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Sample records for hyacinth water lettuce

  1. Phytoremediation of wastewater toxicity using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Kouamé Kouamé; Séka, Yapoga; Norbert, Kouadio Kouakou; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Celestin, Atsé Boua

    2016-10-02

    This paper elucidates the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth and water lettuce on the reduction of wastewater toxicity. Acute toxicity tests were performed in an aquarium with a population of Sarotherodon melanotheron, contaminated by different concentrations of wastewaters before and after phytoremediation with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes. Lethal concentrations (LC50) of the fish's population obtained during 24 hours of exposures were determined. COD, BOD, ammonium, TKN and PO4(3-) concentrations in wastewaters were of 1850.29, 973.33, 38.34, 61.49 and 39.23 mg L(-1), respectively, for each plant. Phytoremediation reduced 58.87% of ammonium content, 50.04% of PO4(3-), 82.45% of COD and 84.91% of BOD. After 15 days of the experiment, metal contents in treated wastewaters decreased from 6.65 to 97.56% for water hyacinth and 3.51 to 93.51% for water lettuce tanks. Toxicity tests showed that the mortality of fish exposed increased with increase in concentration of pollutants in wastewaters and the time of exposure. Therefore, the highest value of LC50 was recorded for fish subjected to 3 hours of exposure (16.37%). The lowest rate was obtained after an exposure of 20 to 24 hours (5.85%). After phytoremediation, the effluents purified by Eichhornia crassipes can maintain the fish life beyond 24 hours of exposure.

  2. Water lettuce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive values, Mineral and Antioxidant properties of Pistia stratiotes (Water lettuce). 1R .S.U. Wasagu ... The use of plants as medicines predates written human history and some of ... used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose ...

  3. Project proposal: integrated farming scheme incorporating management of water hyacinth - Water hyacinth as a pig feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of pig research undertaken by the Research Section of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fiji), is to evaluate local feed sources in an attempt to reduce importation of pig feeds. Protein is the major limiting nutrient in most local feed sources. Fish and meat meals are incorporated in pig feeds by many farmers but the cost of these are very high. Chemical analysis of water hyacinth taken from Rewa River showed that leaves contain 22% crude protein and stems 8%. This was determined on a dry weight basis. Therefore, water hyacinth could be a good source of protein for pigs. Utilization of water hyacinth was considered in the First Review; meeting on Management of Water Hyacinth conducted by Commonwealth Regional (Asia/Pacific) Rural Technology Programme. Water hyacinth as an animal feed was discussed in that review. It points out that the following has to be taken into account in considering the use of water hyacinth as an animal feed. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of water hyacinth as a feed for pigs in an integrated farming system involving a piggery, biogas digester and a pond and: compare pig preference for water hyacinth when fed fresh or dry compare the performance of pigs when fed water hyacinth only and in combination with a normal diet and cost/benefit analysis

  4. Biological control component [Management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, K.L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Both chemical and biological control have been used with limited success for the management of water hyacinth in Fiji. In some cases heavy application of chemicals have been successful in completely killing limited areas of water hyacinth, but have resulted in the destruction of biological agents introduced to control the water hyacinth and high contamination of natural water supplies. It is proposed that under the direction of Mr S R Singh, the Senior Research Scientist (Entomology) of the Koronivia Research Station, Suva, Fiji, a collaborative programme with Dr Harley of Australia on chemical and biological control of water hyacinth be initiated. This programme would be fundamentally short-term with the prime objective being an investigation of levels of insect population following varying levels of application of chemical sprays. By comparison with control areas, observations would be made of both chemical damage and insect damage within the limited time span of the period

  5. Possibilities of utilization of water hyacinth for making water hyacinth-cement boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Portland cement when casted in the form of thin sheets, alone is too brittle and rigid to develop enough serviceable value. An additional fibrous material reinforces such a cement product and improves its tensile strength. The fibrous material forms a continuos phase in a cement base. The use of fibres as a reinforcing material has been known to man from the days of ancient civilisation when he first started making sunbaked mud bricks. It was found that if the mix contained fibrous material, the bricks became stronger on drying. Asbestos fibre is predominantly used in various asbestos cement products as a reinforcing material since it is fibrous, non-combustible and has sufficient tensile strength. When mixed with 10-20% asbestos fibres, the cement gives a strong material which is commonly available as corrugated or plain sheets used for building and other purposes. As a part of the project on utilization of water hyacinth, RRL, Jorhat, undertook investigations on the possibilities of making water hyacinth-cement sheets similar to asbestos-cement sheets. Another objective of this investigation was to develop a technology for making boards from water hyacinth and cement for rural housing and other purposes in a scale appropriate to the rural sector. Water hyacinth fibre has certain similarities with asbestos fibre. For example, both are polymers as well as fibrous. However, asbestos fibre is non-combustible whilst water hyacinth fibre is combustible. This of course does not pose any difficulty since the fibres remain in a cement matrix in the form of a sheet which is almost completely impervious. For the same reason the decomposition due to weathering and microbial action is also arrested. Crysotile asbestos, which is primarily used for making asbestos-cement sheets, makes fibres very rapidly in water as does pulp from water hyacinth. This characteristic of water hyacinth pulp is definitely a disadvantage in paper making in modern high speed machines but may be of

  6. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ... Value Method was employed to estimate the average production value of irrigation water, ... invasions of this nature, as they present significant costs to the economy and ...

  7. Biogas production from water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solly, R.K.; Goundar, D.; Singh, N.; Singh, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of biogas by anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been investigated in simple laboratory digesters. Seed material was obtained from the rumen contents of a goat. Under conditions where the mass of seed material exceeded the water hyacinth feed, the maximum rate of biogas production was obtained within one to two days of each addition of feed material. The maximum amount of biogas produced, 0.33 m 3 kg -1 dry matter was obtained at 40 deg. C with a slight decrease in total production at 35 deg. C. The total biogas produced at 45 deg. C (0.12 m 3 kg -1 dry matter) was less than that at 30 deg. C (0.16 m 3 kg -1 ). Regular additions of small amounts of feed material produced a more uniform rate of biogas production (author)

  8. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured

  9. Potential of Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of water hyacinth for the removal of chromium (Cr) from tannery wastewater. This experiment was performed using healthy, young and acclimatized water hyacinth collected from unpolluted Awash River. Cr concentrations of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 20 mg/L were ...

  10. A New Image for the Water Hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Walt Disney Company activated a sewage treatment plan using NASA technology to create water hyacinths to clean wastewater by absorbing and metabolizing pollutants. Plants have exciting promise as a natural water purification system which can be established at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment facility. Harvested plants can be used as fertilizer. They can also be heat-treated to produce consumer energy in the form of methane gas. If an economical method of drying plants can be developed they may find further utility as high protein animal feed.

  11. Phytoremediation technologies for Ni ++ by water hyacinth | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water hyacinth) is promising. The study was conducted to compare the phytoremoval of Ni++ from soil and wastewater. For the measurement of phytoremoval from soil, E. crassipes was used in a pot experiment. Results showed the removal of ...

  12. Efficient assimilation of cyanobacterial nitrogen by water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Minhui; Wang, Yan; Wen, Xuezheng; Yan, Shaohua; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Haiqin

    2017-10-01

    A 15 N labeling technique was used to study nitrogen transfer from cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to water hyacinth. 15 N atom abundance in M. aeruginosa peaked (15.52%) after cultivation in 15 N-labeled medium for 3weeks. Over 87% of algal nitrogen was transferred into water hyacinth after the 4-week co-cultivation period. The nitrogen quickly super-accumulated in the water hyacinth roots, and the labeled nitrogen was re-distributed to different organs (i.e., roots, stalks, and leaves). This study provides a new strategy for further research on cyanobacterial bloom control, nitrogen migration, and nitrogen cycle in eutrophic waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Progress report: Use of water hyacinth in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof, Abdullah bin

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that water hyacinth shows remarkable ability to remove, besides heavy metals, BOD and COD load from wastewaters which contain mainly organic pollutants. A survey was conducted to select suitable industrial effluents for pilot field studies, in particular wastewaters which were organic in nature such as those from food industries. A proposal to set up a pilot treatment system for field studies m addition to laboratory investigations was consistent with the recommendation put forward at the First Interim Project Review Meeting held in 1980 . It has been reported that introduction of water hyacinth into digested sugar waste would significantly enhance the efficiency of purification of the waste. Brief trials with a sugar refinery effluent in the laboratory showed the possibility of subjecting the wastewater to the water hyacinth treatment system in a pilot field study and arrangements were then made for the study to be carried out at site

  14. Assessment of Crushed Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate and compare organic buffering capacity of crushed water hyacinth and calcium carbonate on acidic borehole water for aquaculture. Thirty, 25-litre shaded plastic tanks (20-litre filled with experimental water, pH 3.0) of three replicates per treatment of 180 g buffer agent were ...

  15. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water hyacinth can be ...

  16. Modeling Nitrogen Decrease in Water Lettuce Ponds from Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Gitta Agnes; Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents about the dynamic modeling of the Water Lettuce ponds as a form of improvement from the Water Hyacinth ponds. The purpose of this paper is to predict nitrogen decrease and nitrogen transformation in Water Lettuce ponds integrated with Waste Stabilization Ponds. The model consists of 4 mass balances, namely Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON), ammonium (NH4+), Nitrate and Nitrite (NOx). The process of nitrogen transformation which considered in a Water Lettuce ponds, namely hydrolysis, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, plant and bacterial uptake processes. Numerical simulations are performed by giving the values of parameters and the initial values of nitrogen compounds based on a review of previous studies. Numerical results show that the rate of change in the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the integration ponds of waste stabilization and water lettuce decreases and reaches stable at different times.

  17. Competitive sorption of heavy metals by water hyacinth roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Hui-Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global issue severely constraining aquaculture practices, not only deteriorating the aquatic environment but also threatening the aquaculture production. One promising solution is adopting aquaponics systems where a synergy can be established between aquaculture and aquatic plants for metal sorption, but the interactions of multiple metals in such aquatic plants are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the absorption behaviors of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in water by water hyacinth roots in both single- and binary-metal systems. Cu(II) and Cd(II) were individually removed by water hyacinth roots at high efficiency, accompanied with release of protons and cations such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . However, in a binary-metal arrangement, the Cd(II) sorption was significantly inhibited by Cu(II), and the higher sorption affinity of Cu(II) accounted for its competitive sorption advantage. Ionic exchange was identified as a predominant mechanism of the metal sorption by water hyacinth roots, and the amine and oxygen-containing groups are the main binding sites accounting for metal sorption via chelation or coordination. This study highlights the interactive impacts of different metals during their sorption by water hyacinth roots and elucidates the underlying mechanism of metal competitive sorption, which may provide useful implications for optimization of phytoremediation system and development of more sustainable aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface composition and surface properties of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ... (2/1, v/v) followed by ethanol, using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ... polar organic solvents and non-polar n-alkane hydrocarbons is discussed.

  19. Progress report: Bangladesh [CSC Project on Management of Water Hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The CSC Project on Management of Water Hyacinth in Bangladesh was started in only April 1981. The present report from Bangladesh is based on the interim progress reports, submitted by the project coordinators of the organizations concerned, for the work during the short intervening period to 4th June 1981. It is obvious that the report deals mainly with the preliminary preparations and observations on the various aspects of the investigations. The research components assigned to various organisations in Bangladesh are: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology; - Growth rate and biogas production; Housing and Building Research Institute; - Paper and board, and biogas; Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - Protein, enzymes and ammoacids; Dacca University - Pollution removal and studies of biomass production. Bangladesh is a flat deltaic plain formed from old and new alluvium. The areas of old alluvium are located above the general level, while the vast areas of new alluvium are situated m the flood plain of the modern rivers. The whole country is intersected by a network of rivers; the areas comprising the alluvial plains are very large. The river bank levees are high and the land gradually slopes inland away from the levees. The tract of land between two rivers are shaped like a furrow and in most cases form elongated 'beels' or swamps which are ideal place for the growth and propagation of aquatic plants particularly water hyacinth along with other aquatic organisms, both of plant and animal origin due to eutrophication. It is in the shallow swamps and derelict ponds that luxuriant growth and proliferation of water hyacinth is generally observed in Bangladesh. However, there is a feeling that much of the water hyacinth population in the open countryside was depleted during the severe drought which prevailed during the summer of 1979. But Bangladesh has the ideal water and climatic environment for conditions of rapid growth and spread

  20. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  1. Synthesis of Furfural from Water Hyacinth (Eichornia croassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismiyarto; Ngadiwiyana; windarti, T.; Purbowatiningrum, RS; Hapsari, M.; Rafi'ah, FH; Suyanti; Haq, MS

    2017-02-01

    Furfural has been prepared from hydrolysis of dried biomass of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) by using diluted hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid as catalysts. This process involved the conversion of the pentosane fraction in water hyacinth into pentose, and then pentose was cyclodehydrated into furfural. The reaction was conducted in a distillation set with receiving the flask that contains chloroform. Furfural was identified by fehling test which was then characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The yield of furfural obtained using sulphuric acid catalyst was 0.38% and hydrochloric acid catalyst was 0.01% of dried biomass.

  2. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  3. Studies on biomethanation of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) using biocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Santanu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Banerjee, Saikat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Salalah College of Technology, Salalah (Oman)

    2013-07-01

    Water hyacinth is a huge source of biomass in tropical countries. That can be used for biogas production. The aim of this conversion process is to improve the quality, specific energy content, transportability, etc. of the raw biomass source or to capture gases which are naturally produced as biomass is micro biologically degraded. An experimental study on catalytic biomethanation of Water Hyacinth has been carried out in a semi batch digester at different substrate concentration using cow urine as an organic catalyst under controlled pH with in the range of 6.9 to 7.2. The rate of bio gas production varies with different conditions and parameters like temperature, stirring speed, feed concentration, catalyst concentration, etc. It has been found that the catalyst mainly increases the production rate of biogas from water hyacinth. Mathematical analysis of the experimental data on catalytic biomethanation has been done in the present study. Mathematical equations relating maximum specific growth rate and kinetic parameter at different substrate and catalyst concentration have been developed.

  4. Uptake of Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor from contaminated water by water hyacinth (eichornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, W M; Huq, A; Ahmed, Q S; Saeed, Y A

    1981-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor appears to concentrate on the surface of the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), thereby enhancing its survival and its potential for transmission through waterways of cholera-endemic regions such as Bangladesh.

  5. Uptake of Vibrio cholerae Biotype eltor from Contaminated Water by Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Spira, William M.; Huq, Anwarul; Ahmed, Qazi Shafi; Saeed, Yusuf A.

    1981-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor appears to concentrate on the surface of the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), thereby enhancing its survival and its potential for transmission through waterways of cholera-endemic regions such as Bangladesh.

  6. First interim project review meeting on management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The first project planning meeting was held in New Delhi during 1978 and the second, a project review meeting, in Papua New Guinea during June 1979, both funded by UNEP. Reports from the regional coordinators for Bangladesh, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Fiji and India are presented. Also presented are reports from the national coordinators for Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. Two visits (a visit to India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to study the feasibility of making a film on the work done with water hyacinth and a visit to the U.S. by the regional project coordinator) are also described

  7. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth mixed with pig manure was also studied on seeds germination. Only water hyacinth substrate with 25% WH + 75% PM enhanced seeds germination for Oryza sp. and Nasturtium officinale. At the end of experiments, a significant decrease was observed in organic carbon content for each tested substrates (S1 to S8, in total nitrogen (N for substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 and compost substrates (S1 and S2. An important decrease was also noted in total potassium for all vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8, in total magnesium for composted substrates (S1 and S2, and in C/N ratio for substrates containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6. Whereas total N in vermicompost containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6, total phosphorus, total potassium in composted substrates (S1 and S2, total magnesium in vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8 and C:N ratio in substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 expressed a significant increase after eight weeks. The result suggested that water hyacinth could be potentially useful as raw material in vermicomposting and biofertilizing if mixed with 75% of pig manure.

  8. Modeling phytoremediation of nitrogen-polluted water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Hanai, Emmanuel E.

    2017-08-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has a great potential for purification of wastewater through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. In an attempt to improve the quality of effluents discharged from waste stabilization ponds at the University of Dar es Salaam, a pilot plant was constructed to experiment the effectiveness of this plants for transformation and removal of nitrogen. Samples of wastewater were collected and examined for water quality parameters, including pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and various forms of nitrogen, which were used as input parameters in a kinetic mathematical model. A conceptual model was then developed to model various processes in the system using STELLA 6.0.1 software. The results show that total nitrogen was removed by 63.9%. Denitrification contributed 73.8% of the removed nitrogen. Other dominant nitrogen removal mechanisms are net sedimentation and uptake by water hyacinth, which contributed 16.7% and 9.5% of the removed nitrogen, respectively. The model indicated that in presence of water hyacinth biofilm about 1.26 g Nm-2day-1 of nitrogen was removed. However, in the absence of biofilm in water hyacinth pond, the permanent nitrogen removal was only 0.89 g Nm-2day-1. This suggests that in absence of water hyacinth, the efficiency of nitrogen removal would decrease by 29.4%.

  9. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-02

    The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved.

  10. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved. PMID:27551860

  11. Facilitation and competition among invasive plants: a field experiment with alligatorweed and water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundrow, Emily J; Carrillo, Juli; Gabler, Christopher A; Horn, Katherine C; Siemann, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems that are heavily invaded by an exotic species often contain abundant populations of other invasive species. This may reflect shared responses to a common factor, but may also reflect positive interactions among these exotic species. Armand Bayou (Pasadena, TX) is one such ecosystem where multiple species of invasive aquatic plants are common. We used this system to investigate whether presence of one exotic species made subsequent invasions by other exotic species more likely, less likely, or if it had no effect. We performed an experiment in which we selectively removed exotic rooted and/or floating aquatic plant species and tracked subsequent colonization and growth of native and invasive species. This allowed us to quantify how presence or absence of one plant functional group influenced the likelihood of successful invasion by members of the other functional group. We found that presence of alligatorweed (rooted plant) decreased establishment of new water hyacinth (free-floating plant) patches but increased growth of hyacinth in established patches, with an overall net positive effect on success of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth presence had no effect on establishment of alligatorweed but decreased growth of existing alligatorweed patches, with an overall net negative effect on success of alligatorweed. Moreover, observational data showed positive correlations between hyacinth and alligatorweed with hyacinth, on average, more abundant. The negative effect of hyacinth on alligatorweed growth implies competition, not strong mutual facilitation (invasional meltdown), is occurring in this system. Removal of hyacinth may increase alligatorweed invasion through release from competition. However, removal of alligatorweed may have more complex effects on hyacinth patch dynamics because there were strong opposing effects on establishment versus growth. The mix of positive and negative interactions between floating and rooted aquatic plants may influence local

  12. Facilitation and competition among invasive plants: a field experiment with alligatorweed and water hyacinth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Wundrow

    Full Text Available Ecosystems that are heavily invaded by an exotic species often contain abundant populations of other invasive species. This may reflect shared responses to a common factor, but may also reflect positive interactions among these exotic species. Armand Bayou (Pasadena, TX is one such ecosystem where multiple species of invasive aquatic plants are common. We used this system to investigate whether presence of one exotic species made subsequent invasions by other exotic species more likely, less likely, or if it had no effect. We performed an experiment in which we selectively removed exotic rooted and/or floating aquatic plant species and tracked subsequent colonization and growth of native and invasive species. This allowed us to quantify how presence or absence of one plant functional group influenced the likelihood of successful invasion by members of the other functional group. We found that presence of alligatorweed (rooted plant decreased establishment of new water hyacinth (free-floating plant patches but increased growth of hyacinth in established patches, with an overall net positive effect on success of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth presence had no effect on establishment of alligatorweed but decreased growth of existing alligatorweed patches, with an overall net negative effect on success of alligatorweed. Moreover, observational data showed positive correlations between hyacinth and alligatorweed with hyacinth, on average, more abundant. The negative effect of hyacinth on alligatorweed growth implies competition, not strong mutual facilitation (invasional meltdown, is occurring in this system. Removal of hyacinth may increase alligatorweed invasion through release from competition. However, removal of alligatorweed may have more complex effects on hyacinth patch dynamics because there were strong opposing effects on establishment versus growth. The mix of positive and negative interactions between floating and rooted aquatic plants may

  13. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of silver, cobalt, and strontium from polluted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths and alligator weeds demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from an aqueous system by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.439 mg of silver, 0.568 mg of cobalt, and 0.544 mg of strontium in an ionized form per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. Alligator weeds removed a maximum of 0.439 mg of silver, 0.130 mg of cobalt, and 0.161 mg of strontium per gram of dry plant material per day.

  14. Physicochemical Characterization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S. Lara-Serrano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes is an aquatic flowering plant that belongs to the Pontederiaceae family. The plant is a freshwater hydrophyte that grows in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical characterization of roots, stems, and leaves of E. crassipes. The pH, ash, 1% alkali solubility, extractives, lignin, holocellulose, tannins, and calorific value were determined. Our results showed that the mineral content is relatively high, whereas that for lignin and tannins is low. The pH is moderately acid, and the soluble substances easily dissolved in alkali or organic solvents. Potassium, calcium, and silicon are the major constituents present in the ash of this plant. The determined calorific value was approximately 14.4 MJ/kg.

  15. Assessment of nutritional quality of water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adeyemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was embarked upon to convert water hyacinth, an environmental nuisance, to a natural resource for economic development. Water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC was extracted in edible form and determination of its physicochemical characteristics, total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was done. Analysis of proximate composition and amino acid profile of the WHLPC was also done. The level of heavy metals (mg/kg in WHLPC was found to be Cd (0.02 ± 0.001, Cr (0.13 ± 0.001, Pd (0.003 ± 0.001 and Hg (0.02 ± 0.001 while concentrations of Pb, Pt, Sn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co were found to be 0.001 ± 0.00. Level of all heavy metals was found to be within safe limit. Proximate analysis revealed that protein in WHLPC accounted for 50% of its nutrients, carbohydrate accounted for 33% of its nutrients while fat, ash and fibre made up the remaining nutrients. Amino acid analysis showed that WHLPC contained 17 out of 20 common amino acids, particularly, Phe (3.67%, Leu (5.01%. Level of total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was 16.6 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg respectively. Evidence from this study suggests that WHLPC is a good source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC; it is nutritious and acutely non toxic.

  16. Management of sewage sludge by composting using fermented water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Andrade, A F; Jiménez-Moleón, M C; Sánchez-Galván, G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present research work was to assess the management of sewage sludge (SS) by composting using fermented water hyacinth (WHferm) as an amendment. The water hyacinth was fermented, and a higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (782.67 mg L(-1)) and soluble organic carbon (CSOL) (4788.34 mg L(-1)) was obtained using a particle size of 7 mm compared to 50 mm. For composting, four treatments (10 kg fresh weight each) were evaluated: treatment A (100 % SS + 0 % WHferm), treatment B (75 % SS + 25 % WHferm), treatment C (50 % SS + 50 % WHferm), and treatment D (25 % SS + 75 % WHferm). The WHferm added to SS, especially in treatments C (50 %) and D (75 %), increased the initial contents of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (CORG), CSOL, the C/N ratio, and the germination index (GI). The heavy metal content (HMC) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the beginning was below the maximum allowed by USEPA regulations. All of the samples were free of Salmonella sp. from the beginning. The reduction of the CORG, CSOL, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and C/N ratio indicated the degradation of the OM by day 198. The treatments with WHferm (B, C, and D) yielded higher values of electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and GI than SS at day 198. No significant differences were observed in GI among the treatments with WHferm. The fecal coliforms were eliminated (Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces (penicillin producers), and Fusariella isolated from the compost may have promoted the elimination of pathogens since no thermophile temperatures were obtained. WHferm as an amendment in the composting of SS improved the characteristics of the final product, especially when it was used in proportions of 25 and 50 %. An excellent product was obtained in terms of HMC, and the product was B class in terms of pathogens.

  17. Environmental challenge vis a vis opportunity: the case of water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Anushree

    2007-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a noxious weed that has attracted worldwide attention due to its fast spread and congested growth, which lead to serious problems in navigation, irrigation, and power generation. On the other hand, when looked from a resource angle, it appears to be a valuable resource with several unique properties. As a result, research activity concerning control (especially biological control) and utilization (especially wastewater treatment or phytoremediation) of water hyacinth has boomed up in the last few decades. Investigations on biogas/compost production from water hyacinth have also come up very well mainly from few research groups in India. This review presents a comprehensive view of the research related to water hyacinth with special emphasis on the recent investigations on water hyacinth control and utilization technologies conducted in the last 2-3 decades. Based on these significant research achievements, now it is desirable to identify a management strategy so that the excessive growth can be controlled and the plant can be used in beneficial ways. In the rural areas, water hyacinth could be used in an integrated manner for decentralized wastewater treatment systems coupled to biogas and compost production from the resulting biomass. There is a need to work out the techno-economic viability of such integrated model systems.

  18. Water hyacinth hotspots in the Ugandan waters of Lake Victoria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth invaded Lake Victoria in the 1980s and, by 1998, had attained peak coverage of approximately 2 000 ha in the Ugandan waters of the lake. Control interventions, especially via biological means, significantly reduced the weed's coverage to non-nuisance levels (<10 ha) by 1999. Although resurgence was ...

  19. Water quality changes in a post-herbicide treated water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment in all cases significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mean alkalinity, pH, conductivity, organic matter, ionic and the solids contents of the water 28 days after treatment. Irrespective of herbicidal treatment, mortality of water hyacinth and subsequent decay in situ significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the amount of dissolved ...

  20. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zohny, E.

    1996-01-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs

  1. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-sabour, M F [Soil pollution unit, Soil and water Department. Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Haleem, A S [Hot Lab. Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Zohny, E [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Beni-Sweif Branch, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs.

  2. Water Hyacinth in China: A Sustainability Science-Based Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Jianguo; Fu, Zhihui; Zhu, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The invasion of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) has resulted in enormous ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Although the spread of this weed in Africa, Australia, and North America has been well documented, its invasion in China is yet to be fully documented. Here we report that since its introduction about seven decades ago, water hyacinth has infested many water bodies across almost half of China’s territory, causing a decline of native biodiversity, alteration of ecosystem services, deterioration of aquatic environments, and spread of diseases affecting human health. Water hyacinth infestations have also led to enormous economic losses in China by impeding water flows, paralyzing navigation, and damaging irrigation and hydroelectricity facilities. To effectively control the rampage of water hyacinth in China, we propose a sustainability science-based management framework that explicitly incorporates principles from landscape ecology and Integrated Pest Management. This framework emphasizes multiple-scale long-term monitoring and research, integration among different control techniques, combination of control with utilization, and landscape-level adaptive management. Sustainability science represents a new, transdisciplinary paradigm that integrates scientific research, technological innovation, and socioeconomic development of particular regions. Our proposed management framework is aimed to broaden the currently dominant biological control-centered view in China and to illustrate how sustainability science can be used to guide the research and management of water hyacinth.

  3. The evaluation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassiper) control program in Rawapening Lake, Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, N.; Soeprobowati, T. R.; Helmi, M.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of water hyacinths and other aquatic plants have been a major concern in Rawapening Lake for many years. Nutrient input from water catchment area and fish feed residues suspected to leads eutrophication, a condition that induces uncontrolled growth of aquatic plants. In dry season, aquatic plants cover almost 70% of lake area. This problem should be handled properly due to wide range of lake function such as water resources, fish farming, power plants, flood control, irrigation and many other important things. In 2011, Rawapening Lake was appointed as pilot project of Save Indonesian Lake Movement: the Indonesian movement for lakes ecosystem conservation and rehabilitation. This project consists of 6 super priority programs and 11 priority programs. This paper will evaluate the first super priority program which aims to control water hyacinth bloom. Result show that the three indicators in water hyacinth control program was not achieved. The coverage area of Water hyacinth was not reduced, tend to increase during period 2012 to 2016. We suggesting better coordination should be performed in order to avoid policies misinterpretation and to clarify the authority from each institution. We also give a support to the establishment of lake zonation plan and keep using all the three methods of cleaning water hyacinth with a maximum population remained at 20%.

  4. Identifying and classifying water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using the HyMap sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Sepalika S.; Khanna, Shruti; Andrew, Margaret E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, the impact of aquatic invasive species on biodiversity has become a major global concern. In the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region in the Central Valley of California, USA, dense infestations of the invasive aquatic emergent weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) interfere with ecosystem functioning. This silent invader constantly encroaches into waterways, eventually making them unusable by people and uninhabitable to aquatic fauna. Quantifying and mapping invasive plant species in aquatic ecosystems is important for efficient management and implementation of mitigation measures. This paper evaluates the ability of hyperspectral imagery, acquired using the HyMap sensor, for mapping water hyacinth in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Classification was performed on sixty-four flightlines acquired over the study site using a decision tree which incorporated Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, absorption feature parameters in the spectral region between 0.4 and 2.5μm, and spectral endmembers. The total image dataset was 130GB. Spectral signatures of other emergent aquatic species like pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides) showed close similarity with the water hyacinth spectrum, however, the decision tree successfully discriminated water hyacinth from other emergent aquatic vegetation species. The classification algorithm showed high accuracy (κ value = 0.8) in discriminating water hyacinth.

  5. Using composting for control seed germination of invasive plant (water hyacinth) in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Albano, Eva; Moreno, Marta M.

    2016-04-01

    The biotransformation of the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by composting has been showed as a viable alternative to offset the economic cost of eliminating an invasive plant giving a value to the by-product; however, as result of the propagative plant capacity, it was necessary to check if the composting process could eliminate the germination seed rate. Despite the high temperatures and the biochemical biotransformation processes of the composting components, in the case of seed water hyacinth, with a recovery rate of 100%, damage was observed in some parts of the seed anatomy such as in the outer teguments; however, other parts of the seed coat and the endosperm maintained their integrity. A microscopic analysis revealed that the embryo was noticeable and this was supported by the rate of seed germination observed (3.5 ± 0.96%). The results indicate that the use of water hyacinth for compost production is not completely safe from an environmental perspective. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, invasive plant, seed anatomy, seed germination rate, compost. References: Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1:42-53.

  6. Experimental and kinetic modelling studies on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Danon, B.; Manurung, R.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T = 150-175 degrees C, C-H2SO4 - 0.1-1 M, water hyacinth intake = 1-5 wt%). At high acid concentrations (>

  7. Mechanical properties of water hyacinth fibers – polyester composites before and after immersion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abral, H.; Kadriadi, D.; Rodianus, A.; Mastariyanto, P.; Ilhamdi; Arief, S.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ishak, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Moisture absorption of water hyacinth (WH) fibers was measured. • WH fibers polyester composites immersed in water decreased mechanical properties. • Improvement fibers fraction in polyester increases mechanical properties. - Abstract: This study reported moisture absorption of untreated and treated individual water hyacinth (WH) fibers as well as comparison the mechanical properties of WH fibers – unsaturated polyester (UPR) matrix composites after and before immersion in water. The result shows that the individual WH fibers treated with various alkali concentration did not exhibit significantly decreases of their moisture absorption. SEM photograph in cross section of the treated WH fibers shows swollen cell wall containing more nano and micro hollows. Tensile and flexure strength of the wet composite samples are lower than that of dried ones. However, increases volume fraction of the WH fibers in UPR matrix affected slightly on enhancement mechanical properties of the composite samples

  8. Fabrication and characterization of water hyacinth nanocellulose fiber polymer hydrogel nanocomposites in potential wound dressing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Tristan Joshua; Diaz, Jose Mario; Chakraborty, Soma; Rojas, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in attention gained by nanocellulose for its use in biomedical applications because of its unique properties in biocompatible materials such as superior mechanical properties, remarkable surface chemistry, high surface area, water retention, low cytotoxity and excellent biocompatibility, studies have been conducted to utilize the nanomaterial and have shown significant results in this high end application. Not to mention, it can be naturally-derived from plant sources; hence, highly biodegradable and renewable. In this study, nanocellulose from raw water hyacinth (E. Crassipes) fibers will be fabricated into a nanocomposite pellicular material to serve as wound dressing in skin tissue regenerative healing. Water hyacinth is a known to be world's worst weed due to its extensive rapid-mat like proliferation. Utilizing water hyacinth fibers as such would allow for another method to possibly reduce surplus plant population; and, transform this underutilized plant into a remarkably high-end product. (author)

  9. Water hyacinth : the suitable aquatic weed for radioactive nuclide absorption in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalermsuk, Somporn; Jungpattanawadee, Komgrid; Tongrong, Thanachai

    2003-06-01

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by aquatic weeds in Khon Kaen Province. The best aquatic weed would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities in natural water resources. Seven kinds of aquatic weeds in the same site were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450 οC. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of aquatic weeds. According to this study, water hyacinth, from seven aquatic weeds, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The water hyacinth with 30 cm leaves in length can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  10. Management of water hyacinth. Report from India (Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat, Assam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    The main objective of the project is the development of an environmentally sound management scheme for water hyacinth infestation through its various utilization potentials. Such an approach is considered desirable from the point ov view of economic viability and environmental protection. Accordingly various aspects of the problem have been studied in India in three different laboratories. Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat, which is the lead laboratory, is concerned with the study of various factors involved in the growth of this weed, production of biogas, paper and board from water hyacinth, screening of compounds and organisms with commercial potential in this plant and utilization of this weed for mushroom cultivation. Developmental and engineering aspects of biogas production from water hyacinth are studied at Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, and Nagarjuna Sagar Engineering College, J N Technological University, Hyderabad. Pilot plant investigation on the production of handmade paper and board is being investigated at Regional Research Laboratory, Hyderabad

  11. Adsorption of Methyl Red by water-hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawou, Temi; Horsfall, Michael; Vicente, José L

    2007-09-01

    The surface characteristics and adsorbent properties of biomass, obtained from low-cost and environmentally problematic water hyacinth, were determined. Optimum conditions for the elimination of the industrial dye Methyl Red (1) from aqueous solution were established by means of a batch adsorption technique. The ultimate adsorption capacity of water-hyacinth biomass in terms of the elimination of 1 was calculated from a Langmuir-type isotherm as 8.85x10(-2) mol g(-1) at 30 degrees and at an optimum solution pH of 8.0. Dye elimination was found to be associated with strong electrostatic forces (physisorption), the overall process being slightly endergonic (deltaG>0). Our study shows that water hyacinth has a great potential of removing color from wastewater and other dye-polluted aquatic systems.

  12. Water hyacinth cellulose-based membrane for adsorption of liquid waste dyes and chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agtasia Putri, Cintia; Yulianti, Ian; Desianna, Ika; Sholihah, Anisa; Sujarwata

    2018-04-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is a weed in aquatic area whose trunk contains a lot of cellulose. Cellulose contained can be used as dyes adsorbent in a form of composite membrane. This study aims to investigate the capacity of water hyacinth cellulose-based membrane to adsorb dye and Chromium (Cr) contained in liquid. The process of membrane fabrication begins with isolation of water hyacinth cellulose. The isolated cellulose powder was used to make the membrane by mixing it with polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol (PVA-PEG) with various compositions. The morphology of membrane surface was analyzed using CCD microscope. The analysis using Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) indicate that the membrane with composition ratio of cellulose: PVA: PEG of 6.5: 2.5: 1 adsorb Cr up to 38.75%.

  13. Remediation of chromium and copper on water hyacinth (E. crassipes shoot powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tannery effluent characterization and removal efficiency of Chromium (Cr and Copper (Cu on water hyacinth has been observed by filtration process. The effluent was contaminated by deep blue color, acidic pH, higher value of total dissolve solid (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and lower value of dissolve oxygen (DO. After filtration, the effluent shows that the permissible limit of investigated metals. Adsorbent capacity of water hyacinth shoot powder for Cr and Cu ion was found to be 99.98% and 99.96% for standard solution (SS and 98.83% and 99.59% for tannery effluent (TE, respectively.

  14. Utilization of water hyacinth for production of biogas and incorporation into integrated farming schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solly, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of production of biogas from water hyacinth in the form of chopped whole plant, blended whole plant, blended stolon and leaf, blended roots, whole stolon and leaf and fermented blended whole plant has been determined in small laboratory digesters. These results have been compared with investigations carried out under the CSC/UNEP programme in India and with experiments reported from the United States. The second phase of the study has commenced m which the digestion of water hyacinth is being investigated m larger (10 m 3 ) field type digesters

  15. Characteristics of Bacterial Communities in Cyanobacteria-Blooming Aquaculture Wastewater Influenced by the Phytoremediation with Water Hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms often occur in aquaculture wastewater in China. A floating plant, water hyacinth has been widely used to treat this wastewater. Little is known, however, about bacterial community characteristics and the risk of potential pathogens in cyanobacteria-blooming aquaculture wastewater remediated by water hyacinth. In wastewater treated with water hyacinth, we used culture enumeration and high-throughput sequencing to explore the characteristics of bacterial communities, the status of coliform bacteria, and pathogenic bacteria potentially conducive to human disease. Our results indicated that the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and phylum OD1 in cyanobacteria-blooming aquaculture wastewater were significantly influenced by water hyacinth. After 30 days, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and phylum OD1 in the water hyacinth treatments increased remarkably, while the relative abundance of the other 5 phyla in treatment was significantly reduced compared with the controls. In 21 major families, the relative abundance of Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Rhodocylclaceae, and an unnamed group from phylum OD1 increased significantly in the water hyacinth treatments compared with the controls. The number of total coliforms in wastewater treated by water hyacinth was significantly elevated and higher than controls during the first 6–18 days, with the maximum reaching 23,800 MPN/L. The level of potential pathogenic bacteria in wastewater treated by water hyacinth significantly reduced compared with the controls after 18 days, but it significantly increased from the initial level. It appears that water hyacinth by itself is not an effective treatment for reducing potential pathogens in aquaculture water.

  16. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth pre-treated at 80 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ivet; Palatsi, Jordi; Campos, Elena; Flotats, Xavier

    2010-10-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is a fast growing aquatic plant which causes environmental problems in continental water bodies. Harvesting and handling this plant becomes an issue, and focus has been put on the research of treatment alternatives. Amongst others, energy production through biomethanation has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The effect of a thermal sludge pre-treatment at 80 degrees C was also evaluated. To this end, anaerobic biodegradability tests were carried out at 35 degrees C and 55 degrees C, with raw and pre-treated water hyacinth. According to the results, the thermal pre-treatment enhanced the solubilisation of water hyacinth (i.e. increase in the soluble to total chemical oxygen demand (COD)) from 4% to 12% after 30 min. However, no significant effect was observed on the methane yields (150-190 L CH(4)/kg volatile solids). Initial methane production rates for thermophilic treatments were two fold those of mesophilic ones (6-6.5L vs. 3-3.5 L CH(4)/kg COD x day). Thus, higher methane production rates might be expected from thermophilic reactors working at short retention times. The study of longer low temperature pre-treatments or pre-treatments at elevated temperatures coupled to thermophilic reactors should be considered in the future. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth pre-treated at 80 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Ivet; Palatsi, Jordi; Campos, Elena; Flotats, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is a fast growing aquatic plant which causes environmental problems in continental water bodies. Harvesting and handling this plant becomes an issue, and focus has been put on the research of treatment alternatives. Amongst others, energy production through biomethanation has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The effect of a thermal sludge pre-treatment at 80 o C was also evaluated. To this end, anaerobic biodegradability tests were carried out at 35 o C and 55 o C, with raw and pre-treated water hyacinth. According to the results, the thermal pre-treatment enhanced the solubilisation of water hyacinth (i.e. increase in the soluble to total chemical oxygen demand (COD)) from 4% to 12% after 30 min. However, no significant effect was observed on the methane yields (150-190 L CH 4 /kg volatile solids). Initial methane production rates for thermophilic treatments were two fold those of mesophilic ones (6-6.5 L vs. 3-3.5 L CH 4 /kg COD.day). Thus, higher methane production rates might be expected from thermophilic reactors working at short retention times. The study of longer low temperature pre-treatments or pre-treatments at elevated temperatures coupled to thermophilic reactors should be considered in the future.

  18. Biogas Production from Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes): The Effect of F/M Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, W. D.; Syafrudin; Pradita, L. L.; Matin, H. H. A.; Budiyono

    2018-05-01

    Distribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), generally considered as a water weed, that has been a problem which can harm the environment, irrigation system, and agriculture. However water hyacinth can be used in biogas production because it has large enough amount of hemicellulose contents. The purpose of this study was to know the effect of F/M ratio to biogas production from water hyacinth waste with Liquid Anaerobic Digestion (LAD) method. A series of laboratory experiments using biodigester were performed in batch anaerobic operation at room temperature. F/M ratio that used in each reactor was 39.76, 20.03, 13.32, and 10.01. Degradation process was done in 60 days. The result showed that F/M ratio effects to the biogas production. The best performance of biogas production from this research will be obtained if F/M ratio is in the range of 10.01-20.03 (correspond to 25%-50% of rumen fluid) with water hyacinth as the main substrate.

  19. Effect of water hyacinth on distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub, on the distribution of populations of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sediments from various stations on the shores of Lake Victoria around Mwanza Municipality, Tanzania, was studied. Lactate-utilising SRB were observed to be the dominant ...

  20. Adsorption of Lead and Copper Using Water Hyacinth Compost (Eichornia Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiky Frederika Rumapar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Adsorption of heavy metals Pb and Cu studies have been carried out using a compost of plant water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes. First steps of the composting is fermenting fresh hyacinth plants that have been enumerated with molasses and water. Once formed, the compost is used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of heavy metals Pb and Cu. After that process, the water hyacinth compost have been characterized to determine the humic acid content, as well as the functional group content of heavy metals Pb and Cu. Determination of general conditions on the adsorption of Pb and Cu performed with adsorbent mass variations, variations in pH and the concentration variation and studying adsorption isotherm. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb in optimum condition occurs in adsorbent mass of 1.2 g with pH 5. As for the adsorption of Cu on the optimum conditions occur in the adsorbent mass of 0.8 g at pH 6. Results also able to adsorb up to 95.13% Pb and up to 91.42% Cu. Pb and Cu adsorption using adsorbents of water hyacinth compost more models to follow Langmuir than Freundlich models.

  1. Nickel as an accelerator of biogas production in water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes Solms. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeta, G.S.; Jagadeesh, K.S.; Reddy, T.K.R. (University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Microbiology)

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nickel ions on biogas production has been investigated in 3-litre fermenters. It was observed that nickel is stimulatory up to 5 ppm, with an optimum at 2.5 ppm, in a water hyacinth-bovine excreta substrate. A similar effect with nickel was also observed at 5 ppm in bovine excreta. (author).

  2. Phytoremediation of Mercury- and Methyl Mercury-Contaminated Sediments by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms...

  3. Phytoremediation Of Mercury And Methylmercury Contaminated Sediments By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated f...

  4. WATER HYACINTH: A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE RATE RETARDING NATURAL POLYMER USED IN SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabera eKhatun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years natural polymers have been widely used, because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr’s Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37oC ± 0.5 temperature, for 8 hours. All the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, but among all the formulations F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  5. Water Hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East: A Survey of Problems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... Freshwater infestation by the water hyacinth weed has reached crisis proportions in many areas of Africa and the Middle East. Accumulated environmental, economic, and social damages to date are estimated in the billions of dollars. Most severely affected are riparian communities and those people who ...

  6. The cost of water hyacinth control in South Africa: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biology, ecology and impacts of water hyacinth are well studied, but sound and cost-effective management of it remains an enormous challenge in South Africa. Since the 1970s, control programmes have focused on the use of herbicides, with some success, while biological and integrated control have historically ...

  7. Water hyacinth: a possible alternative rate retarding natural polymer used in sustained release tablet design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Sabera; Sutradhar, Kumar B

    2014-01-01

    In recent years natural polymers have been widely used because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr's Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37°C ± 0.5 temperature for 8 h. Though all the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, formulation F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth) was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell, and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  8. Bench-Scale Investigation Of Mercury Phytoremediation By Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) In Heavily Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associat...

  9. The physiological and biochemical mechanism of nitrate-nitrogen removal by water hyacinth from agriculture eutrophic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wenwei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large amount of agriculturl wastewater containing high level nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 --N is produced from modern intensive agricultural production management due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and livestock scale farming. The hydroponic experiment of water hyacinth was conducted for analyzing the content of NO3 --N, soluble sugar content, N-transported the amino acid content and growth change in water hyacinth to explore its purification ability to remove NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater and physiological and biochemical mechanism of this plant to remove NO3 --N. The results showed that the water hyacinth could effectively utilize the NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater. Compared with the control, the contents of NO3 -change to NO3 --N in the root, leaf petiole and leaf blade of water hyacinth after treatment in the wastewater for a week was significantly higher than that in the control plants treated with tap water, and also the biomass of water hyacinth increased significantly, indicating that the accumulation of biomass due to the rapid growth of water hyacinth could transfer some amount of NO3 --N.13C-NMR analysis confirmed that water hyacinth would convert the part nitrogen absorbed from agriculture eutrophic wastewater to ammonia nitrogen, which increased the content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid, decreased the content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose and the content of N-storaged asparagine and glutamine, lead to enhance the synthesis of plant amino acids and promote the growth of plants. These results indicate that the nitrate in agriculture eutrophic wastewater can be utilized by water hyacinth as nitrogen nutrition, and can promote plant growth by using soluble sugar and amide to synthesis amino acids and protein.

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of water hyacinth as a bioindicator along the Nile river, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf Aly Mohamed; Amer, H.A.; El-Tahawy, M.; Shawky, S.; Kandil, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is known to accumulate elements from rivers and a good tool for water monitoring. To test the usefulness of such an aquatic plant as a bioindicator, we have determined the levels of Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U in water hyacinth around industrial facilities and along the studied area by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb were determined in upstream river water and effluent factories. Contamination factor, and pollution load index was calculated. The results show that higher concentrations as well as bioaccumulation factors of these elements were observed in water hyacinth samples around the industrial facilities. On the other hand a decrease in calcium concentration was observed as a result of the thermal pollution of Nile river water. The pollution load index for the studied area was estimated to be 4.2. (author)

  11. Determination of Beryllium-7 in Water Hyacinth Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yimchalam, Nopporn; Chankow, Nares; Yangchauy, Udon

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Beryllium-7 (7 B e) is a cosmogenic radionuclide produced in the upper atmosphere and enters the lower atmosphere by atmospheric circulation processes. About 90% of 7 B e decays directly through electron capture to 7 L i at ground state and about 10% to 7 L i at 1 s t excited state followed by 477.6 keV gamma-ray emission with a half-life of 53.3 days. The aim of this research was to measure 7 B e activity in environmental samples including water and aquatic plants. From the preliminary investigation by measurement of the 477.6 keV gamma-ray peak, 7 B e could be found in fresh Water Hyacinth samples. Thus, Water Hyacinth samples were then collected at different times of the year 2007 - 2008 in an area of Bang Khaen campus of Kasetsart University for determination of 7 B e activity using a HPGe detector. It was found that 7 B e specific activity was about 4-7 Bq/kg in the samples collected in rainy season during August-October 2007 and in June 2008 but could not detect in dry seasons i.e. summer and winter. The specific activity of 7 B e in Water Hyacinth sample depended on rainfalls as expected

  12. REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING LOCALLY AVAILABLE INEXPENSIVE TARO AND WATER HYACINTH AS BIOSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahjalal Khandaker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, locally available and inexpensive Taro and Water Hyacinth were used as biosorbents to remove chromium from synthetic wastewater. The removal of this metal ion from water in the batch and column method have been studied and discussed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm studies were also carried out. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the data follow both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Scanning Electronic Microscopic image was also used to understand the surface characteristics of biosorbent before and after biosorption studies. Effects of various factors such as pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate initial concentration, particle size etc. were analyzed. The initial concentrations of chromium were considered 5-30mgL-1 in batch method and only 4mgL-1 in column method. The maximum chromium adsorbed was 1.64 mgg-1 and 4.44 mgg-1 in Batch method and 1.15 mgg-1 and 0.75 mgg-1 in Column method. Batch and Column desorption and regeneration studies were conducted. Column desorption studies indicated that both of these biosorbents could be reused for removing heavy metals. Results of the laboratory experiments show that the performance of Taro and Water Hyacinth prove that they can effectively be used as low cost biosorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater.KEYWORDS:   adsorption; chromium removal; Taro; water hyacinth; batch method; column studies

  13. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  14. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing 137 Cs and 60 Co radionuclides. ► Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. ► Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. ► Factors affecting bioaccumulation of 137 Cs and 60 Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with 137 Cs and/or 60 Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH ≈ 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of 137 Cs present with 60 Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of 60 Co is affected negatively by the presence of 137 Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 60 Co.

