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Sample records for hyacinth eicchornia crassipes

  1. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F. R.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Módenes, A. N.; Palácio, S. M.; Silva, E. A.; Rossi, F. L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N.

    2009-04-01

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr 6+ mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  2. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: f.espinoza@terra.com.br; Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Modenes, A.N.; Palacio, S.M.; Silva, E.A.; Rossi, F.L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr{sup 6+} mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  3. Potential Of Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) In Treating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a means for water pollution abatement was investigated. Two types of industrial wastewaters, namely that from the textile/dyeing industry and raw sugar manufacturing were studied in batch systems.

  4. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition and nutritive value of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes available in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Eichhornia crassipes samples were collected from three different remote places of the study area. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extracts (NFE, ether extracts (EE and total ash (TA in the animal nutrition and poultry research and training centre (PRTC laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was estimated mathematically for all samples by using standard formula. Results indicated that, there were no significant variations (P>0.05 in the DM, CP, CF, NFE, EE and TA contents of the samples collected from different places. DM content varied from 8.7 to 9.3 g/100g, CP content varied from 10.1 to 11.2 g/100g, CF content varied from 26.1 to 27.4 g/100g, EE content varied from 1.1 to 1.8 g/100g, NFE content varied from 47.2 to 50.2 g/100g and TA content varied from 12.3 to 12.4 g/100g. Similarly, metabolizable energy (ME content also varied from 1999.7 to 2054.1 Kcal/kg DM. It could therefore be inferred that, the nutrient contents of Eichhornia crassipes does not vary due to variation in geographical location. Nutritionally, Eichhornia crassipes seems sound enough to be utilized as feed for livestock especially during scarcity period.

  5. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured we

  6. Nitrogen phytoremediation by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.; Struik, P.C.; Appleton, B.L.; Rule, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined in two independent studies under nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 40, 80, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ppm. A modified Hoagland solution was added to ponds containing water hyacinths which were rated and measured

  7. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON-POLLUTED MANGROVE SWAMPS USING NUTRIENT FORMULA PRODUCED FROM WATER HYACINT (EICCHORNIA CRASSIPES

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    Frank Anayo Orji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale studies were carried out using a nutrient formula produced from Eicchornia crassipes plant to achieve bioremediation of crude oil impacted mangrove soil. In a 70 day study, the culturable heterotrophic bacterial population of the Eichhornia crassipes recipe increased from 6.26×105 Cfu/g to 2.69×107 Cfu/g. The control set-up had its total culturable bacterial count increased from 5.76×105 Cfu/g to 1.24×106 Cfu/g. Statistical analyses showed significant difference for the two conditions (p ≥ 0.05. The total culturable heterotrophic fungal count in the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treatment increased from 5.36×105 Cfu/g to 2.50×107 Cfu/g respectively. The total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacteria in Eichhornia crassipes treated polluted mangrove soil increased from 2.52×104 Cfu/g to 3.81×107 Cfu/g. Statistical analyses showed significant difference at p ≥ 0.05 level for the two conditions (Eicchornia crassipes nutrient treated soil and control. The total culturable hydrocarbon utilising fungal counts increased significantly for both the control and Eichhornia crassipes treatment. There was no regular trend in pH changes in all the conditions. The conductivity value of the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treated soil decreased progressively. Phosphate, nitrate, %total organic carbon, Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that in the Eichhornia crassipes recipe treated polluted mangrove soil, 0, 58.92 and 75.36% were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0, 7.14 and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively. There was no significant difference between the control experiment and Eichhornia crassipes (p = 0.054. The use of organic nutrient sources such Eichhornia crassipes recipe/nutrient powder is of good use as source of limiting nutrient needed for

  8. Allelopathic effects of water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes].

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    Sanaa M M Shanab

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms is an invasive weed known to out-compete native plants and negatively affect microbes including phytoplankton. The spread and population density of E. crassipes will be favored by global warming. The aim here was to identify compounds that underlie the effects on microbes. The entire plant of E. crassipes was collected from El Zomor canal, River Nile (Egypt, washed clean, then air dried. Plant tissue was extracted three times with methanol and fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. The crude methanolic extract and five fractions from TLC (A-E were tested for antimicrobial (bacteria and fungal and anti-algal activities (green microalgae and cyanobacteria using paper disc diffusion bioassay. The crude extract as well as all five TLC fractions exhibited antibacterial activities against both the gram positive bacteria; Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus faecalis; and the gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by either E. crassipes crude extract nor its five fractions. In contrast, Candida albicans (yeast was inhibited by all. Some antialgal activity of the crude extract and its fractions was manifest against the green microalgae; Chlorella vulgaris and Dictyochloropsis splendida as well as the cyanobacteria; Spirulina platensis and Nostoc piscinale. High antialgal activity was only recorded against Chlorella vulgaris. Identifications of the active antimicrobial and antialgal compounds of the crude extract as well as the five TLC fractions were carried out using gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy. The analyses showed the presence of an alkaloid (fraction A and four phthalate derivatives (Fractions B-E that exhibited the antimicrobial and antialgal activities.

  9. Ecological effects of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on Lake Chapala, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Villamagna, Amy Marie

    2009-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a floating non-native plant that has been reoccurring in Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico for more than 100 years. In this research, I explore the effects of water hyacinth on freshwater ecosystems worldwide and specifically on Lake Chapala. In chapter 1, I reviewed studies conducted on water hyacinth worldwide and found that the effects of water hyacinth on water quality are similar but the magnitude of effects is dependent on the percent cover and p...

  10. Cytogenetic effects of cadmium accumulation on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, I.; Carbajal, M.E.; Gomez-Arroyo, S.; Belmont, R.; Villalobos-Pietrini, R.

    1984-04-01

    Cadmium was bioassayed to observe cytogenetic effects in the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Plants were exposed for 96 hr to freshwater containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 1, 5, and 10 mg/liter of cadmium. Metal concentrations in tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The highest level was found in roots, thus root-tip cells were used for cytogenetic studies; after 24 hr of exposure, micronuclei, c-mitotic effects, and pycnosis were detected and after 48 hr polyploidy was observed. A linear relationship between frequencies of micronuclei and cadmium concentrations was found; at 1, 5, and 10 mg/liter micronuclei numbers were always the lowest. The inhibition of cell proliferation, shown by the low mitotic index, was proportional to the concentration and time of exposure. From the results presented in this paper it may be concluded that water hyacinth is a good sensor, due to its fast rate of metal accumulation, which allows an easy way to determine the presence of potential mutagenic compounds in water. 63 references.

  11. Bench-Scale Investigation Of Mercury Phytoremediation By Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) In Heavily Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associat...

  12. Phytoremediation Of Mercury And Methylmercury Contaminated Sediments By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated f...

  13. Phytoremediation of Mercury- and Methyl Mercury-Contaminated Sediments by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms...

  14. Phytoremediation Of Mercury And Methylmercury Contaminated Sediments By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated f...

  15. Bench-Scale Investigation Of Mercury Phytoremediation By Water Hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) In Heavily Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associat...

  16. Phytoremediation of Mercury- and Methyl Mercury-Contaminated Sediments by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms...

  17. Invasion and control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Jian-jun; DING Yi; ZHUANG Qi-jia

    2006-01-01

    By the time of primary 21st century, water hyacinth had become a serious environmental problem in China. Water hyacinth contributes to the major part of ecological hazards from the invasion of foreign plant species, which is estimated about USD 7 billion a year in values.In the past 10 years, herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D and paraquat have been used in controlling water hyacinth in China. Although the herbicides provided effective control on the weed in some areas, they could not provide the sustainable inhibition on the weed population, while would lead to pollution on water at various levels. At present, the herbicide application on water hyacinth is forbidden in many areas of China such as Shanghai. In this situation, the asexual reproduction inhibitor, KWH02, was invented for controlling water hyacinth and it provided about 70% of growth inhibition without any risk of dead plant pollution.It has been about 10 years for bio-control of water hyacinth in China. Works focused on mainly the efficacy and safety of the utilization of foreign insects. Researches on microorganism herbicides to control water hyacinth were started and obtained primary achievements in recent years.Although there are different opinions on how to face the water hyacinth problem in China, it is accepted widely that the control methods should be high efficient and safe with low cost. Some practical measures for integrated management of water hyacinth are suggested.

  18. Invasion and control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jian-jun; Ding, Yi; Zhuang, Qi-jia

    2006-08-01

    By the time of primary 21st century, water hyacinth had become a serious environmental problem in China. Water hyacinth contributes to the major part of ecological hazards from the invasion of foreign plant species, which is estimated about USD 7 billion a year in values. In the past 10 years, herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D and paraquat have been used in controlling water hyacinth in China. Although the herbicides provided effective control on the weed in some areas, they could not provide the sustainable inhibition on the weed population, while would lead to pollution of water at various levels. At present, the herbicide application on water hyacinth is forbidden in many areas of China such as Shanghai. In this situation, the asexual reproduction inhibitor, KWH02, was invented for controlling water hyacinth and it provided about 70% of growth inhibition without any risk of dead plant pollution. It has been about 10 years for bio-control of water hyacinth in China. Works focused on mainly the efficacy and safety of the utilization of foreign insects. Researches on microorganism herbicides to control water hyacinth were started and obtained primary achievements in recent years. Although there are different opinion on how to face the water hyacinth problem in China, it is accepted widely that the control methods should be high efficient and safe with low cost. Some practical measures for integrated management of water hyacinth are suggested.

  19. Uptake of Cadmium and Zinc from Synthetic Effluent by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes

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    Hafidzatul Husna Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study was conducted on aquatic plant; water hyacinth (Eichchornia crassipes which has been successfully utilized for the removal of cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn from aqueous solutions. The overall metal uptake by the plant was dependent upon the concentration of the metal and the duration of exposure. In general, the metal content in plants increased with the increase in metal concentrations in solution and the metal accumulation in roots was always significantly higher than that in shoots for both metals in water hyacinth. Water hyacinth treated with 4 mg/L of cadmium accumulated the highest concentration metal in shoots (148 μg/g and roots (2006 μg/g and water hyacinth treated with solution containing 40 mg/L zinc accumulated the highest zinc concentration in shoots (1899 μg/g and roots (9646 μg/g.

  20. Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth. The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures. Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells.The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants.

  1. Influence of lead-doped hydroponic medium on the adsorption/bioaccumulation processes of lead and phosphorus in roots and leaves of the aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes

    2013-11-30

    In this study, lead bioaccumulation by the living free-floating aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes in different hydroponic conditions with variations in phosphorus and lead concentrations was investigated. A set of growth experiments in hydroponic media doped with lead and phosphorus within a wide concentration range was performed for 32 days in a greenhouse. All experiments were carried out with periodic replacement of all nutrients and lead. The concentration of lead and nutrients in biomass was determined by synchrotron radiation-excited total reflection X-ray fluorescence. By increasing the lead concentration in the medium, a reduction in biomass growth was observed, but a higher phosphorus retention in roots and leaves was shown at lower lead concentrations. In addition, an increase in the amount of bioaccumulated lead and phosphorus in roots was observed for higher lead and phosphorus concentrations in the medium, reaching saturation values of 4 mg Pb g(-1) and 7 mg P g(-1), respectively. Four non-structural kinetic models were tested, to represent the bioaccumulation of lead and phosphorus in roots. Pseudo-second order and irreversible kinetic models described the lead bioaccumulation data well, however, an irreversible kinetic model better fitted phosphorus uptake in roots.

  2. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    OpenAIRE

    E.A Omondi; P.K Ndiba and P.G Njuru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water sam...

  3. Modeling phytoremediation of nitrogen-polluted water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Aloyce W.; Hanai, Emmanuel E.

    2017-08-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has a great potential for purification of wastewater through physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. In an attempt to improve the quality of effluents discharged from waste stabilization ponds at the University of Dar es Salaam, a pilot plant was constructed to experiment the effectiveness of this plants for transformation and removal of nitrogen. Samples of wastewater were collected and examined for water quality parameters, including pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and various forms of nitrogen, which were used as input parameters in a kinetic mathematical model. A conceptual model was then developed to model various processes in the system using STELLA 6.0.1 software. The results show that total nitrogen was removed by 63.9%. Denitrification contributed 73.8% of the removed nitrogen. Other dominant nitrogen removal mechanisms are net sedimentation and uptake by water hyacinth, which contributed 16.7% and 9.5% of the removed nitrogen, respectively. The model indicated that in presence of water hyacinth biofilm about 1.26 g Nm-2day-1 of nitrogen was removed. However, in the absence of biofilm in water hyacinth pond, the permanent nitrogen removal was only 0.89 g Nm-2day-1. This suggests that in absence of water hyacinth, the efficiency of nitrogen removal would decrease by 29.4%.

  4. Studies on biomethanation of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) using biocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Santanu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Banerjee, Saikat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Salalah College of Technology, Salalah (Oman)

    2013-07-01

    Water hyacinth is a huge source of biomass in tropical countries. That can be used for biogas production. The aim of this conversion process is to improve the quality, specific energy content, transportability, etc. of the raw biomass source or to capture gases which are naturally produced as biomass is micro biologically degraded. An experimental study on catalytic biomethanation of Water Hyacinth has been carried out in a semi batch digester at different substrate concentration using cow urine as an organic catalyst under controlled pH with in the range of 6.9 to 7.2. The rate of bio gas production varies with different conditions and parameters like temperature, stirring speed, feed concentration, catalyst concentration, etc. It has been found that the catalyst mainly increases the production rate of biogas from water hyacinth. Mathematical analysis of the experimental data on catalytic biomethanation has been done in the present study. Mathematical equations relating maximum specific growth rate and kinetic parameter at different substrate and catalyst concentration have been developed.

  5. Optimized drying parameters of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the optimum drying conditions of water hyacinth to contribute in the improvement of present drying processes. The effects of independent parameters (drying temperature, airflow rate, and number of passes on the responses were determined using the Response Surface Methodology. The response parameters were composed of (1 final moisture content, (2 moisture ratio, (3 drying rate,(4 tensile strength, and (5 browning index. Box and Behnken experimental design represented the design of experiments that resulted in 15 drying runs. Statistical analysis evaluated the treatment effects. Drying temperature significantly affected the drying rate, moisture ratio, and browning index. Airflow rate had a significant effect only on the drying rate, while the number of passes significantly affected both the drying rate and browning index. The optimized conditions for drying the water hyacinth were at drying temperature of 90C, airflow rate of 0.044m3/s, and number of passes equivalent to five. The best modelthat characterizes the drying of water hyacinth is a rational function expressed as:

  6. Studies on biomethanation of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes using biocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Sarkar, Saikat Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth is a huge source of biomass in tropical countries. That can be used for biogas production. The aim of this conversion process is to improve the quality, specific energy content, transportability, etc. of the raw biomass source or to capture gases which are naturally produced as biomass is micro biologically degraded. An experimental study on catalytic biomethanation of Water Hyacinth has been carried out in a semi batch digester at different substrate concentration using cow urine as an organic catalyst under controlled pH with in the range of 6.9 to 7.2. The rate of bio gas production varies with different conditions and parameters like temperature, stirring speed, feed concentration, catalyst concentration, etc. It has been found that the catalyst mainly increases the production rate of biogas from water hyacinth. Mathematical analysis of the experimental data on catalytic biomethanation has been done in the present study. Mathematical equations relating maximum specific growth rate and kinetic parameter at different substrate and catalyst concentration have been developed.

  7. Free-living amoebae isolated from water-hyacinth root (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Elizabeth; Robles, Esperanza; Martinez, Blanca

    2010-09-01

    Free-living amoebae are widely distributed in aquatic environments and their hygienic, medical and ecological relationships to man are increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to isolate free-living amoebae from water-hyacinth root (Eichhornia crassipes) and the water of an urban lake in Mexico City. Five grams of wet root were seeded on non-nutritive agar with Enterobacter aerogenes (NNE). Water samples were concentrated by centrifugation at 1200g for 15min and the pellet was seeded on NNE. Of the 16 isolated genera, 10 were detected in both habitats. The most frequent were Vannella in root and Acanthamoeba and Naegleria in water. The total number of isolates and genera isolated from root was higher than that isolated from water. The differences between root and water are probably due to the morphological characteristics of water-hyacinth root, which provides a large habitat and refuge area for many organisms.

  8. Development of toxicity tolerant water hyacinth `(Eichhornea crassipes)` for effective treatment of raw sewage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayade, B.B. [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology

    1998-06-01

    Pioneering research efforts in the handling of municipal sewage in developing countries have involved the use of water hyacinth (Eichhornea crassipes) to purify sewage for possible re-use of the effluent water for domestic purposes. The ability of water hyacinth to remove pollution from raw sewage has been found to be impaired by sewage toxicity. Trials were therefore carried out to adapt water hyacinth to toxicity and thereby increase its ability to remove pollutants from raw sewage. The plants were adapted using an active bio-degrader consisting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaenae, Klebsiella edwardsiella and Baccillus subtilis. The adaption progressed through 20, 40, 60 and 80% sewage dilution until plants capable of growth in 100% raw sewage were obtained. Plants were observed for morphological growth and at four weeks, samples wer collected for tissue analysis. The plants progressively absorbed nutrients from sewage up to the fourth week, when signs of toxicity were observed through wilting, loss of turgidity and reduction in leaf number. However, plants that survived through a series of adaptations under various sewage dilutions exhibited luxuriant growth on raw sewage. In synergy with the active bio-degrader, the efficiency of the adapted water hyacinth to remove pollutants (nutrients) from raw sewage was enhanced by 93%. (orig.)

  9. The feeding activity of Colossoma macropomum larvae (tambaqui in fishponds with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes fertilizer

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    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available Analysis of macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes as an organic fertilizer of Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui larvae in ponds is provided. Water hyacinth produce an organic fertilizer at the ratio of 100 g.m-2 in tambaqui ponds. Two groups of 5,000 larvae were transferred to two fishponds with and without water hyacinth fertilizer and reared until day 43. The fertilized pond evidenced more plankton abundance during the entire production period when compared with the control pond (P 0.05 in both ponds (with and without organic fertilizer. Fish larvae failed to show any preference or selectivity in relation to the different algae (P > 0.01 in the pond, but exhibited high ingestion selectivity for zooplankton (P < 0.05. Application of fertilizer increased (P < 0.05 the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the treatment pond. Since water hyacinth fertilizer is quite cheap and easily available, it may be conveniently used to enhance fish yield in ponds.

  10. Phytoremediation of wastewater toxicity using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Kouamé Kouamé; Séka, Yapoga; Norbert, Kouadio Kouakou; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Celestin, Atsé Boua

    2016-10-02

    This paper elucidates the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth and water lettuce on the reduction of wastewater toxicity. Acute toxicity tests were performed in an aquarium with a population of Sarotherodon melanotheron, contaminated by different concentrations of wastewaters before and after phytoremediation with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes. Lethal concentrations (LC50) of the fish's population obtained during 24 hours of exposures were determined. COD, BOD, ammonium, TKN and PO4(3-) concentrations in wastewaters were of 1850.29, 973.33, 38.34, 61.49 and 39.23 mg L(-1), respectively, for each plant. Phytoremediation reduced 58.87% of ammonium content, 50.04% of PO4(3-), 82.45% of COD and 84.91% of BOD. After 15 days of the experiment, metal contents in treated wastewaters decreased from 6.65 to 97.56% for water hyacinth and 3.51 to 93.51% for water lettuce tanks. Toxicity tests showed that the mortality of fish exposed increased with increase in concentration of pollutants in wastewaters and the time of exposure. Therefore, the highest value of LC50 was recorded for fish subjected to 3 hours of exposure (16.37%). The lowest rate was obtained after an exposure of 20 to 24 hours (5.85%). After phytoremediation, the effluents purified by Eichhornia crassipes can maintain the fish life beyond 24 hours of exposure.

  11. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Omondi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water samples with PCB to obtain concentrations of 5 10 and 15 amp956gL which were in one to two orders of magnitude above the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA limit of 0.5 amp956gL or 0.5 ppb. Water hyacinth plants were grown in 2 L samples of the PCB spiked water for 15 days and evaluated for tolerance and bioaccumulation of PCB. Phytoremediation of PCB spiked water by the plants was evaluated by measuring the change in concentration of PCB. The plants tolerated PCB concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 amp956gL without depicting any serious adverse effect except for change in root color and an initial wilting of peripheral leaves. Water hyacinth reduced the concentration of PCBs in the leachate over 15 days from 15 to 0.42 amp956gL for the 15 amp956gL initial concentration sample and to below the GCMS detection limit of 0.142 amp956gL for the 10 and 5 ugL initial concentration samples. Bioaccumulation of PCB in the plant tissue was evaluated through solid phase extraction and testing of samples for PCB with GCMS. Bioaccumulation of PCBs at a concentration of 0.179 amp956gg was observed in the water hyacinth roots for the 15 amp956gL sample but none was detected for the lower initial PCB concentration and shoots. The study demonstrated potential of water hyacinth plants in phytoremediation of PCBs in e-waste leachate.

  12. BIOSORPTION AND RECOVERY OF HEAVY METALS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (WATER HYACINTH ASH

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    Tariq Mahmood

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal’s release without treatment poses a significant threat to the environment. Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and persistent. In the present study the ash of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, was used to remove six metals from aqueous solutions through biosorption. Results of batch and column experiments showed excellent adsorption capacity. Removal of lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel was 29.83, 1.263, 1.575, 3.323, 2.984 and 1.978 µgg-1, respectively. The biosorptive capacity was maximum with pH >8.00. Desorption in µgg-1 of ash for lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel was 18.10, 9.99, 11.99, 27.54, 21.09, and 3.71 respectively. Adsorption/desorption of these metals from ash showed the potential of this technology for recovery of metals for further usages. Hydrogen adsorption was also studied with a Sievert-type apparatus. Hydrogen adsorption experiments showed significant storage capacity of water hyacinth ash.

  13. Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jianbo; FU Zhihui; YIN Zhaozheng

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, intensive breeding of poultry and livestock of large scale has made the treatment of its waste and wastewater an urgent environmental issue. which motivated this study. A wetland of 688 m2 was constructed on an egg duck farm, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)was chosen as an aquatic plant for the wetland and used as food for duck production. The objectives of this study were to test the role of water hyacinth in purifying nutrient-rich wastewater and its effects on the ducks' feed intake, egg laying performance and egg quality. This paper shows that the constructed wetland removed as much as 64. 44%of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 21. 78%of total nitrogen(TN)and 23. 02%of total phosphorus(TP). Both dissolved oxygen(DO)and the transparency of the wastewater were remarkably improved, with its transparency 2. 5 times higher than that of the untreated wastewater. After the ducks were fed with water hyacinth, the average daily feed intake and the egg-laying ratio in the test group were 5. 86%and 9. 79%higher, respectively, than in the control group; the differences were both significant at the0. 01 probability level. The egg weight in the test group Was 2. 36%higher than in the control group(P<0. 05), but the feed conversion ratios Were almost the same. The eggshell thickness and strength Were among the egg qualities significantly increased in ducks fed with water hyacinth. We concluded that a water hyacinth system was effective for purifying wastewater from an intensive duck farm during the water hyacinth growing season, as harvested water hyacinth had an excellent performance as duck feed. We also discussed the limitations of the experiment.

  14. Removal of aluminium by constructed wetlands with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-02-01

    This article reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutritional conditions for Al rich wastewaters in batch type constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems). This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1 week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth (average height of 20 +/- 2 cm) in 590 L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 2-fold [56 and 15.4 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 1-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 5.62 Al mg/L. A control set-up of hyacinths comprising only Al with no nutrients was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to identify the different Al removal mechanisms from the wastewaters. Chemical precipitation of Al(OH)3 was a dominant contribution to Al removal at the beginning of the study, whereas adsorption of Al3+ to sediments was observed to be a predominant Al removal mechanism as the study progressed. Phytoremediation mainly due to rhizofiltration was also an important mechanism of Al removal especially during the first 4 weeks of the study in almost all the set-ups. However, chemical precipitation and sediment adsorption of Al3+ was a dominant contribution to Al removal in comparison with phytoremediation. Plants cultured in the control set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 63% during the period of the 4th week. A similar scenario was evident in the 1/8-fold set-up. Hence we conclude that water hyacinth grown under lower nutritional conditions are more ideal to commence a batch type constructed wetland treating Al rich wastewaters with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 4 weeks, after which a complete harvesting is recommended.

  15. Advances in management and utilization of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in aquatic ecosystems - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shao-Hua; Song, Wei; Guo, Jun-Yao

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a concise summary of literature in the Chinese language since late 1970s and focuses on recent development in global scenarios. This work will replenish the FAO summary of water hyacinth utilization from 1917 to 1979 and review ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the water hyacinth from 1980 to 2010. This review also discusses the debate on whether the growth of the water hyacinth is a problem, a challenge or an opportunity. Literature suggested that integrated technologies and good management may be an effective solution and the perception of water hyacinth could change from that of a notorious aquatic weed to a valuable resource, including its utilization as a biological agent for the application in bioremediation for removing excess nutrients from eutrophic water bodies at low cost. Key aspects on system integration and innovation may focus on low-cost and efficient equipment and the creation of value-added goods from water hyacinth biomass. In the socioeconomic and ecological domain of global development, all the successful and sustainable management inputs for the water hyacinth must generate some sort of social and economic benefit simultaneously, as well as benefiting the ecosystem. Potential challenges exist in linkages between the management of water hyacinth on the large scale to the sustainable development of agriculture based on recycling nutrients, bio-energy production or silage and feed production. Further research and development may focus on more detailed biology of water hyacinth related with its utilization, cost-benefit analysis of middle to large-scale application of the technologies and innovation of the equipment used for harvesting and dehydrating the plant.

  16. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Polluted Aquatic Ecosystem (Ologe Lagoon) By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) and the Socio-Egological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, C. C.; Chukwuka, K. S.; Ndimele, P. E.

    2016-02-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents containing harmful substances such as heavy metals has become a global problem because of the negative effects of these substances on humans. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been considered a menace since it entered Nigerian inland waters through neighbouring Republic of Benin in the 80's. Attempts to eradicate it has not been successful. Thus, the need to explore it useful potentials. It is used in paper production, feed formulation, phytoremediation etc. Phytoremediation is a bioremediation process that uses plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy pollutants in soil and water. The aim of the study was to investigate the phytoremediative potentials of water hyacinth resident in Ologe Lagoon as well as the socio-economic and ecological implications of their invasiveness. The study was conducted over a period of 18 months and 5 sampling stations were selected based on their proximity to the point of discharge of effluent, presence of water hyacinth and human activities. Water, sediment and water hyacinth samples were collected monthly from each sampling station and analysed for heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As). Questionnaire was also administered for socio-economic impact assessment. The results showed that water hyacinth can absorb heavy metals from water even when the concentration of the metal in water is low. It was also discovered that water hyacinth invasion of Ologe Lagoon has adversely affected fishing, navigation, aesthetic and cultural values of the Lagoon.

  17. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analysed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and phydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of varied number of phenolic acids. Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained......The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating...

  18. Remediation of chromium and copper on water hyacinth (E. crassipes shoot powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tannery effluent characterization and removal efficiency of Chromium (Cr and Copper (Cu on water hyacinth has been observed by filtration process. The effluent was contaminated by deep blue color, acidic pH, higher value of total dissolve solid (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and lower value of dissolve oxygen (DO. After filtration, the effluent shows that the permissible limit of investigated metals. Adsorbent capacity of water hyacinth shoot powder for Cr and Cu ion was found to be 99.98% and 99.96% for standard solution (SS and 98.83% and 99.59% for tannery effluent (TE, respectively.

  19. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating acti...

  20. Lead tolerance of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. - Pontederiaceae as defined by anatomical and physiological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRICIO J. PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at verifying the lead tolerance of water hyacinth and at looking at consequent anatomical and physiological modifications. Water hyacinth plants were grown on nutrient solutions with five different lead concentrations: 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 4.00 mg L–1 by 20 days. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the Ci/Ca rate were measured at the end of 15 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment, the anatomical modifications in the roots and leaves, and the activity of antioxidant system enzymes, were evaluated. Photosynthetic and Ci/Ca rates were both increased under all lead treatments. Leaf anatomy did not exhibit any evidence of toxicity effects, but showed modifications of the stomata and in the thickness of the palisade and spongy parenchyma in the presence of lead. Likewise, root anatomy did not exhibit any toxicity effects, but the xylem and phloem exhibited favorable modifications as well as increased apoplastic barriers. All antioxidant system enzymes exhibited increased activity in the leaves, and some modifications in roots, in the presence of lead. It is likely, therefore, that water hyacinth tolerance to lead is related to anatomical and physiological modifications such as increased photosynthesis and enhanced anatomical capacity for CO2 assimilation and water conductance.

