol, β-amirin and α-amirin were found in all the studied plants. Highlighting the presence of oleanolic acid, maslinic acid in C. obtusa and C. palmata extracts, erythrodiol only in C. palmata, stigmasteol in B. variegata and α-amirin in B. variegata var. candida. Overall, ethyl acetate showed better performance as the extractor solvent than chloroform. Moreover, it could be used for the quality control of medicinal plants and to assess potential marker compounds.

  18. An HPLC-DAD method to quantification of main phenolic compounds from leaves of Cecropia species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geison M.; Ortmann, Caroline F.; Schenkel, Eloir P.; Reginatto, Flavio H., E-mail: freginatto@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of major compounds (chlorogenic acid, isoorientin, orientin and isovitexin) present in the leaves of two Cecropia species, C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya. From the leaves of C. glaziovii and C. pachystachya were isolated the C-glycosylflavones isoorientin and isovitexin and identified on both species chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and the O-glycosylflavonol isoquercitrin. The C-glycosylflavone orientin was isolated only from C. pachystachya. Chlorogenic acid was the major compound in both species (11.1 mg g{sup -1} of extract of C. glaziovii and 27.2 mg g{sup -1} of extract of C. pachystachya) and for the flavonoids quantified, isovitexin was the main C-glycosylflavonoid for C. glaziovii (4.6 mg g{sup -1} of extract) and isoorientin the main one for C. pachystachya (17.3 mg g{sup -1} of extract). (author)

  19. Differences on post-fire regeneration of the pioneer trees Cecropia glazioui and Trema micrantha in a lowland Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Dalva M Silva-Matos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of natural post-fire succession was carried out in a disturbed vegetation around fragments of the Atlantic Rain Forest (National Biological Reserve of Poço das Antas (22 °30 ’-22 °33 ’S,42 °15 ’-42 °19 ’W, Rio de Janeiro State.All the pre-fire individuals of Cecropia and Trema in the area were numbered with plastic labels.In order to check for the presence of new sprouts and mortality,two other censuses were carried out,at 3 and 12 months after the fire.The dominant species were:Pteridium aquilinum,Panicum maximum,Trema micrantha and Cecropia glazioui. Few days after the passage of fire, grasses and ferns spread their area,while the stands of Trema and Cecropia were completely burned. Most of individuals of Cecropia produced some sprouts while most of individuals of Trema died.However,a great number of seedlings of Trema were recruited while only one single seedling of Cecropia were observed during a period of one year.Most of these seedlings died through the year while the sprouts were already reproducing.The uses of Cecropia in places where fire is recurrent could be more appropriate because of its higher chance of survival and faster recovering ability after fire.Rev.Biol.Trop.53(1-2:1-4.Epub 2005 Jun 24Se realizó un estudio sobre la sucesión natural después del fuego en una vegetación alrededor de fragmentos de la selva lluviosa atlántica (Reserva Biológica Nacional de Poço das Antas (22° 30 ’-22° 33 ’ S, 42° 15’- 42° 19’ W, Estado de Río de Janeiro.Todos los individuos de Cecropia y Trema previos del fuego en el área fueron numerados con marcas plásticas. Se realizaron otros dos censos, 3 y 12 meses después del fuego con el objetivo de detectar mortalidad y buscar la presencia de nuevos brotes. Las especies dominantes fueron: Pteridium aquilinum, Panicum maximum, Trema micrantha y Cecropia glazioui. Pocos días después del paso del fuego,los pastos y helechos se dispersaron por el área, mientras

  20. Herança e desequilíbrio de ligação em sete locos isoenzimáticos de Cecropia pachystachya. Inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in sevem isozymes loci of Cecropia pachystachya.

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    Luciano Arruda RIBAS

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,G6PDH, IDH, PGI, PGM e SKDH, codificandosete locos polimórficos (Acp-3, G6pdh-1, Idh-1,Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2 e Skdh-1, foram investigadospara a herança e desequilíbrio de ligação emCecropia pachystachya Trec. A herança mendelianafoi confirmada para todos os locos avaliados.Desvios significativos da razão de segregaçãoesperada 1:1 foram detectados apenas em umaprogênies de árvore heterozigótica. O desequilíbriode ligação foi examinado para 21 pares de locosisoenzimáticos, não sendo detectados desequilíbriosentre nenhum deles e, assim, estes podem serutilizados em subseqüentes estudos do sistemade reprodução, diversidade e estrutura genética deC. pachystachya.

  1. The effect of symbiotic ant colonies on plant growth: a test using an Azteca-Cecropia system.

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    Karla N Oliveira

    Full Text Available In studies of ant-plant mutualisms, the role that ants play in increasing the growth rates of their plant partners is potentially a key beneficial service. In the field, we measured the growth of Cecropia glaziovii saplings and compared individuals that were naturally colonized by Azteca muelleri ants with uncolonized plants in different seasons (wet and dry. We also measured light availability as well as attributes that could be influenced by the presence of Azteca colonies, such as herbivory, leaf nutrients (total nitrogen and δ(15N, and investments in defense (total phenolics and leaf mass per area. We found that colonized plants grew faster than uncolonized plants and experienced a lower level of herbivory in both the wet and dry seasons. Colonized plants had higher nitrogen content than uncolonized plants, although the δ(15N, light environment, total phenolics and leaf mass per area, did not differ between colonized and uncolonized plants. Since colonized and uncolonized plants did not differ in the direct defenses that we evaluated, yet herbivory was lower in colonized plants, we conclude that biotic defenses were the most effective protection against herbivores in our system. This result supports the hypothesis that protection provided by ants is an important factor promoting plant growth. Since C. glaziovii is widely distributed among a variety of forests and ecotones, and since we demonstrated a strong relationship with their ant partners, this system can be useful for comparative studies of ant-plant interactions in different habitats. Also, given this study was carried out near the transition to the subtropics, these results help generalize the geographic distribution of this mutualism and may shed light on the persistence of the interactions in the face of climate change.

  2. Cecropia peltata l.: Estudios farmacognósticos y de la composición de ácidos grasos libres

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    Abel A Pardo Concepción

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se inició el estudio de la yagruma (Cecropia peltata L. de uso medicinal en Cuba, con la descripción de los índices farmacognósticos mínimos necesarios para establecer la calidad de las hojas de la planta como droga, así como el estudio de la fracción de desengrase de donde se cristaliza una mezcla de 11 ácidos grasos metilados en forma libre, los cuales se caracterizan mediante cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a masas. El 50 % de estos ácidos son insaturados, lo cual puede favorecer el fundamento del uso de la planta popularmente con fines antiasmáticos.The study of yagruma (Cecropia peltata L. of medicinal use in Cuba was started with the description of the minimum pharmacognostic indexes necessary to establish the quality of the leaves of the plant as a drug, as well as the study of the scouring fraction from where a mix of 11 freely methylated fatty acids is crystallized. These acids are characterized by gas chromatography matched to masses. 50% of these acids are unsaturated, which may favor the popular use of the plant with antiasthmatic ends.

  3. Evaluation of potentical use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” for wood cement board manufacture

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    Vinicius Yurk da Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” wood for wood cement board manufacture. Panels with the density of 1.200 kg/m³ were made, using cement CP V ARI as mineral bonding and wood particles without treatment and treated with immersion in cold water, hot water and sodium hydroxide. The panels were pressed at the pressure of 40 kgf/cm², room temperature and press / clipping time of 24 hours and maturation time of 28 days. The evaluation of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, showed that Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” wood are technically feasible for wood-cement board manufacture. It was also found that the panels of embaúba exhibit some properties superior to those of the paricá, and the particles do not necessarily need treatment.

  4. PHOSPHATE AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON THE GROWTH OF Cecropia pachystachya (Trec SEEDLINGS FÓSFORO E INOCULAÇÃO COM FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES NO ESTABELECIMENTO DE MUDAS DE EMBAÚBA (Cecropia pachystachya Trec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (FMA in different levels of P2O5 on the growth of Cecropia pachystachya seedlings in the field. The study consisted of a 5x2 factorial with five levels of P2O5 (zero, 85, 170, 255 and 340 mg.kg-1, with and ithout inoculation with a mixture of FMA. It was used four replications, each one with twelve seedlings. The seeds were sowed in plastic tubes with capacity of 50 cm3 of substratum and stored for 120 days. After this period the seedlings were transplanted to the field, where they remained for another 150 days. Seedling diameter and height were measured at 60 and 120 days, aerial part and root dry matter, and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Diameter, height, leaf area, aerial part dry matter and the number of surviving seedlings were determined after 150 days. None of the factors tested had any effect on seedling growth with one exception; inoculated plants with FMA had more root dry matter. Plants inoculated with smaller doses of P2O5 showed a larger percentage of surviving individuals and more vigorous seedlings. Results suggest that in low fertility soils of and subject to the hydric stress the C. pachystachya seedlings should be inoculated with FMA.

    KEY-WORDS: Native vegetation; mycorrhiza fungi; native species; seedling production; inoculation.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA em diferentes doses de P2O5 na formação de mudas de embaúba (Cecropia pachystachya e no seu estabelecimento em campo. O estudo constou de um experimento fatorial 5x2, sendo cinco doses de P2O5

  5. Tissue culture of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (urticaceae: vegetative micropropagation and plant regeneration from callus Cultura de tecidos de Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (Urticaceae: micropropagação vegetativa e regeneração de plantas via calos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nopper Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia glaziovii is a tree with used in Brazilian popular medicine. Methods allowing the clonal propagation of this species are of great interest for superior genotype multiplication and perpetuation. For this reason, we examined the effect of different culture media and different types of explants on adventitious shoot regeneration from callus and buds of C. glaziovii. Leaves, petioles and stipules obtained from aseptically grown seedlings or from pre-sterilized plants were used to initiate cultures. Adventitious shoot regeneration was achieved when apical and axillary buds were inoculated on gelled Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine alone (BAP (1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mg L-1 or combined with -naphthalene acetic acid (NAA (1.0 or 2.0 mg L-1, after 40 days of culture. Best callus production was obtained after 30 days of petioles' culture on gelled MS medium with 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (5.0 mg L-1 combined with BAP (1.0 mg L-1. Successful shoot regeneration from callus was achieved when MS medium supplemented with zeatin (ZEA (0.1 mg L-1 alone or combined with 2,4-D (1.0 or 5.0 mg L-1 was inoculated with friable callus obtained from petioles. All shoots were rooted by inoculation on MS medium supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA (1.0 mg L-1. Rooted plants transferred to potting soil were successfully established. All in vitro regenerated plantlets showed to be normal, without morphological variations, being also identical to the source plant. Our study has shown that C. glaziovii can be propagated by tissue culture methods, allowing large scale multiplication of superior plants for pharmacological purposes.Cecropia glaziovii é uma planta lenhosa, popularmente usada no Brasil como medicinal. Métodos que visem a sua propagação clonal podem ser de grande utilidade na preservação de seus genótipos de elite. Foram examinados efeitos de diferentes reguladores de crescimento e explantes na forma

  6. Avaliação do potencial de utilização da madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" e Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" para produção de painéis aglomerados Evaluation of potential use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" and Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" to particleboard manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba para produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,70 g/cm³, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído e partículas de madeira de Paricá e Embaúba, e mistura destas, em proporções de 75, 50 e 25%. A madeira de Pinus taeda foi utilizada como testemunha. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 40 kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos. Os resultados das avaliações de propriedades de absorção de água, inchamento em espessura, ligação interna, módulo de elasticidade e módulo de ruptura, indicaram que as madeiras de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba são tecnicamente viáveis para produção de painéis aglomerados.This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of the woods Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá and Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba for manufacturing particleboard. Were made panels with the densities of 0.70 g/cm³, using mixtures of urea-formaldehyde resin and wood particles of Paricá and Embaúba, in proportions of 75, 50 and 25%. The Pinus taeda wood was used as the reference. The panels were pressed at the temperature of 160ºC, pressure of 40 kgf/cm², for 8 minutes. The evaluations of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of ruptures, showed that the woods of Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba are technically feasible for particleboard manufacture.

  7. Evaluation of potential use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" and Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" to particleboard manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Iwakiri, Setsuo; Zeller, Florian; Pinto, Juliana Afonso; Ramirez, Maria Guadalupe Lomeli; Souza, Marina Moura; Seixas, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá) e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba) para produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,70 g/cm³, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído e partículas de madeira de Paricá e Embaúba, e mistura destas, em proporções de 75, 50 e 25%. A madeira de Pinus taeda foi utilizada como testemunha. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica d...

  8. Nest structure and occurrence of three species of Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae in non-floodable and floodable pantanal areas Arquitetura de ninho e ocorrência de três espécies de Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae em ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro S. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Cecropia pachystachya trees were examined in non-floodable and floodable areas to investigate the association between C. pachystachya and Azteca ants in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The species Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica, and Azteca alfari were found nesting inside domatia of C. pachystachya. A. ovaticeps was the most frequent species in the trees in the floodable area, while A. isthmica and A. alfari, in the non-floodable area. A. ovaticeps and A. isthmica maintained more entrance/exit holes in comparison to A. alfari. All Azteca species maintained entrance/exit holes in the closest domatia to the apical area of the branch, due to proximity to Müllerian and pearl bodies, suggesting that these species of Azteca were influenced by their environment during evolution and became specialized. All internodal septa of each examined branch were perforated by ants, indicating the branches were inhabited by a single colony.Foram analisadas 30 plantas de Cecropia pachystachya em cada ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar a associação entre formigas Azteca e C. pachystachya. Foram encontradas as espécies Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica e Azteca alfari nidificando nas domáceas da planta. A. ovaticeps foi mais frequente em plantas de área alagável, enquanto A. isthmica e A. alfari em plantas em área não alagável. A. ovaticeps e A. isthmica apresentaram maior quantidade de orifícios de entrada/saída em relação à A. alfari e todas as espécies mantêm próximo da região apical do ramo, orifícios de entrada/saída nas domáceas, devido à proximidade com os corpúsculos müellerianos e pérola. Isto é, essas espécies de Azteca especializaram-se ao longo da evolução influenciadas pelo ambientes. Todos os septos internodais de cada ramo analisados apresentaram-se perfurados pelas formigas, sugerindo que os mesmos são habitados por uma única colônia.