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes) OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AS BIOSENSITIZER FOR FERRI PHOTOREDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Johnly Alfreds Rorong; Sudiarso; Budi Prasetya; Jeany Polii-Mandang; Edi Suryanto

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the phenolics, flavonoids and tannins compounds has been done on water hyacinth leaves (Eichornia crassipessolms). The research was carried out in several stages, including: sample preparation, maceration extraction, and evaporation. The total phenolics constituted analysis by folin ciocalteu 50%, flavonoidss by using aluminium chloride 2% in ethanol, and tannins by using vanillin 4% solution in methanol, continued by using ultra violet visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) methods. ...

  16. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 60}Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH Almost-Equal-To 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs present with {sup 60}Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of {sup 60}Co is affected negatively by the presence of {sup 137}Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides

  17. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using 1 H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a potential raw material source for briquette production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Kamaruddin, Siti Fatimah; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Singh, Lakhveer; Yong, Ee Ling; Dahalan, Farrah Aini

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the fuel properties of bio-briquettes made from a combination of water hyacinth and empty fruit bunch fiber (palm oil mill residue). Water hyacinth (WH) was mixed with empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers in a ratio of 25, 50, 75, 90, and 100% by weight and cassava starch added as binder. The experimental results showed that the addition of WH had a little effect (p < 0.05) on the physical and combustion properties of the briquettes. The proximate analysis showed that the moisture content, ash content and fixed carbon content were increased with the increase in WH amount from 25 to 100%, while the volatile matter content and calorific value decreased. Combustion test showed that the increase in the WH percentage in bio-briquette resulted in the decreased of O_2 and CO level, whereas, that of CO_2 and NO, NO_2 and SO_2 were increased. Therefore, the results conclude that the WH: EFB biomass bio-briquette could be a great potential as an alternative source to conventional coal to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases. - Highlights: • Fuel briquettes of mixtures of water hyacinth and empty fruit bunches were studied. • Various ratios of WH and EFB were analyzed, burned and the flue gas analyzed. • A ratio of WH 25% and EFB 75% was the optimum mixture. • The mixed content briquettes burn well with coal and can displace some coal.

  19. Evaluation of sanitary quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. irrigated with reused water in comparison with commercialized lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate use of water resources reduces their availability and therefore, research focused on their reutilization is required. This work evaluated the sanitary quality of lettuce irrigated with reused water in comparison with samples of lettuce commercialized in Taubaté (SP market. An experiment was developed in a greenhouse with three beds of lettuce irrigated with reused water and three beds of lettuce irrigated with urban water supply. After lettuce biological cycle had been completed, lettuce samples were collected from the beds (irrigated and non-irrigated with reused water and from samples of lettuce commercialized in the city market that were analyzed in the laboratory. The analyses were done using the multiple tubes methodology. The results showed that the samples from lettuce irrigated with urban water supply were not contaminated by either total or thermotolerant coliforms while samples of irrigated lettuce with reused water were contaminated by total coliforms. Samples from commercialized lettuce were contaminated by both kinds of coliforms. Results indicated that the application of reused water for agricultural purposes should occur only after carefully treatment to allow a safe use and to contribute to the water use sustainability.

  20. The rise and fall of water hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River basin, 1989-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P.; Moorhouse, T.G.; McNabb, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is an invasive aquatic macrophyte associated with major negative economic and ecological impacts to the Lake Victoria region since the plant's establishment in Uganda in the 1980s. Reliable estimates of water hyacinth distribution and extent are required to gauge the severity of the problem through time, relate water hyacinth abundance to environmental factors, identify areas requiring management action, and assess the efficacy of management actions. To provide such estimates and demonstrate the utility of remote sensing for this application, we processed and analyzed remotely sensed imagery to determine the distribution and extent of water hyacinth. Maps were produced and coverage was quantified using a hybrid unsupervised image classification approach with manual editing for each of the riparian countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, as well as for numerous gulfs and bays. A similar procedure was carried out for selected lakes in the Rwanda-Tanzania borderlands lakes region in the Kagera River basin. Results confirm the severity of the water hyacinth infestation, especially in the northern parts of the lake. A maximum lake-wide extent of at least 17,374 ha was attained in 1998. Following this, a combination of factors, including conditions associated with the 1997 to 1998 El Nin??o and biocontrol with water hyacinth weevils, appear to have contributed to a major decline in water hyacinth in the most affected parts of the lake. Some lakes in the Kagera basin, such as Lake Mihindi, Rwanda, were severely infested in the late 1990s, but the level of infestation in most of these decreased markedly by the early 2000s.

  1. Management of water hyacinth. A CSC/UNEP project. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    The water hyacinth project was initially proposed at the Regional Workshop on Rural Technology held at Dacca in January 1978. In November 1978, national coordinators met at New Delhi and outlined the project in detail as reported in CSC(79)RT-4. The meeting was attended by delegates from Bangladesh, Egypt, Guyana, India, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Commonwealth Science Council and the United Nations Environment Programme. Following this a proposal was submitted to UNEP seeking funding support to meet the external cost component of the project. This support was subsequently granted. The project aims to achieve an integrated approach towards managing water hyacinth. The underlying intention was that management would cover both eradication of the plant as well as making productive use of it when possible. Productive uses envisaged include biogas synthesis, production of papers and boards and as a source of proteins. Another interesting possibility is the use of the plant to control industrial as well as domestic water pollution . All these were detailed in a three and a half year time plan. The project had its first review meeting in June 1979 in Papua New Guinea. The major intention of this meeting was to examine status reports from each country in an attempt to quantify the problem caused by water hyacinth and assess the work plan in relation to this. The report of this meeting has been published as CSC(79)RT-5. At this meeting Papua New Guinea decided to withdraw from this project as water hyacinth was not regarded as a severe problem. The use of dugong as a control agent was not recommended by Papua New Guinea. In April 1980 an interim review meeting attended by the Regional Coordinator and representatives of UNEP and CSC was held in London where, based on the progress made in the participating countries, activities and time schedules were refined and sharpened (CSC (80)RT-16). It look some time to resolve the external funding question . It was

  2. Development and use of remote sensing tools to study the impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) invasion in an estuarine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Shruti

    Invasive species are the second greatest threat to biological diversity after habitat loss and fragmentation. Remote sensing is being used to map and model invasive species spread with increasing frequency every year. This study illustrates how remote sensing techniques can be used to map invasive species, examine the effects of environmental factors and management on their distribution, and look at the community response to spread or reduction in invasive species cover. Water hyacinth, a floating aquatic macrophyte, boasts an intimidating reputation as an aggressive global invasive. Water hyacinth was mapped in the Delta by pooling together several remote sensing techniques such as spectral indices, linear spectral unmixing, spectral mixture analysis, continuum removal, and LiDAR derived canopy height in a decision tree format with an overall accuracy greater than 90%. Water indices such as NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), continuum removal of water absorptions and average reflectance in the SWIR (shortwave infrared) were found to be the most important inputs for differentiating water hyacinth from other co-occuring species due to the high water content in its leaves. Water hyacinth maps from five years of data (2004 to 2008) showed that water hyacinth area significantly decreased between June of 2004 and 2005 and between June of 2007 and 2008. The decrease was larger in trapped areas (with restricted movement of water) compared to free-flowing channels. Three continuous weeks of frost in January of 2007 might have critically reduced water hyacinth cover across the Delta. There was no lasting effect of chemical control from one year to the next since no significant difference was found in water hyacinth cover in treated vs. untreated sites. The main objective of controlling water hyacinth -- to keep water channels clear for recreational and navigation use -- was not being met. Change detection analysis on the classification maps with six classes revealed

  3. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) control in the Vaalharts Irrigation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, RS; Fraser, GCG; Hill, MP

    2017-01-01

    Global freshwater resources are threatened by an ever-growing population and continued economic development, highlighting the need for sustainable water management. Sustainable management must include the control of any additional factors that may aggravate water scarcity, such as invasive alien plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), one of the world's most destructive invasive plants, presents a direct threat to economically productive water resources. Through high levels of evapotra...

  4. Dynamics of copper and tetracyclines during composting of water hyacinth biomass amended with peat or pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Liu, Lizhu; Fan, Ruqin; Luo, Jia; Yan, Shaohua; Rengel, Zed; Zhang, Zhenhua

    2017-10-01

    Composting is one of the post-treatment methods for phytoremediation plants. Due to a high potential of water hyacinth to accumulate pollutants, the physicochemical parameters, microbial activity as well as fates of copper (Cu) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for the different amended water hyacinth biomass harvested from intensive livestock and poultry wastewater, including unamended water hyacinth (W), water hyacinth amended with peat (WP), and water hyacinth amended with pig manure (WPM) during the composting process. Pig manure application accelerated the composting process as evidenced by an increase of temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), NH 4 -N, as well as functional diversity of microbial communities compared to W and WP treatments. Composting process was slowed down by high Cu, but not by TCs. The addition of peat significantly increased the residual fraction of Cu, while pig manure addition increased available Cu concentration in the final compost. Cu could be effectively transformed into low available (oxidizable) and residual fractions after fermentation. In contrast, less than 0.5% of initial concentrations of TCs were determined at the end of 60-day composting for all treatments in the final composts. The dissipation of TCs was accelerated by the high Cu concentration during composting. Therefore, composting is an effective method for the post-treatment and resource utilization of phytoremediation plants containing Cu and/or TCs.

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AS BIOSENSITIZER FOR FERRI PHOTOREDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnly Alfreds Rorong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the phenolics, flavonoids and tannins compounds has been done on water hyacinth leaves (Eichornia crassipessolms. The research was carried out in several stages, including: sample preparation, maceration extraction, and evaporation. The total phenolics constituted analysis by folin ciocalteu 50%, flavonoidss by using aluminium chloride 2% in ethanol, and tannins by using vanillin 4% solution in methanol, continued by using ultra violet visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis methods. The analysis showed that the phenolics content of water hyacinth with methanol 60% equal to gallic acid 2.72 mg/kg is the highest phenolics content, and the lowest phenolics by distilled water equal to gallic acid 1.07 mg/kg and the flavonoids with methanol 80% equal to 3.29 mg quercetin/kg is the highest flavonoids content, and the lowest by the distilled water of quercetin 1.65 mg /kg and the highest condensed tannins content by methanol 80% of 0.7 mg/kg catechin . The Fe2+ content process with methanol 60% solution was 17.67 mg/kg, and with distilled water was 2.94 mg/kg. Solution without extract as sensitizer produced only Fe2+ ion at 5.6 mg/kg and the extract solution without light at 0.06 mg/kg

  6. Phytoextraction of trace elements by water hyacinth in contaminated area of gold mine tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Tamara E; Shuvaeva, Olga V; Belchenko, Ludmila A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to uptake Ag, Ba, Cd, Mo, and Pb from waters in gold mine tailing area was studied. All experiments were carried out in the field conditions without using of model system. Bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) as well as elements accumulation by plant in different points of tailings-impacted area were evaluated. It has been shown that water hyacinth demonstrates high ability to accumulate Mo, Pb, and Ba with BCF values 24,360 ± 3600, 18,800 ± 2800 and 10,040 ± 1400, respectively and is efficient in translocation of Mo and Cd. The general trend of the plant accumulation ability in relation to the studied elements corresponds to their concentration in the medium. As the distance from tailings increases, concentration of Ag, Ba and Pb in plant decreases more clearly than that of Cd, while the amount of Mo accumulated by plant doesn't drop significantly in accordance with its concentration in water. Under the conditions of the confluence of river Ur and drainage stream Ba and Ag can be considered as potential candidates for phytomining.

  7. Stability of cemented dried water hyacinth used for biosorption of radionuclides under various circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the influence of frost attack and flooding conditions during disposal on the compressive strength, porosity and durability of cemented waste form contained dried and grinded water hyacinth. This plant was used as a phytoremediating agent to treat liquid waste simulate contaminated with radionuclides. The obtained results showed that an increase in the incorporated dry plants decreases the compressive strength and increases the porosity of the solidified waste form. Raising the number of freeze–thaw cycles was accompanied with noticeable increase in the mass-loss of tested specimens and unsteady trend of compressive strength and consequently the mechanical integrity. The presence and increase of immersion duration per turned positively the mass change and affect in different ways on the solidified waste form. Spectroscopic analyses such as infrared and X-ray as well as microscopic investigation were performed to evaluate the solidified waste form exposed to different undesirable climatic conditions during extending disposal durations. The use of Portland cement as a stabilizer for water hyacinth, following the phytoremediation process, achieves the requirements for durability and strength against the freeze–thaw cycles or flooding in different types of water during prolonged disposal.

  8. Uptake of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury from polluted waters by the water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigbo, F.E.; Smith, R.W.; Shore, F.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes was studied as a pollution monitor for the simultaneous accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mecury. After cultivation of the plants for 2 days in tanks containing 10 ppm of each of the metals in aqueous solution, the plants were harvested and rinsed with tap water. The leaves and stems were separated and analysed for each of the metals. The ratio of the concentration of arsenic and mercury in the leaves to the concentrations in the stems was found to be 2:1. Cadmium and lead showed a concentration ratio in leaves to stems of about 1:1. The leaf concentration of arsenic was the lowest of the metals of 0.3428 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material whilst the leaf concentration of cadmium was highest at 0.5740 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material. Control plants were grown in unpolluted water. Plants grown in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi sewage lagoon were also analysed. The mercury concentrations of the leaves of plants grown in the sewage lagoon were significantly different from the control sample which had a concentration of 0.0700 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material.

  9. THE STUDY OF CADMIUM UPTAKE BY WATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES USING A NATURAL MODELLING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara E. Romanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation on the accumulation of cadmium by water hyacinth, depending on the conditions of pollutant exposure and the presence of various additives are discussed. The main specialty of this study is that all the experiments were carried out in natural conditions using the approach based on the application of the capacities called minicosms. It allowed estimating hit consequences of pollutant on ecosystem most really having made experiment in the conditions as much as possible close to the natural. In this article a very important problem of an accuracy and reliability of the results of trace elements determination in plants is also debated. As a result of carried investigations it was shown that the degree of cadmium extraction by hyacinth from contaminated natural water while maintaining the viability of the plants depends on the way of pollutant introducing into the reservoir and the maximum (about 79% value is observed in the case of it’s gradual entry.

  10. Nutritive Value of Fermented Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes Leaf with Aspergillus niger in Tegal Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Mangisah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Two steps of experiment were conducted to evaluate the proximate composition and nutritive value of fermented water hyacinth leaf (WHL with Aspergillus niger in Tegal duck. Twenty two heads of eight-week Tegal ducks with an average body weight of 1202.55 + 111.14 g were used in this experiment. There were two treatments namely: non-fermented (NFWH and fermented with Aspergillus niger (FWHAN. Each treatment was replicated 10 times. Data gathered were analyzed using t-student test. The proximate composition between NFWH and FWHAN showed an increase in crude protein/CP (11.44 vs 16.09% and ash (12.76 vs 22.37% but a decrease in crude fiber/CF (21.51 vs 16.62% and nitrogen free extract/NFE (53.20 vs 43.59%. The nutritive value of diet for eight-week Tegal ducks showed that fermentation of WHL with Aspergillus niger significantly increased CP digestibility, true metabolizable energy (TME and nitrogen retention (NR, but not for CF digestibility. It could be concluded that fermentation of WHL with Aspergillus niger increases the nutrient quality and the nutritive value of diet for eight-week Tegal ducks in term of CP digestibility, TME and NR. (Animal Production 12(2: 100-104 (2010Key Words: water hyacinth leaf, fermentation, Aspergillus niger, biological value, Tegal ducks

  11. The porous carbon derived from water hyacinth with well-designed hierarchical structure for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xi; Zhang, Mengyan; Shi, Ling; Cheng, Jue

    2017-10-01

    A hierarchical porous water hyacinth-derived carbon (WHC) is fabricated by pre-carbonization and KOH activation for supercapacitors. The physicochemical properties of WHC are researched by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that WHC exhibits hierarchical porous structure and high specific surface area of 2276 m2/g. And the electrochemical properties of WHC are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. In a three-electrode test system, WHC shows considerable specific capacitance of 344.9 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g, good rate performance with 225.8 F/g even at a current density of 30 A/g, and good cycle stability with 95% of the capacitance retention after 10000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 5 A/g. Moreover, WHC cell delivers an energy density of 23.8 Wh/kg at 0.5 A/g and a power density of 15.7 kW/kg at 10 A/g. Thus, using water hyacinth as carbon source to fabricate supercapacitors electrodes is a promising approach for developing inexpensive, sustainable and high-performance carbon materials. Additionally, this study supports the sustainable development and the control of biological invasion.

  12. BIOSORPTION AND RECOVERY OF HEAVY METALS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (WATER HYACINTH ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal’s release without treatment poses a significant threat to the environment. Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and persistent. In the present study the ash of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, was used to remove six metals from aqueous solutions through biosorption. Results of batch and column experiments showed excellent adsorption capacity. Removal of lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel was 29.83, 1.263, 1.575, 3.323, 2.984 and 1.978 µgg-1, respectively. The biosorptive capacity was maximum with pH >8.00. Desorption in µgg-1 of ash for lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel was 18.10, 9.99, 11.99, 27.54, 21.09, and 3.71 respectively. Adsorption/desorption of these metals from ash showed the potential of this technology for recovery of metals for further usages. Hydrogen adsorption was also studied with a Sievert-type apparatus. Hydrogen adsorption experiments showed significant storage capacity of water hyacinth ash.

  13. Present status of the development of mycoherbicides against water hyacinth: successes and challenges. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijakli, MH.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of bioherbicides has been stimulated as part of the search for alternatives to chemical control, as the use of these more environmentally-friendly formulations minimizes hazards resulting from herbicide residue to both human and animal health, and to the ecology. In addition, one of the major strategies in the concept of biological control is the attempt to incorporate biological weed control methods as a component of integrated weed management, in order to achieve satisfactory results while reducing herbicide application to a minimum. Several fungal pathogens with mycoherbicide potential (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Hyakillä and Cercospora rodmanii, named ABG-5003 have been discovered on diseased water hyacinth plants, but none has become commercially available in the market. Biological, technological, and commercial constraints have hindered progress in this area. Many of these constraints are being addressed, but there is a critical need to better understand the biochemical and physiological data regarding the pathogenesis of these new bioherbicides. Oil emulsions are recognized as a way to increase both efficiency of application and efficacy of biocontrol agents.

  14. Characterisation of water hyacinth with microwave-heated alkali pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and hydrogen/methane fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Song, Wenlu; Ding, Lingkan; Xie, Binfei; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-04-01

    Microwave-heated alkali pretreatment (MAP) was investigated to improve enzymatic digestibility and H2/CH4 production from water hyacinth. SEM revealed that MAP deconstructed the lignocellulose matrix and swelled the surfaces of water hyacinth. XRD indicated that MAP decreased the crystallinity index from 16.0 to 13.0 because of cellulose amorphisation. FTIR indicated that MAP effectively destroyed the lignin structure and disrupted the crystalline cellulose to reduce crystallinity. The reducing sugar yield of 0.296 g/gTVS was achieved at optimal hydrolysis conditions (microwave temperature = 190°C, time = 10 min, and cellulase dosage = 5 wt%). The sequentially fermentative hydrogen and methane yields from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis were increased to 63.9 and 172.5 mL/gTVS, respectively. The energy conversion efficiency (40.0%) in the two-stage hydrogen and methane cogeneration was lower than that (49.5%) in the one-stage methane production (237.4 mL/gTVS) from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water.

  16. Does fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendment enhance phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted aquatic ecosystem in the presence of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Jenyo-Oni, Adetola; Chukwuka, Kanayo S; Ndimele, Chinatu Charity; Ayodele, Ibukunoluwa Augustine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of inorganic fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendments on crude oil uptake by water hyacinth. Experimental units (water hyacinth grown in fresh water) were spiked with 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L crude oil. After 24 h, they were randomly assigned fertilizer (N15P15K15) at three different concentrations; 0, 6 and 10 mg/L. Crude oil degradation and absorption were determined by measuring total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the water column and water hyacinth, respectively. The measurements were taken monthly for six months (February-August 2010). The results showed that TPH concentration in the water column in the treatment amended at 6 mg/L (0.30 ± 0.01 mg/L) was significantly lower (p phytoremediation) absorbed significantly higher (p phytoremediation of crude oil by water hyacinth and biostimulation with fertilizer (N15P15K15) is possible.

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Zarazua, G., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Avila-Perez, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Carapia-Morales, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn K{alpha}. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 {mu}g/g) > S (7593.3 {mu}g/g) > Fe (4406.6 {mu}g/g) > Ca (2601.8 {mu}g/g) > Mn (604.2 {mu}g/g) > Ti (230.7 {mu}g/g) > Zn (51.65 {mu}g/g) > Sr (43.55 {mu}g/g) > Rb (18.61 {mu}g/g) > Cu (12.78 {mu}g/g) > Cr (6.45 {mu}g/g) > Ni (4.68 {mu}g/g) > Pb (4.32 {mu}g/g) > Br (4.31 {mu}g/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  18. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazúa, G.; Ávila-Pérez, P.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Martínez, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn Kα. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 µg/g) > S (7593.3 µg/g) > Fe (4406.6 µg/g) > Ca (2601.8 µg/g) > Mn (604.2 µg/g) > Ti (230.7 µg/g) > Zn (51.65 µg/g) > Sr (43.55 µg/g) > Rb (18.61 µg/g) > Cu (12.78 µg/g) > Cr (6.45 µg/g) > Ni (4.68 µg/g) > Pb (4.32 µg/g) > Br (4.31 µg/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  19. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Martinez, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn Kα. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 μg/g) > S (7593.3 μg/g) > Fe (4406.6 μg/g) > Ca (2601.8 μg/g) > Mn (604.2 μg/g) > Ti (230.7 μg/g) > Zn (51.65 μg/g) > Sr (43.55 μg/g) > Rb (18.61 μg/g) > Cu (12.78 μg/g) > Cr (6.45 μg/g) > Ni (4.68 μg/g) > Pb (4.32 μg/g) > Br (4.31 μg/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  20. IONS FROM AQUEOUS PHASE BY WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Most often there is incomplete metal ion removal, high reagent and ... environmentally friendly water filters for heavy metal ions removal in aqueous systems. Currently E. crassipes is ..... From the results, the singly charged ions have very little ...

  1. Proliferation of the water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This plant prevents the movement of motorized boats, prevents the penetration of oxygen in water, which greatly reduces the number of organism such as fish fry, crocodiles nest and boas. © 2015 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, Sô river, aquatic weed, biological control ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of CMC from water hyacinth for lithium-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Sahrul; Susanty, Riveli, Nowo; Suroto, Bambang Joko; Rahayu, Iman

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the most dominating power supply on the mobile electronics market are rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries. This is because of a higher energy density and longer lifetime compared to similar rechargeable battery systems. One of the components that determine the performance of a lithium ion battery is the binder material, whether at the anode or the cathode. In commercial batteries, the material used as the binder is Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF), with n-methyl-2-phyrrolidone (NMP) as the solvent. Both are synthetic materials that are expensive, toxic and harmful to the environment. An alternative binder material for lithium-ion battery electrodes is CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) in a water solvent. CMC is cheaper than PVDF, non-toxic and more environmental friendly. CMC can be synthesized from several types of plants, such as water hyacinth, which is a weed plant with high cellulose content. The synthesis of CMC consists of three main steps, namely 1) the isolation process from water hyacinth, 2) the alkalization and carboxymethylation process and 3) the purification process to obtain CMC in high purity. FTIR characterization of the CMC shows five region of absorption bands. The bands in the region 1330-1400 cm-1 are due to symmetrical deformations of CH2 and OH groups. The ether bonds in CMC occur in the fingerprint region of 1250-1060 cm-1. The presence of new and strong absorption band around 1600 cm-1 is confirmed to the stretching vibration of the carboxyl group (COO-), while the one around 1415 cm-1 is assigned to carboxyl groups as it salts. The broad absorption band above 3400 cm-1 is due to the stretching frequency of the hydroxyl group (-OH). Purity test on three samples (CMC mesh-100, CMC mesh-60 and CMC, mesh-40) gives purity values of 99.89%, 99.99% and 99.89%, respectively. This proves that CMC have actually been formed with high purity.

  3. Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Valipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available onstructed wetland applications have been limited by a large land requirement and capital investment. This study aimed to improve a shallow pond water hyacinth system by incorporating the advantages of engineered attached microbial growth technique (termed Bio-hedge for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. A laboratory scale continuous-flow system consists of the mesh type matrix providing an additional biofilm surface area of 54 m2/m3. Following one year of experimentation, the process showed more stability and enhanced performance in removing organic matter and nutrients, compared to traditional water hyacinth (by lowering 33%–67% HRT and facultative (by lowering 92%–96% HRT ponds. The wastewater exposed plants revealed a relative growth rate of 1.15% per day, and no anatomical deformities were observed. Plant nutrient level averaged 27 ± 1.7 and 44 ± 2.3 mg N/g dry weight, and 5 ± 1.4 & 9±1.2 mg P/g dry weight in roots and shoots, respectively. Microorganisms immobilized on Bio-hedge media (4.06 × 107 cfu/cm2 and plant roots (3.12 × 104 cfu/cm were isolated and identified (a total of 23 strains. The capital cost was pre-estimated for 1 m3/d wastewater at 78 US$/m3inflow and 465 US$/kg BOD5 removed. This process is a suitable ecotechnology due to improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings, and increased quality effluent.

  4. Promotion of H2 production by microwave-assisted treatment of water hyacinth with dilute H2SO4 through combined dark fermentation and photofermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jun; Xia, Ao; Su, Huibo; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water hyacinth is microwaved with dilute H 2 SO 4 to improve enzymatic hydrolysis. • Hydrolyzed hyacinth is fermented by hydrogenogens to improve dark H 2 yield. • Nearly 100% glucose and most arabinose in hydrolysate are used in dark fermentation. • H 2 yield from hyacinth via combined fermentation is 75.2% of theoretical H 2 yield. - Abstract: Water hyacinth was treated with microwave-assisted dilute H 2 SO 4 to improve saccharification before enzymatic hydrolysis and H 2 production during dark fermentation. A maximum reducing sugar (RS) yield of 64.4 g/100 g total volatile solid (TVS) (96.1% of the theoretical RS yield) was achieved when water hyacinth was treated through microwave heating with 1% dilute H 2 SO 4 for 15 min at 140 °C and then enzymatically hydrolyzed for 72 h. During enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose was efficiently produced from the hydrolysis of cellulose that resulted from the disruption of the lignocellulosic structure of water hyacinth after microwave-assisted H 2 SO 4 treatment. When the hydrolyzed water hyacinth was inoculated with H 2 -producing bacteria to produce H 2 during dark fermentation, a maximum H 2 yield of 112.3 ml/g TVS was obtained. The major sugar compositions in the residual solution from dark fermentation were xylose and cellobiose (total RS utilization efficiency: 88.5%). Through a combination of dark fermentation and photofermentation, the maximum H 2 yield from water hyacinth was significantly increased from 112.3 ml/g TVS to 751.5 ml/g TVS, which is 75.2% of the theoretical H 2 yield

  5. A note on the utilisation of the water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) for the treatment of tannery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed which grows quickly in ponds, ditches and streams. It clogs drains, irrigation canals and run-off streams promoting back waters and flood conditions. By its prolific growth it competes with other aquatic weeds and causes destruction of the ecosystems of inland waters. Other damaging effects of water hyacinth include incubation of insects and disease vectors, hindrance to navigation, interference with fishing, increased loss of water by plant transpiration, restriction of desirable aquatic plant growth, depletion of oxygen in water and destruction of recreation values of inland waters. It has been observed from the literature that world-wide attempts have been made to destroy water hyacinth for the reasons enumerated above. But recently emphasis has been given to its utilisation rather than its destruction. Reports are available on its use in paper and pulp industries, for production of biogas, as a food for animals and as fertilizer. Water hyacinth has been used in oxidation ponds for the treatment of digested sugar wastes and effluents of septic tanks, but no work has been reported as yet on use of water hyacinth in the treatment of tannery effluents. The waste water from a tannery is highly coloured with a foul odour and contains toxic materials like phenols, sulphides and chromium in addition to bio-degradable matter like proteins, flesh, hair, etc. The untreated effluents when let into streams deplete the dissolved oxygen of the stream and destroy the aquatic life. Similarly, when the untreated effluents are let off into sewers they choke the sewers, or when let off on land they cause ground water pollution. The conventional methods of treatment of sewage, namely the trickling filter activated sludge process are equally applicable for the treatment of tannery waste water. But these methods are known to be costly both in construction and maintenance. Certain low-cost waste treatment methods have been developed involving the use

  6. Reduction of Sodium Arsenite-Mediated Adverse Effects in Mice using Dietary Supplementation of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) Root Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Rim Sabrina Jahan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Hossain, Khaled; Ghosh, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of water Hyacinth Root Powder (HRP) on arsenic-mediated toxic effects in mice. Swiss albino mice, used in this study, were divided into four different groups (for each group n=5). The control group was supplied with normal feed and water, Arsenic group (As-group) was supplied with normal feed plus arsenic (sodium arsenite)-containing water, and arsenic+hyacinth group (As+Hy group) was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus arsenic water. The remaining Hy-group was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus normal water. Oral administration of arsenic reduced the normal growth of the mice as evidenced by weight loss. Interestingly, tip of the tails of these mice developed wound that caused gradual reduction of the tail length. Supplementation of HRP in feed significantly prevented mice growth retardation and tail wounding in As+Hy group mice. However, the growth pattern in Hy-group mice was observed to be almost similar to that of the control group indicating that HRP itself has no toxic or negative effect in mice. Ingested arsenic also distorted the shape of the blood cells and elevated the serum enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Importantly, elevation of these enzymes and distortion of blood cell shape were partially reduced in mice belong to As+Hy group, indicating HRP-mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity. Therefore, the preventive effect of hyacinth root on arsenic-poisoned mice suggested the future application of hyacinth to reduce arsenic toxicity in animal and human.

  7. Fixed bed column study for Cu (II) removal from aqueous solution using water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Yadu, Anubhav; Bharathi, K S

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the study on the performance of low-cost biosorbent water hyacinth (WH) in removing Cu (II) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent material adopted was found to be an efficient media for the removal of Cu (II) in continuous mode using fixed bed column. The column studies were conducted with 10 mg/L metal solution with a flow rate of 10 mL/min with different bed depths such as 10, 20 and 30 cm. The column design parameters like adsorption rate constant, adsorption capacity and minimum bed depth were calculated. It was found that, the adsorption capacity of copper ions by water hyacinth increased by increasing the bed depth and the contact time.

  8. Report of regional coordinator for the year ending 31 December 1980 [Management of water hyacinth (A CSC-UNEP Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagarajan, G.

    1981-01-01

    The water hyacinth project was first reviewed at the time of its commencement in Papua New Guinea in June 1979, and activities and time schedules were formulated. In April 1980 an interim review meeting was held in London where, based on the progress made in the participating countries, activities and time schedules were refined and sharpened. The project is deemed to have formally commenced on 1 January 1980. Australia, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka are actively participating in the project at the present time. Information and results emerging from the different participating countries are very encouraging and they strengthen the hope that technically, environmentally and economically feasible solutions can be found for managing water hyacinth weed. The participating countries are enthusiastic about handling the activities assigned to them. The tempo of work was substantially increased after funds were made available in February 1980

  9. Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution using dried water hyacinth as a biosorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Soylak, Mustafa; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-10-01

    Possible usages of dried water hyacinth as biosorbent for metal ions were investigated. A model describing the plant is presented on density functional theory DFT and verified experimentally with FTIR. The model shows that water hyacinth is a mixture of cellulose and lignin. Dried shoot and root were found as good sorbent for Cd(II) and Pb(II) at optimum dosage of 5.0 g/l and pH 5.0; equilibrium time was attained within 30-60 min. The removal using root and shoot were nearly equal and reached more than 75% for Cd and more than 90% for Pb. Finally the second-order kinetics was the applicable model. Hydrogen bonds of reactive functional groups like COOH play the key role in the removal process.

  10. Hyperspectral reflectance features of water hyacinth growing under feeding stresses of Neochetina spp. and different heavy metal pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Newete, SW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available metal-induced plant stresses and the interaction between the two stressors. Water hyacinth was grown in 65L tubs, each with a single treatment, from one of; As (1 mg/L), Au (1 mg/L), Cu (2 mg/L), Fe (0.5, 2 and 4 mg/L), Hg (1 mg/L), Mn (0.5, 2 and 4 mg...

  11. Effect of Briquetting Process Variables on Hygroscopic Property of Water Hyacinth Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of water resistance capacity of briquettes is important in order to determine how sensitive the produced briquettes are to moisture change during storage. The relative changes in length and diameter of briquettes during immersion in water for 6 hours were investigated. This was conducted to determine hygroscopic property of produced briquettes under process variables levels of binder (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight of residue, compaction pressure (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 MPa and particle size (0.5, 1.6, and 4 mm of dried and ground water hyacinth. Data was statistically analysed using Analysis of Variance, the Duncan Multiple Range Test, and descriptive statistics. The relative change in length of briquettes with process variables ranged significantly from % to % (binder, % to % (compaction pressure, and % to % (particle size (. Furthermore, the relative change in diameter of briquettes with binder, compaction pressure, and particle size varied significantly from % to %, % to %, and % to %, respectively (. This study suggests optimum process variables required to produce briquettes of high water resistance capacity for humid environments like the Niger Delta, Nigeria, as 50% (binder proportion, 9 MPa (compaction pressure, and 0.5 mm (particle size.

  12. The determination of optimum condition in water hyacinth drying process by mixed adsorption drying method and modified fly ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Putri, Rizky Anggreini

    2017-05-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed that has a very fast growth which makes it becomes a problem to the ecosystem. On the other hand, water hyacinth has a high fiber content (up to 20% by weight) which makes it potential to become raw material for composites and textile industries. As an aquatic plant, water hyacinth has a high initial moisture content that reaches more than 90%. Meanwhile the moisture content of fiber as a raw material for composite and textile industry should not be more than 10% to maintain the good quality of the products. Mixed adsorption drying method is one of the innovative method that can replace conventional drying process. Fluidization method which has been commonly used in agricultural and pharmaceutical products drying, can be enhanced by combining it with the adsorption method as performed in this study. In mixed fluidization-adsorption drying method, fly ash as adsorbent and water hyacinth fiber were put together into the fluidization column where the drying air evaporate the moisture content in water hyacinth fiber. In addition, the adsorbent adsorb the moisture content in the drying air to make the moisture content of the drying air remain low. The drying process is performed in various temperature and composition of water hyacinth and adsorbent in order to obtain the optimum drying condition. In addition, the effect of fly ash pellet and fly ash powder to the drying process was also performed. The result shows that the higher temperature and the more amount of adsorbent results in the faster drying rate. Fly ash pellet shows a better adsorption since it has a smaller pore diameter and wider surface area. The optimum temperature obtained from this study is 60°C and the optimum ratio of water hyacinth and fly ash is 50:50.

  13. The effects of two free-floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes on the burrow morphology and water quality characteristics of pond loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqing Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Loach exhibit conspicuous drilling behaviors in the mud of shallow waters, yet their burrow morphology and the factors affecting this behavior have received little attention. We characterized the burrow morphology and water quality of the pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in three scenarios: in tanks without plants, tanks with the free-floating plant water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, and tanks with water lettuce Pistia stratiotes. Water hyacinth effectively removed water TN, COD, NO3-N and NH4-N, and water lettuce removed water TP and NH4-N. Water hyacinth and water lettuce markedly reduced water turbidity and DO, increased TOC and EC. Water hyacinth purified water more effectively than water lettuce, providing a suitable habitat for loach feeding, living and burrowing. The burrow structures were V-shaped, Y-shaped, inverted L-shaped, or complicated dendritic networks composed of multiple V shapes. The hyacinth treatment was characterized by the greatest burrow volume, length, depth, and structural complexity, but the opening size was reduced by dense root mat coverage. Burrows in the water lettuce treatment were characterized by intermediate volume, length, branches and sinuosity, but they had the largest opening and pit size. The control treatment had a flat bottom with the smallest, shortest burrows. This study indicates that free-floating plants improve habitat suitability and change burrow morphology and may be used to improve loach breeding methods.

  14. Biodegradation and kinetics of organic compounds and heavy metals in an artificial wetland system (AWS) by using water hyacinths as a biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Mendoza-Pérez, J A; Tabla-Hernandez, J; Martínez-Tavera, E; Monroy-Mendieta, M M

    2018-01-02

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to absorb organic compounds (potassium hydrogen phthalate, sodium tartrate, malathion, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), and piroxicam). For the aforementioned purpose, an artificial wetland system (AWS) was constructed and filled with water hyacinth collected from the Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Mexico. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium tartrate were measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). The present study indicated that the water hyacinths absorbed nearly 1.8-16.6 g of COD kg -1 dm (dry mass of water hyacinth), while the absorbance efficiency of BOD was observed to be 45.8%. The results also indicated that the maximum absorbance efficiency of malathion, 2,4-D, and piroxicam was observed to be 67.6%, 58.3%, and 99.1%, respectively. The kinetics of organic compounds fitted different orders as malathion followed a zeroth-order reaction, while 2,4-D and piroxicam followed the first-order reactions. Preliminary assessment of absorption of heavy metals by the water hyacinth in the AWS was observed to be (all values in mg g -1 ) 7 (Ni), 13.4 (Cd), 16.3 (Pb), and 17.5 (Zn) of dry biomass, thus proving its feasibility to depurate wastewater.

  15. Removal of Lanthanum (III) From Aqueous Solution Using Non-Living Water Hyacinth Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.; Amer, H.A.; Shawky, S.; Shawky, S.; Kandil, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of lanthanum (III) from aqueous solution using dried roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been investigated. The roots have been characterized by determining the ash percentage, the ph of the slurry, the elemental composition, the thermal gravimetric analysis, the surface area, the pore size, the zeta potential and ph of zero point charge. A surface area of 128 m 2 /g has been found and the micropore structure of the roots has been confirmed. Zeta potential and ph of zero point charge of the roots surfaces showed that they are positively charged within the ph range from 2 to 7.5. Sorption is rapid and depends on ph, weight of roots, concentration of lanthanum (III) and ionic strength. The sorption of lanthanum (III) was confirmed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and the release of Ca +2 , Mg +2 and K +1 after sorption of lanthanum (III) have been indicated an ion exchange mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated surface complexation mechanism, and sorption isotherms and kinetics were discussed. The roots were tested for removal of radioactive lanthanum ( 140 La) from simulated radioactive waste. Accepted June 2013.

  16. Bioaccumulation of chemical elements by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) found in 'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam samples in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.A.; Avila-Perez, P.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine experimentally the uptake of pollutants into of the different parts of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) found in 'Jose Antonio Alzate' dam in the State of Mexico, Mexico. There is evidence for efficient and significant root accumulation of Ti, Mn, Fe, and Ba; but in the upper parts concentrations was consistently determined by the degree of watering. However, a significant input could be derived from a common generic source, such as the atmospheric deposition. The experimental study would, therefore, indicate that water hyacinth species can be highly effective in providing a control and treatment buffer for toxic discharges to the dam. (author)

  17. Determination of Pb2+ metal ion level in liquid waste from adsorption process by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Hidayah, AN

    2018-03-01

    This research are to find out the influence of adsorbent composition between rice husk and water hyacinth in decreasing of Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste; the optimumcomposition of combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal on Pb2+ ion adsorption; and theeffectivenessof SPS as a method to determine the decreasing level of Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal in µg/L level. Rice husk and water hyacinth carbonization using muffle furnace at 350°C for 1 hour. Rice husk charcoal activation in a 2 N NaOH solution and water hyacinth charcoal activated in a 5 M HCl solution. Contacting the combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal with a Pb2+ solution with variation of mass composition, 1:0 ; 0:1 ; 1:1 ; 1:2 and 2:1. Analysis of the Pb2+ ion level using SPS method. Characterization of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal using the FTIR. The results showed that the combination adsorbent composition of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal have an impact on decreasing Pb2+ ion level. The optimum composition of combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal on the adsorption Pb2+ ion is 1:2. SPS is an effective method to determine the decreasing Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste from the adsorption process by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth in µg/L, with Limit of Detection (LOD) was 0,06 µg/L.

  18. The fate of glyphosate in water hyacinth and its physiological and biochemical influences on growth of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Baolong.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption, translocation, distribution, exudation, and guttation of 14 C-glyphosate in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were studied. Glyphosphate entered the plant by foliage and solution treatment. Plants were harvested and separated into the following parts: treated leaf blade, treated leaf petiole, young leaf blade, young leaf petiole, old leak blade, old leaf petiole, and root. Each part was extracted with methanol. Treated leaves, which exist only in foliage treatment, were washed with water and chloroform to remove the glyphosate residues. All 14 C counting was made by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Autoradiography was used to locate 14 C-glyphosate after foliage treatment. Results indicated that glyphosate can be absorbed from the leaf surface and translocated rapidly through phloem tissues into the whole plant body. The roots of water hyacinth absorbed glyphosate without vertical transport. Guttation of glyphosate occurred in treated leaf tips. Exudation of glyphosate from roots of water hyacinth occurred within 8 hr after foliage treatment. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reihardii, Anabaena cylindrica, and Chroococcus turgidus were used to explore the physiological and biochemical effects of glyphosate on algae. Spectrophotometric assays were performed for algal growth, chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycobiliprotein, carbohydrate, and protein. TLC procedures and an image analyzer were used to detect the metabolites of glyphosate inside algal cells. The common visible symptom of glyphosate toxicity in all algal cells were bleaching effect and reduction of contents of carbohydrate, protein, and pigments. The results highly suggested that glyphosate injured the algal cells by destruction of photosynthetic pigments and resulted in lowering the contents of carbohydrate and protein in algal cells

  19. Age structure and feeding of the neotropical grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, M C; de Wysiecki, M L; Poi, A

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the variation in the age structure of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) population and its relation to the host plant biomass and the feeding of the different age classes of this grasshopper on the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes along 2 years, in a Paraná River floodplain lake (Chaco, Argentina). Individuals of C. aquaticum were captured with a 70-cm diameter sweep and separated in nymphs A (instars I and II), nymphs B (instars III to VI), adult females, and adult males; host plant biomass was sampled using a ring with a 0.30-m(2) diameter. Relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum population was calculated by multiplying the number of individuals captured per minute by the daily consumption by individual obtained in each age classes. We found that the age structure and the relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum varied between seasons and years. The highest values of grasshopper abundance, leaf biomass, and relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum population were observed in summer 2006. Plant biomass was directly correlated with nymph abundance and not correlated with adult abundance. Plant biomass available as refuge (leaves), food (laminas), and oviposition site (petioles) to C. aquaticum represented up to 62% of the total plant biomass. The results obtained in C. aquaticum show the importance of considering total plant biomass and plant biomass available for herbivores separately. Our study highlights the need to find an adequate method to estimate the density of C. aquaticum and other semiaquatic grasshoppers in the Paraná River floodplain involving different seasons, years, and water phases (rising and falling).

  20. Report of the second review meeting on management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    The present meeting is intended to review a very important project in our Asia/Pacific Rural Technology Programme. The project was conceived in 1978, and had its first review in 1979; it will run for three years and finish next year. It involves India, Bangladesh, Australia, Sri lanka, Malaysia and Fiji with India providing the Regional Coordination. In the wake of the growing recognition by the Commonwealth Government of the pressing need for increased efforts for rural development, the CSC initiated its Asia/Pacific Rural Technology Programme in 1978. The major objectives were to develop increased awareness of the scientific community to the problems of declining quality of rural life and to encourage them to undertake new and sustained efforts to promote technologies which are suitable for establishing rural industries. In essence, the aim was to contribute, however modestly, to rural employment and a better quality of rural life. It has now been over 3 years since the programme was conceived. The programme has made very good progress and I would like to illustrate this by giving some examples. At present the programme comprises of 10 projects. These are: generation of technology packages for agro-based industries, organising the traditional light engineering industry, economic utilization of paddy by-products improvement of rural housing and environment, cultivation and processing of medicinal plants, small package water treatment plant, management of water hyacinth, study of rural energy needs and resource potential, integrated biogas systems, local manufacture of small prime movers. Out of these, four are coordinated by India, three by Sri Lanka, and one each by Bangladesh, Malaysia and Seychelles

  1. Screening of lettuce germplasm for agronomic traits under low water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a preliminary screening of over 3,500 varieties, we selected 200 cultivars of butterhead, cos, crisphead, leaf, and stem lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) to test under high water (150% ET) and low water (50% ET) conditions in the field, and tracked com...

  2. Management of water hyacinth: Final meeting and international conference. Working paper submitted by the Regional Coordinator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Final Meeting. This meeting will essentially make a terminal review of the project and register final records of work done on the various aspects, such as: - biology of the plant; - biological control; - biogas; - wastewater treatment; - papers and boards; - integrated systems, etc. We should have at the meeting a complete account of the work done in the project under each of the above headings. For example, under 'biogas' we should prepare one consolidated account of work carried out in all the three participating countries rather than individual country reports. Likewise on 'papers and boards', and the other items. To enable preparation of reports in this form there should naturally be prior consultations and contacts among the concerned investigators by correspondence and, if necessary, personal visits. These reports will then be edited and compiled by the Regional Coordinator in the form of a book or monograph on the Management of Water Hyacinth project as a whole. Contributors to chapters will be cited. International Conference. Independent of the consolidated reports, national coordinators may prepare papers for presentation at the proposed international conference. These papers could be prepared m the usual form and style for publication in international scientific journals. Although several papers could be prepared out of work done by us, we may consider the desirability of limiting the number, in order to give adequate opportunities for the other invited participants to the conference. There would be no bar on publication of these scientific papers after the conference in appropriate journals irrespective of whether a separate volume on proceedings of the conference is brought out or not. India would be happy to host the terminal review meeting to be followed by the conference. The likely period would be last week of January to first week in February, 1983. (author)

  3. Bio-sorption of uranium and plutonium with Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Dafauti, Sunita; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The continuous expansion in nuclear energy program and an aim of zero discharge makes waste management a challenging task. Waste effluents containing long-lived radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238+239+240 Pu and uranium along with other toxic elements have to he suitably treated to bring down the radioactivity levels before it is discharged in to the environment. Biological materials have emerged as an economic and eco-friendly option for removal of toxic heavy metals to an environmentally safe level. Bio-sorption is a phenomenon of rapid passive metal uptake, an ideal alternative for decontamination of metal containing effluents. Bio-sorption of uranium and plutonium from aqueous solutions by dried biomass of Eichhornia crassipes or water hyacinth, a hyper-accumulator, which can tolerate highly toxic condition, was studied. The adsorption of Pu by roots biomass was seen to be more in the pH range from 3-8 and a similar trend was shown by leaves. The adsorption of U by both roots and leaves was more in the pH range of 4-8. Distribution coefficient for Pu in roots and leaf was an average of 1349 ml/g and 3152 ml/g for uranium studied using a wide activity range from 10 Bq to 200 Bq. The presence of anions inhibited the uptake and showed the trend sulphate> nitrate> chloride>> carbonates. The effect of other cations on the absorption capacity was also checked. Effluent solutions from an effluent treatment plant were also subjected to remediation with this biomass. Biomass related metal removal processes may not necessarily replace existing treatment processes but may complement them. (author)

  4. Potentials of using mixed culture bacteria incorporated with sodium bicarbonate for hydrogen production from water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazeri, Alaa; Elsamadony, Mohamed; Roux, Sophie Le; Peu, Pascal; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study is to assess the potentials of using mixed culture bacteria incorporated with different concentrations of NaHCO 3 for hydrogen production from water hyacinth (WH). The lowest hydrogen yield (HY) of 30.4 ± 1.9 mL/g TVS , H 2 content (HC) of 19.5 ± 1.5% and hydrogenase enzyme (HE) activity of 0.06 ± 0.01 mgM.B reduced /min were registered for the cultures without supplementation of NaHCO 3 . The HY, HC, and HE activity were maximized at levels of 69.2 ± 4.3 mL/g TVS, 58.4 ± 3.6% and 0.18 ± 0.01 mgM.B reduced /min. respectively for the anaerobes supplied with 3.0 g NaHCO 3 /L. Furthermore, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin destruction efficiencies were 37.2 ± 2.3, 30.0 ± 1.9 and 20.9 ± 1.3% respectively due to the increase of cellulase and xylanase activities up to 2.73 ± 0.17 and 1.87 ± 0.12 U/mL, respectively. Moreover, the abundance of Firmicutes was substantially increased and accounted for 71% of the total OTU's. Microbes belonging to the order Clostridiales and OPB54 were particularly enriched in the medium supplemented with NaHCO 3 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of physicochemical parameters for cadmium (II) and mercury (II) phytoremediation using the specie Eichhornia Crassipes (water hyacinth)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poma Llantoy, Victor R.; Valderrama Negron, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the studies were performed to measure the sorption capacity of metal ions Cd (II) and Hg (II) using the specie Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). This study includes assays where the nutrient concentration, the pH and the metal ion concentration were optimized. These tests were carried out at room temperature and with aqueous solutions of Cd (II), Hg (II), in which the samples of Eichhornia crassipes were placed. To confirm the removal of these metals, the waste solutions after the treatment with the Water Hyacinth species were treated using the method APHA 3030-e. However, Eichhornia crassipes samples were treated using the EPA 200.3 method. The concentration of Cd (II) was determined by an ICP-OES spectrometer and Hg (II), by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed: Optimal dosage 1 mL of A and 0,5 mL of B, optimum pH 5, optimum concentration of Cd (II) and Hg (II) 5 mg/L for each ion. With these parameters, it was started the removal of 5 mg/L of the metal ions contained in 1 L of solution. Being the percentages of sorption 16,56% for Cd (II) and 15,6% for Hg (II) after a period of 7 days. (author)

  6. Efficiency and mechanisms of Cd removal from aqueous solution by biochar derived from water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Xin; Yin, Daixia; Peng, Bo; Tan, Changyin; Liu, Yunguo; Tan, Xiaofei; Wu, Shixue

    2015-04-15

    This study investigated the efficiency and mechanisms of Cd removal by biochar pyrolyzed from water hyacinth (BC) at 250-550 °C. BC450 out-performed the other BCs at varying Cd concentrations and can remove nearly 100% Cd from aqueous solution within 1 h at initial Cd ≤ 50 mg l(-1). The process of Cd sorption by BC450 followed the pseudo-second order kinetics with the equilibrium being achieved after 24 h with initial Cd ranging from 100 to 500 mg l(-1). The maximum Cd sorption capacity of BC450 was estimated to be 70.3 mg g(-1) based on Langmuir model, which is prominent among a range of low-cost sorbents. Based on the balance analysis between cations released and Cd sorbed onto BC450 in combination with SEM-EDX and XPS data, ion-exchange followed by surface complexation is proposed as the dominant mechanism responsible for Cd immobilization by BC450. In parallel, XRD analysis also suggested the formation of insoluble Cd minerals (CdCO3, Cd3P2, Cd3(PO4)2 and K4CdCl6) from either (co)-precipitation or ion exchange. Results from this study highlighted that the conversion of water hyacinth into biochar is a promising method to achieve effective Cd immobilization and improved management of this highly problematic invasive species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The synthesis of corncobs (zea mays) active charcoal and water hyacinth (eichornia crassipes) adsorbent to adsorb Pb(II) with it’s analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Kurniastuti, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aim to examine the effect of the combination between corncobs and water hyacinth to adsorb lead (II), the most effective combination have determined by compared the ratio of corncobs adsorbent and water hyacinth to the increasing adsorption of the Pb(II), prove the effectiveness of the solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps) to determine the levels of Pb(II) as the result of the corncobs active charcoal adsorption and water hyacinth in the level of µg/L. The research method used is experimental method. The data collecting technique is carried out by several stages, which are carbonization using muffle furnace at a temperature of 350°C for 1.5 hours, activation of the corncobs charcoal and water hyacinth using HCl 1M and HCl 5M activator, contacting the adsorbent of corncobs active charcoal and water hyacinth with liquid waste simulation of Pb(II) using variation of corncobns and water hyacinth, 1:0; 0:1; 1:1; 2:1; 1:2, analysis of Pb(II) using an sps, characterization of corncobs active charcoal adsorbent and water hyacinth using FTIR. Research results show that the combined effect of activated charcoal corncobs and water hyacinth can increase the ability of the adsorbent to absorb Pb(II), the optimum adsorbent mass ratio of 1:1 with the absorption level of 90.33%, SPS is an effective method to analyze the decreasing level of Pb(II) as the adsorbtion result of the corncobs active charcoal and water hyacinth in the level of µg/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 µg/L.