  1. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  2. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) as indicators of heavy metal impact of a large landfill on the Almendares River near Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Rieumont, S; Lima, L; De la Rosa, D; Graham, D W; Columbie, I; Santana, J L; Sánchez, M J

    2007-12-01

    The Almendares River is central to recreational and other activities in Havana, Cuba. However, monitoring indicated significant heavy metal contamination in river sediments, especially below Calle 100, the largest landfill in Havana. This work extended previous sediment studies by determining complementary Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Zn levels in indigenous water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes; EC) above and below the landfill. Pb, Cu, and Zn were significantly elevated in EC roots below the landfill and also correlated with sediment data (p < 0.05), implying elevated levels likely result from landfill activity and might be useful biomonitors as river remediation proceeds.

  3. Evaluating the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor in detecting and mapping the spatial configuration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in inland lakes, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Bangamwabo, Victor; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    The remote sensing of freshwater resources is increasingly becoming important, due to increased patterns of water use and the current or projected impacts of climate change and the rapid invasion by lethal water weeds. This study therefore sought to explore the potential of the recently-launched Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS sensor in mapping invasive species in inland lakes. Specifically, the study compares the performance of the newly-launched Landsat 8 sensor, with more advanced sensor design and image acquisition approach to the traditional Landsat-7 ETM+ in detecting and mapping the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) invasive species across Lake Chivero, in Zimbabwe. The analysis of variance test was used to identify windows of spectral separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. The results showed that portions of the visible (B3), NIR (B4), as well as the shortwave bands (Band 8, 9 and 10) of both Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM, exhibited windows of separability between water hyacinth and other land cover types. It was also observed that on the use of Landsat 8 OLI produced high overall classification accuracy of 72%, when compared Landsat 7 ETM, which yielded lower accuracy of 57%. Water hyacinth had optimal accuracies (i.e. 92%), when compared to other land cover types, based on Landsat 8 OLI data. However, when using Landsat 7 ETM data, classification accuracies of water hyacinth were relatively lower (i.e. 67%), when compared to other land cover types (i.e. water with accuracy of 100%). Spectral curves of the old, intermediate and the young water hyacinth in Lake Chivero based on: (a) Landsat 8 OLI, and (b) Landsat 7 ETM were derived. Overall, the findings of this study underscores the relevance of the new generation multispectral sensors in providing primary data-source required for mapping the spatial distribution, and even configuration of water weeds at lower or no cost over time and space.

  4. THE STUDY OF CADMIUM UPTAKE BY WATER HYACINTH (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES USING A NATURAL MODELLING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara E. Romanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation on the accumulation of cadmium by water hyacinth, depending on the conditions of pollutant exposure and the presence of various additives are discussed. The main specialty of this study is that all the experiments were carried out in natural conditions using the approach based on the application of the capacities called minicosms. It allowed estimating hit consequences of pollutant on ecosystem most really having made experiment in the conditions as much as possible close to the natural. In this article a very important problem of an accuracy and reliability of the results of trace elements determination in plants is also debated. As a result of carried investigations it was shown that the degree of cadmium extraction by hyacinth from contaminated natural water while maintaining the viability of the plants depends on the way of pollutant introducing into the reservoir and the maximum (about 79% value is observed in the case of it’s gradual entry.

  5. Metal binding by humic acids isolated from water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae) in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, Elham A.; Davies, Geoffrey; Lam, Y.-Y.; Vozzella, Marcy E

    2004-10-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are animal and plant decay products that confer water retention, metal and organic solute binding functions and texture/workability in soils. HAs assist plant nutrition with minimal run-off pollution. Recent isolation of HAs from several live plants prompted us to investigate the HA content of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm-Laubach: Pontedericeae), a delicately flowered plant from Amazonian South America that has invaded temperate lakes, rivers and waterways with devastating economic effects. Hyacinth thrives in nutrient-rich and polluted waters. It has a high affinity for metals and is used for phytoremediation. In this work, HAs isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of live water hyacinth plants from the Nile Delta, Egypt were identified by chemical and spectral analysis and by comparison with authentic soil and plant derived HAs. Similar carbohydrate and amino acid distributions and tight metal binding capacities of the HAs and their respective plant components suggest that the presence of HAs in plants is related to their metal binding properties.

  6. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  7. The effect of microwave power and heating time pretreatment on biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Budiyono, Mardiani, Dini Tri

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of microwave pretreatment of fresh and dried water hyacinth on biogas production. The variations of microwave power levels are 240; 400; 560 and 800 W. The variations of microwave heating time are 5; 7 and 9 min. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth are used as control. The result of research showed that almost all pretreated water hyacinth produced biogas were higher compare tounpretreated water hyacinth. The maximum of biogas production from fresh and dried water hyacinthwere obtained at 560 W for 7 min and 400 W for 7 min of microwave pretreatment. In this condition, pretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth resulted biogas production of 75,12 and 53,06 mL/g TS, respectively. The unpretreated fresh and dried water hyacinth produced biogas of 37,56 and 33,56 mL/g TS, respectively. The microwave pretreatment of water hyacinth improved biogas production. Microwave pretreatment had a positive impact on anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth.

  8. Removal of nickel ion from electroplating wastewater using double chamber electrodeposition cell (DCEC) reactor partitioned with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaenudin; Widyarani; Hariyadi, H. R.; Wulan, D. R.; Cahyaningsih, S.

    2017-03-01

    Nickel is a heavy metal present in many types of industrial wastewater, and its contamination to the water bodies should be prevented. The objective of this research was to study the performance of Double Chamber Electrodeposition Cell (DCEC) for nickel ion removal. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) leaves were used to separate the two chambers. The experiment was performed with synthetic electroplating wastewater in a batch system for 72 h. Changes of pH, electric current, and nickel ion concentration in the catholyte were monitored. An experiment with Single Chamber Electrodeposition Cell (SCEC) was also performed as comparison. After 72 h operation of DCEC, nickel ion concentration in the catholyte decreased from 2200 g.m-3 to 0.4 g.m-3, equivalent to 99.98% removal. DCEC reactor performed better than the SCEC reactor that only achieved 59% removal. The results show that an almost-complete removal of nickel ion can be achieved with DCEC. Water hyacinth leaves can be used as low-cost alternatives for industrial membranes.

  9. Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms--Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l(-1), and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure

  10. Selection, efficacy, ecological characterization and formulation of fungal control agents against water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms] in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Dagno, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Rice and irrigated orchards are considered as the most important food and economical sources in Mali, which watered from Niger River. However, stable productions of rice and orchards products have been limited by many disease, insects, and weeds. Recently, water hyacinth infestation in river of Niger has increased drastically and as affected by the decrease of water flow due to clogging dams and irrigation work. Biological control of weeds is an alternative approach to chemical herbicide use,...

  11. Structural and ecophysiological alterations of the water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] due to anthropogenic stress in Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pierre Vitória

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural and ecophysiological alterations (chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments, and quantification of Cr, Pb and Zn in the leaf limb, petiole and younger and older roots of water hyacinth from the lower, medium and upper Paraíba do Sul river (PSR and Imbé river were evaluated. The plants from the medium and upper PSR (more industrialized and populated regions exhibited lower turgid cell in the root cortex, less root hairs and leaf epidermis, chloroplasts with plastoglobules and increased stroma volume. Higher concentrations of metals were observed in the younger and older roots from the medium PSR plants. The results suggested that the plants from more anthropized regions were able to maintain the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm which was a result from the metabolic fitting, increasing the non-photochemical quenching, reducing total chlorophyll/carotenoids and leading to the structural modifications.

  12. Invasive alien species water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes as abode for macroinvertebrates in hypertrophic Ramsar Site, Lake Xochimilco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Ramirez, A; Robles-Valderrama, E; Ramirez-Flores, E

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents information on the density, diversity and functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrate assemblages associated with water hyacinth in Antiguo Canal Cuemanco, part of Lake Xochimilco in Mexico City. Rare (low frequency and density) and dominant (high frequency and density) taxa prevailed in the assemblages, with the most predominant being Hyalella azteca, Chironomus plumosus and Ischnura denticollis. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling confirmed two climatic seasons: warm-rainy and cold-dry; the former with the highest diversity and density of taxa. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that conductivity, nitrates and turbidity explained the density variations of taxa. Antiguo Canal Cuemanco waters are spatially homogeneous with the characteristics of hypertrophic shallow lakes, inhabited by scrapers and gathering-collectors. The species found were tolerant to organic pollution.

  13. Application of hyperspectral techniques to multispectral data: spectral mixture analysis (SMA) in mapping of emergent macrophytes in a water-hyacinth-infested area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idawo, Cuthbert; Jajah, Munzer; Laneve, Giovanni

    2004-02-01

    Water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is an invasive aquatic macrophyte that has infested the lake Victoria, East Africa, since the late 1980s. It has been associated with major negative economic and ecological impact of this important water resource in East Africa. Remote sensing technology has significant potential in mapping this fast growing floating weed, in a mostly inaccessible area for field measurements. Our study site is the Winam Gulf, on the Kenyan part of the Lake, which has had the highest reported infestation in recent years. The paper describes a study to evaluate the ability of ETM+ multispectral imagery in mapping water hyacinth and associated macrophytes in the hyacinth infested Winam Gulf. By applying hyperspectral techniques on multispectral data, a spectral mixture analysis was undertaken using image-derived endmembers. The study was also an evaluation of an alternative way of acquiring emergent macrophytic endmembers in cases where limitations like lack of hyperspectral data, spectrometric measurements and spectral libraries exist. The results demonstrate that whereas it is possible to discriminate and map the different spectral constituents, a spectral library of the endmembers under investigation would be required for positive identification, especially for macrophytes that are closely related spectrally, fast growing, have varying concentrations (density) spatially, and are non-static in nature.

  14. Rhizofiltration of Heavy Metals (Cadmium, Lead and Zinc From Fly Ash Leachates Using Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes

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    Amit Kumar Yadav

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fly ashes are usually contaminated with toxic heavy metals. These metals are leaching out aftercontact with water during wet disposal system, thus polluting the soil, surface and groundwater. In the present study, a hydroponics experiment was conducted to examine the removalof heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn by Eichhornia crassipes grown at various concentration of fly ash ranging from 10, 20 and 40 percent over a period of 30 days.After 30 days, the plants were separately harvested, dried and weighedfor biomass of the roots and shoots. The uptake of each metalwas studied in the root and shoot separately, to determine the bioaccumulation of metals in Eichhornia crasspies.The translocation factor was calculated to study the efficiency of the plants forbioaccumulation of each metal in roots and shoot. The results showed that maximum uptake of metals Cd, Pb and Zn by plantwasfoundat the higher concentration (40% of fly ash.The metals uptake found was 99.16, 166.52 and 741.04 μg g-1 tissues in the roots, respectively and 33.46, 41.33 and 255.90 μgg-1 tissues in the shoots, respectively and successfullyremoved up to 78% of Cd, 82% of Pb and 70% of Zn.The maximum removal efficiency by plant for Cd, Pb and Zn at lower concentration (10% of fly ash was 84%, 86% and 75%, respectively.The heavy metals accumulated more in roots than in the shoots by Eichhornia crassipes. The maximum bioconcentration factor and translocation factor value of Eichhornia crappies for Cd, Pb and Zn were calculated as 705.55, 705.55 and 614.51 and 41.86, 47.18 and 34.53 respectively. The high removal efficiencies of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn was find without toxic effect by this aquatic macrophyte, thisplant can be recommended for the actual treatment of fly ash leachatesin ash pond to clean up the aquatic environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12187International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page : 179-196   

  15. Enhanced adsorption of methylene blue by citric acid modification of biochar derived from water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Yunguo; Liu, Shaobo; Tan, Xiaofei; Zeng, Guangming; Zeng, Wei; Ding, Yang; Cao, Weicheng; Zheng, Bohong

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a novel potential adsorbent, citric acid (CA)-modified biochar, named as CAWB, was obtained from water hyacinth biomass by slow pyrolysis in a N2 environment at 300 °C. The CA modification focused on enhancing the contaminants adsorption capacity of biochar pyrolyzed at relatively low temperature. Over 90 % of the total methylene blue (MB) could be removed at the first 60 min by CAWB, and the maximum MB adsorption capacity could reach to 395 mg g(-1). The physicochemical properties of CAWB was examined by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and BET analysis. The results indicated that the additional carboxyl groups were introduced to the surface of CAWB via the esterification reaction with CA, which played a significant role in the adsorption of MB. Batch adsorption studies showed that the initial MB concentration, solution pH, background ionic strength, and temperature could affect the removal efficiency obviously. The adsorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the MB adsorption onto CAWB was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The regeneration study revealed that CAWB still exhibited an excellent regeneration and adsorption performance after multiple cycle adsorptions. The adsorption experiments of actual dye wastewater by CAWB suggested that it had a great potential in environmental application.

  16. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Silage on Intake and Nutrient Digestibility in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Cottonseed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834

  17. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa: Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gichuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb. Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities.

  18. Does fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendment enhance phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted aquatic ecosystem in the presence of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Jenyo-Oni, Adetola; Chukwuka, Kanayo S; Ndimele, Chinatu Charity; Ayodele, Ibukunoluwa Augustine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of inorganic fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendments on crude oil uptake by water hyacinth. Experimental units (water hyacinth grown in fresh water) were spiked with 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L crude oil. After 24 h, they were randomly assigned fertilizer (N15P15K15) at three different concentrations; 0, 6 and 10 mg/L. Crude oil degradation and absorption were determined by measuring total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the water column and water hyacinth, respectively. The measurements were taken monthly for six months (February-August 2010). The results showed that TPH concentration in the water column in the treatment amended at 6 mg/L (0.30 ± 0.01 mg/L) was significantly lower (p phytoremediation) absorbed significantly higher (p phytoremediation of crude oil by water hyacinth and biostimulation with fertilizer (N15P15K15) is possible.

  19. Biomass production of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth and Egeria densa (egeria in organic fish farm effluent treatment system / Produção de biomassa das macrófitas aquáticas Eichhornia crassipes (aguapé e Egeria densa (egeria em sistema de tratamento de efluente de piscicultura orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Coldebella

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the production of biomass of the aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and egeria (Egeria densa in three hydraulic detention times in a organic pisciculture effluent treatment system. The system was composed for 18 experimental tanks of 2.00 x 1.00 x 0.65m length, width and depth respectively, coated with polypropylene canvas. An entirely randomized 2 macrophytes x 3 hydraulic detention times (HDT and 3 repetitions. The HDT used was 4, 8, and 12 hours. The biomass production was evaluated at the end of the experiment which was extended at 08/07 to 19/08/2006. The water hyacinth showed the best results of biomass production (P0.05. For egeria the treatment that presented the best production of biomass was reached which TDH of 12 hours, being of 0.10 kg.m-2, followed for the HDT of 8 and 4 hours, not differing between the HDT (P>0.05. One concludes that the water hyacinth produced higher biomass than egeria in all of the HDT evaluated.O presente trabalho teve por o objetivo avaliar a produção de biomassa das macrófitas aquáticas aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes e egeria (Egeria densa em um sistema de tratamento de efluente de piscicultura orgânica, sob 3 condições de tempo de detenção hidráulica. O sistema foi composto por 18 tanques experimentais de 2,00 x 1,00 x 0,65 m de comprimento, largura e profundidade, respectivamente, revestidos com lona de polipropileno. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 2 macrófitas, 3 tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH e 3 repetições. Os TDH utilizados foram de 4, 8 e 12 horas. O sistema foi operado de 08/07 a 19/08/2006. A produção de biomassa foi avaliada ao final do experimento. O aguapé apresentou os melhores resultados de produção de biomassa (P0,05. Para a egeria o tratamento que apresentou a melhor produção de biomassa foi no TDH de 12 horas, sendo de 0,10 kg.m- 2, seguido pelos TDH de 8 e 4 horas, não diferindo

  20. Uso de biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes visando à remoção de metais pesados de soluções contaminadas = Use of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes dry biomass for removing heavy metals from contaminated solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a eficiência da biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes na remoção dos metais pesados cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb, cromo (Cr, cobre (Cu, zinco (Zn e níquel (Ni de soluções preparadas com estes metais. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (soluções com diferentes concentrações dos metais pesados e quatro repetições. A biomassa seca permaneceu nas soluções dos tratamentos por um período de 48h, e nos intervalos de 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 e 48h após a instalação do experimento, coletaram-se alíquotas de cada tratamento,determinando-se a maior remoção de cada metal pesado pela biomassa seca do aguapé. Foi realizada digestão nitroperclórica na biomassa seca e determinação dos teores dos metais na biomassa e nas alíquotas por espectrometria de absorção atômica, modalidade chama. Paraos metais Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu e Zn ocorreu remoção significativa pela massa seca do aguapé nos diferentes tratamentos, enquanto para o Ni não foi encontrada diferença significativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a biomassa seca produzida, a partir do aguapé Eichornia crassipes, é um excelente material para a remoção, tanto em pequena como em grande escala, de corpos hídricos contaminados com metais pesados.The present work evaluated the efficiency of the dry biomass of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes in the removal of heavy metalscadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, cupper (Cu, zinc (Zn and nickel (Ni from solutions prepared with these metals. The delineation used was entirely randomized, with five treatments (solutions with different concentrations of heavy metals and fourrepetitions. The dry biomass remained in the treatment solutions for a period of 48h. In the intervals of 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 and 48h after experiment installation, samples were collected of each treatment, determining the greater removal for each heavy metal by water hyacinth dry biomass. Nitro

  1. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  2. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOPALAKRISHNAN Ayyaru; RAJKUMAR Mayalagu; SUN Jun; PARIDA Ajay; VENMATHI MARAN Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (dayto 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  3. Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, K.B.; Mehra, A.; Farago, M.E.; Banerjee, D.K. [University of Derby, Derby (United Kingdom). School of Environmental and Applied Science

    2000-12-01

    The main solid waste product from coal-fired power stations is pulverised fuel ash (PFA). This study investigates the uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the aquatic plant E-crassipes grown in leachates and slurries prepared from two different PFA samples. PFA samples were obtained from Indraprastha Power Station (IPP stn.) in New Delhi, India and the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station in the UK. Results show that E. crassipes has a high accumulation capacity for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from leachates and slurries generated from two different PFAs and uptake of these metals is stronger in the roots than in the tops of the plant. As the metal concentrations in the growth medium increase in the 1:5 PFA:DIW ratio as compared to the 1:50 ratio, metal accumulation (as indicated by accumulation factor (AF) values) from both leachates and slurries is higher for plants grown in the 1:50 (PFA:DIW) ratios than in the 1:5 ratios. Lower metal accumulation in the plants grown in slurries than in leachates is related to the high turbidity of growth medium in slurries resulting in ash particles adhering to the root surfaces thus reducing the surface area of metal absorption. In terms of neutralisation capacity of the pH of the growth medium, Eichhornia is seen to be able to reduce the pH of all leachates. Accumulation of Cd and Zn by the plant is higher from the lower pH IPP leachates than the Ratcliffe leachates, indicating that these metals are more soluble and bioavailable in the acidic medium. Accumulation of Cu and Ni is independent of the pH of the leachates; indicating that there may be other contributory factors. 78 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Composition of Periphyton Community on Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes: In Analysis of Environmental Characteristics at Ejirin Part of Epe Lagoon in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Inyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of periphyton community on water hyacinth was investigated at Ejirin, part of Epe Lagoon, in relation to environmental characteristics from December 2012 to May 2013. A total of 14,536 individuals of 104 species belonging to five divisions were identified, with Bacillariophyta (82.69%, Cyanobacteria (10.43%, Chlorophyta (5.63%, and Euglenophyta (1.15%. The total species abundance observed showed a strong correlation with rainfall (r = 0.745 and strongly significant correlation with TDS (r=0.836*; P >0.05. Biochemical oxygen demand value remained (BOD ≤ 4.8 mg/L while Shannon-Wiener index value remained (Hs ≤ 1.47. The presence of the following organisms could be used as an indicator of environmentally stressed aquatic ecosystem: euglenoids, blue green algae, Nitzschia palea, Surirella sp., Pinnularia sp., Gomphonema parvulum, Mougeotia sp., Spirogyra sp., Trachelomonas affinis (Lemm., and T. ensifera Daday; T. gibberosa Playf. and Phormidium articulatum; Lyngbya intermedia; Cymbella ventricosa; Eunotia arcus; Surirella linearis and Closterium parvulum Nag.

  5. Effects of dietary administration of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) extracts on the immune responses and disease resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Tan, Hui-Ching; Cheng, Winton

    2013-07-01

    The hot-water extract of Eichhornia crassipes leaves (ECE) was produced and incorporated into the diet of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, as an immunostimulant. Survival rates of prawn against Lactococcus garvieae, and its immune parameters including the total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph coagulation time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae by M. rosenbergii were determined when prawn (23.0 ± 2.8 g) were fed ECE-containing diets at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1). Prawn fed a diet containing ECE at 2.0 and 3.0 g kg(-1) for 12 days showed significantly increased THC, HC, GC, PO activity, RBs, SOD activity, GPx activity, and TG activity, and a significantly decreased coagulation time. The phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against L. garvieae of prawn fed the ECE-containing diets at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those of prawn fed the control diet at 3-12 days. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii fed the diet containing ECE at concentrations of 2 and 3 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after challenge with L. garvieae for 48-144 h. The relative percentage survival of prawn fed the 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g kg(-1) ECE-containing diets for 12 days were 17.5%, 39.1%, and 52.2%. It was concluded that the ECE can be used as an immunostimulant for prawn through dietary administration to enhance immune responses and resistance of M. rosenbergii against L. garvieae.

  6. Recovering biomethane and nutrients from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Shek, M A; Cadavid-Rodríguez, L S; Bolaños, I V; Agudelo-Henao, A C

    2016-01-01

    The potential to recover bioenergy from anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (WH) and from its co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was investigated. Initially, biogas and methane production were studied using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test at 2 g volatile solids (VS) L(-1) of substrate concentration, both in the digestion of WH alone and in its co-digestion with FVW (WH-FVW ratio of 70:30). Subsequently, the biogas production was optimized in terms of total solids (TS) concentration, testing 4 and 6% of TS. The BMP test showed a biogas yield of 0.114 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded for WH alone. On the other hand, the biogas potential from the WH-FVW co-digestion was 0.141 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded, showing an increase of 23% compared to that of WH alone. Maximum biogas production of 0.230 m(3) biogas kg(-1) VSadded was obtained at 4% of TS in the co-digestion of WH-FVW. Using semi-continuously stirred tank reactors, 1.3 m(3) biogas yield kg(-1) VSadded was produced using an organic loading rate of 2 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. It was also found that a WH-FVW ratio of 80:20 improved the process in terms of pH stability. Additionally, it was found that nitrogen can be recovered in the liquid effluent with a potential for use as a liquid fertilizer.

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CINÉTICA DE LA ACUMULACIÓN DE CROMO EN EL BUCHÓN DE AGUA (Eichhornia crassipes AVALIAÇÃO DA CINÉTICA DE ACUMULAÇÃO DE CROMO EM JACINTO DE AGUA (Eichhornia crassipes EVALUATION OF THE KINETICS OF ACCUMULATION OF CHROMIUM IN WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO BENÍTEZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes es una planta de rápido crecimiento distribuida en casi todos los países tropicales, que puede tolerar condiciones de contaminación por metales o por eutrificación de cuerpos de aguas lénticos y lóticos. Esta planta se ha convertido en un problema ambiental; no obstante, ha despertado interés en el tratamiento de la contaminación por metales en suelos agrarios y cuerpos de agua. La toxicidad de los metales es un serio inconveniente en esta motivación, ya que influye en la capacidad de acumulación y la transmisión en la cadena trófica. En esta investigación se evaluó el comportamiento de las tasas de acumulación de cromo en la macrófita acuática Eichhornia crassipes, a concentraciones de 30, 60 y 90 mg/L, utilizando un diseño experimental aleatorio, con control y tres repeticiones por nivel. Los estudios llevados a cabo en acuarios de vidrio, evidenciaron sitios de acumulación de cromo en la planta, estableciéndose la cinética de acumulación.Eichhornia crassipes é uma planta de rápido crescimento distribuídas em quase todos os países tropicais, que podem tolerar condições de contaminação por metáis ou de eutrofização das massas de águas lênticos e lóticos. Essa planta tornou-se um problema ambiental, no entanto, despertou o interesse no tratamento da poluição por metais em solos agrícolas e corpos d'água. A toxicidade dos metais é um problema serio com esse raciocínio, uma vez que afeta a capacidade de armazenamento e transmissão na cadeia alimentar. Neste estudo avaliou o comportamento das taxas de acúmulo de cromo em macrófitas aquáticas Eichhornia crassipes, em concentrações de 30, 60 e 90 mg/L, utilizando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com controle e três repetições por nível. Estudos realizados em aquários de vidro, apresentaram sítios de acumulação de crómio na planta, que institui a cinética de acumulação.Eichhornia crassipes is a fast growing plant

  8. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  9. Experiments on Herbivorous Fishes Inhibiting the Growth of Water Hyacinth (Eichharnia crassipes )%草食性鱼种抑制凤眼莲生长的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡廷尖; 李训朗; 王雨辰; 黄社建; 胡旭昶; 刘士力; 李倩; 练青平

    2011-01-01

    Water hyacinth will cause diversity damage and ecological crisis once it is introduced into a new area because of its rapid and fast growth. In China and abroad, chemical technology and manual salvage and mechanical method or introduction into natural enemy of water hyacinth are used to remove or control water hyacinth. Although these methods offer certain effectiveness, it has some disadvantages of high cost, secondary pollution and lacks of not thorough enough. In this paper, we used rigorous design to study the inhibition effect of herbivorous fish such as grass carp, hybrid (F1 from Ctenopharyngodon idellus( ♂ ) and Squaliobarbus curriculus( ♀ ), Magalobrame tarminalis, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Allogyno genticcrucia and Erythroculter ilishaeformis on the removal effect of water hyacinth. All the juveniles were put in the same sixteen cages. The results showed different fingerlings with the same size (2.5-9 cm) had various capabilities to eat water hyacinth and arranged in following order: Ctenopharyngodon idellus 〉 hybrid 〉 Magalobrame tarminalis 〉 Squaliobarbus curriculus 〉 A llogyno genticcrucian 〉 Erythroculter ilishaeformis. The results indicated that herbivorous fish had different removal effects on water hyacinth. The present study innovatively used different kinds of fingerling to control water hyacinth, and provide a new approach to control ecological harmfulness caused by water hyacinth. The test shows that there is a bright application future to control water hyacinth with herbivorous fish.%通过严密的设计,在相同规格的16只网箱中,采用草鱼、杂交鱼[草鱼(6)和赤眼鳟(早)杂交繁育的F1]、三角鲂、赤眼鳟、异育银鲫和翘嘴红鲐等为试验对象,对凤眼莲生长的影响进行研究。结果表明:不同品种的鱼苗具有不同的控制凤眼莲的能力;在2.5~9.0cm范围内各鱼苗食用凤眼莲能力依次为:草鱼〉杂交鱼〉三角鲂〉赤

  10. Experimental and kinetic modelling studies on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Danon, B.; Manurung, R.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T = 150-175 degrees C, C-H2SO4 - 0.1-1 M, water hyacinth intake = 1-5 wt%). At high acid concentrations (> 0.

  11. Municipal landfill leachate treatment for metal removal using water hyacinth in a floating aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, A S; Biswas, N; Bewtra, J K

    2006-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to remove five heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead) commonly found in leachate. All experiments were conducted in batch reactors in a greenhouse. It was found that living biomass of water hyacinth was a good accumulator for copper, chromium, and cadmium. The plants accumulated copper, chromium, and cadmium up to 0.96, 0.83, and 0.50%, respectively, of their dry root mass. However, lead and nickel were poorly accumulated in water hyacinth. Also, nonliving biomass of water hyacinth dry roots showed ability to accumulate all metals, except Cr(VI), which was added in anionic form. The highest total metal sorption by nonliving dry water hyacinth roots was found to take place at pH 6.4. The current research demonstrates the potential of using water hyacinth for the treatment of landfill leachate containing heavy metals.

  12. Using composting for control seed germination of invasive plant (water hyacinth) in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Albano, Eva; Moreno, Marta M.