  9. Review of Theoretical Prediction Models for Organic Extract Metabolites, Effect of Drying Temperature on Smooth Muscle Relaxing Activity Induced by Organic Extracts Specially Cecropia Obtusifolia Portal and Web Server Predictors of Drug-Protein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Crespo, Francisco; García-Mera, Xerardo; Guillén-Poot, Mónica Anahi; May-Díaz, Héctor Fernado; Tun-Suárez, Adrián; Aguirre-Crespo, A; Hernández-Rodríguez, J; Vergara-Galicia, Jorge; Rodríguez-López, V; Prado-Prado, Francisco J

    2015-02-19

    Cecropia obtusifolia bertol is medicinal specie used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension and it has scientific studies that support the traditional use. However, it is required to understand the influence of drying temperature on the yield and pharmacological activity. Drying rate, extraction efficiency, changes in the UV-Vis spectrum and estimating chlorophylls were stimulated with the increasing temperature. Finally, relaxant activity of vascular smooth muscle is increased by 70ºC and reducing ability by the method of CARF increases with temperature. Analytical studies are required to identify changes in the metabolic content and those that ensure the safety and efficacy for human consumption. In this sense, bioinformatic studies may be helpful. Studies such as QSAR can help us to study these metabolites derived from natural products. MIND-BETS model and NL MIND-BETS model to predict DPIs was introduced using MARCH-INSIDE (MI) software to calculate structural parameters for drugs and enzymes respectively. We firstly revised the state-of-art on the design with review of previous works with hypertension activity based on theoretical studies. A study, evaluating the effect of drying temperature of leaves of C. obtusifolia on the relaxing of vascular smooth muscle, antioxidant activity and the presence of chlorophylls, with a focus on Cecropia metabolites. Last, we carried out QSAR studies using MIND-BEST and NL MIND-BEST web servers in order to understand the essential metabolites structural requirement for binding with receptors for FDA proteins.

  10. Avaliação do efeito mutagênico do extrato hidroalcoólico bruto, por meio de bioensaios in vivo e prospecção fitoquímica de Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (embaúba), Cecropiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Stange, Victor S.; Gomes, Tarsila D. U. H.; Andrade, Marcieni A. de; Batitucci, Maria do Carmo P.

    2009-01-01

    O gênero Cecropia é conhecido popularmente por "embaúba" e apresenta várias espécies medicinais, sendo que estudos com a espécie C. glaziovii Sneth indicam que o extrato aquoso apresenta efeitos broncodilatador, anti-hipertensivo e antidepressivo, provavelmente, atribuídos às catequinas, procianidinas e flavonóides. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os potenciais efeitos tóxico, citotóxicos, clastogênicos e aneugênicos do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de folhas de C. glaziovii, por meio da d...

  11. Avaliação do efeito mutagênico do extrato hidroalcoólico bruto, por meio de bioensaios in vivo e prospecção fitoquímica de Cecropia glaziovii Sneth (embaúba, Cecropiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Stange

    Full Text Available O gênero Cecropia é conhecido popularmente por "embaúba" e apresenta várias espécies medicinais, sendo que estudos com a espécie C. glaziovii Sneth indicam que o extrato aquoso apresenta efeitos broncodilatador, anti-hipertensivo e antidepressivo, provavelmente, atribuídos às catequinas, procianidinas e flavonóides. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os potenciais efeitos tóxico, citotóxicos, clastogênicos e aneugênicos do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de folhas de C. glaziovii, por meio da dose letal média (DL50, da análise de micronúcleo em células de medula óssea de roedores e do teste com Allium cepa e realizar a prospecção fitoquímica. Os resultados demonstraram que as concentrações testadas não causaram toxicidade aguda, nem apresentaram atividade clastogênica e aneugênica, sugerindo que o extrato de C. glaziovii não interferem na divisão celular. A prospecção fitoquímica indicou a presença de taninos, flavonóides, fenóis, antraquinonas, cumarinas, catequinas, proteínas, açúcares redutores, depsídeos/depsidonas e triterpenos. Mesmo assim, esses resultados não prescrevem o consumo terapêutico da espécie, sem continuidade da sua avaliação e do cumprimento de todas as etapas pré-clínicas e clínicas.

  12. Storage hexamer utilization in two lepidopterans: differences correlated with the timing of egg formation

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    M.L. Pan

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Most insects produce two or more storage hexamers whose constituents and developmental profiles are sufficiently different to suggest specialization in the ways that they support metamorphosis and reproduction. Hexamerin specializations are compared here in the Cecropia moth (Hyalophora cecropia, which produces eggs during the pupal-adult molt, and the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus, which produces eggs under long-day conditions after adult eclosion. In both sexes of both species, reserves of arylphorin (ArH were exhausted by the end of metamorphosis. In Cecropia, the same was true for the high-methionine hexamerins, V-MtH and M-MtH. But in short day Monarch females 20-30% of the pupal reserves of V-MtH and M-MtH survived metamorphosis, persisting until long-day conditions were imposed to stimulate egg formation. Differences in storage sites have been documented in other lepidopterans, with MtH reserves being found primarily in fat body protein granules and the ArH reserve being found primarily in the hemolymph. Similar differences could explain how a fraction of the MtH's, but not of ArH, escapes utilization during metamorphosis in a species with post-eclosion egg formation. No differences in utilization schedules were detected between V- and M-MtH, despite divergent compositions and antigenic reactivity.

  13. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação das atividades trombolítica e citotóxica de Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Urticaceae, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Dutra GOMES1 ; Rafael Destefani FAITANIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia hololeuca, Lippia alba, e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium são espécies vegetais de ocorrência natural no Brasil, características de regiões de Mata Atlântica e, dentro de suas finalidades medicinais, estão incluídas ação anti-hipertensiva, digestiva e no tratamento de malária. Neste estudo, foram avaliados o perfil fitoquímico e as atividades citotóxica e trombolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas destas espécies vegetais. O perfil químico dos extratos foi obtido por meio de ensaios fitoquímicos clássicos, a fim de identificar as classes químicas presentes. A toxicidade preliminar foi avaliada frente Artemia salina e a atividade trombolítica foi determinada in vitro a partir da lise de coágulo de sangue humano. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de alcaloides e flavonoides nos três extratos investigados. Saponinas, triterpenos e naftoquinonas foram detectados apenas em C. hololeuca. Essa não demonstrou toxicidade frente Artemia salina (DL50 >1000 ppm, enquanto Z. rhoifolium apresentou DL50 igual a 719,44 ppm e L. alba <250 ppm, o que indica atenção quanto à segurança no uso desta planta medicinal. A atividade trombolítica de L. alba e C. hololeuca foi de 6,43 ±2,08 e 9,64 ±1,83 %, respectivamente, mostrando baixa atividade. Por sua vez, Z. rhoifolium alcançou lise de 24,71 ±10,52 %, indicando promissora atividade (p <0,001. A atividade trombolítica de Z. rhoifolium justifica novos estudos, a fim de investigar os componentes responsáveis pela atividade. Perante a literatura, este é o primeiro relato da avaliação da atividade trombolítica destas espécies vegetais. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento químico-biológico das respectivas espécies.

  14. Consumption of Mullerian Bodies by Golden-olive Woodpecker (Colaptes rubiginosus) in Nicaragua's Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; L. Diaz

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-olive Woodpecker is a generalist species found in a wide range of habitats, being particularly common in coffee plantations within Nicaraguan cloud forests. Observations of an individual feeding at the base of Cecropia leaves revealed it was consuming Mullerian bodies that the Cecropia produces to feed Azteca ants as part of a host-inhabitant mutualistic...

  15. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  16. Crecimiento y mortalidad en juveniles de siete especies arbóreas en un bosque muy húmedo tropical intervenido de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sáenz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron por un período de cuatro años los patrones de crecimiento en diámetro y altura, así como la mortalidad de brinzales (individuos e 0.30 m altura y Diameter and height growth patterns, as well as the incidence of seedling (individuals e0.3 m and <1.5 m in height and sapling (individual e1.5 m in height and 9.9 cm DBH mortality were studied for four years in a forest under two types of silvicultural intervention. The study is based on anual measurements of individuals from the two size categories marked one year after harvest. In the case of the seedlings, the parameters evaluated were: total height and diameter at 10 cm from the base. For the sapling category, the diameter at 1.30 m was also measured. The Clark and Clark methodology was used to evaluate the crown illumination index of all individuals. Seven tree species were studied: Cecropia (two species, Cecropia insignis Liebm. and Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Laetia procera (Poepp. Eichler, Rollinia pittieri Saff, Apeiba membranacea Spruce ex Benth., Virola koschnyi Warb. y Virola sebifera Aubl. The Cecropia spp. seedlings showed the highest diameter and height growth rates, with annual mean increments in diameter of 7.8 mm/years and height of 188 cm/years. The L. procera saplings had the greatest diameter and height growth, with rates of 7.0 mm/year and 86 cm/year, respectively. Only in the case of Cecropia spp. and V. sebifera are diameter and height growth significantly correlated with the crown light index. Seedlings had the highest mortality rates in all species except Cecropia spp. and R. pittieri, where the sapling mortality was greater.

  17. A New Species of Neotropical Carpenter Ant in the Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Apparently without Major Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mackay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carpenter ants from Ecuador, which apparently has an obligatory relationship with the ant plants Cecropia membranacea Trécul, C. herthae Diels and C. marginalis Cuatrec. The workers are relatively small and hairy, and based on a number of collections, it does not appear to have major workers. We compare the new species to Camponotus balzani, to which it appears to be similar and which has normal major workers, and also lives in Cecropia spp.

  18. PRESERVANDO CECROPIAIS NATIVOS EM PAISAGENS AMAZÔNICAS: UMA ESTRATÉGIA ECOLÓGICA EM SOLOS DEFICIENTES POR FÓSFORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chaves de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A conservação de espécies prestadoras de serviços ecológicos em paisagens amazônicas como os agros-ecossistemas locais do Baixo Amazonas é de extrema importância no input de minerais através da serrapilheira produzida por estas espécies. Os cecropiais nativos, formados pela espécie Cecropia palmata, dentre outras, a qual é acumuladora de fósforo (P em tecidos foliares e cascas podem prestar um serviço ecológico em paisagens amazônicas com deficiência por fósforo. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a observação da translocação do fósforo em folhas ontogeneticamentes diferentes de Cecropia palmata; bem como, a análise da dinâmica do fósforo em solos sob conglomerados de Cecropia palmata. Os teores de fósforo (P em tecidos foliares de Cecropia palmata demonstraram valores elevados, em torno de 8.4 mg/kg em folhas novas e 5,6mg/kg em folhas com maturação fisiológica, sugerindo serrapilheira de alta qualidade para o ambiente. Além disso, os solos sob influência da rizosfera desta espécie apresentaram importantes hot spots de fósforo.

  19. Learning from our mistakes: minimizing problems with invasive biofuel plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available -legume service trees (e.g., Cecropia spp.); 168  Fast-growing timber trees (e.g., Eucalyptus spp., Casuarina spp.); 169  High-value timber trees (e.g., Cedrela odorata, Cordia alliodora); 170  Fruit trees (e.g., Citrus spp., Psidium guajava). 171 172...

  20. Moraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    Trees or shrubs, in Ficus often epiphytic and strangling, in Dorstenia herbs, laticiferous except for Cecropia. Leaves alternate, lamina entire or lobed, venation pinnate, palmate or radiate, stipules often amplexicaul. Plants monoecious or dioecious, flowers unisexual, close together in bisexual or

  1. A new record of fungus-beetle symbiosis in Scolytodes bark beetles (Scolytinae, Curculionidae, Coleoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulcr, J.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kirkendall, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2007), s. 151-159 ISSN 0334-5114 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034 Program:GD Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : scolytodes unipunctatus * cecropia * raffaela Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.598, year: 2007

  2. Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

    2003-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals.

  3. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. G. Simeão

    Full Text Available Abstract Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005. The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae, Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae, an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae; during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae. Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae, Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae, Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae, Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  4. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

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    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Ol

  5. Caterpillars and fungal pathogens: two co-occurring parasites of an ant-plant mutualism.

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    Olivier Roux

    Full Text Available In mutualisms, each interacting species obtains resources from its partner that it would obtain less efficiently if alone, and so derives a net fitness benefit. In exchange for shelter (domatia and food, mutualistic plant-ants protect their host myrmecophytes from herbivores, encroaching vines and fungal pathogens. Although selective filters enable myrmecophytes to host those ant species most favorable to their fitness, some insects can by-pass these filters, exploiting the rewards supplied whilst providing nothing in return. This is the case in French Guiana for Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae as Pseudocabima guianalis caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae can colonize saplings before the installation of their mutualistic Azteca ants. The caterpillars shelter in the domatia and feed on food bodies (FBs whose production increases as a result. They delay colonization by ants by weaving a silk shield above the youngest trichilium, where the FBs are produced, blocking access to them. This probable temporal priority effect also allows female moths to lay new eggs on trees that already shelter caterpillars, and so to occupy the niche longer and exploit Cecropia resources before colonization by ants. However, once incipient ant colonies are able to develop, they prevent further colonization by the caterpillars. Although no higher herbivory rates were noted, these caterpillars are ineffective in protecting their host trees from a pathogenic fungus, Fusarium moniliforme (Deuteromycetes, that develops on the trichilium in the absence of mutualistic ants. Therefore, the Cecropia treelets can be parasitized by two often overlooked species: the caterpillars that shelter in the domatia and feed on FBs, delaying colonization by mutualistic ants, and the fungal pathogen that develops on old trichilia. The cost of greater FB production plus the presence of the pathogenic fungus likely affect tree growth.