  8. Classical Biological Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes (Liliales: Pomteridiaeae), Using Neochentina Spp, Weevils (Curculionidae), During the Re-Inversion Period in the Lake victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiel, G.R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents recent results from an ongoing classical biological control programme for water hyacinth, implemented by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Under the Lake Environmental Project. After the successful control of the weed, a re-inversion in the lake was experienced in August 2000 in Nyakach Bay. Between november 2000 and June 2001, approximately 5600 adults Neochetina spp. (coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevils, biological control agents for water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Liliales: Ponteridaceae) were harvested, from the Kibos rearing facility, Namba-Okana 'field security' and community weevil rearing units. Weevils were released on water hyacinth at thirteen sites in Berkeley, Nyakach, Osodo, Kendu, Homa and Karungu and Muhuru Bays, at Kuja-Migori river tributaries and upstream of Nzoia, Yala and Sondu-Miriu rivers. In general, reproductive and growth potential (number of daughter plants, petiole length and laminar area) and fresh weight of the weed was suppressed. there was a gradual increase in insect population levels (number of weevils plant -1 ) and damage to plants by weevil larvae. there is need to carry out an aerial survey to verify the visual estimates of water hyacinth cover and intensify mass rearing and releases of weevils in hotspot areas and to concentrate releases in riverine systems

  9. Proposal for the utilisation of water hyacinth for paper and board making. Commonwealth Regional (Asia/Pacific) Rural Technology Programme proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the most prolific aquatic plants, which spreads at an alarming rate having spikes of large blue flowers and roundish leaves with inflated bladder-like petioles. In Louisiana, USA, a single water hyacinth produced the incredible number of 248,000 daughter plants in just 90 days. It is reported that a one hectare pond of water hyacinth can produce 0.9 to 1.8 tonnes of dry mass of weed per day. The disadvantages associated with this alarming rate of growth can be an advantage if the water hyacinth can be effectively utilised for any industrial purposes. Earlier references on the utilisation of water hyacinth for making pulp and paper are rather controversial. The Philippines research group on water hyacinth utilisation claims to have produced quality paper, while research workers of the University of California, after extensive testing, have expressed their complete disappointment as a source of paper pulp. Exhaustive investigations have been made at the University of Florida with a view to making paper using various pulping conditions; these have reportedly been a failure. The failure was ascribed to moisture clinging to the fibre with the result that the pulp cannot be drained or dewatered in modern high speed paper forming machines, it was concluded that 'water hyacinth does not therefore look promising as an immediate source of pulp', presumably for the large scale paper industry, using sophisticated high speed sheet making machines. The separation of vascular fibre bundles would be more difficult from the water hyacinth plants than bagasse, because the water hyacinth plant consists of root,stalk and leaves in contrast to bagasse which is made up almost entirely of pressed stalk. Azam reported that the whole plant cannot be used for paper making as the dried leaves are brittle and the roots are rather dark in colour, which makes the pulp dirty and brittle, but that the pulp made from the stalk gives satisfactory

  10. [Ecological Effects of Algae Blooms Cluster: The Impact on Chlorophyll and Photosynthesis of the Water Hyacinth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-feng; He, Jun; Yang, Yi-zhong; Han, Shi-qun

    2015-08-01

    The response of chlorophyll and photosynthesis of water hyacinth leaves in different concentrations of clustered algae cells was studied in the simulation experiment, and the aim was to reveal the mechanism of the death of aquatic plants during algae blooms occurred through studying the physiological changes of the macrophytes, so as to play the full function of the ecological restoration of the plants. And results showed the dissolved oxygen quickly consumed in root zone of aquatic plants after algae blooms gathered and showed the lack of oxygen (DO algae cell died and concentration of DTN in treatment 1 and 2 were 44.49 mg x L(-1) and 111.32 mg x L(-1), and the content of DTP were 2.57 mg x L(-1) and 9.10 mg x L(-1), respectively. The NH4+ -N concentrations were as high as 32.99 mg x L(-1) and 51.22 mg x L(-1), and the root zone with the anoxia, strong reducing, higher nutrients environment had a serious stress effects to the aquatic plants. The macrophytes photosynthesis reduced quickly and the plant body damaged with the intimidation of higher NH4+ -N concentration (average content was 45.6 mg x L(-1)) and hypoxia after algae cell decomposed. The average net photosynthesis rate, leaf transpiration rate of the treatment 2 reduced to 3.95 micromol (M2 x S)(-1), 0.088 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), and only were 0.18 times, 0.11 times of the control group, respectively, at the end of the experiment, the control group were 22 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), 0.78 micromol x (M2 x s)(-1). Results indicated the algae bloom together had the irreversible damage to the aquatic plants. Also it was found large amounts of new roots and the old roots were dead in the treatment 1, but roots were all died in the treatment 2, and leaves were yellow and withered. Experiment results manifested that the serious environment caused by the algae blooms together was the main reason of the death of aquatic plants during the summer. So in the practice of ecological restoration, it should avoid the

  11. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  12. Biogas production using water hyacinths to meet collective energy needs in a sahelian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Almoustapha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot project that investigates the possibility of producing biogas from a mixture of water hyacinth and fresh rumen residue – replacing firewood as a source of fuel – to meet the energy needs of a maternity facility in Niamey (Niger. The discontinuous-type installation (batch reactors is made up of six digesters measuring 5 m3 each. The output during hot and cool seasons, 0.52 m3 and 0.29 m3 respectively of biogas per m3 of digester per day, has met the energy needs of the maternity facility, estimated at 8 m3 of biogas per day. The study revealed strong seasonal variations: output during the hot season is approximatively 1.8 times greater than it is during the cool season. Large quantities of water hyacinth, an invasive plant present in Niger since 1986, are manually harvested in aquatic environments. The project is run by a local NGO, the Groupe d’Initiative pour les Energies Renouvelables (GIER, and supported by UNICEF and the Niger Basin Authority. The duration of the project is 8 months.Ce papier présente un projet pilote vérifiant la possibilité de produire du biogaz à partir d’un mélange de jacinthe d’eau et de résidu frais de rumen, en substitution au bois de chauffe pour satisfaire aux besoins en énergie d’une maternité de Niamey (Niger. L’installation de type discontinu (réacteurs batch est composée de six digesteurs de 5 m3. Les rendements en saison chaude et en saison fraîche, respectivement 0,52 et de 0,29 m3 de biogaz par m3 de digesteur par jour et ont permis de couvrir les besoins de la maternité évalués à 8 m3 de biogaz par jour. L’étude révèle une forte variation saisonnière : le rendement en saison chaude est d’environ 1,8 fois supérieur à celle de la saison fraîche. La jacinthe d’eau est une plante envahissante présente au Niger depuis 1986, dont des quantités importantes sont récoltées en  milieux aquatiques. Le projet est porté par une ONG locale, le

  13. Invasive alien species water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes as abode for macroinvertebrates in hypertrophic Ramsar Site, Lake Xochimilco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Ramirez, A; Robles-Valderrama, E; Ramirez-Flores, E

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents information on the density, diversity and functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with water hyacinth in Antiguo Canal Cuemanco, part of Lake Xochimilco in Mexico City. Rare (low frequency and density) and dominant (high frequency and density) taxa prevailed in the assemblages, with the most predominant being Hyalella azteca, Chironomus plumosus and Ischnura denticollis. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling confirmed two climatic seasons: warm-rainy and cold-dry; the former with the highest diversity and density of taxa. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that conductivity, nitrates and turbidity explained the density variations of taxa. Antiguo Canal Cuemanco waters are spatially homogeneous with the characteristics of hypertrophic shallow lakes, inhabited by scrapers and gathering-collectors. The species found were tolerant to organic pollution.

  14. Structural and ecophysiological alterations of the water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] due to anthropogenic stress in Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pierre Vitória

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural and ecophysiological alterations (chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments, and quantification of Cr, Pb and Zn in the leaf limb, petiole and younger and older roots of water hyacinth from the lower, medium and upper Paraíba do Sul river (PSR and Imbé river were evaluated. The plants from the medium and upper PSR (more industrialized and populated regions exhibited lower turgid cell in the root cortex, less root hairs and leaf epidermis, chloroplasts with plastoglobules and increased stroma volume. Higher concentrations of metals were observed in the younger and older roots from the medium PSR plants. The results suggested that the plants from more anthropized regions were able to maintain the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm which was a result from the metabolic fitting, increasing the non-photochemical quenching, reducing total chlorophyll/carotenoids and leading to the structural modifications.

  15. Analysis of Satellite and Airborne Imagery for Detection of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Floating Macrophytes and Tracking of Aquatic Weed Control Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed an 80 percent overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  16. Metal binding by humic acids isolated from water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae) in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghabbour, Elham A.; Davies, Geoffrey; Lam, Y.-Y.; Vozzella, Marcy E.

    2004-01-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are animal and plant decay products that confer water retention, metal and organic solute binding functions and texture/workability in soils. HAs assist plant nutrition with minimal run-off pollution. Recent isolation of HAs from several live plants prompted us to investigate the HA content of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae), a delicately flowered plant from Amazonian South America that has invaded temperate lakes, rivers and waterways with devastating economic effects. Hyacinth thrives in nutrient-rich and polluted waters. It has a high affinity for metals and is used for phytoremediation. In this work, HAs isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of live water hyacinth plants from the Nile Delta, Egypt were identified by chemical and spectral analysis and by comparison with authentic soil and plant derived HAs. Similar carbohydrate and amino acid distributions and tight metal binding capacities of the HAs and their respective plant components suggest that the presence of HAs in plants is related to their metal binding properties

  17. Comparative study on the peroxidase activity from the floats of Caulerpa lentillifera (grapes seaweeds), roots of Tamarindus indica (tamarind), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) and Dracaena surculosa (spotted dracaena)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berosil, Maan Dyann N.; Magtibay, Cherrie Joy C.

    2005-02-01

    Peroxidase activities from four different varieties of plant roots were investigated through the use of UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Hydrogen peroxide was used as the substrate and phosphate buffer at a pH that have been determined to be the optimal pH for peroxidase activity for the specific sample type. The four plant root extracts showed an assay pH optimum of 7.5 for the Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), pH 5.5 for Dracaena surculosa (spotted dracaena) and pH 7.0 for Caulerpa lentillifera (grapes seaweeds) using Maehly and Chance method. Determination of peroxidase at 510 nm of the four extracts indicated that, spotted dracaena gave the highest peroxidase activity with 361.07 U ml -1 , followed by tamarind with 57.11 U ml -1 , then water hyacinth with 29.39 U m -1 and lastly, grapes seaweeds with 7.55 U ml -1 . The specific peroxidase activities of the spotted dracaena, water hyacinth, tamarind and grapes seaweeds are 0.3224, 0.2048, 0.0721 and 0.0341 U mg -1 respectively. The peroxidase of the four plant tissues that were kept at ultra low personal freezer for almost a week was degraded. (Authors)

  18. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  19. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of Chlorpyrifos by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the Role of a Plant-Associated Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anudechakul, Choochai; Vangnai, Alisa S; Ariyakanon, Naiyanan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the efficiency of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and the role of any plant-associated bacteria in removing chlorpyrifos from water. The relative growth rate (RGR) of E. crassipes in the presence of 0.1 mg/L chlorpyrifos was not significantly different from that in its absence and only slightly decreased at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L by ∼1.1- and ∼1.2-fold, respectively, with an observed dry weight based RGRDW for E. crassipes of 0.036-0.041 mg/g/d. The removal rate constants of chlorpyrifos in the absence of plants were low at 3.52, 2.29 and 1.84 h(-1) for concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively, but were some 3.89- to 4.87-fold higher in the presence of E. crassipes. Chlorpyrifos removal was markedly facilitated by the presence of a root-associated bacterium, preliminarily identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain WHA. The interaction of E. crassipes and Acinetobacter sp. strain WHA provide an efficient and ecological alternative to accelerate the removal and degradation of chlorpyrifos pollution from aquatic systems including wastewater.

  1. Enhanced adsorption of methylene blue by citric acid modification of biochar derived from water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Yunguo; Liu, Shaobo; Tan, Xiaofei; Zeng, Guangming; Zeng, Wei; Ding, Yang; Cao, Weicheng; Zheng, Bohong

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a novel potential adsorbent, citric acid (CA)-modified biochar, named as CAWB, was obtained from water hyacinth biomass by slow pyrolysis in a N 2 environment at 300 °C. The CA modification focused on enhancing the contaminants adsorption capacity of biochar pyrolyzed at relatively low temperature. Over 90 % of the total methylene blue (MB) could be removed at the first 60 min by CAWB, and the maximum MB adsorption capacity could reach to 395 mg g -1 . The physicochemical properties of CAWB was examined by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and BET analysis. The results indicated that the additional carboxyl groups were introduced to the surface of CAWB via the esterification reaction with CA, which played a significant role in the adsorption of MB. Batch adsorption studies showed that the initial MB concentration, solution pH, background ionic strength, and temperature could affect the removal efficiency obviously. The adsorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the MB adsorption onto CAWB was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The regeneration study revealed that CAWB still exhibited an excellent regeneration and adsorption performance after multiple cycle adsorptions. The adsorption experiments of actual dye wastewater by CAWB suggested that it had a great potential in environmental application.

  2. Novel rhythms of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and its precursor melatonin in water hyacinth: importance for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Di Mascio, Paolo; Martinez, Glaucia R; Prado, Fernanda M; Reiter, Russel J

    2007-06-01

    N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMFK) is a major metabolite of melatonin in mammals. To investigate whether AFMK exists in plants, an aquatic plant, water hyacinth, was used. To achieve this, LC/MS/MS with a deuterated standard was employed. AFMK was identified in any plant for the first time. Both it and its precursor, melatonin, were rhythmic with peaks during the late light phase. These novel rhythms indicate that these molecules do not serve as the chemical signal of darkness as in animals but may relate to processes of photosynthesis or photoprotection. These possibilities are supported by higher production of melatonin and AFMK in plants grown in sunlight (10,000-15,000 microW/cm2) compared to those grown under artificial light (400-450 microW/cm2). Melatonin and AFMK, as potent free radical scavengers, may assist plants in coping with harsh environmental insults, including soil and water pollutants. High levels of melatonin and AFMK in water hyacinth may explain why this plant more easily tolerates environmental pollutants, including toxic chemicals and heavy metals and is successfully used in phytoremediation. These novel findings could lead to improvements in the phytoremediative capacity of plants by either stimulating endogenous melatonin synthesis or by adding melatonin to water/soil in which they are grown.

  3. Phytoremediation to remove nutrients and improve eutrophic stormwaters using water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; He, Zhenli L; Graetz, Donald A; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiaoe

    2010-01-01

    Water quality impairment by nutrient enrichment from agricultural activities has been a concern worldwide. Phytoremediation technology using aquatic plants in constructed wetlands and stormwater detention ponds is increasingly applied to remediate eutrophic waters. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and potential of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) in removing nutrients including nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from stormwater in the constructed water detention systems before it is discharged into the St. Lucie Estuary, an important surface water system in Florida, using phytoremediation technologies. In this study, water lettuce (P. stratiotes) was planted in the treatment plots of two stormwater detention ponds (East and West Ponds) in 2005-2007 and water samples from both treatment and control plots were weekly collected and analyzed for water quality properties including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, suspended solids, and nutrients (N and P). Optimum plant density was maintained and plant samples were collected monthly and analyzed for nutrient contents. Water quality in both ponds was improved, as evidenced by decreases in water turbidity, suspended solids, and nutrient concentrations. Water turbidity was decreased by more than 60%. Inorganic N (NH(4) (+) and NO(3) (-)) concentrations in treatment plots were more than 50% lower than those in control plots (without plant). Reductions in both PO(4) (3-) and total P were approximately 14-31%, as compared to the control plots. Water lettuce contained average N and P concentrations of 17 and 3.0 g kg(-1), respectively, and removed 190-329 kg N ha(-1) and 25-34 kg P ha(-1) annually. Many aquatic plants have been used to remove nutrients from eutrophic waters but water lettuce proved superior to most other plants in nutrient removal efficiency, owing to its rapid growth and high biomass yield potential. However, the growth and nutrient removal potential are affected by many

  4. Lettuce irrigated with contaminated water: Photosynthetic effects, antioxidative response and bioaccumulation of microcystin congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; de Oliveira, Ênio Tiago; dos Santos, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    The use of microcystins (MCs) contaminated water to irrigate crop plants represents a human health risk due to their bioaccumulation potential. In addition, MCs cause oxidative stress and negatively influence photosynthetic activities in plants. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of MCs on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidative response of lettuce. Furthermore, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR in the vegetable after irrigation with contaminated water was determined. Lettuce crops were irrigated for 15 days with water containing cyanobacterial crude extracts (Microcystis aeruginosa) with MC-LR (0.0, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 µg L(-1)), MC-RR (0.0, 0.15, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 µg L(-1)) and total MCs (0.0, 0.65, 2.5, 6.5 and 13.0 µg L(-1)). Increased net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf tissue transpiration and intercellular CO2 concentration were recorded in lettuce exposed to different MCs concentrations. Antioxidant response showed that glutathione S-transferase activity was down-regulated in the presence of MCs. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities were upregulated with increasing MCs concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs and MC-LR was highest at 6.50 and 5.00 µg L(-1), respectively, while for MC-RR, the highest BAF was recorded at 1.50 µg L(-1) concentration. The amount of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR bioacumulated in lettuce was highest at the highest exposure concentrations. However, at the lowest exposure concentration, there were no detectable levels of MC-LR, MC-RR and total MCs in lettuce. Thus, the bioaccumulation of MCs in lettuce varies according to the exposure concentration. In addition, the extent of physiological response of lettuce to the toxins relies on exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of Heavy Metals from Leachate Using Electro-Assisted Phytoremediation (EAPR and Up-Take by Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Syah Putra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The garbage disposal management using landfill system produces an unpleasant odor of wastewater (i.e. leachate which can disrupt the groundwater equilibrium in the rainy season. The combination of electro-assisted and phytoremediation which is hereinafter referred as Electro-Assisted Phytoremediation (EAPR for removal of heavy metals from leachate has been demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. A batch reactor setting was used to evaluate the potential removal and uptake of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration by water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes in the aquatic environment. An EAPR system was carried out for 11 d using constant voltage of 2 V. The results showed that the heavy metals concentration in the leachate decreased significantly for Cu, Fe, Cd and Pb metals from their initial concentration. The EAPR process could reduce as much as 77.8, 22, 31.6 and 30.0%, respectively for Fe, Cu, Cd, and Pb. Decreasing of heavy metals was followed by decreasing of TDS, electrical conductivity but increased DO concentration. Chlorophyll content in a treated plant with EAPR system showed that the water hyacinth could cope with the stress condition meanwhile accumulated high heavy metal concentration from the leachate.

  6. Prevalence and diversity of Salmonella enterica in water, fish and lettuce in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Oumar; Nyholm, Outi; Siitonen, Anja; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred S; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2015-07-31

    This study investigated the prevalence, serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella enterica in environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 476 samples, consisting of 36 samples of tap water, 51 samples of well water, 87 samples of channel water, 44 samples of reservoir water, 238 samples of fish, and 20 samples of lettuce were examined using standard bacteriological procedures for Salmonella. Salmonella were isolated from 98 samples. Salmonella were rare in drinking water, since they were not found at all from the tap water, and only in 2 % of well water. Salmonella were more common in the water of reservoir of Tanghin (15 %), reservoir of Yamtenga (20 %), and in the water channels in the city (from 20 to 31 %). Salmonella were commonly isolated from the fish (24 %) caught from the reservoir of Tanghin and from the lettuce (50 %) irrigated with water from Tanghin. The Salmonella isolates were found to represent 50 different serotypes. The 11 most common serotypes were Salmonella Bredeney and S. Colindale (both 8.2 %), S. Muenster (6.1 %), S. Korlebu (5.1 %), S. Eastbourne and S. Poona (both 4.1 %), and S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Drac, S. Senftenberg, S. Waycross (each 3.1 %), accounting for 51.3 % of all the isolates. In general, the Salmonella strains were sensitive to the antimicrobials tested, but two strains were resistant to streptomycin and many more intermediate to streptomycin or sulphonamide. This study highlights the common prevalence of Salmonella and the high diversity of Salmonella serotypes in aquatic environment in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Therefore, various human activities linked to water and consumption of water-related products, such as fish and lettuce, can lead to human Salmonella infections.

  7. Assessing the effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate concentration on transfer of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in wash water for production of minimally processed iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, D F; Sant'Ana, A S; Monteiro, G; Schaffner, D W; Franco, B D G M

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 250 mg l(-1) ) in wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from contaminated lettuce to wash water and then to other noncontaminated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water. Experiments were designed mimicking the conditions commonly seen in minimally processed vegetable (MPV) processing plants in Brazil. The scenarios were as follows: (1) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in nonchlorinated water, followed by washing 10 noninoculated portions sequentially. (2) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in chlorinated water followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (3) Washing five inoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (4) Washing five noninoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five inoculated portions sequentially and then by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially in the same water. Salm. Typhimurium transfer from inoculated lettuce to wash water and further dissemination to noninoculated lettuces occurred when nonchlorinated water was used (scenario 1). When chlorinated water was used (scenarios 2, 3 and 4), no measurable Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred if the sanitizer was ≥10 mg l(-1) . Use of sanitizers in correct concentrations is important to minimize the risk of microbial transfer during MPV washing. In this study, the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from inoculated lettuce to wash water and then to other noninoculated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water was evaluated. The use of chlorinated water, at concentration above 10 mg l(-1) , effectively prevented Salm. Typhimurium transfer under several different washing scenarios. Conversely, when nonchlorinated water was used, Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred in

  8. Nanostructured MnO2 catalyst in E. crassipes (water hyacinth for indigo carmine degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cuervo Blanco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of water hyacinth’s dried matter (Eichhornia crasippes as a support matrix for nano-MnO2 and its application for the removal of indigo carmine (IC was studied. Different pretreatment processes were tested and results indicated that an acid-alkali pretreatment is an efficient method to binding nanoparticles (NPs to cellulosic matrix. In adittion, the MnO2 NPs were synthesized by sonochemical reduction of MnO4- using different methods (ultrasonic horn system, ultrasonic bath and reaction with ethanol, where the influence of the precursor concentration was observed. The synthesized material was further characterized by ATR-IR, AAS, XRD, SEM, nitrogen isotherms adsorption, EDS, and pHpzc. The IC removal capacity of the nanostructured material, the chemical nature of the degradation products and the effect of various parameters (temperature, pH, initial IC concentration, among others were explored in water samples. After this process, the material, obtained by the ultrasonic bath method, was able to remove 97.6% of IC color in five min, without losing dye degradability efficiency for several consecutive cycles. Through this approach, environmental dangerous effluents from many commercial activities such as textile industry can be efficiently removed with low cost, using synthesize process biodegradable nanocomposite materials.

  9. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, A.; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaves, and flowers of Eichornia crassipes; (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl [DPPH] radical...... and in the antioxidant activities of extracts from the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analyzed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts of gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of a varied number of phenolic acids...... oil. Our results demonstrate that E. crassipes, an underutilized aquatic weed, could be a potential natural antioxidant source for food, feed, and pharmaceutical applications. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  10. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating...... the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analysed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and phydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of varied number of phenolic acids. Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained...... the highest total phenolic content, were found to have high DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Ethanolic extracts of leaf were found to have high Fe2+ chelating activity and inhibited lipid peroxidation in liposomes and fish oil. Our results demonstrate that E. crassipes, an underutilized...

  11. The capacity of aquatic macrophytes for phytoremediation and their disposal with specific reference to water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newete, Solomon W; Byrne, Marcus J

    2016-06-01

    The actual amount of fresh water readily accessible for use is phytoremediation is well documented. However, little is known about the fate of those plants after phytoremediation. This paper reviews the options for safe disposal of waste plant biomass after phytoremediation. Among the few mentioned in the literature are briquetting, incineration and biogasification. The economic viability of such processes and the safety of their economic products for domestic use are however, not yet established. Over half of the nations in the world are involved in mining of precious metals, and tailings dams are the widespread legacy of such activities. Thus, the disposal of polluted plant biomass onto mine storage facilities such as tailing dams could be an interim solution. There, the material can act as mulch for the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and suppress dust. Plant decomposition might liberate its contaminants, but in a site where containment is a priority.

  12. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and fresh water aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    The ORCA clone of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae has been in culture continuously for over two years. Yield for the past year has averaged 12 g ash-free dry wt/m/sup 2/ .day (17.5 t/a.y) in suspended 2600-1 aluminum tank cultures with four exchanges of enriched seawater per day and continuous aeration. Yields from nonintensive pond-bottom culture, similar to commercial Gracilaria culture methods in Taiwan, averaged 3 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day in preliminary experiments. Rope and spray cultures were not successful. Yields of water hyacinths from March 1978 to March 1979 averaged 25 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day (37 t/a.y). Season, nutrient availability (form and quantity) and stand density were found to affect the relative proportions of structural and nonstructural tissue in water hyacinths and thereby significantly affect digestibility of and methane production by the plants. Pennywort (Hydrocotyle) grew poorly in winter and its annual yield averaged only one-third that of water hyacinth. Water lettuce (Pistia) appears more comparable to hyacinths in preliminary studies and its yields will be monitored throughout a complete year. Stable, continuous anaerobic digestion of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been maintained with an average gas production from both species of 0.4 1/g volatile solids at 60% methane.

  13. MINERAL NUTRITION OF CRISPHEAD LETTUCE GROWN IN A HYDROPONIC SYSTEM WITH BRACKISH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMMADY RAMALHO E SOARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water availability in the Brazilian semiarid is restricted and often the only water source available has high salt concentrations. Hydroponics allows using these waters for production of various crops, including vegetables, however, the water salinity can cause nutritional disorders. Thus, two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, to evaluate the effects of salinity on the mineral nutrition of crisphead lettuce, cultivar Taina, in a hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique, using brackish water in the nutrient solution, which was prepared by adding NaCl to the local water (0.2 dS m-1. A randomized blocks experimental design was used in both experiments. The treatments consisted of water of different salinity levels (0.2, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 dS m-1 with four replications, totaling 24 plots for each experiment. The water added to compensate for the water-depth loss due to evapotranspiration (WCET was the brackish water of each treatment in Experiment I and the local water without modifications in Experiment II. The increase in the salinity of the water used for the nutrient solution preparation reduced the foliar phosphorus and potassium contents and increased the chloride and sodium contents, regardless of the WCET. Foliar nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and sulfur contents were not affected by increasing the water salinity used for the nutrient solution preparation.

  14. Lettuce facing microcystins-rich irrigation water at different developmental stages: Effects on plant performance and microcystins bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levizou, Efi; Statiris, George; Papadimitriou, Theodoti; Laspidou, Chrysi S; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the microcystins (MCs)-rich irrigation water effect on lettuce of different developmental stages, i.e. during a two months period, covering the whole period from seed germination to harvest at marketable size of the plant. We followed four lettuce plant groups receiving MCs-rich water (1.81μgl -1 of dissolved MCs), originating from the Karla Reservoir, central Greece: 1) from seeds, 2) the cotyledon, 3) two true leaves and 4) four true leaves stages, all of which were compared to control plants that received tap water. Lettuce growth, photosynthetic performance, biochemical and mineral characteristics, as well as MCs accumulation in leaves, roots and soil were measured. The overall performance of lettuce at various developmental stages pointed to increased tolerance since growth showed minor alterations and non-enzymatic antioxidants remained unaffected. Plants receiving MCs-rich water from the seed stage exhibited higher photosynthetic capacity, chlorophylls and leaf nitrogen content. Nevertheless, considerable MCs accumulation in various plant tissues occurred. The earlier in their development lettuce plants started receiving MCs-rich water, the more MCs they accumulated: roots and leaves of plants exposed to MCs-rich water from seeds and cotyledons stage exhibited doubled MCs concentrations compared to respective tissues of the 4 Leaves group. Furthermore, roots accumulated significantly higher MCs amounts than leaves of the same plant group. Concerning human health risk, the Estimated Daily Intake values (EDI) of Seed and Cotyledon groups leaves exceeded Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) by a factor of 6, while 2 Leaves and 4 Leaves groups exceeded TDI by a factor of 4.4 and 2.4 respectively. Our results indicate that irrigation of lettuce with MCs-rich water may constitute a serious public health risk, especially when contaminated water is received from the very early developmental stages (seed and cotyledon). Finally, results obtained for

  15. Improving Water Use Efficiency of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Using Phosphorous Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhader, Asad M F; Abu Rayyan, Azmi M

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorous (P) fertilizers application to an alkaline calcareous soil on the water use efficiency (WUE) of lettuce cultivar "robinson" of iceberg type. Head fresh and dry weights, total water applied and WUE were affected significantly by the P fertilizer type and rate. P fertilizers addition induced a significant enhancement in the WUE and fresh and dry weights of the crop. A local phosphate rock (PR) applied directly was found to be inferior to the other types of P fertilizers (Mono ammonium phosphate (MAP), Single superphosphate (SSP), and Di ammonium phosphate ((DAP)). MAP fertilizer at 375 and 500 kg P2O5/ha application rates recorded the highest significant values of head fresh weight and WUE, respectively.

  16. water lettuce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    to control. This study shows that aqueous extract of P. stratiotes leaves may have detrimental effect on body weight as the body weight decreases with increased doses of the leaves extract. The current study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of crude extract of Pistia stratiotes 100,. 200, 300 kg/mg administration ...

  17. Lettuce breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the 2016-2017 period, major efforts targeted resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia species, Verticillium wilt, Fusarium wilt, bacterial leaf spot, corky root, downy mildew, drought tolerance, lettuce aphid, tipburn, shelf-life of salad-cut lettuce, and multiple disease resistance. Resi...

  18. The long chain of the n-hexane fraction of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes): extrction, estimation, GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Khan, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Oily fraction was extracted from the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using n-hexane by both cold and hot extraction in 5.5 ± 0.05% and 9.30 ± 0.05%, respectively, however, no difference was found in the nature of the compounds extracted by the two processes. The analysis of this oil was carried out using GC-FID and GC-MS in separate experiments and the nature of the compounds was investigated by library matching of the spectra obtained through GC-MS. This extract was found to contain 33.267% of the nonadecan-4-ol and 20.51% of a long chain ketone in addition to various quantities of the long chain nitrogenous compounds. The antibacterial activity of the extract was investigated against eight pathogenic bacteria and fungus Candida albican using disc diffusion method. The extract was found to be highly active against all tested bacterial strains except S. typhi. For most of the strains the activity of the extract was near the reference. Ciprofloxacin, clotrimazole and erythromycin were used as reference antibiotics. (author)

  19. Thermodynamics and kinetics parameters of co-combustion between sewage sludge and water hyacinth in CO2/O2 atmosphere as biomass to solid biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limao; Liu, Jingyong; He, Yao; Sun, Shuiyu; Chen, Jiacong; Sun, Jian; Chang, KenLin; Kuo, Jiahong; Ning, Xun'an

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of sewage sludge (SS) and water hyacinth (WH) co-combustion as a blend fuel (SW) for bioenergy production were studied through thermogravimetric analysis. In CO2/O2 atmosphere, the combustion performance of SS added with 10-40wt.% WH was improved 1-1.97 times as revealed by the comprehensive combustion characteristic index (CCI). The conversion of SW in different atmospheres was identified and their thermodynamic parameters (ΔH,ΔS,ΔG) were obtained. As the oxygen concentration increased from 20% to 70%, the ignition temperature of SW decreased from 243.1°C to 240.3°C, and the maximum weight loss rate and CCI increased from 5.70%·min(-1) to 7.26%·min(-1) and from 4.913%(2)·K(-3)·min(-2) to 6.327%(2)·K(-3)·min(-2), respectively, which corresponded to the variation in ΔS and ΔG. The lowest activation energy (Ea) of SW was obtained in CO2/O2=7/3 atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of catalysts on co-combustion of sewage sludge and water hyacinth blends as determined by TG-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limao; Xie, Candie; Liu, Jingyong; Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, KenLin; Kuo, Jiahong; Sun, Jian; Xie, Wuming; Zheng, Li; Sun, Shuiyu; Buyukada, Musa; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Effects of the three metal carbonates (K 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , and MgCO 3 ) were quantified on catalytic co-combustion of the sewage sludge and water hyacinth (SW) blend using a thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis and kinetics modeling. The main dominating steps of the catalysts were the organic volatile matter release and combustion stage. Weighted mean values of activation energy (E m ) were estimated at 181.18KJ·mol -1 , 199.76KJ·mol -1 , 138.76KJ·mol -1 , and 177.88KJ·mol -1 for SW, SW+5% K 2 CO 3 , SW+5% Na 2 CO 3 , and SW+5% MgCO 3 , respectively. The lowest E m occurred with SW+5% Na 2 CO 3 . Overall, catalyst effect on co-combustion appeared to be negligible as indicated by Gibbs free energy (ΔG). The normalized intensities of SW+MgCO 3 were strongest. The addition of Na 2 CO 3 and MgCO 3 to SW increased flue gases emissions (CO 2 , NO 2 , SO 2 , HCN, and NH 3 ) of SW, whereas the addition of K 2 CO 3 to SW reduced flue gases emissions from the entire combustion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Irrigation Water Sources and Time Intervals as Variables on the Presence of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on Romaine Lettuce Grown in Muck Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévremont, Evelyne; Lamoureux, Lisyanne; Généreux, Mylène; Côté, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Irrigation water has been identified as a possible source of vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens. Risk management for pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in fields can be influenced by the source of the irrigation water and the time interval between last irrigation and harvest. Plots of romaine lettuce were irrigated with manure-contaminated water or aerated pond water 21, 7, or 3 days prior to harvesting, and water and muck soil samples were collected at each irrigation treatment. Lettuce samples were collected at the end of the trials. The samples were tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and L. monocytogenes. Campylobacter coli was isolated from 33% of hog manure samples (n = 9) and from 11% of the contaminated water samples (n = 27), but no lettuce samples were positive (n = 288). L. monocytogenes was not found in manure, and only one sample of manure-contaminated irrigation water (n = 27) and one lettuce sample (n = 288) were positive. No Campylobacter or L. monocytogenes was recovered from the soil samples (n = 288). Because of the low incidence of pathogens, it was not possible to link the contamination of either soil or lettuce with the type of irrigation water. Nevertheless, experimental field trials mimicking real conditions provide new insights into the survival of two significant foodborne pathogens on romaine lettuce.

  2. Effects of hyacinth residues on chemical properties and productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed that has blocked many navigable water-ways in the tropics. Attempts have been made to control or erradicate it to no avail. Its capacity to produce large biomass in a short time could be explored to seek other ways of utilizing it as a biofertiliser. An evaluation of the ...

  3. Enteric Pathogen Survival Varies Substantially in Irrigation Water from Belgian Lettuce Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Linden, Inge; Cottyn, Bart; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Berkvens, Nick; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Martine

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that irrigation water is a potential carrier of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and, therefore, a source for contamination of fresh produce. We tested this by comparing irrigation water samples taken from five different greenhouses in Belgium. The water samples were inoculated with four zoonotic strains, two Salmonella and two E. coli O157:H7 strains, and pathogen survival and growth in the water were monitored up till 14 days. The influence of water temperature and chemical water quality was evaluated, and the survival tests were also performed in water samples from which the resident aquatic microbiota had previously been eliminated by filter sterilization. The pathogen’s survival differed greatly in the different irrigation waters. Three water samples contained nutrients to support important growth of the pathogens, and another enabled weaker growth. However, for all, growth was only observed in the samples that did not contain the resident aquatic microbiota. In the original waters with their specific water biota, pathogen levels declined. The same survival tendencies existed in water of 4 °C and 20 °C, although always more expressed at 20 °C. Low water temperatures resulted in longer pathogen survival. Remarkably, the survival capacity of two E. coli 0157:H7 strains differed, while Salmonella Thompson and Salmonella Typhimurium behaved similarly. The pathogens were also transferred to detached lettuce leaves, while suspended in two of the water samples or in a buffer. The effect of the water sample on the pathogen’s fitness was also reproduced on the leaves when stored at 100% relative humidity. Inoculation of the suspension in buffer or in one of the water samples enabled epiphytic growth and survival, while the pathogen level in the other water sample decreased once loaded on the leaves. Our results show that irrigation waters from different origin may have a different capacity to transmit enteric pathogens and

  4. Potential of domestic sewage effluent treated as a source of water and nutrients in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Cuba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative sources of water for agriculture makes the use of treated sewage sludge an important strategy for achieving sustainability. This study evaluated the feasibility of reusing treated sewage effluent as alternative source of water and nutrients for the hydroponic cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Center for Agricultural Sciences - UFSCar, in Araras, SP. The cultivation took place from February to March 2014. The hydroponic system used was the Nutrient Film Technique, and included three treatments: 1 water supply and mineral fertilizers (TA; 2 use of effluent treated and complemented with mineral fertilizers based on results of previous chemical analysis (TRA; and 3 use of treated effluent (TR. The applied experimental design was four randomly distributed blocks. We evaluated the fresh weight, nutritional status, the microbiological quality of the culture, and the amount of mineral fertilizers used in the treatments. The fresh weights were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Only the TR treatment showed a significant difference in the evaluated variables, as symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in plants and significant reduction in fresh weights (p <0.01 were found. There was no detectable presence of Escherichia coli in any treatment, and it was possible to use less of some fertilizers in the TRA treatment compared to TA.

  5. Arsenic reduction from aqueous environment by water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arindam; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2003-04-01

    Arsenate uptake by aquatic plant water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) was studied in the laboratory condition to investigate a low cost natural aquatic treatment system for pollutant removal. The plants were harvested from a local pollution free pond in young condition and hydroponically cultured in the laboratory. Bioaccumulation was noticed to be both concentration and duration dependent. The results show that the plant could effectively abosrb arsenic between a range of 0.25 to 5.0 mg/l to the extent of 82.0 to 22.8% for a biomass of 20g/l at pH 7.0 after 144 hours. The results were also plotted in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the data were well fitted. The sorption capacity was evaluated as 1.43 mg/g for Langmuir isotherm and 1.01 mg/g for Freundlich isotherm. The removal efficiency was, however, noted to be maximum (87.5%) at pH 6.5. The effect of biomass quantity has also been investigated along with some metabolic parameters.

  6. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 1: Edible strawberries and lettuce grown in reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Dickenson, Eric R V; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern present in domestic waste streams include a highly diverse group of potentially biologically active compounds that can be detected at trace levels in wastewater. Concerns about potential uptake into crops arise when reclaimed water is used in food crop production. The present study investigated how 9 contaminants of emerging concern in reclaimed water are taken up into edible portions of two food crops. Two flame retardant chemicals, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and several polar pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) accumulated in a linear, concentration-dependent manner in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) irrigated with reclaimed water, suggesting passive uptake of both neutral and ionizable chemical contaminants in lettuce. Furthermore, concentration-dependent accumulation of TCEP and TCPP from reclaimed water was also observed in strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa). Collectively, these data suggest that highly polar or charged contaminants can be taken up by crops from water bearing contaminants of emerging concern and can be accumulated in the edible portions. Using these data, however, estimates of human exposure to these contaminants from reclaimed water food crop accumulation suggest that exposure to the contaminants of emerging concern examined in the present study is likely substantially lower than current exposure guidelines. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Influence of season growth, soils and irrigation water composition on the concentration of uranium in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties. Field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Neves, O.; Marcelino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Former uranium mines areas are frequently the sources of environmental radionuclides problems even many years after the closure of mining operations. A concern for inhabitants from mining areas is the use of contaminated land or irrigation water for agriculture, and the potential transfer of metals from soils to vegetables, and to humans through the food chain. The main aim of this study was to compare the uranium concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties Marady and Romana) grown in different seasons (autumn and summer) and exposed to high and low uranium concentrations both in irrigation water and agricultural soil. The content of uranium in irrigation water, soil (total and available fraction) and in lettuce leaf samples was analyzed in a certified laboratory. In the field experiments, two agricultural soils were divided into two plots (four replicates each); one of them was irrigated with uranium contaminated water (0.94 to 1.14 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (< 0.02 mg/L). Irrigation with contaminated water together with highest soil uranium available concentration (10 to 13 mg/kg) had negative effects on both studied lettuce varieties, namely yield reduction (up to 53% and 87% in autumn and summer experiments, respectively) and increase of uranium leaf concentration (up to 1.4 and 7 fold in autumn and summer, respectively). Effect on lettuce yield was mainly due to the high soil salinity (1.01 to 6.31 mS/cm) as a consequence of high irrigation water electrical conductivity (up to 1.82 mS/cm) and low lettuce soil salinity tolerance (1 to 3 mS/cm). The highest lettuce uranium concentration (dry weight) observed was 2.13 and 5.37 mg/kg for Marady and Romana variety, respectively. The highest uranium lettuce concentration in Romana variety was also the effect of its growing in summer season when it was subject to greatest frequency and amount of water irrigation. The consumption by an adult of the lettuce that concentrate more uranium

  8. Determination of nitrate in lettuce by ion chromatography after microwave water extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Brevilato Novaes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is worldwide known as the most important vegetable. In this context, most farmers are searching new techniques for best quality products including hydropony. However, nitrate is of great concern, since it has a negative impact on human metabolism. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the nitrate content of lettuce produced by conventional and hydroponic systems. The determination was conducted by ion chromatography and a new method of extraction was tested using microwave oven digestion. The results indicated that nitrate level produced in the conventional system was lower than in the hydroponic system.

  9. Efficacy of chlorine, acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous chlorine dioxide solutions to decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, Lindsey A; Burke, Angela; Annous, Bassam A

    2009-06-30

    This study compared the efficacy of chlorine (20-200 ppm), acidic electrolyzed water (50 ppm chlorine, pH 2.6), acidified sodium chlorite (20-200 ppm chlorite ion concentration, Sanova), and aqueous chlorine dioxide (20-200 ppm chlorite ion concentration, TriNova) washes in reducing populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on artificially inoculated lettuce. Fresh-cut leaves of Romaine or Iceberg lettuce were inoculated by immersion in water containing E. coli O157:H7 (8 log CFU/ml) for 5 min and dried in a salad spinner. Leaves (25 g) were then washed for 2 min, immediately or following 24 h of storage at 4 degrees C. The washing treatments containing chlorite ion concentrations of 100 and 200 ppm were the most effective against E. coli O157:H7 populations on Iceberg lettuce, with log reductions as high as 1.25 log CFU/g and 1.05 log CFU/g for TriNova and Sanova wash treatments, respectively. All other wash treatments resulted in population reductions of less than 1 log CFU/g. Chlorine (200 ppm), TriNova, Sanova, and acidic electrolyzed water were all equally effective against E. coli O157:H7 on Romaine, with log reductions of approximately 1 log CFU/g. The 20 ppm chlorine wash was as effective as the deionized water wash in reducing populations of E. coli O157:H7 on Romaine and Iceberg lettuce. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that E. coli O157:H7 that was incorporated into biofilms or located in damage lettuce tissue remained on the lettuce leaf, while individual cells on undamaged leaf surfaces were more likely to be washed away.

  10. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Wim; Holwerda, Harmen T; Khodabaks, Rashied

    2010-04-15

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce, grown in water culture. In both a winter and summer trial, dose rates of 0, 13, 39, 65, and 90 or 129 microg iodine L(-1), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) or iodide (I(-)), did not affect plant biomass, produce quality or water uptake. Increases in iodine concentration significantly enhanced iodine content in the plant. Iodine contents in plant tissue were up to five times higher with I(-) than with IO(3)(-). Iodine was mainly distributed to the outer leaves. The highest iodide dose rates in both trials resulted in 653 and 764 microg iodine kg(-1) total leaf fresh weight. Biofortification of lettuce with iodine is easily applicable in a hydroponic growing system, both with I(-) and IO(3)(-). I(-) was more effective than IO(3)(-). Fifty grams of iodine-biofortified lettuce would provide, respectively, 22% and 25% of the recommended daily allowance of iodine for adolescents and adults. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation and water lettuce in the fresh and oligohaline tidal Potomac River, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah Hunter; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys documenting the composition of species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been conducted in the Potomac River for decades. These surveys can help managers assess the proportion of native and exotic plants in the river or can be used to determine relationships between native and exotic plants, environmental conditions, and wildlife. SAV coverage increased from 2005 to 2007 throughout the fresh and oligohaline study area. The 2007 survey documented here determined that eleven species of SAV were present. The abundance of the exotic species Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) was relatively low, and species diversity was relatively high compared to previous years. The survey also revealed a new population of the invasive, floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce). In 2007, water lettuce, the latest exotic aquatic plant to be found in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River, was most abundant in Mattawoman Creek, Charles County, Maryland. However, it was not observed in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River in the summer of 2008. An understanding of the distribution of SAV species and factors governing the abundance of native and invasive aquatic species is enhanced by long-term surveys.