    2016-04-01

    The biotransformation of the invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by composting has been showed as a viable alternative to offset the economic cost of eliminating an invasive plant giving a value to the by-product; however, as result of the propagative plant capacity, it was necessary to check if the composting process could eliminate the germination seed rate. Despite the high temperatures and the biochemical biotransformation processes of the composting components, in the case of seed water hyacinth, with a recovery rate of 100%, damage was observed in some parts of the seed anatomy such as in the outer teguments; however, other parts of the seed coat and the endosperm maintained their integrity. A microscopic analysis revealed that the embryo was noticeable and this was supported by the rate of seed germination observed (3.5 ± 0.96%). The results indicate that the use of water hyacinth for compost production is not completely safe from an environmental perspective. Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, invasive plant, seed anatomy, seed germination rate, compost. References: Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1:42-53.

  13. Efeito de pontas de pulverização e de arranjos populacionais de plantas de Eichhornia crassipes e Salvinia auriculata na deposição de calda de pulverização sobre plantas de Pistia stratiotes Effect of spray tips and water hyacinth and water lettuce plant population arrangements of watermoss plant spray mix deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Marchi

    2009-06-01

    de pulverização, independentemente do tipo de ponta de pulverização. A ponta TXVK-8 proporcionou depósitos unitários e totais de calda de pulverização superiores aos da ponta DG 11002VS.This study aimed to evaluate two types of nozzles (ConeJet TXVK-8 and TeeJet DG 11002 VS and the amount of spray mix deposited on water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes plants organized under different population arrangements with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and eared watermoss (Salvinia auriculata plants. In addition to a full-dominance proportion over the area, corresponding to 100% cover of the water tank by eared watermoss plants, arrangements were used with either water hyacinth or water lettuce at 75%:25%, 50%:50%, and 25%:75%. Triple density was also used, with the three species being equally displayed at a 33.33% proportion. Dye solutions of FD&C Yellow no. 5 at 3,500 ppm and FD&C Blue no. 1 at 1,000 ppm were used as spraying tracers for TXVK-8 and DG 11002 VS nozzles, respectively. Both solutions were sprayed at the same plot within 30 minute interval each through a CO2 pressured backpack knapsack calibrated to deliver a spray volume around 200 L ha-1 . Plants at reservoirs were flushed with distilled water until total removal of the dyes deposited on them. The total spray deposits were estimated in μL per plant and the unitary deposits where estimated in μL cm-2 of foliar surface. Increase in water hyacinth plant proportion in the arrangement resulted in lower spray deposition over water lettuce. Increase in water moss plant proportion in the arrangement provided higher spray depositions over water lettuce, independently of the nozzle type used. The TXVK-8 nozzles provided higher unitary and total spray depositions compared to the DG 11002 VS nozzle.

  14. 水葫芦(Eichhornia crassipes)基质中铜残留对蔬菜生长和食用安全的影响%Residue of Cu in Medium of Composted Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) on Growth of Vegetable in Soil-less Culture and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢信; 罗佳; 严少华; 范如芹; 刘丽珠; 张振华

    2016-01-01

    To harvest and compost water hyacinth and then use it as a component of the medium in soilless culture is a no-vel train of thought to turn waste into resource. However, as the wastewater from aquacultural farms generally contains heavy metal pollutants, like Cu, and so does the plant growing in the wastewater, it is necessity to assess impacts of the culture media contain in composted water hyacinth on growth and food safety of the vegetable in soilless culture. Results show that in media with Cu varying in the range of 0-600 mg·kg-1 growth of radish and water spinach were not signifi-cantly affected, and Cu concentrations in the edible parts of the two vegetables were within the safety limits ( 10. 0 mg· kg-1 ) set in the National Standard for Food Safety of China, but a relatively higher Cu concentration, about 15 mg·kg-1 , in roots of the water spinach was detected. The concentration of Cu was significantly lower in the edible parts of radish ( 0. 2-1. 6 mg·kg-1 ) than in those of water spinach ( 0. 5-4 mg·kg-1 ) . The content of Cu in the plants was found to be significantly related to the content of exchangeable Cu in the growing media. So it is much safer to plant radish than water spinach in soilless culture using composted water hyacinth in the medium. It is, therefore, essential to consider not only content and availability of Cu in the soilless culture medium, but also species of the vegetable to plant and characteristics of their biological Cu absorption in assessing potential risk of heavy metal pollution of the culture medium to food safety.%将修复养殖水体中收获的水葫芦堆置发酵后作为基质材料是资源化利用的新思路,但由于养殖废水中普遍存在重金属如Cu的污染问题,因此资源化利用的关键是重金属对蔬菜生长的影响和食用安全问题.研究结果表明:基质中w(Cu)在0~600 mg·kg-1范围内对萝卜和空心菜的生长没有显著影响,而且其可食部分未超出GB 15199

  15. Ação de adjuvantes na absorção e translocação de glyphosate em plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes The effect of adjuvants on glyphosate absorption and translocation in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a ação de adjuvantes na absorção e translocação de glyphosate em plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 5 x 8, sendo: cinco tratamentos com glyphosate (sem adjuvante e com os adjuvantes Aterbane a 0,5 e 0,25% v/v e Silwet L77 a 0,1 e 0,05% v/v, aplicados somente em uma folha de cada planta; e oito intervalos para lavagem ou corte das folhas (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 e 48 horas, além de um intervalo contínuo sem lavagem ou corte. Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Os adjuvantes Aterbane a 0,5% e Silwet a 0,1% promoveram maior controle em períodos mais curtos sem a lavagem das folhas (duas e quatro horas, embora no final do estudo todos os adjuvantes tenham resultado em controle eficiente a partir de duas horas, assim como o glyphosate sem adjuvante. No estudo de translocação, independentemente do adjuvante testado, observou-se excelente controle após o período de seis horas sem o corte das folhas. Nos períodos de duas e quatro horas, observou-se controle insatisfatório independentemente do adjuvante testado: esse fato demonstra que o corte das folhas em períodos inferiores a seis horas após a aplicação não é suficiente para uma translocação eficiente e garantir o controle de plantas de aguapé.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of adjuvants on glyphosate absorption and translocation in Eichhornia crassipes. The treatments were arranged in a 5 x 8 factorial scheme, being five with glyphosate (with no adjuvant and with the adjuvants Aterbane at 0.5 and 0.25% v/v and Silwet L 77 at 0.1 and 0.05% v/v applied on a single leaf of each plant at 8 intervals to wash or cut the leaves (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours, plus a continuous interval without washing or cutting. Visual control evaluations were carried out at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment

  16. Avaliações fisiológicas e bioquímicas de plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes cultivadas com níveis excessivos de nutrientes Physiological and biochemical evaluations of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, cultivated with excessive nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de aguapé foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon n.2, cujo aumento dos níveis de N, P e Cu estabeleceu as diferenças entre os tratamentos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As variáveis fisiológicas avaliadas foram área foliar, peso de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa assimilatória líquida, razão de área foliar, peso específico de folha, área foliar específica. Foram determinados também os teores de açúcares totais e redutores e de aminoácidos totais e a atividade das enzimas glutationa S-transferase e superóxido dismutase. Os extratos enzimáticos foram obtidos da matéria fresca da parte aérea das plantas. Após a coleta, foram determinados os pesos de material seco de raízes, pecíolos e folhas, que foram utilizados para a determinação de açúcares solúveis totais e redutores e de aminoácidos. O excesso de nitrogênio causou aumento de açúcares nas folhas e de aminoácidos nas raízes. Já o tratamento com excesso de fósforo levou ao aumento de açúcares nas raízes. Os resultados apresentados sugerem que, entre os nutrientes em excesso avaliados, o cobre (0,12 mg L-1 foi o maior indutor da atividade da GST e SOD, sugerindo que este elemento induziu estresse nas plantas de aguapé.Water hyacinth plants were cultivated in a Hoagland & Arnon n.2 nutrient solution with increased N, P and Cu levels establishing the differences among the treatments. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Physiological evaluations included leaf area, dry matter and growth analysis parameters (absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilatory rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf weight, specific leaf area. Biochemistry evaluations were total and reducing sugars, total amino acids and activity of the antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase and superoxide

  17. AvaliaÃÃo da influÃncia dos macronutrientes na bioacumulaÃÃo do chumbo pela Eichhornia crassipes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo principal do trabalho foi verificar a influÃncia do macronutriente fÃsforo no processo de bioacumulaÃÃo do chumbo, utilizando a macrÃfita aquÃtica Eicchornia crassipes viva. AlÃm disso, verificou-se a capacidade de remoÃÃo de Ãons chumbo e alguns nutrientes como o P, K, Ca e Fe, pela E. crassipes, obtendo-se tambÃm informaÃÃes de como estes sÃo distribuÃdos dentro de dois compartimentos da planta: raÃzes e folhas. Para tanto, foi realizado um conjunto de experimentos de remoÃÃo/bio...

  18. Mycoherbicidal Potential of Phaeoacremonium italicum, A New Pathogen of Eichhornia crassipes Infesting Harike Wetland, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Birinderjit; Saxena, Sanjai; Meshram, Vineet; Kumar, Maneek

    2016-06-01

    Mycoherbicides are exclusive biotechnology products which offer a non-chemical solution to control noxious weeds on the land as well as aquatic in systems, viz a viz saving environment from hazardous impact of synthetic chemicals. The present paper highlights the mycobiota associated with Eichhornia crassipes infesting Harike wetland area of Punjab and evaluation of their pathogenic potential for futuristic application as a mycoherbicide. Of the 20 isolates tested by leaf detached assay and whole plant bioassays, only one isolate (#8 BJSSL) caused 100% damage to E. crassipes. Further, the culture filtrate of this isolate also exhibited a similar damage to the leaves in an in vitro detached leaf assay. The potential isolate was identified as Phaeoacremonium italicum using classical and modern molecular methods. This is the first report of P. italicum as a pathogen of E. crassipes and of its potential use as a biological control agent for the management of water hyacinth.

  19. Synthesis of Furfural from Water Hyacinth (Eichornia croassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismiyarto; Ngadiwiyana; windarti, T.; Purbowatiningrum, RS; Hapsari, M.; Rafi’ah, FH; Suyanti; Haq, MS

    2017-02-01

    Furfural has been prepared from hydrolysis of dried biomass of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) by using diluted hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid as catalysts. This process involved the conversion of the pentosane fraction in water hyacinth into pentose, and then pentose was cyclodehydrated into furfural. The reaction was conducted in a distillation set with receiving the flask that contains chloroform. Furfural was identified by fehling test which was then characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), followed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The yield of furfural obtained using sulphuric acid catalyst was 0.38% and hydrochloric acid catalyst was 0.01% of dried biomass.

  20. Water hyacinth system for municipal landfill leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.S.; Biswas, N.; Bewtra, J.K. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Batch experiments were conducted in a green house environment to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to treat municipal landfill leachate. The experiments were carried out on leachate samples collected from Essex-Windsor Regional Landfill, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Three leachate dilutions were used in the study. In addition to plant growth, leachate constituents such as pH, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate, reactive phosphate, total iron, potassium and chloride were also determined. These parameters were analyzed at different times covering the duration of the experiments. The experimental data showed that water hyacinth system was capable of reducing total nitrogen in the leachate. The pH level remained around 8.0. High consumption of alkalinity during the first three weeks was observed, which could be attributed to nitrification of ammonia. Ammonia nitrogen and total reactive phosphate were removed completely, whereas potassium and chloride remained unchanged. Landfill leachate has a negative impact on plant growth. As the concentration of leachate increases, its toxicity increases resulting in the decrease in the growth of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth system seems to be a promising technology for treating municipal landfill leachate. However, additional studies are required to investigate the system tolerance for some pollutants that might be present in leachate at wide ranges of concentrations such as salinities, hydrogen ion concentration, and heavy metals. (author)

  1. NUTRITIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF WATER HYACINTH LEAVES COMBINED WITH WHEAT BRAN AND COTTON SEED CAKE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to evaluate the different levels of water hyacinth plant leaves in the diet of Nile Tilapia and their effect on growth performance so as to eliminate the water hyacinth plant from the Nile and provide a cheap food for fish. In this experiment the dried water hyacinth leaves (Eicchornia crassipse, wheat bran and cotton seed cake were used in different ratio to formulate two experimental diets (A and B. Diet (A contains 70% wheat bran, 20% cotton seed cake and 10% water hyacinth leaves, while diet (B contains 65%, 20% cottons seed cake and 15% water hyacinth leaves. These diets were fed to studied fish with 5% per their body weight for 105 days. The results of this study revealed that the diet (A has higher growth performance on studied fish than those fed on diet (B. The results of food conversion ratio (FCR, 4.04 in diet (A and food conversion ratio (FCR, 5.73 in diet (B, and the increment of growth rate in fish fed with diet (A more efficient on the growth performance of studied fish than diet (B except in the case of protein efficiency rate (PER it's found to be more in diet (A than diet (B. It was concluded that the diet (A had better growth performance than diet (B on the feeding regime of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

  2. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth mixed with pig manure was also studied on seeds germination. Only water hyacinth substrate with 25% WH + 75% PM enhanced seeds germination for Oryza sp. and Nasturtium officinale. At the end of experiments, a significant decrease was observed in organic carbon content for each tested substrates (S1 to S8, in total nitrogen (N for substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 and compost substrates (S1 and S2. An important decrease was also noted in total potassium for all vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8, in total magnesium for composted substrates (S1 and S2, and in C/N ratio for substrates containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6. Whereas total N in vermicompost containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6, total phosphorus, total potassium in composted substrates (S1 and S2, total magnesium in vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8 and C:N ratio in substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 expressed a significant increase after eight weeks. The result suggested that water hyacinth could be potentially useful as raw material in vermicomposting and biofertilizing if mixed with 75% of pig manure.

  3. Field, laboratory, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mercury accumulation by water hyacinths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Sarah G; Tran, Huy H; Dewitt, Jane G; Andrews, Joy C

    2002-05-01

    We have studied water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a non-native nuisance plant found in the in San Francisco Bay Delta region, for its potential to phytoremediate mercury. Mercury is a common contaminant in San Francisco Bay Area waters because of gold mining activities. In this study, speciation of mercury in hyacinth roots and shoots, rates of mercury uptake by hyacinths in the laboratory, and mercury levels near the Big Break Region in the Delta were studied. In the speciation studies, Hg L3 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of Hg model compounds and water hyacinth roots and shoots revealed that Hg was initially bound ionically to oxygen ligands in roots, most likely to carboxylate groups, and was bound covalently to sulfur groups in shoots. In laboratory uptake studies, we found that water hyacinths grown in 1 ppm Hg and one-quarter strength Hoagland's solution accumulated a maximum of 0.20 ppm in shoots and 16.0 ppm in roots, both reaching maximum concentrations after approximately 16 days. Mercury concentrations were found to be 0.26 +/- 0.20 ppm in the water and 0.86 +/- 1.70 ppm in sediment at Big Break. It was proposed that water hyacinths have the potential to phytoremediate mercury in the water at Big Break if the current herbicide treatments are replaced by physical removal.

  4. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of lead and mercury from polluted waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1975-04-11

    Removal of lead and mercury by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb. was investigated. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.176 mg of lead and 0.150 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material from distilled water and river water in a 24-hour period. One acre of water hyacinths is potentially capable of removing 105.6 grams of lead and 90.0 grams of mercury per day. Alligator weeds removed 0.101 mg of lead per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. This same plant also demonstrated the ability to remove a minimum of 0.153 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material in a six hour period. (STAR)

  5. Water hyacinths for removal of cadmium and nickel from polluted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of cadmium and nickel from static water systems utilizing water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was investigated. This aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from aqueous systems by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to absorb and concentrate up to 0.67 mg of cadmium and 0.50 mg of nickel per gram of dry plant material when exposed for a 24-hour period to waters polluted with from 0.578 to 2.00 ppm of these toxic metals. It is found that one hectare of water hyacinths has the potential of removing 300 g of cadmium or nickel from 240,000 liters of water polluted with these metals during a 24-hour period.

  6. Aplicación de la técnica fotoacústica resuelta en tiempo al monitoreo de la fotosíntesis en plantas de lirio acuático (Eichhornia Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leticia Cardona-Gomez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported about the use of the time resolved photoacoustic technique for the analysis of the photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the energy storage in green plants. We present an application of this technique to the study of the photosynthesis in the aquatic vegetation, usually called aquatic lirium or water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes.

  7. Adsorption of Eu(III) onto roots of water hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.; Mielke, R.E.; Dimaquibo, D.; Curtis, A.J. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dewitt, J.G. [San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has drawn attention as a plant capable of removing pollutants, including toxic metals, from water. The authors are interested in the capacity of the water hyacinth to remediate aquatic environments that have been contaminated with the lanthanide metal, europium Eu(III). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) they have been able to determine that Eu(III) is adsorbed onto the surface of the roots from water and that the highest concentration of Eu(III) is on the root hairs. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques were used to speciate the Eu(III) adsorbed onto the surface of the roots. The XAS data for Eu-contaminated water hyacinth roots provides evidence of a Eu-oxygen environment and establishes that Eu(III) is coordinated to 10--11 oxygen atoms at a distance of 2.44 {angstrom}. This likely involves binding of Eu(III) to the root via carboxylate groups and hydration of Eu(III) at the root surface.

  8. Produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob serasah dan eceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes dengan sumber inokulum kotoran sapi dan kotoran ayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REVOLUSI PRAJANINGRAT SAKTIYUDHA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Saktiyudha RP. 2014. Biogas production from anaerobic digesters of leaf litter and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes with a source of inoculum cattle and chicken manures. Bioteknologi 11: 23-27. Biogas is a renewable alternative energy source also has the added value, which is in the processing of waste biomass is environmentally friendly. This study aims to examine the production of biogas in anaerobic reform process based on a mixture of biomass litter substrate and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms using inoculum source of cattle manure and chicken manure. Litter biomass and water hyacinth biomass were as a substrate (80% in the anaerobic digester with inoculum source of cattle manure or chicken manure (20% through the fermentation process. Factorial experiment with four replications performed using a completely randomized design (CRD with two factors. The first factor in the form of variations in the substrate, the substrate control with 100 % litter, litter substrate variation and water hyacinth (75%:25%, and a mixture of litter and water hyacinth (50%:50% . The second factor were a variation of the source of inoculum, ie cattle manure and chicken manure. Parameter measurements performed at weeks 0th, 2nd, 4th, 6th. Parameters observed were volume of biogas, CH4 concentration, temperature, pH, COD, BOD, TS and VS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by DMRT at 5 % level test. Highest production of biogas in the sixth week (862.5 ml was showed by the treatment of 75 % litter and 25 % water hyacinth with inoculum source of cattle manure. Removal efficiency of COD; BOD; TS and VS on that treatment were amounted to 76.12 %, 32.88 %, 66.53 % and 63.74 %.

  9. Lead remotion of automotive batteries recycling industry wastewater by the aquatic macrofit eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Aní Caovilla Follador

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the lead absorption by the aquatic macrofit Eichhornia crassipes in the wastewater treatment of an automotive batteries recycling industry located at county of Paula de Freitas, state of Paraná, Brazil. For that, the relation of humid green mass of water hyacinth by solution volume was optimized and, in follow the method was employed in the industrial wastewater treatment. The results permitted to conclude that the lead and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn e Cr absorption efficiency depends straightly of the water hyacinth mass (g by solution volume (L, being 40 and 50 g L-1 the more efficient relations showing equivalents results in wastewaters containing until 30 mg L-1 of contaminant. Factors as pH and temperature in the analyzed values no had an expressive influence. For the treatment of wastewater contaminated by lead of the small and mean industries which recycle automotive batteries, the utilization of water hyacinth is practicable in the optimized conditions. It´s necessary a refined study for the definition of the best alternative of treatment/final disposal of the water hyacinth biomass after the wastewater treatment.Key-words: green house, composting, stabilization lagoon, heavy metal.

  10. Industrial water treatment with heavy metals through zeolites and bioremediation systems with aquatic plants especially Eichhornia crassipes. State of art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Fernando Carreño-Sayago

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we explore different opportunities to use a cheap natural material for removing and retention of heavy metals from polluted waters by waste of different processes. Two research systems will be addressed: the first through a material known as zeolite or more generally porous  luminosilicates, which may be synthesized or extracted from the mines of clays and minerals, being used in its natural state or after modification processes and doping. The other mechanism is bioremediation through algae, some bacteria and especially aquatic plants such as Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth. We will evaluate the viability of joining these two types complementing each other. Investigations into the feasibility of Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth as feedstock for biofuels are also reviewed.

  11. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-02

    The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved.

  12. Assessing water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassopes) and lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) effectiveness in aquaculture wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbile, C O; Yusoff, Mohd S

    2012-03-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in aquaculture wastewater treatment in Malaysia. Wastewater from fish farm in Semanggol Perak, Malaysia was sampled and the parameters determined included, the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrite phosphate (PO4(3-)), nitrate (NO(3-)), nitrite (NO(-2)), ammonia (NH3), and total kjedahl nitrogen (TKN). Also, hydroponics system was set up and was added with fresh plants weights of 150 +/- 20 grams Eichhornia crassipes and 50 +/- 10 grams Pistia stratiotes during the 30 days experiment. The phytoremediation treatment with Eichhornia crassipes had pH ranging from 5.52 to 5.59 and from 4.45 to 5.5 while Pistia stratiotes had its pH value from 5.76 to 6.49 and from 6.24 to 7.07. Considerable percentage reduction was observed in all the parameters treated with the phytoremediators. Percentage reduction of turbidity for Eichhornia crassipes were 85.26% and 87.05% while Pistia stratiotes were 92.70% and 93.69% respectively. Similar reductions were observed in COD, TKN, NO(3-), NH3, and PO4(3-). The capability of these plants in removing nutrients was established from the study. Removal of aquatic macrophytes from water bodies is recommended for efficient water purification.

  13. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  14. Removal of Crystal Violet dye from aqueous solution using water hyacinth: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswari Kulkarni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Effluent water from dyeing industries has now for long been a taxing issue. Of the various dyes which are extremely toxic, Crystal Violet which is used in the dyeing industry is known for its mutagenic and mitotic poisoning nature. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes is a perennial aquatic plant notorious for its rapid invasive growth on the surface of water bodies causing ill-effects on the biodiversity. The potential of powdered roots of water hyacinth was studied for decolorization of Crystal Violet dye. Influence of parameters such as initial pH (2.0–10.0, initial dye concentration (100–500 ppm, biosorbent dosage (0.5–5 g/l, contact time (10–240 min and temperature (300–323 K were examined. Maximum removal of dye was observed at pH 7.8. The obtained data were fit into different kinetic models and the biosorption was found to follow pseudo second order kinetic model. The Langmuir monolayer biosorption capacity of water hyacinth was estimated as 322.58 mg/g. The study has demonstrated water hyacinth as a potential low cost biosorbent for effective removal of Crystal Violet dye from aqueous solution.

  15. Cogeneration of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from water hyacinth by two-step anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xie, Binfei [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Pyneo Company Limited, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel reaction mechanism of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} cogeneration from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was originally proposed to increase the energy conversion efficiency. The glucose and xylose hydrolysates derived from cellulose and hemicellulose are fermented to cogenerate H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by two-step anaerobic fermentation. The total volatile solid of hyacinth leaves can theoretically cogenerate H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields of 303 ml-H{sub 2}/g-TVS and 211 ml-CH{sub 4}/g-TVS, which dramatically increases the theoretical energy conversion efficiency from 19.1% in only H{sub 2} production to 63.1%. When hyacinth leaves are pretreated with 3 wt% NaOH and cellulase in experiments, the cogeneration of H{sub 2} (51.7 ml-H{sub 2}/g-TVS) and CH{sub 4} (143.4 ml-CH{sub 4}/g-TVS) markedly increases the energy conversion efficiency from 3.3% in only H{sub 2} production to 33.2%. Hyacinth leaves, which have the most cellulose and hemicellulose and the least lignin and ash, give the highest H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields, while hyacinth roots, which have the most ash and the least cellulose and hemicellulose, give the lowest H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields. (author)

  16. EFEKTIVITAS ECENG GONDOK (Echhornia crassipes DALAM PENYERAPAN KADMIUM (Cd PADA LEACHATE TPA GUNUNG TUGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is liquid of result organic garbage that contain substance is dissolved and suspension as decomposition by microorganism. Leachate contain material organic with high level and many formed at landfill with open dumping system. Material organic in leachate can be reduced by phytoremediation with water hyacinth (Echhornia crassipes. The aim of research are know large closure of water hyacinth, long residence time and the best interaction to reduce the levels of material organic in leachate. Method of research was designed experimental based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with Factorial Design. The first factor are closing large percentage of water hyacinth (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% and the second factor are long residence time (4 days, 5 days and 6 days. Result of research showed that is closing large of 75% is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 29,279%. and long residence time of 6 days is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 27,211%. Interaction closing large of 75% and long residence time of 6 days is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 39,770%

  17. Phytochemical Composition And Antibacterial Activity Of Eichhornia Crassipes In Lake Victoria Kisumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Imunyo Isebe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes is an aquatic weed infesting rivers dams lakes and irrigation channels. The plant has affected the marine environment with billions of shillings being lost yearly in controlling it and also in economic losses. The plant is causing severe hindrances to the individual nations developmental activities. It clogs waterways making boating fishing and all other water activities impossible. The plant spreads via the waves from the bay to bay blocking waterways and affecting aquatic life as it takes up oxygen from the water. Owing to its tremendous growth it has threatened the diversity of local native plants alongside the physical and chemical composition of the aquatic environment. It grows very fast and spreads widely across the water body. However despite this problem the plant has the potential to be used as a medicinal plant. The primary objective of the study was to determine the phytochemical composition and the antibacterial properties of the plant against selected strains of bacteria and determine whether it can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. The plant material for use in the study was obtained from Lake Victoria and classified taxonomically at Botany Department Egerton University. The crude extract of Eichhornia crassipes was analyzed for phytochemical composition. The crude extract was then subjected to antibacterial assay against bacterial isolates such as Bacillus subtilis Salmonella typhimurium Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Phytochemical analysis of Eichhornia crassipes depicted the presence of flavonoids alkaloids and the terpenoids. Additionally the crude extract of the plant portrayed potential antibacterial activities against some bacterial isolates. Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showed some level of sensitivity to the crude extract of Eichhornia crassipes. However there was no activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The diameter of the zone

  18. Effect of the application of water hyacinth compost/vermicompost on the growth and flowering of Crossandra undulaefolia, and on several vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2002-11-01

    The impact of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms) on plants was assessed in terms of growth and flowering of the angiosperm crossandra (Crossandra undulaefolia). Overall nine morphological, size, and yield attributes were studied in crossandra saplings raised on water hyacinth compost or vermicompost as compared to the untreated saplings. Application of vermicompost led to statistically significant improvement in the growth and flowering of crossandra compared to the untreated plants. The impact of compost was also beneficial but a little less distinct than the positive impact of vermicompost. Qualitative studies were simultaneously conducted in five kitchen gardens owned by farmers near Pondicherry. In three of these locations water hyacinth vermicompost was applied-and no other fertilizer-for months to different species of vegetables. Water hyacinth compost was similarly applied in another two locations. In all the locations no adverse effect on any of the plant species was observed. We believe these studies would help in dispelling the apprehension of farmers that compost/vermicompost obtained form a pernicious weed like water hyacinth may have deleterious effect on other plants.

  19. Associated Fauna to Eichhornia crassipes in a Constructed Wetland for Aquaculture Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipaúba-Tavares Lúcia Helena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water, sediment and associated fauna were studied in a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes stand of a constructed wetland, used for aquaculture effluent treatment in SE Brazil, in February-April (summer/rainy season and July-September (winter/dry season. The hydrological regime and decomposition processes had strong impact on the wetland water quality and on the associated fauna composition. Protozoa and Rotifera were at high densities, mainly in the dry season. Vorticella sp. was the dominant species in both seasons. Zooplankton richness, evenness and diversity were high during both seasons, with higher levels during the rainy season. Protozoa diversity and evenness were higher in the dry season when the water volume was lower. Maximum plant residence time in this wetland should be about 60 days.