  6. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil

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    João Eduardo Cavalcanti Brito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redesneblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus

  7. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351 Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351

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    Janaina Gazarini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redes-neblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp. , Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007 to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus

  8. Florística e estrutura de fragmento florestal em área de transição na Amazônia Matogrossense no município de Sinop Floristics and structure of a forest fragment at a transitional zone at the Amazon in Mato Grosso State, Municipality of Sinop

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    Rosalia de Aguiar Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A fragmentação do ambiente é intensa na amazônia matogrossense e é esperado como consequência, além do desaparecimento da vegetação original, que a flora dos fragmentos seja transicional, com elementos de floresta amazônica e de cerrado e que já apresentem elevada presença de famílias e espécies pioneiras. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição florística e obter parâmetros fitossociológicos de componentes arbóreos presentes em um fragmento urbano no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso com vistas a confirmar sua classificação como vegetação de transição e detectar indícios de perturbação pela fragmentação. A vegetação foi amostrada pela instalação de 25 parcelas permanentes de 20 x 20m, onde foram amostrados os indivíduos com CAP igual ou superior a 15 cm à altura de 1,30m do solo. A densidade total da área foi de 1555 ind./ha, distribuídos em 37 famílias botânicas, 81 gêneros e 113 espécies. A família mais representativa foi Leguminosae com 14 espécies. As espécies que mais contribuíram em abundância e apresentaram maior frequência foram: Cecropia sciadophylla, Cecropia sp., Bellucia grossularioides e Vismia guianensis. O índice de Shannon (H' foi de 3,55, considerado alto para uma floresta de transição. A equabilidade de Pielou foi de 0,75, sugerindo grande dominância de poucas espécies. As espécies que mais se destacaram em ordem decrescente de VI (% foram Cecropia sp., Bellucia grossularioides, Qualea ingens, Cecropia sciadophylla, Vismia guianensis, Miconia prasina, Trattinickia burserifolia, Unonopsis guatterioides e Schefflera vinosa. O remanescente apresenta uma flora mista amazônica e de cerrado, confirmando ser ecótono e a abundância de pioneiras sugere distúrbios. Esta floresta protege espécies madeireiras e frutíferas com grande potencial para uso múltiplo, podendo ser um espaço educativo com vistas a conservação e manejo sustentável.Fragmentation is intense in

  9. Late Holocene paleoenvironments of the floodplain of the Solimões River, Central Amazonia, based on the palynological record of Lake Cabaliana

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    Natália de Paula Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core PD-67 of 160 cm depth was collected from the delta of Lake Cabaliana situated on the Solimões River. Seventeen samples were removed for palynological and sedimentological analysis and three for radiocarbon analysis. Two dry periods, both in the Late Holocene, were observed (2800-2550 cal yr BP, 1450-550 cal yr BP separated by a wetter phase (2550-1450 cal yr BP. In 2800-2550 cal yr BP, varzea forests of Alchornea, Symmeria, Cecropia, Alternanthera and Asteraceae were predominant. Beginning in 2,550-1450 cal yr BP, the varzea was characterized by pioneer elements, such as Cassia, Laetia, Mabea, Symmeria and Cecropia, and by the expansion of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Sagittaria, Montrichardia and Asteraceae. In 1450-550 cal yr BP the succession of varzea continued with Pseudobombax, Laetia, Luehea/Lueheopsis and Ryanaea increasing simultaneously with the terra firme vegetation of Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Styrax, Scleronema, Anthurium, Araceae, pteridophytes and Pariana. The successional dynamics at Lake Cabaliana indicated that the local varzea had become established recently, and is composed of a mosaic of different successional stages of vegetation influenced mainly by flood pulse and variation in rainfall. It is therefore possible to propose that the recent climate history of Central Amazonia reflects changes in rainfall patterns in the basin.

  10. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

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    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  11. Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica

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    Jorge E Lopez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854 fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum, and Vismia constituted 85% of all plants found in fecal samples. Feeding niche breadth differed significantly among the six most common species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata, Dermanura sp., and Glossophaga commissarisi. All species, except for Dermanura sp., showed a diet dominated by one or two plant species. This suggests a pattern of resource partitioning at a generic level, in which Carollia consumed mainly Piper, Artibeus consumed Ficus and Cecropia, and Glossophaga consumed Vismia. Cluster analysis revealed higher values of food niche overlap in congeneric species than among species of different genera. Results show that if food is a limiting factor, mechanisms other than trophic selection must reduce interspecific interference or competition for food in this frugivorous bat guild. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 301-313. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos los hábitos alimentarios de 15 especies de murciélagos frugívoros en la Estación Biológica La Selva. Se analizó 854 muestras de heces y 169 muestras de restos de frutos y semillas en comederos. Durante ocho meses de estudio, se identificó 47 especies de frutos, que fueron consumidos por los murciélagos. Cinco géneros de plantas (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum y Vismia constituyeron el 85% de los hallazgos en las muestras de heces y los comederos. La amplitud de nicho trófico difirió significativamente entre las seis especies de murciélagos frugívoros más frecuentemente capturados (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata

  12. Induction of stress- and immune-associated genes in the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella against envenomation by the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor.

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    Shafeeq, Tahir; UlAbdin, Zain; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2017-10-01

    Envenomation is an important process in parasitism by parasitic wasps; it suppresses the immune and development of host insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of host responses to envenomation are not yet clear. This study aimed to determine the transcription-level responses of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella against envenomation of the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR was used to determine the transcriptional changes of 13 selected genes, which are associated with development, metabolism, stress, or immunity, in the feeding and wandering fifth instar larvae over a 4-day period after envenomation. The effects of envenomation on the feeding-stage larvae were compared with those of starvation in the transcriptional levels of the 13 genes. Most selected genes were altered in their expression by either envenomation or starvation. In particular, a heat shock protein, hsp70, was highly upregulated in envenomated larvae in both the feeding and wandering stages as well as in starved larvae. Further, some genes were upregulated by envenomation in a stage-specific manner. For example, hsp25 was upregulated after envenomation in the feeding larvae, but hsp90 and an immune-associated gene, hemolin, were upregulated in the wandering larvae. However, both envenomation and starvation resulted in the downregulation of genes associated with development and metabolism. Taken together, P. interpunctella upregulated stress- and immune-responsive genes, but downregulated genes associated with development and metabolism after envenomation. This study provides important information for understanding the molecular mechanisms of host responses to parasitism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Caffeine administration alters the behaviour and development of Galleria mellonella larvae.

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    Maguire, Ronan; Kunc, Martin; Hyrsl, Pavel; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    The effect of feeding caffeine on the behaviour and neural proteome of Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed. Caffeine was administered to larvae by force feeding and the metabolites theobromine and theophylline were subsequently detected by RP-HPLC analysis. Administration of caffeine to larvae resulted in reduced movement and a reduction in the formation of pupae. The production of the muscle relaxant theophylline may contribute to the reduction in larval movement. Analysis of the changes in proteome of the brain and surrounding tissues of caffeine fed larvae revealed an increase in the abundance of immune related proteins such as immune-related Hdd1 (6.28 fold increase) and hemolin (1.68 fold increase), ATPase associated proteins such as H+ transporting ATP synthase O subunit isoform 1 (1.87 fold increase) and H+ transporting ATP synthase delta subunit (1.53 fold increase) and proteins indicative of brain trauma such as troponin T transcript variant B, partial (1.55 fold increase). Proteins involved in development and protein degradation such as SUMO-activating enzyme subunit 1 (3.08 fold decrease) and chitin deacetylase, partial (3.67 fold decrease) were decreased in abundance. The results presented here indicate that caffeine is metabolised in a similar way in G. mellonella larvae to that in mammals and results in a variety of behavioural and developmental alterations. Utilisation of insects for studying the effects of caffeine and other neuroactive compounds may offer new insights into their mode of action and reduce the need to use mammals for this type of analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of entomopathogenic fungal culture filtrate on the immune response of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.

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    Mc Namara, Louise; Carolan, James C; Griffin, Christine T; Fitzpatrick, David; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3-fold and 3.8-fold, respectively). Larvae co-injected with either M. anisopliae or B. caledonica culture filtrate and Candida albicans showed significantly increased mortality. The same was not seen for larvae injected with Beauveria bassiana filtrate. Together these results suggest that B. caledonica and M. anisopliae filtrate are modulating the insect immune system allowing a subsequent pathogen to proliferate. B. caledonica and M. anisopliae culture filtrates impact upon the larval prophenoloxidase (ProPO) cascade (e.g. ProPO activating factor 3 and proPO activating enzyme 3 were increased in abundance relative to controls), while B. bassiana treated larvae displayed higher abundances of alpha-esterase when compared to control larvae (2.4-fold greater) and larvae treated with M. anisopliae and B. caledonica. Treatment with EPF culture filtrate had a significant effect on antimicrobial peptide abundances particularly in M. anisopliae treated larvae where cecropin-D precursor, hemolin and gloverin were differentially abundant in comparison to controls. Differences in proteomic profiles for different treatments may reflect or even partially explain the differences in their immunomodulatory potential. Screening EPF for their ability to modulate the insect immune response represents a means of assessing EPF for use as biocontrol agents, particularly if the goal is to use them in combination with other control agents. Additionally EPF represent a

  15. Citogenética de Angiospermas coletadas em Pernambuco: V Cytogenetics of Angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco: V

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    Andrea Pedrosa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 33 espécies, entre nativas e introduzidas, pertencentes a 20 famílias de angiospermas ocorrentes no Estado de Pernambuco. A caracterização cariotípica da maioria das espécies foi baseada no número e morfologia cromossômica, padrão de condensação de cromossomos profásicos e estrutura de núcleo interfásico. Cinco espécies tiveram seus números cromossômicos determinados pela primeira vez, sendo elas: Cereus jamacaru (2n=22, Clitoria fairchildiana (2n=22, Eugenia luschnathiana (2n=22, Licania tomentosa (2n=22 e Spondias tuberosa (n=16. No caso de Licania tomentosa esta é a primeira citação de número cromossômico para o gênero. Das outras 28 espécies, três (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; e Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 apresentaram números cromossômicos diferentes dos registrados previamente na literatura.Thirty three native and introduced species from 20 families of angiosperms collected in the State of Pernambuco were analysed. The karyotype description of the majority of the species was based on chromosome number and morphology, condensation pattern of prophase chromosomes as well as interphase nuclear structure. In five species (Cereus jamacaru, 2n=22; Clitoria fairchildiana, 2n=22; Eugenia luschnathiana, 2n=22; Licania tomentosa, 2n=22; and Spondias tuberosa, n=16 the chromosome number is reported here for the first time. In the case of Licania tomentosa, this is also the first report for the genus. Among the other 28 species, three (Cecropia cf. palmata, 2n=26; Crinum erubescens, 2n=70; and Schinus terebentifolius, 2n=28 showed chromosome numbers different from what has previously been reported.

  16. Botanical profile of bee pollen from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil Perfil botânico do pólen apícola proveniente do litoral sul da Bahia, Brasil

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    Marcos da Costa Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the botanical origin of pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera L. in Canavieiras municipality, Bahia state. It provides a list of polliniferous plant species from the Atlantic Forest biome that are important for the development of regional apiculture. Using the acetolysis method, 35 bee-pollen samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that pollen types Elaeis (23.99%, Mimosa pudica (22.78% and Cecropia (13.68% were the most abundant among the samples. These also showed the highest relative frequencies of the material studied and were important pollen sources for bees in the study area.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a origem botânica das bolotas de pólen coletadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera L. no município de Canavieiras, Bahia, gerando uma lista de plantas poliníferas pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica e importantes para o desenvolvimento da apicultura regional. Foram analisadas palinologicamente 35 amostras de pólen apícola, utilizando-se o processo de acetólise para, em seguida, serem feitas análises qualitativas e quantitativas. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos polínicos Elaeis (23,99%, Mimosa pudica (22,78% e Cecropia (13,68% foram os mais abundantes no pólen apícola analisado. Estes tipos polínicos também apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de todo o material estudado e representam importantes plantas fontes de pólen para as abelhas na área estudada.

  17. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549 Cytotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts on the human lung carcinoma cell line A549

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    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effect of 10 Cuban medicinal plant extracts on the human lung tumor cell line A549. METHODS: the effect of the plant extracts on tumor cells was determined by a colorimetric assay using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT at concentrations ranging from 3,9-250 µg/mL for 72 hours and the mean cytotoxic concentration was calculated for each of them. RESULTS: the ethanolic extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia and Cucurbita maxima showed mean cytotoxic concentrations under 100 µg/mL. Except for P. hysterophorus, the others are used in traditional medicine to fight

  18. Espectro polínico de amostras de mel de Apis mellifera L., coletadas na Bahia Pollen spectrum of samples of Apis mellifera L., honey collected in Bahia State, Brazil

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    AUGUSTA CAROLINA DE CAMARGO CARMELLO MORETI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O espectro polínico encontrado em amostras de mel provenientes de seis municípios do Estado da Bahia foi analisado com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento da flora visitada por Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: ApidaeA identificação dos tipos polínicos foi feita por meio de literatura especializada e de informações de campo. Foram encontrados 43 tipos de pólen, sendo consideradas como dominantes as espécies Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae, Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. scabrella Benth. (Mimosaceae e Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae. Os tipos acessórios foram Alternanthera ficoidea R.Br. (Amaranthaceae, tipo Compositae (Asteraceae e Cecropia sp. (Moraceae. Destacou-se a participação de Mimosa sp. (Mimosaceae e de outras espécies silvestres na composição dos méis nos municípios considerados, registrando-se ainda a espécie Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae como uma das principais fontes de alimento das abelhas dessa região.Pollen spectrum found in honey samples from six localities of Bahia State, Brazil, was analyzed with the objective to contribute for the knowledge of the plants used by Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae. The identification of the pollen types was made by specialized literature and by field information. Two hundred pollen grains were studied in order to determine the percentage and the occurrence of each type. Forty three pollen types were identified, being considered as the predominant types Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae, Mimosa verrucosa Benth. (Mimosaceae, M. scabrella Benth. (Mimosaceae and Bauhinia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae. The accessory pollen types were Alternanthera ficoidea R.Br. (Amaranthaceae, Compositae type (Asteraceae and Cecropia sp. (Moraceae. It is intense the participation of Mimosa sp. (Mimosaceae and other wild species in the honey composition of the six localities considered. Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae is one of the dominant sources of bee food in some regions of Bahia State.