  12. Digestibilidade aparente da farinha de aguapé em tilápias-do-nilo Apparent digestibility of water hyacinth meal by Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Vicente Biudes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar e comparar as digestibilidades aparentes da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e energia bruta (EB e as disponibilidades aparentes de minerais das farinhas da biomassa emersa (lâmina foliar e pecíolo, submersa (raiz e rizoma e total do aguapé em tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram elaboradas quatro rações marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio-III (uma ração-referência purificada e três contendo 30,0% de cada ingrediente. As tilápias-do-nilo (125,5 ± 10,5 g foram alimentadas até a saciedade e a coleta de fezes foi realizada pelo sistema Ghelph modificado. As digestibilidades aparentes da farinha da biomassa emersa (MS = 57,8; PB = 72,3; EE = 63,2 e EB = 62,0% foram maiores que as das farinhas da biomassa total (MS = 45,7; PB = 57,3; EE = 50,3 e EB = 42,3% e submersa (MS = 38,3; PB = 50,8; EE = 43,5 e EB = 32,0%. As disponibilidades aparentes de fósforo (P, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, manganês (Mn, cobre (Cu e zinco (Zn da farinha da biomassa emersa também foram maiores. A farinha de biomassa emersa do aguapé apresenta melhor digestibilidade e disponibilidade aparente dos nutrientes em comparação às farinhas da biomassa total e submersa.This study was carried out to determine and compare the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fat (CF, gross energy (GE, and the apparent availability of minerals (P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn of emergent (leaf and petiole, submerged (root and rhizome and total biomass meal of water hyacinth for Nile tilapia. Four diets were prepared, containing 0.10% chromic oxide-III, one being the reference diet (purified and the others containing 30% of each ingredient. The Nile tilapias (125.5 ± 10.5 g were fed until satiation and the feces were collected by the modified Guelph system. The apparent digestibility of emergent biomass meal (DM = 57.8, CP = 72.3, CF = 63.2, and GE = 62.0% was higher than

  13. Sequential disinfection of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves by aqueous chlorine dioxide, ozonated water, and thyme essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nepal; Singh, Rakesh K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Stroshine, Richard L.; Simon, James E.

    2001-03-01

    There have been numerous studies on effectiveness of different sanitizers for microbial inactivation. However, results obtained from different studies indicate that microorganism cannot be easily removed from fresh cut vegetables because of puncture and cut surfaces with varying surface topographies. In this study, three step disinfection approach was evaluated for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves. Sequential application of thyme oil, ozonated water, and aqueous chlorine dioxide was evaluated in which thyme oil was applied first followed by ozonated water and aqueous chlorine dioxide. Shredded lettuce leaves inoculated with cocktail culture of E. coli O157:H7 (C7927, EDL 933 and 204 P), were washed with ozonated water (15 mg/l for 10min), aqueous chlorine dioxide (10 mg/l,for 10min) and thyme oil suspension (0.1%, v/v for 5min). Washing of lettuce leaves with ozonated water, chlorine dioxide and thyme oil suspension resulted in 0.44, 1.20, and 1.46 log reduction (log10 cfu/g), respectively. However, the sequential treatment achieved approximately 3.13 log reductions (log10 cfu/g). These results demonstrate the efficacy of sequential treatments in decontaminating shredded lettuce leaves containing E. coli O157:H7.

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. Evaluation of the potential of Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce for bioindication and phytoremediation of aquatic environments contaminated with arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS Farnese

    Full Text Available Specimens of Pistia stratiotes were subjected to five concentrations of arsenic (As for seven days. Growth, As absorption, malondialdehyde (MDA content, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic activities, amino acids content and anatomical changes were assessed. Plant arsenic accumulation increased with increasing metalloid in the solution, while growth rate and photosynthetic pigment content decreased. The MDA content increased, indicating oxidative stress. Enzymatic activity and amino acids content increased at the lower doses of As, subsequently declining in the higher concentrations. Chlorosis and necrosis were observed in the leaves. Leaves showed starch accumulation and increased thickness of the mesophyll. In the root system, there was a loss and darkening of roots. Cell layers formed at the insertion points on the root stems may have been responsible for the loss of roots. These results indicate that water lettuce shows potential for bioindication and phytoremediation of As-contaminated aquatic environments.

  16. Evaluation of the potential of Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) for bioindication and phytoremediation of aquatic environments contaminated with arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnese, F S; Oliveira, J A; Lima, F S; Leão, G A; Gusman, G S; Silva, L C

    2014-08-01

    Specimens of Pistia stratiotes were subjected to five concentrations of arsenic (As) for seven days. Growth, As absorption, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic activities, amino acids content and anatomical changes were assessed. Plant arsenic accumulation increased with increasing metalloid in the solution, while growth rate and photosynthetic pigment content decreased. The MDA content increased, indicating oxidative stress. Enzymatic activity and amino acids content increased at the lower doses of As, subsequently declining in the higher concentrations. Chlorosis and necrosis were observed in the leaves. Leaves showed starch accumulation and increased thickness of the mesophyll. In the root system, there was a loss and darkening of roots. Cell layers formed at the insertion points on the root stems may have been responsible for the loss of roots. These results indicate that water lettuce shows potential for bioindication and phytoremediation of As-contaminated aquatic environments.

  17. CRECIMIENTO Y POTENCIAL REPRODUCTIVO DE LA BORA ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms ( PONTEDER I ACEA E EN ALGUNAS LAGUNAS DE LA PLANICIE DE INUNDACIÓN DEL TRAMO MEDIO, RÍO ORINOCO, VENEZUELA I GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF WATER HYACINTH ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. SOLMS (PONTEDERIACEAE IN SOME LAGOONS AT FLOODPLAIN OF THE MIDDLE ORINOCO RIVER, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Rodríguez R.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes grows naturally in some floodplains of the middle Orinoco River. Its widespread distribution and biomass is causing a great impact in the towns near these lentic ecosystems. The vegetative growth, floral biology and fecundity of E. crassipes were determined in the Castillero, Teja and Tejita lagoons near Caicara del Orinoco, from January to July 2005, during the dry season. Plants were placed at initial density of five rosettes in floating baskets in the floodplains and the number of daughter plants (g. m -2 and dry biomass m-2 were determined at fifteen, thirty, sixty and ninety days after seeding. The number of plants with and without flowers or fructified were counted in areas of the lagoons with the highest flowering intensity. The spatial distribution of stamens in relation to the stigma were observed in order to determine the presence of heterostyly. The number of water hyacinth plants and weight can double in an average of 20 and 24 days, respectively. The fastest growth rate (rossettes m -2 was found in January and February while the major growth rate in dry weight m-2 was recorded in February-May. It is frequent to find inflorescences in the dry season and occasionally in the wet season. From the kinds of heterostityly only plants with mesostyle flowers were found . The reproduction of water hyacinth is mainly vegetative and seeds are scarcely found in the capsules

  18. Simulation of Crop Growth and Water-Saving Irrigation Scenarios for Lettuce: A Monsoon-Climate Case Study in Kampong Chhnang, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinnara Ket

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Setting up water-saving irrigation strategies is a major challenge farmers face, in order to adapt to climate change and to improve water-use efficiency in crop productions. Currently, the production of vegetables, such as lettuce, poses a greater challenge in managing effective water irrigation, due to their sensitivity to water shortage. Crop growth models, such as AquaCrop, play an important role in exploring and providing effective irrigation strategies under various environmental conditions. The objectives of this study were (i to parameterise the AquaCrop model for lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L. using data from farmers’ fields in Cambodia, and (ii to assess the impact of two distinct full and deficit irrigation scenarios in silico, using AquaCrop, under two contrasting soil types in the Cambodian climate. Field observations of biomass and canopy cover during the growing season of 2017 were used to adjust the crop growth parameters of the model. The results confirmed the ability of AquaCrop to correctly simulate lettuce growth. The irrigation scenario analysis suggested that deficit irrigation is a “silver bullet” water saving strategy that can save 20–60% of water compared to full irrigation scenarios in the conditions of this study.

  19. The use of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2017-10-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  20. Estimate of uptake and translocation of emerging organic contaminants from irrigation water concentration in lettuce grown under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Domínguez, Carmen; Pérez-Babace, Lorea; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-03-15

    The widespread distribution of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in the water cycle can lead to their incorporation in irrigated crops, posing a potential risk for human consumption. To gain further insight into the processes controlling the uptake of organic microcontaminants, Batavia lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown under controlled conditions was watered with EOCs (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, sulfonamides, β-blockers, phenolic estrogens, anticonvulsants, stimulants, polycyclic musks, biocides) at different concentrations (0-40μgL(-1)). Linear correlations were obtained between the EOC concentrations in the roots and leaves and the watering concentrations for most of the contaminants investigated. However, large differences were found in the root concentration factors ( [Formula: see text] =0.27-733) and leaf translocation concentration factors ( [Formula: see text] =0-3) depending on the persistence of the target contaminants in the rhizosphere and the specific physicochemical properties of each one. With the obtained dataset, a simple predictive model based on a linear regression and the root bioconcentration and translocation factors can be used to estimate the concentration of the target EOCs in leaves based on the dose supplied in the irrigation water or the soil concentration. Finally, enantiomeric fractionation of racemic ibuprofen from the initial spiking mixture suggests that biodegradation mainly occurs in the rhizosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential internalisation of caliciviruses in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanucci, A; Myrmel, M; Berg, I; von Bonsdorff, C-H; Maunula, L

    2009-10-31

    Fresh produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) has often been linked to epidemic viral gastroenteritis. In these cases, it is unknown whether the viral contamination has occurred during the growing or the processing of the implicated product. In this study lettuce was grown in the presence of enteric viruses, and the uptake of viruses via the roots into the edible parts (leaves and stem) of the lettuce plants was investigated, for plants with both intact and damaged roots. The roots of lettuce, growing either in hydroponic culture or in soil, were exposed to canine calicivirus (CaCV) and a human genogroup 2 norovirus (HuNoV) by these being added into the water or soil in which the lettuce was growing. Leaves from lettuce plants and seedlings were examined for viruses by real-time RT-PCR. When the lettuce plants were exposed to very high concentrations of CaCV, the virus was detected in lettuce leaves, indicating contamination via the roots, but the frequency of positive results was low. Internalisation occurred in both seedlings and grown plants, in both hydroponic and soil cultures, and occurred whether the roots were intact or damaged. However, internalisation of HuNoV was not detected in any of the experimental set ups, although the concentrations to which the plants were exposed were relatively high. Based on these results, viral contamination of lettuce plants via roots cannot be excluded, but is apparently not an important transmission route for viruses.

  2. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura

    2017-03-10

    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil. Results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the commercial hydroponic nutrient solution (i.e. solution containing water and essential nutrients) exhibited similar performance (i.e., water flux and reverse salt flux) to other inorganic draw solutions when treating synthetic wastewater. The use of hydroponic solution is highly advantageous since it provides all the required macro- (i.e., N, P and K) and micronutrients (i.e., Ca, Mg, S, Mn, B, Zn and Mo) in a single balanced solution and can therefore be used directly after dilution without the need to add any elements. After long-term operation (i.e. up to 75% water recovery), different physical cleaning methods were tested and results showed that hydraulic flushing can effectively restore up to 75% of the initial water flux while osmotic backwashing was able to restore the initial water flux by more than 95%; illustrating the low-fouling potential of the FDFO process. Pilot-scale studies demonstrated that the FDFO process is able to produce the required nutrient concentration and final water quality (i.e., pH and conductivity) suitable for hydroponic applications. Coupling FDFO with pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) in the later stages could help in saving operational costs (i.e., energy and membrane replacement costs). Finally, the test application of nutrient solution produced by the pilot FDFO process to hydroponic lettuce showed similar growth pattern as the control without any signs of nutrient deficiency.

  3. Separation of acid blue 25 from aqueous solution using water lettuce and agro-wastes by batch adsorption studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Dahri, Muhammad Khairud; Lim, Linda B. L.; Lim, Lee Hoon; Chan, Chin Mei

    2018-05-01

    Three plant-based materials, namely water lettuce (WL), tarap peel (TP) and cempedak peel (CP), were used to investigate their potentials as adsorbents using acid blue 25 (AB25) dye as a model for acidic dye. The adsorbents were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscope. Batch experiments involving parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time, and initial dye concentration were done to investigate the optimal conditions for the adsorption of AB25 onto the adsorbents. Thermodynamics study showed that the uptake of AB25 by the three adsorbents was feasible and endothermic in nature. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models can be used to describe the adsorption process of AB25 onto WL and CP while pseudo-second-order fitted the kinetics data, suggesting that chemisorptions were majorly involved. The use of 0.1 M of NaOH showed the best results in regenerating of the WL, TP and CP's adsorption ability after AB25 treatment.

  4. Water hyacinth biomass stabilization by its composting with swine wasterwater and slaugther house wasters / Estabilização da biomassa de aguapé através da compostagem com águas resíduárias de suínos e resíduos de frigorífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio César Sampaio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to evaluate the composting of water hyacinth (E. crassipes biomass, after its usage for the removal of pollutants from the effluent of a swine slaughter house wastewater treatment system, recycling the waste water used for swine transportation trucks and piggery hygienic cleaning and the cellulosic gut generated in the sausage processing . The composting was evaluated by building eight composting piles measuring approximately 0,60m3 each; the piles consisted of four distinct treatments that were done twice. The treatments were: T1 – Water hyacinth (E. crassipes, T2 – Water hyacinth and swine excrement, T3 – Water hyacinth, swine excrement and earth, T4 – Water hyacinth, swine excrement and cellulosic gut, for a period of 90 days. Considering the C:N ratio as a compost maturity indicator, it was observed that the T4 treatment (water hyacinth, excrement and cellulosic gut had the shorter period of stabilization, 60 days. Regarding the biostabilization rate, the statistic analysis showed that there was no significant difference at 5% level by the F test between the four treatments evaluated during 90 days. The total organic carbon and the nitrogen biostabilization average rates were 1,8x10-2 day-1 and 0,8x10-3 day-1, respectively. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a compostagem da biomassa de aguapé (E. crassipes, após sua utilização na remoção de poluentes em sistema de tratamento de efluente de uma Unidade Frigorífica de suínos, com o aproveitamento de águas residuárias provenientes da higienização de pocilgas e dos caminhões que transportam os suínos, e das tripas celulósicas geradas no processamento de salsichas. Avaliou-se a compostagem, montando-se oito leiras com aproximadamente 0,60m3, com quatro tratamentos distintos e duas repetições, sendo: T1 – Aguapé (E. crassipes, T2 – Aguapé e dejeto suíno, T3 – Aguapé, dejeto suíno e terra, T4 – Aguap

  5. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  7. Efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water in killing or reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes under simulated food service operation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangloli, Philipus; Hung, Yen-Con

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed (SAEO) water in killing or removing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes by washing and chilling treatment simulating protocols used in food service kitchens. Whole lettuce leaves and tomatoes were spot-inoculated with 100 μL of a mixture of 5 strains of E. coli O157:H7. Washing lettuce with SAEO water for 15 s reduced the pathogen by 1.4 to 1.6 log CFU/leaf, but the treatments did not completely inactivate the pathogen in the wash solution. Increasing the washing time to 30 s increased the reductions to 1.7 to 2.3 log CFU/leaf. Sequential washing in SAEO water for 15 s and then chilling in SAEO water for 15 min also increased the reductions to 2.0 to 2.4 log CFU/leaf, and no cell survived in chilling solution after treatment. Washing tomatoes with SAEO water for 8 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 5.4 to 6.3 log CFU/tomato. The reductions were increased to 6.6 to 7.6 log CFU/tomato by increasing the washing time to 15 s. Results suggested that application of SAEO water to wash and chill lettuce and tomatoes in food service kitchens could minimize cross-contamination and reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 present on the produce. SAEO water is equally or slightly better than acidic electrolyzed (AEO) water for inactivation of bacteria on lettuce and tomato surfaces. In addition, SAEO water may have the advantages over AEO water on its stability, no chlorine smell, and low corrosiveness. Therefore, SAEO water may have potential for produce wash to enhance food safety. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Nutrient changes and biodynamics of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of water lettuce (Pistia sp.) biomass: a noxious weed of aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surindra; Pandey, Bhawna; Gusain, Rita; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Kumar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of vermicomposting of water lettuce biomass (WL) spiked with cow dung at ratios of 20, 40, 60, and 80 % employing Eisenia fetida. A total of four treatments were established and changes in chemical properties of mixtures were observed. Vermicomposting caused a decrease in pH, TOC, volatile solids, and C/N ratio by 1.01-1.08-fold, 0.85-0.92-fold, 0.94-0.96-fold, 0.56-0.70-fold, respectively, but increase in EC, tot N, tot P, tot K, tot Ca, tot Zn, tot Fe, and tot Cu, by 1.19-1.42-fold, 1.33-1.68-fold, 1.38-1.69-fold, 1.13-1.24-fold, 1.04-1.11-fold, 1.16-1.37-fold, 1.05-1.113-fold, 1.10-1.27-fold, respectively. Overall, the treatment with 60-80 % of WL showed the maximum decomposition and mineralization rates. The earthworm showed the growth and reproduction rate in considerable ranges in all treatment setups but setups with 60-80 % WL proportion exhibited the optimum results. Results reveal that biomass of water lettuce can be utilized effectively for production of valuable manure through vermicomposting system.

  9. Effect of different substrates in aquaponic lettuce production associated with intensive tilapia farming with water recirculation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Geisenhoff, Luciano O.; Jordan, Rodrigo A.; Santos, Rodrigo C.; Oliveira, Fabricio C. de; Gomes, Eder P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The integration of fish farming in intensive system and plant production, called "aquaponics" is practiced successfully in countries like the USA, Australia and Europe. In Brazil, this integration has attracted the attention of researchers and producers. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two substrates (crushed stone number 3, CS III and flexible polyurethane foam, FPF) on the production of aquaponic lettuce, moreover, to show that the residual wate...

  10. Effect of dim light irradiation on preservation of fresh lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, F.; Uchino, T.; Akimoto, K.; Hu, W.

    2001-01-01

    In order to preserve fresh lettuce, the dim light irradiation storage was investigated. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) stored for about 120 hours at 5 or 20 deg C under continuous illumination at 0 (darkness), 1.6, 3.4, 6.5, 13 or 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 photosynthetic photon flux. The light compensation point was about 3.4 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 5 deg C, about 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 20 deg C. Fresh weight of lettuce decreased by promotion of transpiration caused by the dim light. Accordingly the root of lettuce should not be removed, so as to up-take water. The optimum dim light irradiation preserved the chlorophyll content in lettuce leaf or increased it. Therefore it appeared that the dim light irradiation was effective for the fresh lettuce preservation

  11. Quantitative assessment of human exposure to extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases bearing E. coli in lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Buys, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    and irrigation water E. coli isolates was previously reported. This stochastic modeling was aimed at quantitatively assessing human exposure to ESBL/AmpC bearing E. coli through lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer. Modular process risk approach was used.......15), and prevalence of E. coli in irrigation water (ρ=0.16) had highest influence on consumer exposure. The most effective single methods in reducing consumer exposure were reduction in irrigation water microbial quality variation (87.4% reduction), storage period (49.9-87.4% reduction) and growth rate reduction...... irrigation water quality variation. The exposure levels may impose higher consumer risk than acceptable for irrigation water risk. E. coli contamination and growth related measures, as well as measures to reduce contamination with antimicrobial resistant E. coli from lettuce production environment...

  12. Biomass production of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth and Egeria densa (egeria in organic fish farm effluent treatment system / Produção de biomassa das macrófitas aquáticas Eichhornia crassipes (aguapé e Egeria densa (egeria em sistema de tratamento de efluente de piscicultura orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Coldebella

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the production of biomass of the aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and egeria (Egeria densa in three hydraulic detention times in a organic pisciculture effluent treatment system. The system was composed for 18 experimental tanks of 2.00 x 1.00 x 0.65m length, width and depth respectively, coated with polypropylene canvas. An entirely randomized 2 macrophytes x 3 hydraulic detention times (HDT and 3 repetitions. The HDT used was 4, 8, and 12 hours. The biomass production was evaluated at the end of the experiment which was extended at 08/07 to 19/08/2006. The water hyacinth showed the best results of biomass production (P0.05. For egeria the treatment that presented the best production of biomass was reached which TDH of 12 hours, being of 0.10 kg.m-2, followed for the HDT of 8 and 4 hours, not differing between the HDT (P>0.05. One concludes that the water hyacinth produced higher biomass than egeria in all of the HDT evaluated.O presente trabalho teve por o objetivo avaliar a produção de biomassa das macrófitas aquáticas aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes e egeria (Egeria densa em um sistema de tratamento de efluente de piscicultura orgânica, sob 3 condições de tempo de detenção hidráulica. O sistema foi composto por 18 tanques experimentais de 2,00 x 1,00 x 0,65 m de comprimento, largura e profundidade, respectivamente, revestidos com lona de polipropileno. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 2 macrófitas, 3 tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH e 3 repetições. Os TDH utilizados foram de 4, 8 e 12 horas. O sistema foi operado de 08/07 a 19/08/2006. A produção de biomassa foi avaliada ao final do experimento. O aguapé apresentou os melhores resultados de produção de biomassa (P0,05. Para a egeria o tratamento que apresentou a melhor produção de biomassa foi no TDH de 12 horas, sendo de 0,10 kg.m- 2, seguido pelos TDH de 8 e 4 horas, não diferindo

  13. Allelopathic effects of water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M M Shanab

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms is an invasive weed known to out-compete native plants and negatively affect microbes including phytoplankton. The spread and population density of E. crassipes will be favored by global warming. The aim here was to identify compounds that underlie the effects on microbes. The entire plant of E. crassipes was collected from El Zomor canal, River Nile (Egypt, washed clean, then air dried. Plant tissue was extracted three times with methanol and fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. The crude methanolic extract and five fractions from TLC (A-E were tested for antimicrobial (bacteria and fungal and anti-algal activities (green microalgae and cyanobacteria using paper disc diffusion bioassay. The crude extract as well as all five TLC fractions exhibited antibacterial activities against both the gram positive bacteria; Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus faecalis; and the gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by either E. crassipes crude extract nor its five fractions. In contrast, Candida albicans (yeast was inhibited by all. Some antialgal activity of the crude extract and its fractions was manifest against the green microalgae; Chlorella vulgaris and Dictyochloropsis splendida as well as the cyanobacteria; Spirulina platensis and Nostoc piscinale. High antialgal activity was only recorded against Chlorella vulgaris. Identifications of the active antimicrobial and antialgal compounds of the crude extract as well as the five TLC fractions were carried out using gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy. The analyses showed the presence of an alkaloid (fraction A and four phthalate derivatives (Fractions B-E that exhibited the antimicrobial and antialgal activities.

  14. Effect of Sunken Decomposing Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chlorophyceae dominated the diet of O. niloticus in both bays, followed by Cyanobacteria, Bacilariophyceae and macro-invertebrates. Significant differences (p<0.05) were also observed in the frequency of occurrence of these phytoplanktons in the diet of O. niloticus within the two bays. Relative importance of food ...

  15. Microbiological quality and safety assessment of lettuce production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Hessel, Claudia Titze; de Quadros Rodrigues, Rochele; Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo César; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-07-02

    The microbiological quality and safety of lettuce during primary production in Brazil were determined by enumeration of hygiene indicators Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci and detection of enteric pathogens Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in organic fertilizers, soil, irrigation water, lettuce crops, harvest boxes and worker's hands taken from six different lettuce farms throughout the crop growth cycle. Generic E. coli was a suitable indicator for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, while coliforms and enterococci were not. Few pathogens were detected: 5 salmonellae and 2 E. coli O157:H7 from 260 samples, of which only one was lettuce and the others were manure, soil and water. Most (5/7) pathogens were isolated from the same farm and all were from organic production. Statistical analysis revealed the following environmental and agro-technical risk factors for increased microbial load and pathogen prevalence in lettuce production: high temperature, flooding of lettuce fields, application of contaminated organic fertilizer, irrigation with water of inferior quality and large distances between the field and toilets. Control of the composting process of organic fertilizers and the irrigation water quality appear most crucial to improve and/or maintain the microbiological quality and safety during the primary production of lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Uso de biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes visando à remoção de metais pesados de soluções contaminadas = Use of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes dry biomass for removing heavy metals from contaminated solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a eficiência da biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes na remoção dos metais pesados cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb, cromo (Cr, cobre (Cu, zinco (Zn e níquel (Ni de soluções preparadas com estes metais. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (soluções com diferentes concentrações dos metais pesados e quatro repetições. A biomassa seca permaneceu nas soluções dos tratamentos por um período de 48h, e nos intervalos de 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 e 48h após a instalação do experimento, coletaram-se alíquotas de cada tratamento,determinando-se a maior remoção de cada metal pesado pela biomassa seca do aguapé. Foi realizada digestão nitroperclórica na biomassa seca e determinação dos teores dos metais na biomassa e nas alíquotas por espectrometria de absorção atômica, modalidade chama. Paraos metais Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu e Zn ocorreu remoção significativa pela massa seca do aguapé nos diferentes tratamentos, enquanto para o Ni não foi encontrada diferença significativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a biomassa seca produzida, a partir do aguapé Eichornia crassipes, é um excelente material para a remoção, tanto em pequena como em grande escala, de corpos hídricos contaminados com metais pesados.The present work evaluated the efficiency of the dry biomass of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes in the removal of heavy metalscadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, cupper (Cu, zinc (Zn and nickel (Ni from solutions prepared with these metals. The delineation used was entirely randomized, with five treatments (solutions with different concentrations of heavy metals and fourrepetitions. The dry biomass remained in the treatment solutions for a period of 48h. In the intervals of 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 and 48h after experiment installation, samples were collected of each treatment, determining the greater removal for each heavy metal by water hyacinth dry biomass. Nitro

  17. Estratégias de uso de água salobra na produção de alface em hidroponia NFT Strategies for use of brackish water in NFT hydroponic lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Alves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa 'Verônica' foram cultivadas em condições hidropônicas, objetivando avaliar três diferentes estratégias de emprego de águas salobras: 1 águas salobras para reposição das perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc e água doce para o preparo da solução nutritiva (SN; 2 águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc; 3 águas salobras para o preparo da SN e reposição da ETc. Os níveis de salinidade da água foram obtidos pela adição de NaCl à água doce (0,27 dS m-1: 1,45; 2,51; 3,6; 5,41 e 7,5 dS m-1. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro blocos aleatorizados, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Uma estrutura de pesquisa foi construída com 72 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. O uso de água salobra apenas para repor a ETc não produziu efeito sobre a produção da alface. Por outro lado, o uso de águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc, reduziu o rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea em 4,99% por (dS m-1. O rendimento foi reduzido em 7% por dS m-1 quando águas salobras foram usadas tanto para o preparo da SN quanto para reposição da ETc. Apesar da redução linear da produção da alface com o aumento da salinidade da água, sintomas depreciativos para a qualidade da alface hidropônica não foram registrados.Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. 'Verônica' were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate three different strategies of brackish waters utilization: 1 brackish waters to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc and fresh water to prepare nutrient solution (NS; 2 brackish waters to prepare NS and fresh water to replace the ETc; 3 brackish waters to prepare NS and replace ETc. The levels of water salinity were obtained by addition of NaCl to fresh water (0.27 dS m-1: 1.45; 2.51; 3.6; 5.41 and 7.5 dS m-1. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four

  18. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges, thus the leafy-vegetable industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The lettu...

  19. Water SA - Vol 43, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ... water in Vaalkop Dam with conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes ... water sampling sites for emerging chemical pollutants in Gauteng Province, ...

  20. Nutritional and taste characteristics of low-potassium lettuce developed for patients with chronic kidney diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Takuya; Sakuma, Kozue; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary potassium restriction is recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperkalemia. Boiling or soaking vegetables in water is known to decrease their potassium content. However, these methods can also reduce the quantity of other nutrients. Recently, low-potassium (LK) lettuce has been developed for CKD patients with hyperkalemia. This study compared the potassium content, other nutritional values, and taste characteristics of LK lettuce with those of normal lettuce. The...

  1. Persistence of 14C maneb in lettuce plants an soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Sennaoui, Z.; Meguenni, H.

    1992-10-01

    Maneb residue is studied on lettuce plant and soil after spraying on greenhouse with 14C maneb. The residues declined with time. After 37 days from the application, 14C maneb residues in water extracts declined to 1,5. 10-2ug/g from 5,8. 10-1ug/g of the zero day sample in lettuce plants and 4,6. 10-3ug/g from 1,73. 10-1ug/g in soil. The 14C internals residues in lettuce and soil increase respectively till 16 days and 24 days, then decrease to 88% and 4,05% after 37 days. ETU was present in lettuce plant after 8 days then decreases with time. Two metabolites were identified by TLC (EU,ETU)

  2. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  3. Poblaciones de hongos y actinomicetos presentes en el proceso de compostaje con base en bora (Eichhornia crassipes, residuos de café y de jardinería | Fungi and actinomycetes populations present in the composting process based on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, coffee and garden waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalys Rivas-Nichorzon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a bio-oxidative process involving numerous and varied microorganisms, whose population dynamics are influenced by the type of organic substrate used. In order to quantify fungal and actinomycetes populations and identifying fungi present during the composting process, three compost were developed with the inclusion of different organic materials, differing by the inclusion of fibrous substrates water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, coffee husks and garden waste. Three metal composters were used with dimensions: 62.5 x 77.5 x 75.0 cm. The statistical design was a randomized block with repeated measurements over time, with treatments from a 3x3 factorial arrangement, three types of compost, three evaluation times (20, 40 and 60 days and three repetitions. The values obtained were transformed to log10 and an analysis of variance was performed; means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungi count was elevated at the beginning and during the course of composting for compost based on garden waste and bora. The most frequent fungi species identified during the composting process were Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp. and Penicillium sp. Stocks of actinomycetes fell at the end of the composting process in all composts.

  4. Dióxido de carbono aplicado via água de irrigação na cultura da alface Carbon dioxide water for lettuce irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Furlan

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em Piracicaba (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de dióxido de carbono via água de irrigação na produtividade e qualidade de alface cultivada em ambiente protegido. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de dois ambientes protegidos, sendo um com aplicação de CO2 e o outro sem aplicação de CO2, onde se cultivou a alface cultivar Verônica. Cada um dos ambientes foi composto por oito parcelas com dimensões de 1,2 m x 6,0 m e espaçadas de 0,80 m. A cultura foi irrigada com o tubo gotejador "Rain Tape" com vazão de 1,15 L/h, pressão de serviço de 60 kPa e espaçamento entre gotejadores de 0,20 m. As irrigações foram feitas diariamente, tendo em vista o objetivo de aplicação diária da dose de CO2 de 50 L/m²/dia. As mudas de alface para o plantio foram formadas em ambiente protegido, em bandejas de isopor, contendo vermiculita como substrato. O transplante foi feito aos 30 dias após o semeio em canteiros de 1,2 m de largura por 6,0 m de comprimento, com espaçamento entre as plantas de 0,30 m e entre linhas de 0,30 m. A aplicação de CO2 foi iniciada no dia 02 de outubro de 1997, sendo feita diariamente, estendendo-se por um período de 30 dias, quando foi então realizada a colheita final da cultura de alface. A aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação proporcionou aumentos de área foliar e consequentemente do peso da matéria seca da parte aérea, de cerca de 27%, aos 30 dias após o transplantio. O diâmetro da cabeça de alface, número de folhas e o rendimento de cabeças aumentaram em media 15,9%, 5,5% e 28,8%, respectivamente, em comparação aos dados obtidos no tratamento sem aplicação de CO2.The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effects of carbon dioxide, applied with the irrigation water, on the productivity and quality of the lettuce cultivated in plastic greenhouse. The treatments were designed in two plastic greenhouses, one

  5. Quantitative assessment of human exposure to extended spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases bearing E. coli in lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njage, P M K; Buys, E M

    2017-01-02

    The contribution of the fresh produce production environment to human exposure with bacteria bearing extended spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC β-lactamases (ESBL/AmpC) has not been reported. High prevalence of ESBLs/AmpC bearing E. coli as well as a high gene transfer efficiency of lettuce and irrigation water E. coli isolates was previously reported. This stochastic modeling was aimed at quantitatively assessing human exposure to ESBL/AmpC bearing E. coli through lettuce attributable to irrigation water and subsequent horizontal gene transfer. Modular process risk approach was used for the quantitative exposure assessment and models were constructed in Ms. Excel spreadsheet with farm to consumption chain accounted for by primary production, processing, retail and consumer storage. Probability distributions were utilised to take into account the variability of the exposure estimates. Exposure resulting from ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli and gene transfer was taken into account. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out using @Risk software followed by sensitivity and scenario analysis to assess most effective single or combinations of mitigation strategies for the ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli events from farm to fork. Three percent of South African lettuce consumers are exposed to lettuce contaminated with about 10 6.4 ±10 6.7 (95% CI: 10 5.1 -10 7 ) cfu of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli per serving. The contribution of originally positive isolates and conjugative genetic transfer was 10 6 ±10 6.7 (95% CI: 10 5 -10 7 ) and 10 5.2 ±10 5.6 (95% CI: 10 3.9 -10 5.8 ) cfu per serving respectively. Proportion of ESBL/AmpC positive E. coli (Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ)=0.85), conjugative gene transfer (ρ=0.05-0.14), washing in chlorine water (ρ=0.18), further rinsing (ρ=0.15), and prevalence of E. coli in irrigation water (ρ=0.16) had highest influence on consumer exposure. The most effective single methods in reducing consumer exposure were reduction in irrigation

  6. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H 2 concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH 4 is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  7. CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARD ORGANICALLY GROWN LETTUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Johnson, Bradey; Cochran, Kerry; Hamilton, Lynn L.

    2002-01-01

    This research shows that approximately 29 percent of lettuce purchases in California expect to purchase an organically grown lettuce product in the future. Organic lettuce purchasers are more likely to be female, have a higher household income and a higher level of education. Consumers are concerned with the freshness, quality, price, and environmental impact of the lettuce they purchase.

  8. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  9. Impact of phytopathogen infection and extreme weather stress on internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chongtao; Lee, Cheonghoon; Nangle, Ed; Li, Jianrong; Gardner, David; Kleinhenz, Matthew; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-01-03

    Internalization of human pathogens, common in many types of fresh produce, is a threat to human health since the internalized pathogens cannot be fully inactivated/removed by washing with water or sanitizers. Given that pathogen internalization can be affected by many environmental factors, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of two types of plant stress on the internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in iceberg lettuce during pre-harvest. The stresses were: abiotic (water stress induced by extreme weather events) and biotic (phytopathogen infection by lettuce mosaic virus [LMV]). Lettuce with and without LMV infection were purposefully contaminated with green fluorescence protein-labeled S. Typhimurium on the leaf surfaces. Lettuce was also subjected to water stress conditions (drought and storm) which were simulated by irrigating with different amounts of water. The internalized S. Typhimurium in the different parts of the lettuce were quantified by plate count and real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed with a laser scanning confocal microscope. Salmonella internalization occurred under the conditions outlined above; however internalization levels were not significantly affected by water stress alone. In contrast, the extent of culturable S. Typhimurium internalized in the leafy part of the lettuce decreased when infected with LMV under water stress conditions and contaminated with high levels of S. Typhimurium. On the other hand, LMV-infected lettuce showed a significant increase in the levels of culturable bacteria in the roots. In conclusion, internalization was observed under all experimental conditions when the lettuce surface was contaminated with S. Typhimurium. However, the extent of internalization was only affected by water stress when lettuce was infected with LMV. © 2013.

  10. Detailed characterization of Mirafiori lettuce virus-resistant transgenic lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Yoichi; Fujiyama, Ryoi; Noguchi, Yuji; Kubota, Masaharu; Ito, Hidekazu; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Lettuce big-vein disease is caused by Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), which is vectored by the soil-borne fungus Olpidium brassicae. A MiLV-resistant transgenic lettuce line was developed through introducing inverted repeats of the MiLV coat protein (CP) gene. Here, a detailed characterization study of this lettuce line was conducted by comparing it with the parental, non-transformed 'Kaiser' cultivar. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic lettuce in terms of pollen fertility, pollen dispersal, seed production, seed dispersal, dormancy, germination, growth of seedlings under low or high temperature, chromatographic patterns of leaf extracts, or effects of lettuce on the growth of broccoli or soil microflora. A significant difference in pollen size was noted, but the difference was small. The length of the cotyledons of the transgenic lettuce was shorter than that of 'Kaiser,' but there were no differences in other morphological characteristics. Agrobacterium tumefaciens used for the production of transgenic lettuce was not detected in transgenic seeds. The transgenic T(3), T(4), and T(5) generations showed higher resistance to MiLV and big-vein symptoms expression than the resistant 'Pacific' cultivar, indicating that high resistance to lettuce big-vein disease is stably inherited. PCR analysis showed that segregation of the CP gene was nearly 3:1 in the T(1) and T(2) generations, and that the transgenic T(3) generation was homozygous for the CP gene. Segregation of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (npt II) gene was about 3:1 in the T(1) generation, but the full length npt II gene was not detected in the T(2) or T(3) generation. The segregation pattern of the CP and npt II genes in the T(1) generation showed the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio. These results suggest that the fragment including the CP gene and that including the npt II gene have been integrated into two unlinked loci, and that the T(1) plant selected in our study did

  11. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...... were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...

  12. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafra, S.; Przysowa, J.; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were

  13. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafra, S; Przysowa, J; Gwizdek-Wiśniewska, A; van der Wolf, J M

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were selected on the basis of antibiosis against D. zeae, siderophore production, and the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)-inactivation. In in vitro assays, 35 out of 565 hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates produced antimicrobial substances against D. zeae, whereas 20 degraded AHLs, and 35 produced siderophores. Isolates of interest were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and reaction in BIOLOG tests. Twenty-six isolates that differed in characteristics were selected for pathogenicity testing on hyacinth cultivars, Pink Pearl and Carnegie. Two strains identified as Rahnella aquatilis and one as Erwinia persicinus significantly reduced tissue maceration caused by D. zeae 2019 on hyacinth bulbs, but not on leaves. Hyacinth bulbs harbour bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups that are antagonistic to D. zeae, and some can attenuate decay of bulb tissue. Selected hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates have potential for control of soft rot disease caused by D. zeae in hyacinth bulb production.

  14. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  15. Modelling concept of lettuce breeding for nutrient efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern lettuce cultivars are bred for use under high levels of input of water and nutrients, and therefore less adapted to low-input or organic conditions in which nitrate availability varies over time and within the soil profile. To create robust cultivars it is necessary to assess which traits

  16. The nicolet lettuce model : a theme with variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, I.; Linker, F.; Buwalda, F.; Straten, van G.

    2004-01-01

    The NICOLET model has been developed to predict the growth and nitrate content of greenhouse lettuce. Four single-organ versions have been developed: [1] abundant supply of nitrogen (1998), [2] mild N-stress (1999), [3] severe N-stress (2003), and [4] ontogenetic changes of organic-N and water

  17. Qualidade química da água residual da criação de peixes para cultivo de alface em hidroponia Chemical quality of residual water from fish breeding tanks for cultivation of hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco E. P. Cortez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a associação do cultivo de alface em hidroponia com utilização dos resíduos do sistema de criação intensiva de peixe, desenvolveu-se um trabalho no Centro de Aqüicultura, na FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. A integração foi projetada para que a água circulasse de maneira fechada entre os sistemas, passando pelos tanques de criação de peixes, por um decantador, para remo��ão dos resíduos por um reservatório para conversão biológica da amônia em nitrato e pelo sistema hidropônico, retornando aos tanques de criação dos peixes. Foram avaliadas três cultivares de alface, que constituíram os tratamentos com quatro repetições. Os resultados da análise química da água residual da criação indicaram a presença da maioria dos nutrientes minerais necessários ao desenvolvimento vegetal, em concentração próxima aos valores encontrados em soluções nutritivas utilizadas para o cultivo da alface em hidroponia, exceto potássio e magnésio. A baixa concentração de magnésio na água não impediu o desenvolvimento da alface; entretanto, as plantas indicaram sintomas visuais de deficiência deste nutriente. Não houve diferenças entre as cultivares quanto à produtividade e ao peso fresco de plantas.Aiming to evaluate the association of hydroponic lettuce cultivation with residues from a fish intensive breeding system, a project was carried out in the Aquaculture Center in the FCAV-UNESP at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A closed system was designed in order to allow the water to circulate through the fish tanks, a clarifier tank for removal of residues, a reservoir for biological conversion of ammonia into nitrate, and the hydroponic system. After this process, water returned back to the fish tanks. Three varieties of lettuce, constituting the treatments with four repetitions were evaluated. The results of the chemical analysis of the residual water from the fish tanks indicated the presence of

  18. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  19. Combinação de águas doce e salobra para produção de alface hidropônica Combination of fresh and brackish waters for hydroponic lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales M. Soares

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa cv. Verônica foram cultivadas em condição hidropônica objetivando-se avaliar dois tipos de emprego combinado de águas doce e salobras, quais sejam: usar as águas salobras para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN e a água doce para repor a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc (Experimento I e usar a água doce para preparar a SN e as salobras para a reposição da ETc (Experimento II. Uma estrutura de pesquisa com 40 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT foi construída. Os níveis de salinidade da água testados foram: 0,585; 1,17; 1,755; 2,925 e 4,095 g L-1 de NaCl. A salinidade diminuiu a produtividade da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea em 10,9 e 3,91% para cada acréscimo unitário na salinidade da água (g L-1 de NaCl, considerando-se os Experimentos I e II, respectivamente. De acordo com os resultados obtidos com os dois tipos de combinação de águas doce e salobras, o uso de águas salobras para repor a ETc pode aumentar a produtividade da alface em comparação com o uso dessas águas para preparar a SN.Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. Verônica were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate two types of combination of brackish and fresh waters: using the brackish waters to prepare nutrient solution (NS and fresh water to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc (Experiment I and using the fresh water to prepare NS and the brackish waters to replace the ETc loss (Experiment II. A research structure was built up with 40 experimental units which simulated the nutrient film technique (NFT. The levels of water salinity were 0.585; 1.17; 1.755; 2.925 and 4.095 g L-1 NaCl. The lettuce yield (fresh shoot matter decreased 10.9 and 3.91% for each unit increase in water salinity (g L-1 NaCl in Experiments I and II, respectively. According to results obtained with the two types of combination of fresh and brackish waters, the use of brackish waters to replace

  20. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata A. Sirsat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce. Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates (Salmonella and E. coli, spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid significantly reduced Salmonella, E. coli, coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless, it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens.

  1. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Neal, Jack A

    2013-11-11

    Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens) production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce). Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates ( Salmonella and E. coli ), spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid) significantly reduced Salmonella , E. coli , coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless), it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens.

  2. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Lettuce Under Surface and Overhead Irrigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalsod, G.; Chuang, Y. H.; Jeon, S.; Gui, W.; Li, H.; Guber, A.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being widely detected in wastewater and surface waters. As fresh water becomes scarcer, interests in using reclaimed water for crop irrigation is intensified. Since reclaimed waters often carry trace levels of pharmaceuticals, accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food crops could increase the risk of human exposure. This study aims to investigate uptake and accumulations of pharmaceuticals in greenhouse-grown lettuce under contrasting irrigation practices (i.e., overhead and surface irrigations). Lettuce was irrigated with water spiked with 11 commonly used pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, carbadox, trimethoprim, lincomycin hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, monensin sodium, and tylosin). Weekly sampling of lettuce roots, shoots, and soils were continued for 5 weeks, and the samples were freeze dried, extracted for pharmaceuticals and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Preliminary results indicate that higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in overhead irrigated lettuce compared to surface irrigated lettuce. For carbamezapine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and monensin sodium, their concentrations generally increased in lettuce shoots in the overhead treatment over time. However, acetaminophen was found at higher concentrations in both shoots and roots, indicating that acetaminophen can be easily transported in the plant system. This study provides insight on developing better strategies for using reclaimed water for crop irrigations, while minimizing the potential risks of pharmaceutical contamination of vegetables.

  3. Activity of aphids associated with lettuce and broccoli in Spain and their efficiency as vectors of Lettuce mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebreda, M; Moreno, A; Pérez, N; Palacios, I; Seco-Fernández, V; Fereres, A

    2004-03-01

    This research sought to identify the aphid virus vector species associated with lettuce and broccoli crops in Spain, and to determine their population dynamics and ability to transmit Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Green tile traps and Moericke yellow water-pan traps were used to monitor aphid flights during the spring and autumn growing seasons of 2001. Aphid species feeding on lettuce were counted weekly. The transmission efficiencies of LMV were determined for the aphid species caught most frequently. The Moericke traps generally caught more aphid species than the tile trap, but the latter was the most suitable to estimate flight activity of species involved in virus spread. Spring aphid catches indicated that the main aphid species landing on lettuce in the regions of Madrid and Murcia was Hyperomyzus lactucae, but Brachycaudus helichrysi was also abundant in both regions. In broccoli in the Navarra region, the most abundant species in spring were Aphis fabae, B. helichrysi and H. lactucae. In autumn-sown crops, the main species landing on lettuce in the Madrid region were Hyadaphis coriandri and Aphis spiraecola. In Murcia, A. spiraecola and Myzus persicae were the most abundant, while in Navarra, Therioaphis trifolii, and various Aphis spp. were the most numerous landing on broccoli. The main aphid species colonising lettuce was Nasonovia ribisnigri, but other less abundant colonising species were Aulacorthum solani and Macrosiphum euphorbiae. The most efficient vectors of LMV were M. persicae, Aphis gossypii and M. euphorbiae, while A. fabae and H. lactucae transmitted with low efficiency, and Rhopalosiphum padi and N. ribisnigri did not transmit. Occurrence of LMV epidemics in central Spain in relation to aphid flights and the role of weeds as virus reservoirs is discussed.

  4. Efeito de velocidades de rebaixamento do nível freático em diferentes períodos de desenvolvimento da cultura da alface Effect of water table drawdown velocities in different stages of lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mingoti

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Através deste trabalho objetivou-se determinar os efeitos do encharcamento do solo nas variáveis fenológicas e na produtividade da cultura da alface, identificar o estádio fenológico em que ocorre a maior diminuição da produtividade e obter uma relação entre a produtividade relativa da cultura e o índice diário de estresse. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em esquema fatorial [(3x4+1], com 3 repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram do período de inundação (12, 22 e 32 DAT, de velocidades de rebaixamento do nível freático (30 cm em 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas e uma testemunha, na qual não foi aplicado estresse por elevação do lençol freático. A alface apresentou-se como cultura sensível ao encharcamento; entretanto, não foi possível se definir um valor para o coeficiente de drenagem pois, mesmo com a maior velocidade de rebaixamento testada, ocorreu decréscimo de cerca de 50% da produção. Dentre os três períodos nos quais o estresse causado pela elevação do nível freático foi aplicado, o primeiro foi o que ocasionou maiores perdas. A produtividade das plantas de alface apresentou correlação linear negativa com o índice diário de estresse (IDS.The work had the objectives of determining the effect of water table drawdown velocities on the growth and yield of lettuce crop in a flooded soil, identifying the stage of the crop cycle with the highest reduction in the productivity and obtaining a relation between the crop relative productivity and the daily stress index. The statistical experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme [(3 x 4 + 1], with three replications. The water table was lowered at 3 stages of the crop cycle (12, 22 and 32 days after the transplanting, four drawdown velocities (30 cm during 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and a 13 treatment in which stress was not applied with the elevation of the water table. The lettuce presented as a sensible crop to

  5. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-17

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  6. Experimental study and process parameters analysis on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Suyan; Li Yunfei

    2008-01-01

    The vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce was described in this paper. Based on the energy and mass balance, a mathematical model was developed to analyze the performance of the vacuum cooler and the evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce. The temporal trends of total system pressure, produce temperature such as surface temperature, center temperature, mass-average temperature, the weight loss of iceberg lettuce during vacuum cooling were predicted. Validation experimentation is achieved in the designed vacuum cooler. The experimental data were compared with the simulation results. It was found that the differences of the temperature between the simulation and the experiments were within 1 deg. C. The amount of water evaporated from the iceberg lettuce by simulation was 3.32% during the whole vacuum cooling, while the tested water loss rate was 2.97%, the maximal deviation of weight loss was within 0.59%. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data

  7. Experimental study and process parameters analysis on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Suyan [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)], E-mail: hesuyan67829@sina.com; Li Yunfei [Department of Food Science and Engineering, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China)

    2008-10-15

    The vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce was described in this paper. Based on the energy and mass balance, a mathematical model was developed to analyze the performance of the vacuum cooler and the evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce. The temporal trends of total system pressure, produce temperature such as surface temperature, center temperature, mass-average temperature, the weight loss of iceberg lettuce during vacuum cooling were predicted. Validation experimentation is achieved in the designed vacuum cooler. The experimental data were compared with the simulation results. It was found that the differences of the temperature between the simulation and the experiments were within 1 deg. C. The amount of water evaporated from the iceberg lettuce by simulation was 3.32% during the whole vacuum cooling, while the tested water loss rate was 2.97%, the maximal deviation of weight loss was within 0.59%. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data.