  20. Analysis of utilization technologies for Eichhornia crassipes biomass harvested after restoration of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Xiao, Kai; Zhou, Wenbing; Zhu, Duanwei; Zhou, Yiyong; Yuan, Yu; Xiao, Naidong; Wan, Xiaoqiong; Hua, Yumei; Zhao, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes (EC, water hyacinth) has gained attention due to its alarming reproductive capacity, which subsequently leads to serious ecological damage of water in many eutrophic lakes in the world. The traditional mechanical removal methods have disadvantages. They squander this valuable lignocellulosic resource. Meanwhile, there is a bottleneck for the subsequently reasonable and efficient utilization of EC biomass on a large scale after phytoremediation of polluted water using EC. As a result, the exploration of effective EC utilization technologies has become a popular research field. After years of exploration and amelioration, there have been significant breakthroughs in this research area, including the synthesis of excellent EC cellulose-derived materials, innovative bioenergy production, etc. This review organizes the research of the utilization of the EC biomass among several important fields and then analyses the advantages and disadvantages for each pathway. Finally, comprehensive EC utilization technologies are proposed as a reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 60}Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH Almost-Equal-To 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs present with {sup 60}Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of {sup 60}Co is affected negatively by the presence of {sup 137}Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides

  2. The efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saurabh; Maiti, Abhijit

    2017-01-16

    Water is a basic necessity of life, but due to overextraction and heavy input of nutrients from domestic and industrial sources, the contamination level of water bodies increase. In the last few decades, a potential interest has been aroused to treat wastewater by biological methodologies before discharge into the natural water bodies. Phytoremediation using water hyacinth is found to be an effective biological wastewater treatment method. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a notorious weed, being the most promising plant for removal of contaminants from wastewater is studied extensively in this regard. It has been successfully used to accumulate heavy metals, dyes, radionuclides, and other organic and inorganic contaminants from water at laboratory, pilot, and large scale. The plant materials are also being used as sorbent to separate the contaminant from water. Other than phytoremediation, the plant has been explored for various other purposes like ethanol production and generation of biogases and green manures. Such applications of this have been good support for the technocrats in controlling the growth of the plant. The present paper reviews the phytoremedial application of water hyacinth and its capability to remove contaminants in produced water and wastewater from domestic and isndustrial sources either used as a whole live plant grown in water or use of plant body parts as sorbent has been discussed.

  3. Re-use of invasive plants (water hyacinth) as organic fertilizer through composting and vermicomposting (Extremadura, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Moreno, Marta M.

    2015-04-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive plant that is native of the Amazon basin and whose capacity for growth and propagation causes major conservation problems with considerable socioeconomic repercussions. The greatest damage due to its fast expansion has been in the middle reaches of the River Guadiana in the SW Iberian Peninsula, where was detected in the Autumn of 2004. Due to its rapid expansion, mechanical extraction was carried out by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (CHG) of Spain's Ministry of the Environment since the affected zone is an important area of irrigation farming and hydraulic works and this alien plant weed provoked acute social alarm (Ruiz et al., 2008). In this work we used composting and vermicomposting techniques as an environmental alternative to assess the possibilities of biotransformation of the water hyacinth biomass removed mechanically from the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Four compost piles 1.5 x 10 m size, mechanically tumbled and with no forced ventilation (turning windrows system), were constructed outdoor. Each compost pile was considered as a different treatment: CC1: fresh water hyacinth / wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC2: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC3: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (2:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2) to favor the composting process; CC4: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2). The vermicomposting process was performed on mesh coated wooden boxes (0.34 m3) covered with a shadow mesh with the aim of harmonizing the environmental conditions. The quantities of water hyacinth biomass used were identical in volume (120 l) but with different state or composition: fresh and chopped biomass (VCF); dry and chopped biomass (VCS); fresh and pre-composted biomass with sheep manure rich in wheat straw (VCP). Identical worm density, irrigation

  4. HgL(3) XANES Study of Mercury Methylation in Shredded Eichhornia Crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, M.; Darrow, J.; Hua, M.; Barnett, B.; Mendoza, M.; Greenfield, B.K.; Andrews, J.C.

    2009-05-21

    Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is a non-native plant found in abundance in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereafter called Delta). This species has become a problem, clogging waterways and wetlands. Water hyacinth are also known to accumulate mercury. Recent attempts to curb its proliferation have included shredding with specialized boats. The purpose of this research is to better understand the ability of water hyacinth to phytoremediate mercury and to determine the effect of shredding and anoxic conditions on mercury speciation in plant tissue. In the field assessment, total mercury levels in sediment from the Dow Wetlands in the Delta were found to be 0.273 {+-} 0.070 ppm Hg, and levels in hyacinth roots and shoots from this site were 1.17 {+-} 0.08 ppm and 1.03 {+-} 0.52 ppm, respectively, indicating bioaccumulation of mercury. Plant samples collected at this site were also grown in nutrient solution with 1 ppm HgCl{sub 2} under (1) aerobic conditions, (2) anaerobic conditions, and (3) with shredded plant material only. The greatest accumulation was found in the roots of whole plants. Plants grown in these conditions were also analyzed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory using Hg L{sub 3} X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), a method to examine speciation that is element-specific and noninvasive. Least-squares fitting of the XANES data to methylated and inorganic mercury(II) model compounds revealed that in plants grown live and aerobically, 5 {+-} 3% of the mercury was in the form of methylmercury, in a form similar to methylmercury cysteine. This percentage increased to 16 {+-} 4% in live plants grown anaerobically and to 22 {+-} 6% in shredded anaerobic plants. We conclude that shredding of the hyacinth plants and, in fact, subjection of plants to anaerobic conditions (e.g., as in normal decay, or in crowded growth conditions) increases mercury methylation. Mechanical removal of the entire plant is significantly more

  5. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, S.; Zarazúa, G.; Ávila-Pérez, P.; Carapia-Morales, L.; Martínez, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn Kα. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 µg/g) > S (7593.3 µg/g) > Fe (4406.6 µg/g) > Ca (2601.8 µg/g) > Mn (604.2 µg/g) > Ti (230.7 µg/g) > Zn (51.65 µg/g) > Sr (43.55 µg/g) > Rb (18.61 µg/g) > Cu (12.78 µg/g) > Cr (6.45 µg/g) > Ni (4.68 µg/g) > Pb (4.32 µg/g) > Br (4.31 µg/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  6. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of elements in water hyacinth from the Lerma River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Zarazua, G., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Avila-Perez, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Apartado Postal 890, Metepec, C.P. 52149 (Mexico); Carapia-Morales, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Mexico D.F., C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    The Lerma River is one of the most polluted body water in Mexico. For this reason, only the highly resistant organisms such as water hyacinth are able to reproduce in this river. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration of K, S, Fe, Ca, Mn, Ti, Zn, Sr, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Br in roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from the Lerma River. The samples were collected from five sites in the river and analyzed in triplicate using a TXRF Spectrometer 'TX-2000 Ital Structures' with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 140 eV (FWHM) at Mn K{alpha}. A Mo tube (40 kV, 30 mA) with 17.4 KeV excitation energy was used for a counting time of 500 s. Results show that the average metal concentration in the water hyacinth roots decrease in the following order: K (9698.2 {mu}g/g) > S (7593.3 {mu}g/g) > Fe (4406.6 {mu}g/g) > Ca (2601.8 {mu}g/g) > Mn (604.2 {mu}g/g) > Ti (230.7 {mu}g/g) > Zn (51.65 {mu}g/g) > Sr (43.55 {mu}g/g) > Rb (18.61 {mu}g/g) > Cu (12.78 {mu}g/g) > Cr (6.45 {mu}g/g) > Ni (4.68 {mu}g/g) > Pb (4.32 {mu}g/g) > Br (4.31 {mu}g/g) and the bioconcentration factors in the water hyacinth decrease in the sequence: Ti > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn > S > Pb > Rb > K > Cr > Sr > Br > Ca. The concentrations in roots of water hyacinth reflect the high pollution level of the river.

  7. Water Hyacinth Identification Using CART Modeling With Hyperspectral Data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S.; Hestir, E. L.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ustin, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive aquatic weed that is causing severe economic and ecological impacts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA). Monitoring its distribution using remote sensing is the crucial first step in modeling its predicted spread and implementing control and eradication efforts. However, accurately mapping this species is confounded by its several phenological forms, namely a healthy vegetative canopy, flowering canopy with dense conspicuous terminal flowers above the foliage, and floating dead and senescent forms. The full range of these phenologies may be simultaneously present at any time, given the heterogeneity of environmental and ecological conditions in the Delta. There is greater spectral variation within water hyacinth than between any of the co-occurring species (pennywort and water primrose), so classification approaches must take these different phenological stages into consideration. We present an approach to differentiating water hyacinth from co-occurring species based on knowledge of relevant variation in leaf chlorophyll, floral pigments, foliage water content, and variation in leaf structure using a classification and regression tree (CART) applied to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  8. The efficient role of aquatic plant (water hyacinth) in treating domestic wastewater in continuous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Singh, Lakhweer; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-01-01

    In this study, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was used to treat domestic wastewater. Ten organic and inorganic parameters were monitored in three weeks for water purification. The six chemical, biological and physical parameters included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and pH were compared with the Interim National Water Quality Standards, Malaysia River classification (INWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI). Between 38% to 96% of reduction was observed and water quality has been improved from class III and IV to class II. Analyses for Electricity Conductivity (EC), Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Ammonium (NH4) were also investigated. In all parameters, removal efficiency was in range of 13-17th day (optimum 14th day) which was higher than 3 weeks except DO. It reveals the optimum growth rate of water hyacinth has great effect on waste water purification efficiency in continuous system and nutrient removal was successfully achieved.

  9. Phytoextraction of trace elements by water hyacinth in contaminated area of gold mine tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Tamara E; Shuvaeva, Olga V; Belchenko, Ludmila A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to uptake Ag, Ba, Cd, Mo, and Pb from waters in gold mine tailing area was studied. All experiments were carried out in the field conditions without using of model system. Bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) as well as elements accumulation by plant in different points of tailings-impacted area were evaluated. It has been shown that water hyacinth demonstrates high ability to accumulate Mo, Pb, and Ba with BCF values 24,360 ± 3600, 18,800 ± 2800 and 10,040 ± 1400, respectively and is efficient in translocation of Mo and Cd. The general trend of the plant accumulation ability in relation to the studied elements corresponds to their concentration in the medium. As the distance from tailings increases, concentration of Ag, Ba and Pb in plant decreases more clearly than that of Cd, while the amount of Mo accumulated by plant doesn't drop significantly in accordance with its concentration in water. Under the conditions of the confluence of river Ur and drainage stream Ba and Ag can be considered as potential candidates for phytomining.

  10. Biogas production from water hyacinth and channel grass used for phytoremediation of industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, V; Rai, J P N

    2003-02-01

    The paper reports on the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis) employed separately for phytoremediation of lignin and metal-rich pulp and paper mill and highly acidic distillery effluents. These plants eventually grow well in diluted effluent up to 40% (i.e., 2.5-times dilution with deionized water) and often take up metals and toxic materials from wastewater for their metabolic use. Slurry of the two plants used for phytoremediation produced significantly more biogas than that produced by the plants grown in deionized water; the effect being more marked with plants used for phytoremediation of 20% pulp and paper mill effluent. Biogas production from channel grass was relatively greater and quicker (maximum in 6-9 days) than that from water hyacinth (in 9-12 days). Such variation in biogas production by the two macrophytes has been correlated with the changes in C, N and C/N ratio of their slurry brought by phytoremediation.

  11. Identifying relevant hyperspectral bands using Boruta: a temporal analysis of water hyacinth biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agjee, Na'eem Hoosen; Ismail, Riyad; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-10-01

    Water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes) are threatening freshwater ecosystems throughout Africa. The Neochetina spp. weevils are seen as an effective solution that can combat the proliferation of the invasive alien plant. We aimed to determine if multitemporal hyperspectral data could be utilized to detect the efficacy of the biocontrol agent. The random forest (RF) algorithm was used to classify variable infestation levels for 6 weeks using: (1) all the hyperspectral bands, (2) bands selected by the recursive feature elimination (RFE) algorithm, and (3) bands selected by the Boruta algorithm. Results showed that the RF model using all the bands successfully produced low-classification errors (12.50% to 32.29%) for all 6 weeks. However, the RF model using Boruta selected bands produced lower classification errors (8.33% to 15.62%) than the RF model using all the bands or bands selected by the RFE algorithm (11.25% to 21.25%) for all 6 weeks, highlighting the utility of Boruta as an all relevant band selection algorithm. All relevant bands selected by Boruta included: 352, 754, 770, 771, 775, 781, 782, 783, 786, and 789 nm. It was concluded that RF coupled with Boruta band-selection algorithm can be utilized to undertake multitemporal monitoring of variable infestation levels on water hyacinth plants.

  12. Present status of the development of mycoherbicides against water hyacinth: successes and challenges. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijakli, MH.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in the implementation of bioherbicide use in the control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Martius] Solms Laubach have depended primarily on several strategies. The use of bioherbicides has been stimulated as part of the search for alternatives to chemical control, as the use of these more environmentally-friendly formulations minimizes hazards resulting from herbicide residue to both human and animal health, and to the ecology. In addition, one of the major strategies in the concept of biological control is the attempt to incorporate biological weed control methods as a component of integrated weed management, in order to achieve satisfactory results while reducing herbicide application to a minimum. Several fungal pathogens with mycoherbicide potential (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Hyakillä and Cercospora rodmanii, named ABG-5003 have been discovered on diseased water hyacinth plants, but none has become commercially available in the market. Biological, technological, and commercial constraints have hindered progress in this area. Many of these constraints are being addressed, but there is a critical need to better understand the biochemical and physiological data regarding the pathogenesis of these new bioherbicides. Oil emulsions are recognized as a way to increase both efficiency of application and efficacy of biocontrol agents.

  13. Stigmasterol from Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) : Isolation, characterization and X-ray structure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Sawant, S.G.; PrabhaDevi; Kaminsky, W.

    >H48O by combination of NMR and mass spectroscopic data The sterol was fully characterized by FTIR,NMR(1H13C) and mass spectral data Solid state structure of the sterol was determined by single crystal X-Ray diffraction...

  14. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, A.; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2013-01-01

    scavenging ability, iron chelating activity, reducing power, and prevention of oxidation in a liposome model system); and (c) its effectiveness in retarding lipid peroxidation in fish oil by accelerated stability test. Significant differences were observed in total and individual phenolic contents....... Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained the highest total phenolic content, were found to have high DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. However, ethanolic extracts of leaf exerted a high Fe2+ chelating activity and also inhibited lipid peroxidation process both in liposomes and fish...

  15. Nanostructured MnO2 catalyst in E. crassipes (water hyacinth for indigo carmine degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cuervo Blanco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of water hyacinth’s dried matter (Eichhornia crasippes as a support matrix for nano-MnO2 and its application for the removal of indigo carmine (IC was studied. Different pretreatment processes were tested and results indicated that an acid-alkali pretreatment is an efficient method to binding nanoparticles (NPs to cellulosic matrix. In adittion, the MnO2 NPs were synthesized by sonochemical reduction of MnO4- using different methods (ultrasonic horn system, ultrasonic bath and reaction with ethanol, where the influence of the precursor concentration was observed. The synthesized material was further characterized by ATR-IR, AAS, XRD, SEM, nitrogen isotherms adsorption, EDS, and pHpzc. The IC removal capacity of the nanostructured material, the chemical nature of the degradation products and the effect of various parameters (temperature, pH, initial IC concentration, among others were explored in water samples. After this process, the material, obtained by the ultrasonic bath method, was able to remove 97.6% of IC color in five min, without losing dye degradability efficiency for several consecutive cycles. Through this approach, environmental dangerous effluents from many commercial activities such as textile industry can be efficiently removed with low cost, using synthesize process biodegradable nanocomposite materials.

  16. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CINÉTICA DE ADSORCIÓN DE Zn2+ Y Cd2+ A PARTIR DE SOLUCIONES UNITARIAS Y BINARIAS POR RAÍCES DE Eichhornia crassipes Y Typha latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the kinetic modeling of adsorption of Zn 2+ and Cd2+ in roots of Typha latifolia (cattail and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth were evaluated. The study was done using solutions containing one or both ions. The experiments were performed using carbon paste electrodes modified with the roots. The model that best describes the kinetics of both ions in the two roots is the pseudo second order’s one. We also determined that both ions accumulate faster and in greater amounts on Eichhornia crassipes. Indeed, according to potentiometric titration and infrared spectra Fourier transformation, the number of adsorption sites is higher in this root. In the same manner, it was shown that both roots accumulate more Cd 2+ than Zn2+, and when the adsorption is made from a mixture, cadmium inhibits the accumulation of zinc.

  17. Biosynthesized iron nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Eichhornia crassipes and its mechanism in the hexavalent chromium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yufen; Fang, Zhanqiang; Zheng, Liuchun; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2017-03-01

    Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), a species of invasive weeds has caused serious ecological damage due to its extraordinary fertility and growth rate. However, it has not yet been exploited for use as a resource. This paper reported the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron nanoparticles (Ec-Fe-NPs) from Fe(III) salts in aqueous extracts of Eichhornia crassipes. The nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, XPS, FTIR, DLS and the zeta potential methods. The characterization results confirmed the successful synthesis of amorphous iron nanoparticles with diameters of 20-80 nm. Moreover, the nanoparticles were mainly composed of zero valent iron nanoparticles which were coated with various organic matters in the extracts as a capping or stabilizing agents. Batch experiments showed that 89.9% of Cr(VI) was removed by the Ec-Fe-NPs much higher than by the extracts alone (20.4%) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (47.3%). Based on the kinetics study and the XPS analysis, a removal mechanism dominated by adsorption and reduction with subsequently co-precipitation was proposed.

  18. Remoção do Corante Têxtil Turquesa de Remazol Empregando Aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes como Adsorvente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Holanda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the efficient removal of Remazol Turquoise textile dye onto water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes from aqueous solutions was investigated by batch method. The water hyacinth was collected, washed, dried, crushed and treated with a 0,25 mol L-1 HNO3, at 50 °C and by 24 h. Parameters such as pHpzc, pH effect, contact time and temperature were considered. The kinetic and adsorption data were analyzed by using the Lagergren, Ho, Zeldowitsch (Elovich, and Weber-Morris models, and Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and multilayers isotherm models, respectively. The best fitting modeling were Ho (50 mg L-1, Elovich (1000 mg L-1 and Sips. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔHads, ΔSads and ΔGads and desorption tests showed that adsorption mechanism is dependent on several adsorbate/surface interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.622

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Biochars from Eichornia crassipes for Cadmium Removal in Aqueous Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available The study investigated the preparation and characterization of biochars from water hyacinth at 300°C to 700°C for cadmium (Cd removal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption process was dominated by oxygen-containing functional groups with irregular surfaces via esterification reactions. Furthermore, the mineral components in the biochars also contributed to Cd absorption through precipitation. Parameters such as the effects of solution pH, contact time, and initial concentration were studied. The optimum pH value was observed at 5.0, in which nearly 90% of Cd was removed. The maximum Cd adsorption capacities based on the Langmuir isotherm were calculated at 49.837, 36.899, and 25.826 mg g(-1. The adsorption processes of the biochars followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics, with the equilibrium achieved around 5 h. The biochar from E. crassipes is a promising adsorbent for the treatment of wastewater, which can in turn convert one environmental problem to a new cleaning Technology.

  20. The potential for water hyacinth to improve the quality of Bogota River water in the Muña Reservoir: comparison with the performance of waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, E; Garzón, A

    2002-01-01

    The potential application of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in organic matter degradation, sedimentation, nutrient and heavy metal absorption and sulfur reduction in the Muña Reservoir has been tested in experimental lagoons. The lagoons were operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 6, 9 and 15 days. One lagoon was covered with Water Hyacinth, which is naturally growing in the Muña Reservoir, while another lagoon was operated as a conventional oxidation pond. The Water Hyacinth lagoon had better removal efficiencies for almost all parameters measured: BOD5, total suspended solids, COD, nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. The oxidation lagoon was facultative for HRT of 9 and 15 days, and anoxic when operated at 6 days HRT. At HRT of 15 days the water quality in the effluent of the covered lagoon corresponded to 12 mg/l of BOD, 6 mg/l of suspended solids and 0.8 mg/l of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide levels in the Muña reservoir can be substantially reduced at HRT higher than 15 days in both lagoons. The uncovered lagoon had better hydrogen sulfide removal during the day but presents high levels at night. If the hydraulic retention time in the Muña reservoir is increased, the water quality of the Bogota river can be substantially improved for all the HRTs tested in the pilot units. HRT seems to give a better prediction of overall effluent water quality than surface loading. More research is needed in order to define the optimum water hyacinth density in the Muña reservoir to determine its influence on the water quality of the effluent. The influence is expected to be negative due to an internal increase of BOD, solids, nutrients and metals loads due to plant decay.

  1. Analysis of Satellite and Airborne Imagery for Detection of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Floating Macrophytes and Tracking of Aquatic Weed Control Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed an 80 percent overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  2. Phytoremediation efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was focused on field research to examine the phytoremediation potential of naturally grown Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash (FA) pond. Field results indicate the efficiency of E. crassipes for remediation of heavy metals from FA pond. The bioconcentration factor trend was Cr (3.75) > Cu (2.62) > Cd (1.05), and Cu (1.35) in root and stem, respectively. The survival and abundance growth of E. crassipes in the circumstance of heavy metal enriched FA pond is another highlight of the present research that reveals its toxitolerant characteristics. Thus, this lesson on phytoremediation proved that E. crassipes is a potential accumulator of Cu, Cr, and Cd from FA ponds and is a promising species for FA pond's remediation globally.

  3. Effect of Urucu oil (Brazilian Amazon on the biomass of the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (Pontederiaceae Efeito do petróleo de Urucu (Amazônia/Brasil sobre a biomassa da macrófita aquática Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho Crema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rivers and floodplain lakes of the Urucu petroleum-bearing region in central Amazonia are extensively colonized by aquatic macrophytes, which may be affected by accidental spills during oil extraction and transportation operations. Among the species of macrophytes, the free-floating Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth is abundant; AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dosages of Urucu crude oil (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 L.m-2 on the biomass of E. crassipes and on some physical and chemical characteristics of the water in which the plant grew; METHODS: The experiment was conducted over a period of 84 days. Every seven days, the biomass (live and dead of E. crassipes and the temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen in the water were measured; RESULTS: The dosage of 0.5 L.m-2 was sufficient to cause partial mortality (48% in E. crassipes after 35 days of exposure to oil. The dosage of 3.0 L.m-2 caused total mortality (100% in E. crassipes after 84 days of exposure. The decomposition of the oil and the dead biomass of E. crassipes reduced the dissolved oxygen and pH, and increased electrical conductivity and concentrations of total phosphorus in the water; CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that an oil spill can cause total mortality in the local population of one macrophyte species, but not of another. This may alter the macrophyte species diversity in the impacted region. In the case of E. crassipes and Pistia stratiotes, an Urucu crude oil spill could favor E. crassipes, the species less sensitive to oil.Os rios e lagos de várzea da província petrolífera de Urucu, na Amazônia Central, são amplamente colonizados por macrófitas aquáticas, que podem ser afetadas por acidentes durante a exploração e o transporte de petróleo. Entre as macrófitas, a espécie flutuante Eichhornia crassipes (aguapé ocorre abundantemente na região; OBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar o efeito de

  4. Synthèse bibliographique : problématique de la jacinthe d'eau, Eichhornia crassipes, dans les régions tropicales et subtropicales du monde, notamment son éradication par la lutte biologique au moyen des phytopathogènes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijakli MH.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available eview: problems of the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, in particular its eradication using biological control method by means of plant pathogens. Water hyacinth, probably originating from South America, grows between 35th North and South parallels of the planet. It was introduced into several regions of the world as ornamental plant, where it became later one of the most dangerous world water weed. Its infestation can be controlled by physical and chemical treatments. However, these methods are expensive and dangerous for human health and environment. Moreover, following Western legislations example, those of developing countries are highly restrictive against authorised chemical molecules. Consequently, a growing interest was given to alternative solutions, such as biological control. That control using insects, fishes and mammiferes against water hyacinth could be strengthened with the application of mycoherbicides. These mycoherbicides are more respectful for environment and public health and seem to constitute an additional realistic alternative for water hyacinth durable management.

  5. Phaeohyphomycotic Cyst Caused by Colletotrichum crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Castro, Luiz Guilherme; da Silva Lacaz, Carlos; Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Heins-Vaccari, Elisabeth Maria; de Freitas Leite, Roseli Santos; Hernández Arriagada, Giovana Letícia; Ozaki Reguera, Márcia Maria; Ito, Eunice Miki; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai; Spina Nunes, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    A case of phaeohyphomycosis is reported in a male renal transplant recipient with a nodular lesion in the right leg who was treated with immunosuppressing drugs. The lesion consisted of a purulent cyst with thick walls. The cyst was excised surgically, and the patient did not receive any antifungal therapy. One year later he remains well. Histological study of the lesion showed a granulomatous reaction of epithelioid and multinucleate giant cells, with a central area of necrosis and pus. Fontana-Masson staining demonstrated the presence of pigmented hyphal elements. The fungus Colletotrichum crassipes was grown in different cultures from the cyst. The in vitro inhibitory activities of eight antifungal drugs against the isolate were tested. Clotrimazole and UR-9825 were the most active drugs. This case represents the first known reported infection caused by this rare species. PMID:11376082

  6. Phaeohyphomycotic cyst caused by Colletotrichum crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L G; da Silva Lacaz, C; Guarro, J; Gené, J; Heins-Vaccari, E M; de Freitas Leite, R S; Arriagada, G L; Reguera, M M; Ito, E M; Valente, N Y; Nunes, R

    2001-06-01

    A case of phaeohyphomycosis is reported in a male renal transplant recipient with a nodular lesion in the right leg who was treated with immunosuppressing drugs. The lesion consisted of a purulent cyst with thick walls. The cyst was excised surgically, and the patient did not receive any antifungal therapy. One year later he remains well. Histological study of the lesion showed a granulomatous reaction of epithelioid and multinucleate giant cells, with a central area of necrosis and pus. Fontana-Masson staining demonstrated the presence of pigmented hyphal elements. The fungus Colletotrichum crassipes was grown in different cultures from the cyst. The in vitro inhibitory activities of eight antifungal drugs against the isolate were tested. Clotrimazole and UR-9825 were the most active drugs. This case represents the first known reported infection caused by this rare species.

  7. Effects of Eichhornia crassipes Growth on Aquatic Plants in Dianchi Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of Eichhornia crassipes as an invasive plant on aquatic plants in Dianchi Lake. [Method] Based on the determination of chlorophyll content of phytoplankton and submerged plant (Potamogeton pectinatus) in Dianchi Lake in different months, the effects of E. crassipes on aquatic plants in Dianchi Lake were studied, and the allelopathy effect of root culture solution of E. crassipes on Microcystis aquaticum was discussed. [Result] The growth of E. crassipes in Dianch...

  8. A New Image for the Water Hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Walt Disney Company activated a sewage treatment plan using NASA technology to create water hyacinths to clean wastewater by absorbing and metabolizing pollutants. Plants have exciting promise as a natural water purification system which can be established at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment facility. Harvested plants can be used as fertilizer. They can also be heat-treated to produce consumer energy in the form of methane gas. If an economical method of drying plants can be developed they may find further utility as high protein animal feed.

  9. Water hyacinth a potential source for value addition: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok; Madhavan, Aravind; Alphonsa, Jose Anju; Vivek, Narisetty; Gnansounou, Edgard; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza

    2017-04-01

    Water hyacinth a fresh water aquatic plant is considered as a noxious weed in many parts of the world since it grows very fast and depletes nutrients and oxygen from water bodies adversely affecting the growth of both plants and animals. Hence conversion of this problematic weed to value added chemicals and fuels helps in the self-sustainability especially for developing countries. The present review discusses the various value added products and fuels which can be produced from water hyacinth, the recent research and developmental activities on the bioconversion of water hyacinth for the production of fuels and value added products as well as its possibilities and challenges in commercialization.

  10. BIOCONVERSION OF WATER HYACINTH HYDROLYSATE INTO ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bandopadhyay Mukhopadhyay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing aquatic weed water hyacinth, which is available almost year-round in the tropics and subtropics, was utilized as the chief source of cellulose for production of fuel ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Fungal cellulases produced on-site by utilizing acid-alkali pretreated water hyacinth as the substrate were used as the crude enzyme source for hydrolysis of identically pretreated biomass. Four different modes of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were trialed in the present study for optimization of the yield of ethanol. Two common yeasts viz., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus, were used for fermentation of hexose and pentose sugars in the hydrolysate. Significant enhancement of concentration (8.3 g/L and yield (0.21 g/g of ethanol was obtained through a prefermentation hydrolysis-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PH-SSF process, over the other three processes viz., separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, and single batch bioconversion (SBB by utilizing fungal culture broth with and without filtration as crude enzyme source.