  19. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

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    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  20. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

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    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  1. Comparison of the diet of Alouatta caraya (Primates: Atelidae between a riparian island and mainland on the Upper Parana River, southern Brazil Comparação da dieta de Alouatta caraya (Primates: Atelidae em mata ciliar insular e continental na região do Alto rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

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    Gabriela Ludwig

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Howler monkeys (Alouatta Lacèpéde, 1799 are folivores-frugivores with flexible diets depending on conditions. Here, we compare the diets of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 in two riparian forests (island and mainland, in Porto Rico region, Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil. Howlers were followed from October 2004 to September 2005 in the riparian forest of a 1,050 ha island and in the continuous riparian forest on the mainland (left bank of the river. The "scan sampling" method with instantaneous samples every 15 minutes was used. Besides vines, diet breadth was similar: 17 species consumed on the island versus 16 species on the mainland. Both consumed leaves followed by fruits more than any other food type (leaves: island - 65%, mainland - 49%, fruits: island - 24%, mainland - 46%. Even though the plant Cecropia pachystachya Trécul is less abundant in the mainland it was the item most consumed in both locations all year long, which suggests its importance for the howlers. Diet also varied both seasonally and between the island and mainland, apparently following changes in local abundance of each item and due to plant phenologies.Os bugios (Alouatta Lacèpéde, 1799 são primatas folívoros-frugívoros que podem adaptar suas dietas dependendo das condições do ambiente. O presente trabalho compara a dieta de grupos de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 presentes em matas ciliares estruturalmente diferentes (ilha e continente, na região de Porto Rico, Alto rio Paraná, sul do Brasil. Os bugios-pretos foram seguidos de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005 em mata ciliar de uma ilha fluvial de 1050 ha e em mata ciliar contínua da margem esquerda do rio. Foi utilizado o método "scan sampling" em amostragens instantâneas com intervalos de 15 minutos. Além das lianas, 17 espécies foram consumidas na ilha versus 16 espécies no continente. Ambos os grupos consumiram mais folhas seguido de frutos do que qualquer outro tipo de alimento (folhas

  2. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a

  3. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  4. Citotoxicidad de extractos de plantas medicinales sobre la línea celular de carcinoma de pulmón humano A549

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    Alexis Díaz García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto de 10 extractos de plantas medicinales sobre el crecimiento de la línea celular humana de carcinoma de pulmón A549. METODOS: el efecto de los extractos sobre la células tumorales se midió a través de un ensayo colorimétrico mediante el empleo del bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-yl-2,5-difenil tetrazolio a concentraciones entre 3,9-250 µg/mL durante 72 h y se calculó la concentración citotóxica media para cada uno. RESULTADOS: del total de los extractos evaluados solo cuatro (Parthenium hysterophorus, Bixa orellana, Momordica charantia y Cucurbita maxima evidenciaron concentraciones citotóxicas medias inferiores a 100 µg/mL. Excepto Parthenium hysterophorus, las restantes se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer. Los extractos de Cecropia peltata, Melia azedarach, Annona glabra, Artemisia absintium, Lepidium virginicum y Bidens pilosa no mostraron efectos citotóxicos significativos. CONCLUSIONES: Los extractos de plantas que se emplean en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del cáncer, mostraron citotoxicidad sobre las células tumorales. El conocimiento etnobotánico representa una herramienta importante en la selección de plantas medicinales, en la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos para el tratamiento del cáncer.

  5. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

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    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  6. Vascular epiphytes as regeneration indicators of disturbed forests of the Colombian Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana Moreno, Luz Amparo; Garzon Venegas, Nelson Javier; Sanchez Zambrano, Jairo; Vargas Orlando

    2003-01-01

    In order to compare how the distribution and composition of vascular epiphytes varies, in three disturbed forests with different recovery times, and to verify whether these factors can indicate the regeneration state, three stubbles that had been abandoned during 12, 18 and 22 years were selected in the neighborhood of Leticia City (Amazons, Colombia). In each stubble 7 Cecropia sciadophylla (Cecropiaceae) individuals were selected, and a sampling of epiphytes was made in the first 3 m of each tree. The number of species, their abundance and covering were used as criteria to compare the three stubbles, because the sensitivity of epiphytes to environmental changes. The results show that the evaluated factors are useful for the characterization of the forest regeneration process. In spite of the fact that the number of species in the there stubbles was similar, the composition varied in such ways that about half the species of each stubble, were exclusive. The dominance of Monstera obliqua (Araceae) was evident, constituting more than 80% of the epiphytic covering of the total sample. The youngest stubble presented a denser covering and a high diversity index, whereas in the oldest stubbles these values diminish drastically

  7. Tropical rainforest biome of Biosphere 2. Structure, composition and results of the first 2 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Linda S. [Systems Ecology and Energy Analysis Program, Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Burgess, Tony; Marino, Bruno D.V.; Wei, Yong Dan [Biosphere 2 Center, Inc. P.O. Box 689, Oracle, AZ (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The tropical rainforest biome in the Biosphere 2 mesocosm was managed with rainfall and temperature conditions to simulate a natural rainforest typical of the new world tropics. The establishment of the biome was based on the introduction of excessive numbers of species allowing self-organization of an ecologically unique rainforest. Over 282 species of plants from rainforest areas were planted within the topographically diverse rainforest biome (area of 1900 m{sup 2}, volume of 35,000 m{sup 3}), just before the Biosphere 2 closure in 1991. Approximately 61% of these species survived when counted in 1993, representing a plant species richness reduction to 172 species in 0.19 hectare. Rank order graphs show that a high diversity community resulted not unlike insular rainforests. The plants of the rainforest mesocosm, however, grew under anomalous conditions of soil (amended desert grassland soil), atmospheric composition (CO{sub 2} up to 4500 ppm by volume (ppmv)) and rainwater composition (high salinity and nutrients). Stem growth rates of a dominant canopy tree, Cecropia, were up to four times higher but had reduced diameter at breast height compared to natural counterparts. Human intervention in plant succession was also an important factor in shaping the ecology of the rainforest biome of Biosphere 2

  8. Antioxidant properties of species from the Brazilian cerrado by different assays

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    K.S. Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to screen the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado, through other methods than the total phenolic content and its correlation with the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts of ten species were evaluated through three antioxidant assays, in vitro, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant activity and reducing power; and by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method the total phenolic content was determined. Ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron obovatum, Cecropia pachystachya and Duguetia furfuraceae showed strong antioxidant activity (IC50<5 µg mL-1 in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay; the species Vernonia phosphorea, Hymenaea stignocarpa and Jacaranda ulei may also be highlighted. These results were confirmed in the assays of total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. The extracts of S. obovatum and V. phosphorea showed an abundant phenolic content; therefore, the phenolic content may play a role in the antioxidant activity. These two species, traditionally used in Brazil, showed great power in these assay systems and may be a promising source for the development of natural antioxidants and future candidates for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in related diseases.

  9. Self-anointing behavior in free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Matthias; Bauer, Verena; Salazar, Laura Teresa Hernandez

    2007-04-01

    During 250 h of observation, a total of 20 episodes of self-anointing, that is, the application of scent-bearing material onto the body, were recorded in a group of free-ranging Mexican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). The animals used the leaves of three species of plants (Brongniartia alamosana, Fabaceae; Cecropia obtusifolia, Cecropiaceae; and Apium graveolens, Umbelliferae) two of which have not been reported so far in this context in any New World primate species. The findings that only two males displayed self-anointing, that only the sternal and axillary regions of the body were rubbed with the mix of saliva and plant material, and a lack of correlation between the occurrence of self-anointing and time of day, season of the year, ambient temperature or humidity do not fit the hypothesis that this behavior functions in repelling insects and/or mitigating topical skin infections in this species. Rather, the data and the observation that the leaves of all three plant species spread an intensive and aromatic odor when crushed, support the hypothesis that self-anointing in A. geoffroyi may play a role in the context of social communication, possibly for signaling of social status or to increase sexual attractiveness.

  10. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  11. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal

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    Botsaris Alexandros S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs.

  12. The potential sensitivity of tropical plants to increased ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziska, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    Little is known concerning the impact of stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation on the phenology and growth of tropical plants. This is because, ostensibly, tropical plants are already exposed to relatively high levels of UV-B radiation (relative to a temperate environment) and should, therefore, possess a greater degree of tolerance to increased UV-B radiation. In this brief review I hope to show that, potentially, direct and indirect effects on photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, phenology and biomass could occur in both tropical crops (e.g. cassava, rice) and native species (e.g. Cecropia obtusifolia (Bertol. Fl)., Tetramolopium humile (Gray), Nana sandwicensis L.). However, it should be noted that differences in sensitivity to UV-B radiation can be related to experimental conditions, and care should be taken to ensure that the quantity and quality of background solar radiation remains at near ambient conditions. Nevertheless, by integrating current and past studies on the impact of UV-B radiation on tropical species, I hope to be able to demonstrate that photosynthesis, morphology and growth in tropical plants could be directly affected by UV-B radiation and that UV-B radiation may be a factor in species and community dynamics in natural plant populations in the tropics

  13. Dieta de Traupíneos (Passeriformes, Emberizidae no Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brasil Diet of Tanagers (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Manhães

    Full Text Available Eleven species of tanagers in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, were studied for 12 months and the birds diet was described. Fruits of 52 plant species were the main item consumed for all tanagers, representing 59.70% of all items in 1330 events, although different proportions in the use of this resource have been found among the bird species. The main plant families found were Myrtaceae with eight species accounting for 22.29% (n=177, and Melastomataceae with seven species accounting for 22.29% (n=177 of fruit intake. The most frequent plant species in the diet was Cecropia glaziovi Snethl. (Cecropiaceae, which made up 17.76% (n=141 of fruit intake of all species of tanagers. Arthropod consumption came second with 22.63% (n=301, but flowers, leaves, nectar, food remains left by tourists and galls were also represented. Several environmental features influenced diet composition. An Asteraceae, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa Schultz, very common in the park, was important for some birds as its flowers attracted arthropods and its branches and leaves were used as a substrate for insectivory. Fruit intake rate, some bird-plant interaction and features of food-handling were also discussed, pointing to the importance of these birds for the structure of the heterogeneous local landscape, possibly through the spread of seeds of different plant species.

  14. Late glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in south Colombian Cauca Valley from sites Quilichao and la Teta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Rob; Rangel Orlando

    2002-01-01

    Two sedimentary cores with records of pollen and charcoal content within a chronology provided by radiocarbon are presented from the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). These records document the late glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environment history. Specifically, core Quilichao -1 (640 cm; 3 degrade 6' N, 76 degrade 31' W) represents the periods of 13/150-7720 14 C yr BP and following a hiatus from 2880 14 C yr BP to recent. Core la Teta - 2 (250 cm; 3 degrade 5' N, 76 degrade 32' W) provides a record from 8700 14 C yr BP around 13/150 21 4 C yr BP Quilichao shown an active late glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11/465-10/520 14 C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria Moraceae Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation on the slopes Andean forest with Quercus, Hedyosmum, Myrica and Alnus are common

  15. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  16. Palynological Origin, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Properties of Honeybee-Collected Pollen from Bahia, Brazil

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    Francisco A. R. Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant properties of twenty-five samples of bee pollen harvested during a nine-month period (February–November from the Canavieiras municipality (northeastern Brazil. Of the 25 samples analyzed, only two (February 01 and 02 were heterofloral. The predominant pollens in the samples analyzed during that month were: Cecropia, Eucalyptus, Elaeis, Mimosa pudica, Eupatorium, and Scoparia. Ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoids isoquercetin, myricetin, tricetin, quercetin, luteolin, selagin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected. The flavonoid present in all 22 samples was isolated and identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-b-neohesperidoside. The total phenolic contents determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent ranged from 41.5 to 213.2 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activities based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, and Fe2+ ion chelating activity assays were observed for all extracts, and correlated with the total phenolic content.

  17. Trigona corvina: An Ecological Study Based on Unusual Nest Structure and Pollen Analysis

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    David W. Roubik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that the nest of Trigona corvina (Apidae; Meliponini consists mainly of pollen exines from bee excrement, forming a scutellum shield encasing the colony. A 20-year-old nest (1980–2000 from a lowland Panama forested habitat was sawed in half longitudinally, and a 95 cm transect was systematically sampled each 5 cm. Samples subjected to detailed pollen analysis held 72 botanical species belonging to 65 genera in 41 families. Over 90% of scutellum pollen volume was Cecropiaceae and Arecaceae, among >1013 grains. Potentially the oldest samples, in the middle of the nest, indicate that Mimosoideae, Euphorbiaceae, and Bombacaceae (now Malvaceae were lost when Africanized honey bee competitors colonized Panama in 1984. Cecropia deposited in the nest increased markedly after landscape-level vegetation disturbance. Pollen from Cavanillesia demonstrated that the foraging range encompassed 3 km2 and perhaps 500 plant species. Trigona corvina primarily foraged on plants with large inflorescences, consistent with foraging theory considering their aggressive behavior.

  18. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  19. Estabelecimento de Espécies Florestais Nativas Via Semeadura Direta no Rio Piauitinga - Sergipe

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    Janisson Batista de Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A técnica de semeadura direta vem se destacando nos projetos de recuperação florestal pela redução de custos na implantação e tem sido cada vez mais utilizada. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a emergência, sobrevivência e estabelecimento de espécies florestais nativas, por meio de sementes em áreas de mata ciliar no Rio Piauitinga, município de Lagarto, SE. As espécies utilizadas foram Libidibia ferrea var. leiostachya (Benth. L. P. Queiroz, Cassia grandis L. f., Cecropia pachystachya Trec., Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong e Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. O experimento em campo foi implantado em Delineamento em Blocos Casualizados (DBC com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial, testando-se as cinco espécies com e sem tratamento para superação de dormência. A semeadura direta mostrou-se uma técnica viável para a área de estudo apenas para as espécies L. ferrea var. leiostachya, E. contortisiliquum e Cassia grandis, utilizando-se sementes com e sem dormência.

  20. ANÁLISIS DE LAS FUERZAS DEL MERCADO DENDROENERGÉTICO EN LA VEREDA CAJETE DEL MUNICIPIO DE POPAYÁN

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    ALEX ENRIQUE ORDOÑEZ HOYOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the wood energy market forces in the village of Cajete the municipality of Popayan. The methodology led to the realization of a random sampling of wood used as woodfuel and proceeded on which the application of a stratified survey of 64 selected users according to previously identified patterns of consumption. They were found to be the most commonly used species such as fuelwood in the sidewalk coffee (Coffea arabica with 22%, pine (Pinus sp 18%, Cúcharo (Myrsine guianensis 15% and the Yarumo (Cecropia peltata 15%. The total demand for fuelwood estimated for the sidewalk was 122,7 m3 per month, being households that represent the highest proportion 96,2%, while ovens and restaurants represent 3,8%. With respect to the offer found that 63% of users collect firewood from the forests and farms of the area, while 37% buy the product that comes mainly from sawmills located in the urban area of the municipality of Popayán.