  8. Growth and photosynthesis of lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Butterhead lettuce is an important glass-house crop in the poor light period in The Netherlands. Fundamental data about the influence of temperature, light and CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis are important e.g. to facilitate selection criteria for new cultivars. In

  9. Selenium accumulation in lettuce germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to reduce the widespread selenium deficiency problem in many parts of the world. In this study, we evaluated thirty diverse accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) f...

  10. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania

    2008-06-01

    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  11. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...... were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...

  12. Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-03-01

    nutrients and nitrate and perform sensory analysis of lettuce in hydroponic system under saline water. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from December, 2007 to January, 2008, in Piracicaba. The experimental design was randomized blocks and factorial scheme (five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl that resulted in different electrical conductivities of the water (dS m-1: 0.42, 1.53, 3.52, 5.55, 7.43 and two cultivas of lettuce (Veronica and Pira Roxa. The evaluations were: sensory analysis applying hedonic scale and through this, which sample presented the best and the least taste, the purchase intent and consumption, nitrate, absorption of nutrients by leaves and determination of nutrients in the nutrient solution. For the attribute of cultivars, Veronica received the highest marks in salt level 1.53 and 5.55 dS m-1. For cultivar Pira Roxa was awarded the best grade for lettuce grown in non-saline water. For other attributes there was no significant difference in levels of salinity. To purchase intention, it was found that cv. Verônica and Pira Roxa had good market acceptance. The lowest levels of nitrate (1960 mg kg-1 and 2620 mg kg-1 fresh weight of Verônica and Pira Roxa, respectively, were related to the electrical conductivity of 0.42 dS m-1, increasing water salinity to 7.43 dS m-1, the leaf content of nitrate increased to 2500 mg kg-1 and 3420 mg kg-1 for the cultivars Verônica and Pira Roxa. As the time of exposure to salt in a hydroponic system was short, around 25 days, there were no symptoms of nutrient deficiency and whole lettuce was classified as suitable for human consumption.

  13. Research on lettuce growth technology onboard Chinese Tiangong II Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yunze; Guo, Shuangsheng; Zhao, Pisheng; Wang, Longji; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Bian, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Lettuce was grown in a space vegetable cultivation facility onboard the Tiangong Ⅱ Spacelab during October 18 to November 15, 2016, in order to testify the key cultivating technology in CELSS under spaceflight microgravity condition. Potable water was used for irrigation of rooting substrate and the SRF (slowly released fertilizer) offered mineral nutrition for plant growth. Water content and electric conductivity in rooting substrate were measured based on FDR(frequency domain reflectometry) principle applied first in spaceflight. Lettuce germinated with comparative growth vigor as the ground control, showing that the plants appeared to be not stressed by the spaceflight environment. Under microgravity, lettuce grew taller and showed deeper green color than the ground control. In addition, the phototropism of the on-orbit plants was more remarkable. The nearly 30-d spaceflight test verified the seed fixation technology and water& nutrition management technology, which manifests the feasibility of FDR being used for measuring moisture content and electric conductivity in rooting zone under microgravity. Furthermore, the edibility of the space-grown vegetable was proved, providing theoretical support for astronaut to consume the space vegetable in future manned spaceflight.

  14. Kinetic studies of biogas generated from water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Water Hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mats of floating plants may become stranded on banks and shorelines when the ... fish production and resulting in unemployment and diminished incomes and food for ...... South Africa now hosts the headquarters of the Aquatic Weeds Sector of the ...... Dr A.I. Mograby, Hydrobiological Research Unit, Faculty of Science.

  16. Determination of Profenofos Pesticidal Residue in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by Gas Chromatographic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Alen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The determination of profenofos pesticidal residue in the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by using gas chromatography using flame photometric detector (FPD had been investigated. The lettuce was collected from Padang Luar area, Agam distric, West Sumatera. Sample for determination of profenofos residue divided into three groups: unwashed (A, washed with water (B, and washed with detergent (C. Maceration with sonication was used for the extraction using ethylacetateas a solvent. The results showed that profenofos pesticide residue in sample A, B and C were 0.204, 0.080 and 0.061 ppm, respectively. These profenofos pesticidal residue are over than the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL that established by The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation (0.05 ppm even though World Health Organization (WHO has not established Maximum Residue Limits (MRL profenofos on lettuce. Based on the statistical analysis one-way method (Anova using SPSS 20.0 showed that there was a significant concentrations difference between lettuce A from lettuce B and lettuce C with p < 0.05.

  17. Genetics of resistance against lettuce downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most valuable vegetable crops in the U.S. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Bremia lactucae, is the most important foliar disease of lettuce worldwide, which decreases the quality of the marketable portion of the crop. The use of resistant varieties carrying dominan...

  18. Sustainable lettuce: Adaptability to uncertain production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is a popular and widely consumed leafy vegetable. California and Arizona annually produce more than 250,000 acres of iceberg, romaine, leaf, and specialty types of lettuce, supplying more than 95% of the U.S market as well as exports to Canada and other countries. These states have dominat...

  19. Effect of Salt Stress on Morphological Traits of Lettuce Genotypes (Lactuca Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam zare

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recognition of salt tolerant plants is important as a result ofincreasing saline lands in Iran and world. Cultivation of plants in hydroponic environment is a reliable and economical method in order to select the salt tolerant plant. Salt stress can effect on plant growth and development by ion toxicity, ionic disturb the balance and osmotic potential. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops. This plant is one of the most important leafy vegetables which is used for salad and fresh marketing, also some types of this vegetable is used in baked type. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of lettuce genotypes undersalt stress in the hydroponic system. Materials and Methods: To assess response of lettuce seedlings to salt stress, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications at Biotechnology Research Institute for hydroponic cultivation of Zabol. In this experiment, the effects of three salinity levels (0, 2 and 4 dS/m on morphological characteristics of 15 lettuce genotypes were evaluated. The seeds were sterilized for ten seconds in ethanol 96% and then 15% sodium hypochlorite solution for 50 seconds, then rinsed several times with distilled water, then disinfected seeds were cultured in plastic pots containing coco peat and perlite. After …days plants were transferred to hydroponic system containing Hoagland solution. Collected data were analyzed and means comparisons were made using LSD by SAS software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that salinity has a significant effect on seedling growth of lettuce genotypes (p≤0.01. significant difference between salinity levels and genotype were observed for all traits. Interaction of genotype and salinity for all the traits except root length, plant length and leaf were significant at 1%. Based on the results, the greatest root length was belong to Esfahan Varzaneh leafy lettuce and

  20. Effect of Salt Stress on Morphological Traits of Lettuce Genotypes (Lactuca Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam zare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recognition of salt tolerant plants is important as a result ofincreasing saline lands in Iran and world. Cultivation of plants in hydroponic environment is a reliable and economical method in order to select the salt tolerant plant. Salt stress can effect on plant growth and development by ion toxicity, ionic disturb the balance and osmotic potential. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops. This plant is one of the most important leafy vegetables which is used for salad and fresh marketing, also some types of this vegetable is used in baked type. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of lettuce genotypes undersalt stress in the hydroponic system. Materials and Methods: To assess response of lettuce seedlings to salt stress, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications at Biotechnology Research Institute for hydroponic cultivation of Zabol. In this experiment, the effects of three salinity levels (0, 2 and 4 dS/m on morphological characteristics of 15 lettuce genotypes were evaluated. The seeds were sterilized for ten seconds in ethanol 96% and then 15% sodium hypochlorite solution for 50 seconds, then rinsed several times with distilled water, then disinfected seeds were cultured in plastic pots containing coco peat and perlite. After …days plants were transferred to hydroponic system containing Hoagland solution. Collected data were analyzed and means comparisons were made using LSD by SAS software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that salinity has a significant effect on seedling growth of lettuce genotypes (p≤0.01. significant difference between salinity levels and genotype were observed for all traits. Interaction of genotype and salinity for all the traits except root length, plant length and leaf were significant at 1%. Based on the results, the greatest root length was belong to Esfahan Varzaneh leafy lettuce and

  1. Resistance to lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) biotype 0 in wild lettuce accessions PI 491093 and PI 274378

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera : Aphididae), is a major insect pest of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L, in many commercial lettuce productions areas around the world. Resistance to lettuce aphid was first reported in Lactuca virosa L. accession IVT 280 and characterized as complete,...

  2. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalaura Carducci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  3. Shoot growth, root growth and resource capture under limiting water and N supply for two cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - To improve vegetable crops adapted to low input and variable resource availability, better understanding is needed of root system functioning, including nitrogen and water capture. Methods - This study quantified shoot and root development and patterns of water and nitrate

  4. Influence of hydrogel on germination of lettuce and onion seed at different moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Pazderů

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Agrisorb (water solution 1, 3, 5 g/l on lettuce and onion seed germination was tested in different moisture conditions (30 ml and 15 ml of water in germination box. Variants with reduced water level germinated much more slowly (MGT parameter than standard variants, though differences in total germination at the end of the test were insignificant. Treated variants of lettuce seeds showed a statistically significant increase in germination energy (GE on the first day (GE1, both water levels, but a significant decrease on the second day (columns GE2, 15 ml. Higher doses of Agrisorb slowed lettuce seed germination (GE2, 30 ml, dose 5 g significantly, similarly see GE2 (15 ml, doses 1, 3, 5 g. This slowdown was apparent for GE3 (both water amount as well. A similar but insignificant effect was evident for onions. There was an influence of cultivar and seed vigour on sensitivity to water stress. The hydrogel application influenced germination of lettuce and onion seeds. Treated lettuce seeds germinated faster than non-treated control in the beginning of germination process. This effect was not recorded in case of slowly germinated onion seed lots. Although influence of Agrisorb was positive in the beginning, higher doses of hydrogel reduced germination energy of treated seed lots (for example GE2, GE4 of both crops in comparison with non-treated control. Higher doses of hydrogel caused longer MGT of lettuce and onion as well.

  5. Effect of pressure on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Denizli (Turkey); Ozturk, Harun Kemal [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Vacuum cooling is known as a rapid evaporative cooling technique for any porous product which has free water. The aim of this paper is to apply vacuum cooling technique to the cooling of the iceberg lettuce and show the pressure effect on the cooling time and temperature decrease. The results of vacuum cooling are also compared with conventional cooling (cooling in refrigerator) for different temperatures. Vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce at 0.7 kPa is about 13 times faster than conventional cooling of iceberg lettuce at 6 C. It has been also found that it is not possible to decrease the iceberg lettuce temperature below 10 C if vacuum cooling method is used and vacuum pressure is set to 1.5 kPa. (author) [French] Le refroidissement sous vide est connu comme une technique evaporative rapide refroidissant pour n'importe quel produit poreux qui a de l'eau libre. Le but de ce papier est d'appliquer le refroidissement sous vide pour le refroidissement de la laitue et examiner l'effet de la pression sur le temps de refroidissement et la diminution de temperature. Les resultats de refroidissement sous vide sont aussi compares avec le refroidissement conventionnel (refroidissement dans le refrigerateur) pour les differentes temperatures. Le refroidissement a vide de laitue a 0.7 kPa est environ 13 fois plus vite que le refroidissement conventionnel de laitue croquante a 6 C. Il a ete aussi constate qu'il n'est pas possible de diminuer la temperature de laitue ci-dessous 10 C si le refroidissement sous vide est utilise comme methode et la pression a vide est montree a 1.5 kPa. (orig.)

  6. Produção e indicadores fisiológicos de alface sob hidroponia com água salina Production and physiologic indicators of lettuce grown in hydroponics with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2010-03-01

    at the moment an essential activity, facing the rising demand of fresh water, as for the agricultural activity as for the urban and industrial supplying. This study aimed to evaluate production and physiologic indicators of lettuce in hydroponic system with the use of saline waters. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the period from December 2007 to January 2008, in Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme - five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl, which resulted in different water electrical conductivity levels (dS m-1: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55, 7,43 - and two cultivars of lettuce - Veronica and Pira Roxa. It was determined the fresh and dry mass of leaves, stem, roots and shoot and the content of nitrate, proline and chlorophyll. The increase of water salinity reduced lineally the fresh and dry mass of leaves, stem, roots and shoot. The cv Verônica produced 36% and 57% more shoot fresh and dry mass, respectively, than Pira Roxa. The cv. Pira Roxa accumulated 25% more nitrate (3008 mg L-1, presented 50% more total chlorophyll (1,46 mg g-1fresh mass and 71,43% more proline (0,21 µM g fresh mass- 1 than the cv Verônica, showing a mechanism of avoiding salinity stress. Cultivars Pira Roxa and Veronica presented loss of 69% and 64% of commercial productivity, respectively, when the most saline water (7,43 dS m-1 was used. In the other hand dry matter was reduced in 53% and 44%, respectively, for cv. Pira Roxa and Verônica in the most saline water. The results obtained in this study can indicate the possibility of using saline water as an alternative for the production of vegetables, specially for growers that have saline water available but restricted fresh water, even with reduction of productivity.

  7. Precut prepackaged lettuce: a risk for listeriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene B; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C

    2008-12-01

    The most recent outbreaks of listeriosis have been traced back to contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) poultry and meat products. However, Listeria monocytogenes can be isolated from every food group, including fresh vegetables. This review is focused on one of the most popular RTE vegetable products, precut prepackaged lettuce. The available literature concerning Listeria contamination of vegetables is reviewed, and possible reasons why no recent outbreaks or sporadic cases of listeriosis due to contaminated precut prepackaged lettuce are explored.

  8. Cadmium and chromium effects on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, spinach and Swiss chard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar V Bautista

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The La Ramada district and the Bogota River are the principal water resources used for horticultural crop production on the Bogota Plateau, which contain channel pollutant materials, including heavy metals due to domestic and industrial activities on the Plateau. These materials have effects on crop production in this zone. The present research, under laboratory conditions, aimed to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (25, 35 and 50 µM L-1 of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on imbibition, seed germination and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed", and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Hib. 424, three species widely cultivated on the Plateau. The three species used for evaluation showed a differential susceptibility response to Cd and Cr. In lettuce, fresh weight increase (imbibition was lower with all Cd concentrations at the last day of observation and at 25 µM L-1 of Cd in Swiss chard. Cadmium reduced seed germination by up to 46%, 97% and 8% in Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Also, root elongation decreased in Cd treatments by up to 57%, 89% and 56%, for Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Chromium, which showed fewer negative effects, decreased germination by up to 29% in Swiss chard, 6% in lettuce and 34% in spinach, as compared to the control

  9. Residues of maneb in potatoes and lettuce and their persistence during cooking, washing and uv exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, M.; Sennaoui, Z.; Zennouche, B.; Hylin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Lettuce plants were treated each with 0,186 mg of 14C maneb and 1,86 mg unlabelled maneb. The plants were analyzed 30 days later and subjected to washing. Washing eliminates 17,46% of total 14C maneb applied. No Etu was observed in water.Washing and baking cause a significant decrease of EBDC in potatoes samples and the UV exposition involves a decrease of the fungicide and a formation of Etu. On the other hand 54 % and 38% of lettuce and potatoe samples analyzed by CS2 method exceed the authorized norms

  10. Stimulating productivity of hydroponic lettuce in controlled environments with triacontanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    Triacontanol (1-triacontanol) applied as a foliar spray at 10(-7) M to 4-day-old, hydroponically grown leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings in a controlled environment increased leaf fresh and dry weight 13% to 20% and root fresh and dry weight 13% to 24% 6 days after application, relative to plants sprayed with water. When applied at 8 as well as 4 days after seeding, triacontanol increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, and mean relative growth rate 12% to 37%. There was no benefit of repeating application of triacontanol in terms of leaf dry weight gain.

  11. Semi-high throughput screening for potential drought-tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of th...

  12. Decontamination and survival of Enterobacteriaceae on shredded iceberg lettuce during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Quran, Heba N; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A

    2018-08-01

    Enterobacteriaceae family can contaminate fresh produce at any stage of production either at pre-harvest or post-harvest stages. The objectives of the current study were to i) identify Enterobacteriaceae species on iceberg lettuce, ii) compare the decontamination efficiency of water, sodium hypochlorite (free chlorine 200 ppm), peroxyacetic acid (PA 80 ppm; Kenocid 2100 ® ) or their combinations and ionizing radiation against Enterobacteriaceae on shredded iceberg lettuce and iii) determine the survival of Enterobacteriaceae post-treatment storage of shredded iceberg lettuce at 4, 10 and 25 °C, for up to 7 days. Klebsiella pneumonia spp. pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pantoea spp., Leclercia adecarboxylata and Kluyvera ascorbate were identified on iceberg lettuce. No significant difference (P≥ 0.05) among Enterobacteriaceae survival after washing with water or sanitizing with sodium hypochlorite or Kenocid 2100 ® (reduction ≤ 0.6 log CFU/g) were found. Combined sanitizer treatments were more effective against Enterobacteriaceae than single washing/sanitizing treatments. Sanitization of iceberg lettuce with combined washing/sanitizing treatments reduced Enterobacteriaceae by 0.85-2.24 CFU/g. Post-treatment growth of Enterobacteriaceae during storage on samples sanitized with sodium hypochlorite and Kenocid 2100 ® was more than on samples washed with water. The D 10 -value of Enterobacteriaceae on shredded iceberg lettuce was 0.21 KGy. The reduction of Enterobacteriaceae populations on iceberg after gamma radiation (0.6 KGy) was 3 log CFU/g, however, Enterobacteriaceae counts increased post-irradiation storage by 4-5 log CFU/g. Therefore, washing shredded iceberg lettuce with combined sanitizing treatment (sodium hypochlorite/sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite/Kenocid 2100 ® , or Kenocid 2100 ® /Kenocid 2100 ® ) for total time of 6 min or exposing it to gamma irradiation (0.6 KGy) can decrease the risk of

  13. Experimental and kinetics study for phytoremediation of sugar mill effluent using water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) and its end use for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Jogendra; Pathak, V V; Ahmad, Shamshad; Kothari, Richa

    2017-10-01

    In present study, the performance of phytoremediation by Pistia stratiotes on sugar mill effluent (SME) and its end use for biogas production are investigated. The objectives of the study are to determine the nutrient and pollution reduction efficiency of P. stratiotes from SME and evaluation of its biomass as a feedstock for biogas production. Various concentrations of SME (25, 50, 75, and 100%) were remediated by Pistia stratiotes (initial weight; 150 g) outdoor for 60 days under batch mode experimental setup. The results showed that P. stratiotes achieved marked reduction in nutrient (TKN, 72.86%; TP, 71.49%) and pollutant load (EC, 25.69%; TDS, 57.26%; BOD, 69.40%; COD, 61.80%; Ca 2+ , 56.79%; Mg 2+ , 55.01%; Na + , 42.86%; K + , 54.38%; MPN, 78.13%; SPC, 60.13%) from 75% SME at the end of the experiment. The highest biomass (328.48 ± 2.04 g) and chlorophyll content (3.62 ± 3.04 mg/g) were also achieved with 75% SME. The dried biomass of P. stratiotes (from 75% SME) was inoculated with cow dung (10% w/v) and diluted with distilled water (1:10). The whole content was used as a substrate for the biogas production within hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days at room temperature. Substrate parameters such as pH, TS (%), COD (mg/L), TKN (%), TOC (%), VS (%), and C/N ratio were reduced from 7.85 to 6.0, 66.65 to 28.65%, 12,900 to 2800 mg/L, 0.95 to 0.75%, 45.54 to 19.5%, 76.87 to 28.78%, and 47.94 to 26.00, respectively, in 30 days of HRT. About 8478.6 mL of cumulative biogas production was evaluated by modified Gompertz equation. Thus, the present investigation not only achieved efficient nutrient and pollution reduction from SME but also proved the potential of P. stratiotes for biogas production.

  14. Advancements in utilizing molecular markers in lettuce breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is globally the most popular commercially produced, leafy vegetable, farmed in moderate climates. Cultivated lettuce is a self-fertilizing, diploid (2n = 2x = 18) species from the family Compositae (Asteraceae). New cultivars of lettuce are developed by combining desirabl...

  15. Genetic characterization of resistance to Sclerotinia in lettuce cultivar Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce drop caused by the fungal pathogens Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum is a serious disease of lettuce. The use of genetic resistance as part of an integrated lettuce drop management strategy should have a significant economic advantage in mitigating yield loss. Sclerotinia resistance is ...

  16. Development of marker-free transgenic lettuce resistant to Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Yoichi; Fujiyama, Ryoi; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    Lettuce big-vein disease caused by Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV) is found in major lettuce production areas worldwide, but highly resistant cultivars have not yet been developed. To produce MLBVV-resistant marker-free transgenic lettuce that would have a transgene with a promoter and terminator of lettuce origin, we constructed a two T-DNA binary vector, in which the first T-DNA contained the selectable marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase II, and the second T-DNA contained the lettuce ubiquitin gene promoter and terminator and inverted repeats of the coat protein (CP) gene of MLBVV. This vector was introduced into lettuce cultivars 'Watson' and 'Fuyuhikari' by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Regenerated plants (T0 generation) that were CP gene-positive by PCR analysis were self-pollinated, and 312 T1 lines were analyzed for resistance to MLBVV. Virus-negative plants were checked for the CP gene and the marker gene, and nine lines were obtained which were marker-free and resistant to MLBVV. Southern blot analysis showed that three of the nine lines had two copies of the CP gene, whereas six lines had a single copy and were used for further analysis. Small interfering RNAs, which are indicative of RNA silencing, were detected in all six lines. MLBVV infection was inhibited in all six lines in resistance tests performed in a growth chamber and a greenhouse, resulting in a high degree of resistance to lettuce big-vein disease. Transgenic lettuce lines produced in this study could be used as resistant cultivars or parental lines for breeding.

  17. Genetic investigation of the nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to lettuce downy mildew, Bremia lactucae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a devastating foliar disease causing high losses in lettuce cultivation. The wild lettuce and nonhost species, Lactuca saligna, is absolute resistant to downy mildew and

  18. Effects of household washing on bacterial load and removal of Escherichia coli from lettuce and "ready-to-eat" salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Elisabeth; Olsson, Crister; He, Jiayi; Stark, Therese; Sadowska, Zuzanna; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Alsanius, Beatrix; Håkansson, Åsa

    2017-11-01

    Customer demands for fresh salads are increasing, but leafy green vegetables have also been linked to food-borne illness due to pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. As a safety measure, consumers often wash leafy vegetables in water before consumption. In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of household washing to reduce the bacterial content. Romaine lettuce and ready-to-eat mixed salad were washed several times in flowing water at different rates and by immersing the leaves in water. Lettuce was also inoculated with E. coli before washing. Only washing in a high flow rate (8 L/min) resulted in statistically significant reductions ( p  < .05), "Total aerobic count" was reduced by 80%, and Enterobacteriaceae count was reduced by 68% after the first rinse. The number of contaminating E. coli was not significantly reduced. The dominating part of the culturable microbiota of the washed lettuce was identified by rRNA 16S sequencing of randomly picked colonies. The majority belonged to Pseudomonadaceae , but isolates from Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceaceae were also frequently found. This study shows the inefficiency of tap water washing methods available for the consumer when it comes to removal of bacteria from lettuce. Even after washing, the lettuce contained high levels of bacteria that in a high dose and under certain circumstances may constitute a health risk.

  19. Sources of Verticillium dahliae affecting lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Zahi K; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1995, lettuce in coastal California, where more than half of the crop in North America is grown, has consistently suffered from severe outbreaks of Verticillium wilt. The disease is confined to this region, although the pathogen (Verticillium dahliae) and the host are present in other crop production regions in California. Migration of the pathogen with infested spinach seed was previously documented, but the geographic sources of the pathogen, as well as the impact of lettuce seed sparsely infested with V. dahliae produced outside coastal California on the pathogen population in coastal California remain unclear. Population analyses of V. dahliae were completed using 16 microsatellite markers on isolates from lettuce plants in coastal California, infested lettuce seed produced in the neighboring Santa Clara Valley of California, and spinach seed produced in four major spinach seed production regions: Chile, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States (Washington State). California produces 80% of spinach in the United States and all seed planted with the majority infested by V. dahliae comes from the above four sources. Three globally distributed genetic populations were identified, indicating sustained migration among these distinct geographic regions with multiple spinach crops produced each year and repeated every year in coastal California. The population structure of V. dahliae from coastal California lettuce plants was heavily influenced by migration from spinach seed imported from Denmark and Washington. Conversely, the sparsely infested lettuce seed had limited or no contribution to the Verticillium wilt epidemic in coastal California. The global trade in plant and seed material is likely contributing to sustained shifts in the population structure of V. dahliae, affecting the equilibrium of native populations, and likely affecting disease epidemiology.

  20. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  1. Experimental study and process parameters analysis on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Su-Yan [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Li, Yun-Fei [Department of Food Science and Engineering, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China)

    2008-10-15

    The vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce was described in this paper. Based on the energy and mass balance, a mathematical model was developed to analyze the performance of the vacuum cooler and the evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce. The temporal trends of total system pressure, produce temperature such as surface temperature, center temperature, mass-average temperature, the weight loss of iceberg lettuce during vacuum cooling were predicted. Validation experimentation is achieved in the designed vacuum cooler. The experimental data were compared with the simulation results. It was found that the differences of the temperature between the simulation and the experiments were within 1{sup o}C. The amount of water evaporated from the iceberg lettuce by simulation was 3.32% during the whole vacuum cooling, while the tested water loss rate was 2.97%, the maximal deviation of weight loss was within 0.59%. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data. (author)

  2. Changes in the physico-chemical properties of four lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vargas-Arcila

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce, a popularly consumed leafy vegetable, is well known for its health and nutritional value. Thus, the current study focused on the qualitative changes of four lettuce varieties, namely Alpha, Parris Island, Graziella and Lollo Rossa, stored at 5.5 ºC and 90 % RH for 12 days. The analyzed parameters were water content, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, vitamin C, total phenols, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, color and texture. Under storage conditions, the studied varieties exhibited different rates of water loss. TSS was found to increase until day 8 of storage, which is also when TA differences were observed. The Graziella variety showed the highest vitamin C levels. Total phenol content decreased significantly during the 12 days of storage. No significant PPO activity changes were found, except for those of the Lollo Rossa variety. Biplot analysis allowed observing not only positive and negative correlations between coordinates L*, a* and b*, but also the separavtion of the green lettuce varieties from the red one, together with color variations depending on leaf position. Although textural changes were recorded at the end of the study, foliage quality was not altered. In short, the studied parameters, which contribute to lettu-ce direct consumption properties, can be said to be variety-dependent and better preserved under refrigeration.

  3. Impact of relative humidity, inoculum carrier and size, and native microbiota on Salmonella ser. Typhimurium survival in baby lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gálvez, Francisco; Gil, Maria Isabel; Allende, Ana

    2018-04-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH), fluctuating climate conditions, inoculum size and carrier on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on baby lettuce in environmental test chambers were studied. Buffered peptone water (BPW), distilled water (DW), and irrigation water (IW) were compared as inoculum carriers. Additionally, survival of Salmonella in suspensions prepared using filtered and unfiltered IW was assessed. Salmonella Typhimurium survived better on baby lettuce plants at high RH independently of the inoculum size. When lettuce plants were grown under fluctuating environmental conditions, Salmonella survival was similar under both RH conditions. Regarding the inoculum carrier, the inoculated microorganism survived better on lettuce plants when BPW was used as carrier both at high and low RH. Survival rate of Salmonella in IW was affected by the presence of native microbiota. Native microbiota present in IW did not affect survival of Salmonella or the levels of mesophilic bacteria on the baby lettuce leaves. The information obtained in the present study contributes to the knowledge on the effect of environmental conditions on pathogenic bacteria survival on growing edible plants. These results are useful when selecting the methodology to carry out experimental studies on the survival of microbial pathogens under different pre-harvest conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction and antioxidant activities assay of polysaccharides from white Hyacinth bean and promoting-growth to probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni LEI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction parameters of water-soluble polysaccharides (WPs from white hyacinth bean were optimized using single-factor and orthogonal experiment. The antioxidant activities of WPs were presented by assaying three different radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy radical (DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging ability. In addition, the effects of WPs obtained on the growth of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5, Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were also determined by measuring the OD and pH value of culture medium. According to the results, the optimum extraction parameters were as follows: the ratio of water to material was 50, extraction time was 2h and the extraction temperature was 95°C. The yield of WPs reached 1.15±0.07% under this condition. In addition, the WPs had different scavenging ability on three radicals (hydroxyl > DPPH > superoxide. And the WPs could promote the growth of LA5, BB01 and LB6.

  5. Internalisation potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce seedlings and mature plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Taryn-Ann; du Plessis, Erika; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-06-01

    The internalisation potential of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium in lettuce was evaluated using seedlings grown in vermiculite in seedling trays as well as hydroponically grown lettuce. Sterile distilled water was spiked with one of the four human pathogenic bacteria (10(5) CFU/mL) and used to irrigate the plants. The potential for pathogen internalisation was investigated over time using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and viable plate counts. Additionally, the identities of the pathogens isolated from internal lettuce plant tissues were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with pathogen-specific oligonucleotides. Internalisation of each of the human pathogens was evident in both lettuce seedlings and hydroponically grown mature lettuce plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. aureus internalisation in lettuce plants. In addition, the levels of background microflora in the lettuce plants were determined by plate counting and the isolates identified using matrix-assisted laser ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Background microflora assessments confirmed the absence of the four pathogens evaluated in this study. A low titre of previously described endophytes and soil inhabitants, i.e., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis were identified.

  6. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J. Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Eskridge, Kent M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. - Highlights: • Higher sand content in soil caused higher internalization of sulfamethoxazole and Salmonella in lettuce. • Drought

  7. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  8. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified l...

  9. Overexpression of homogentisate phytyltransferase in lettuce results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, HPT gene isolated from Lactuca sativa L. (LsHPT) was transferred into L. sativa (lettuce) via Agrobacterium-mediated method and 15 transgenic plants were obtained. The expression of LsHPT gene and the total content of and -tocopherol in transgenic plants were increased up to 4 and 2.61 folds, respectively, ...

  10. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria) to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler S. Anderson; David de Villiers; Michael B. Timmons

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to compare lettuce performance under conventional hydroponics at pH 5.8 (referred to as H5), hydroponics at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7), and recirculated aquaponic water at pH 7.0 (referred to as A7). Aquaponic nutrients were supplied by continuously recirculating water between a fish rearing system (recirculating aquaculture system or RAS) and the lettuce growing system (with the sole addition being chelated iron). This paper builds upon our previous...

  11. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from some feedstocks also could adversely affect crop quality by changing soil pH and reducing nutrients (e.g., Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, and P) in plant tissues. To evaluate effects of biochar on the nutrient quality of four crops, we conducted a greenhouse study using pots with: carrot (Daucus carota cv. Tendersweet), corn (Zea mays, cv. Golden Bantam), lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Black-Seeded Simpson) and soybean (Glycine max cv. Viking 2265). Plants were grown in one of two South Carolina sandy Coastal Plain soils (Norfolk and Coxville Soil Series), along with biochar (1% by weight) produced from pine chips (PC), poultry litter (PL), swine solids (SS), switchgrass (SG), and two blends of pine chips plus poultry litter (PC/PL, 50/50% and 80/20%). Each of the feedstocks and feedstock blends was pyrolyzed at 350, 500, and 700 ̊ C to produce the biochar used to amend the Norfolk and Coxville soils. Effects of biochar on leaf nutrients (% dry weight) statistically varied with species, soil, feedstock and temperature and nutrient. For carrot and lettuce, the PL, PL/PC, and SS biochars generally decreased leaf N, Ca, Mg, and P; while PL and PL/PC increased K and Na. Biochars had little effect on lea

  12. Differences in the availabilities of cesium-134,137 and ruthenium-106 from a Chernobyl-contaminated soil to a water plant, duckweed, and to the terrestrial plants, bean and lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polar, E.; Bayuelgen, N.

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous solubilities of some radionuclides present in a Chernobyl-contaminated soil and their subsequent availabilities to an aquatic plant, duckweed (Lemnaceae), were compared to those obtained for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). During this investigation carried out in laboratory conditions, it was observed that, although around 0.06% of 134 Cs or 137 Cs present in the soil was detected in the aqueous phase, duckweed concentrated 1000-5500 times this amount, depending on plant species. By contrast, 106 Ru in the soil was leached more effectively into solution than was cesium but its accumulation into duckweed was less. The effects on the availabilities of ruthenium and cesium of depletion of soil organic matter and of amendment of the aqueous phase with nutrients were also investigated. The transfer factors of 134,137 Cs into bean and lettuce cultivated in the same soil were 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, while that for 106 Ru was around 0.2. The difference between aquatic and terrestrial plants in cycling radionuclides is briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Differences in the availabilities of cesium-134,137 and ruthenium-106 from a Chernobyl-contaminated soil to a water plant, duckweed, and to the terrestrial plants, bean and lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polar, E.; Bayuelgen, N. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1991-01-01

    The aqueous solubilities of some radionuclides present in a Chernobyl-contaminated soil and their subsequent availabilities to an aquatic plant, duckweed (Lemnaceae), were compared to levels found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). During this investigation carried out in laboratory conditions, it was observed that, although around 0.06% of {sup 134}Cs or {sup 137}Cs present in the soil was detected in the aqueous phase, duckweed concentrated 1000-5500 times this amount, depending on plant species. By contrast, {sup 106}Ru in the soil was leached more effectively into solution than was cesium but its accumulation into duckweed was less. The effects on the availabilities of ruthenium and cesium of depletion of soil organic matter and of amendment of the aqueous phase with nutrients were also investigated. The transfer factors of {sup 134,137}Cs into bean and lettuce cultivated in the same soil were 0.02 and 0.06, respectively, while that for {sup 106}Ru was around 0.2. The difference between aquatic and terrestrial plants in cycling radionuclides is briefly discussed. (author).

  14. AND DEVELOPMENT OF LETTUCE ON CHERNOZEM ORDINARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gromakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is very popular in the Russian consumer market. Special conditions for its cultivation determine the need to select modern, inexpensive elements of agro-technology that promote high yields. At present biochar (bio-coal is considered as a promising organic fertilizer. Its main difference lies in the possibility of using any organic raw material in its production. In Russia, the study on the use of biochar is limited; there is no practice of applying it in the complex of agricultural techniques of various agricultural crops. In the conditions of vegetative experiment, the influence of various doses of biochar in ordinary chernozem on the growth and development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar was studied in accordance with the developed experiment scheme: control (without biochar, supplemented with 1, 2 and 5 % of biochar. In the experiment, biochar obtained from birch wood was used, by pyrolysis method in fraction of 0.5-5mm. The following observations and determinations were made: the timing of the onset of the phases of plant development, the length of the roots, the number of leaves, the length of the largest leaf, the height of plants, the diameter of the rosette, the mass of 10 plants. The use of biochar contributed to a reduction of beginning period technical ripeness in plants, particularly in variant with the addition of 2%. The increase in root length, the number of leaves of lettuce plants as compared with to control in variants with 2 and 5% of biocar has been observed. The length of the largest leaf, the height of plants and the diameter of the rosette of lettuce are characterized by a significant improvement, even in variant with 1%. Productivity of lettuce was highest in the variant with 2% of biochar applied to the soil.

  15. Partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids.

  16. Occurrence and bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants in lettuce grown in peri-urban horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2018-05-14

    Peri-urban horticulture performs environmental and socio-economic functions and provides ecological services to nearby urban areas. Nevertheless, industrialization and water pollution have led to an increase in the exposure of peri-urban vegetables to contaminants such as trace elements (TEs) and organic microcontaminants (OMCs). In this study, the occurrence of chemical contaminants (i.e., 16 TEs, 33 OMCs) in soil and lettuce leaves from 4 farm fields in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona was assessed. A rural site, outside the peri-urban area of influence, was selected for comparison. The concentration of TEs and OMCs ranged from non-detectable to 803 mg/kg dw and from non-detectable to 397 μg/kg dw respectively in the peri-urban soil, and from 6 · 10 -5 to 4.91 mg/kg fw and from non-detectable to 193 μg/kg fw respectively in lettuce leaves. Although the concentration of Mo, Ni, Pb, and As in the soil of the peri-urban area exceeded the environmental quality guidelines, their occurrence in lettuce complied with human food standards (except for Pb). The many fungicides (carbendazim, dimetomorph, and methylparaben) and chemicals released by plastic pipelines (tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate, bisphenol F, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) used in agriculture were prevalent in the soil and the edible parts of the lettuce. The occurrence of these chemical pollutants in the peri-urban area did not affect the chlorophyll, lipid, or carbohydrate content of the lettuce leaves. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that soil pollution, fungicide application, and irrigation water quality are the most relevant factors determining the presence of contaminants in crops. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by carrot and lettuce crops grown in compost-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Iparraguirre, A; Oliva, E; Quintana, J B; Rodil, R; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O; Prieto, A

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by carrot and lettuce was investigated. Degradation of PBDEs in soil in the absence of the plants was discarded. Different carrot (Nantesa and Chantenay) and lettuce (Batavia Golden Spring and Summer Queen) varieties were grown in fortified or contaminated compost-amended soil mixtures under greenhouse conditions. After plant harvesting, roots (core and peel) and leaves were analyzed separately for carrot, while for lettuce, leaves and hearts were analyzed together. The corresponding bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In carrots, a concentration gradient of 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-138) became evident that decreased from the root peel via root core to the leaves. For decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at the low concentration level (7 and 20 ng g(-1)), the leaves incorporated the highest concentration of the target substance. For lettuce, a decrease in the BCF value (from 0.24 to 0.02) was observed the higher the octanol-water partition coefficient, except in the case of BDE-183 (BCF = 0.51) and BDE-209 (BCF values from 0.41 to 0.74). Significant influence of the soils and crop varieties on the uptake could not be supported. Metabolic debromination, hydroxylation or methylation of the target PBDEs in the soil-plant system was not observed.

  18. Simulation of gamma-ray irradiation of lettuce leaves in a 137Cs irradiator using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsoon; Moreira, Rosana G.; Braby, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ionizing radiation effectively reduces the number of common microbial pathogens in fresh produce. However, the efficacy of the process for pathogens internalized into produce tissue is unknown. The objective of this study was to understand gamma irradiation of lettuce leaf structure exposed in a 137 Cs irradiator using MCNP. The simulated 137 Cs irradiator is a self-shielded device, and its geometry and sources are described in the MCNP input file. When the irradiation chamber is filled with water, lower doses are found at the center of the irradiation volume and the dose uniformity ratio (maximum dose/minimum dose) is 1.76. For randomly oriented rectangular lettuce leaf segments in the irradiation chamber, the dose uniformity ratio is 1.25. It shows that dose uniformity in the Cs irradiator is strongly dependent of the density of the sample. To understand dose distribution inside the leaf, we divided a lettuce leaf into a low density (flat) region (0.72 g/cm 3 ) and high density (rib) region (0.86 g/cm 3 ). Calculated doses to the rib are 61% higher than doses to the flat region of the leaf. This indicates that internalized microorganisms can be inactivated more easily than organisms on the surface. This study shows that irradiation can effectively reduce viable microorganism internalized in lettuce. (author)

  19. Biodegradable films of starch/PVOH/alginate in packaging systems for minimally processed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paula Herrera Brandelero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biodegradable packaging may replace non-biodegradable materials when the shelf life of the packaged product is relatively short, as in minimally processed foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of biodegradable films comprising starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH/alginate with the addition of 0 or 0.5% of essential oil of copaiba (EOCP or lemongrass (EOLM compared to poly-vinyl chloride (PVC films in the storage of minimally processed lettuce. Lettuce samples cut into 1-cm strips were placed in polypropylene trays wrapped with biodegradable films and stored at 6 ± 2 °C for 8 days. PVC films were used as controls. The biofilms presented 11.43-8.11 MPa resistance and 11.3-13.22% elongation, with water vapor permeability (WVP of 0.5-4.04 x 10-12 g. s-1.Pa-1.m-1; thus, the films' properties were considered suitable for the application. The lettuce stored in PVC presented minor total soluble solids (TSS, less luminosity (L, higher intensity of yellow color (b, and eight times less mass loss than that stored in biodegradable films. Multivariate analysis showed that the lettuce lost quality after 2 days of storage in PVC films, representing a different result from the other treatments. Lettuce stored in biodegradable films for 2 and 4 days showed a greater similarity with newly harvested lettuce (time zero. The films with or without the addition of essential oil showed similar characteristics. Biodegradable films were considered viable for the storage of minimally processed lettuce.

  20. Lettuce seed germination and root elongation toxicity evaluation of the F-Area seepline soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.; Westbury, H.M. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This study is a continuation of similar studies conducted by Easton and Murphy (1993) and Loehle (1990). The objectives of these studies are to: (1) assess the toxicity of the water-soluble constituents of soil in a seepline adjacent to the F-Area Seepage Basins and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of rainwater movements in reducing the toxicity of the soil. Soils from the F-Area seepline that were found to inhibit lettuce seed germination and radical elongation in 1990 were not found to be significantly different from soils from an uncontaminated control site in this test. After six washings of the soil, the toxicity of the leachate was comparable to that of de-ionized water. This indicates that natural water movements may have rendered the F-Area seepline soils less toxic to lettuce seedlings than in previous tests

  1. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  2. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  3. Semi-High Throughput Screening for Potential Drought-tolerance in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Germplasm Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Caleb; Mou, Beiquan

    2015-04-17

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of the world. Short-term drought events along with regulatory intervention in the regulation of water availability coupled with the looming threat of long-term climate shifts that may lead to reduced precipitation in many important agricultural regions has increased the need to hasten the development of crops adapted for improved water use efficiency in order to maintain or expand production in the coming years. This protocol is not meant as a step-by-step guide to identifying at either the physiological or molecular level drought-tolerance traits in lettuce, but rather is a method developed and refined through the screening of thousands of different lettuce varieties. The nature of this screen is based in part on the streamlined measurements focusing on only three water-stress indicators: leaf relative water content, wilt, and differential plant growth following drought-stress. The purpose of rapidly screening a large germplasm collection is to narrow the candidate pool to a point in which more intensive physiological, molecular, and genetic methods can be applied to identify specific drought-tolerant traits in either the lab or field. Candidates can also be directly incorporated into breeding programs as a source of drought-tolerance traits.

  4. Comparative Infection Progress Analysis of Lettuce big-vein virus and Mirafiori lettuce virus in Lettuce Crops by Developed Molecular Diagnosis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose A; Botella, Francisco; Maruhenda, Antonio; Sastre, Pedro; Sánchez-Pina, M Amelia; Pallas, Vicente

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Nonisotopic molecular dot blot hybridization technique and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) in lettuce tissue were developed. Both procedures were suitable for the specific detection of both viruses in a range of naturally infected lettuce plants from various Spanish production areas and seven different cultivars. The study of the distribution of both viruses in the plant revealed that the highest concentration of LBVV and MiLV occurred in roots and old leaves, respectively. LBVV infection progress in a lettuce production area was faster than that observed for MiLV. In spite of different rates of virus infection progress, most lettuce plants became infected with both viruses about 100 days posttransplant. The appearance of both viruses in lettuce crops was preceded by a peak in the concentration of resting spores and zoosporangia of the fungus vector Olpidium brassicae in lettuce roots.

  5. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources on mycorrhizal lettuces under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Seguel, Alex; Cornejo, Pablo; Rao, Maria A.; Borie, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) develop symbiotic associations with plants roots. These associations are very common in the natural environment and can provide a range of benefits to the host plant. AMF improve nutrition, enhance resistance to soil-borne pests and disease, increase resistance to drought and tolerance to heavy metals, and contribute to a better soil structure. However, agricultural intensive managements, such as the use of mineral fertilizes, pesticides, mouldboard tillage, monocultures and use of non-mycorrhizal crops, are detrimental to AMF. As a consequence, agroecosystems are impoverished in AMF and may not provide the full range of benefits to the crop. Organic farming systems may be less unfavourable to AMF because they exclude the use of water-soluble fertilisers and most pesticides, and generally they plan diverse crop rotations. The AMF develop the most common type of symbiosis in nature: about 90% of the plants are mycorrhizal and many agricultural crops are mycorrhizal. One of more mycorrhizal crops is lettuce, that is very widespread in intensive agricultural under greenhouse. Therefore, cultivated lettuce is know to be responsive to mycorrhizal colonization which can reach 80% of root length and contribute to phosphorus and nitrogen absorption by this plant specie. For this work four different lettuce cultivars (Romana, Milanesa, Grande Lagos and Escarola) were used to study mycorrhization under organic agricultural system, supplying compost from agricultural waste (1 kg m-2) as background fertilization for all plots, red guano as phosphorus source (75 U ha-1 and 150 U ha-1 of P2O5), lupine flour as nitrogen source (75 and 150 U/ha of N) and a combination of both. Lettuce plants were cultivated under greenhouse and after two months of growing, plants were harvested and dried and fresh weight of lettuce roots and shoots were evaluated. The number of spores, percentage of colonization, total mycelium and glomalin content were also

  6. Weedborne reservoirs and seed transmission of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Vallad, G E; Bhat, R G; Koike, S T; Ryder, E J; Subbarao, K V

    2005-01-01

    The seed transmission of Verticillium dahliae was evaluated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed collected from lettuce plants infected with V. dahliae were plated with or without surface sterilization on Sorenson's modified NP10 medium. Of the seed plated with or without surface sterilization, 90 and 66 %, respectively, yielded colonies of V. dahliae. The incidence of Verticillium wilt ranged from 55 to 80 % among lettuce plants grown from seed harvested from infected plants. All evaluated isol...

  7. Unravelling the resistance mechanism of lettuce against Nasonovia ribisnigri

    OpenAIRE

    Broeke, ten, C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids are serious pests of crop plant species, and host plant resistance is often the most effective and environmentally friendly control strategy to control these pests. One of these aphid pests is the black currant - lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely), an economically important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. Host plant resistance has been used since 1982 to control this aphid species and is mediated by the Nr-gene, originating from wild lettuce Lactuca virosa L. H...

  8. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Fresh-Cut Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hao; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Schaffner, Donald W; Pradhan, Abani K

    2017-02-01

    Leafy green vegetables, including lettuce, are recognized as potential vehicles for foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. Fresh-cut lettuce is potentially at high risk of causing foodborne illnesses, as it is generally consumed without cooking. Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) are gaining more attention as an effective tool to assess and control potential risks associated with foodborne pathogens. This study developed a QMRA model for E. coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce and evaluated the effects of different potential intervention strategies on the reduction of public health risks. The fresh-cut lettuce production and supply chain was modeled from field production, with both irrigation water and soil as initial contamination sources, to consumption at home. The baseline model (with no interventions) predicted a mean probability of 1 illness per 10 million servings and a mean of 2,160 illness cases per year in the United States. All intervention strategies evaluated (chlorine, ultrasound and organic acid, irradiation, bacteriophage, and consumer washing) significantly reduced the estimated mean number of illness cases when compared with the baseline model prediction (from 11.4- to 17.9-fold reduction). Sensitivity analyses indicated that retail and home storage temperature were the most important factors affecting the predicted number of illness cases. The developed QMRA model provided a framework for estimating risk associated with consumption of E. coli O157:H7-contaminated fresh-cut lettuce and can guide the evaluation and development of intervention strategies aimed at reducing such risk.