  11. Use of an inexpensive chlorophyll meter to predict Nitrogen levels in leaf tissues of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue nitrogen is also an important indicator of plant health and can be a useful predictor of plant vigor and susceptibility to disease and pests. Hence, knowing nitrogen content may aid in determining establishment success of plants used in restoration programs, including those destined for aqua...

  12. IONS FROM AQUEOUS PHASE BY WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    KEY WORDS: Water hyacinth, Biosorption, Kinetics, Water treatment, Pb(II) removal ... waters. Conventional technologies used to remove heavy metals from ... time as it is inefficient when dealing with large volume of industrial waste water.

  13. Phosphorus release from decomposing water hyacinth and effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Hyacinth plants from the lake were chopped to fine pieces. In replicate ... Soluble phosphorus, pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen were measured daily for one month. In non- ... few investigations have demonstrated the importance of.

  14. Hydrogen production from water hyacinth through dark- and photo- fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-09-15

    This article discusses the method of producing hydrogen from water hyacinth. Water hyacinth was pretreated with microwave heating and alkali to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and hydrogen production in a two-step process of dark- and photo- fermentation. Water hyacinth with various concentrations of 10-40 g/l was pretreated with four methods: (1) steam heating; (2) steam heating and microwave heating/alkali pretreatment; (3) steam heating and enzymatic hydrolysis; (4) steam heating, microwave heating/alkali pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Water hyacinth (20 g/l) pretreated with method 4 gave the maximum reducing sugar yield of 30.57 g/100 g TVS, which was 45.6% of the theoretical reducing sugar yield (67.0 g/100 g TVS). The pretreated water hyacinth was used to produce hydrogen by mixed H{sub 2}-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. The maximum hydrogen yield of 76.7 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS was obtained at 20 g/l of water hyacinth. The residual solutions from dark fermentation (mainly acetate and butyrate) were used to further produce hydrogen by immobilized Rhodopseudomonas palustris in photo fermentation. The maximum hydrogen yield of 522.6 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS was obtained at 10 g/l of water hyacinth. Through a combined process of dark- and photo- fermentation, the maximum hydrogen yield from water hyacinth was dramatically enhanced from 76.7 to 596.1 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS, which was 59.6% of the theoretical hydrogen yield. (author)

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    OROKA FRANK OKE; AKHIHIERO THELMA

    2015-01-01

    Co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung under anaerobic condition was studied. Results indicate a progressive increase in biogas yield with increased cow dung in the co-ferment mixture of water hyacinth: cow dung

  16. Water hyacinth biomass stabilization by its composting with swine wasterwater and slaugther house wasters / Estabilização da biomassa de aguapé através da compostagem com águas resíduárias de suínos e resíduos de frigorífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio César Sampaio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to evaluate the composting of water hyacinth (E. crassipes biomass, after its usage for the removal of pollutants from the effluent of a swine slaughter house wastewater treatment system, recycling the waste water used for swine transportation trucks and piggery hygienic cleaning and the cellulosic gut generated in the sausage processing . The composting was evaluated by building eight composting piles measuring approximately 0,60m3 each; the piles consisted of four distinct treatments that were done twice. The treatments were: T1 – Water hyacinth (E. crassipes, T2 – Water hyacinth and swine excrement, T3 – Water hyacinth, swine excrement and earth, T4 – Water hyacinth, swine excrement and cellulosic gut, for a period of 90 days. Considering the C:N ratio as a compost maturity indicator, it was observed that the T4 treatment (water hyacinth, excrement and cellulosic gut had the shorter period of stabilization, 60 days. Regarding the biostabilization rate, the statistic analysis showed that there was no significant difference at 5% level by the F test between the four treatments evaluated during 90 days. The total organic carbon and the nitrogen biostabilization average rates were 1,8x10-2 day-1 and 0,8x10-3 day-1, respectively. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a compostagem da biomassa de aguapé (E. crassipes, após sua utilização na remoção de poluentes em sistema de tratamento de efluente de uma Unidade Frigorífica de suínos, com o aproveitamento de águas residuárias provenientes da higienização de pocilgas e dos caminhões que transportam os suínos, e das tripas celulósicas geradas no processamento de salsichas. Avaliou-se a compostagem, montando-se oito leiras com aproximadamente 0,60m3, com quatro tratamentos distintos e duas repetições, sendo: T1 – Aguapé (E. crassipes, T2 – Aguapé e dejeto suíno, T3 – Aguapé, dejeto suíno e terra, T4 – Aguap

  17. Competitive sorption of heavy metals by water hyacinth roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Hui-Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global issue severely constraining aquaculture practices, not only deteriorating the aquatic environment but also threatening the aquaculture production. One promising solution is adopting aquaponics systems where a synergy can be established between aquaculture and aquatic plants for metal sorption, but the interactions of multiple metals in such aquatic plants are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the absorption behaviors of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in water by water hyacinth roots in both single- and binary-metal systems. Cu(II) and Cd(II) were individually removed by water hyacinth roots at high efficiency, accompanied with release of protons and cations such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). However, in a binary-metal arrangement, the Cd(II) sorption was significantly inhibited by Cu(II), and the higher sorption affinity of Cu(II) accounted for its competitive sorption advantage. Ionic exchange was identified as a predominant mechanism of the metal sorption by water hyacinth roots, and the amine and oxygen-containing groups are the main binding sites accounting for metal sorption via chelation or coordination. This study highlights the interactive impacts of different metals during their sorption by water hyacinth roots and elucidates the underlying mechanism of metal competitive sorption, which may provide useful implications for optimization of phytoremediation system and development of more sustainable aquaculture industry.

  18. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University No.38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, (China)

    2006-07-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H{sub 2} concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH{sub 4} is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  19. Review of current interest and research in water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, R. K.; Balon, J. E.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of activity in the user community for water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment was evaluated. The principal technique used was that of interviewing people who either (1) were known to be engaged in hyacinth research or development or (2) had made inquiry to NASA about hyacinth systems. About 40 non-research organizations and a similar number of research organizations were contacted. As a result of the interviews and a review of the relevant literature, it was concluded that hyacinth systems have the potential for providing a lower cost way for small cities to meet increasingly stringent effluent requirements. A limited amount of full-scale demonstration of hyacinth systems has been carried out during the past two years, but the yield of design data has been small. Several organizations are currently planning construction of experimental full-scale hyacinth-based wastewater treatment systems during 1977-1978.

  20. An analysis of the market potential of water hyacinth-based systems for municipal wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A. C.; Gorman, H. J.; Hillman, M.; Lawhon, W. T.; Maase, D. L.; Mcclure, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    The potential U.S. market for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment facilities which make use of water hyacinths was investigated. A baseline design was developed which approximates the "typical" or "average" situation under which hyacinth-based systems can be used. The total market size for tertiary treatment was then estimated for those geographical regions in which hyacinths appear to be applicable. Market penetration of the baseline hyacinth system when competing with conventional chemical and physical processing systems was approximated, based primarily on cost differences. A limited analysis was made of the sensitivity of market penetration to individual changes in these assumptions.

  1. Biogas production from Eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant; Producao de biogas a partir da planta aquatica Eichhornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Silva, Jose Goncalves da; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Virtually all plants and waste plants and animals may in some way be used as an energy source. The anaerobic digestion of these materials is an option, resulting in the biogas. Besides the gas obtained in the process, is produced, inside the biodigester, an excellent fertilizer. The aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes is found in large quantities in various water bodies, such as reservoirs, lakes and ponds, becoming mostly often a big problem and it is necessary its systematic removal of water. The bench biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced, and a reservoir to monitor the production of biogas. The reactor is located within a receptacle containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the purpose of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor made in a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity, show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. The process of biodigestion of aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes shows potential to obtain biogas, with considerable levels of methane in order to make its exploitation. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humid, total organic matter, mineral and organic carbon residue.

  2. 微光波对水葫芦水解糖化的促进机理研究%Promotion mechanisms of microwave and lightwave pretreatments on enzymatic saccharification of water hyacinth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军; 俞聪; 宋文路; 周俊虎; 岑可法

    2009-01-01

    利用色质联机和扫描电镜等微观分析手段,研究了微波时间、功率和光波组合等对水葫芦理化性质、还原糖产量和水解副产物的影响规律.水葫芦叶子经过蒸汽加热和NaOH预处理后,酶水解的还原糖产量仅为23.9 mg(每100 mg底物);而联合了微光波预处理后,可提高到31.1 mg(每100 mg底物),使还原糖产量提高了30.1%.在微波和光波组合比例为30∶70(总功率700 W)、加热时间1 min时,得到了55.4%的理论最大还原糖产量.当微波功率过高或时间过长时,在预处理阶段由半纤维素水解生成的大量木糖进一步分解,导致乙酸、丁酮和糠醛等有害小分子副产物增加,对后期酶水解糖化和发酵产酒精造成不利影响.%The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to study the effects of microwave time, power and combination with lightwave on the hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) physicochemical properties, reducing sugar yields and hydrolysis byproducts. The reducing sugar yield of only 23.9 mg/100 mg hyacinth leave in the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained when it was pretreated with the steam explosion and NaOH solution. The reducing sugar yield was increased by 30.1% to 31.1 mg/100 mg hyacinth leave when the microwave and lightwave pretreatments were additionally employed. The 55.4% of potential maximum sugars was released when the hyacinth leave was pretreated with the power ratio of microwave to lingtwave at 30∶70 (total power is 700 W) for 1 min. When the microwave power was higher and time was longer, more hydrolysis byproducts such as acetic acid, butanone and furfural were produced due to the further decomposition of the xylose derived from the hemicellulose hydrolysis, which was harmful to the following enzymatic saccharification and fermentative ethanol fuel.

  3. The change of nutritional value of the fermented Eichhornia crassipes Mart meal as broiler rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fera Mahmilia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes Mart is one of the water plants which grows in the rivers, ricefields, water reservoirs or dams. This plant is often considered as water weeds that harm people much. This weed can be used for feeding the animal, but it has high crude fiber. Fermentation tehnology could be done to overcome the problem. E. crassipes Mart is grounded into meal and solidly fermented by mixing minerals and Trichoderma harzianum for 4 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted the increase of nutritional value. The crude protein increases for 61.81% (from 6.31 to 10.21% and crude fiber decreases for 18% (26.61 to 21.82%. The in vivo experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design using 80 day old broiler chicks with 5 replication. They were alotted to 4 diets containing one control without fermented E. crassipes Mart, 5, 10 and 15% of fermented E. crassipes Mart. Diets were fed ad libitum for 6 weeks. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio, carcas and abdominal fat were observed as parameters. Result showed that no parameter were significantly affected by treatments, although the nutritional values were slightly decreasing in higher fermented E. crassipes. The fermented E. Crassipes Mart can be used up to 15% in broiler rations.

  4. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  5. Water Hyacinth in the Rift Valley Water Bodies of Ethiopia: Its Distribution, Socioeconomic Importance and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia from 2009 to 2011 to (i) determine the prevalence, agro-ecological distribution and sources of infestation of water hyacinth, (ii) investigate the socio-economic impact of water hyacinth, and (iii) assess changes in its agro-ecologic

  6. Caracterización de Agua Residual de Curtiduría y Estudio del Lirio Acuático en la Recuperación de Cromo Characterization of Tannery Effluents and Study of the Water Hyacinth in Chromium Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 4 tipos de efluentes muestreados en una tenería con planta de tratamiento. Estos efluentes se caracterizaron durante 4 semanas usando varios parámetros físico-químicos. El efluente de curtido fue evaluado en ensayos de fitoremediación con lirio acuático (Eichornea crassipes, determinándose la eficiencia de remoción del cromo bajo dos esquemas de inyección del agua de curtido a 4 L/día y 8 L/día. La composición de los efluentes residuales es variable y depende de las cargas de cuero procesado por semana. Los componentes del efluente de curtido en los ensayos de fitoremediación afectan significativamente la vida del lirio. Se concluye que la alta concentración de estos parámetros hace imposible la utilización de fitorremediación en este tipo de efluente, siendo necesario un tratamiento primario para disminuir la carga de compuestos presentesFour types of effluent were sampled from a tannery having a treatment plant. These effluents were observed for four weeks, measuring different physicochemical parameters. The tannery effluents were evaluated in phytoremediation assays using water hyacinth (Eichomea crassipes, determining the efficiency of chromium removal under tannery water injection conditions of 4 L/day and 8 L/day. The composition of the effluents was variable and depended on the leather processing loads during each week. The tannery effluent compositions in the phytoremediation assays significantly affected the life of the water hyacinth. It is concluded that the high concentrations of the parameters measured made phytoremediation impossible for this type of effluent, making primary treatment necessary in order to decrease the load of compounds present

  7. Associated Fauna to Eichhornia crassipes in a Constructed Wetland for Aquaculture Effluent Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares; Bruno Scardoelli Truzzi; Ana Milstein; Aline Marcari Marques

    2017-01-01

    Water, sediment and associated fauna were studied in a water hyacinth ( ) stand of a constructed wetland, used for aquaculture effluent treatment in SE Brazil, in February-April (summer/rainy season...

  8. Controle químico do aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes Chemical control of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram testados os produtos 2,4-D, sulfentrazone, glyphosate, diquat, imazapyr, imazapic, metsulfuron-metil e sulfosate. Conduziram-se seis ensaios em condições controladas de casa de vegetação, visando estudar a eficácia no controle de Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. Em todos os ensaios, as plantas de aguapé foram cultivadas em caixas com substrato como material de fundo e água completando o volume; os herbicidas foram aplicados com pulverizador costal a CO2. No primeiro ensaio, foram testados os herbicidas diquat, glyphosate, imazapyr e sulfentrazone. O diquat e o glyphosate foram altamente eficazes no controle de E. crassipes, com ação mais rápida do primeiro produto. Imazapyr e sulfentrazone indicaram que maior intensidade de controle poderá ser obtida em maior tempo de observação. No segundo ensaio, foram testados diquat, glyphosate, imazapyr, imazapic, 2,4-D, metsulfuron-metil e sulfosate. Diquat, glyphosate, imazapyr e 2,4-D foram eficazes no controle do aguapé. Diquat e 2,4-D mostraram ação mais rápida. O imazapyr apresentou lenta evolução, e o glyphosate, ação intermediária. Os herbicidas imazapic, sulfosate e metsulfuron, em função do tempo de avaliação, não mostraram eficácia satisfatória. No terceiro ensaio, foram estudados imazapyr e glyphosate aplicados três, seis e nove horas antes da incidência de chuva simulada. O glyphosate apresentou maior eficácia que o imazapyr e o glyphosate não sofreu influência do intervalo entre a aplicação e a ocorrência de chuva. No entanto, o desenvolvimento inicial dos sintomas foi mais rápido em intervalos maiores. No quarto ensaio foi estudado o diquat, aplicado nos períodos noturno e diurno, o qual foi eficiente no controle do aguapé na dose de 1,0 L ha-1 ou acima. Aplicações noturnas apenas proporcionaram ação mais rápida do produto, não influenciando o controle final. No quinto ensaio foi estudado o diquat em aplicações diurnas ou noturnas e em

  9. Invasive Eichhornia crassipes Affects the Capacity of Submerged Macrophytes to Utilize Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasion by free-floating species, such as Eichhornia crassipes, is one of the most critical threats to the biodiversity and sustainability of wetland ecosystems, where all plants experience spatial heterogeneity in substrate nutrients. However, few studies have focused on the effects of free-floating invaders on the capacity of submerged plants to utilize substrate nutrients. A 10-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the effects of free-floating invasive E. crassipes (presence or absence on the growth of Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum, and their capacity to use heterogeneous and homogeneous substrate nutrients. We found that the invasion of E. crassipes could significantly decrease the growth of both submerged C. demersum and M. spicatum and that substrate nutrient heterogeneity increased the growth of C. demersum (approximately 30% in total biomass and 40% in the number of nodes but not of M. spicatum. The two submerged species have different strategies to address invasion by E. crassipes. These results indicate that E. crassipes can prevent the growth of submerged plants even if the submerged plants can effectively use heterogeneous nutrients. For the effective conservation of submerged macrophytes in wetlands, measures should be taken to restrict the spread of invasive free-floating species.

  10. Removal of Copper by Eichhornia crassipes and the Characterization of Associated Bacteria of the Rhizosphere System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Kabeer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess doses of trace element contamination make conventional water treatment methods less effective and more expensive, where in alternative biotechnological applications open up new opportunities with their reduced cost and lesser impacts to the environment. In the present investigation, effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes was tested for the removal of copper in laboratory conditions. Water samples were collected from macrophytes natural habitat and water tubs used for growing E. crassipes and analysed along with plant tissues for Cu content. The work also characterized the associated microbiota of the rhizosphere system of the E. crassipes as well as the wetland system of its occurrence. Copper concentration of the wetland water samples ranged from 0.009 to 0.03ppm. Six bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Kurthia, Listeria and Chromobacterium were represented in rhizosphere of E.crassipes and 4 bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Listeria and Chromobacterium were recorded in wetland water samples. Copper resistance studies of the bacterial isolates showed that out of 26 isolates from rhizosphere and 19 strains from water samples,12 of them showed low resistance (80% of copper during 15 days experiment. Copper accumulation was found to be high in the root followed by leaf and petiole. Results of the present study concluded that E. crassipes is an efficient plant for the removal of copper.

  11. Facilitation and competition among invasive plants: a field experiment with alligatorweed and water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundrow, Emily J; Carrillo, Juli; Gabler, Christopher A; Horn, Katherine C; Siemann, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems that are heavily invaded by an exotic species often contain abundant populations of other invasive species. This may reflect shared responses to a common factor, but may also reflect positive interactions among these exotic species. Armand Bayou (Pasadena, TX) is one such ecosystem where multiple species of invasive aquatic plants are common. We used this system to investigate whether presence of one exotic species made subsequent invasions by other exotic species more likely, less likely, or if it had no effect. We performed an experiment in which we selectively removed exotic rooted and/or floating aquatic plant species and tracked subsequent colonization and growth of native and invasive species. This allowed us to quantify how presence or absence of one plant functional group influenced the likelihood of successful invasion by members of the other functional group. We found that presence of alligatorweed (rooted plant) decreased establishment of new water hyacinth (free-floating plant) patches but increased growth of hyacinth in established patches, with an overall net positive effect on success of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth presence had no effect on establishment of alligatorweed but decreased growth of existing alligatorweed patches, with an overall net negative effect on success of alligatorweed. Moreover, observational data showed positive correlations between hyacinth and alligatorweed with hyacinth, on average, more abundant. The negative effect of hyacinth on alligatorweed growth implies competition, not strong mutual facilitation (invasional meltdown), is occurring in this system. Removal of hyacinth may increase alligatorweed invasion through release from competition. However, removal of alligatorweed may have more complex effects on hyacinth patch dynamics because there were strong opposing effects on establishment versus growth. The mix of positive and negative interactions between floating and rooted aquatic plants may influence local

  12. Facilitation and competition among invasive plants: a field experiment with alligatorweed and water hyacinth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Wundrow

    Full Text Available Ecosystems that are heavily invaded by an exotic species often contain abundant populations of other invasive species. This may reflect shared responses to a common factor, but may also reflect positive interactions among these exotic species. Armand Bayou (Pasadena, TX is one such ecosystem where multiple species of invasive aquatic plants are common. We used this system to investigate whether presence of one exotic species made subsequent invasions by other exotic species more likely, less likely, or if it had no effect. We performed an experiment in which we selectively removed exotic rooted and/or floating aquatic plant species and tracked subsequent colonization and growth of native and invasive species. This allowed us to quantify how presence or absence of one plant functional group influenced the likelihood of successful invasion by members of the other functional group. We found that presence of alligatorweed (rooted plant decreased establishment of new water hyacinth (free-floating plant patches but increased growth of hyacinth in established patches, with an overall net positive effect on success of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth presence had no effect on establishment of alligatorweed but decreased growth of existing alligatorweed patches, with an overall net negative effect on success of alligatorweed. Moreover, observational data showed positive correlations between hyacinth and alligatorweed with hyacinth, on average, more abundant. The negative effect of hyacinth on alligatorweed growth implies competition, not strong mutual facilitation (invasional meltdown, is occurring in this system. Removal of hyacinth may increase alligatorweed invasion through release from competition. However, removal of alligatorweed may have more complex effects on hyacinth patch dynamics because there were strong opposing effects on establishment versus growth. The mix of positive and negative interactions between floating and rooted aquatic plants may

  13. Pengurangan Kadar N dan P pada Limbah Cair Laboratorium secara Fitoremediasi Menggunakan Enceng Gondok (Eichornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmaya Arofah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory liquid waste contains both metal, nonmetal, organic and anorganic content. If it is discharged directly to environment, it will cause pollution that is harmful for living thing. Data of waste survey result in 2009-2010 indicated that liquid waste of Laboratory in Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (JTK UGM consist of various complex compound such as NH4+, PO43-. JTK UGM has wastewater treatment plant (WWTP to deal with environmental pollution coming from waste of each laboratory and have three process, anaerobe activated sludge, aerobe and phytoremediation. Because the laboratory’s waste was very complex, the WWTP have not operated maximally yet. So, it is necessary research on wwtp processing step, particularly for phytoremediation process using water hyacinth. Objective of this research was to study effect of concentrations N and P on adaptability and capability of water hyacinth to grow. In addition it developed a mathematical model to estimate of N and P concentration decrease rate in liquid. The research was done in batch by planting water hyacinth that has been acclimated in wastewater containing N-NH4OH and P-H3PO4. Parameter observed is N and P concentration in liquid. The result indicated that water hyacinth can absorb N and P. Water hyacinth grow well in N-NH4OH concentration of 9.651 ppm and 15.573 ppm and P-H3PO4 concentration of 2.013 ppm and 2.7373 ppm. It was marked with additional weight and colour of water hyacinth leaves of fresh green. Mathematical model presented to estimate N concentration decrease rate indicated good result in experiment. However, P concentration decrease in liquid phase, the presented model is still not good, because P nutrient decomposition process has not been accommodated during absorption by water hyacinth.

  14. Evaluation of Water hyacinth and Paddy Straw Waste for Culture of Oyster Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Nageswaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; M. Ganesan; Vedhamurthy, A.

    2003-01-01

    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) was evaluated at ratios of 25, 50 and 75% with paddy straw ( Oryza sativa L.) for oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation. There was an increase in yield with decreasing ratio waterhyacinth.

  15. Treatment of effluent of psiculture with aquatic eichornia crassipes floating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Hussar

    Full Text Available Having in view to evaluate the performance of watery wine lagoons, on water treatment of draining off on pisciculture tank, was installed an experiment on three boxes of cement-asbestos, being one utilized as equalization tank and the others two cultivated with floating aquatic macrophytas known as watery wine (Eichornia crassipes. The removals of Chemical Demand of Oxygen (CDO, Total Nitrogen (N, Nitrate (NO3, Ammoniac Nitrogen (NH3, Total Phosphorus (P, Muddy (M, Color and pH had been surveyed in the period of evaluation. The average removal presented the following values: 77.7% to CDO; 76.9% to N; 79.5% to NO3; 82.9% to NH3; 95.4% to P and 92.1% to M. The gotten results could conclude that the performance of the system had a satisfatory reduction of the following parameters, when compared to other works, as: CDO, NO3, NH3 and M. To N and P the removal by the system was superior in relation to other researches related to waste treatment of domestic drain, pig culture and pisciculture. About the pH in the treatment system, the same behaved on a way very favorable in relation with the nitrification and denitrification.

  16. Comparison of photosynthetic eco-functions of water hyacinth and their environmental factors in different areas%不同地区凤眼莲的光合生态功能型及其生态影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 任承钢; 王满; 丛伟; 盛婧; 朱普平; 郑建初; 严少华

    2011-01-01

    以江苏省农业科学院太湖雪堰、南京和滇池白山湾的试验点内种养的凤眼莲为研究材料,在相同种养时间内,统一测定不同地区植株的株高和干重的变化及不同叶位光合参数和光合功能叶片的光合—光响应曲线等,以期阐明不同生态区凤眼莲株型特征形成的生态生理机制,并为不同地区人工放养凤眼莲的高产栽培提供理论参考和技术支持.结果表明:(1)不同地区种养的凤眼莲株型有较大差异,滇池的为短地上部分和长根的株型,其茎叶长/根长为0.4土0.1;南京的为中等长度的地上部分和短根的株型,其茎叶长/根长为7.1±0 3;太湖的为长地上部分和中等根长的株型,其茎叶长/根长为2.0±0.2.(2)形态有差异的不同地区凤眼莲植株的光合表现存在差异,与南京和滇池地区的相比,太湖凤眼莲不同叶位的净光合速率(Pn)最高(25.9~35.3μmol.m-2·s-1);相关性分析表明,南京凤眼莲的Pn与其相对湿度呈极显著负相关(r=-0.831**,n=6),滇池凤眼莲的Pn与气孔导度呈显著正相关(r=0.769*,n=6),太湖凤眼莲的相对湿度与叶片蒸腾速率呈显著负相关(r=-0.818*,n=6).可见影响不同地区Pn的外界因子有差异,但除外界光强外,相对湿度也是影响其Pn高低的重要生态因子.(3)不同生态地区形态有差异的植株己形成了相应的光合潜力,生长能力最强的太湖地区植株,光合能力也最强,Pmax最大(36.29±1.21μmol·m-2·s-1)且光饱和点最高(LSP,2 350.0±69.0 μmol·m-2·s-1);相关性分析进一步表明,株高和光补偿点(LCP)以及茎叶长度与光饱和点均呈显著正相关,相关系数分别为r=0.998*、r=0.997*(n=10).本研究可为不同地区利用凤眼莲净化富营养水域的高产栽培提供参考.%Eichhornia crassipes Solms, commonly known as water hyacinth, is a bundler aquatic plant. It is widely used in sewage purification due to its well developed root system

  17. LAJU PENURUNAN LOGAM BERAT PLUMBUM (PB DAN CADMIUM (CD OLEH EICHORNIA CRASSIPES DAN CYPERUS PAPYRUS (The Diminution Rate Of Heavy Metals, Plumbum And Cadmium By Eichornia Crassipes And Cyperus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan Tosepu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 menganalisis lama waktu (hari laju penurunan logam berat plumbum dan cadmium oleh Eichornia crassipes dan Cyperus papyrus. (2 membandingkan laju penurunan logam lumbum dan cadmium oleh Eichornia crassipes dan Cyperus papyrus. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kota Makassar dengan pemeriksaan sampel air dilakukan di Laboratotium Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau Maros. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis statistik dengan uji T test dan uji Post Hoc Test. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi logam berat plumbum lebih cepat terakumulasi habis dengan menggunakan tumbuhan Eichornia crassipes dibandingkan dengan menggunakan tumbuhan Cyperus papyrus. Logam berat plumbum dan cadmium memiliki laju penurunan yang cepat oleh tumbuhan Eichornia crassipes dibandingkan dengan tumbuhan Cyperus papyrus. ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the diminution rate of heavy metals, plumbum and cadmium by Eichornia crassipes and Cyperus papyrus and to compare the rate of their decrease. The study conducted in Makassar city by examining the water sample in the Brackish Water Culture Fishery Research in Maros.  The data were analyzed statistically by employing T test and Post Hoc test. The results of the study indicate that the concentration of heavy metal, plumbum is quicker by using Eichornia crassipes plant than the Cyperus papyrus plant. The heavy metals, plumbum and cadmium have rapid rates of diminution by  Eichornia crassipes plant than the Cyperus papyrus plant.

  18. Use of biogas fluid-soaked water hyacinth for cultivating Pleurotus geesteranus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuxia; Jiang, Zhihe; Chen, Xi; Lei, Jingui; Weng, Boqi; Huang, Qin

    2010-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the viability of growing Pleurotus geesteranus on media containing varying amounts of crushed water hyacinth slices, which were soaked in pig farm biogas fluid and dried. The water hyacinth material was utilized to substitute sawdust in the media for mushroom cultivation. Mushroom fruiting bodies harvested were evaluated for yield, amino acid and heavy metal contents. Among the eight treatment groups, the greatest yield and highest amino acid content in the mushrooms were obtained when the proportions of water hyacinth and sawdust in the medium were equal. The concentrations of heavy metals, Hg, Pb and Cd, in most of the present mushroom samples did not exceed the maximum allowed levels according to the limits set forth by the food hygienic and safety regulations for edible mushrooms in China. The proposed waste utilization of water hyacinth could conceivably benefit the environment in various aspects including conservation of forest by reducing the demand on natural woods for mushroom production.