  1. Estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa na mata sul de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil

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    Roberto Felix Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe physiognomy and structure of a Dense Ombrophyllous Forest fragment located in Catende, Pernambuco. All trees with DAP (breast height diameter ≥ 4.77 cm were measured in 40 10 x 25 m plots, systematically installed in five transects. A total of 1049 individuals were observed, distributed in 91 species, 64 genera and 37 botanical families. Mimosaceae and Lauraceae were the families with higher species number, while Anacardiaceae and Moraceae had the highest individuals numbers. Shannon index (H´ was 3.83 nats/ind. Total basal area, height and diameter (average and maximum were 23.59 m²/ha, 13.57 m (± 7.13, 45 m, 13.20 cm (± 10.60 and 127.32 cm, respectively. The species with higher importance values were Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith, Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl. Rusby, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth., Plathymenia foliolosa Benth., Brosimum discolor Schott, Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp., Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers and Cecropia palmata Willd. Diametric distribution had an inverted-J-like curve, predicted for a forest unequal in ages in a secondary succession stage.

  2. Arboreal ants use the "Velcro(R principle" to capture very large prey.

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    Alain Dejean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as "myrmecophytes" that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN and/or food bodies (FBs; the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker.

  3. Geographical and Botanical Origin of Apis mellifera (Apidae) Honey in four Colombian Departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Montoya, Paula Maria; Chamorro, Fermin J; Ramirez, Nedy; Giraldo, Catalina; Obregon, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find palynological markers which permit differentiate honeys from the departments of Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Santander and Magdalena, by its geographical and botanical origin. Melissopalynological analyses were made of 184 honey samples obtained from 131 localities. A discriminant analysis and comparisons between the species composition of honey samples were made to find geo-graphical and botanical origin differences. A total of 297 pollen species distributed in 69 families was found, being Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. and Quercus humboldtii the most representatives. The major families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae and Melastomataceae. Six honey groups differentiated by its geographical origin were found: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Comunera Province. In a broader scale, honeys from the Andean and sub-Andean regions could be differentiated as well. Between the honey types differentiated by its botanical origin, the most important were monofloral honeys of Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp. and Heliocarpus americanus, Asteraceae oligofloral honeys and mixtures of Q. humboldtii honeydew and floral nectar (Eucalyptussp., Brassicaceae Type, Asteraceae). This information in addition to the obtained by physico-chemical and sensorial analysis, may be the basis to acquire honeys' origin denomination.

  4. Catálogo sistemático dos polens das plantas arbóreas do Brasil meridional: XXIII. Moraceae Catalogue of southern Brazilian pollen grains: XXIII. Moraceae

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    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a morfologia polínica de espécies pertencentes a oito gêneros. Os diferentes tipos polínicos econtrados, correspondendo aos gêneros, bem como as variações das estruturas dentro de alguns deles, confirmam as relações filogenéticas nesta família. Os de morfologia mais simples correspondem a árvores ou arbustos dos gêneros Brosimum, Cecropia, Chlorophora e Coussapoa, seguindo-se Ficus, Pourouma e Sorocea; os grãos do gênero herbáceo Dorstenia apresentam uma complexa morfologia polínica. A estrutura dos esporodermas e das aberturas dos grãos de pólen comprova o seu relacionamento com outras famílias das Urticales.The pollen morphology from some species of eight genera of Moraceae has been studied. The different pollen types found, corresponding to the genera, as well as the structural variations in some of them, confirm the phylogenetic relations in this family. The specimens with a less complex pollen morphology were the trees or shrubs from the genera Brosimum, Cepropia, Chlorophora and Coussapoa, followed by Ficus, Pourouma and Sorocea; the pollen grains from the herbaceous Dorstenia show a complex pollen morphology. The structures of the sporoderm and the apertures of the pollen grains point out the relationship between these genera and other families from the Urticales.

  5. Estrutura fitossociológia de um fragmento natural de floresta inundável em área de orizicultura irrigada, município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins Phytosociologial structure of a natural fragment of floodplain forest in area of irrigated rice cultivation, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, Brazil

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    Elizabeth Rodrigues Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos naturais de florestas inundáveis conhecidos como ipucas localizam-se na planície do Araguaia, sob a forma de depressões naturais, que no Estado do Tocantins estão situados em áreas de planícies de inundação, que favorece seu alagamento e, conseqüentemente, o maior tempo de retenção da água em épocas de elevada precipitação. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido na fazenda Lago Verde, Município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, situado entre as coordenadas UTM: 643586 e 644060 leste e 8792795 e 8799167 norte. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a estrutura de um fragmento de floresta inundável de aproximadamente um hectare, inserido em área de orizicultura irrigada. Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com perímetro a 1,30 m do solo (PAP > 15 cm. Ao todo, foram encontrados 807 indivíduos, 35 famílias e 70 espécies. As espécies com maior VC, em ordem decrescente, foram Hirtella racemosa Lam., Qualea multiflora Mart. e Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram Fabaceae (9, Vochysiaceae (6, Annonaceae e Malvaceae (4. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,44. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe.The natural fragments of floodplain forests known as "ipucas" are located in the Araguaia plain, in form of natural depressions, which are located in areas of floodplains in the State of Tocantins, favoring its flooding and, consequently, the largest period of water retention during periods of high precipitation. The present study was developed at Lagoa Verde farm, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins between the coordinates UTM: 643586 and 644060 east and 8792795 and 8799167 north. The objective of the work was to characterize the structure of a floodplain forest fragment of approximately one-hectare area

  6. Análise fitossociológica de um remanescente de vegetação na microbacia do Córrego Criminoso (Bacia do Rio Taquari, Coxim, MS, Brasil: subsídios para a recomposição da vegetação Phytosociological analysis of a vegetation remnant in the Córrego Criminoso Basin (Taquari River Basin, Coxim District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: data for vegetation recovery studies

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    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise florística e fitossociológica preliminar em um remanescente de vegetação na área de entorno do Córrego Criminoso, visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recomposição da vegetação. A área total do remanescente foi determinada com o auxílio de GPS e dos programas Pathfinder e Autocad. Amostragens de indivíduos com CAP maior ou igual a 20 cm foram realizadas em 20 parcelas de 300 m² distribuídas na área. Foram encontradas 26 famílias botânicas contendo 36 gêneros e 49 espécies. A família Leguminosae foi a mais rica em espécies, seguida da família Annonaceae. A espécie Xylopia aromatica foi a mais freqüente, apresentando valores de IVI e IVC de 99,77 e 85,73, respectivamente. Observou-se que mais de 50% das espécies presentes na área são pioneiras ou secundárias, sendo cinco consideradas típicas de matas ciliares: Tapirira guianenses, Cecropia pachystachya, Terminalia argentea, Ocotea pulchellae e Luehea grandiflora. O remanescente de vegetação do entorno do Córrego Criminoso encontra-se fortemente degradado, necessitando de ações de manejo específicos nos fragmentos vegetados e nas áreas destituídas de vegetação, cujas recomendações são propostas.The aim of this study was to complete a preliminary, floristic, phytosociological analyses of a vegetation remnant in the Criminoso Stream Basin, in order to provide data for future projects focusing on vegetation recovery. The total area of the remnant was determined using a GPS and the software Pathfinder and Autocad. Samples of individuals larger or equal to 20 cm CBH were made in 20 quadrats that were 300 m². Thirty-six genera and 49 species, within 26 botanical families, were found. The family Leguminosae was the richest in species, followed by the Annonaceae. Xylopia aromatica was the most frequent species, presenting values of IVI and IVC of 99.77 and 85.73, respectively. More than 50% of the species present

  7. Flowers, fruits, and the abundance of the yellow-chevroned parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri at a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil Flores, frutos e abundância do periquito-de-asa-amarela (Brotogeris chiriri em uma mata ciliar do Pantanal Sul (Brasil

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Parakeets usually forage for massive and ephemeral plant resources at forest canopies. Fruit pulp is widely cited as a major food resource for these birds, which often eat seeds and nectar. In this study, I assessed flower and fruit production at a gallery forest in the Pantanal flood plain (Brazil in order to evaluate the relationship between food resource production and abundance of a common parakeet, Brotogeris chiriri. Also, I evaluated the relationship between food resource production and foraging activity. Parakeet abundance varied markedly along the year, coinciding with massive episodes of flower and fleshy fruit availability. Inga vera nectar, intensely used during the latter part of dry season, was by far the most exploited food item by parakeets when they were very abundant. The nectar comprised 34% of the parakeets' diet (N = 131 feeding records at the gallery forest, while fleshy fruits made up the rest. Parakeets principally exploited fruits of Cecropia pachystachya and Ficus luschnathiana, besides palm fruits and Inga vera arils. The consistent relationship between foraging activity and parakeet abundance, as well as the coincidence between fluctuations of these parameters and availability of major food resources, suggests that food availability mostly influenced B. chiriri occurrence in the gallery forest. Furthermore, I found no evidence for gallery forest use for roosting and/or breeding, in spite of the fact that such factors usually influence local parakeet abundance.Periquitos normalmente exploram recursos massivos e efêmeros no dossel das florestas tropicais. Dentre os itens alimentares mais utilizados está a polpa de frutos, embora sementes e néctar também sejam consumidos. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a produção de flores e frutos em uma mata ciliar do Pantanal (Brasil e sua relação com a abundância do periquito Brotogeris chiriri. Além disso, avaliaram-se as relações entre a produção de flores e frutos e o

  8. Ocorrência do pólen de Podocarpus sp. (Podocarpaceae nas coletas de Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 (Apidae: Meliponinae em uma área de Manaus, AM, Brasil Occurrence of Podocarpus sp. (Podocarpaceae pollen on Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 (Apidae: Meliponinae in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Antonio Carlos Marques-Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de doze meses, o pólen transportado por Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 foi coletado das corbículas das operárias, logo após o fechamento da entrada das colméias. Feita a identificação polínica dos grãos de pólen e sua frequência mensal nas amostras, constatou-se que as espécies das famílias mais visitadas pela ordem de coleta, foram: Cecropiaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae e Moraceae. As operárias coletaram o pólen de 79 espécies de plantas distribuídas em 60 gêneros e 37 famílias, sendo as mais frequentes: Cecropia sp. visitada o ano todo com atratividade em janeiro de 82,03%, Morus sp. com atratividade de 37,46% em dezembro; Myrcia amazonica DC. com atratividade em abril de 32,34% e Pouteria macrophylla (A.DC. Eyma em junho com atratividade de 36,54%. Quanto a Podocarpus sp. esse é o primeiro relato da presença do pólen dessa espécie em coletas de meliponíneos, o que não deixa de ser um fato curioso, uma vez que se trata de uma gimnosperma encontrada em áreas específicas da região amazônica e que apresentou atratividade para Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 de 4,94% no mês de março.Over a 12 month period, pollen was sampled from the corbiculae of workers of the stingless bee Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836. Collections were obtained immediately after sealing the hives, located in a forest fragment in the city of Manaus. Pollen was identified and monthly frequency of each type was tallied. The most-visited plant families in decreasing order of frequency were Cecropiaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae and Moraceae. Identified pollen was harvested from 79 plant species in 60 genera and 37 families. The most frequent species were: Cecropia sp., visited year-round but with highest attractiveness (82% in January; Morus sp., with peak attractiveness (37% in December; Myrcia amazonica DC. with 32% peak attractiveness in April; and Pouteria macrophylla (A.DC. Eyma, with 37% peak attractiveness in

  9. Feeding ecology of the Green-cheeked parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae in dry forests in western Brazil Ecologia alimentar da Tiriba-de-cara-suja (Pyrrhura molinae em matas secas do oeste brasileiro

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pyrrhura includes small to medium-sized parakeets, which inhabit both low and dry alongside tall rainforests, mainly in South America. Pyrrhura molinae is still common, year round, in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil. This parakeet, as well as most Neotropical parrots, continues to be poorly understood. Hence, in the present study I examined their foraging ecology both in a highly deciduous and in a semi-deciduous forest in western Brazil. In addition, I assessed the relationship between food resource production (flowers and fruits, and the diet of this parakeet. Pyrrhura molinae exhibited a flexible diet consisting of 16 tree species, from which it consumed flowers (three species, seeds (three species, fruit pulp or aril (four species, and both pulp and seeds (six species. Parakeets consumed a wide array of fleshy fruits in the semi-deciduous forest, especially Cecropia pachystachya catkins. Conversely, in the highly deciduous forest they extensively foraged for figs (70% of the diet, in addition to nectar and seeds from dry fruits. Ficus calyptroceras, besides being abundant, bore fruits year round, and was substantially used by parakeets every month. Potentially, by exploiting a diverse set of plant food resources, and particularly due to the substantial use of figs, asynchronously produced, Pyrrhura molinae persists during the long dry season in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil.O gênero Pyrrhura é constituido de pequenos periquitos comuns tanto em matas secas quanto úmidas, sobretudo da América do Sul. Pyrrhura molinae ocorre durante o ano todo em florestas altamente sazonais do oeste brasileiro. Essa espécie, bem como a maioria dos psitacídeo, permanece pouco conhecida. Portanto, nesse estudo, foi examinada a ecologia alimentar de P. molinae em dois tipos de florestas secas (altamente decídua e semidecídua, do oeste brasileiro, bem como as relações entre a produção de flores frutos e a

  10. Polliniferous plants aud foraging strategles Of Apis mellifera (Hyínenoptera: Apidae in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico

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    Rogel Villanueva-G

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the most important polliniferous plants for European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. was made in Quintana Roo state. Comparisons were made between the plants visited by both bee types in order to determine whether there were qualitative or quantitative differences in their choice of plant species. Also some foraging strategies of the honeybees were analysed. Pollen from pollen load samples was acetolysed and mounted on slides. Subsequently the polien grains were identified, counted and photographed. A total of 206 pollen load samples were collected at Palmas and St. Teresa during two years. The most frequent species in the ponen load samples from European and Africanized honeyhees were Cecropia peltata, Metopium brownei, Lonchocarpus sp. 2, Viguiera dentata, Eragrostis sp. 1, Bursera simaruba and Eupatorium albicaule. Both types of honey bees show a high reliance on pollen from only a few species, the first five named above comprised around 50% of all the mean percentage frequencies. Families that contributed with the largest number of polien species were Fabaceae, Asteraceac, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaecae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, Poaceac, Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae and Tiliaceae. C. peltata, Trema micrantha, B. simaruba, Eugenia sp. 1, Thouinia canesceras, Pouteria sp. 1, Mimosa bahamensis and V. dentata, were the pollen species with the largest percentages of oceurrence in both European and Africanized bee pollen load samples, and also represent a "long-term" food resources during the year.Un estudio de las plantas poliníferas más importantes para las abejas europeas y africanizadas (Apis melifera L. se realizó en el estado de Quintana Roo. Se hicieron comparaciones entre plantas visitadas por ambos tipos de abejas, con el objetivo de determinar si hay diferencias cualitativas o cuantitativas en la elección de la especie de planta. Adicionalmente, se analizaron algunas estrategias de forrajeo de las abejas. Muestras

  11. Revision of the Neotropical spider genus Gephyroctenus (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae Revisão do gênero de aranhas neotropicais Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae

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    Daniele Polotow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (type species G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936 is revised. Three species formerly described in this genus are synonymized with species from other genera: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, with Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, with Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, and G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, with Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Eight new species are described: G. portovelho sp. nov., from the States of Rondônia and Amazonas, Brazil; G. divisor sp. nov. and G. acre sp. nov., from the State of Acre, Brazil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. and G. mapia sp. nov., from the State of Amazonas, Brazil; G. juruti sp. nov., from the Department of Loreto, Peru and the State of Pará, Brazil; G. panguana sp. nov., from the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The genus can be distinguished by the presence of a cymbial retrolateral groove, retrolateral origin of embolus, embolus long and thin, median apophysis with a subdistal hook, and hyaline projection close to the embolus base in the male palp and by the fused median and lateral fields in a single epigynal plate, copulatory opening located dorsally in an atrium, and elongated copulatory ducts surrounding the spermathecae in the female epigynum. Field observations on the hunting behavior on ants in trumpet trees (Cecropia are provided for two species, G. philodromoides and G. mapia sp. nov.Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (espécie-tipo G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936, é revisado. Três espécies descritas neste gênero são sinonimizadas com espécies de outros gêneros: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, com Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, com Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, e G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, com Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Oito novas espécies são descritas: G. portovelho sp. nov., dos Estados de Rondônia e Amazonas, Brasil; G. divisor sp. nov. e G

  12. Plantas hipoglicemiantes utilizadas por comunidades tradicionais na Bacia do Alto Paraguai e Vale do Guaporé, Mato Grosso - Brasil

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    M. Macedo

    Full Text Available No Brasil, com inúmeras espécies tropicais, evidencia-se o conhecimento e uso da vegetação medicinal pelas comunidades quilombolas, ribeirinhas, rurais, tradicionais e indígenas, que são praticadas até os dias atuais. O Estado de Mato Grosso pela sua localização no Planalto Central brasileiro possui uma variedade destas comunidades, que utilizam estas plantas medicinais, levando em consideração o conhecimento popular passado de geração em geração. Esta pesquisa visa identificar a forma de coleta e os usos desse grupo vegetal indicados pelos usuários. O estudo foi realizado em 15 comunidades tradicionais (não indígenas na Bacia do Alto Paraguai e 2 (duas no Vale do Guaporé. A coleta de dados deu-se através de líderes comunitários, benzedeiras, parteiras e usuários utilizando o método qualitativo, mediante abordagem qualitativa, com auxílio de entrevistas estruturadas, semi-estruturadas e abertas. Dentre as espécies identificadas 17 estacam-se para o tratamento do Diabetes, dentre elas citam-se: Anacadium humile; Bauhinia glabra; Cecropia pachystachya; Hancornia speciosa; Heteropteris aphrodisiaca; Leonotis nepetifolia; Momordica charantia; Solanum lycocarpum. Registra-se ainda que as partes mais utilizadas desses vegetais são: folhas, casca do caule, raiz, planta toda, brotos, óleos dos frutos e polvilho dos frutos. De acordo com os usuários a maioria das plantas não podem ser colhidas após o nascer do sol e o preparo deve ser feito com folhas secas ou que tenham sido submetidas ao processo de secagem sobre o fogão de lenha ou em local abafado.

  13. Leaf litter breakdown rates and associated fauna of native and exotic trees used in Neotropical Riparia Reforestation; Tasas de perdida de masa de la hojarasca y fauna asociada en especies de arboles comunmente utilizados en la Reforestacion de Riberas Neotropicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Isaza, Nataly; Blanco, Juan Felipe

    2014-07-01

    A signature of globalization is the prevalence of exotic trees along reforested urban and rural riparian zones in the neotropics, but little is known about the instream processing of its leaf litter. In this study, leaf litter breakdown rates were measured during 35 days using mesh bags within a reference headwater stream for seven exotic and three native tree species commonly used in urban and rural reforestation. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla and Terminalia catappa scored the highest mass loss rates (>85 %; mean life: t50 <15 d), while Cecropia sp. and Cespedesia macrophylla (mass loss =36 and 15 %; t50 =58 and 172 d, respectively) scored the lowest rates. However, a broad range of rates was observed among the ten species studied. The carbon to phosphorus ratio (c:p) and toughness of the leaf litter were the best predictors of breakdown rates. However, these leaf properties were not correlated with the very low values of macro invertebrates abundance and diversity, and the few morpho classified as shredders. Therefore physical rather than biological controls seem to best explain the observed variability of mass loss rates, and thus slow decomposing leaf litter species seems to provide a habitat rather than a food resource, particularly to collectors. This study suggests that riparian reforestation will propagate species-specific ecological influences on instream processes such as leaf litter processing depending on leaf quality properties, therefore ecosystem-wide influences should be considered for improving reforestation strategies. Future studies should test for differences in breakdown rates and colonization by macro invertebrates relative for leaf litter species origin (native vs. exotic).

  14. Leaf litter breakdown rates and associated fauna of native and exotic trees used in Neotropical Riparia Reforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Isaza, Nataly; Blanco, Juan Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A signature of globalization is the prevalence of exotic trees along reforested urban and rural riparian zones in the neotropics, but little is known about the instream processing of its leaf litter. In this study, leaf litter breakdown rates were measured during 35 days using mesh bags within a reference headwater stream for seven exotic and three native tree species commonly used in urban and rural reforestation. Artocarpus altilis, Schefflera actinophylla and Terminalia catappa scored the highest mass loss rates (>85 %; mean life: t50 <15 d), while Cecropia sp. and Cespedesia macrophylla (mass loss =36 and 15 %; t50 =58 and 172 d, respectively) scored the lowest rates. However, a broad range of rates was observed among the ten species studied. The carbon to phosphorus ratio (c:p) and toughness of the leaf litter were the best predictors of breakdown rates. However, these leaf properties were not correlated with the very low values of macro invertebrates abundance and diversity, and the few morpho classified as shredders. Therefore physical rather than biological controls seem to best explain the observed variability of mass loss rates, and thus slow decomposing leaf litter species seems to provide a habitat rather than a food resource, particularly to collectors. This study suggests that riparian reforestation will propagate species-specific ecological influences on instream processes such as leaf litter processing depending on leaf quality properties, therefore ecosystem-wide influences should be considered for improving reforestation strategies. Future studies should test for differences in breakdown rates and colonization by macro invertebrates relative for leaf litter species origin (native vs. exotic).

  15. Biodiversidad florística del Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali

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    Víctor Araujo Abanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue la clasificación taxonómica y descripciones botánicas de 36 especies (23 familias y 33 géneros, árboles, arbustos, lianas y hierbas en el Jardín Botánico y Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali. De las 36 especies, 6 son ornamentales: Sanchezia tigrina, Crinum augustum, Sansevieria trifasciata, Dracaena fragans, Costus guanaiensis y Vitex cymosa; Rhynchosia phaseoloides cuyas semillas son cotizadas como artesanal; 7 podrían tener uso ornamental: Tabernaemontana heteropylla, Sparattosperma leucanthum, Cayaponia ophthalmica, Gurania eriantha, Gurania spinulosa, Stigmaphyllon florosum y Capirona decorticans; 3 son medicinales: Euphorbia umbellata (tratamiento del cáncer y otros males, Uncaria guianensis (refuerza el sistema inmunológico y Pilocarpus peruvianus contiene Pilocarpina de uso oftalmológico; Pourouma guianensis tiene fuerte olor a mentol; 3 con frutos alimenticios Tamarindus indica, Bunchosia armeniaca y Physalis angulata, conteniendo este último alto contenido en pro vitamina A; 10 son maderables: Dipteryx odorata, Vitex cymosa, Tectona grandis, Ocotea bofo, Perebea xanthochyma, Virola pavonis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Capirona decorticans, Guazuma ulmifolia y Bambusa arundinacea; Pueraria phaseoloides usado como forraje, en el Jardín Botánico está como maleza al igual que Davilla nítida y Urena lobata, que podría servir como ornamental, su corteza tiene propiedades similares al yute verdadero; Cecropia membranácea, C. concolor, C. sciadophylla y Gouania lupuloides que pueden servir como alimento de la fauna silvestre.

  16. Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

  17. Arboreal Ants Use the “Velcro® Principle” to Capture Very Large Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Roux, Olivier; Céréghino, Régis; Orivel, Jérôme; Boulay, Raphaël

    2010-01-01

    Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as “myrmecophytes” that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro® that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker. PMID:20593032

  18. Local ecological knowledge and its relationship with biodiversity conservation among two Quilombola groups living in the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Bruno Esteves; Ticktin, Tamara; Fonseca, Amanda Surerus; Macedo, Arthur Ladeira; Orsi, Timothy Ongaro; Chedier, Luciana Moreira; Rodrigues, Eliana; Pimenta, Daniel Sales

    2017-01-01

    Information on the knowledge, uses, and abundance of natural resources in local communities can provide insight on conservation status and conservation strategies in these locations. The aim of this research was to evaluate the uses, knowledge and conservation status of plants in two Quilombolas (descendants of slaves of African origin) communities in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil, São Sebastião da Boa Vista (SSBV) and São Bento (SB). We used a combination of ethnobotanical and ecological survey methods to ask: 1) What ethnobotanical knowledge do the communities hold? 2) What native species are most valuable to them? 3) What is the conservation status of the native species used? Thirteen local experts described the names and uses of 212 species in SSBV (105 native species) and 221 in SB (96 native species). Shannon Wiener diversity and Pielou's Equitability indices of ethnobotanical knowledge of species were very high (5.27/0.96 and 5.28/0.96, respectively). Species with the highest cultural significance and use-value indexes in SSBV were Dalbergia hortensis (26/2.14), Eremanthus erythropappus (6.88/1), and Tibouchina granulosa (6.02/1); while Piptadenia gonoacantha (3.32/1), Sparattosperma leucanthum (3.32/1) and Cecropia glaziovii (3.32/0.67) were the highest in SB. Thirty-three native species ranked in the highest conservation priority category at SSBV and 31 at SB. D. hortensis was noteworthy because of its extremely high cultural importance at SSBV, and its categorization as a conservation priority in both communities. This information can be used towards generating sustainable use and conservation plans that are appropriate for the local communities.

  19. Atlantic frugivory: a plant-frugivore interaction data set for the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Montan, Denise; Pizo, Marco A; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Culot, Laurence; Bufalo, Felipe; Labecca, Fabio; Pedrosa, Felipe; Constantini, Rafaela; Emer, Carine; Silva, Wesley R; da Silva, Fernanda R; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    The data set provided here includes 8,320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The data set includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, 5 fishes, 1 amphibian, and 3 reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016. While this is probably the most comprehensive data set available for a tropical ecosystem, it is arguably taxonomically and geographically biased. The plant families better represented are Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, and Solanaceae. Myrsine coriacea, Alchornea glandulosa, Cecropia pachystachya, and Trema micrantha are the plant species with the most animal dispersers (83, 76, 76, and 74 species, respectively). Among the animal taxa, the highest number of interactions is reported for birds (3,883) followed by mammals (1,315). The woolly spider monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and Rufous-bellied Thrush, Turdus rufiventris, are the frugivores with the most diverse fruit diets (137 and 121 plants species, respectively). The most important general patterns that we note are that larger seeded plant species (>12 mm) are mainly eaten by terrestrial mammals (rodents, ungulates, primates, and carnivores) and that birds are the main consumers of fruits with a high concentration of lipids. Our data set is geographically biased, with most interactions recorded for the southeast Atlantic Forest. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Vegetation changes and human impact inferred from an oxbow lake in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil since the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zorro, Paula A.; Enters, Dirk; Hermanowski, Barbara; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Pollen and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analyses from a 272 cm-long sediment core of Lago Amapá, an oxbow lake in western Amazonia, reveal the first palaeoecological investigation of late Holocene sediments in Acre state, Brazil. Radiocarbon dating of older sediments failed due to re-deposition of organic material but a historical map suggests that lacustrine deposition started at 1900 AD. We detected two periods of changes in sediment and vegetation, dominated by pioneer taxa especially Cecropia. The first period around 1900 AD is documenting an initial oxbow lake, with regular fluvial input (high Ti) and low accumulation of organic matter (low inc/coh ratio). During that period Andean pollen taxa originating from Peruvian Andean headwaters were deposited. A fully lacustrine phase started about 1950 AD and is characterized by prolonged periods of stagnant water (low Fe/Mn ratio). The increase of pioneer taxa, sedimentation rates and a reduction of most of the XRF element counts point to a period during which Lago Amapá was a more isolated lake which was flooded only during exceptional severe flood events and is catching mainly anthropogenic disturbances. The extensive human influence during this period was assumed by 1) the high occurrence of pioneer taxa and the absence of charcoal which could indicate changes in vegetation possibly as a result of logging, 2) the Ca and Ti/K ratio which reflect changes to a local sediment source, and 3) comparison of Landsat images from the last 30 years which shows broad changes in vegetation cover and land transformation in the peripheral areas of the oxbow lake.