  9. Impact of mulches and growing season on indicator bacteria survival during lettuce cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aixia; Buchanan, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-05-02

    In fresh produce production, the use of mulches as ground cover to retain moisture and control weeds is a common agricultural practice, but the influence that various mulches have on enteric pathogen survival and dispersal is unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different mulching methods on the survival of soil and epiphytic fecal indicator bacteria on organically grown lettuce during different growing seasons. Organically managed lettuce, cultivated with various ground covers--polyethylene plastic, corn-based biodegradable plastic, paper and straw mulch--and bare ground as a no-mulch control, was overhead inoculated with manure-contaminated water containing known levels of generic Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Leaves and soil samples were collected at intervals over a two week period on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14, and quantitatively assessed for E. coli, fecal coliforms and Enterococcus spp. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures and an exponential decline with asymptote survival model. Indicator bacterial concentrations in the lettuce phyllosphere decreased over time under all treatments, with more rapid E. coli declines in the fall than in the spring (plettuce compared to mulches. In fall 2014, the E. coli decline rate on paper mulch-grown lettuce was higher (plettuce phyllosphere, and mulch type was a factor for fecal coliform levels (plettuce production may impact the fate of enteric bacteria in soil or on lettuce, most likely in relation to soil moisture retention, and other weather-related factors, such as temperature and rainfall. The data suggest that the time between exposure to a source of enteric bacteria and harvesting of the crop is season dependent, which has implications for determining best harvest times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus infecting lettuce in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, M; Amer, M A; Al-Saleh, M A; Al-Shahwan, I M; Shakeel, M T; Zakri, A M; Katis, N I

    2017-07-01

    During 2014 and 2015, 97 lettuce plants that showed big-vein-disease-like symptoms and seven weed plants were collected from the Riyadh region. DAS-ELISA revealed that 25% and 9% of the lettuce plants were singly infected with LBVaV and MiLBVV, respectively, whereas 63% had a mixed infection with both viruses. The results were confirmed by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for LBVaV and MiLBVV. LBVaV and MiLBVV were also detected in Sonchus oleraceus and Eruca sativa, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of LBVaV and MiLBVV Saudi isolates ranged from 94.3-100%, and their similarities to isolates with sequences in the GenBank database ranged from 93.9 to 99.6% and 93.8 to 99.3%, respectively. Olpidium sp. was present in the roots of lettuce plants with big-vein disease and it was shown to facilitate transmission of both viruses.

  11. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way.

  12. Virus diseases in lettuce in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce is frequently attacked by several viruses causing disease epidemics and considerable yield losses along the Mediterranean basin. Aphids are key pests and the major vectors of plant viruses in lettuce fields. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is probably the most important because it is seed-transmitted in addition to be transmissible by many aphid species that alight on the crop. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. In regions with heavy and humid soils, Lettuce Mirafiori big-vein virus (LMBVV) can also produce major yield losses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of Salmonella in lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Eskridge, Kent M; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Treated wastewater is expected to be increasingly used as an alternative source of irrigation water in areas facing fresh water scarcity. Understanding the behaviors of contaminants from wastewater in soil and plants following irrigation is critical to assess and manage the risks associated with wastewater irrigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soil texture and drought stress on the uptake of antibiotics and the internalization of human pathogens into lettuce through root uptake following wastewater irrigation. Lettuce grown in three soils with variability in soil texture (loam, sandy loam, and sand) and under different levels of water stress (no drought control, mild drought, and severe drought) were irrigated with synthetic wastewater containing three antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin and oxytetracycline) and one Salmonella strain a single time prior to harvest. Antibiotic uptake in lettuce was compound-specific and generally low. Only sulfamethoxazole was detected in lettuce with increasing uptake corresponding to increasing sand content in soil. Increased drought stress resulted in increased uptake of lincomycin and decreased uptake of oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The internalization of Salmonella was highly dependent on the concentration of the pathogen in irrigation water. Irrigation water containing 5 Log CFU/mL Salmonella resulted in limited incidence of internalization. When irrigation water contained 8 Log CFU/mL Salmonella, the internalization frequency was significantly higher in lettuce grown in sand than in loam (p = 0.009), and was significantly higher in lettuce exposed to severe drought than in unstressed lettuce (p = 0.049). This work demonstrated how environmental factors affected the risk of contaminant uptake by food crops following wastewater irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of abscisic acid on biochemical constituents, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under varied irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al Muhairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically important vegetable crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. of family Asteraceae was selected for the present investigation. It is being cultivated in UAE due to its commercial importance. In lettuce cultivation, the major problem is the requirement of large quantities of irrigation water. The present study was aimed to reduce the water consumption of lettuce cultivation; for that, a varied irrigation regime was used with the application of abscisic acid (ABA. The parameters studied were biochemical constituents, antioxidant potential and antioxidant enzymes’ activities in lettuce plants under drought stress and its response to ABA under stress. Drought stress caused an increase in the biochemical constituents like proline and amino acid contents when compared with control and also increased under individual ABA treatments and treatments under drought stress. The non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules like ascorbate and α-tocopherol showed significant increase under drought condition in lettuce. ABA slightly reduced these contents. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase showed significant increase under drought condition and ABA caused significant enhancement in these antioxidant enzymes under drought stress and also in unstressed conditions, thereby protecting the plants from the deleterious effects of drought stress. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that ABA in 10 mg g−1 can be used as a potential tool to minimise the drought stress effects in lettuce cultivation.

  15. Varietal response to lead by lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, M.K.

    1977-06-01

    Nine lettuce varieties were hydroponically grown at six substrate Pb concentrations to 50 ppM in substrate. Top and root tissue Pb concentration, amounts assimilated, and translocation to edible tissue were dependent on the variety as well as substrate lead and exposure duration. Even though Pb in substrate was in a precipitated form, lettuce plants could assimilate and translocate Pb. Differential response of varieties with similar morphology indicated genetical regulated physiological mechanisms of Pb assimilation and translocation. This evidence suggests varietal selection could minimize human and animal dietary intake of Pb via food plants. While early growth of some varieties was stimulated by low concentrations of Pb, and high solution concentrations suppressed growth of several varieties, genetic variation also included non-significant response of growth.

  16. Rhizonin A from Burkholderia sp. KCTC11096 and Its Growth Promoting Role in Lettuce Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mo Kang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and identified a gibberellin-producing Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096 from agricultural field soils. The culture filtrate of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR significantly increased the germination and growth of lettuce and Chinese cabbage seeds. The ethyl acetate extract of the PGPR culture showed significantly higher rate of lettuce seed germination and growth as compared to the distilled water treated control. The ethyl acetate fraction of the Burkholderia sp. was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained for the first time from a Burkholderia sp. the plant growth promoting compound rhizonin A (1, which was characterized through NMR and MS techniques. Application of various concentrations of 1 significantly promoted the lettuce seed germination as compared to control.

  17. Lettuce seeds production in hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Nilson Lemos de; Santos, Osmar Souza dos; Schmidt, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Sementes de alface das cultivares Deyse e Regina foram produzidas em estufa, no sistema hidropônico, com elevados rendimentos por planta e boa qualidade de sementes, quando comparados a resultados de sistema convencional, de canteiros em campo. Esses dados sugerem estudos de produção de sementes de alface em cultivo protegido.Lettuce seeds of Deyse and Regina cultivars were produced in greenhouse, in hydroponic system, with excelents rendiments per plant and seed quality, when compared to con...

  18. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xesús Feás

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE and fresh whole head (FWH lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH and propolis (PS, during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  19. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Phoma valerianellae on lamb`s lettuce seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Stephan, D.; Kromphardt, C.; Jahn, M.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Tinivella, F.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify seed treatment methods for eradicating Phoma valerianellae from lamb`s lettuce seeds in organic vegetable production. Using seeds naturally infested with the pathogen, the effect of three physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and

  20. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on water loss saving as the benefit derived from biological control of this plant between 1990 and 2013 at New Year's Dam, Alicedale, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Estimates of water loss due to evapotranspiration from water hyacinth vary significantly; therefore, the study used three different rates, high, ...

  1. Sanitizer efficacy in preventing cross-contamination of heads of lettuce during retail crisping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Guo, Mengqi; Gao, Jingwen; Matthews, Karl R

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to provide information regarding mitigation of cross-contamination through the use of sanitizer during crisping at retail outlets. Seven non-inoculated heads and one inoculated head (≈5 log CFU/g) of lettuce were placed into commercial sink filled with 76 L of tap water (TW), electrolyzed water (EW, free chlorine: 43 ± 6 ppm), lactic acid and phosphoric acid-based sanitizer (LPA, pH 2.89), or citric acid-based sanitizer (CA, pH 2.78) and soaked for 5 min. Two subsequent batches (eight non-inoculated heads per batch) were soaked in the same solution. Soaking with EW significantly reduced the population of S. enterica (2.8 ± 1.5 log CFU/g), E. coli O157:H7 (3.4 ± 1.1 log CFU/g), and L. monocytogenes (2.6 ± 0.7 log CFU/g) inoculated on Romaine lettuce compared to TW, LPA, and CA (p lettuce, EW significantly reduced populations of S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7, but not L. monocytogenes compared to other treatments. No significant difference was noted between TW, LPA, and CA in reducing foodborne pathogens (p > 0.05) or preventing cross-contamination. Soaking with EW prevented cross-contamination among lettuce heads and controlled bacterial populations in crisping water for three consecutive batches. EW may be an effective option as a sanitizer to minimizing the cross-contamination of leafy greens during the retail crisping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L(-1)/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L(-1)/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L(-1)/1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L(-1) free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  3. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  4. Hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and evaluation of treatments for the elimination of indigenous E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 from the surface of leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ytana Oliveira; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro; Guimarães, Alaise Gil; Almeida, Paulo Fernando de

    2010-01-01

    p.1083-1089 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and irrigation water and assess the effectiveness of lemon juice and vinegar in reducing E. coli strains inoculated on lettuce. One hundred and forty samples of vegetables and 45 samples of irrigation water were investigated for thermotolerant coliforms and Salmonella spp. In order to verify the effectiveness of natural household sanitizers in reducing E. coli in inoculated lettuce, four treatm...

  5. USE OF PELLETED LETTUCE SEEDS IN BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  6. USE OF PELLETED LETTUCE SEEDS IN BIOABAILABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  7. Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the most popular leafy vegetable that is cultivated mainly in moderate climate. Consumers demand lettuce with good visual appearance and free of disease. Improved disease resistance of new cultivars is achieved by combining desirable genes (or alleles) from existing cu...

  8. Fate of Salmonella enterica in a mixed ingredient salad containing lettuce, cheddar cheese, and cooked chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical.

  9. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on growth and nitrate accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), under various conditions of radiation and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapoigny, L.; Tourdonnet, S. de; Roger-Estrade, G.; Jeuffroy, M.H.; Fleury, A.

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of the effect of environmental factors on growth and nitrate accumulation in plants is necessary to develop cultivation practices, and in particular for providing lettuces with a low nitrate content. This study was conducted to analyse the effect of nitrogen supply on the interception and conversion of the PAR in dry matter, and on the nitrate and water accumulations in fresh tissues of the lettuce, for various conditions of temperature and radiation. The growth, and water and nitrate concentrations of two soilless cultures of lettuce (summer and autumn) were measured for two levels of radiation and two levels of nitrogen supply. RUE ranged from 2.12 to 3.50 gMJ -1 , being higher for a low radiation level and for a high nitrogen supply. There was a positive correlation between the lettuce nitrate and water contents. The slope of this relationship was not affected by environmental conditions, indicating a strong interdependance between nitrate and water accumulation in lettuce. (author) [fr

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... protected with sticky traps and prophylactic sprays approved for the crop by Israel; (v) The lettuce must be...

  11. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  12. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Overhead- and Surface-Irrigated Greenhouse Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalsod, Gemini D; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Jeon, Sangho; Gui, Wenjun; Li, Hui; Ryser, Elliot T; Guber, Andrey K; Zhang, Wei

    2018-01-31

    Understanding the uptake and accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetables under typical irrigation practices is critical to risk assessment of crop irrigation with reclaimed water. This study investigated the pharmaceutical residues in greenhouse lettuce under overhead and soil-surface irrigations using pharmaceutical-contaminated water. Compared to soil-surface irrigation, overhead irrigation substantially increased the pharmaceutical residues in lettuce shoots. The increased residue levels persisted even after washing for trimethoprim, monensin sodium, and tylosin, indicating their strong sorption to the shoots. The postwashing concentrations in fresh shoots varied from 0.05 ± 0.04 μg/kg for sulfadiazine to 345 ± 139 μg/kg for carbamazepine. Root concentration factors ranged from 0.04 ± 0.14 for tylosin to 19.2 ± 15.7 for sulfamethoxazole. Translocation factors in surface-irrigated lettuce were low for sulfamethoxalzole, trimethoprim, monensin sodium, and tylosin (0.07-0.15), but high for caffeine (4.28 ± 3.01) and carbamazepine (8.15 ± 2.87). Carbamazepine was persistent in soil and hyperaccumulated in shoots.

  13. The morphology, physiology and nutritional quality of lettuce grown under hypobaria and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Li, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Rome) under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions. Plants were grown under two levels of total pressures (101 and 30 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) for 20 days. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) not only significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce plants by decreasing biomass, leaf area, root/shoot ratio, water content, the contents of minerals and organic compounds (vitamin C, crude protein and crude fat), but also destroyed the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast. The activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of glutathione and the total antioxidant capacity significantly decreased due to hypoxia. Hypobaria (30 kPa) did not markedly enhance the biomass, but it increased leaf area, root/shoot ratio and relative water content. Hypobaria also decreased the contents of total phenols, malondialdehyde and total carbohydrate and protected the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast under hypoxia. Furthermore, the activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of minerals and organic compounds markedly increased under hypobaria. This study demonstrates that hypobaria (30 kPa) does not increase the growth of lettuce plants, but it enhances plant's stress resistance and nutritional quality under hypoxia.

  14. The effect of competition from neighbours on stomatal conductance in lettuce and tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, Lidiya; Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J; Arkhipova, Tatyana; Kudoyarova, Guzel

    2011-05-01

    Competition decreased transpiration from young lettuce plants after 2 days, before any reductions in leaf area became apparent, and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) of lettuce and tomato plants was also reduced. Stomatal closure was not due to hydraulic signals or competition for nutrients, as soil water content, leaf water status and leaf nitrate concentrations were unaffected by neighbours. Competition-induced stomatal closure was absent in an abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient tomato mutant, flacca, indicating a fundamental involvement of ABA. Although tomato xylem sap ABA concentrations were unaffected by the presence of neighbours, ABA/pH-based stomatal modulation is still likely to underlie the response to competition, as soil and xylem sap alkalization was observed in competing plants. Competition also modulated leaf ethylene production, and treatment of lettuce plants with an ethylene perception inhibitor (1-methylcyclopropene) diminished the difference in g(s) between single and competing plants grown in a controlled environment room, but increased it in plants grown in the greenhouse: ethylene altered the extent of the stomatal response to competition. Effects of competition on g(s) are discussed in terms of the detection of the absence of neighbours: increases in g(s) and carbon fixation may allow faster initial space occupancy within an emerging community/crop. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Media Effects on Lettuce Growth in "Pillows" Designed for the VEGGIE Spaceflight Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; McCoy, LaShelle; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    VEGGIE is a prototype vegetable production unit for space designed by Orbital Technologies Corporation that is being developed to fly on the International Space Station. A modular plant rooting system "pillow" is being designed to support plant growth in VEGGIE under microgravity conditions. VEGGIE pillows are small self-contained packets of media with time-release fertilizer that can wick water passively from a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in pillows and the entire root system of a plant is contained as the crop develops, preventing loss into the spacecraft cabin. This study compared five media types and three lettuce cultivars in pillows growing in a VEGGIE analog environment.. Media consisted of a peat-based potting mix (Fafard #2,Conrad Fafard Inc., Agawam, MA), and a calcined clay, (arcillite, 1-2 mm sifted, Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove IL) as well as three different blends of the two, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70. Lettuce cultivars tested were 'Sierra', a bi-colored French crisp Batavia lettuce, 'Outredgeous', a red romaine lettuce and 'Flandria', a green butter head variety. Plants were grown for 28 days, harvested, biometric data was obtained, and tissue mineral analysis was performed. For all cultivars, lettuce plants grown in the media blends were more productive than those in the individual media types. All cultivars showed bell-shaped curves in response to increases in arcillite / decreases in Fafard #2 for leaf area, fresh, and dry mass. Plants in 100% Fafard #2 and in 100% arcillite were stunted, but only those in higher levels of Fafard #2 (70% and 100%) had reduced shoot percent moisture, possibly indicating that mechanisms causing stunting differed. Variation in tissue nutrient content are consistent with this, with Mg and Mn highest in plants grown in 100% Fafard and decreasing as the concentration of arcillite increased. Color also varied with media, especially in the 'Sierra' lettuce, with plants grown in increasing levels

  16. Growth of Three Lettuce Cultivars in NASA's HDU PEM During the 2010 DRATS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    NASA's 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. Rooting media and slow release fertilizers were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that had shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. These tests involved comparing growth, color and quality of the lettuce cultivars grown under VEGGIE LED array (Orbitec, Madison, WI) or Biomass Production System for Education ((BSEe), Orbitec, Madison, WI) compact fluorescent lamps using a gravity feed water delivery system. Mission relevant conditions of CO2, temperature and RH were maintained using controlled environment chambers (EGC, Chagrin Falls, OH). Growth data was obtained for the two red leaf lettuce cultivars, Outredgeous and Firecracker, and the green Bibb lettuce cultivar, Flandria. Growth and quality was evaluated using different concentrations (7.5 g/L and 15 g/L) of commercial slow release fertilizer (Osmocote Plus 15-9-12, Scotts, Maryville, OH) and Nutricote 18-6-8 (Florikan, Sarasota, FL) in either a peat/vermiculite media (sunshine LP5 MiX, Sungro, Bellview, WA) or calcined montmorillonite clay [(arcillite,)Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove, IL]. The commercial peat/vermiculite mix generally resulted in larger plants than those grown in arcillite. Increasing the concentration of Osmocote from 7.5 to 15 g/L increased the height, dry mass, and leaf area of lettuce cultivars. In contrast, there was a decrease in growth parameters when concentration of Nutricote was increased from 7.5 to 15 g/L. The best growth was obtained with the 7.5 g/L Nutricote using a commercial peat/vermiculite mixture. This media was used for field testing VEGGIE plant system in the 2010 DRAT test. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple

  17. Dependence of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varietis on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Б. Кутовенко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the variability of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties depending on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1. Methods. Field study, biometric technique, comparative approach, statistical evaluation, generalization. Results. Dependence of the plant height, the diameter of the leaf rosette, the number of leaves per plant, the leaf area of plants on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1 was defined. Investigations of cutting lettuce ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varieties by Dutch breeding were conducted in 2016–2017 in the collection sites of the department of vegetable growing in the scientific-experimental field  “Fruit and vegetable garden” of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. In order to determine dependence of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce varieties on the concentration of complex microfertilizer Avatar-1, the following scheme was used for the both varieties: variant 1 – water (control; variant 2 – 0,10% solution; variant 3 – 0,25% solution; variant 4 – 0,50% solution. Plants were treated with microfertilizer three times during the vegetative period. Alterations of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varieties  depending on the concentration of complex microfertilizer Avatar-1 was studied. Conclusions. It was found that in case of three-time plant treatment with complex microfertilizer Avatar-1 at the time of harvesting, the best plant biometrics was registered in variant 3 (concentration 0,25% for the both ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varie­ties of cutting lettuce. The height of plants of the cutting lettuce in ‘Afitsyon’ variety exceeded this figure in ‘Concord variety by 1,1–1,4 cm. The concentration of microfertilizer had no significant effect on the diameter of the leaf rosette of ‘Concord’ variety (25,1–25,9 см. The diame­ter of the leaf rosette of

  18. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic lettuce growers in California typically use insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) to attract hoverflies (Syrphidae) that provide biological control of aphids. A two year study with transplanted organic romaine lettuce in Salinas, California investigated agronomic aspects of lettuce monoculture and lettuce-alyssum strip intercropping on beds in replacement intercropping treatments where alyssum transplants replaced 2 to 8% of the lettuce transplants, and in additi...

  19. KARAKTERISASI BIJI DAN PROTEIN KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet SEBAGAI SUMBER PROTEIN [Characterization of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Seed and Its Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to characterize the physiochemical properties of hyacinth beans as new protein source. The result of research showed that hyacinth beans are oval shaped and orange and yellow coloured. The edible part of hyacinth beans is 83.2 ± 1.1 % of dry seed; in which the carbohydrate is 67.9 ± 1.1 %; protein: 17.1 ± 1.5 % and fat: 1.1 ± 0.4 %. According to their solubility, the protein fractions were found as albumin: 18.22 %; globuli : 55.15 % and glutelin : 26.13 %, whereas prolamin was not detected. Further analyis showed that, the globulin is consisted of globulin 7S (3.50% and globulin 11S (0.67 %. The hyacinth beans are potential to be used for protein source.

  20. Study of Water Quality of Recirculated Water in Aquaponic Systems: Study of speciation of selected metals and characterization of the properties of natural organic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gjesteland, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes an extensive study on how water quality changes over time in a small scale recirculating system where waste water from smolt production was used to grow lettuce for commercial use. The treatment effect of lettuce on different solutions was tested and corresponding lettuce yield was evaluated. In order to enhance the treatment effect a rock wool filter was used on certain solutions. Important water quality parameters were measured every day, and the element concentration ...

  1. Determination of Elemental Composition of Malabar spinach, Lettuce, Spinach, Hyacinth Bean, and Cauliflower Vegetables Using Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Technique at Savar Subdistrict in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of 18 different elements (K, Ca, Fe, Cl, P, Zn, S, Mn, Ti, Cr, Rb, Co, Br, Sr, Ru, Si, Ni, and Cu were analyzed in five selected vegetables through Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE technique. The objective of this study was to provide updated information on concentrations of elements in vegetables available in the local markets at Savar subdistrict in Bangladesh. These elements were found in varying concentrations in the studied vegetables. The results also indicated that P, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were found in all vegetables. Overall, K and Ca exhibited the highest concentrations. Cu and Ni exhibited the lowest concentrations in vegetables. The necessity of these elements was also evaluated, based on the established limits of regulatory standards. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption of these vegetables is not completely free of health risks.

  2. Evidence for Lettuce big-vein associated virus as the causal agent of a syndrome of necrotic rings and spots in lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Bekkum, van P.J.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV, genus Varicosavirus) was shown to be responsible for characteristic necrotic symptoms observed in combination with big-vein symptoms in lettuce breeding lines when tested for their susceptibility to lettuce big-vein disease (BVD) using viruliferous Olpidium

  3. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb’s lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Coquin, P.; Lohwasser, U.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce, spinach and chicory are generally considered the main leafy vegetables, while a fourth group denoted by ‘minor leafy vegetables’ includes, amongst others, rocket salad, lamb’s lettuce, asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. Except in the case of lettuce, central crop databases of leafy

  4. Effect of population density of lettuce intercropped with rocket on productivity and land-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spacing of lettuce rows on the production of a lettuce-rocket intercropping system over two growing seasons (11 August to 25 September 2011 and 12 January to 24 February 2012) in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 11 treatments in each season: lettuce-rocket intercrops with five row spacings for the lettuce (0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40 m) and the rocket planted midway between the lettuce rows, sole crops of lettuce at the same five row spacings and a sole crop of rocket. Fresh and dry masses of the lettuce and rocket and number of lettuce leaves per plant were highest with a lettuce row spacing of 0.40 m, but the productivities of the lettuce and rocket were higher with a lettuce row spacing of 0.20 m. The productivities and fresh and dry weights of the lettuce and rocket and the number of lettuce leaves per plant were highest in the sole crops, but the fresh and dry weights of the rocket were higher with intercropping. The land equivalent ratios were >1.0 in both seasons in all intercrops and were highest for the densest crop (1.41). Intercropping was therefore 41% more efficient than sole cropping for the production of lettuce and rocket. PMID:29698401

  5. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  6. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and it achieves very high irrigation efficiency and uses. *Corresponding ... serious harmful effect on lettuce growing (Table 1). During the ... Seeds were sown in a seed bed under greenhouse conditions on. October 20th in ...

  7. The Inlfuence of Biochar on Growth of Lettuce and Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalika P. Upadhyay; Doug George; Roger S. Swift; Victor Galea

    2014-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted in a glasshouse to determine the growth pattern of lettuce, true potato seedlings (TPS) and single node cuttings of TPS in response to biochar. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments (0, 10, 30, 50 and 100 t ha-1) of biochar from greenwaste with 5 replications in lettuce, 10 in TPS and 5 in single node cuttings of TPS. The observations recorded on growth parameters showed that biochar had signiifcant effect on growth of lettuce but no consistent effect on growth of TPS and single node cuttings. Among the biochar rates, 30 t ha-1 had the greatest inlfuence on overall growth of lettuce. The pH and electrical conductivity increased as the biochar rates increased in all experiments. These results provide an avenue for soil management system by using biochar as an amendment in horticultural crops. However, their veriifcation in the ifeld is important for speciifc recommendations.

  8. Lettuce achene invigoration through osmopriming at supraoptimal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.M.; Amjad, M.; Iqbal, Q.; Nawaz, A.; Afzal, I.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of osmopriming on lettuce achene invigoration at supra optimal temperature (35degreeC) was investigated in the present study. Osmopriming of lettuce achene with KNO/sub 3/ (0.25%, 0.5% and 1%), CaCl/sub 2/ (15 mM, 25 mM, 50 mM) and PEG 8000 (0.1 g/ml H/sub 2/O, 0.2 g/ml H/sub 2/O, 0.3g/ml H/sub 2/O) alleviated thermodormancy and improved lettuce achene's vigor. Moreover, priming significantly improved final germination % age, energy of germination, germination index, shoot length, root length, vigor index and reduced mean germination time and time taken to 50% germination, as compared to control, when seeds were subjected to supra-optimal germination environments. It can be concluded that osmopriming can act as effective tool to invigorate lettuce seeds at supra optimal temperature. (author)

  9. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781–1826): The Man Behind the Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguin, Ariel

    2006-01-01

    Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781–1826) was a French physician who, in 1816, invented the stethoscope. Using this new instrument, he investigated the sounds made by the heart and lungs and determined that his diagnoses were supported by the observations made during autopsies. Laënnec later published the first seminal work on the use of listening to body sounds, De L’auscultation Mediate (On Mediate Auscultation). Laënnec is considered the father of clinical auscultation and wrote the first descriptions of bronchiectasis and cirrhosis and also classified pulmonary conditions such as pneumonia, bronchiectasis, pleurisy, emphysema, pneumothorax, phthisis and other lung diseases from the sounds he heard with his invention. Laënnec perfected the art of physical examination of the chest and introduced many clinical terms still used today. PMID:17048358

  10. A model for multiseasonal spread of verticillium wilt of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V

    2014-09-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a destructive disease in lettuce, and the pathogen is seedborne. Even though maximum seed infestation rates of lettuce seed lots, it is necessary to establish acceptable contamination thresholds to prevent introduction and establishment of the pathogen in lettuce production fields. However, introduction of inoculum into lettuce fields for experimental purposes to determine its long term effects is undesirable. Therefore, we constructed a simulation model to study the spread of Verticillium wilt following pathogen introduction from seed. The model consists of four components: the first for simulating infection of host plants, the second for simulating reproduction of microsclerotia on diseased plants, the third for simulating the survival of microsclerotia, and the fourth for simulating the dispersal of microsclerotia. The simulation results demonstrated that the inoculum density-disease incidence curve parameters and the dispersal gradients affect disease spread in the field. Although a steep dispersal gradient facilitated the establishment of the disease in a new field with a low inoculum density, a long-tail gradient allowed microsclerotia to be dispersed over greater distances, promoting the disease spread in fields with high inoculum density. The simulation results also revealed the importance of avoiding successive lettuce crops in the same field, reducing survival rate of microsclerotia between crops, and the need for breeding resistance against V. dahliae in lettuce cultivars to lower the number of microsclerotia formed on each diseased plant. The simulation results, however, suggested that, even with a low seed infestation rate, the pathogen would eventually become established if susceptible lettuce cultivars were grown consecutively in the same field for many years. A threshold for seed infestation can be established only when two of the three drivers of the disease-(i) low microsclerotia production per

  11. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Sara; González-Benito, M Elena; Hill, Lisa M; Walters, Christina

    2010-09-01

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed ageing rates. Over 30 volatile compounds were detected from lettuce seeds during storage at 35 degrees C at water contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.09 g H(2)O g(-1) dw. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in volatile composition were noted as a function of water content, and these differences were apparent before signs of deterioration were visible. Seeds stored at high water content (L >or=0.06 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) emitted molecular species indicative of glycolysis (methanol+ethanol), and evidence of peroxidation was apparent subsequent to viability loss. Seeds containing less water (0.03-0.05 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) produced volatiles indicative of peroxidation and survived longer compared with seeds stored under more humid conditions. Production of glycolysis-related by-products correlated strongly with deterioration rate when measured as a function of water content. This correlation may provide a valuable non-invasive means to predict the duration of the early, asymptomatic stage of seed deterioration.

  12. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157 on lettuce, based on survival data from controlled studies in a climate chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoson, Jakob R; Nyberg, Karin; Lindqvist, Roland; Albihn, Ann

    2011-12-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the survival of Escherichia coli O157 on lettuce as a function of temperature and light intensity, and to use that information in a screening-level quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) in order to evaluate risk-reducing strategies including irrigation water quality guidelines, rinsing, and holding time between last irrigation and harvest. Iceberg lettuce was grown in a climate chamber and inoculated with E. coli O157. Bacterial numbers were determined with the standard plate count method after inoculation and 1, 2, 4, and 7 day(s) postinoculation. The experiments were carried out at 11, 18, and 25°C in light intensities of 0, 400, and 600 mmol (m(2))(-1) s(-1). There was a significant effect of temperature and light intensity on survival, with less bacteria isolated from lettuce incubated at 25 and 18°C compared with 11°C (P < 0.0001), and in light intensities of 400 and 600 mmol (m(2))(-1) s(-1) compared with 0 mmol (m(2))(-1) s(-1) (P < 0.001). The average log reductions after 1, 2, 4, and 7 day(s) were 1.14, 1.71, 2.04, and 3.0, respectively. The QMRA compared the relative risk with lettuce consumption from 20 scenarios. A stricter water quality guideline gave a mean fivefold risk reduction. Holding times of 1, 2, 4, and 7 day(s) reduced the risk 3, 8, 8, and 18 times, respectively, compared with harvest the same day as the last irrigation. Finally, rinsing lettuce for 15 s in cold tap water prior to consumption gave a sixfold risk reduction compared with eating unrinsed lettuce. Sensitivity analyses indicated that variation in bacterial inactivation had the most significant effect on the risk outcome. A QMRA determining the relative risks between scenarios reduces uncertainty and can provide risk managers with decision support.

  13. Simple method for the determination of personal care product ingredients in lettuce by ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Peralta, Jerónimo; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2018-05-01

    A simple method for the simultaneous determination of personal care product ingredients: galaxolide, tonalide, oxybenzone, 4-methylbenzyliden camphor, padimate-o, 2-ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in lettuce by ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was developed. Lettuce was directly extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with methanol, this extract was combined with water, extracted by solid-phase microextraction in immersion mode, and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Good linear relationships (25-250 ng/g, R 2  > 0.9702) and low detection limits (1.0-25 ng/g) were obtained for analytes along with acceptable precision for almost all analytes (RSDs < 20%). The validated method was applied for the determination of personal care product ingredients in commercial lettuce and lettuces grown in soil and irrigated with the analytes, identifying the target analytes in leaves and roots of the latter. This procedure is a miniaturized and environmentally friendly proposal which can be a useful tool for quality analysis in lettuce. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbiological evaluation of ready-to-eat iceberg lettuce during shelf-life and effectiveness of household washing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bencardino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE iceberg lettuce. Our investigation was based on the consumption tendency of university students considered a target market for this product. A total of 78 RTE samples were collected from chain supermarkets and analysed for the enumeration of aerobic mesophilic count (AMC, Escherichia coli and the detection of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. All samples were negative for the presence of pathogens. The mean value of AMC at the beginning, in the middle and after the expiration date was: 6.88, 8.51 and 8.72 log CFU g-1, respectively. The same investigation was performed on 12 samples of fresh iceberg lettuce samples. No pathogens were found and the mean value of AMC was lower than the RTE category (5.73 log CFU g-1; P<0.05. The effectiveness of 5 washing methods was determined on 15 samples of both fresh and RTE iceberg lettuce. Samples were washed for 15’ and 30’ in tap water (500 mL, tap water with NaCl (4 g/500 mL, tap water with bicarbonate (8 g/500 mL, tap water with vinegar (10 mL/500 mL and tap water with chlorine-based disinfectant (10 mL/500 mL. A significant bacterial load reduction was recorded for vinegar and disinfectant after 30’ and 15’, respectively. Overall, these results showed that RTE iceberg lettuce is more contaminated than the fresh product. Also, the consumption in the first few days of packaging and after washing with disinfectants reduces the risk for health consumers.

  16. Transcriptome sequencing and metabolite analysis reveals the role of delphinidin metabolism in flower colour in grape hyacinth

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Qian; Liu, Yali; Qi, Yinyan; Jiao, Shuzhen; Tian, Feifei; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Grape hyacinth (Muscari) is an important ornamental bulbous plant with an extraordinary blue colour. Muscari armeniacum, whose flowers can be naturally white, provides an opportunity to unravel the complex metabolic networks underlying certain biochemical traits, especially colour. A blue flower cDNA library of M. armeniacum and a white flower library of M. armeniacum f. album were used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 89 926 uni-transcripts were isolated, 143 of which could be identi...

  17. Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include β-sitosterol (as major component followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and α-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6% namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.

    Tres muestras de semillas de lechuga (Lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 se cultivaron bajo tres condiciones de riego (bien regado, normal y con deficiencia de agua, después de 10, 20 y 30 días, respectivamente para evaluar sus aceites y ver hasta qué punto el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste las condiciones de riego. Los aceites extraídos de las tres muestras de semillas se evaluó mediante la determinación de ocho perfiles de lípidos usando cromatograf

  18. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  19. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  20. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide on Escherichia coli inactivation during pilot-scale fresh-cut lettuce processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, J L; van Overbeek, L S; Nierop Groot, M N; van der Zouwen, P S; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2018-03-23

    Controlling water quality is critical in preventing cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Process wash water (PWW) quality can be controlled by implementing chemical disinfection strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pilot-scale efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) during processing on the reduction of Escherichia coli in the PWW and on processed fresh-cut 'Lollo Rossa' lettuce. The objective was to have a residual target concentration of either 5 or 3 mg/L ClO 2 in the washing tank (3.5 m 3 ) before and during 800 kg of lettuce processing (90 min). After 90 min., a nonpathogenic, non-Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) E. coli inoculum from an overnight culture broth (37 °C) was added to the tank resulting in an approximate final level of 10 6  CFU/mL. PWW and lettuce samples for microbiological and chemical analyses were taken before and after the input and supply halted. ClO 2 concentrations quickly decreased after ClO 2 input halted, yet a residual concentration of ≥2.5 mg/L and ≥2.1 mg/L ClO 2 , respectively for 5 and 3 mg/L pilots, was present 12 min after the supply halted. No detectable levels of E. coli (limit of detection 5 log) were determined in the water within 1 min after E. coli was added to the ClO 2 containing wash water. Results demonstrated that ClO 2 use at the semi-commercial pilot scale was able to reduce the E. coli peak contamination in the PWW. After storage (5 days, 4 °C), background microbial communities (i.e., fluorescent Pseudomonads and total heterotrophic bacteria) grew out on lettuce. Overall, ClO 2 decreased the potential for cross-contamination between batches compared to when no sanitizer was used. Chlorate levels of the lettuce sampled before entering the wash water ranged from 7.3-11.6 μg/kg. The chlorate levels of the lettuce sampled after being washed in the ClO 2 containing wash water, as well as after rinsing and centrifugation, ranged from 22.8-60.4

  1. Influence of production time on quality and height of yield of crisp lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odziemkowski, S.; Gajc-Wolska, J.; Skapski, H.

    1998-01-01

    The cultivar of crisp lettuce Saladin, was grown in the field in 10 production terms starting from spring to autumn in 1993-95. The highest average weight of head of crisp lettuce was obtained in earlier terms of production. The head weight at the time of harvest depended on the amount of solar radiation during the time of lettuce head formation

  2. Genome-wide association study for lettuce cultivars with improved salad processing efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is widely used as the main ingredient of packaged leafy vegetable salads. Salad lettuce can have short shelf life, decaying as early as eight days after harvest and reducing the nutritional quality. Decayed lettuce is not marketable, produces extra waste, and results in t...

  3. Detection of Lettuce Discoloration Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Hyunjeong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2015-11-20

    Rapid visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging methods, employing both a single waveband algorithm and multi-spectral algorithms, were developed in order to discrimination between sound and discolored lettuce. Reflectance spectra for sound and discolored lettuce surfaces were extracted from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between discolored and sound lettuce surfaces were determined using one-way analysis of variance. Multi-spectral imaging algorithms developed using ratio and subtraction functions resulted in enhanced classification accuracy of above 99.9% for discolored and sound areas on both adaxial and abaxial lettuce surfaces. Ratio imaging (RI) and subtraction imaging (SI) algorithms at wavelengths of 552/701 nm and 557-701 nm, respectively, exhibited better classification performances compared to results obtained for all possible two-waveband combinations. These results suggest that hyperspectral reflectance imaging techniques can potentially be used to discriminate between discolored and sound fresh-cut lettuce.

  4. Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, S.

    1987-01-01

    Thiobencarb [S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate] was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of 14 C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of 14 C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized 14 C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CINÉTICA DE LA ACUMULACIÓN DE CROMO EN EL BUCHÓN DE AGUA (Eichhornia crassipes AVALIAÇÃO DA CINÉTICA DE ACUMULAÇÃO DE CROMO EM JACINTO DE AGUA (Eichhornia crassipes EVALUATION OF THE KINETICS OF ACCUMULATION OF CHROMIUM IN WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO BENÍTEZ

    2011-12-01

    distributed in almost all tropical countries, which can tolerate conditions of metal contamination or eutrophication of bodies of lentic and lotic waters. This plant has become an environmental problem, however, has sparked interest in the treatment of metal pollution in agricultural soils and water bodies. The toxicity of metals is a serious problem with this reasoning, since it affects the storage capacity and transmission into the food chain. In this study we evaluated the behavior of the rates of accumulation of chromium in aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes, at concentrations of 30, 60 and 90 mg/L, using a randomized experimental design with control and three replicates per level. Studies carried out in glass aquaria, showed sites of accumulation of chromium in the plant, establishing the kinetics of accumulation.

  6. Validation of a Method for Cylindrospermopsin Determination in Vegetables: Application to Real Samples Such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Prieto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN have increased worldwide because of CYN toxic effects in humans and animals. If contaminated waters are used for plant irrigation, these could represent a possible CYN exposure route for humans. For the first time, a method employing solid phase extraction and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS of CYN was optimized in vegetables matrices such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa. The validated method showed a linear range, from 5 to 500 ng CYN g−1 of fresh weight (f.w., and detection and quantitation limits (LOD and LOQ of 0.22 and 0.42 ng CYN g−1 f.w., respectively. The mean recoveries ranged between 85 and 104%, and the intermediate precision from 12.7 to 14.7%. The method showed to be robust for the three different variables tested. Moreover, it was successfully applied to quantify CYN in edible lettuce leaves exposed to CYN-contaminated water (10 µg L−1, showing that the tolerable daily intake (TDI in the case of CYN could be exceeded in elderly high consumers. The validated method showed good results in terms of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness for CYN determination in leaf vegetables such as lettuce. More studies are needed in order to prevent the risks associated with the consumption of CYN-contaminated vegetables.

  7. Validation of a Method for Cylindrospermopsin Determination in Vegetables: Application to Real Samples Such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Díez-Quijada, Leticia; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Jos, Ángeles; Cameán, Ana M

    2018-02-01

    Reports on the occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have increased worldwide because of CYN toxic effects in humans and animals. If contaminated waters are used for plant irrigation, these could represent a possible CYN exposure route for humans. For the first time, a method employing solid phase extraction and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) of CYN was optimized in vegetables matrices such as lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ). The validated method showed a linear range, from 5 to 500 ng CYN g -1 of fresh weight (f.w.), and detection and quantitation limits (LOD and LOQ) of 0.22 and 0.42 ng CYN g -1 f.w., respectively. The mean recoveries ranged between 85 and 104%, and the intermediate precision from 12.7 to 14.7%. The method showed to be robust for the three different variables tested. Moreover, it was successfully applied to quantify CYN in edible lettuce leaves exposed to CYN-contaminated water (10 µg L -1 ), showing that the tolerable daily intake (TDI) in the case of CYN could be exceeded in elderly high consumers. The validated method showed good results in terms of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness for CYN determination in leaf vegetables such as lettuce. More studies are needed in order to prevent the risks associated with the consumption of CYN-contaminated vegetables.

  8. Lettuce flavonoids screening and phenotyping by chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcak, Marek; Brückova, Klaudia; Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Olsovska, Katarina; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2017-06-01

    Environmentally induced variation and the genotypic differences in flavonoid and phenolic content in lettuce can be reliably detected using the appropriate parameters derived from the records of rapid non-invasive fluorescence technique. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio method was designed as a rapid and non-invasive tool to estimate the content of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in plants. Using this technique, we have assessed the dynamics of accumulation of flavonoids related to developmental changes and environmental effects. Moreover, we have tested appropriateness of the method to identify the genotypic differences and fluctuations in total phenolics and flavonoid content in lettuce. Six green and two red genotypes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots were exposed to two different environments for 50 days: direct sunlight (UV-exposed) and greenhouse conditions (low UV). The indices based on the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence after red, green and UV excitation indicated increase of the content of UV-absorbing compounds and anthocyanins in the epidermis of lettuce leaves. In similar, the biochemical analyses performed at the end of the experiment confirmed significantly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in lettuce plants exposed to direct sun compared to greenhouse conditions and in red compared to green genotypes. As the correlation between the standard fluorescence indices and the biochemical records was negatively influenced by the presence of red genotypes, we proposed the use of a new parameter named Modified Flavonoid Index (MFI) taking into an account both absorbance changes due to flavonol and anthocyanin content, for which the correlation with flavonoid and phenolic content was relatively good. Thus, our results confirmed that the fluorescence excitation ratio method is useful for identifying the major differences in phenolic and flavonoid content in lettuce plants and it can be used for high-throughput pre

  9. Secondary metabolism and antioxidants are involved in environmental adaptation and stress tolerance in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myung-Min; Trick, Harold N; Rajashekar, C B

    2009-01-30

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants grown in a protective environment, similar to in vitro conditions, were acclimated in a growth chamber and subjected to water stress to examine the activation of genes involved in secondary metabolism and biosynthesis of antioxidants. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase (gamma-TMT) and l-galactose dehydrogenase (l-GalDH) genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, respectively, were determined during plant adaptation. These genes were activated in tender plants, grown under protective conditions, when exposed to normal growing conditions in a growth chamber. A large increase in transcript level for PAL, a key gene in the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the biosynthesis of a wide array of phenolics and flavonoids, was observed within 1h of exposure of tender plants to normal growing conditions. Plant growth, especially the roots, was retarded in tender plants when exposed to normal growing conditions. Furthermore, exposure of both protected and unprotected plants to water stress resulted in the activation of PAL. PAL inhibition by 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP) rendered these plants more sensitive to chilling and heat shock treatments. These results suggest that activation of secondary metabolism as well as the antioxidative metabolism is an integral part of plant adaptation to normal growing conditions in lettuce plants.

  10. The effects of irrigation timing on growth, yield, and physiological traits of hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahedur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop-specific timing of irrigation is necessary to conserve irrigation water and improve yield of vegetables. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to identify the optimum irrigation timings for hydroponic lettuce plants. Three nutrient solution timings, T1(once a day at 0900 hours, T2(once on alternative days at 0900 hours, and T3(once at two-day intervals, and three varieties, ‘Legacy’ (V1, ‘Red fire’ (V2, and ‘Green wave’ (V3 were evaluated. Growth and yield parameters, including number of leaves, leaf length, leaf diameter, and fresh weight of leaves, and growth parameters, including leaf area (LA, leaf area ratio (LAR, leaf mass ratio (LMR, root weight ratio (RWR, relative growth rate (RGR, and net assimilation rate (NAR were determined. The values of growth parameters were the highest for T1. The highest and lowest NAR and RGR values were obtained for T1 and T3, respectively. The values of most growth traits, including fresh weight, NAR, and RGR were higher for V1 than other varieties. T1 provides high yield with comparatively less irrigation water and nutrient solution so it can be used to culture lettuce using aggregate hydroponics as.

  11. Effect of salt stress on growth and physiology in amaranth and lettuce: Implications for bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Cheng, Quanyong; Chen, Guang

    2013-02-01

    Growing plants can be used to clean waste water in bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, NaCl contained in the human urine always restricts plant growth and further reduces the degree of mass cycle closure of the system (i.e. salt stress). This work determined the effect of NaCl stress on physiological characteristics of plants for the life support system. Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. var. Huahong) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Luoma) were cultivated at nutrient solutions with different NaCl contents (0, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 ppm, respectively) for 10 to 18 days after planted in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System Experimental Facility in China. Results showed that the two plants have different responses to the salt stress. The amaranth showed higher salt-tolerance with NaCl stress. If NaCl content in the solution is below 5000 ppm, the salt stress effect is insignificant on above-ground biomass output, leaf photosynthesis rate, Fv/Fm, photosynthesis pigment contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and inducing lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the lettuce is sensitive to NaCl which significantly decreases those indices of growth and physiology. Notably, the lettuce remains high productivity of edible biomass in low NaCl stress, although its salt-tolerant limitation is lower than amaranth. Therefore, we recommended that amaranth could be cultivated under a higher NaCl stress condition (lettuce should be under a lower NaCl stress (<1000 ppm) for water cleaning in future BLSS.

  12. Growth experiment in lettuce [Lactuca sativa] using laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Takatsuji, M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic rate, relative growth rate and vitamin C contents were measured in lettuce cultivated under red and blue lasers and the results were compared with those cultivated under light emitting diodes (LED). It was found that lettuce grew fairly healthily under red laser diode (650 nm) and blue laser (442 nm) with R/B ratio 10. However, both photosynthetic rate and growth rate rather diminished compared with LED cases. As for vitamin C contents, the result was about the same as LED cases

  13. Phosphorus rates on yield and quality of lettuce seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kano,Cristiaini; Cardoso,Antonio Ismael Inácio; Bôas,Roberto L Villas

    2012-01-01

    Because of lack of information about phosphorus fertilization in lettuce from the standpoint of seed production, this study was undertaken. The work was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo state, Brazil, from September 25, 2003 to February 19, 2004, in order to study the influence of crescents phosphorus rates on yield and quality of lettuce seeds, cultivar Verônica. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments (0; 200; 400; 600 and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5) and five replicati...

  14. Diversity analysis and establishment of core subsets of hyacinth bean collection of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Plant Genetic Resource Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh, maintained 484 hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureusL.) accessions. Distribution of vine colors, flower and pod colors, pod curvature and beak position on pod noticed the presence of substantial variation in the collection. Shannon Diversity Index also revealed high phenotypic diversity in vine and pod characters. High diversities were estimated in quantitative characters of inflorescence and pod characters. Considering a core collection strategy, the accessions were stratified into two groups based on vine colors: green and purple. Maximum genotypes of the collection were of green vine. Each of two subgroups were divided into three groups according to colors of pod i.e., green, white and red. Each group again divided itself into two according to beak position as central and marginal of pod. High diversity was also found regarding pod curvature and beak position on it. Strategically, a core subset consisting of 36 accessions out of 484 accessions was determined. Diversity Indices of different characters of the core accessions were of equal or higher magnitudes to the respective characters of base collection indicating the better representation of core to the original collection. (author)

  15. Prevalence of Lettuce mosaic virus - common strain on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State

    OpenAIRE

    Firmino,Ana Carolina; Krause-Sakate,Renate; Pavan,Marcelo Agenor; Silva,Norberto da; Hanai,Sérgio Minoru; Anbo,Roberto Hiroto; Nietzsche,Thomas; Le Gall,Olivier

    2008-01-01

    LMV is one of the most important pathogens of lettuce worldwide. Based on their ability to overcome the resistance genes mo1¹ and mo1² in lettuce, isolates can be divided in two types: LMV-Most, which can infect and are seed-borne in cultivars containing the mo1 gene and LMV-Common, which do not cause symptoms on these cultivars and are seed transmitted only in susceptible cultivars. To evaluate the occurrence of these two types of LMV isolates, a survey was carried out during 2002-2005 in th...

  16. Freshwater plants synthesize sulfated polysaccharides: heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Célia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway.

  17. Sexual reproduction in Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). 1. Fertility of clones from diverse regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, S.C.H.