  19. Rice Husk Ash Derived Zeolite Blended with Water Hyacinth Ash for Enhanced Adsorption of Cadmium Ions

    OpenAIRE

    G. W. Mbugua; H. M. Mbuvi; J. W. Muthengia

    2014-01-01

    In order to helpcurtail or imposesustained control to the offensive water hyacinth plant,it is essential to explore ways of generatingwater remediation materials from it. In the current study, the capacity and efficacy of water hyacinth ash (WHA),its insoluble residue (WHAR) and rice husk ash (RHA)to remove cadmium ionsand methylene blue from contaminated water was investigated. Mixtures of the two ashes were used to formulatezeolitic materialsby hydrothermal reactions. Material A, ZMA was pr...

  20. Physical and Combustion Characteristics of Briquettes Made from Water Hyacinth and Phytoplankton Scum as Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the potential of water hyacinths and phytoplankton scum, an aquatic weed, as binder for production of fuel briquettes. It also evaluated some physical and combustion characteristics. The water hyacinths were manually harvested, cleaned, sun-dried, and milled to particle sizes distribution ranging from <0.25 to 4.75 mm using hammer mill. The water hyacinth grinds and binder (phytoplankton scum at 10% (B1, 20% (B2, 30% (B3, 40% (B4, and 50% (B5 by weight of each feedstock were fed into a steel cylindrical die of dimension 14.3 cm height and 4.7 cm diameter and compressed by hydraulic press at pressure 20 MPa with dwell time of 45 seconds. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics. Initial bulk density of uncompressed mixture of water hyacinth and phytoplankton scum at different binder levels varied between 113.86 ± 3.75 (B1 and 156.93 ± 4.82 kg/m3 (B5. Compressed and relaxed densities of water hyacinth briquettes at different binder proportions showed significant difference . Durability of the briquettes improved with increased binder proportion. Phytoplankton scum improved the mechanical handling characteristics of the briquettes. It could be concluded that production of water hyacinth briquettes is feasible, cheaper, and environmentally friendly and that they compete favourably with other agricultural products.

  1. Experimental Research on the Application of Water Hyacinths to the Ecological Restoration of Water Bodies with Eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Fa-kuo; SHAO; Xiao-long; SUN; Yi-chao; LIU; Hong-lei; YUAN; Min; XIE; Hua-sheng; LI; Li; YU; Dan; LIU; Xu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aims to discuss the application of water hyacinths to the ecological restoration of water bodies with eutrophication through simulation experiments. [Method] In this study, water hyacinths were used to restore the simulated eutrophic water with green algae as the dominant algae species, and then the restoration effect of the simulated eutrophic water by water hyacinths was analyzed. [Result] In the simulation test without sediment, the peak chlorophyll concentration was 434.6 mg/m3 in the tank without water hyacinths, which decreased to 285 and 119 mg/m3 respectively in the tanks with 1 and 4 water hyacinths. In the experiment with sediment, compared with the control tank without water hyacinths, a 58% reduction in chlorophyll concentration could be observed in the tank with 4 water hyacinths planted (with a coverage of 51%). The results showed that water hyacinths could inhibit alga growth notably, but there was likely a density threshold (51% coverage), and no significant eco-restoration effect was observed in the simulated eutrophic water with too few water hyacinths planted. [Conclusion] The research could provide scientific references for the ecological restoration of eutrophic water bodies.

  2. Feeding impact of the planthopper taosa longula on waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae), a planthopper native to South America, is a candidate for the biological control of waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae), a serious weed around the world. The damage that T. longula causes to the clonal r...

  3. Secondary metabolites of Eichhornia crassipes (Waterhyacinth): a review (1949 to 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Pottail; Sripathi, Shubashini K; Jayanthi, Ponnusamy

    2012-09-01

    Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Waterhyacinth), an aquatic perennial herb present throughout the world, has a myriad of metabolites. Phenalenone compounds and sterols have been isolated from this plant. Extracts, as well as pure compounds isolated from this plant, have been demonstrated to possess pharmacological activities. An account of the phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and several applications ofwaterhyacinth are included in this review.

  4. Energy flow of tulips and hyacinths; Energiestroom tulp en hyacint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands); Kok, M.; Bisschop, B. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The project objectives are: (1) to update and to create an improved map of energy flows for cultivation (natural gas and electricity) and forcing (electricity) of tulips; (2) To update and improve the map of energy flows (natural gas and electricity) for cultivation and forcing of hyacinths; and (3) Deriving the most optimal drying and storage method from an analysis of the distribution in natural gas use/ha in the cultivation of tulips [Dutch] De projectdoelstellingen zijn (1) Het actualiseren en beter in kaart brengen van de energiestromen voor teelt (aardgas en elektriciteit) en broei (elektriciteit) van tulpen; (2) Het actualiseren en beter in kaart brengen van de energiestromen (aardgas en elektriciteit) voor teelt en broei van hyacint; en (3) Het afleiden van de meest optimale droog- en bewaarmethode uit een analyse van de spreiding in aardgasverbruik/ha bij de teelt van tulpen.

  5. Assessment of nutritional quality of water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adeyemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was embarked upon to convert water hyacinth, an environmental nuisance, to a natural resource for economic development. Water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC was extracted in edible form and determination of its physicochemical characteristics, total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was done. Analysis of proximate composition and amino acid profile of the WHLPC was also done. The level of heavy metals (mg/kg in WHLPC was found to be Cd (0.02 ± 0.001, Cr (0.13 ± 0.001, Pd (0.003 ± 0.001 and Hg (0.02 ± 0.001 while concentrations of Pb, Pt, Sn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co were found to be 0.001 ± 0.00. Level of all heavy metals was found to be within safe limit. Proximate analysis revealed that protein in WHLPC accounted for 50% of its nutrients, carbohydrate accounted for 33% of its nutrients while fat, ash and fibre made up the remaining nutrients. Amino acid analysis showed that WHLPC contained 17 out of 20 common amino acids, particularly, Phe (3.67%, Leu (5.01%. Level of total alkaloids and phenolic compounds was 16.6 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg respectively. Evidence from this study suggests that WHLPC is a good source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC; it is nutritious and acutely non toxic.

  6. Identification of gene fragments related to nitrogen deficiency in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Minghui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon River Basin. It has become a serious weed in freshwater habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs both in tropical and warm temperate areas worldwide. Some research has stated that it can be used for water phytoremediation, due to its strong assimilation of nitro- gen and phosphorus, and the accumulation of heavy metals, and its growth and spread may play an important role in environmental ecology. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of E. crassipes to responses to nitrogen deficiency, we constructed forward and reversed subtracted cDNA libraries for E. crassipes roots under nitrogen deficient condition using a suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH method. The forward subtraction included 2 100 clones, and the reversed included 2 650 clones. One thousand clones were randomly selected from each library for sequencing. About 737 (527 unigenes clones from the forward library and 757 (483 unigenes clones from the reversed library were informative. Sequence BlastX analysis showed that there were more transporters and adenosylhomocysteinase-like proteins in E. crassipes cultured in nitrogen deficient medium; while, those cultured in nitrogen replete medium had more proteins such as UBR4-like e3 ubiquitin- protein ligase and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein 8-like, as well as more cytoskeletal proteins, including actin and tubulin. Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG analysis also demonstrated that in the forward library, the most ESTs were involved in coenzyme transportation and metabolism. In the reversed library, cytoskeletal ESTs were the most abundant. Gene Ontology (GO analysis categories demonstrated that unigenes involved in binding, cellular process and electron carrier were the most differentially expressed unigenes between the forward and reversed libraries. All these results suggest that E. crassipes can respond to different nitrogen status by efficiently

  7. Identification of gene fragments related to nitrogen deficiency in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Minghui; Jiang, Lihua; Li, Yuanmei; Yan, Guohua; Zheng, Lijun; Jinping, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon River Basin. It has become a serious weed in freshwater habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs both in tropical and warm temperate areas worldwide. Some research has stated that it can be used for water phytoremediation, due to its strong assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the accumulation of heavy metals, and its growth and spread may play an important role in environmental ecology. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of E. crassipes to responses to nitrogen deficiency, we constructed forward and reversed subtracted cDNA libraries for E. crassipes roots under nitrogen deficient condition using a suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The forward subtraction included 2,100 clones, and the reversed included 2,650 clones. One thousand clones were randomly selected from each library for sequencing. About 737 (527 unigenes) clones from the forward library and 757 (483 unigenes) clones from the reversed library were informative. Sequence BlastX analysis showed that there were more transporters and adenosylhomocysteinase-like proteins in E. crassipes cultured in nitrogen deficient medium; while, those cultured in nitrogen replete medium had more proteins such as UBR4-like e3 ubiquitin-protein ligase and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein 8-like, as well as more cytoskeletal proteins, including actin and tubulin. Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) analysis also demonstrated that in the forward library, the most ESTs were involved in coenzyme transportation and metabolism. In the reversed library, cytoskeletal ESTs were the most abundant. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis categories demonstrated that unigenes involved in binding, cellular process and electron carrier were the most differentially expressed unigenes between the forward and reversed libraries. All these results suggest that E. crassipes can respond to different nitrogen status by efficiently regulating and controlling

  8. Environmental and economic analysis of application of water hyacinth for eutrophic water treatment coupled with biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zanxin; Calderon, Margaret M

    2012-11-15

    The proliferation of water hyacinth is currently controlled by removing it from a water body and disposing it by landfill in China. Using water hyacinth to remove nutrients from water bodies and to produce biogas is another technically feasible option for the control of water hyacinth, but its environmental and economic performances are not well understood. This study collected data from an experimental biogas plant to develop a lifecycle analysis and a cost benefit analysis for the control of water hyacinth proliferation in a eutrophic lake in China. Comparison was made between the alternative option of using water hyacinth for biogas production and the current practice of disposing it in landfills. The results reveal that the biogas option is economically feasible with a positive energy balance. The removal of water hyacinth to produce biogas can contribute to water quality improvement and GHG emission reduction whose values, however, depend on the processing scale of the biogas plant. Since both the current approach and the biogas option can remove nutrients from water bodies, the additional value of water quality improvement resulting from the biogas option is only possible when the processing scale of the biogas plant is greater than the amount of water hyacinth disposed by landfill. The emission of methane deserves attention when water hyacinth is disposed by landfill. The biogas option can respond to China's policies on water pollution control, renewable energy development, and energy saving and emission reduction.

  9. APPLICATION OF WATER HYACINTH VERMICOMPOST ON THE GROWTH OF Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.BLESSY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The water hyacinth has been developed into biofertilizer by vermicomposting through two methods. Samples have been collected from Kanakkan Yeri, Pondicherry, India. The earthworm chosen for this study was Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermicompost has been prepared using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the present study, two methods were followed. In one method, water hyacinth waste was collected composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the other method, the cellulose present in water hyacinth was hydrolyzed enzymatically and composted by using Eudrilus eugeniae. The vermicompost was collected from both the methods and used for analyzing enzymes, physicochemical parameters, level of macro and micronutrients. The efficacy of the prepared vermicompost has been studied on the vegetable plant Capsicum annum. Germination time, growth of the plant, number of the leaves has been studied. Finally, it has been compared with the plants which were grown using chemical fertilizers (NPK.

  10. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfitri Astuti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is generated from biological process of organic material by bacterial engaged. Biogas can be derived from manure, municipal waste, agricultural waste and other biomass resources. In addition to the use of cow manure as raw material for biogas production, it can also be derived from biomass containing cellulose which one is water hyacinth as an organic material that contains quite large cellulose. The abundance of water hyacinth found in Rawapening causing several negative impacts. The purpose of this study is to observe  temperature and pH on the biogas production generated from water hyacinth of Rawapening and cow manure. Biogas production process begins by chopping the leaves and stems of water hyacinth, and then mixed with cow manure and water. The results of substrate variation of water hyacinth, cow manure and water reaches optimally at 40:80:480 respectively, which produce the highest point of  biogas amounted 176.33 ml on the day 20 in 1L sized digester, the temperature of the biogas production is at 32°C.  At the initial fermentation, digester temperature of 30°C has increased over the course of the fermentation process, a peak at day 20 and then decreased to 27°C at the end of fermentation. There is a decrease in pH starting from initial fermentation at pH 6-7 and then the pH began to decline until the end of fermentation as amount of pH 5.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25Citation:  Nurfitri Astuti, N., Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, T.R., and  Budiyono. 2013. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure. Waste Technology 1(1:1-5. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25

  11. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of silver, cobalt, and strontium from polluted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths and alligator weeds demonstrated the ability to rapidly remove heavy metals from an aqueous system by root absorption and concentration. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.439 mg of silver, 0.568 mg of cobalt, and 0.544 mg of strontium in an ionized form per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. Alligator weeds removed a maximum of 0.439 mg of silver, 0.130 mg of cobalt, and 0.161 mg of strontium per gram of dry plant material per day.

  12. Proposed adsorption-diffusion model for characterizing chromium(VI) removal using dried water hyacinth roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Debasish; Mukherjee, Paramartha; Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta, Kolkata (India); Das, Sudip Kumar [Department of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata (India)

    2010-08-15

    Experiments have been carried out to characterize the adsorption of chromium(VI) in the aqueous phase onto dried roots of water hyacinth. Results revealed a very high degree of removal efficiency ({proportional_to}100%). Theoretical analyzes are also made for describing the sorption and diffusion processes. The effective pore diffusivity of chromium(VI) in the water hyacinth roots is determined by a suitable global optimization technique. The depth of penetration, on the other hand, has been estimated for various initial concentrations of chromium(VI). Theoretically predicted concentration profiles are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Study of Biogas Production Rate from Water Hyacinth by Hydrothermal Pretreatment with Buffalo Dung as a Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Kurniawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on biogas enhancement production rates from water hyacinth mixed with buffalo dung. The focus of the experiment was on the time of hydrothermal pretreatment and the ratio of water hyacinth with buffalo dung. The hydrothermal pretreated substrates were characterized by TDS, BOD and pH. The hydrothermal pretreatment of 60 minutes with the ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung 1:2 showed the highest biogas production rate at 7889 ml/day. However, the highest methane composition was 52.82% which resulted on the hydrothermal treatment of 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung. Thus, the optimum of methane yield obtained at hydrothermal pretreatment for 30 minutes with equal ratio of water hyacinth to buffalo dung is 2856 ml/day. The hydrothermal pretreatment increases the rate production of biogas 102% and the methane yield 51% relative to untreated water hyacinth. The ratio of water hyacinth and buffalo dung has a great impact on biogas production rate and compositions for hydrothermal pretreated substrates.

  14. Preliminary information on the production of Eichhornia Crassipes in residual water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany de Casabianca, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass production systems, in particular using water hyacinth, are used for the purification of water in an experimental station. The systems was first tested in raw water on a primary decanter and then, in discharged water (semi-continuous supply of five eight square meter tanks) The basic idea was to play on the conditions of growth and the export of protein. This experiment showed that water hyacinths grew remarkably well in the discharged water, but not in the raw water. Production varies substantially with climatic conditions and farming methods. The percentage of dry substance is also very variable; the C/N ratio remains close to 8.5. The variability of production has an effect on purification. Further study would be needed to validate the system.

  15. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  16. WATER HYACINTH: A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE RATE RETARDING NATURAL POLYMER USED IN SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabera eKhatun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years natural polymers have been widely used, because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr’s Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37oC ± 0.5 temperature, for 8 hours. All the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, but among all the formulations F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  17. Phytoremediation of nutrient polluted stormwater runoff: water hyacinth as a model plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Het doel van het in dit proefschrift beschreven onderzoek was om te verkennen in hoeverre fytoremediatie met behulp van waterplanten kon beheersen en de waterkwaliteit te verbeterenPhytoremediation of nutriënt polluted stormwater runoff using water hyacinth as a model plant was explored in greenhous

  18. The physiological and biochemical mechanism of nitrate-nitrogen removal by water hyacinth from agriculture eutrophic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wenwei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large amount of agriculturl wastewater containing high level nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 --N is produced from modern intensive agricultural production management due to the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and livestock scale farming. The hydroponic experiment of water hyacinth was conducted for analyzing the content of NO3 --N, soluble sugar content, N-transported the amino acid content and growth change in water hyacinth to explore its purification ability to remove NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater and physiological and biochemical mechanism of this plant to remove NO3 --N. The results showed that the water hyacinth could effectively utilize the NO3 --N from agriculture eutrophic wastewater. Compared with the control, the contents of NO3 -change to NO3 --N in the root, leaf petiole and leaf blade of water hyacinth after treatment in the wastewater for a week was significantly higher than that in the control plants treated with tap water, and also the biomass of water hyacinth increased significantly, indicating that the accumulation of biomass due to the rapid growth of water hyacinth could transfer some amount of NO3 --N.13C-NMR analysis confirmed that water hyacinth would convert the part nitrogen absorbed from agriculture eutrophic wastewater to ammonia nitrogen, which increased the content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid, decreased the content of soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose and the content of N-storaged asparagine and glutamine, lead to enhance the synthesis of plant amino acids and promote the growth of plants. These results indicate that the nitrate in agriculture eutrophic wastewater can be utilized by water hyacinth as nitrogen nutrition, and can promote plant growth by using soluble sugar and amide to synthesis amino acids and protein.

  19. REMOVAL AND LEACHING OF NUTRIENTS BY SALVIN1A MOLESTA MITCHEL AND EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART. SOLMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. WEE and H.H. YEOH

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Profuse growth of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta in Singapore reservoirs required their regular manual removal as their prolonged presence can lead to deterioration in the quality of the potable water. Clearing of the reservoir catchments, together with regular removal of the weeds and dumping them away from the catchments, should, in the long term, reduce their presence in the reservoirs. Laboratory experiments showing the removal of chloride, sulphate, phosphorus and nitrate from the growing medium and the release of chloride, phosphorus and nitrate by rotting plants should convince the administrators of the benefit of proper management of the problem.

  20. The population structure and the individual forms of Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassips (Mart.) Solms, in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    OSADA, MASAO; OKINO, TOKIO

    1986-01-01

    Certain ecological characteristics of the Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms population were studied in Thailand in 1982, in order to gain a basic knowledge for its use as a bio-resource in the future. The waters were eutrophic in the study area, where the Waterhyacinth population prospered. The biomass and the Leaf Area Index of Waterhyacinth population showed large values ranging from 1.18 to 2.32 kg d.w./㎡ and from 5.1 to 7.1 ㎡ /㎡ , retpectively. The diagram of the productiv...

  1. PEMANFAATAN ECENG GONDOK (EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART. SOLMS. DALAM PENYISIHAN LOGAM BERAT CHROM (CR PADA LIMBAH ELEKTROPLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiyati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Effluent that is produce by the electroplating industry, especially nickel chrome plating, contains chromemetal that is carcinogenic. The toxicities from chrome are caused by its ability to dissolve and it’s mobilityin the environment. An alternative treatment to reduce chrome is called fitoremediasi which uses plants asits indicator; in this case we use water hyacinth.At the preface experiment, we tried to plant mature water hyacinth in electroplating waste. First we tried toplant in 100% waste water in witch we repeated it 3 times. At the 3rd week; day 18; the plants becameyellowish and became wilted. Knowing this fact, we applied the time for our experiment the we were goingto executed, with assuming at the 18th day the plants will become wilted as an indicator that the waterhyacinth are saturated in adsorbing chrome as the heavy metal pollutant. This became the parameter indesigning the time treatment for the plant zone, 4 until 15 days.The treatment was done by making variation in the amount of plants that are planted, which was 0 plants(as the control, 1 plant, 2 plants, 3 plants, and 4 plants; with 3 times repeating at each stage. The result ofthis experiment after 18 days shows the chrome concentration and the efficiently in decreasing theconcentration on each stage. The highest efficiently for each plant was the treatment by 1 plant only. Thehighest efficiently in decreasing the concentration was 78,95% ad it was done by the treatment with 4plants. To get chrom concentration which is fill with the standard, we can add more water hyacinth into thewaste with the balance equivalent or we need the lower beginning concentration.

  2. Utilization of two invasive free-floating aquatic plants (Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes) as sorbents for oil removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunan; Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    Free-floating aquatic plants Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes are well-known invasive species in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to utilize the plants as cost-effective and environmentally friendly oil sorbents. Multilevel wrinkle structure of P. stratiotes leaf (PL), rough surface of E. crassipes leaf (EL), and box structure of E. crassipes stalk (ES) were observed using the scanning electron microscope. The natural hydrophobic structures and capillary rise tests supported the idea to use P. stratiotes and E. crassipes as oil sorbents. Experiments indicated that the oil sorption by the plants was a fast process. The maximum sorption capacities for different oils reached 5.1-7.6, 3.1-4.8, and 10.6-11.7 g of oil per gram of sorbent for PL, EL, and ES, respectively. In the range of 5-35 °C, the sorption capacities of the plants were not significantly different. These results suggest that the plants can be used as efficient oil sorbents.

  3. Host specificity assessment and potential impact of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Pontederiales: Pontederiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The delphacid Megamelus scutellaris Berg was evaluated for host specificity and potential impact as part of a biological control program targeting E. crassipes. Survival and development of adults and nymphs were used as metrics with no-choice, choice, nymph transfer, and sustainability tests conduc...

  4. Joint use of insects and fungal pathogens in the management of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): Perspectives for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, F.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2013-01-01

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] remains one of the worst aquatic weeds worldwide. Its presence in Ethiopia was officially reported in Koka Lake and Awash River about 60 yr ago. Experiences worldwide indicate that the use of bioagents is the most economical and sustainable control

  5. Biosorption of BF-4B Reactive Red Dye by using Leaves of Macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes

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    Aparecido Nivaldo Módenes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The removal potential on BF-4B reactive red dye by Eichhornia crassipes dried leaves has been investigated. Furthermore, the influence of process parameters such as solution pH, agitation, and particle size on the dye adsorption efficiency was assessed. Both kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed in batch operation of the system. Kinetic results demonstrated that the equilibrium state was achieved after 45 min process time. The kinetic experimental data were best described by applying a pseudo-second order model that evaluated the value of rate constant 0.22 g/mg/min and an equilibrium dye concentration 8.20 mg/g. A set of isotherm models, taken from knowledge database, was tested in order to represent the equilibrium adsorption data. The Langmuir model performed the best when fitting experimental data where the maximum adsorption capacity of 20.38 mg/g was achieved. The results demonstrated that the E. crassipes has good potential to be used as a biosorbent in industrial treatment systems to remove reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  6. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using (1)H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING LOCALLY AVAILABLE INEXPENSIVE TARO AND WATER HYACINTH AS BIOSORBENT

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    Shahjalal Khandaker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, locally available and inexpensive Taro and Water Hyacinth were used as biosorbents to remove chromium from synthetic wastewater. The removal of this metal ion from water in the batch and column method have been studied and discussed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm studies were also carried out. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the data follow both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Scanning Electronic Microscopic image was also used to understand the surface characteristics of biosorbent before and after biosorption studies. Effects of various factors such as pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate initial concentration, particle size etc. were analyzed. The initial concentrations of chromium were considered 5-30mgL-1 in batch method and only 4mgL-1 in column method. The maximum chromium adsorbed was 1.64 mgg-1 and 4.44 mgg-1 in Batch method and 1.15 mgg-1 and 0.75 mgg-1 in Column method. Batch and Column desorption and regeneration studies were conducted. Column desorption studies indicated that both of these biosorbents could be reused for removing heavy metals. Results of the laboratory experiments show that the performance of Taro and Water Hyacinth prove that they can effectively be used as low cost biosorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater.KEYWORDS:   adsorption; chromium removal; Taro; water hyacinth; batch method; column studies

  8. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  9. Occurrence and diversity of fungal pathogens associated with water hyacinth and their potential as biocontrol agents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, Firehun; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Tessema, Taye

    2017-01-01

    Water hyacinth poses serious socio-economic and environmental problems in Ethiopia. To integrate fungal pathogens into water hyacinth management, a survey was conducted in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Based on morphological characterization and DNA sequencing, 25 fungal species were identified th

  10. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

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    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Development of the technology and used in accumulation and absorption of the heavy metals and other nutrients under phytoremediation from the aquatic bodies, biofuel and biogas production through fermentation and decomposition, fertilizer production through composting / vermicomposting, production of feeds for animal and many more utilities which are beneficial is discussed in this review. The review paper also deals with this multifaceted utility approach of this plant and their application in management.

  11. Biochemical characterization of consortium compost of toxic weeds Parthenium hysterophorus and Eichhornia crassipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Singh, Mangal; Dhanda, Suman; Singh, Talwinder; Singh, Jasbir

    2012-11-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus and Eichhornia crassipes are two uncontrolled weeds with high concentration of N, P, K, Zn and Fe that makes them suitable for composting. Three types of compost viz. Parthenium and Eichhornia each alone as well as combined were prepared. Biochemical and enzymatic analysis of the compost in addition to seed germination was performed. Phenols, organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios were found to decrease significantly while N, P, K, polyphenol oxidase increased significantly in combined compost. Furthermore, seed germination test of Vigna radiata and Triticum seeds, revealed a significant increase in root, shoot length and germination index in 60days old combined compost. It can be concluded that combined composting of Parthenium with Eichhornia not only reduces the allelopathic effect but also increases its nutrient quality and thus could be promising for organic farming and bioremediation.

  12. On the ultrasonic irradiation in the photosynthetic activity of aquatic lirium (Eichornia crassipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Cardona, A.; Juarez G, A. G.; Marin, E.; Munoz H, R. A.; Diaz G, J. A., E-mail: jcalderona@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    We report, for the first time, the application of the photoacoustic technique for monitoring the photosynthesis evolution in aquatic lirium (Eichornia crassipes), before and after it was exposed to ultrasonic irradiations. We obtained the disappearance of the phototobaric contribution in the Pa signal measured for the irradiated samples with ultrasound of 17 khz, and therefore of a possible damage in the centers producing the photosynthesis, due to the irradiation. These results show the utility of the ultrasonic irradiation, as well as, of the photosynthesis monitoring by means of the photoacoustic technique, for the elaboration and establishment of methodologies in the control of this aquatic plant, whose propagation causes many consequences extremely unfavorable for the environment, as well as for the diverse human activities that are developed in the bodies of water in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. (Author)

  13. Neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum Rubiaceae in mice

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    Moses W. Bariweni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Northern Nigeria, Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum Rubiaceae leaf extracts are used in the treatment of convulsion, pain and mental illness; however, there is paucity of information on its neuropharmacological effects. Aims: To evaluate the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Pavetta crassipes. Methods: Pavetta crassipes leaves were harvested, dried and powdered using an electric mill. Hot aqueous extraction was done with 250 g powdered leaf in 1000 mL distilled water. The dry extract was partitioned in various solvents with only the aqueous fraction (AF, and butanol fraction (BF giving significant yields. Neuropharmacological effects including anticonvulsant, behavioural, antipsychotic, muscle relaxant and sedative effects were evaluated in the extract and fractions at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, using standard methods. Results: The onset of strychnine induced convulsions was significantly (p<0.01 delayed by doses of AE and BF. Pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions were significantly (p<0.01 delayed by doses of AF and BF while AE at 400 mg/kg offered 100% protection. The duration of maximum electroshock induced tonic hind limb extension was reduced significantly (p<0.01 by AE, AF and BF. There were also significant reductions in motor coordination (p<0.01, rearing (p<0.05, locomotor activity (p<0.01, grooming (p<0.01, time of sleep onset (p<0.01, and an increase in sleeping time (p<0.01 by doses of AE, AF and BF. Conclusions: The extract and fractions of P. crassipes possess anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant, antipsychotic and muscle relaxant effects to varying degrees.

  14. Effect of nickel ions on anaerobic methane production from water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuan; Hong, Zi-Jian; Dai, Rui-Hua; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of nickel ions (Ni(2+), 0, 10, 40 and 80 mg/L) on the anaerobic methane production of water hyacinth were investigated. Under these four concentrations, the methane production in 40 d was 2,275, 2,703, 3,210 and 2,481 mL, respectively. This situation illustrated that the Ni(2+) promoted the growth of hydrogen-producing acetic acid bacteria and methanogenic bacteria, even at high concentrations (i.e. 40-80 mg/L). The highest methane production per unit weight water hyacinth reached 206 mL/gTS with 40 mg/L Ni(2+). Meanwhile, the modified Gompertz and Logistic equations were applied to describe the effect on anaerobic culture of Ni(2+). According to these models, the values of methane production potential (mL) for four concentrations were in the following order: 40 mg/L (3,123.42 ± 60.08) > 10 mg/L (2,541.16 ± 46.94) > 80 mg/L (2,432.36 ± 40.18) > 0 mg/L (2,238.10 ± 31.90). According to the analysis of the digestate, the residual concentration of Ni(2+) was approximately 1.05-4.9 mg/L, which was relatively low compared with the Ni(2+) concentrations in the raw feedstock. The results would provide academic guidance and technical support for treatment of water hyacinth with an accumulation of heavy metals.