  1. Aspectos estructurales y tipos de vegetación de la isla Mocagua, río Amazonas

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    Prieto Adriana

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of some parameters of vegetation structure (coberture -%-, density and specific diversity is presented for plant formations in the Mocagua island (Colombian Amazonia. The structure of the vegetation types ranging from simple river beach zone, aquatic and floodplain environments, to complex arrangement in forest formations. The average number of individuals with DAP > 10 cm (58/0.1 ha is lower than other similar regions. In addition, we describe the types of vegetation founded according with floristic affinities, wich is related to the water content in the sustrata.Tha natural vegetation comprise from aquatic communities of Oxyearyum eubense - Pontederia rotundifolia, to continental ones of Rheedia madruno- Palieourea eroeea, Triehilia pallida - Sommera sabiceoides, phases of Montriehardia arboreseens and Ceeropia latíloba, Paspalum repens and Ceeropia latíloba, and Leptochloa seabra and Torulinium maeroeephalum.Se presentan los resultados de los análisis sobre parámetros estructurales de la vegetación (cobertura-%-, densidad y diversidad específica de las formaciones vegetales de la isla Mocagua (Amazonas, Colombia. La estructura de los tipos de vegetación diferenciados cubre desde los arreglos simples como la de las zonas de playa, ambientes lacustres e inundables, hasta arreglos complejos con diferentes estratos en formaciones boscosas. El número de individuos con DAP > 10 cm (prom.=58/0.1 ha en comparación con los valores en otras zonas es bajo. Los tipos de vegetación descritos obedecen en su distribución esencialmente al contenido de agua en el sustrato; la vegetación natural comprende desde comunidades acuáticas de Oxycaryum cubense - Pontederia rotundifolia, hasta las continentales de Rheedia. madruno - Palieourea eroeea, Triehilia pallida - Sommera sabieeoides y las fases de Montriehardia arboreseens y Ceeropia latiloba, Paspalum repens y Cecropia latiloba, y la de Leptochloa scabra y Torulinium maerocephalum.

  2. Nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from neotropical tree species of distinct successional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; da Silva, Ligia Maria Inocêncio; de Freitas, Letícia Dias; Debiasi, Tatiane Viegas; Marchiori, Nidia Mara; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Bianchini, Edmilson; Pimenta, José Antonio; Stolf-Moreira, Renata

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have analyzed the strategies of neotropical tree seedlings for absorbing, translocating and assimilating the nitrogen. Here, we compared the nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from six tree species that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and that belong to different successional groups: Trema micrantha, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia pachystachya (pioneers), Cariniana estrellensis, Eugenia brasiliensis and Guarea kunthiana (non-pioneers). The effects of cultivating seedlings with nitrate or ammonium on the growth, physiology and nitrogen metabolism were analyzed. Nitrate-grown pioneer species had much higher leaf nitrate reductase activity than non-pioneer ones, but non-pioneer seedlings were also able to use nitrate as a nitrogen source. In addition to this remarkable difference between the groups in the capacity for leaf nitrate assimilation, substantial variations in the nitrogen use strategies were observed within the successional classes. Differently from the other non-pioneers, the canopy species C. estrellensis seemed to assimilate nitrate mainly in the leaves. Morphophysiological analyses showed a gradient of ammonium toxicity response, with E. brasiliensis as the most tolerant species, and T. micrantha and H. popayanensis as the most sensitive ones. Guarea kunthiana showed a relatively low tolerance to ammonium and an unusual high translocation of this cation in the xylem sap. In contrast to the other pioneers, C. pachystachya had a high plasticity in the use of nitrogen sources. Overall, these results suggest that nitrogen use strategies of neotropical tree seedlings were not determined solely by their successional position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Estrutura da comunidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Therys M. Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturnas de captura de morcegos com 4 a 12 redes-de-neblina dispostas a cada sessão. Nesse período, foram capturados 720 indivíduos de 16 espécies de morcegos dos quais 13 pertencem à família Phyllostomidae, duas à Vespertilionidae e uma à Molossidae. A curva cumulativa de espécies atingiu o equilíbrio, no qual apenas espécies raras são acrescentadas. Cinco espécies (Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina e Sturnira lilium representaram 80% dos morcegos capturados na Estação Experimental, onde se alimentavam de frutos de plantas pioneiras, tais como Cecropia pachystachya, Solanum spp. e Piper spp. A prevalência do vírus rábico foi zero na amostragem das 10 espécies analisadas. Apesar de estar muito modificada, a Estação Experimental de Itirapina pode ser uma importante área de abrigo e alimento para os morcegos e tem potencial de atuar como corredor entre áreas de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica.

  4. The bandit, a new DNA transposon from a hookworm-possible horizontal genetic transfer between host and parasite.

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    Thewarach Laha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced understanding of the hookworm genome and its resident mobile genetic elements should facilitate understanding of the genome evolution, genome organization, possibly host-parasite co-evolution and horizontal gene transfer, and from a practical perspective, development of transposon-based transgenesis for hookworms and other parasitic nematodes.A novel mariner-like element (MLE was characterized from the genome of the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, and termed bandit. The consensus sequence of the bandit transposon was 1,285 base pairs (bp in length. The new transposon was flanked by perfect terminal inverted repeats of 32 nucleotides in length with a common target site duplication TA, and it encoded an open reading frame (ORF of 342 deduced amino acid residues. Phylogenetic comparisons confirmed that the ORF encoded a mariner-like transposase, which included conserved catalytic domains, and that the bandit transposon belonged to the cecropia subfamily of MLEs. The phylogenetic analysis also indicated that the Hsmar1 transposon from humans was the closest known relative of bandit, and that bandit and Hsmar1 constituted a clade discrete from the Tc1 subfamily of MLEs from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Moreover, homology models based on the crystal structure of Mos1 from Drosophila mauritiana revealed closer identity in active site residues of the catalytic domain including Ser281, Lys289 and Asp293 between bandit and Hsmar1 than between Mos1 and either bandit or Hsmar1. The entire bandit ORF was amplified from genomic DNA and a fragment of the bandit ORF was amplified from RNA, indicating that this transposon is actively transcribed in hookworms.A mariner-like transposon termed bandit has colonized the genome of the hookworm A. caninum. Although MLEs exhibit a broad host range, and are identified in other nematodes, the closest phylogenetic relative of bandit is the Hsmar1 element of humans. This surprising finding suggests

  5. Recovery after 25 years of the tree and palms species diversity on a selectively logged forest in a Venezuelan lowland ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozada, J.R.; Arends, E.; Sánchez, D.; Villarreal, A.; Guevara, J.; Soriano, P.; Costa, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We evaluate palm and tree species diversity in a floodplain forest and the changes affecting the plots subjected to different intensities of selective logging. Area of study: The western alluvial plains of Venezuela. Materials and Methods: A randomized complete blocks design was established 25 years ago with three felling treatments (trees with diameter greater than 20 cm, 40 cm and 60 cm). Each treatment had three replications, using 1 ha permanent plots. We have measured all trees and palms bigger than over 10 cm in diameter. The data set was used to calculate the Importance Value Index of each species, the Shannon-Wiener index, the Hill Numbers and the Chao-Sørensen index. Main results: Disturbance increases the importance value index of pioneer species like Cecropia peltata, Ochroma pyramidale and Triplaris americana. All treatments produce changes on the floristic diversity but most of them are not significant. Only the high impact treatment causes a decrease in the species richness, but after 5 year of recovery this parameter is close to its previous levels (N0= 43.5). In logged forests, species loss (9.2%) is lower than in the control plots (11.7%) and is also lower than the rate of occurrence of species input (14.6%). Research highlights: In these logged forests restoration of diversity is acceptable because is higher than 91% (Chao-Sørensen index). Selective logging, with low and medium intensity, is a disturbance that works in a similar way to natural disturbances. All the diversity indexes recovered the pre-harvest level values. (Author)

  6. ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF RUSTIC SPECIES IN DISTURBED ECOSYSTEMS IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST, PIRAÍ, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE – BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Feijó Baylão Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810542 Disturbed ecosystems do not present original floristic composition. Their soils are depleted, shallow, stony, with low infiltration and present erosion with different levels of Geodynamics. The region has areas of pasture with sparse herbaceous vegetation which is weakened in every rain and fire, covering less ground. The individuals that colonized and settled in these environments were considered rustic species. This study raised and identified by census, the rustic species and their structure in the most degraded part (lower third of the watershed of Cacaria’s river at the base of the Serra do Mar, Piraí, Rio de Janeiro state, and evaluated the influence of ecological exposure, slope, elevation, topography and rock outcrops in the establishment and growth of these species. For the vegetation survey it was conducted census in an area of 22 hectares, where it was measured, geo-referenced and identified all spontaneous tree species that were isolated in a pasture area. Ecological factors exposure, elevation and slope were determined with a compass, altimeter and clinometer, respectively. We identified 131 individuals, representing 14 species, grouped into nine families. Tabernaemontana laeta Mart., Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell. Schum., Machaerium hirtum (Vell. Stellfeld, Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Stan., Cecropia pachystachya Trec., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer, Acacia polyphylla DC. and Psidium guajava L.were present in portions of the slope with exposure to the north, with altitudes from 60m to 80m and with slope strongly corrugated (20-45%, indicating a preference of these species for microhabitats with those characteristics. 

  7. Floristic composition and soil fertility in gold mining of Lavrinha, Pontes and Lacerda, MT, Brazil

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    Tatiani Botini Pires

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mining activities cause intense environmental degradation, especially to the soil and vegetation. This study evaluated attributes of floristic composition and soil fertility in areas of open gold mining areas. One hundred plots of 10 × 10 m were distributed in the area effectively mined and in its surroundings. Stem circunference measures (AGC of all identified woody individuals with greater than or equal to 9 cm were taken at 0.3 m height above the ground. In all plots soil samples at 0-20 cm depth were collected for analysis of fertility attributes that are routinely evaluated. In total we observed the occurrence of 92 species and 43 families. The most abundant families were Myrtaceae, Fabaceae and Dilleniaceae; and families that had the greatest numbers of species were Fabaceae (10, Malpighiaceae (7 and Vochysiaceae (5. In the area effectively mined the species with higher importance value index (IVI were Curatella americana (89.1 Cecropia hololeuca (40.9, Roupala montana (12.5 and Pouteria ramiflora (10.2 while in surrounding of the mined area the species with the highest IVI were Myrcia multiflora (25.6, Caryocar brasiliense (15.7, Magonia pubescens (14.8 and Vatareia macrocarpa (14.4. In both areas, the soil had low pH, low availability of P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ and high Al3+ saturation. In spite of the low soil fertility of the studied area, it was able to maintain an overall density of vegetation with AGC > 9 cm of 430 individuals per hectare in the effectively mined area and of 2,220 individuals per hectare in their surroundings.

  8. Abundance and frugivory of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco in a gallery forest in Brazil's Southern Pantanal

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco - the largest Ramphastidae - usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil, in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year.

  9. Abundance and frugivory of the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) in a gallery forest in Brazil's southern Pantanal.

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    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2006-02-01

    Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco)--the largest Ramphastidae--usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil), in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource) and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity) on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year.

  10. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

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    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  11. ORIGEN GEOGRÁFICO Y BOTÁNICO DE MIELES DE Apis mellifera (APIDAE EN CUATRO DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA

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    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar marcadores palinológicos que permitieran caracterizar el origen geográfico y botánico de mieles provenientes de los departamentos de Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander y Magdalena. Se realizaron análisis melisopalinológicos de 184 muestras de miel procedentes de 131 apiarios. Se determinaron diferencias significativas entre tipos de mieles mediante un análisis discriminante y comparando la composición de especies entre las muestras. En total se encontraron 297 especies distribuidas en 69 familias, dentro de las cuales las más representativas fueron Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. y Quercus humboldtii. Las familias más importantes fueron Fabaceae, Asteraceae,Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae, y Melastomataceae. Se lograron determinar seis grupos de mieles diferenciadas por su origen geográfico: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Provincia Comunera; también se encontraron diferencias entre las mieles de las regiones andinas y subandinas. Dentro de los tipos de mieles diferenciadas por origen botánico predominaron las mieles monoflorales de Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp.y Heliocarpus americanus, mieles oligoflorales de asteráceas y mezclas de mielato de Q. humboldtii y néctar floral (Eucalyptus sp. tipo Brassicaceae, asteráceas. La información de este trabajo junto con la obtenida en análisis fisicoquímicos y sensoriales servirá de base para que los apicultores puedan solicitar la denominación de origen de estas mieles.

  12. Effects of insect and decapod exclusion and leaf litter species identity on breakdown rates in a tropical headwater stream

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    José Rincón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La gran variedad de especies vegetales junto a los ríos tropicales afecta la diversidad de detritos orgánicos que llegan a los arroyos, creando variaciones temporales en cantidad y calidad de hojarasca. Examinamos la influencia de las especies vegetales y de la exclusión de macroinvertebrados sobre la descomposición de hojarasca en la parte alta de un arroyo en las montañas Luquillo de Puerto Rico. Incubamos hojarasca de Dacryodes excelsa (Burseraceae, Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae, Cecropia scheberiana (Moraceae, Manilkara bidentata (Sapotaceae y Prestoea acuminata (Palmae en bolsas descomposición que colocamos en una poza de Quebrada Prieta. Usamos bolsas de malla fina para excluir los macroinvertebrados y de malla gruesa para permitir la entrada a crustáceos decápodos (camarones y cangrejos jóvenes e insectos acuáticos (principalmente efemerópteros, quironómidos y tricópteros. D. excelsa y G. guidonia (en ambos tipos de malla tuvieron tasas de descomposición más altas que C. scheberiana, M. bidentata y P. acuminata. La descomposición fue más rápida para todas las especies de hoja con la malla gruesa, resaltando el papel de los descomponedores en este hábitat. Tras 42 días de esta incubación, las densidades totales de invertebrados, efemerópteros y tricópteros fueron mayores en las bolsas con hojas de D. excelsa y G. guidonia, e inferiores en P. acuminata, C. scheberiana y M. bidentata. A mayor densidad de insectos hubo mayor tasa de descomposición. Nuestros resultados indican la importancia de la especie de las hojas y de la presencia de macroinvertebrados en el proceso de descomposición de hojarasca en partes altas de arroyos tropicales.