    1980-04-01

    (1) Comparative glasshouse studies with nine clones of Eichornia crassipes from diverse regions were conducted to determine whether sterility factors are responsible for the low levels of sexual reproduction reported for the species. (2) Eight of the nine clones flowered regularly throughout the study period. A single clone from Guyana did not flower. All flowering clones were mid-styled and possessed dimorphic pollen of high viability. (3) Pollination success was markedly affected by temperatures below 20 degrees C. Seed production was significantly lower following pollinations conducted 24 hours after flower opening compared with those made 2 hours after flower opening. (4) In a controlled pollination programme all clones exhibited a high level of seed fertility. Of 2546 flowers pollinated, 94.7% produced capsules with an average of 143.3 seeds per capsule. There were no significant differences in seed set between self- and cross-pollinations of clones from Louisiana, Florida, Mexico and southern Brazil. Seed set was significantly higher in cross-pollinations than self-pollinations in clones from California, Sudan, Zaire and Calcutta. (5) Comparisons of the growth and reproductive performance of families obtained from self- and cross-pollinations failed to detect any significant expression of inbreeding depression. (6) Although clonal propagation is the most widespread mode of reproduction in E. crassipes, the genetic potential for sexual reproduction is probably still present in the majority of populations.

  18. Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nednaldo Dantas-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SP are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA, as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle. Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway.

  19. Water Hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East: A Survey of Problems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2001 ... Les SIG-P au service d'une gestion durable des ressources naturelles et de la sécurité alimentaire en Afrique. Les pays africains ont besoin de données convenables aux fins de la formulation et de la mise en oeuvre de politiques et de stratégies de sécurité alimentaire systématiques et cohérentes.

  20. Stigmasterol from Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) : Isolation, characterization and X-ray structure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Sawant, S.G.; PrabhaDevi; Kaminsky, W.

    >H48O by combination of NMR and mass spectroscopic data The sterol was fully characterized by FTIR,NMR(1H13C) and mass spectral data Solid state structure of the sterol was determined by single crystal X-Ray diffraction...

  1. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  2. Characterization of Tannery Effluents and Study of the Water Hyacinth in Chromium Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, S.G.; Maldonado, M; Gerth, A; Kuschk, P

    2004-01-01

    Se estudiaron 4 tipos de efluentes muestreados en una tenería con planta de tratamiento. Estos efluentes se caracterizaron durante 4 semanas usando varios parámetros físico-químicos. El efluente de curtido fue evaluado en ensayos de fitoremediación con lirio acuático (Eichornea crassipes), determinándose la eficiencia de remoción del cromo bajo dos esquemas de inyección del agua de curtido a 4 L/día y 8 L/día. La composición de los efluentes residuales es variable y depende de las cargas de c...

  3. Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre O. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    the carbohydrates storage. The current trial intended to evaluate the effect of soil covering with blue colored film on consumptive water-use in a lettuce crop (Lactuca sativa, L.. The experiment was carried out in a plastic greenhouse in Araras - São Paulo State, Brazil from March 3rd, 2001 to May 5th, 2001. The consumptive water-use was measured through two weighing lysimeter installed inside the greenhouse. Crop spacing was 0.25 m x 0.25 m and the color of the film above soil was blue. Leaf area index (IAF, was measured six times (7; 14; 21; 28; 35; 40 days after transplant and the water-use efficiency (EU was measured at the end. The experimental design was subdivided portions with two treatments, "bare soil" and "covered soil". The average consumptive water-use was 4.17 mm day-1 to the "bare soil" treatment and 3.11 mm day-1 to the "covered soil" treatment. The final leaf area index was 25.23 to the "bare soil" treatment and 24.39 to the "covered soil" treatment, and there was no statistical difference between then.

  4. Effect of single or combined chemical and natural antimicrobial interventions on Escherichia coli O157:H7, total microbiota and color of packaged spinach and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poimenidou, Sofia V; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Mitsi, Christina; Tarantilis, Petros A; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2016-03-02

    Aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (oregano), sodium hypochlorite (60 and 300 ppm of free chlorine), Citrox® (containing citric acid and phenolic compounds [bioflavonoids] as active ingredients), vinegar, lactic acid, and double combinations of Citrox, lactic acid and oregano were evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total mesophilic microbiota on fresh-cut spinach and lettuce and for their impact on color of treated vegetables. Spinach and lettuce leaves were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to a level of 5-6 log CFU/g and immersed in washing solutions for 2 or 5 min at 20 °C, followed by rinsing with ice water (30s). Bacterial populations on vegetables were enumerated immediately after washing and after storage of the samples at 5 °C for 7 days under 20% CO2: 80% N2. No significant post-washing microbial reductions were achieved by chlorinated water, whereas after storage total microbiota was increased by 2.4 log CFU/g on lettuce. Vinegar wash was the most effective treatment causing E. coli O157:H7 reductions of 1.8-4.3 log CFU/g. During storage, pathogen was further decreased to below the detection limit level (lettuce during storage. Washing lettuce samples with oregano for 2 min resulted in 2.1 log CFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7. When Citrox was combined with oregano, 3.7-4.0 log CFU/g reduction was achieved on spinach and lettuce samples, with no significant effect on color parameters. Additionally, rinsing with ice water after decontamination treatments contributed to maintenance of color of the treated vegetables. In conclusion, the results indicated that vinegar, lactic acid or oregano aqueous extract alone or in combination, as alternative washing solutions to chlorine, may be effectively used to control E. coli O157:H7 and sustain acceptable appearance of fresh cut spinach and lettuce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abscisic acid and ethephon regulation of cellulase in the endosperm cap and radicle during lettuce seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingxian; Ma, Jun; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of cellulase in endosperm cap weakening and radicle elongation during lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination. The application of abscisic acid (ABA) or ethephon inhibits or promotes germination, respectively, by affecting endosperm cap weakening and radicle elongation. Cellulase activities, and related protein and transcript abundances of two lettuce cellulase genes, LsCEL1 and LsCEL2, increase in the endosperm cap and radicle prior to radicle protrusion following imbibition in water. ABA or ethephon reduce or elevate, respectively, cellulase activity, and related protein and transcript abundances in the endosperm cap. Taken together, these observations suggest that cellulase plays a role in endosperm cap weakening and radicle elongation during lettuce seed germination, and that the regulation of cellulase in the endosperm cap by ABA and ethephon play a role in endosperm cap weakening. However, the influence of ABA and ethephon on radicle elongation may not be through their effects on cellulase. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Uptake kinetics of arsenic by lettuce cultivars under hydroponics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic (As) uptake ability based on kinetic parameters by two lettuce cultivars; Sijibaiye (SJBY) and Texuanyanlingsun (TXYLS) was investigated in nutrient solution containing eight levels of arsenic (As). Depletion of As from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time to estimate As uptake kinetics of the ...

  7. Survival of pathogenic Escherichia coli on basil, lettuce, and spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix soiless substrate using drip and overhead ir...

  8. Genetic transformation of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ): A review | Dan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a globally important leafy vegetable that can be grown worldwide. Due to the rapid growth of population and the human desire to progress, there have been a lot of studies made by researchers, especially in genetic engineering. Improvements in regeneration system and transformation ...

  9. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation and nitrogen levels on lettuce yield characteristics in greenhouse condition from December 2006 to March 2007. Irrigation levels of 100% of total class A pan (S1), 80% of total class A pan (S2), 60% of total class A pan (S3) and nitrogen levels of 0 kg ...

  10. Post-harvest decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce was assessed in two mapping population (Salinas 88 x La Brillante, and Pavane x Parade. The most significant QTL was detected in both populations on linkage group 4. This QTL was detected in seven experiments grown in different environments. Molecular markers are bein...

  11. Characterization of Verticillium dahliae disease reactions in lettuce differential cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne diseases significantly affect high value crops in coastal California, including lettuce and strawberry. Breeding crops for pathogen resistance is a strategy for the sustainable management of crop disease. Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes wilt and economic losses in a ...

  12. Listeria monocytogenes internalizes in Romaine Lettuce grown in greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in a number of outbreaks involving fresh produce, including an outbreak in 2016 resulting from contaminated packaged salads. The persistence and internalization potential of L. monocytogenes in romaine lettuce was evaluated, and the persistence of two L. mo...

  13. Unravelling the resistance mechanism of lettuce against Nasonovia ribisnigri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids are serious pests of crop plant species, and host plant resistance is often the most effective and environmentally friendly control strategy to control these pests. One of these aphid pests is the black currant - lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely), an economically

  14. University Opinion Poll 9: Child Care, MPIRG, Lettuce. Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a survey of student opinion on issues related to University-sponsored day care, the role of the Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG) and the University's policy on buying lettuce for its food services. Four hundred fifty-two respondents, 76% of a random sample of University of Minnesota students,…

  15. Physiological analysis of methods to relieve dormancy of lettuce seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weges, R.

    1987-01-01

    Low maximum temperature of germination restricts the cultivation of a number of lettuce cultivars to temperate conditions. Pretreatments have been studied that increase the maximum germination temperature, which is characterized by the temperature for 50% germination (T

  16. Developing lettuce with improved quality for processed salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed as minimally processed salads. Cultivars grown for this market may require breeding for improved shelf-life and resistance to physiological defects such as tipburn (TB). Tipburn is a calcium deficiency related defect causing necrosis on the leaf margins, typically on...

  17. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Bottiger, B.

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France...

  18. Characterization and performance of 16 new inbred lines of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of sixteen breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five (SM13-I1, SM13-I2, SM13-I3, SM13-I4, and SM13-I5) of the six iceberg breeding lines can be used for whole head or salad blend production; the sixth i...

  19. Seed Production of Cutting Lettuce Varieties: Economical Facets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights current problems of cutting lettuce seed production for all its variants. Research background is provided to the composition of material expenditures for growing of every variant in particular. Economical efficiency of seed production in line with varietal certification requirements has been reproved.

  20. "Lettuce" Learn Math: Teaching Mathematics with Seeds and Centimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Laura N.; Wilson, Colette

    2006-01-01

    "Lettuce Learn Math" is an interdisciplinary program that has effectively linked a small-scale agricultural production system to a sixth-grade mathematics and science curriculum. The mathematical concepts and skills, including measurement and geometry, taught in this project met and often exceeded the standards set by New York state for…

  1. Stable plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelivelt, Cilia L C; McCabe, Matthew S; Newell, Christine A; Desnoo, C Bastiaan; van Dun, Kees M P; Birch-Machin, Ian; Gray, John C; Mills, Kingston H G; Nugent, Jacqueline M

    2005-08-01

    Although plastid transformation in higher plants was first demonstrated in the early 1990s it is only recently that the technology is being extended to a broader range of species. To date, the production of fertile transplastomic plants has been reported for tobacco, tomato, petunia, soybean, cotton and Lesquerella fendleri (Brassicaceae). In this study we demonstrate a polyethylene glycol-mediated plastid transformation system for lettuce that generates fertile, homoplasmic, plastid-transformed lines. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the trnA/trnI intergenic region of the lettuce plastid genome employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin. Spectinomycin resistance and heterologous gene transcription were shown in T(1) plants derived from self-pollinated primary regenerants demonstrating transmission of the plastid-encoded transgene to the first seed generation. Crossing with male sterile wild-type lettuce showed that spectinomycin resistance was not transmitted via pollen. Constructs containing the gfp gene showed plastid-based expression of green fluorescent protein. The lettuce plastid could have potential both as a production and a delivery system for edible human therapeutic proteins.

  2. The resistance of lettuce to the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van M.

    1995-01-01

    The resistance of lettuce to the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri is based on a single, dominant gene, the Nr-gene. On the resistant plant aphids died within a few days, without any honeydew production. Transfer-experiments with a short stay on a resistant plant followed by a

  3. Water Quality Management Studies Lake Seminole, April-November 1978. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    xodiun ascendens; pond cypress X Taxodium distichum; bald cypress x 7yh dorningensis; southern cattail x Toalatifolia;, cattail x Hvdrocotyle ranunculoides ...Eich5orrnia crasipes; water hyacinth 5 Hydrocotyl rainunculiioides; splitleaf pennywort P TPioea pol riza; giant duckweed P *5 =Submerged E = Emergent F = Floating M- 6 DAT DI

  4. The Effect of Anaerobic and Aerobic Fish Sludge Supernatant on Hydroponic Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobilization of nutrients from fish sludge (i.e., feces and uneaten feed plays a key role in optimizing the resource utilization and thus in improving the sustainability of aquaponic systems. While several studies have documented the aerobic and anaerobic digestion performance of aquaculture sludge, the impact of the digestate on plant growth has yet to be understood. The present study examines the impact of either an aerobic or an anaerobic digestion effluent on lettuce plant growth, by enriching a mixture of aquaculture and tap water with supernatants from both aerobic and anaerobic batch reactors. The lettuce plants grown in the hydroponic system supplied with supernatant from an anaerobic reactor had significantly better performance with respect to weight gain than both, those in the system where supernatant from the aerobic reactor was added, as well as the control system. It can be hypothesized that this effect was caused by the presence of NH4+ as well as dissolved organic matter, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and fungi, and humic acid, which are predominantly present in anaerobic effluents. This study should therefore be of value to researchers and practitioners wishing to further develop sludge remineralization in aquaponic systems.

  5. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallach, J. Brett; Zhang, Yuping; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial uptake in lettuce is cultivar dependent. • Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decrease despite repeated exposure. • Lincomycin is better conserved in the soil-plant system than oxytetracycline or sulfamethoxazole. • Subirrigation resulted in more Salmonella in bottom soil than in top soil. • Internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce is low despite repeated exposure. - Cultivar-specific differences in lincomycin and sulfamethazine uptake were observed in lettuce, while uptake of Salmonella was low despite repeated exposure from wastewater

  6. The inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf spot of lettuce caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in three lettuce cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce yields can be reduced by the disease bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) and host resistance is the most feasible method to reduce disease losses. The cultivars La Brillante, Pavane, and Little Gem express an incompatible host-pathogen in...

  7. The influence of the microbial quality of wastewater, lettuce cultivars and enumeration technique when estimating the microbial contamination of wastewater-irrigated lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the volume of wastewater retained on the surface of three different varieties of lettuce, Iceberg, Cos, and Oak leaf, following submersion in wastewater of different microbial qualities (10, 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 E. coli MPN/100 mL) as a surrogate method for estimation of contamination of spray-irrigated lettuce. Uniquely, Escherichia coli was enumerated, after submersion, on both the outer and inner leaves and in a composite sample of lettuce. E. coli were enumerated using two techniques. Firstly, from samples of leaves - the direct method. Secondly, using an indirect method, where the E. coli concentrations were estimated from the volume of wastewater retained by the lettuce and the E. coli concentration of the wastewater. The results showed that different varieties of lettuce retained significantly different volumes of wastewater (p 0.01) were detected between E. coli counts obtained from different parts of lettuce, nor between the direct and indirect enumeration methods. Statistically significant linear relationships were derived relating the E. coli concentration of the wastewater in which the lettuces were submerged to the subsequent E. coli count on each variety the lettuce.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing and metabolite analysis reveals the role of delphinidin metabolism in flower colour in grape hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qian; Liu, Yali; Qi, Yinyan; Jiao, Shuzhen; Tian, Feifei; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-07-01

    Grape hyacinth (Muscari) is an important ornamental bulbous plant with an extraordinary blue colour. Muscari armeniacum, whose flowers can be naturally white, provides an opportunity to unravel the complex metabolic networks underlying certain biochemical traits, especially colour. A blue flower cDNA library of M. armeniacum and a white flower library of M. armeniacum f. album were used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 89 926 uni-transcripts were isolated, 143 of which could be identified as putative homologues of colour-related genes in other species. Based on a comprehensive analysis relating colour compounds to gene expression profiles, the mechanism of colour biosynthesis was studied in M. armeniacum. Furthermore, a new hypothesis explaining the lack of colour phenotype of the grape hyacinth flower is proposed. Alteration of the substrate competition between flavonol synthase (FLS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) may lead to elimination of blue pigmentation while the multishunt from the limited flux in the cyanidin (Cy) synthesis pathway seems to be the most likely reason for the colour change in the white flowers of M. armeniacum. Moreover, mass sequence data obtained by the deep sequencing of M. armeniacum and its white variant provided a platform for future function and molecular biological research on M. armeniacum. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallach, J Brett; Zhang, Yuping; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29 Backcross Inbred Lines (BILs) representing in total 96% of the L. saligna genome, 15 introgressions were identified to contribute to this resistance at one to four tested lettuce developmental stages and ...

  11. Plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by biolistic DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    The interest in producing pharmaceutical proteins in a nontoxic plant host has led to the development of an approach to express such proteins in transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). A number of therapeutic proteins and vaccine antigen candidates have been stably integrated into the lettuce plastid genome using biolistic DNA delivery. High levels of accumulation and retention of biological activity suggest that lettuce may provide an ideal platform for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  12. Effects of ozone water on growth of Lactuca sativa var. ramosa Hort and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Zhenghong; Wang Zuoming; Yin Lijun; Zhao Xuejun; Wang Wenjia; Wang Quanxi

    2017-01-01

    Research on pathogenic bacteria growth of purple lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa) and its photosynthetic physiology by being sprayed ozone water on the surface of the purple lettuce with different concentration during the reproductive stage. However,little is known regarding its concentration effect. In this study,we found that ozone water in a low concentration such as 2 mg/L did not inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that originate from purple lettuce and also not affect the phot...

  13. THE FARMING AND MARKETING OF ORGANIC LETTUCE: STUDY AT BOBOSAN VILLAGE, KEDUNGBANTENG SUB-DISTRICT, BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kartika Eka Wijayanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Banyumas has great potential as a producer of organic lettuce in term of condition of natural, human resources and availability of market. The centre producer of organic lettuce is located in district of Kedungbanteng, and managed by farmers group "abdi tani". The aim of this study is to analyze: 1. The cost and income farming of organic lettuce; 2. Financial feasibility of organic lettuce farm; 3. The channel and structure of organic lettuce market. Processing and data analysis performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The data used is to the production and marketing of organic lettuce in period of June-July 2016. Quantitative analysis performed using analysis of cost, farm income, and R/C. Qualitative analysis was conducted to determine the channel and structure of organic lettuce market. The results showed that organic lettuce farm income generating positive value and the value of R/C is greater than one (R/C >1, the farming is profitable and feasible. Organic lettuce marketing channels through the use of one channel, such farmers, traders, retailers (supermarket. Farmers faced monopsony market structure, while traders and retailers deal with oligopoly one

  14. Impact of Yamoussoukro Lakes Water on Lettuce Quality ASSIDJO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    1- Laboratoire de Nutrition et de Technologie Alimentaire, Dépt Génie Chimique et Agro-Alimentaire ... 2- Laboratoire de Modélisation de l'Information et des processus, Institut National ..... de plantes, équipement, gestion de stocks de verrerie.

  15. Agricultural recycling of biodigested vinasse for lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Roberta Javorski Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of waste products represents an interesting alternative for nutrient cycling. Biodigested vinasse, the final waste product of vinasse biodigestion and biogas production, can be reused for agricultural purposes. The present work sought to quantify the shoot dry mass production of lettuce plants, as well as foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content following the application of biodigested vinasse on soil. Biodigested vinasse was produced from anaerobic vinasse digestion, using anaerobic sludge as a source of microorganisms. The treatments, with four replications in entirely randomized design, consisted of anaerobic sludge from a gelatin factory, vinasse in natura, biodigested vinasse and a control treatment. The experiment was conducted over 45 days using 5 L vases and applying a dose equivalent to 150 m3 ha-1 . Lettuce treated with biodigested vinasse showed higher shoot dry mass production and higher accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in its leaves than that treated with vinasse in natura.

  16. Fate of [14C]-zineb on lettuce plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonk, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    [1,2- 14 C]-zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (zineb) was prepared and applied in droplets to leaves of lettuce plants. In aqueous suspension zineb decomposes mainly into ethylenethiourea (ETU) and 5,6-dihydro-3H-imidazo[2,1-C]-1,2,4-dithiazole-3-thione (DIDT). Lettuce plants were harvested 0,1,3,7,14 and 21 days after treatment and analysed. A high proportion of radioactivity remained on the surface of the plant and could be washed off. The following identified products were present: unchanged zineb, ETU, DIDT, 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea. The ETU residue disappeared within 7 days, while 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea were formed gradually. Radioactivity inside the plant consisted mostly of ethyleneurea: no ETU was present. (author)

  17. Pochonia chlamydosporia promotes the growth of tomato and lettuce plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological agents used to control plant-parasitic nematodes. This study found that the isolates Pc-3, Pc-10 and Pc-19 of this fungus promote the growth of tomato and lettuce seedlings. The isolate Pc-19 colonized the rhizoplane of tomato seedlings in only 15 days and produced a large quantity of chlamydospores. This isolate was able to use cellulose as a carbon source, in addition to glucose and sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that hyphae of the P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 penetrated the epidermal cells of the tomato roots. These three P. chlamydosporia isolates promote the growth of tomato and lettuce.

  18. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eBonaldi; Xiaoyulong eChen; Andrea eKunova; Cristina ePizzatti; Marco eSaracchi; Paolo eCortesi

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plas...

  19. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  20. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBonaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  1. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  2. Purification, characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from stem lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chenzhipeng; Zhu, Peilei; Ma, Shuping; Wang, Mingchun; Hu, Youdong

    2018-05-15

    Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17.6:41.7:33.9. SLP-2, with a molecular weight of 44 KDa, was mainly composed of mannose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 11.5:69.5:9.3:8.2. In addition, both purified polysaccharides contain sulphate radicals, have triple helical structures and can promote macrophage proliferation without cytotoxicity. SLP-2 was better able to stimulate phagocytic and nitric oxide production than SLP-1. The results suggest that polysaccharides from stem lettuce could be explored as immunomodulatory agents in the field of pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer in lettuce cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mantovani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In biodiesel production, vegetable press cake is obtained as waste, and a suitable destination for jatropha press cake would be the use in agriculture as organic fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of jatropha press cake on soil fertility attributes and on lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots. The experiment was conducted in pots in a greenhouse, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of doses of jatropha press cake equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 t ha-1. Portions of 5.5 dm3 of soil received limestone, phosphate fertilizer and the doses of jatropha press cake, and remained incubated for 30 days. After incubation, soil samples were collected, each pot received one lettuce seedling and the experiment was carried out for 45 days. The organic fertilization with jatropha press cake increased the contents of nutrients in the soil, especially K+, but caused increment in soil acidity and electrical conductivity. The use of jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer decreased lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots.

  4. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  5. Internalization of Sapovirus, a Surrogate for Norovirus, in Romaine Lettuce and the Effect of Lettuce Latex on Virus Infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseili, Malak A.; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne outbreaks, including those that involve lettuce. The culturable porcine sapovirus (SaV) was used as a norovirus surrogate to study the persistence and the potential transfer of the virus from roots to leaves and from outer to inner leaves of lettuce plants. Treatment of lettuce with SaV was done through the roots of young plants, the soil, or the outer leaves of mature plants. Sampling of roots, xylem sap, and inner and outer leaves followed by RNA extraction and SaV-specific real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was performed at 2 h and on postinoculation days (PID) 2, 5, 7, 14, and/or 28. When SaV was inoculated through the roots, viral RNA persisted on the roots and in the leaves until PID 28. When the virus was inoculated through the soil, viral RNA was detected on the roots and in the xylem sap until PID 14; viral RNA was detected in the leaves only until PID 2. No infectious virus was detected inside the leaves for either treatment. When SaV was inoculated through the outer leaves, viral RNA persisted on the leaves until PID 14; however, the virus did not transfer to inner leaves. Infectious viral particles on leaves were detected only at 2 h postinoculation. The milky sap (latex) of leaves, but not the roots' xylem sap, significantly decreased virus infectivity when tested in vitro. Collectively, our results showed the transfer of SaV from roots to leaves through the xylem system and the capacity of the sap of lettuce leaves to decrease virus infectivity in leaves. PMID:22752176

  6. Zooming in on the lettuce genome: species relationships in Lactuca s.l., inferred from chromosomal and molecular characters

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lactuca sativa (cultivated lettuce) is the world's most important leafy salad vegetable. Apart from L. sativa , the genus Lactuca contains ca. 75 wild species, potentially useful to improve, for example, taste, texture, and disease resistance of cultivated lettuce. The wild species L. serriola (Prickly Lettuce), L. saligna (Least Lettuce), and L. virosa (Great...

  7. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  8. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water

  9. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental... fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh shredded lettuce from...

  10. 76 FR 50992 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt AGENCY... into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on this analysis, we... fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for...

  11. Optimal control of nitrate in lettuce by a hybrid approach: differential evolution and adjustable control weight gradient algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Cruz, I.L.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Straten, van G.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Since high concentration levels of nitrate in lettuce and other leafy vegetables are undesirable, cultivation of lettuce according to specified governmental regulations is currently an important issue. Therefore, methods are sought in order to produce a lettuce crop that allow maximization

  12. Management of specific and excessive posturing behavior in a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) by using applied behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Leigh Ann; Friedman, Susan G; Evans, Liz A

    2012-06-01

    Applied behavior analysis was used in a female hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) to reduce specific, excessive mating-type posturing that had become disruptive due to increased frequency, duration, and intensity. A functional assessment and intervention design worksheet was used to evaluate behavior-environment relations and to develop an individualized behavior-change plan. The functional assessment indicated that human attention was maintaining the behavior. The intervention, differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior, was implemented to increase attention for standing upright and to remove attention for posturing. Within 1 month, posturing decreased to acceptable levels and was replaced with an upright posture. Problem behaviors that appear "reproductive" may be responsive to behavior management alone. Applied behavior analysis and a functional assessment and intervention design are ideal tools to address problem behavior in avian patients.

  13. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in soil and lettuce roots as affected by potential home gardening practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Liao, Jean; Payton, Alison S; Webb, Cathy C; Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Flitcroft, Ian; Doyle, Michael P; Beuchat, Larry R

    2013-12-01

    The survival and distribution of enteric pathogens in soil and lettuce systems were investigated in response to several practices (soil amendment supplementation and reduced watering) that could be applied by home gardeners. Leaf lettuce was grown in manure compost/top soil (0:5, 1:5 or 2:5 w/w) mixtures. Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was applied at a low or high dose (10(3) or 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) mL(-1) ) to the soil of seedlings and mid-age plants. Supplementation of top soil with compost did not affect pathogen survival in the soil or on root surfaces, suggesting that nutrients were not a limiting factor. Salmonella populations on root surfaces were 0.7-0.8 log CFU g(-1) lower for mid-age plants compared with seedlings. E. coli O157:H7 populations on root surfaces were 0.8 log CFU g(-1) lower for mid-age plants receiving 40 mL of water compared with plants receiving 75 mL of water on alternate days. Preharvest internalization of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella into lettuce roots was not observed at any time. Based on the environmental conditions and high pathogen populations in soil used in this study, internalization of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce roots did not occur under practices that could be encountered by inexperienced home gardeners. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to temperature and light stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Tabit Shaban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water temperature and shading on the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration in four varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. – green foliage (‘Salakis’ and ‘Estony’ and red foliage (‘Lollo Rossa’ and ‘Nika’. During the production of seedlings in the greenhouse, two irrigation water temperature regimes (12 and 20°C were applied. After transplanting in the field plants were grown under three lighting systems (100, 70, and 50% of lighting in the open. The rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were measured at the end of the greenhouse period and 14 days after shading in the field using a Li 6400 infrared gas analyzer. In most varieties, cooling of the irrigation water was not found to have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis. Plants of all the varieties responded to the decrease in irrigation water temperature and to strong shading by reducing transpiration and increasing the water use efficiency. The ‘Salakis’ and ‘Estony’ plants have shown the best adaptability to the changing conditions and therefore they could be used successfully in the practice of extending vegetative growth.

  15. Production system and harvesting stage influence on nitrate content and quality of butterhead lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fairuz Yosoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables such as lettuce grown under different production systems may accumulate different concentrations of nitrate which may reach to the levels potentially toxic to humans. Moreover, nitrate accumulation varies in various plant parts and physiological age of the plant. Therefore, to determine the effect of production system and harvesting stage on nitrate accumulation and quality of butterhead lettuce, a study was conducted considering two lettuce production systems namely hydroponic and organic, and four different harvesting stages such as 35, 38, 41 and 44 days after transplanting (DAT. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD with four replications. Hydroponic and organic systems performed similar in terms of yield, quality and nitrate content of butterhead lettuce. Delaying harvesting can not only increase yield but also can minimize nitrate accumulation and health hazard risk as well. Delay in harvesting stage may result in quality deterioration of lettuce and increased production cost. Thus, a compromise is necessary to consider 41 DAT as the optimum stage to harvest butterhead lettuce with significantly higher reduction of nitrate content in both outer adult leaf blades and young leaves of hydroponic lettuce. Fresh weight, firmness and color of butterhead lettuce at this stage were still acceptable.

  16. Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity: High Light Studies with Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    USU Crop Physiology Lab

    2015-01-01

    There are many different leaf lettuce cultivars and they range in color from light green and yellow to deep green as a result of higher concentrations of chlorophyll in the leaves. We tested four cultivars in high light to explore the limits of lettuce productivity.

  17. Nondestructive phenotyping of lettuce plants in early stages of development with optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, nond...

  18. A detailed linkage map of lettuce based on SSAP, AFLP and NBS markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, H.; Sorensen, A.P.; Antonise, R.; van de Wiel, C.; van der Linden, C.G.; van 't Westende, W.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Flavell, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Molecular markers based upon a novel lettuce LTR retrotransposon and the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family of disease resistance-associated genes have been combined with AFLP markers to generate a 458 locus genetic linkage map for lettuce. A total of 187

  19. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for the foreign substance detection on fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondestructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed in order to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting worms on fresh-cut lettuce were investigated using the one-way ANOVA analysis and correlation analysis. The worm detec...

  20. Accuracy, reliability, and timing of visual evaluations of decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual assessments are used for evaluating the quality of food products, such as fresh-cut lettuce packaged in bags with modified atmosphere. We have compared the accuracy and the reliability of visual evaluations of decay on fresh-cut lettuce performed with experienced and inexperienced raters. In ...

  1. Dissipation and Residues of Pyrethrins in Leaf Lettuce under Greenhouse and Open Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lixiang; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Hongyan

    2017-07-21

    Pyrethrins are nowadays widely used for prevention and control of insects in leaf lettuce. However, there is a concern about the pesticide residue in leaf lettuce. A reliable analytical method for determination of pyrethrins (pyrethrin-and П, cinerin І and П, and jasmolin І and П) in leaf lettuce was developed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce at three spiking levels were 99.4-104.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.9-3.1% ( n = 5). Evaluation of dissipation and final residues of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce were determined at six different locations, including the open field, as well as under greenhouse conditions. The initial concentration of pyrethrins in greenhouse (0.57 mg/kg) was higher than in open field (0.25 mg/kg) and the half-life for pyrethrins disappearance in field lettuce (0.7 days) was less than that greenhouse lettuce (1.1 days). Factors such as rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, and crop growth rate are likely to have caused these results. The final residue in leaf lettuce was far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) (1 mg/kg established by the European Union (EU), Australia, Korea, Japan).

  2. Genetics of the partial resistance against race 2 of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production on the Coastal California is threatened by Verticillium wilt, a soil borne fungal disease caused by Verticillium dahliae that diminishes yield and quality. Two races of V. dahliae were identified on lettuce, race 1 and race 2. Complete resistance to race 1 is c...

  3. On-line fresh-cut lettuce quality measurement system using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce, which is a main type of fresh-cut vegetable, has been used in various fresh-cut products. In this study, an online quality measurement system for detecting foreign substances on the fresh-cut lettuce was developed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The online detection system with a s...

  4. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29

  5. Incorporation of temperature and solar radiation thresholds to modify a lettuce downy mildew warning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Subbarao, K.V.; Scherm, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of temperature on infection of lettuce by Bremia lactucae was investigated in controlled environment studies and in the field. In controlled conditions, lettuce seedlings inoculated with B. lactucae were incubated at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C during a 4-h wet period immediately after

  6. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L. Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98 ± 0.67 mg GAE/g of dry extract was found in ethanolic extract of the lettuce variety Neva cultivated in a plastic greenhouse, whereas the largest content of flavonoids (35.45 ± 0.95 mg RU/g of dry extract was displayed in the lettuce Emerald cultivated in a glasshouse. It was observed that the lettuce cultivated in the glasshouse contained a somewhat higher content of L-ascorbic acid than the lettuce same variety from plastic greenhouse. The content of lycopene in the examined lettuce is negligible, and the content of ß-carotene is low. On the other hand, the high content of phenolic components causes favourable antioxidant properties found in all varieties of examined lettuce. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059: A new concept in breeding vegetable cultivars and hybrids designed for sustainable growing systems using biotechnological methods

  7. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively.

  8. Internalization and Dissemination of Human Norovirus and Animal Caliciviruses in Hydroponically Grown Romaine Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCaprio, Erin; Ma, Yuanmei; Purgianto, Anastasia; Hughes, John

    2012-01-01

    Fresh produce is a major vehicle for the transmission of human norovirus (NoV) because it is easily contaminated during both pre- and postharvest stages. However, the ecology of human NoV in fresh produce is poorly understood. In this study, we determined whether human NoV and its surrogates can be internalized via roots and disseminated to edible portions of the plant. The roots of romaine lettuce growing in hydroponic feed water were inoculated with 1 × 106 RNA copies/ml of a human NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strain or 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 PFU/ml of animal caliciviruses (Tulane virus [TV] and murine norovirus [MNV-1]), and plants were allowed to grow for 2 weeks. Leaves, shoots, and roots were homogenized, and viral titers and/or RNA copies were determined by plaque assay and/or real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. For human NoV, high levels of viral-genome RNA (105 to 106 RNA copies/g) were detected in leaves, shoots, and roots at day 1 postinoculation and remained stable over the 14-day study period. For MNV-1 and TV, relatively low levels of infectious virus particles (101 to 103 PFU/g) were detected in leaves and shoots at days 1 and 2 postinoculation, but virus reached a peak titer (105 to 106 PFU/g) at day 3 or 7 postinoculation. In addition, human NoV had a rate of internalization comparable with that of TV as determined by real-time RT-PCR, whereas TV was more efficiently internalized than MNV-1 as determined by plaque assay. Taken together, these results demonstrated that human NoV and animal caliciviruses became internalized via roots and efficiently disseminated to the shoots and leaves of the lettuce. PMID:22729543

  9. Growth and gas exchange by lettuce stands in a closed, controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R M; Mackowiak, C L; Sager, J C; Yorio, N C; Knott, W M; Berry, W L

    1994-05-01

    Two studies were conducted in which 'Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was grown hydroponically from seed to harvest in a large (20-m2), atmospherically closed growth chamber for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program. The first study used metal-halide (MH) lamps [280 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)], whereas the second used high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (293 micromoles m-2 s-1). Both studies used a 16-hour photoperiod, a constant air temperature (22 to 23C), and 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 during the light period. In each study, canopy photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) rates were highly correlated to canopy cover, with absolute rates peaking at harvest (28 days after planting ) at 17 micromoles CO2/m2 per sec and 4 liters m-2 day-1, respectively. When normalized for actual canopy cover, photosynthesis and ET rates per unit canopy area decreased with age (between 15 and 28 days after planting). Canopy cover increased earlier during the study with HPS lamps, and final shoot yields averaged 183 g fresh mass (FM)/plant 8.8 g dry mass (DM)/plant. Shoot yields in the first study with MH lamps averaged 129 g FM/plant and 6.8 g DM/plant. Analysis of leaf tissue showed that ash levels from both studies averaged 22% and K levels ranged from 15% to 17% of tissue DM. Results suggest that lettuce should be easily adaptable to a CELSS with moderate lighting and that plant spacing or transplant schemes are needed to maximize canopy light interception and sustained efficient CO2 removal and water production.

  10. Transfer and expression of the rabbit defensin NP-1 gene in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D; Xiong, X; Tu, W F; Yao, W; Liang, H W; Chen, F J; He, Z Q

    2017-01-23

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae, with high food and medicinal value. However, the crop is susceptible to several viruses that are transmitted by aphids and is highly vulnerable to post-harvest diseases, as well as insect and mammal pests and fungal and bacterial diseases. Here, the rabbit defensin gene NP-1 was transferred into lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to obtain a broad-spectrum disease-resistant lettuce. Transgenic lettuce plants were selected and regenerated on selective media. The presence of the NP-1 gene in these plants was confirmed by western blot analyses. Resistance tests revealed native defensin NP-1 expression conferred partial resistance to Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests new possibilities for lettuce disease resistance.

  11. Association analysis of bacterial leaf spot resistance and SNP markers derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, is a devastating disease of lettuce worldwide. Since there are no chemicals available for effective control of the disease, host-plant resistance is highly desirable to protect lettuce production. A total of 179 lettuce ge...

  12. Oil palm waste and synthetic zeolite: an alternative soil-less growth substrate for lettuce production as a waste management practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghe, G.Y.; Tokashiki, Y.; Kitou, M.; Kinjo, K. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). United Graduate School of Agricultural Science

    2008-12-15

    A study was conducted to assess the characteristics and the prospective utilization of oil palm waste (OP) and synthetic zeolite (SZ) developed by coal fly ash, as an alternative substrate to peat and commercial perlite for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The SZ, OP, sphagnum peat (PE), perlite (PL) and two different SZ-OP mixtures (v/v) at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 were utilized as the substrates under this study. The substrates formulated by mixing SZ with OP at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 showed improved substrate physical and chemical properties such as air space, bulk density, particle density, water-holding capacity, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which were in the ideal substrate range when compared with PL. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity of the substrate having a 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ with OP was higher than that of the PL by 28.23%, whereas the bulk density was lower than that of PL by 35%. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to assess the influence of the substrates on the growth and development of lettuce. The results of the study suggest that the SZ-OP-based substrates and OP can be successfully utilized as alternatives to the commercial perlite and to substitute the conventional peat substrate for lettuce cultivation. In addition, this can be proposed as an alternative waste management practice.

  13. Celebrating Two Centuries since the Invention of the Stethoscope. René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomos, Ioannis; Karakatsani, Anna; Manali, Effrosyni D; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-10-01

    René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826), a French physician, is considered one of the pioneers of respiratory medicine. His contribution to the invention of the stethoscope and to the development of clinical auscultation played a key role in the progress of the diagnosis of chest diseases. Almost two centuries after his invention of the stethoscope, his achievements continue to be widely appreciated and used by modern physicians in current pulmonology.

  14. Phytotoxic mechanisms of bur cucumber seed extracts on lettuce with special reference to analysis of chloroplast proteins, phytohormones, and nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Min; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Jin-Hyo; Lee, In-Yong; Moon, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Bioherbicides from plant extracts are an effective and environmentally friendly method to prevent weed growth. The present investigation was aimed at determining the inhibitory effect of bur cucumber seed extracts (BSE) on lettuce plant growth. Bur cucumber seeds were ground with water, and two different concentrations of seed extracts (10% and 20%) were prepared and applied to lettuce plants. Decreased plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, anProd. Type: FTPd leaf area were found in lettuce exposed to BSE as compared with controls. A significant reduction in lettuce biomass was observed in 20% BSE-treated plants due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic content in the extracts. Moreover, a significant inhibitory chemical, 2-linoleoyl glycerol, was identified in BSE extracts. The mechanism of plant growth inhibition was assayed in lettuce proteins by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the LC-MS/MS method. In total, 57 protein spots were detected in plants treated with 20% BSE and control plants. Among these, 39 proteins were down-regulated and 18 proteins were up-regulated in plants exposed to 20% BSE as compared with controls. The presence of low levels of chlorophyll a/b binding protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 in BSE-exposed plants reduced photosynthetic pigment synthesis and might be a reason for stunted plant growth. Indeed, the plant-growth stimulating hormone gibberellin was inhibited, and synthesis of stress hormones such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were triggered in lettuce by the effects of BSE. Uptake of essential nutrients, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, S, and Mo, was deficient and accumulation of the toxic ions Cu, Zn, and Na was higher in BSE-treated plants. The results of this study suggest that extracts of bur cucumber seeds can be an effective eco-friendly bioherbicide for weed control that work by inhibiting mechanisms of photosynthesis and regulating phytohormones and nutritional elements

  15. Minimal processing of iceberg lettuce has no substantial influence on the survival, attachment and internalization of E. coli O157 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Inge; Avalos Llano, Karina R; Eriksson, Markus; De Vos, Winnok H; Van Damme, Els J M; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-12-05

    The influence of a selection of minimal processing techniques (sanitizing wash prior to packaging, modified atmosphere, storage conditions under light or in the dark) was investigated in relation to the survival of, attachment to and internalization of enteric pathogens in fresh produce. Cut Iceberg lettuce was chosen as a model for fresh produce, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157) and Salmonella enterica were chosen as pathogen models. Care was taken to simulate industrial post-harvest processing. A total of 50±0.1g of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce was packed in bags under near ambient atmospheric air with approximately 21% O 2 (NAA) conditions or equilibrium modified atmosphere with 3% O 2 (EMAP). Two lettuce pieces inoculated with E. coli O157 BRMSID 188 or Salmonella Typhimurium labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to each package. The bags with cut lettuce were stored under either dark or light conditions for 2days at 7°C. The pathogens' capacity to attach to the lettuce surface and cut edge was evaluated 2days after inoculation using conventional plating technique and the internalization of the bacteria was investigated and quantified using confocal microscopy. The effect of a sanitizing wash step (40mg/L NaClO or 40mg/L peracetic acid+1143mg/L lactic acid) of the cut lettuce prior to packaging was evaluated as well. Our results indicate that both pathogens behaved similarly under the investigated conditions. Pathogen growth was not observed, nor was there any substantial influence of the investigated atmospheric conditions or light/dark storage conditions on their attachment/internalization. The pathogens attached to and internalized via cut edges and wounds, from which they were able to penetrate into the parenchyma. Internalization through the stomata into the parenchyma was not observed, although some bacteria were found in the substomatal cavity. Washing the cut edges with sanitizing agents to reduce enteric pathogen numbers was not

  16. Nutrient absorption and response of lettuce to phosphorus fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso; Cristiaini Kano; Roberto Lyra Villas Boas

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of lettuce (cultivar Verônica) to different levels of phosphorus fertilization. The experiment was conducted from 25/09/2003 (sowing) to 03/12/2003 (harvesting) at the Fazenda Experimental São Manuel, UNESP/FCA, Botucatu/SP, under protective structures. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with five treatments (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800kg.ha-1 of P2O5, in the form of triple superphosphate) and five replications. Pla...

  17. Effect of Different Calcium Concentration in Contaminate Soil on 90S Accumulation by the Seasonal Vegetative Growth of Lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodah, Z.; Makahle, M.; Al- Omari, M.; Al-Qawasmi, W.

    2004-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at National Center for Agriculture Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT) farm in Baqa. To establish the effect of different calcium concentration in the contaminated soil on the 90 S accumulation by the seasonal vegetative growth of lettuce. The pots were distributed in split plot in RCBD design with four replicates. The main plots of experiment were four concentration of calcium (Ca ++ ) in the soil. The calcium soluble solution was applied and mixed with the soil. Four concentrations of calcium were 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg Ca /Kg. The sub main plots of experiment were four specific activities of Strontium-90. The contamination has been done with 90 S to the surface area of the soil after one week of planting. The specific activities of 90 S were: 40, 57, 73 and 89 Bq/Kg soil . The results indicate after 70 days of planting (duration of season), that the specific active of 90Sr in vegetative mass of plant (Lettuce) and in leached irrigation water at the end of season was nonsignificant increased with the increment of Ca concentration in the soil . The specific active of 90 Sr reached to 1.12 Bq/Kg in plant and to 1.13 Bq/ l in irrigation water. There was strong linear correlation between specific active of 90 Sr in vegetative mass of plant (Lettuce) with the increment of Ca concentration in the soil (r 2 = 94) , the similar results was observed for irrigation water (r 2 =88) . The distribution of specific active of 90 Sr in the soil, plant and irrigation water was not significant effected by the increasing of specific active of 90 Sr in contaminated soil and / or by increasing of Ca concentration in the soil. It was found that most of specific active of 90 Sr in all treatments were remained at the end of season in the soil (96.6-97.9%). The values of Stander Transfer Factor (TFs) for 90 Sr by plant or irrigation water weren't effected with increasing of specific active of 90 Sr in the soil .On contrary the increasing

  18. Assessing nitrogen supply potential and influence on growth of lettuce and amaranthus of different aged composts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.J.; Young, I.; Irvine, R.J.; Sturrock, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the potential of different composts at different maturity stages to supply N and their effect on the vegetative growth of lettuce and Amaranthus. Five composts aged 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, were mixed with soil at the rate of 5%, 10% and 15% then seeded with lettuce and Amaranthus. Results showed that 1, 3 and 6 month aged composts had a negative effect on plant height of lettuce and Amaranthus as 1-15.78% and 4.78 to 29.45% decrease in plant height over control was recorded respectively. On the other hand 9 and 12 month aged composts had a significant positive effect on plant height of lettuce and Amaranthus where 43.48% and 34.8% increase over control was recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost respectively. A similar effect was observed on fresh biomass of both lettuce and Amaranthus where a 386% and 59.43% increase over control was recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost respectively. One and three month aged composts revealed a negative effect on N absorption by lettuce whereas 1, 3, 6 and 9 month aged composts had a negative effect on N absorption by Amaranthus. 30.39% and 21.48% increases over control in N absorption by lettuce and Amaranthus respectively were recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost. (author)

  19. Sampling Plans for the Thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Three Lettuce Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alisson R; Rodrigues-Silva, Nilson; Pereira, Poliana S; Sarmento, Renato A; Costa, Thiago L; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2017-12-05

    The common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important lettuce pest worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the first step in implementing decision-making systems into integrated pest management programs. However, this tool is not available for F. schultzei infesting lettuce crops. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a conventional sampling plan for F. schultzei in lettuce crops. Two sampling techniques (direct counting and leaf beating on a white plastic tray) were compared in crisphead, looseleaf, and Boston lettuce varieties before and during head formation. The frequency distributions of F. schultzei densities in lettuce crops were assessed, and the number of samples required to compose the sampling plan was determined. Leaf beating on a white plastic tray was the best sampling technique. F. schultzei densities obtained with this technique were fitted to the negative binomial distribution with a common aggregation parameter (common K = 0.3143). The developed sampling plan is composed of 91 samples per field and presents low errors in its estimates (up to 20%), fast execution time (up to 47 min), and low cost (up to US $1.67 per sampling area). This sampling plan can be used as a tool for integrated pest management in lettuce crops, assisting with reliable decision making in different lettuce varieties before and during head formation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The effect of growth conditions on flavonols and anthocyanins accumulation in green and red lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia BRÜCKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different growth conditions on anthocyanins and flavonols accumulation in leaves of green and red loose leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa. Lettuce plants were grown in three types of conditions, in greenhouse (I. variant, behind clear glass in field (II. variant and in open field conditions (III. variant. Estimation of anthocyanins and flavonols content was done by non-destructive measurements with optical fluorescence sensor Multiplex® 3 (Force-A, France. It was estimated that green lettuce varieties had a greater flavonols content compared to red lettuce varieties in all experimental variants. The highest level of flavonols was detected in leaves of green variety Zoltán (1.218 RU and in red lettuce had the highest amount of flavonols in variety Carmesi (1.095 RU. At the same time red lettuce varieties were characterized by higher anthocyanins content. Parameter anthocyanin index is correlated with visible red coloration of leaves. The highest content of anthocyanins was detected in variety Oakly (0.867 RU. Under the open field conditions was found statistically significant higher (P < 0.05 flavonols and anthocyanins level in both green and red lettuce leaves compared to greenhouse conditions. It may be connected with intensification of flavonoids biosynthesis and accumulation which normally stimulated by sun irradiation, especially UV-B radiation.

  1. Neural Network Modeling to Predict Shelf Life of Greenhouse Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chin Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse-grown butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. can potentially be stored for 21 days at constant 0°C. When storage temperature was increased to 5°C or 10°C, shelf life was shortened to 14 or 10 days, respectively, in our previous observations. Also, commercial shelf life of 7 to 10 days is common, due to postharvest temperature fluctuations. The objective of this study was to establish neural network (NN models to predict the remaining shelf life (RSL under fluctuating postharvest temperatures. A box of 12 - 24 lettuce heads constituted a sample unit. The end of the shelf life of each head was determined when it showed initial signs of decay or yellowing. Air temperatures inside a shipping box were recorded. Daily average temperatures in storage and averaged shelf life of each box were used as inputs, and the RSL was modeled as an output. An R2 of 0.57 could be observed when a simple NN structure was employed. Since the "future" (or remaining storage temperatures were unavailable at the time of making a prediction, a second NN model was introduced to accommodate a range of future temperatures and associated shelf lives. Using such 2-stage NN models, an R2 of 0.61 could be achieved for predicting RSL. This study indicated that NN modeling has potential for cold chain quality control and shelf life prediction.