  15. Generating electricity during peak hours in Asuncion, Paraguay, through anaerobic digestion of cultivated water hyacinths

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    A. Maioli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to present an innovative and sustainable proposal for generating electricity in the metropolitan area of Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, based on a renewable source of energy. Electricity would mainly be generated during peak hours with the aim of reducing power contracted by the Paraguayan Electricity Administration (ANDE from existing hydroelectric power plants and thus reduce costs and stabilise transmission and distribution grids in the area of Asuncion. Electricity would be generated at a 130 MW combined cycle thermal power plant using biogas as fuel, this being obtained by anaerobic digestion of water hyacinths cultivated in pools, which would be built on the banks of the Paraguay river opposite Asuncion’s botanical garden. The main advantage of using water hyacinths is their high growth rate, this being 100 to 500 g/day/m2 depending on environmental conditions, thereby allowing plant mass to double every 6 to 15 days. Additionally, carbon to nitrogen ratio in water hyacinth vegetal mass is optimum for biogas generation. About 6.4 kWh/m3 biogas calorific value is high enough to be used for producing heat and, therefore, for generating electricity in a thermal power plant. Such power plant could be directly connected to the national grid through the Puerto Botanic transformer station by building a 2 km long 220 kV transmission line crossing the Paraguay River. This project could save ANDE up to 25 million US$ every year due to reduced contracted power at the Itaipu power plant. Although this reduction will decline by 3% each year due to increased electricity demand, the investment of around 98 million US$ could be repaid within 15 years and would have 5% IRR and US$ 40.5 million NPV.

  16. [Impacts of algal blooms accumulation on physiological ecology of water hyacinth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-ting; Liu, Guo-feng; Han, Shi-qun; Zhou, Qing; Tang, Wan-ying

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green algae bloom will consume plenty of dissolved oxygen in water, which affects the growth of aquatic plants. The effects of water hyacinth growth and physiological response changes under 25 degrees C, 5 different concentrations of cyanobacteria gathered were studied and which would provide a theoretical basis to mitigate adverse impacts and improve water purification effect. The results showed that water quality indexes including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH dropped in algae density below 60 g x L(-1), with the increase of algae density. And the level of oxidation-reduction potential dropped to about 100 mV. The removal rates of TN, TP and COD were 58%-78%, 43%-68% and 59%-73%, leaf soluble protein, soluble sugar, MDA contents increased, respectively; and the MDA content became higher with the increase of algae density. It indicated that the water hyacinth could adapt to the adversity condition as algae density less than 60 g x L(-1). While algae density above 60 g x L(-1), water quality indexes significantly decreased, respectively and the water was in hypoxia or anoxia conditions. Plant leaves soluble sugar contents had a change trend of low-high-low. It indicated that the removal rates of TN, TP decreased with the increase of algae density and water hyacinth had irreversible stress. Plant root length, total length, fresh weight in different treatments, increased compared with the beginning of the experiment, the increase of root length, total length and fresh weight were 0.29-2.44 times, 0.41-0.76 times and 0.9-1.43 times. The increase of root length, total length decreased with the increase of algae density. According to the results, the cyanobacteria should avoid of excessive accumulation as using the floating plant to purify the water.

  17. In Vitro Pollen Germination of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms: An Insight into its Preferred Mode of Clonal Reproduction

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    Somnath BHOWMIK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms is an aquatic invasive weed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant rarely produces any fruit under natural condition In order to understand the causes of failure of seed set in this plant various aspect of pollen biology were studied. Pollen fertility and pollen viability was assessed using Muntzing� s mixture and in acetic orcein and TTZ, while pollen germination was assessed with different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with boric acid and Ca and Mg salts. The aim of present study was to find out the cause of sexual incompatibility of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. In spite of high pollen fertility, pollen viability and pollen germination the species show hardly any fruit set under natural condition. The abnormal pollen germination like curling of pollen tubes, shrinkage of pollen tube tips and bending of pollen tube might be reasons of sexual incompatibility of this species. It is observed that the taxa required comparatively low sucrose concentration (5% for their optimal in vitro pollen germination (54.08%. Boric acid to certain extent also influences the in vitro pollen germination (56.2%. In the present investigation the nature of substrate in association with the effect of Boric acid, CaCO3, MgSO4 on the in vitro pollen germination of Eichhornia crassipes is also worked out. However the tested salts show no significant effect on pollen germination in the present study.

  18. In Vitro Pollen Germination of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms: An Insight into its Preferred Mode of Clonal Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath BHOWMIK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms is an aquatic invasive weed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant rarely produces any fruit under natural condition In order to understand the causes of failure of seed set in this plant various aspect of pollen biology were studied. Pollen fertility and pollen viability was assessed using Muntzing s mixture and in acetic orcein and TTZ, while pollen germination was assessed with different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with boric acid and Ca and Mg salts. The aim of present study was to find out the cause of sexual incompatibility of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. In spite of high pollen fertility, pollen viability and pollen germination the species show hardly any fruit set under natural condition. The abnormal pollen germination like curling of pollen tubes, shrinkage of pollen tube tips and bending of pollen tube might be reasons of sexual incompatibility of this species. It is observed that the taxa required comparatively low sucrose concentration (5% for their optimal in vitro pollen germination (54.08%. Boric acid to certain extent also influences the in vitro pollen germination (56.2%. In the present investigation the nature of substrate in association with the effect of Boric acid, CaCO3, MgSO4 on the in vitro pollen germination of Eichhornia crassipes is also worked out. However the tested salts show no significant effect on pollen germination in the present study.

  19. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of extracts and fractionates of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, P; Lalitha, P; Aarthi, N

    2012-11-01

    Petroleum ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, aqueous extract, methanol and ethanol fractionate of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms was tested for their larvicidal efficacy against the different instars (I, II, III and IV) and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of the treatment. The extracts showed a dose-dependent toxicity to larvae. The toxicity of the extracts decreased with increase in larval stage. Ethanol fractionate of E. crassipes showed the highest larvicidal and pupicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus compared to other solvent extracts and fractionates with LC(50) 71.43, 94.68,120.42, 152.15 and 173.35 ppm for I, II, III, IV and pupae, respectively. Presence of metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, anthroquinones and anthocyanins in the tested extracts might be the reason for the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of the plant extracts and fractionates of waterhyacinth. Mosquito-repellent activity was not exhibited by these extracts at the tested concentrations. The results demonstrated the potential of the aquatic plant E. crassipes in the successful control of the filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus.

  20. John Hyacinth de Magellan (1722-90): 18th century physicist with views on medical matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Thomaz, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    John Hyacinth de Magellan, whose Portuguese name was João Hyacintho de Magalhaens, though not a doctor nevertheless had many contacts with doctors and showed a genuine interest in disseminating medical news to his many friends and correspondents in Europe. The abundant and less formal correspondence with his friend Ribeiro Sanches forms the greater part of the work but in letters to other correspondents, including Trudaine de Montigny, Condorcet, Volta, J A Euler, Fabroni and Johann III Bernoulli, we find comments on medical subjects. The Sanches letters are particularly interesting because they are private, friend-to-friend letters that convey spontaneous and sincere thoughts and feelings.

  1. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  2. Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Sabbagh, Farzaneh; Sairan, Fadzlin Md

    2015-11-01

    The development of eco-friendly and efficient technologies for treating wastewater is one of the attractive research area. Phytoremediation is considered to be a possible method for the removal of pollutants present in wastewater and recognized as a better green remediation technology. Nowadays the focus is to look for a sustainable approach in developing wastewater treatment capability. Water hyacinth is one of the ancient technology that has been still used in the modern era. Although, many papers in relation to wastewater treatment using water hyacinth have been published, recently removal of organic, inorganic and heavy metal have not been reviewed extensively. The main objective of this paper is to review the possibility of using water hyacinth for the removal of pollutants present in different types of wastewater. Water hyacinth is although reported to be as one of the most problematic plants worldwide due to its uncontrollable growth in water bodies but its quest for nutrient absorption has provided way for its usage in phytoremediation, along with the combination of herbicidal control, integratated biological control and watershed management controlling nutrient supply to control its growth. Moreover as a part of solving wastewater treatment problems in urban or industrial areas using this plant, a large number of useful byproducts can be developed like animal and fish feed, power plant energy (briquette), ethanol, biogas, composting and fiber board making. In focus to the future aspects of phytoremediation, the utilization of invasive plants in pollution abatement phytotechnologies can certainly assist for their sustainable management in treating waste water.

  3. Nitrogen removal from Lake Caohai, a typical ultra-eutrophic lake in China with large scale confined growth of Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Junqian; Yan, Shaohua; Guo, Junyao

    2013-06-01

    An ecological engineering project, with large-scale utilization of Eichhornia crassipes (coverage area ∼4.3km(2)) for pollution control in an open ultra-eutrophic lake, Lake Caohai, was first implemented in 2011. In this study, the efficiency of N removal using E. crassipes in the lake was evaluated. After E. crassipes was planted in May, the concentrations of TN and NH4(+) in Waicaohai, the main part of Lake Caohai, were significantly decreased within a month, and then, remained stable from June to November, 2011, although the lake had received waste water continuously from river inlets. The average concentrations of TN, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N in water of Xi Yuan Channel (outlet) were reduced to 3.3, 0.02 and 0.8mgL(-1) from 13.8, 4.7 and 5.8mgL(-1) in river inlets, respectively. The DO levels in 2011 were not decreased, but concentrations of TN and NH4(+) were significantly reduced when compared with the historical data from 2007 in the lake. Assimilation by E. crassipes was the main pathway to remove N in Lake Caohai, accounted for 52% of the total N influent (936t), or 64% of the removed N (761t). These results indicated that large scale utilization of E. crassipes for removal of N in the eutrophic lake is practicable.

  4. Effects of engineered application of Eichhornia crassipes on the benthic macroinvertebrate diversity in Lake Dianchi, an ultra-eutrophic lake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Junqian; Guo, Junyao; Li, Enhua; Wang, Xuelei; Liu, Haiqin; Yan, Shaohua

    2016-05-01

    An ecological engineering project with confined growth of 1.5 km(2) of Eichhornia crassipes was implemented to remove pollutants in Lake Dianchi. To assess the ecological effects of this project on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, a 1-year investigation at the areas inside and outside E. crassipes mats was conducted from May 2013 to May 2014. All the 10 sampling sites in the areas were grouped into two statistically significant clusters mainly corresponding to inside and outside E. crassipes mat areas (EMAs), by clustering analysis. E. crassipes reduced the densities of pollution indicator taxa (e.g., Oligochaeta and Chironomidae larvae); thus, the total densities of benthic macroinvertebrates at the area inside EMAs (mean 328.2 ind./m(2)) were slightly lower than that at the area outside EMAs (mean 505.6 ind./m(2)). Four functional feeding groups including 38 species of benthic macroinvertebrates were collected at the area inside EMAs, while only three functional feeding groups containing 17 species were collected at the area outside EMAs. The biodiversity indices (Shannon-Weiner, Margalef, Simpson, and Peilou indices) and K-dominance curves also showed higher diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates at the area inside EMAs than at the area outside EMAs. These results suggested that a certain scale of engineering application of E. crassipes was beneficial to benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the ultra-eutrophic Lake Dianchi and it could be used as a pioneer species in ultra-eutrophic lake for pollutant removal.

  5. Stability of cemented dried water hyacinth used for biosorption of radionuclides under various circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H. M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the influence of frost attack and flooding conditions during disposal on the compressive strength, porosity and durability of cemented waste form contained dried and grinded water hyacinth. This plant was used as a phytoremediating agent to treat liquid waste simulate contaminated with radionuclides. The obtained results showed that an increase in the incorporated dry plants decreases the compressive strength and increases the porosity of the solidified waste form. Raising the number of freeze-thaw cycles was accompanied with noticeable increase in the mass-loss of tested specimens and unsteady trend of compressive strength and consequently the mechanical integrity. The presence and increase of immersion duration per turned positively the mass change and affect in different ways on the solidified waste form. Spectroscopic analyses such as infrared and X-ray as well as microscopic investigation were performed to evaluate the solidified waste form exposed to different undesirable climatic conditions during extending disposal durations. The use of Portland cement as a stabilizer for water hyacinth, following the phytoremediation process, achieves the requirements for durability and strength against the freeze-thaw cycles or flooding in different types of water during prolonged disposal.

  6. Protein Rich Flour from Hyacinth Bean as Functional Food Ingredient with Low Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi’

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich flour (PRF produced from Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet shows good potency as a functional food ingredient. The PRF was extracted from hyacinth bean using water followed by protein precipitation at its isoelectric point. The precipitate was neutralized using 1 N NaOH and the slurry was dried, ground and sieved. The objective of this research was to characterize the nutritive value of PRF i.e., protein content and amino acid profile, trypsin inhibitors activity, content of vitamins B1 and B2, the amylose and amylopectin ratio of starch and its glycemic index. The results showed that the PRF contained high protein (58.4±4.5%. The major amino acid was glutamic acid, while methionine was found as the limited amino acid of the PRF. The activity of trypsin inhibitor was low (20.4±1.6 unit/g. Moreover, PRF contains 0.2 and 3.6 mg/100 g of vitamins B1 and B2 respectively. With a high ratio of amylose (30.0±2.0% and high content of resistance starch (7.97 g/100 g, the PRF showed a low glycemic index (43.50. Based on its characteristics, this PRF can be promoted as a new food ingredient, especially for diabetic diet.

  7. The porous carbon derived from water hyacinth with well-designed hierarchical structure for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xi; Zhang, Mengyan; Shi, Ling; Cheng, Jue

    2017-10-01

    A hierarchical porous water hyacinth-derived carbon (WHC) is fabricated by pre-carbonization and KOH activation for supercapacitors. The physicochemical properties of WHC are researched by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that WHC exhibits hierarchical porous structure and high specific surface area of 2276 m2/g. And the electrochemical properties of WHC are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. In a three-electrode test system, WHC shows considerable specific capacitance of 344.9 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g, good rate performance with 225.8 F/g even at a current density of 30 A/g, and good cycle stability with 95% of the capacitance retention after 10000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 5 A/g. Moreover, WHC cell delivers an energy density of 23.8 Wh/kg at 0.5 A/g and a power density of 15.7 kW/kg at 10 A/g. Thus, using water hyacinth as carbon source to fabricate supercapacitors electrodes is a promising approach for developing inexpensive, sustainable and high-performance carbon materials. Additionally, this study supports the sustainable development and the control of biological invasion.

  8. Stability of cemented dried water hyacinth used for biosorption of radionuclides under various circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the influence of frost attack and flooding conditions during disposal on the compressive strength, porosity and durability of cemented waste form contained dried and grinded water hyacinth. This plant was used as a phytoremediating agent to treat liquid waste simulate contaminated with radionuclides. The obtained results showed that an increase in the incorporated dry plants decreases the compressive strength and increases the porosity of the solidified waste form. Raising the number of freeze–thaw cycles was accompanied with noticeable increase in the mass-loss of tested specimens and unsteady trend of compressive strength and consequently the mechanical integrity. The presence and increase of immersion duration per turned positively the mass change and affect in different ways on the solidified waste form. Spectroscopic analyses such as infrared and X-ray as well as microscopic investigation were performed to evaluate the solidified waste form exposed to different undesirable climatic conditions during extending disposal durations. The use of Portland cement as a stabilizer for water hyacinth, following the phytoremediation process, achieves the requirements for durability and strength against the freeze–thaw cycles or flooding in different types of water during prolonged disposal.

  9. Biosorption of Congo Red from aqueous solution onto burned root of Eichhornia crassipes biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Biosorption is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement the present dye removal processes from dye containing waste water. In this work, adsorption of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solution on burned root of Eichhornia crassipes ( BREC) biomass was investigated. A series of batch experiments were performed utilizing BREC biomass to remove CR dye from aqueous systems. Under optimized batch conditions, the BREC could remove up to 94.35 % of CR from waste water. The effects of operating parameters such as initial concentration, pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on the adsorption of CR were analyzed using response surface methodology. The proposed quadratic model for central composite design fitted very well to the experimental data. Response surface plots were used to determine the interaction effects of main factors and optimum conditions of the process. The optimum adsorption conditions were found to be initial CR concentration = 5 mg/L-1, pH = 7, adsorbent dose = 0.125 g and contact time = 45 min. The experimental isotherms data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm equations and the results indicated that the Freundlich isotherm showed a better fit for CR adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from Van't Hoff plot, confirming that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The high CR adsorptive removal ability and regeneration efficiency of this adsorbent suggest its applicability in industrial/household systems and data generated would help in further upscaling of the adsorption process.

  10. Influence of sclerotia formation on ligninolytic enzyme production in Morchella crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Harpreet Kaur; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2014-07-01

    Morels are wild edible ascomycetous mushrooms that are highly prized because of their medicinal and nutritional qualities. Ligninolytic enzymes are considered as one of the most important enzymes in fungi due to their involvement in fruiting body formation during artificial cultivation on different substrates. In the life cycle of morels, sclerotia are the intermediate stage to form a fruiting body from mycelia. We have studied the production of ligninolytic enzymes by Morchella crassipes MR8 growing on different substrates and during sclerotia formation. This fungus is able to produce ligninolytic enzymes such as laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) when grown on different substrates. Maximum Lac activity was observed when grown in wheat grains whereas maximum activities of MnP and LiP were observed when grown in rice straw. Laccase enzyme was produced in high titers during sclerotia formation and maturation when grown in combinations of soil and substrates. A large number of sclerotia was observed in soil and wheat grains, along with high titers of laccase. Cellulase activity was observed to be constant during sclerotia formation and maturation. The present study results suggest that laccase enzyme might play an important role in sclerotia formation in morels.

  11. Nitrogen transformations in a waterhyacinth-based water treatment system. [Eichornia crassipes (Mart. ) Solms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Reddy, K.R.; Graetz, D.A.

    Fate of added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N and /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N in waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms)-based water treatment system was evaluated under controlled conditions. Labeled /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N uptake by waterhyacinth exceeded /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N uptake. Total /sup 15/N recovery by waterhyacinth ranged from 57 to 72% for added /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N and 70 to 89% for added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N. Both sediment and detritus were potential sources of N for waterhyacinths. Waterhyacinths cultured in sewage effluent removed 55% of the added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N and 14% of the added /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N, respectively. Three to 44% of the added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N was lost through nitrification in the water column and subsequent denitrification in the underlying sediments, whereas 24 to 86% of the added /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N was lost through denitrification. In a system without plants, 13 to 89% of the added /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N and 48 to 96% of the added /sup 15/NO/sub 3/-N were lost from the system through a combination of nitrification/denitrification and NH/sub 3/ volatilization.

  12. Effects of Eichhornia crassipes Growth on Aquatic Plant in Dianchi Lake%滇池凤眼莲生长对水生植物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴富勤; 刘天猛; 王祖涛; 王跃华; 和树庄

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨入侵植物凤眼莲生长对滇池水生植物的影响.[方法]通过测定不同月份滇池浮游植物、沉水植物(篦齿眼子菜)的叶绿素含量,结合凤眼莲根培养液对铜绿微囊藻的化感作用,探讨凤眼莲生长对滇池水生植物的影响.[结果]滇池凤眼莲生长降低了浮游植物及沉水植物(篦齿眼子菜)的叶绿素含量,对二者的生长有一定的抑制作用;凤眼莲根培养液明显抑制了铜绿微囊藻的生长.[结论]该研究为滇池凤眼莲生态安全防控提供了科学依据.%[ Objective ] The aim was to discuss the- effects of Eichhornia crassipes as an invasive plant on aquatic plant in Dianchi Lake.[ Metod ] Based on the determination of chlorophyll contend of phytoplankton and submerged plant ( potamogeton ) in Dianchi Lake in defferent months and allclopathy effect of root culture solution of E.crassipes on Microcystis aquaticum. the influences of E. crassipes on aquatic plant in Dianchi Lake were studied. [ Result] The growth of E. crassipes reduced the chlorophyll content of submerged plants and submerged plant (P. pectinatus). and it showed that E. cressipes had certain inhibitory effect on their growth; the root culture solution of E. crassipes inhibited M. acruginosa growth obviously.[ Conclusion ] The study could provide scientific references for the prevention and control of ecological safety of E. crassipes.

  13. Effect of purple root water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on purification of water containing heavy metals%紫根水葫芦对重金属水体的净化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文萍; 徐舒阳; 那中元; 杨红军; 黄柏炎; 王莹

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨紫根水葫芦对污水中重金属(镉、锌、铅)的净化效果,比较了普通水葫芦和紫根水葫芦的生物过滤能力和积累情况.实验结果显示,2种水葫芦均能显著降低3种重金属的含量,被吸收的重金属会在植物体内得到积累,且主要富集于根部,而不是茎叶部.此外,被吸收的重金属绝大多数不会重新释放到水体中.紫根水葫芦对重金属的净化效果优于普通水葫芦.因此,紫根水葫芦具有良好的水体修复和去除重金属的潜力.

  14. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake M. Laguador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respondents who were owners of restaurants that utilized charcoal for grilling. The company adopts partnership form of ownership and based on the result of the survey, the study is feasible in the region and raw materials were abundant in the nearby towns and provinces. It is resolute to establish a business which offers high quality and low priced green charcoal in the market as alternative biofuel with payback period of 4 years and 11 monthsbased on the result of financial analysis.

  15. Effect of illuminating gas on the lily, narcissus, tulip, and hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, A.E.; Crocker, W.; Zimmerman, P.W.

    1932-01-01

    The gas used in these studies was primarily ethylene, as this is the constituent of illuminating gas which has the greatest injury-causing potential. The plants used were lily, narcissus, tulip and hyacinth. The time of exposure varied from one to seven days. All were retarded in growth during treatment by all concentrations of illuminating gas without causing death or abscission of leaves. Pronounced response of leaves to gas depended on the age, rate of growth, and the variety of plant. The effect of the gas on flowering depended upon the age of the bud at the time of exposure, the variety of plant, and the concentration of gas used. 5 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of amaranth dye biosorption from aqueous solution onto water hyacinth leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Coronilla, Imelda; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2015-04-01

    The present study explored the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of amaranth (acid red 27) anionic dye (AD) biosorption to water hyacinth leaves (LEC). The effect of LEC particle size, contact time, solution pH, initial AD concentration and temperature on AD biosorption was studied in batch experiments. AD biosorption increased with rising contact time and initial AD concentration, and with decreasing LEC particle size and solution pH. Pseudo-second-order chemical reaction kinetics provided the best correlation for the experimental data. Isotherm studies showed that the biosorption of AD onto LEC closely follows the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum biosorption capacity of about 70 mg g(-1). The thermodynamic parameters confirm that AD biosorption by LEC is non-spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Results indicate that LEC is a strong biosorbent capable of effective detoxification of AD-laden wastewaters.

  17. Sustainability assessment of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis in the Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Luz Selene; Ortega, Enrique; Bergier, Ivan; Mesa-Pérez, Juan Miguel; Salis, Suzana Maria; Luengo, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis of naturally produced water hyacinth was assessed through Emergy accounting approach. Two analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of additional services and externalities on Emergy indicators for a pyrolysis plant unit able to process 1000 kg of dry biomass per hour. The initial approach was a traditional Emergy assessment in which financial fluxes and externalities were not considered. The second approach included taxes and fees of the Brazilian government, interests related to financing operations and assumes a reserve financial fund of 5% of the total investment as externalities cost. For the first evaluation, the renewability of 86% indicates that local and renewable resources mainly support the process and the Emergy Yield Ratio of 3.2 shows that the system has a potential contribution to the regional economy due to the local resources use. The inclusion of financial fluxes and externalities in the second evaluation reduces both renewability and Emergy Yield Ratio, whereas it increases the Emergy Investment Ratio which means a higher dependence on external resources. The second analysis allows portraying significant forces of the industrial and financial systems and the evaluation of the externalities' impact on the general system Emergy behavior. A comparison of the renewability of water hyacinth fast pyrolysis with other biofuels like soybean biodiesel and sugarcane ethanol indicates that the former is less dependent on fossil fuel resources, machinery and fertilizers. To complement the sustainability assessment provided by the Emergy method, a regular financial analysis for the second defined system was done. It shows that the system is financially attractive even with the accounting of additional costs. The results obtained in this study could be used as the maximum and minimum thresholds to subsidize regulatory policies for new economic activities in tropical wetlands involving natural resources exploitation and bio

  18. Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Valipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available onstructed wetland applications have been limited by a large land requirement and capital investment. This study aimed to improve a shallow pond water hyacinth system by incorporating the advantages of engineered attached microbial growth technique (termed Bio-hedge for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. A laboratory scale continuous-flow system consists of the mesh type matrix providing an additional biofilm surface area of 54 m2/m3. Following one year of experimentation, the process showed more stability and enhanced performance in removing organic matter and nutrients, compared to traditional water hyacinth (by lowering 33%–67% HRT and facultative (by lowering 92%–96% HRT ponds. The wastewater exposed plants revealed a relative growth rate of 1.15% per day, and no anatomical deformities were observed. Plant nutrient level averaged 27 ± 1.7 and 44 ± 2.3 mg N/g dry weight, and 5 ± 1.4 & 9±1.2 mg P/g dry weight in roots and shoots, respectively. Microorganisms immobilized on Bio-hedge media (4.06 × 107 cfu/cm2 and plant roots (3.12 × 104 cfu/cm were isolated and identified (a total of 23 strains. The capital cost was pre-estimated for 1 m3/d wastewater at 78 US$/m3inflow and 465 US$/kg BOD5 removed. This process is a suitable ecotechnology due to improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings, and increased quality effluent.

  19. Cellulase Production by Native Bacteria Using Water Hyacinth as Substrate under Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra Kurup, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the freshwater systems in tropical countries are infested with one kind of aquatic weed or the other causing serious environmental problems. All efforts to control the growth and spread of these weeds have failed miserably and hence the concept of eradication through utilization is being adopted by many researchers. Solid state fermentation, the culturing of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence or near absence of free water, has generatedgreat deal of interest among researchers because of its various advantages over the submerged fermentation technique. Cellulase enzyme is used extensively in various industries, especially in textile, food and in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes to alcohol. The extensive use of cellulase in industries depends on the cost of the enzyme and hence considerable research is being carried out to isolate better microbial strains and also to develop new fermentationprocesses with the aim to reduce the product cost. The objective of the present study is to determine whether water hyacinth, one of the commonly found aquatic weeds, can be used as a substrate for cellulase production, by three native bacterial isolates named WHB 3, WHB 4 and SMB 3, under the process of solid state fermentation. Results indicatethat all the three isolates produced cellulase enzyme by using water hyacinth as the solid support. Under optimized conditions of moisture, pH, temperature, incubation time and inoculum concentration, the enzyme yield increased from 16.8 to 94.8 units for SMB 3, from 25.2 to 110.4 units for WHB 3 and from 18.0 to 127.2 units for WHB 4. The addition of nitrogen and carbon sources resulted in a significant increase in cellulase yield and WHB 3 produced the maximum amount of 216 units followed by SMB 3 and WHB 4.

  20. Identification of key drought stress-related genes in the hyacinth bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ming Yao

    Full Text Available Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus [Linn.] Sweet possesses excellent characteristics for field production, but the response of this plant to drought stress has not been described at the molecular level. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH is an effective way to exploit key factors for plant responses to drought stress that are involved in transcriptional and metabolic activities. In this study, forward and reverse SSH libraries were generated from root tissues of the drought-tolerant hyacinth bean genotype MEIDOU 2012 under water-stress conditions. A total of 1,287 unigenes (94 contigs and 1,193 singletons were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 1400 ESTs, and 80.6% of those hit against NCBI non-redundant (nr database with E value <1E-06. BLASTX analysis revealed that the majority top matches were proteins form Glycine max (L. Merrill. (61.5%. According to a gene ontology (GO functional classification, 816 functionally annotated unigenes were assigned to the biological process category (74.1%, and 83.9% of them classified into molecular function and 69.2% involved in cellular component. A total of 168 sequences were further annotated with 207 Enzyme Commission (EC codes and mapped to 83 different KEGG pathways. Seventeen functionally relevant genes were found to be overrepresented under drought stress using enrichment analysis. Differential expression of unigenes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays, and their transcript profiles generally divided into three patterns, depending on the expression peaked levels after 6, 8 or 10 days dehydration, which indicated that these genes are functionally associated in the drought-stress response.