  13. INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES

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    Edi Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  14. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus

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    D.P.F. Duarte

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and mean (MBP blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period. The animals were allowed to freely move in an acoustically isolated and temperature-controlled (24 ± 1ºC experimental room with light-dark cycle (12/12 h. Behavior was closely monitored through a unidirectional visor and classified as resting (sitting or suspended, feeding (chewing and swallowing embauba leaves, Cecropia adenops, or locomotor activity around the tree trunk or on the room floor. Locomotor activity caused statistically significant increases in SBP (+8%, from 121 ± 22 to 131 ± 18 mmHg, DBP (+7%, from 86 ± 17 to 92 ± 10 mmHg, MBP (+8%, from 97 ± 19 to 105 ± 12 mmHg, and HR (+14%, from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 15 bpm compared to resting values, indicating a possible major influence of the autonomic nervous system on the modulation of cardiac function during this behavior. During feeding, the increase in blood pressure was even higher (SBP +27%, from 119 ± 21 to 151 ± 21 mmHg; DBP +21%, from 85 ± 16 to 103 ± 15 mmHg; MBP +24%, from 96 ± 17 to 119 ± 17 mmHg, while HR remained at 14% (from 84 ± 15 to 96 ± 10 bpm above resting values. The proportionally greater increase in blood pressure than in HR during feeding suggests an increase in peripheral vascular resistance as part of the overall response to this behavior.

  15. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive trees: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest.

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    Cavaleri, Molly A; Ostertag, Rebecca; Cordell, Susan; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    While the supply of freshwater is expected to decline in many regions in the coming decades, invasive plant species, often 'high water spenders', are greatly expanding their ranges worldwide. In this study, we quantified the ecohydrological differences between native and invasive trees and also the effects of woody invasive removal on plot-level water use in a heavily invaded mono-dominant lowland wet tropical forest on the Island of Hawaii. We measured transpiration rates of co-occurring native and invasive tree species with and without woody invasive removal treatments. Twenty native Metrosideros polymorpha and 10 trees each of three invasive species, Cecropia obtusifolia, Macaranga mappa and Melastoma septemnervium, were instrumented with heat-dissipation sap-flux probes in four 100 m(2) plots (two invaded, two removal) for 10 months. In the invaded plots, where both natives and invasives were present, Metrosideros had the lowest sap-flow rates per unit sapwood, but the highest sap-flow rates per whole tree, owing to its larger mean diameter than the invasive trees. Stand-level water use within the removal plots was half that of the invaded plots, even though the removal of invasives caused a small but significant increase in compensatory water use by the remaining native trees. By investigating the effects of invasive species on ecohydrology and comparing native vs. invasive physiological traits, we not only gain understanding about the functioning of invasive species, but we also highlight potential water-conservation strategies for heavily invaded mono-dominant tropical forests worldwide. Native-dominated forests free of invasive species can be conservative in overall water use, providing a strong rationale for the control of invasive species and preservation of native-dominated stands.

  16. Evaluación de la capacidad antioxidante y metabolitos secundarios de extractos de dieciséis plantas medicinales

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    Echavarría, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of sixteen medicinal plants: Escoba amarga (Parthenium hysterophons, ajenjo (Artemisia absinthium, guarumo (Cecropia obtusifolia, chaya (Cnidoscolus chayamansa, borraja (Borago officinalis, balsa (Ochroma sp., linaza (Linum usitatissimum, hierba Luisa (Cymbopogon citratus, toronjil (Melissa officinalis, buganvilla (Bougainvillea spectabilis, alcachofa (Cynara scolymus, guaviduca (Piper carpunya, altamisa (Ambrosia cumanensis, diente de León (Taxacum officinales, buscapina (Parietaria officinalisand moringa (Moringa oleifera. For this, the DPPH (radical 1, 1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil method was used; furthermore, recognition assays of secondary metabolites were performed, in order to obtain the first signs of phytochemical compounds of interest. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was expressed as IC value (g/mL (necessary amount to inhibit the formation of 50% of DPPH radical. The low value of IC50 reflects better free radical scavenging action. Although most of the samples tested showed good antioxidant capacity with this method (DPPH, tests of hydroalcoholic extracts show that alcachofa (IC50 9.89 mg/mL, moringa (IC50 11.4 mg/mL and borraja (IC50 14.0 mg/mL were those with higher antioxidant capacity. Through chemical characterization tests, the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes, alkaloids and saponins were detected in most of the analyzed species (approximately 56-69%; only 20% of them showed the presence of polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides, lactones, coumarins, anthraquinones and sterols. According to the results obtained, these plants might be considered as promising sources of secondary metabolites with antioxidant activity.

  17. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas utilizadas como anti-hiperlipidêmicas e anorexígenas pela população de Nova Xavantina-MT, Brasil

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    Marcondes Alves B. da Silva

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou a utilização de plantas medicinais encontradas no Cerrado mato-grossense para o tratamento de hiperlipidemias e obesidade. Entrevistas com 180 pessoas acima de 50 anos foram realizadas em Nova Xavantina-MT. O questionário abordou nome popular, parte utilizada, forma de preparo e uso das espécies citadas, além de informações gerais sobre o uso de plantas. As dez plantas mais citadas foram coletadas, identificadas e estudadas por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica. A maioria dos entrevistados (95,6% declarou utilizar plantas medicinais regularmente, sendo que 71,5% deles herdaram o conhecimento sobre plantas dos pais e avós e 94,20% relataram aconselhar o uso aos mais jovens. Além disso, 93,6% atestaram que as plantas são mais eficazes que os medicamentos de farmácia e 57% consideraram forte o efeito das mesmas, ou seja, sempre resolvem o problema de saúde. Quanto aos efeitos adversos, 95,9% disseram nunca ter sentido após o uso de plantas. Dos entrevistados, 56,7% conheciam ou já haviam utilizado plantas medicinais no tratamento de hiperlipidemias e obesidade, sendo citadas 54 espécies medicinais diferentes pertencentes a 53 gêneros e 38 famílias, com destaque para Fabaceae (13%. As dez plantas mais citadas foram: guatambu (Aspidosperma tomentosum Mart., quina-do-cerrado (Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil., ipê-roxo [Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Ex DC. Standl], embaúba (Cecropia pachystachya Trec., calunga (Simaba sp., pata-de-vaca [Bauhinia rufa (Bong. Steud.], mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez, batata-de-tiú [Jatropha elliptica (Pohl. Muell. Arg.], folha-de-carne (Casearia sylvestris Sw. e manacá (Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil.. A folha foi a parte mais utilizada (46% e o preparo das plantas ocorre principalmente por meio de infusão citado por 36,5% dos entrevistados. Apesar do uso popular destas plantas no combate as hiperlipidemias e obesidade, há necessidade de estudos fitoquímicos e

  18. Mid-Holocene to Present Climate Transition in Tropical South America

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    Turcq, B.; Cordeiro, R.; Sifeddine, A.; Braconnot, P.; Dias, P. S.; Costa, R.; Jorgetti, T.

    2008-12-01

    The classical illustration of Holocene climate changes in tropical South America is the huge rising of Titicaca lake level from 4400 to 4000 cal BP. Because the Amazon basin is the source of Andean rainfalls we have explored Amazonian data of climate changes during the Holocene to better understand the cause of this abrupt transition. Amazonian data confirm the existence of mid-Holocene dryness: (1) lacustrine level studies show a lower precipitation/evaporation budget than present, with the lowest lake levels between 8500 and 6800 cal BP; (2) although the dominant Holocene vegetation has always been the rainforest in the heart of Amazonia, this forest expanded towards the northwestern and southwestern regions from 6800 to 1550 cal BP, moreover, pioneer elements of the rainforest developed during the mid-Holocene and the best example is those of Cecropia, between 9000 and 5000 cal BP. (3) soil d13C indicates a forest expansion over savannas areas in Roraima (north), Mato Grosso and Rondonia (southwest), during the Holocene. (4) the mid-Holocene (8000- 4000 cal BP) is characterized by repeated occurrences of forest fires, marked by the presence of charcoals in soils and lacustrine sediments. However these different records are not characterized by abrupt transitions at the end of the Middle Holocene in Amazonia. In the Andean records there is a clear north-south shift in the timing of the transition. Analysis of coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model simulations suggest that convection in Amazon basin is directly controlled by insolation leading to an almost linear response of local climate to the global forcing. Differently, in the eastern and south-western regions where the rain is brought by the South American Monsoon, the climate transition appears more abrupt. It may be because the involved climate mechanisms are more complex and depend on Ocean/Atmosphere/Vegetation coupled process (ITCZ position, ZCAS formation, etc.). Tectonic movements or threshold links to

  19. Leaf quality and insect herbivory in model tropical plant communities after long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, J A; Zaller, J G; Körner, Ch; Ziegler, C; Zandt, H

    1995-09-01

    Results from laboratory feeding experiments have shown that elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide can affect interactions between plants and insect herbivores, primarily through changes in leaf nutritional quality occurring at elevated CO 2 . Very few data are available on insect herbivory in plant communities where insects can choose among species and positions in the canopy in which to feed. Our objectives were to determine the extent to which CO 2 -induced changes in plant communities and leaf nutritional quality may affect herbivory at the level of the entire canopy. We introduced equivalent populations of fourth instar Spodoptera eridania, a lepidopteran generalist, to complex model ecosystems containing seven species of moist tropical plants maintained under low mineral nutrient supply. Larvae were allowed to feed freely for 14 days, by which time they had reached the seventh instar. Prior to larval introductions, plant communities had been continuously exposed to either 340 μl CO 2 l -1 or to 610 μl CO 2 l -1 for 1.5 years. No major shifts in leaf nutritional quality [concentrations of N, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC), sugar, and starch; ratios of: C/N, TNC/N, sugar/N, starch/N; leaf toughness] were observed between CO 2 treatments for any of the species. Furthermore, no correlations were observed between these measures of leaf quality and leaf biomass consumption. Total leaf area and biomass of all plant communities were similar when caterpillars were introduced. However, leaf biomass of some species was slightly greater-and for other species slightly less (e.g. Cecropia peltata)-in communities exposed to elevated CO 2 . Larvae showed the strongest preference for C. peltata leaves, the plant species that was least abundant in all communites, and fed relatively little on plants species which were more abundant. Thus, our results indicate that leaf tissue quality, as described by these parameters, is not necessarily affected by elevated CO 2 under

  20. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

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    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  1. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  2. Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    (principalmente de N y P de la vegetación menos desarrollada fue superior a la eficiencia de una más desarrollada, debido a la alta proporción de tres especies nativas dominantes (Myrsine coriacea, Tibouchina pulchra y Cecropia pachystachya en la primera. Si bien la hojarasca de esas especies presenta menor concentración de nutrientes que las otras especies arbóreas, el flujo de nutrientes fue mayor (para ambos sitios, marcando una cierta independencia de los nutrientes esenciales del suelo. Las cantidades de esas especies deberían ser consideradas con mayor atención para su uso en programas de restauración forestal.

  3. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Reginaldo Vicente; Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2017-06-09

    Currently, in many traditional communities, such as the riverine community in the North Araguaia microregion (Mato Grosso, Brazil), plant knowledge and use represent the main, if not the only, therapeutic resource for the maintenance of health and/or treatment of diseases. This study aimed to identify and document species of medicinal plants used by local experts from riverine communities in the North Araguaia microregion in Mato Grosso State, and to further chemical and pharmacological studies on species selected based on searches in the relevant literature. This is a cross-sectional ethnobotanical study, with non-probabilistic sampling (n =60), that applied the snowball method to select local riverine experts who understand medicinal plant use. Socio-demographic, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological data (vernacular name, uses, geographical origin, habit, method of preparation and part used) on medicinal plants were collected during semi-structured interviews. The results were analyzed by descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (UR) were used to select plant species with therapeutic potential. In total, 309 plant species belonging to 86 botanical families were cited; 73% were native to Brazil, and Fabaceae was the most representative family (11.3%). Arboreal was the predominant life form (37.2%). The leaf was the most used part (28.9%). Infusion was the most commonly reported method of preparation (31.3%). The plants reported in the survey were indicated for 18 of the 22 ICD-10 disease categories. The disease categories most commonly cited were the infectious and parasitic diseases (IPD, 718 UR), digestive system diseases (DSD, 565 UR) and respiratory system diseases (RSD, 504 UR), representing 16.6%, 13.1% and 11.7%, respectively of the total UR. Dysphania ambrosioides L. was the most sighted in the IPD category 50 UR. Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (133), Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (131), and Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (126) were the

  4. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Calado Araújo

    2010-07-01

    alternativa (georremediação aditivada, GAD para melhorar substancialmente a degradação da matéria orgânica recalcitrante contida no chorume, associada a uma redução significativa nas concentrações de alguns metais pesados do efluente. O quinto trabalho, elaborado por pesquisadores da UFOPA, discorre sobre os Cepropiais nativos formados pela espécie Cecropia palmata, dentre outras, que, acumulando fósforo (P em tecidos foliares e cascas, podem prestar um serviço ecológico em paisagens amazônicas com deficiência desse elemento químico. De autoria de pesquisadores do IFRN, o artigo de número seis trata do diagnóstico da qualidade sanitária de plantas medicinais comercializadas em Currais Novos/RN. Os resultados mostram contaminações por grupos, contagens de bactérias do grupo dos coliformes totais, e os níveis de contaminação registrados apontam o material analisado como potencialmente danoso à saúde humana. O sétimo artigo, por sua vez, é fruto de uma cooperação entre pesquisadores do IFRN e da UFPE, que apresentam resultados de estudos no controle ambiental de perfuração de poços de petróleo no Campo de Porto Carão, Carnaubais/RN. O trabalho analisa as limitações do Relatório de Controle Ambiental. Voltado para o desenvolvimento sustentável do turismo, o oitavo artigo discute o tema e verifica que a atividade turística de Natal se constitui em alternativa viável de desenvolvimento, observando, no entanto, que o novo poder local deve desempenhar o seu papel de fomentador e protagonista do desenvolvimento socioeconômico. O artigo seguinte traz uma discussão sobre os resíduos eletrônicos de computadores nas Instituições de ensino superior em Natal/RN, observando que sua gestão é incipiente. Os autores são oriundos da UFRN, da UnP e da UNESP. Apresentado por pesquisadores da UFRN, o décimo artigo examinam conceitos e aspectos da Gerência do Conhecimento que possam contribuir no desenvolvimento de ferramentas mais adaptadas para