  2. Mannanase production by the lettuce endosperm : Control by the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmer, P; Bewley, J D

    1979-01-01

    Endo-β-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78) is produced and secreted by the cells of the endosperm of lettuce (lactuca sativa L.) "seeds" (achenes). In imbibed intact seeds, production is prevented by inhibitors. If the endosperm is incubated alone, these inhibitors can be removed by leaching, allowing mannanase production. Abscisic acid, a component of lettuce seeds, inhibits the production of mannanase in the isolated endosperm, and may be involved in regulation of mannanase production in intact seeds. During germination the inhibition is removed, beginning 4-8 h after red-light irradiation, which was given 4 h from sowing. The cotyledons participate in this process, and are controlled by events occuring in the axis within 4 h from red-light irradiation. This control by the axis apparently depends on the exchange of diffusible substances. Both benzyladenine and gibberellic acid can replace the influence of the axis if the latter is removed, and may therefore be involved in the control by the axis of the rest of the seed.

  3. Yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system using different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Jordan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the aquaponic system, the characteristics of the materials used as substrate directly affect plant development, because besides acting as a support base, they must present a surface to fix microorganisms, responsible for the conversion of nutrients into forms more easily available to plants. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of four growing substrates on the yield of lettuce grown in aquaponic system. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, which corresponded to the substrates, and six replicates. Plants were grown using the nutrient film technique (NFT system. The substrates used in the experiment were: coconut shell fiber with crushed stone #3, expanded vermiculite, zeolite and phenolic foam. The treatment with phenolic foam was considered as the least suitable for lettuce cultivation in aquaponic system, because it caused lower yield (20.8 t ha-1. The treatment using coconut shell fiber with crushed stone #3 was considered as the most adequate, since it led to higher yield (39.9 t ha-1 compared with the other substrates analyzed.

  4. Determination of low levels of perchlorate in lettuce and spinach using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Parker, David R

    2006-03-22

    A sample preparation method was developed to quantify environmentally relevant (low micrograms per liter) concentrations of perchlorate (ClO4(-)) in leafy vegetables using IC-ESI-MS. Lettuce and spinach were macerated, centrifuged, and filtered, and the aqueous extracts were rendered water-clear using a one-step solid-phase extraction method. Total time for extraction and sample preparation was 6 h. Ion suppression was demonstrated and was likely due to unknown organics still present in the extract solution after cleanup. However, this interference was readily eliminated using a Cl(18)O4(-) internal standard at 1 microg/L in all standards and samples. Hydroponically grown perchlorate-free butterhead lettuce was spiked to either 10.3 or 37.7 microg/kg of fresh weight (FW), and recoveries were between 91 and 98% and between 93 and 101%, respectively. Five types of lettuce and spinach from a local grocery store were then analyzed; they contained from 0.6 to 6.4 microg/kg of FW. Spike recoveries using the store-bought samples ranged from 89 to 100%. The method detection limit for perchlorate in plant extracts is 40 ng/L, and the corresponding minimum reporting limit is 200 ng/L or 0.8 microg/kg of FW.

  5. Expression of 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 Is Essential for Thermoinhibition of Lettuce Seed Germination but Not for Seed Development or Stress Tolerance[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Heqiang; Dahal, Peetambar; Kunusoth, Keshavulu; McCallum, Claire M.; Bradford, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate at warm temperatures, is common in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars. Using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a lettuce cultivar (Salinas) and thermotolerant Lactuca serriola accession UC96US23 (UC), we previously mapped a quantitative trait locus associated with thermoinhibition of germination to a genomic region containing a gene encoding a key regulated enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 (NCED4). NCED4 from either Salinas or UC complements seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana nced6-1 nced9-1 double mutant by restoring germination thermosensitivity, indicating that both NCED4 genes encode functional proteins. Transgenic expression of Salinas NCED4 in UC seeds resulted in thermoinhibition, whereas silencing of NCED4 in Salinas seeds led to loss of thermoinhibition. Mutations in NCED4 also alleviated thermoinhibition. NCED4 expression was elevated during late seed development but was not required for seed maturation. Heat but not water stress elevated NCED4 expression in leaves, while NCED2 and NCED3 exhibited the opposite responses. Silencing of NCED4 altered the expression of genes involved in ABA, gibberellin, and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate that NCED4 expression is required for thermoinhibition of lettuce seeds and that it may play additional roles in plant responses to elevated temperature. PMID:23503626

  6. Phloem sap collection from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.): Methodology and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, M; Tjallingii, W F; van Beek, T A

    1994-12-01

    Three methods to collect phloem sap on different lettuce lines were optimized and are described in detail. The success ratio for stylectomy of aphids was over 80% through the combination of a specially designed setup and electrical penetration graphs to monitor phloem sap ingestion. For unknown reasons on some lettuce lines stylets never showed sustained exudation. There were clear differences in stylet exudation between two aphid species on the same lettuce line. Honeydew collection in hexadecane made accurate quantitative analysis possible; samples were large and clean, but biotransformed. The EDTA chelation method produced large samples, but dilution, oxidation, and impurities from the wound surface reduced the reliability.

  7. An improved method for transformation of lettuce by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a gene that confers freezing resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pileggi Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for constructing transgenic lettuce cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was described by Torres et al., 1993. In the present work, an improvement of the above procedure is described and applied to transform the cultivar Grand Rapids with a mutated P5CS gene. The major modifications were concerned with turning more practical the transformation and regeneration protocols. Also we tried to improve transformation steps by increasing injured area in explants and prolonging co-cultivation with Agrobacteria (in larger concentration. A more significant selective pressure was used against non-transformed plants and bacteria. In these work we were concerned to obtain T1 and T2 seeds. The P5CS gene codes for a delta¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two steps of proline biosynthesis in plants (Zhang et al., 1995; Peng et al., 1996, while the mutated gene is insensitive to feedback inhibition by proline. The potential benefit of this gene is to confer water stress resistance (drought, salt, cold due to increased intracellular levels of proline that works like an osmoprotectant. In this work could obtain and characterize transgenic lettuce lineages which are resistant to freezing temperature.

  8. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae ( Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to arsenic by 40-50 %; whereas, water hyacinth could reduce arsenic by only 20 %. Cladophora sp. is thus suitable for co-treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  10. Persistence and Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in Brassica Chinensis, Lettuce, Celery, Asparagus Lettuce, Eggplant, and Pepper in a Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Xiao; Jiang, Wayne W.; Wang, Jia-Lei; Jian, Qiu; Shen, Yan; Liu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The residue behavior of chlorpyrifos, which is one of the extensively used insecticides all around the world, in six vegetable crops was assessed under greenhouse conditions. Each of the vegetables was subjected to a foliar treatment with chlorpyrifos. Two analytical methods were developed using gas chromatography equipped with a micro-ECD detector (LOQ = 0.05 mg kg−1) and liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (LOQ = 0.01 mg kg−1). The initial foliar deposited concentration of chlorpyrifos (mg kg−1) on the six vegetables followed the increasing order of brassica chinensischlorpyrifos showed differences among the six selected vegetable plants, ranging from 16.5±0.9 mg kg−1 (brassica chinensis) to 74.0±5.9 mg kg−1 (pepper plant). At pre-harvest interval 21 days, the chlorpyrifos residues in edible parts of the crops were chlorpyrifos were found to be 7.79 (soil), 2.64 (pepper plants), 3.90 (asparagus lettuce), 3.92 (lettuce), 5.81 (brassica chinensis), 3.00 (eggplant plant), and 5.45 days (celery), respectively. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soil and the six selected plants was different, indicating that the persistence of chlorpyrifos residues strongly depends upon leaf characteristics of the selected vegetables. PMID:24967589

  11. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  12. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine Growth Performance in Complemented Aquaponic Solution Outperforms Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Delaide

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic levels in order to increase yield. For this purpose, lettuce plants were put into AeroFlo installations and exposed to hydroponic (HP, aquaponic (AP, or complemented aquaponic (CAP solutions. The principal finding of this research was that AP and HP treatments exhibited similar (p > 0.05 plant growth, whereas the shoot weight of the CAP treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05 growth rate increase of 39% on average compared to the HP and AP treatments. Additionally, the root weight was similar (p > 0.05 in AP and CAP treatments, and both were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that observed in the HP treatment. The results highlight the beneficial effect of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS water on plant growth. The findings represent a further step toward developing decoupled aquaponic systems (i.e., two- or multi-loops that have the potential to establish a more productive alternative to hydroponic systems. Microorganisms and dissolved organic matter are suspected to play an important role in RAS water for promoting plant roots and shoots growth.

  13. Effect of soil biochar concentration on the mitigation of emerging organic contaminant uptake in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Cañameras, Núria; Domínguez, Carmen; Price, Gordon W; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2017-02-05

    Although crop uptake of emerging organic contaminants (EOC) from irrigation water and soils has been previously reported, successful mitigation strategies have not yet been established. In this study, soil was amended with a wood-based biochar (BC) at two rates (0, 2.5 and 5% w/w) to evaluate the effect on mitigation of EOC uptake (i.e. bisphenol A, caffeine, carbamazepine, clofibric acid, furosemide, ibuprofen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, triclosan, and tonalide) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). After 28 days of irrigation with water containing EOCs at 15μgL -1 , the average EOC concentration in roots and leaves decreased by 20-76% in biochar amended soil relative to non BC-amended soil. In addition, the enantiomeric fractions (EF) of ibuprofen (IBU) in biochar amended soils (EF=0.58) and unamended soils (EF=0.76) suggest that the IBU sorbed fraction in BC is more recalcitrant to its biodegradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on lettuces used by minimally processed vegetable industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Josete Bailardi; Hessel, Claudia Titze; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2017-01-30

    Washing and disinfection methods used by minimally processed vegetable industries of Southern Brazil were reproduced in laboratory in order to verify their effectiveness to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 (SE86) on lettuce. Among the five industries investigated, four carried out washing with potable water followed by disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite during different immersion times. The washing procedure alone decreased approximately 1 log CFU/g of SE86 population and immersion times of 1, 2, 5, and 15 minutes in disinfectant solution demonstrated reduction rates ranging from 2.06±0.10 log CFU/g to 3.01±0.21 log CFU/g. Rinsing alone was able to reduce counts from 0.12±0.63 log CFU/g to 1.90±1.07 log CFU/g. The most effective method was washing followed by disinfection with 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite for 15 minutes and final rinse with potable water, reaching 5.83 log CFU/g of reduction. However, no statistical differences were observed on the reduction rates after different immersion times. A time interval of 1 to 2 minutes may be an advantage to the minimally vegetable processed industries in order to optimize the process without putting at risk food safety.

  15. Researches Regarding the Influence of Cold Storage on the Chlorophyll Content in Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cretescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effect of the cold storage period on the content of chlorophylls in the leaves of lettuce and arugula (rucola. The research material consisted in two types of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata; Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa and arugula (Eruca sativa purchased from supermarkets in Timisoara. The quantitative determination of chlorophyll pigments in leaves (SPAD was made by chlorophyll meter (SPAD 502 Konica-Minolta. During the few days cold storage at a temperature of 4ºC, the content of chlorophyll in the leaf significantly decreased, compared with that in the control group. After 3 days of cold storage arugula and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata values of chlorophyll content differ statistically very significantly (p<0.001 from the values found in the control group which for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa differs statistically significant (p < 0.05.

  16. Series of Norovirus Outbreaks Caused by Consumption of Green Coral Lettuce, Denmark, April 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Luise; Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Jensen, Tenna

    2016-01-01

    In early April 2016, an unusual high number of point-source outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease were reported to occur in Denmark. Outbreaks were individually investigated. Two analytical studies were performed. Patient stool samples collected and analysed; positive stool samples were sequenced...... over the polymerase and/or capsid gene areas. Implicated lettuce heads were collected and analysed for the presence of norovirus. Foods were traced-back and traced-forward and international alert systems applied. A total of 23 linked point-source outbreaks occurred over the course of one week. Fresh...... green coral lettuce (Lollo Bionda lettuce) had been consumed in all settings. In a cohort study including 234 participants a dish containing green lettuce was associated with illness. Norovirus of Genogroup I (GI) was detected in samples from 28 patients comprising eight of the outbreaks. Sequencing...

  17. Mechanism of artemisinin phytotoxicity action: induction of reactive oxygen species and cell death in lettuce seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Dan-Dan; Ding, Lan; Cui, Hai-Yan; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jian-She; Qin, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Artemisinin has been recognized as an allelochemical that inhibits growth of several plant species. However, its mode of action is not well clarified. In this study, the mechanism of artemisinin phytotoxicity on lettuce seedlings was investigated. Root and shoot elongation of lettuce seedlings were inhibited by artemisinin in a concentration-dependent manner. The compound effectively arrested cell division and caused loss of cell viability in root tips of lettuce. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by artemisinin. Lipid peroxidation, proline overproduction and reduction of chlorophyll content in lettuce seedlings were found after treatments. These results suggested that artemisinin could induce ROS overproduction, which caused membrane lipids peroxidation and cell death, and impacted mitosis and physiological processes, resulting in growth inhibition of receptor plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guyader, Francoise S.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Haugarreau, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    Five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. To mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. Nucleic acid...

  19. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on yield and quality of lettuce in sunlit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ese

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... Here, we report the effects of ALA on photosynthetic rate, yield and quality of lettuce in sunlit ... Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are widely applied on crops as a means of ..... This research was made possible by financial.

  20. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  1. Short communication. Effect of deficit irrigation on curly lettuce grown under semiarid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuslu, Y.; Dursun, A.; Sahin, U.; Kiziloglu, F. M.; Turan, M.

    2008-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of deficit irrigation on curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crispa cv. Bohemia) evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, marketable yield, yield components and mineral contents. The experiments were performed under semiarid climatic conditions in Erzurum province (east of Turkey) in the summer periods of 2005 and 2006. Irrigation water levels were selected to be 100% of usable soil water in full irrigation treatment (control) (T-100) and 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of usable soil water in deficit irrigation treatments (T-80, T-60, T-40 and T- 20, respectively). Average seasonal evapotranspiration was 232 mm in T-100 and 121 mm in T-20. Average marketable yield was 39.49 Mg ha{sup -}1 in T-100 and 14.57 Mg ha{sup -}1 in T-20. A linear relationship (y=0.23x-13.97; R{sup 2}0.94) was found between seasonal evapotranspiration (x) and marketable plant yield (y). According to the regression equation, the yield response factor (k{sub y}) was found to be 1.39, and the coefficient of determination 0.91. Average water use efficiency was 168.88 kg ha{sup -}1 mm{sup -}1 in T-100 and 117.39 kg ha{sup -}1 mm{sup -}1 in T-20. The lowest plant length, width, steam diameter, leaf number, macro and micro element content values were obtained for T-20 in both years. (Author) 21 refs.

  2. Comparison of proteome response to saline and zinc stress in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Lucini, Luigi; Bernardo, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Zinc salts occurring in soils can exert an osmotic stress toward plants. However, being zinc a heavy metal, some more specific effects on plant metabolisms can be forecast. In this work, lettuce has been used as a model to investigate salt and zinc stresses at proteome level through a shotgun tandem MS proteomic approach. The effect of zinc stress in lettuce, in comparison with NaCl stress, was evaluated to dissect between osmotic/oxidative stress related effects, from those changes specifica...

  3. The effect of growth conditions on flavonols and anthocyanins accumulation in green and red lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Klaudia BRÜCKOVÁ; Oksana SYTAR; Marek ŢIVČÁK; Marian BRESTIC; Aleš LEBEDA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different growth conditions on anthocyanins and flavonols accumulation in leaves of green and red loose leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa). Lettuce plants were grown in three types of conditions, in greenhouse (I. variant), behind clear glass in field (II. variant) and in open field conditions (III. variant). Estimation of anthocyanins and flavonols content was done by non-destructive measurements with optical fluorescence sensor Mu...

  4. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravković Jasmina M.; Aćamović-Đoković Gordana S.; Mladenović Jelena D.; Pavlović Radoš M.; Zdravković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L.) Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98...

  5. Effects of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure on some soil physical properties and lettuce yield

    OpenAIRE

    Çerçioğlu, Melis; Okur, Bülent; Delibacak, Sezai; Ongun, Ali Rıza

    2008-01-01

    This research was held in Agriculture Faculty of Ege University Menemen Investigation and Practise Farmyard. Tobacco waste gathered from cigarette industry were composted and applied to the soil together with farmyard manure. lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was grown as test plant. No mineral fertilizers or pestisides were applied. The effects of composted tobacco wastes and farmyard manures on soil physical properties and lettuce yield were investigated. All application...

  6. The economics of managing Verticillium wilt, an imported disease in California lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Christine L; Carter, Colin A; Goodhue, Rachael E; Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that is introduced to the soil via infested spinach seeds and that causes lettuce to be afflicted with Verticillium wilt. This disease has spread rapidly through the Salinas Valley, the prime lettuce production region of California. Verticillium wilt can be prevented or controlled by the grower by fumigating, planting broccoli, or not planting spinach. Because these control options require long-term investment for future gain, renters might not take ...

  7. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  8. The Comparison of Ammonium or Nitrate-Grown Lettuce and Spinach in a Hydroponic System

    OpenAIRE

    H. R. Roosta

    2010-01-01

    Most plant species are sensitive to high ammonium concentrations. In this experiment the sensitivity of lettuce and spinach to ammonium was investigated. In a factorial experiment with framework of a completely randomized design with two factors, nitrogen form (ammonium and nitrate) and plant species (lettuce and spinach), and three replications seeds were germinated in a mixture of perlite, sand and clay in soil-maid pots. After two weeks, the seedlings at two true-leaf stage were then trans...

  9. Diminished UV-absorbing nets reduce the Spreads and population density of Macrosiphum euphorbiae in lettuce.

    OpenAIRE

    Legarrea, S.; Díaz, B. M.; Plaza, M.; Barrios, L.; Morales, Ignacio; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Fereres Castiel, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    UV-absorbing covers reduce the incidence of injurious insect pests and viruses in protected crops. In the present study, the effect of a UV-absorbing net (Bionet) on the spatio-temporal dynamics of the potato aphid on lettuce plants was evaluated. A field experiment was conducted during three seasons in two identical tunnels divided in four plots. A set of lettuce plants were artificially infested with Macrosiphum euphorbiae adults and the population was estimated by counting aphids on ev...

  10. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.

  11. Evaluation of three biostimulants in lettuce under parcel conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Jiménez Arteaga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the parcel Ñico López. The valued cultivation was the lettuce variety Black simpson, with the objective of evaluating the goods of three (3 bioestimulantes (Biobras 16, Biobras plus and Quitosana, about the yield and quality of the crop. The biostimulants was applied, to three stonemasons (one for biostimulant to the six days after transplant (DDT and three parcel to the seven DDT, leaving one stonemasons that as control, for an total seven (7 treatments. The main components of yield were measured and some components of the quality of the plant were determined in the Soils Province Laboratory The data were processed by the statistical package of the Statitic version 8 on Windows. One could observe that the three biostimulants has an effect positive on the mass and quality of the studied crop.

  12. Changes during imbition of irradiated dry seeds of lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    Since ionizing radiation has been shown to produce free-radicals in dry seeds, effect peroxidation of lipids in model systems, and cause changes in membrane permeability, it was decided to subject dry seeds of lettuce to gamma irradiation to determine whether the cytological changes which occurred on subsequent imbition are similar in any way to those occurring during natural ageing in dry storage. Seeds of 3% moisture content were radiated with gamma rays from a Cobalt 60 source at doses between 3,4 kGy and 23,8 kGy and the root tips prepared for TEM after 5 and 12 hours imbition. The cytological changes which occurred are shortly discussed

  13. Changes during imbition of irradiated dry seeds of lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M T [Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1981-01-01

    Since ionizing radiation has been shown to produce free-radicals in dry seeds, effect peroxidation of lipids in model systems, and cause changes in membrane permeability, it was decided to subject dry seeds of lettuce to gamma irradiation to determine whether the cytological changes which occurred on subsequent imbition are similar in any way to those occurring during natural ageing in dry storage. Seeds of 3% moisture content were radiated with gamma rays from a Cobalt 60 source at doses between 3,4 kGy and 23,8 kGy and the root tips prepared for TEM after 5 and 12 hours imbition. The cytological changes which occurred are shortly discussed.

  14. Radiotracer studies of maneb residues in lettuce plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennaoui, Z.; Meguenni, H.; Bennaceur, M.

    1990-11-01

    Lettuce plants have received different treatments of 14C-maneb at variable time. A cleaning is made to determine the foliar surface residues. The analysis of CS2 showed relatively important amount especially for lots which have received 4 treatments (10,3ppm and 6,49ppm). The amounts found after combustion have showed increasing amounts, proportionally to the number of treatments. The analysis of ETU revealed a presence only for lots which have received several treatments (3 and 4). The analysis by TLC showed many metabolites. Two of them have been identified (ETU, EU). Interfoliar migration of 14C product occurred between treated leaves and untreated leaves of the same plant

  15. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information...... on the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi......-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid...

  16. High-level transient expression of recombinant protein in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Lawrence D; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Ewing, Nicholas N; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2005-09-30

    Transient expression following agroinfiltration of plant tissue was investigated as a system for producing recombinant protein. As a model system, Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was vacuum infiltrated into lettuce leaf disks. Infiltration with a suspension of 10(9) colony forming units/mL followed by incubation for 72 h at 22 degrees C in continuous darkness produced a maximum of 0.16% GUS protein based on dry tissue or 1.1% GUS protein based on total soluble protein. This compares favorably to expression levels for commercially manufactured GUS protein from transgenic corn seeds. A. tumefaciens culture medium pH between 5.6 and 7.0 and surfactant concentrations lettuce to produce GUS protein more rapidly, but final levels did not exceed the GUS production in leaves incubated in continuous darkness after 72 h at 22 degrees C. The kinetics of GUS expression during incubation in continuous light and dark were represented well using a logistic model, with rate constants of 0.30 and 0.29/h, respectively. To semi-quantitatively measure the GUS expression in large numbers of leaf disks, a photometric enhancement of the standard histochemical staining method was developed. A linear relationship with an R2 value of 0.90 was determined between log10 (% leaf darkness) versus log10 (GUS activity). Although variability in expression level was observed, agroinfiltration appears to be a promising technology that could potentially be scaled up to produce high-value recombinant proteins in planta. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  17. Non-destructive prediction of pigment content in lettuce based on visible-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidle Neto, Antonio José; Moura, Lorena de Oliveira; Lopes, Daniela de Carvalho; Carlos, Lanamar de Almeida; Martins, Luma Moreira; Ferraz, Leila de Castro Louback

    2017-05-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important salad vegetables in the world, with a number of head shapes, leaf types and colors. The lettuce pigments play important physiological functions, such as photosynthetic processes and light stress defense, but they also benefit human health because of their antioxidant action and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study three lettuce cultivars were grown under different farming systems, and partial least squares models were built to predict the leaf chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content. The three proposed models resulted in high coefficients of determination and variable importance for the projection values, as well as low estimative errors for calibration and external validation datasets. These results confirmed that it is possible to accurately predict chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content of green and red lettuces, grown in different farming systems, based on the spectral reflectance from 500 to 1000 nm. The proposed models were adequate for estimating lettuce pigments in a quick and non-destructive way, representing an alternative to conventional measurement methods. Prediction accuracies were improved by using the detrending, smoothing and first derivative pretreatments to the original spectral signatures prior to estimating lettuce chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin content, respectively. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase, Peroxidase and Lipoxygenase from Freshly Cut Lettuce (L. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vural Gökmen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic reactions taking place in minimally processed vegetables are considered as a major problem, because they adversely affect sensorial and nutritional quality. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POD and lipoxygenase (LOX from lettuce were purified on a column packed with positively charged diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose by applying pH gradient elution from pH=4.0 to 9.0. The main purified fractions (PPO1 and PPO4, POD1 and POD2, LOX1 and LOX2 were characterized for enzyme concentration-reaction rate relationship, thermal stability, pH activity and kinetic parameters. Kinetic properties of each isoform were considerably different. Cysteine was found as the most effective inhibitor of both fractions of PPO. Kinetic parameters of lettuce POD were presented using guaiacol at various H2O2 concentrations. β-carotene directly influences lettuce LOX in the reaction medium available for the catalytic conversion of linoleic acid into hydroperoxides. Ascorbic and oxalic acids appear as effective PPO inhibitors, protecting phenolic compounds against oxidation in lettuce. Understanding the characteristics of deteriorative enzymes becomes important to maintain suitable conditions for fresh-like quality of lettuce. The results can be useful to keep the nutritional quality of minimally processed lettuce during shelf-life.

  19. Evaluation of Lettuce Germplasm Resistance to Gray Mold Disease for Organic Cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ki Shim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions, L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions, L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions, L. saligna (2 accessions, and L. serriola (1 accession; majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial suspension (3×10⁷ conidia/ml of B. cinerea on the surface of lettuce leaves, tested lettuce germplasm showed severe symptoms of gray mold disease. There were 208 susceptible accessions to B. cinerea counted with 100% of disease incidence and four resistant accessions, IT908801, K000598, K000599, and K021055. Two moderately resistant accessions of L. sativa, K021055 and IT908801, showed 20% of disease incidence of gray mold disease at 45 days after inoculation; and two accessions of L. saligna, K000598 and K000599, which are wild relatives of lettuce germplasm with loose-leaf type, showed complete resistance to B. cinerea. These four accessions are candidates for breeding lettuce cultivars resistant to gray mold disease.

  20. Arsenic uptake by lettuce from As-contaminated soil remediated with Pteris vittata and organic amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Suchismita, Das; Gress, Julia; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-06-01

    Leaching of inorganic arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil As levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding As accumulation in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the ability of As-hyperaccumulator P. vittata and organic amendments in reducing As uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from a soil contaminated from CCA-treated wood (63.9 mg kg -1 As). P. vittata was grown for 150 d in a CCA-contaminated soil amended with biochar, activated carbon or coffee grounds at 1%, followed by lettuce for another 55 d. After harvest, plant biomass and As concentrations in plant and soil were determined. The presence of P. vittata reduced As content in lettuce by 21% from 27.3 to 21.5 mg kg -1 while amendment further reduced As in lettuce by 5.6-18%, with activated C being most effective. Our data showed that both P. vittata and organic amendments were effective in reducing As concentration in lettuce. Though no health-based standard for As in vegetables exists in USA, care should be taken when growing lettuce in contaminated soils. Our data showed that application of organic amendments with P. vittata reduced As hazards in CCA-contaminated soils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Responses of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) to susceptible and resistant lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; McCreight, James D

    2006-06-01

    Nymphs and alates of aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) were tested on 10 lettuce cultivars with N. ribisnigri resistance gene Nr and 18 cultivars without the resistance gene in various bioassays. Bioassays used whole plants, leaf discs, or leaf cages to determine susceptibility of commercial lettuce cultivars to N. ribisnigri infestation and to evaluate screening methods for breeding lettuce resistance to N. ribisnigri. Resistant and susceptible plants were separated in 3 d when using whole plant bioassays. Long-term (> or =7 d) no-choice tests using leaf cages or whole plants resulted in no survival of N. ribisnigri on resistant plants, indicating great promise of the Nr gene for management of N. ribisnigri. Effective screening was achieved in both no-choice tests where resistant or susceptible intact plants were tested separately in groups or individually and in choice tests where susceptible and resistant plants were intermixed. Leaf discs bioassays were not suitable for resistance screening. All lettuce cultivars without the resistance gene were suitable hosts for N. ribisnigri, indicating the great importance of this pest to lettuce production and the urgency in developing resistant lettuce cultivars to manage N. ribisnigri.

  2. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2005-12-01

    The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) is a common pest of lettuce in the United States. It hinders export of U.S. lettuce to the overseas market such as Japan where it is a quarantined pest. Ultralow oxygen treatments were studied for control of the insect on iceberg lettuce. Small-scale ultralow oxygen treatments in plastic jars were conducted at 1, 5, and 10 degrees C for different durations to determine effective treatment against nymphs and alates of N. ribisnigri. At oxygen levels of 0.015-0.025%, N. ribisnigri can be controlled in 3 d at 1 degrees C, 2 d at 5 degrees C, and 1 d at 10 degrees C. Large-scale ultralow oxygen treatments were conducted in bulk container treatment chambers with commercial iceberg lettuce heads for 2 d at 6 degrees C with oxygen levels of 0.015 and 0.025% and for 3 d at 3 degrees C with oxygen level of 0.015%. All treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. No negative impact on lettuce quality was detected after 2 wk of posttreatment storage. Therefore, the selected treatments have potential to be commercially developed for postharvest control of N. ribisnigri on iceberg lettuce.

  3. Bacterial diversity and community structure in lettuce soil are shifted by cultivation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqian; Chang, Qing; Guo, Xu; Yi, Xinxin

    2017-08-01

    Compared with cereal production, vegetable production usually requires a greater degree of management and larger input of nutrients and irrigation, but these systems are not sustainable in the long term. This study aimed to what extent lettuce determine the bacterial community composition in the soil, during lettuce cultivation, pesticides and fertilizers were not apply to soil. Soil samples were collected from depths of 0-20cm and 20-40cm. A highthroughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial communities in lettuce-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. The dominant bacteria in the lettuce soil samples were mainly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimo nadetes, Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the 6 soil samples. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria decreased through time of lettuce cultivation, but the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Nitrospirae increased over time. In the 0-20cm depth group and the 20-40cm depth soil, a similar pattern was observed that the percentage number of only shared OTUs between the early and late stage was lower than that between the early and middle stage soil, the result showed that lettuce growth can affect structure of soil bacterial communities.

  4. Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157: H7 on fresh cut lettuce introduced through cross-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm 2 ) following exposure to 50 μg/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm 2 ). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p PFU/ml) resulted in the deposition of high concentrations (7.8 log log PFU/cm 2 ) of bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm 2 ) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm 2 ). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce.

  5. Microbial risk in wastewater irrigated lettuce: comparing Escherichia coli contamination from an experimental site with a laboratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Fallowfield, H J; Cromar, N J

    This study assessed the contamination of Escherichia coli, in lettuce grown with treated domestic wastewater in four different irrigation configurations: open spray, spray under plastic sheet cover, open drip and drip under plastic sheet cover. Samples of lettuce from each irrigation configuration and irrigating wastewater were collected during the growing season. No E. coli was detected in lettuce from drip irrigated beds. All lettuce samples from spray beds were positive for E. coli, however, no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was detected between lettuces grown in open spray or covered spray beds. The results from the field experiment were also compared to a laboratory experiment which used submersion of lettuce in wastewater of known E. coli concentration as a surrogate method to assess contamination following irrigation. The microbial quality of spray bed lettuces was not significantly different from submersed lettuce when irrigated with wastewater containing 1,299.7 E. coli MPN/100 mL (p > 0.05). This study is significant since it is the first to validate that the microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in the field is comparable with a laboratory technique frequently applied in the quantitative microbial risk assessment of the consumption of wastewater irrigated salad crops.

  6. Phosphate effect on the content of selected elements in a lettuce variety grown at a contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Saiki, M.; Maihara, V.A.; Moreira, E.G.; Trevizam, A.R.; Muraoka, T.; Silva, M.L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of superphosphate fertilizer in remediating a contaminated soil with potentially toxic elements. For this, different phosphorus doses were used in a number of lettuce plants. The element concentrations determined in their leaves were compared with those found in control lettuce plants. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used to determine element concentration in lettuce leave samples. The application of 250 mg kg -1 of P was the most effective treatment to reduce the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sb and Zn in lettuce leaves. (author)

  7. Antineurodegenerative effect of phenolic extracts and caffeic acid derivatives in romaine lettuce on neuron-like PC-12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sung-Eun; Yoon, Hyungeun; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Chang Yong; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2010-08-01

    In recent decades, romaine lettuce has been one of the fastest growing vegetables with respect to its consumption and production. An understanding is needed of the effect of major phenolic phytochemicals from romaine lettuce on biological protection for neuron-like PC-12 cells. Phenolics in fresh romaine lettuce were extracted, and then its total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Neuroprotective effects of phenolic extract of romaine lettuce and its pure caffeic acid derivatives (caffeic, chicoric, chlorogenic, and isochlorogenic acids) in PC-12 cells were evaluated using two different in vitro methods: lactate dehydrogenase release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays. Total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh romaine lettuce averaged 22.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents and 31.0 mg of vitamin C equivalents, respectively. The phenolic extract of romaine lettuce protected PC-12 cells against oxidative stress caused by H(2)O(2) in a dose-dependent manner. Isochlorogenic acid, one of the phenolics in romaine lettuce, showed stronger neuroprotection than the other three caffeic acid derivatives also found in the lettuce. Although romaine lettuce had lower levels of phenolics and antioxidant capacity compared to other common vegetables, its contribution to total antioxidant capacity and antineurodegenerative effect in human diets would be higher because of higher amounts of its daily per capita consumption compared to other common vegetables.

  8. Scientific rationale for cos lettuce growing technology Lactuca sativa var. longifolia L. in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically validated items of growing technology disclosed for cos lettuce marketable products in the conditions of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Impact of environmental factors onto growth and development of Lactuca sativa var. longifolia L. plants. Sowing terms established for the seed of cos lettuce at field-seeded growing. Development parameters are quoted for plant productivity indices and marketable product indices for cos lettuce of national and foreign breeding. According to VCU characteristics a  typical model has been designed for the cos lettuce indices of suitability for dissemination in Ukraine.

  9. Gambaran Histopatologi Hati dan Ginjal Babi Landrace yang Diberi Pakan Eceng Gondok dari Perairan Tercemar Timbal (LIVER AND KIDNEY HISTOPATOLOGY OF LANDRACE SWINE GIVEN WATER HYACINT FROM LEAD CONTAMINATED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Nining Laksmi Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes dari perairan tercemar timbal (Pb dalam ransum terhadap perubahan histopatologi hati dan ginjal babi. Sampel yang digunakan adalah organ hati dan ginjal dari 8 ekor babi Landrace yang diberi perlakuan berbeda. Perlakuan yang diberikan adalah A = babi yang  mendapat ransum tanpa eceng gondok, B = babi yang mendapat ransum yang ditambah dengan 2,5 % eceng gondok, C = babi yang mendapat ransum yang ditambah dengan 5%  eceng gondok dan D = babi yang mendapat ransum yang ditambah dengan 7,5% eceng gondok. Pengambilan sampel organ hati dan ginjal babi dilakukan dengan cara nekropsi pada semua babi di akhir penelitian, kemudian organ dimasukkan ke dalam tabung yang berisi neutral buffer formalin 10%. Pembuatan preparat histopatologi dilakukan dengan pewarnaan Hematoksilin dan Eosin (HE. Pemeriksaan preparat dilakukan menggunakan mikroskop dengan perbesaran 100x, 200x dan 400x. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif dengan melihat perubahan yang terjadi pada organ hati dan ginjal babi antara kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes yang berasal dari perairan tercemar Pb pada pakan menyebabkan perubahan histopatologi hati dan ginjal babi Landrace. Perubahan tersebut yaitu degenerasi, nekrosis dan peradangan.   The aim of this study is to determine the effect of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes collected from Lead (Pb polluted water in feed to histopathological changes in pig’s liver and kidney. A total of eight Landrace pigs were used in this study, consisted of four groups: pigs were fed without hyacinth (A, pigs were fed with 2.5% hyacinth (B, pigs were fed with 5.0% hyacinth (C, and pigs were fed with 7.5% hyacinth (D. The sample of dead pigs were dissected at the end of study to examined the liver and kidney. Both organs sample were  immersed in a fixative

  10. Biological Control of Lettuce Drop and Host Plant Colonization by Rhizospheric and Endophytic Streptomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyulong; Pizzatti, Cristina; Bonaldi, Maria; Saracchi, Marco; Erlacher, Armin; Kunova, Andrea; Berg, Gabriele; Cortesi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce drop, caused by the soil borne pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most common and serious diseases of lettuce worldwide. Increased concerns about the side effects of chemical pesticides have resulted in greater interest in developing biocontrol strategies against S. sclerotiorum. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of Streptomyces spp. as biological control agents against S. sclerotiorum on lettuce. Two Streptomyces isolates, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I, inhibit mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by more than 75% in vitro. We evaluated their biocontrol activity against S. sclerotiorum in vivo, and compared them to Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108, isolated from Actinovate®. When Streptomyces spp. (106 CFU/mL) were applied to S. sclerotiorum inoculated substrate in a growth chamber 1 week prior lettuce sowing, they significantly reduced the risk of lettuce drop disease, compared to the inoculated control. Interestingly, under field conditions, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I protected lettuce from drop by 40 and 10% respectively, whereas S. lydicus WYEC 108 did not show any protection. We further labeled S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I with the enhanced GFP (EGFP) marker to investigate their rhizosphere competence and ability to colonize lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The abundant colonization of young lettuce seedlings by both strains demonstrated Streptomyces' capability to interact with the host from early stages of seed germination and root development. Moreover, the two strains were detected also on 2-week-old roots, indicating their potential of long-term interactions with lettuce. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed EGFP-S. exfoliatus FT05W endophytic colonization of lettuce root cortex tissues. Finally, we determined its viability and persistence in the rhizosphere and endorhiza up to 3 weeks by quantifying its

  11. Biological control of lettuce drop and host plant colonization by rhizospheric and endophytic streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyulong eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce drop, caused by the soil borne pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most common and serious diseases of lettuce worldwide. Increased concerns about the side effects of chemical pesticides have resulted in greater interest in developing biocontrol strategies against S. sclerotiorum. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of Streptomyces spp. as biological control agents against S. sclerotiorum on lettuce. Two Streptomyces isolates, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I, inhibit mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by more than 75% in vitro. We evaluated their biocontrol activity against S. sclerotiorum in vivo, and compared them to Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108, isolated from Actinovate®. When Streptomyces spp. (106 CFU/mL were applied to S. sclerotiorum inoculated substrate in a growth chamber one week prior lettuce sowing, they significantly reduced the risk of lettuce drop disease, compared to the inoculated control. Interestingly, under field conditions, S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I protected lettuce from drop by 40% and 10% respectively, whereas S. lydicus WYEC 108 did not show any protection. We further labeled S. exfoliatus FT05W and S. cyaneus ZEA17I with the enhanced GFP (EGFP marker to investigate their rhizosphere competence and ability to colonize lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. The abundant colonization of young lettuce seedlings by both strains demonstrated Streptomyces’ capability to interact with the host from early stages of seed germination and root development. Moreover, the two strains were detected also on two-week-old roots, indicating their potential of long-term interactions with lettuce. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations showed EGFP-S. exfoliatus FT05W endophytic colonization of lettuce root cortex tissues. Finally, we determined its viability and persistence in the rhizosphere and endorhiza up to

  12. Development and phytochemical characterization of high polyphenol red lettuce with anti-diabetic properties.

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    Diana M Cheng

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL (Lactuca sativa L. was developed through somaclonal variation and selection in tissue culture. RSL may contain among the highest reported contents of polyphenols and antioxidants in the category of common fruits and vegetables (95.6 mg/g dry weight and 8.7 mg/g fresh weight gallic acid equivalents and 2721 µmol/g dry weight and 223 µmol/g fresh weight Trolox equivalents. Three main compounds accumulate at particularly high levels in RSL: chlorogenic acid, up to 27.6 mg/g dry weight, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside, up to 20.5 mg/g dry weight, and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, up to 35.7 mg/g dry weight. Major polyphenolic constituents of RSL have been associated with health promotion as well as anti-diabetic and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Daily oral administration of RSL (100 or 300 mg/kg for up to eight days acutely reduced hyperglycemia and improved insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice compared to vehicle (water control. Data presented here support possible use of RSL as a functional food for the dietary management of diabetes.

  13. Development and Phytochemical Characterization of High Polyphenol Red Lettuce with Anti-Diabetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Kuhn, Peter; Krueger, Christian G.; Johnson, William D.; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) (Lactuca sativa L.) was developed through somaclonal variation and selection in tissue culture. RSL may contain among the highest reported contents of polyphenols and antioxidants in the category of common fruits and vegetables (95.6 mg/g dry weight and 8.7 mg/g fresh weight gallic acid equivalents and 2721 µmol/g dry weight and 223 µmol/g fresh weight Trolox equivalents). Three main compounds accumulate at particularly high levels in RSL: chlorogenic acid, up to 27.6 mg/g dry weight, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside, up to 20.5 mg/g dry weight, and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, up to 35.7 mg/g dry weight. Major polyphenolic constituents of RSL have been associated with health promotion as well as anti-diabetic and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Daily oral administration of RSL (100 or 300 mg/kg) for up to eight days acutely reduced hyperglycemia and improved insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice compared to vehicle (water) control. Data presented here support possible use of RSL as a functional food for the dietary management of diabetes. PMID:24637790

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis induces strigolactone biosynthesis under drought and improves drought tolerance in lettuce and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo; Zamarreño, Ángel María; Molina, Sonia; Andreo-Jiménez, Beatriz; Porcel, Rosa; García-Mina, José María; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alleviates drought stress in plants. However, the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as its effect on the production of signalling molecules associated with the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, the effects of drought on lettuce and tomato plant performance and hormone levels were investigated in non-AM and AM plants. Three different water regimes were applied, and their effects were analysed over time. AM plants showed an improved growth rate and efficiency of photosystem II than non-AM plants under drought from very early stages of plant colonization. The levels of the phytohormone abscisic acid, as well as the expression of the corresponding marker genes, were influenced by drought stress in non-AM and AM plants. The levels of strigolactones and the expression of corresponding marker genes were affected by both AM symbiosis and drought. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates drought stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. In addition, a correlation between AM root colonization, strigolactone levels and drought severity is shown, suggesting that under these unfavourable conditions, plants might increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with the stress. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  16. Mudanças nas características físico-químicas de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo distrófico após a irrigação com água de reúso na cultura da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L. Physical and chemical characteristics changes of a red-yellow latosol after implementation of water reuse in the culture of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. T. Varallo

    2012-04-01

    where were grown two rounds of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. with two treatments with three repetitions each: witness (provisioning water and reuse. The results did not show increases in some chemical attributes of fertility as iron, magnesium, zinc, boron, potassium, nitrate, sodium and calcium; decrease in organic matter and manganese, besides increase of hydraulic conductivity and the electrical conductivity of the soil. It was also observed a reduction of the soil pH, besides the increase of SAR and ESP. Thus it must be concluded the application of water reuse for agricultural purposes should be in a rational way, and the elevation of salts in the soil must be monitored.

  17. Postharvest transfer and survival of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis on living lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, J A; Kuhn, D D; Welbaum, G E; Ponder, M A

    2014-02-01

    The potential for postharvest transfer of Salmonella to 'living lettuce' is not well understood. In this study, the transfer of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (6 log CFU g(-1) ) from worker hands or contaminated roots to leaves of living lettuce was quantified. Transfer rates of Salmonella from contaminated gloves to sequentially handled lettuce heads ranged from 94% to head 1, 82% to head 2 and 69% to head 3. On average, 2.9 ± 0.1 log CFU g(-1) (64%) Salmonella was transferred from inoculated roots to leaves resulting from typical postharvest handling activities for living lettuce. Salmonella persisted on leaves stored at recommended storage temperatures (4°C) and increased 0.5 log CFU g(-1) when stored at temperature abuse conditions (12°C). Salmonella increased 1.6 log CFU g(-1) on roots after 18-day storage at 12°C, emphasizing the need to maintain temperature control to reduce the risk of human illness. Hydroponically grown lettuce packaged in plastic clamshells with intact roots, marketed as 'living lettuce', is increasing in popularity due to its extended shelf life. This study demonstrates the transfer of Salmonella from contaminated worker hands and contaminated roots to leaves where it persisted at 4°C for 18 day. Temperature abuse (12°C) increased Salmonella on roots and leaves. These findings suggest that failure to maintain temperatures below 12°C can pose a risk for consumers purchasing living lettuce at markets where recommended storage temperatures are not maintained. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Phyllosphere Microbiota Composition and Microbial Community Transplantation on Lettuce Plants Grown Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aerial surfaces of plants, or phyllosphere, are microbial habitats important to plant and human health. In order to accurately investigate microbial interactions in the phyllosphere under laboratory conditions, the composition of the phyllosphere microbiota should be representative of the diversity of microorganisms residing on plants in nature. We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce. The bacterial diversity on laboratory-grown plants was also significantly lower and contained relatively higher proportions of Betaproteobacteria as opposed to the Gammaproteobacteria-enriched communities on field lettuce. Incubation of field-grown Romaine lettuce plants in environmental growth chambers for 2 weeks resulted in bacterial cell densities and taxa similar to those on plants in the field but with less diverse bacterial populations overall. In comparison, the inoculation of laboratory-grown Romaine lettuce plants with either freshly collected or cryopreserved microorganisms recovered from field lettuce resulted in the development of a field-like microbiota on the lettuce within 2 days of application. The survival of an inoculated strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was unchanged by microbial community transfer; however, the inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 onto those plants resulted in significant shifts in the abundance of certain taxa. This finding was strictly dependent on the presence of a field-associated as opposed to a laboratory-associated microbiota on the plants. Phyllosphere microbiota transplantation in the laboratory will be useful for elucidating microbial interactions on plants that are important to agriculture and microbial food safety. PMID:25118240

  19. A PCR procedure for the detection of Giardia intestinalis cysts and Escherichia coli in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Martinez, M L; Olmos-Ortiz, L M; Barajas-Mendiola, M A; Giono Cerezo, S; Avila, E E; Cuellar-Mata, P

    2015-06-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a pathogen associated with foodborne outbreaks and Escherichia coli is commonly used as a marker of faecal contamination. Implementation of routine identification methods of G. intestinalis is difficult for the analysis of vegetables and the microbiological detection of E. coli requires several days. This study proposes a PCR-based assay for the detection of E. coli and G. intestinalis cysts using crude DNA isolated from artificially contaminated lettuce. The G. intestinalis and E. coli PCR assays targeted the β-giardin and uidA genes, respectively, and were 100% specific. Forty lettuces from local markets were analysed by both PCR and light microscopy and no cysts were detected, the calculated detection limit was 20 cysts per gram of lettuce; however, by PCR, E. coli was detected in eight of ten randomly selected samples of lettuce. These data highlight the need to validate procedures for routine quality assurance. These PCR-based assays can be employed as alternative methods for the detection of G. intestinalis and E. coli and have the potential to allow for the automation and simultaneous detection of protozoa and bacterial pathogens in multiple samples. Significance and impact of the study: There are few studies for Giardia intestinalis detection in food because methods for its identification are difficult for routine implementation. Here, we developed a PCR-based method as an alternative to the direct observation of cysts in lettuce by light microscopy. Additionally, Escherichia coli was detected by PCR and the sanitary quality of lettuce was evaluated using molecular and standard microbiological methods. Using PCR, the detection probability of Giardia cysts inoculated onto samples of lettuce was improved compared to light microscopy, with the advantage of easy automation. These methods may be employed to perform timely and affordable detection of foodborne pathogens. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Photoprotection vs. Photoinhibition of Photosystem II in Transplastomic Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Dominantly Accumulating Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Yamano, Nami; Hashimoto, Hideki; Misawa, Norihiko; Ifuku, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    Transplastomic (chloroplast genome-modified; CGM) lettuce that dominantly accumulates astaxanthin grows similarly to a non-transgenic control with almost no accumulation of naturally occurring photosynthetic carotenoids. In this study, we evaluated the activity and assembly of PSII in CGM lettuce. The maximum quantum yield of PSII in CGM lettuce was <0.6; however, the quantum yield of PSII was comparable with that in control leaves under higher light intensity. CGM lettuce showed a lower ability to induce non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than the control under various light intensities. The fraction of slowly recovering NPQ in CGM lettuce, which is considered to be photoinhibitory quenching (qI), was less than half that of the control. In fact, 1 O 2 generation was lower in CGM than in control leaves under high light intensity. CGM lettuce contained less PSII, accumulated mostly as a monomer in thylakoid membranes. The PSII monomers purified from the CGM thylakoids bound echinenone and canthaxanthin in addition to β-carotene, suggesting that a shortage of β-carotene and/or the binding of carbonyl carotenoids would interfere with the photophysical function as well as normal assembly of PSII. In contrast, high accumulation of astaxanthin and other carbonyl carotenoids was found within the thylakoid membranes. This finding would be associated with the suppression of photo-oxidative stress in the thylakoid membranes. Our observation suggests the importance of a specific balance between photoprotection and photoinhibition that can support normal photosynthesis in CGM lettuce producing astaxanthin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.