  1. Nanotoxicity for E. Coli and Characterization of Silver Quantum Dots Produced by Biosynthesis with Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are widely used in health and biomedical applications, however, only a few studies investigate their toxic effects.  The present report signifies a contribution to the study of the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on   E. coli cells, which is a model organism of anthropogenic pollution. The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their chemical and surface properties, shape and size. Nanoparticles that have the same chemical composition but different shapes or sizes might have different effects on cells. In this work, Ag nanoparticles  were biosynthesized with an Eichhornia crassipes biomass, and it was demonstrated for the first time, that the amounts of hydrolysable tannins in this plant, are directly related to the size, shape, structure and composition of the Ag nanoparticles ; furthermore, the toxic effect was studied using E. coli cell culture. The EC was divided in three sections, i.e. roots, stems and leaves. Particle aggregation seems to be influenced by the amount of tannins present in the biomass. For each plant part, the amounts of hydrolysable tannins were determined, the highest amounts of these chemicals were present in the leaves, and hence these Ag nanoparticles dissolutions were used for the nanotoxicity experiments. . The cytotoxicity  of Ag nanoparticles in a suspension was tested using the Ag nanoparticles synthesized with leaves, against Escherichia Coli ATCC 25992 where the concentration that inhibited 100% of bacterial growth, was 5 mg/L in contrast with a commercial solution which needed 10mg/L of Ag. For the most part, the Ag nanoparticles  seemed to be of a nearly spherical shape, although on closer examination were determined to be mainly polyhedral.  Leaves biomass, produced mainly quantum dot nanoparticles with sizes below 10 nm and the Ag nanoparticles were mostly AgO. The cytotoxicity of Ag NPs in a suspension tested using the Ag nanoparticles on E. coli was highly effective towards

  2. Effects of lime on bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during agitated pile composting of water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2013-06-01

    In the present study composting of water hyacinth was done with cattle manure and saw dust (6:3:1) ratio and effects of addition of lime (1%, 2% and 3%) on heavy metal bioavailability and leachability was evaluated during 30 days of composting period. The changes in temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and extractable heavy metal contents were measured. Results showed that the total concentration of heavy metals was increased during the composting process. Due to addition of lime initial pH of the compost was raised effectively, caused a decrease in water soluble, diethylene triamine pentracetic acid (DTPA) and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable metal contents in the final compost. Water soluble metals (Ni, Pb and Cd) and DTPA extractable metals (Pb and Cd) were not detected during water soluble fraction. Addition of lime significantly reduced the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting process.

  3. Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution using dried water hyacinth as a biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hanan S; Ammar, Nabila S; Soylak, Mustafa; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-10-01

    Possible usages of dried water hyacinth as biosorbent for metal ions were investigated. A model describing the plant is presented on density functional theory DFT and verified experimentally with FTIR. The model shows that water hyacinth is a mixture of cellulose and lignin. Dried shoot and root were found as good sorbent for Cd(II) and Pb(II) at optimum dosage of 5.0 g/l and pH 5.0; equilibrium time was attained within 30-60 min. The removal using root and shoot were nearly equal and reached more than 75% for Cd and more than 90% for Pb. Finally the second-order kinetics was the applicable model. Hydrogen bonds of reactive functional groups like COOH play the key role in the removal process.

  4. The determination of optimum condition in water hyacinth drying process by mixed adsorption drying method and modified fly ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Putri, Rizky Anggreini

    2017-05-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed that has a very fast growth which makes it becomes a problem to the ecosystem. On the other hand, water hyacinth has a high fiber content (up to 20% by weight) which makes it potential to become raw material for composites and textile industries. As an aquatic plant, water hyacinth has a high initial moisture content that reaches more than 90%. Meanwhile the moisture content of fiber as a raw material for composite and textile industry should not be more than 10% to maintain the good quality of the products. Mixed adsorption drying method is one of the innovative method that can replace conventional drying process. Fluidization method which has been commonly used in agricultural and pharmaceutical products drying, can be enhanced by combining it with the adsorption method as performed in this study. In mixed fluidization-adsorption drying method, fly ash as adsorbent and water hyacinth fiber were put together into the fluidization column where the drying air evaporate the moisture content in water hyacinth fiber. In addition, the adsorbent adsorb the moisture content in the drying air to make the moisture content of the drying air remain low. The drying process is performed in various temperature and composition of water hyacinth and adsorbent in order to obtain the optimum drying condition. In addition, the effect of fly ash pellet and fly ash powder to the drying process was also performed. The result shows that the higher temperature and the more amount of adsorbent results in the faster drying rate. Fly ash pellet shows a better adsorption since it has a smaller pore diameter and wider surface area. The optimum temperature obtained from this study is 60°C and the optimum ratio of water hyacinth and fly ash is 50:50.

  5. Rearing and Release of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) for Biological Control of Water hyacinth in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Y. Liang. 2012. Comparing SPAD and atLEAF values for chlorophyll assessment in crop species. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 92:645–648...F. A. Dray Jr. 2010. Bottom-up control of water hyacinth weevil populations: Do the plants regulate the insects? Journal of Applied Ecology 47:329...Neochetina eichhorniae on waterhyacinth in Southern Louisiana. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 22:57–61. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-40 June 2017 11

  6. Optimization of bioethanol production using whole plant of Water Hyacinth as substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuzhuo eZhang; Chen eWeng; Huiqin eHuang; Varenyam eAchal; Duanchao eWang

    2016-01-01

    The whole plant of Water Hyacinth that had potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the current study. It was found that acid pretreatment exhibited the most effective for reducing sugars production. An amount of 402.93 mg reducing sugars was achieved at optimal condition after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to Response Surface Method (RSM) in Sacchar...

  7. Phytoremedial Potential of Typha latifolia, Eichornia crassipes and Monochoria hastata found in Contaminated Water Bodies Across Ranchi City (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Moushumi; Avishek, Kirti; Pathak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses green plants (living machines) for removal of contaminants of concern (COC). These plant species have the potential to remove the COC, thereby restoring the original condition of soil or water environment. The present study focuses on assessing the heavy metals (COC) present in the contaminated water bodies of Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Phytoremedial potential of three plant species: Typha latifolia, Eichornia crassipes and Monochoria hastata were assessed in the present study. Heterogenous accumulation of metals was found in the three plant species. It was observed that the ratio of heavy metal concentration was different in different parts, i.e., shoots and roots. Positive results were also obtained for translocation factor of all species with minimum of 0.10 and maximum of 1. It was found experimentally that M. hastata has the maximum BFC for root as 4.32 and shoot as 2.70 (for Manganese). For T. latifolia, BCF of maximum was observed for root (163.5) and respective shoot 86.46 (for Iron), followed by 7.3 and 5.8 for root and shoot (for Manganese) respectively. E. crassipes was found to possess a maximum BCF of 278.6 (for Manganese and 151 (for Iron) and shoot as 142 (for Manganese) and 36.13 (for Iron).

  8. Effects of Eichhornia crassipes and Ceratophyllum demersum on Soil and Water Environments and Nutrient Removal in Wetland Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kijune; Lee, Geun-Joo; Munster, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    Wetland plants are important components that influence the biogeochemistry of wetland ecosystems. Therefore, remediation performance in wetlands can differ depending on the growth forms of plants. In this study, the effects of Eichhornia crassipes (floating plant) and Ceratophyllum demersum (submerged plant) on the wetland soil and water environments were investigated using a microcosm study with simulated hydrology of retention-type wetlands between rainfall events. The C. demersum microcosm (SP) showed the fastest recovery with a diel fluctuation pattern of dissolved oxygen, pH, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) from the impacts of nutrient inflow. Moreover, SP exhibited the lowest decrease in sediment ORP, the highest dehydrogenase activity, and more organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. E. crassipes microcosms exhibited the lowest water temperature, and efficiently controlled algae. In the presence of plants, the total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in water rapidly decreased, and the composition of organic and inorganic nutrient forms was altered along with a decrease in concentration. The results indicate that wetland plants help retain nutrients in the system, but the effects varied based on the wetland plant growth forms.

  9. Venom Profiling of a Population of the Theraphosid Spider Phlogius crassipes Reveals Continuous Ontogenetic Changes from Juveniles through Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Renan C; Perez, David; Dobson, James; Panagides, Nadya; Raven, Robert J; Nouwens, Amanda; Jones, Alun; King, Glenn F; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-03-25

    Theraphosid spiders (tarantulas) are venomous arthropods found in most tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tarantula venoms are a complex cocktail of toxins with potential use as pharmacological tools, drugs and bioinsecticides. Although numerous toxins have been isolated from tarantula venoms, little research has been carried out on the venom of Australian tarantulas. We therefore investigated the venom profile of the Australian theraphosid spider Phlogius crassipes and examined whether there are ontogenetic changes in venom composition. Spiders were divided into four ontogenic groups according to cephalothorax length, then the venom composition of each group was examined using gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found that the venom of P. crassipes changes continuously during development and throughout adulthood. Our data highlight the need to investigate the venom of organisms over the course of their lives to uncover and understand the changing functions of venom and the full range of toxins expressed. This in turn should lead to a deeper understanding of the organism's ecology and enhance the potential for biodiscovery.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Perspiration Pads and Cotton Cloth Fabricated with the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterhyacinth is one of the most dangerous aquatic weeds causing various ecological and environmental issues. The plant has several pharmaceutical properties in spite of its harmful nature. In the present study, perspiration pads and cotton cloth fabricated with the ethyl acetate extract of waterhyacinth were evaluated for its activity against Corynebacterium. Perspiration pads and samples of cotton cloth were fabricated with ethyl acetate extract of Eichhornia crassipes by three methods, namely, dipping, sonication, and homogenization. The antimicrobial activity of the fabricated textile materials was tested against Corynebacterium, a microorganism commonly seen in human sweat. Disc diffusion method (AATCC 147 was used for evaluating the antimicrobial nature of the fabricated samples. Sonication was found to be efficient for coating of the extract on the cotton cloth, whereas dipping method was found to be efficient in case of perspiration pads. No bacterial growth was observed under and on the fabricated cloth and perspiration pads indicating that the fabrics possess bacteriostatic property and not bactericidal property and the absence of leaching of the extract. The results showed significant antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Eichhornia crassipes coated onto fabrics against Corynebacterium with no growth under and on the test sample.

  11. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  12. Application of phytoremediation technique in the treatment of produced water using eichornea crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dune Kingdom K., Ezeilo Fabian E., Longjohn T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study carried out to determine the effectiveness of using a hyper accumulating plant like Eichorneacrassipes (water hyacinth to reduce toxicity of produced water gotten from an oil field of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Results from the phytoremediation experiment showed that the concentration of biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and oil/grease were reduced from initial concentrations of 10.6mg/l, 150 mg/l and 7.70 mg/l to 7.25mg/l, 106.25 mg/l and 8.35mg/l respectively. Heavy metals like iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, Magnesium (Mg, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, and lead (Pb were reduced from initial concentrations of 3.00 mg/l, 3.40 mg/l, 1.22 mg/l, 1.40 mg/l, 0.06 mg/l, and 0.030 mg/l to 2.18, 2.09, 0.82, 0.25, 0.015, and 0.009 mg/l, respectively. A comparison of the system’s effluent characteristics with effluent discharge limits in Nigeria, show that for inland, near-shore and offshore disposals, the effluent can be discharged into these environments with minimum public hazards. It is recommended that every company should carryout proper detoxification of produced water before disposal, while regulatory agencies such as DPR, FEPA, etc., must ensure proper monitoring and enforcement of effluent standards.

  13. Application of phytoremediation technique in the treatment of produced water using eichornea crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dune Kingdom, K. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Fabian, E. Ezeilo [Department of Civil Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Longjohn, T. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out to determine the effectiveness of using a hyper accumulating plant like Eichorneacrassipes (water hyacinth) to reduce toxicity of produced water gotten from an oil field of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Results from the phytoremediation experiment showed that the concentration of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and oil/grease were reduced from initial concentrations of 10.6mg/l, 150 mg/l and 7.70 mg/l to 7.25mg/l, 106.25 mg/l and 8.35mg/l respectively. Heavy metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), Magnesium (Mg), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) were reduced from initial concentrations of 3.00 mg/l, 3.40 mg/l, 1.22 mg/l, 1.40 mg/l, 0.06 mg/l, and 0.030 mg/l to 2.18, 2.09, 0.82, 0.25, 0.015, and 0.009 mg/l, respectively. A comparison of the system’s effluent characteristics with effluent discharge limits in Nigeria, show that for inland, near-shore and offshore disposals, the effluent can be discharged into these environments with minimum public hazards. It is recommended that every company should carryout proper detoxification of produced water before disposal, while regulatory agencies such as DPR, FEPA, etc., must ensure proper monitoring and enforcement of effluent standards.

  14. Study on preparation of water hyacinth-based activated carbon for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpoke, Anusorn

    2015-09-01

    Mulberry pulp and paper mills produce high chemical- and organic matter containing waste water in Thailand. Many of the mills are not equipped with wastewater treatment unit; their untreated effluent is directly discharged into recipient water resources. The effluent constituents are well recognized as acute and chronic pollutants that are hazardous to the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the utilization of an activated carbon from a low-cost material and to examine its adsorption performance using batch and fixed-bed adsorption. Water hyacinth was used as a raw material for activated carbon production via a chemical activation method. The results showed that water hyacinth-based activated carbon (WHAC) provided a high surface area of 912-1,066 m2g(-1) and exhibited micropore structure. Based on the Freundlich fit, the maximum adsorption capacity of COD and color was 4.52 mgg(-1) and 13.57 Pt-Cog(-1), respectively. The fixed bed adsorption provided maximum removal efficiency of 91.70 and 92.62% for COD and color, respectively. A continuous adsorption data agreed well with the Thomas kinetic model. In summary, water hyacinth can be used as a low-cost material for activated carbon production with high removal efficiency of COD and color for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment.

  15. Removal of Cu(II) in aqueous media by biosorption using water hyacinth roots as a biosorbent material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Jiachuan; Feng Huimin [Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lam, Michael Hon-Wah, E-mail: bhmhwlam@cityu.edu.hk [Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing [Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ding Yanwei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Yu Hanqing, E-mail: hqyu@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Lab for Environmental Research and Technology, USTC-CityU, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Water hyacinth roots were employed as a biosorbent to remove Cu(II) in aqueous media. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis revealed that the biosorbent was mesoporous with a relatively small surface area. Equilibrium biosorption isotherms showed that the water hyacinth roots possessed a high affinity and sorption capacity for Cu(II) with a monolayer sorption capacity of 22.7 mg g{sup -1} at initial pH 5.5. Kinetics study at different temperatures revealed that the sorption was a rapid and endothermic process. The activation energy for Cu(II) sorption was estimated to be 30.8 kJ mol{sup -1}, which is typical of activated chemisorption processes. The sorption mechanism was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, effect of pH and calcium release. These analyses suggested that the biosorption mainly involved the ion exchange of Cu(II) with cations and complex formation with functional groups on the surface of the roots. All the results showed that water hyacinth roots are an alternative low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous media.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Water Hyacinth, Water Lettuce And Parrot's Feather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot’s feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot’s feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot’s feather. In terms of COD, NO3--N and PO43--P, the effluent leaving the hydroponics system was suitable for reuse in aquaculture. However, the effluent had slightly high levels of TS, NH3-N, NO2--N and pH after treatment.

  17. Classification, mode of action and production strategy of xylanase and its application for biofuel production from water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Uma Shankar Prasad; Choudhury, Payel; Bandyopadhyay, Tarun Kanti; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2016-01-01

    Xylanases are classified under glycoside hydrolase families which represent one of the largest groups of commercial enzymes. Depolymerizing xylan molecules into monomeric pentose units involves the synergistic action of mainly two key enzymes which are endo-β-xylanase and β-xylosidase. Xylanases are different with respect to their mode of action, substrate specificities, biochemical properties, 3D structure and are widely produced by a spectrum of bacteria and fungi. Currently, large scale production of xylanase can be produced through the application of genetic engineering tool which allow fast identification of novel xylanase genes and their genetic variations makes it an ideal enzymes. Due to depletion of fossil fuel, there is urgent need to find out environment friendly and sustainable energy sources. Therefore, utilisation of cheap lignocellulosic materials along with proper optimisation of process is most important for cost efficient ethanol production. Among, various types of lignocellulosic substances, water hyacinth, a noxious aquatic weed, has been found in many tropical. Therefore, the technological development for biofuel production from water hyacinth is becoming commercially worthwhile. In this review, the classification and mode of action of xylanase including genetic regulation and strategy for robust xylanase production have been critically discussed from recent reports. In addition various strategies for cost effective biofuel production from water hyacinth including chimeric proteins design has also been critically evaluated.

  18. Strain Screening of Fermenting Eichhornia crassipes%发酵凤眼莲的菌种筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘开宇

    2009-01-01

    [目的]通过菌种筛选探讨发酵风眼莲的利用价值.[方法]将5种菌种分剐置于PDA、PD、营养琼脂、牛肉汤固定培齐基上进行菌种活化培养,继后通过单个菌种发酵试验和组合菌种平板拮抗试验对菌种进行筛选.[结果]根据5种茼种在风眼莲固体培养基上的生长状况,选择生孢噬纤维菌、产朊假丝酵母和黑曲霉作为发酵菌种,其菌种组合发酵效果显著优于单一菌种发酵效果.采用3种菌组合在水分65%、pH值7.0和温度28℃的条件下发酵凤眼莲,产物的粗蛋白含量为47.33%,比所用培养基的粗蛋白含量提高173.74%,粗纤维降解率达77.06%,且有发酵香味,具有优质蛋白饲料的特性.[结论]筛选良好的组合菌种对凤眼莲进行发酵,能有效解决风眼莲作为饲料存在的高水分、高纤维、低蛋白等问题.%[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the using value of fermenting Eichhornia crassipes through strain screening. [Method] 5 kinds of strains were cultured on the solid media of PDA, PD, nutrition agar and brewis resp. for strain activation and then they were screened through the single strain fermentation test and the plate antagonistic test with different strain combinations. [Result] Sporocytophaga fiber strain, Candida utilis and Aspergillus niger were selected as the fermenting strains based on the growth status of 5 kinds of strains on the different solid media of E. crassipes and the fermenting effects of different strain combinations were superior to that of single strain. When E. crassipes was fermented with the combinations of 3 kinds of strains under the condition as water of 65 % , pH of 7.0 and temperature of 28 ℃, the crude protein content in the product was 47.33% , increasing by 173. 74% compared with that in its used medium, the crude fiber degradation rate was 77.06% , with the fermented flavor, which showed the characteristics of high-quality protein feed. [Conclusion] Screening good

  19. Physiological and proteomics analyses reveal the mechanism of Eichhornia crassipes tolerance to high-concentration cadmium stress compared with Pistia stratiotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd pollution is an environmental problem worldwide. Phytoremediation is a convenient method of removing Cd from both soil and water, but its efficiency is still low, especially in aquatic environments. Scientists have been trying to improve the ability of plants to absorb and accumulate Cd based on interactions between plants and Cd, especially the mechanism by which plants resist Cd. Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes are aquatic plants commonly used in the phytoremediation of heavy metals. In the present study, we conducted physiological and biochemical analyses to compare the resistance of these two species to Cd stress at 100 mg/L. E. crassipes showed stronger resistance and was therefore used for subsequent comparative proteomics to explore the potential mechanism of E. crassipes tolerance to Cd stress at the protein level. The expression patterns of proteins in different functional categories revealed that the physiological activities and metabolic processes of E. crassipes were affected by exposure to Cd stress. However, when some proteins related to these processes were negatively inhibited, some analogous proteins were induced to compensate for the corresponding functions. As a result, E. crassipes could maintain more stable physiological parameters than P. stratiotes. Many stress-resistance substances and proteins, such as proline and heat shock proteins (HSPs and post translational modifications, were found to be involved in the protection and repair of functional proteins. In addition, antioxidant enzymes played important roles in ROS detoxification. These findings will facilitate further understanding of the potential mechanism of plant response to Cd stress at the protein level.

  20. Bioethanol production from sodium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide-pretreated water hyacinth via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with a newly isolated thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianu strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinping; Wei, Zhilei; Wang, Qiaoping; He, Manman; Li, Shumei; Irbis, Chagan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, bioethanol production from NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth was investigated. Pretreatment of water hyacinth with 1.5% (v/v) H2O2 and 3% (w/v) NaOH at 25 °C increased the production of reducing sugars (223.53 mg/g dry) and decreased the cellulose crystallinity (12.18%), compared with 48.67 mg/g dry and 22.80% in the untreated sample, respectively. The newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianu K213 showed greater ethanol production from glucose (0.43 g/g glucose) at 45 °C than did the control Saccharomyces cerevisiae angel yeast. The maximum ethanol concentration (7.34 g/L) achieved with K. marxianu K213 by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from pretreated water hyacinth at 42 °C was 1.78-fold greater than that produced by angel yeast S. cerevisiae at 30 °C. The present work demonstrates that bioethanol production achieved via SSF of NaOH/H2O2-pretreated water hyacinth with K. marxianu K213 is a promising strategy to utilize water hyacinth biomass.

  1. The valorization of water hyacinth for energy production; La valorisation de la jacinthe d'eau pour la production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musalu, W.K.S. [Congo Ministry of Energy (Congo)

    2005-06-01

    The hydroelectric potential in the Democratic Republic of Congo is evaluated at 774,000 GWh which represents 35 per cent of all central Africa. Although the country has significant water resources, one of the main problems with its waterways is the invasion of water hyacinth, an aquatic plant that floats at the water surface. This very rapid growing plant which originates from the Amazon region in Latin America is extremely abundant in the Congo because of the important water network. The plant blocks irrigation canals, water pipes and hydroelectric installations. This study examined the feasibility of using this plant to help generate power in a country that has desperate need for electricity, particularly in its rural regions. An experimental study was conducted in which water hyacinth was composted to produce methane for power generation. In addition to producing significant quantities of biogas, composted water hyacinth also produces an organic material that can significantly enrich agricultural soils. The study showed that 10 cubic metres of agricultural wastes comprised of a mixture of swine manure, brewery sludge and water hyacinth can produce enough biogas to generate 2,500 kWh of electricity per day. This study confirmed that an economic value can be given to water hyacinth because it represents a large percentage of the material required to produce biogas. 5 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  2. Pre-release evaluation of Neochetina weevils potential for the management of Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm. In the Rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, F.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the host-specificity, potential efficacy and optimum densities of the two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae) as water hyacinth control agents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Density-plant damage relationship was monitored for two years (2012 to 2014)

  3. Using remote sensing to monitor herbicide injury and biomass of waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Wilfredo

    Aquatic vegetation plays an important role in the ecological interactions and processes within a water body. However, the presence of the invasive exotic aquatic plant species, waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms], negatively affects those interactions as well as interfering with water use for recreation and navigation. An implemented management plan for waterhyacinth control relies on the use of herbicides. Efficacy is commonly assessed using visual injury and control ratings as well as estimating biomass. The problem is that those approaches are labor intensive only assessing single points throughout the entire water body. Therefore, technology like remote sensing, which is the focus of this research, is recommended as an additional tool to assess implemented management plans. Studies were conducted in a mesocosm research facility to evaluate the relationship between simulated spectral bands 3, 4, 5, and 7 Landsat 5 TM and waterhyacinth treated with the herbicides imazapyr and glyphosate. Results indicate that injury is better detected and predicted with band 4 and that relationship is negative when either herbicide was used. However, prediction is better when plants have developed sufficient injury to influence the spectral response of band 4. In the second study, the biomass of waterhyacinth was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using simulated data from Landsat 5 TM. This study was conducted over natural populations of waterhyacinth in Lakes Columbus and Aberdeen, MS over two growing seasons. Results indicate that the use of NDVI alone is a weak predictor of biomass; however, its combination with morphometric parameters like leaf area index enhanced predictive capabilities. In order to assess field herbicide treatments for waterhyacinth control and its consequent impact on native aquatic vegetation, lake-wide surveys were performed in Lake Columbus, MS using a point-intercept method. The herbicide assessed was 2

  4. Dwarfing Effect of Paclobutrazol on Hydroponic Hyacinth%多效唑对水培风信子矮化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The foliage of hydroponic hyacinth was treated with paclobutrazol of different concentrations. Results showed that the treatment of 150~250 mg/L was effective in reducing the height of the hydroponic hyacinth, but the number and ornamental period of blossom were influenced. The combined effect of 200 mg/L paclobutrazol on hydroponic hyacinth was the best.%  试验采用不同浓度多效唑(150 mg/L、200 mg/L、250 mg/L)喷施水培风信子叶面。结果表明,150~250 mg/L多效唑均可使水培风信子矮化,但影响开花的数目和花朵的可供观赏时间。其中200 mg/L多效唑处理对水培风信子的综合效应最佳。

  5. Trichoptera (Insecta in water hyacinth roots: evaluation of the influence of exotic mussel and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Francisca Marçal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Information on the influence of mussel macrofouling in invertebrate communities usually have the initial assumption of negative interference. Methods We analyzed this relationship in a community of aquatic invertebrates associated to roots of Eichhornia crassipes in 15 shallow marginal lakes in the Pantanal National Park and surroundings. We sampled quadrants of floating vegetation, identified the aggregate fauna and evaluated the density effect of Limnoperna fortunei, as well as abiotic factors of the Trichoptera community using ordinances and multivariate regressions. Results We found no significant relationship between the abundance of mussels on the macrophytes and the Trichoptera larvae. However, we observed an interference of oxygen on the structure and density of genera. The composition and abundance of the phytophylous caddisfly community is influenced by the depth and the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the marginal regions of the lakes. Conclusions We suggest that the absence of the effects of the assessed L. fortunei in the community is related to the 'biotic resistance', in which the phytophylous caddisfly demonstrated adaptation to an environment characterized by hypoxic conditions in the dry season. L. fortunei was limited by the depth and reduction of oxygen, presenting lower density in lakes with such characteristics.

  6. Estimating nitrogen and phosphorus saturation point for Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms and Salvinia molesta Mitchell in mesocosms used to treating aquaculture effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the growth of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms and Salvinia molesta Mitchell in tanks used for treating aquaculture effluent and compare the results with literature data in order to estimate the nutrients saturation point. METHODS: An experiment with six rectangular fiberglass tanks were separated in two treatments, inflow and outflow (higher and lower nutrient concentration, and the two macrophytes above cited was carried out during 50 days. A floating quadrat with 0.25 m² of E. crassipes and S. molesta at inflow and outflow of the tanks was collected weekly for fresh mass measurement. At the beginning and end of the experiment samples of macrophytes were oven-dried at 60 ºC until constant weight to determine the dry mass. Dry mass of plants was estimated by a simple linear regression analysis between fresh mass and dry mass (DM. RESULTS: The N and P concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 in the inflow (mean of 0.66 mg L-1 and 233.6 mg L-1, respectively than in the outflow of the tanks (mean of 0.38 mg L-1 and 174.7 mg L-1, respectively. However, no significantly different plant growth was observed for either higher or lower concentration. For both higher and lower nutrient concentrations, the biomass gain for E. crassipes was, respectively, 428.5 and 402.7 g DM.m². For S. molesta, biomass gain was 135.2 and 143.1 g DM.m², in the higher and lower concentrations, respectively. Others studies reported high growth of E. crassipes and S. molesta in concentrations of nitrogen (0.14 - 0.18 mg L-1 and phosphorus (14.2 - 77.0 mg L-1 lower than this study. CONCLUSION: The comparison of E. crassipes and S. molesta growth in this study with others allow us to assume that the saturation point of E. crassipes should be 0.26 mg L-1 of nitrogen and 77 mg L-1 of phosphorus and for S. molesta below 0.19 mg L-1 of nitrogen and 15.1 mg L-1 of phosphorus.

  7. The Purification and Rapid Identification of Heavy Metal-binding Peptides of Water Hyacinth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翔; 王文清; 姜剑; 茹炳根; 王英彦

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies the rapid identification of heavy metal-binding peptides (phytochelatin) by taking Water Hyacinth as a model plant. Plants were cultured in water containing 2 μg/ml Cd2+ for 13 days. The Sephadex G-50 chromatography of root extract under low salt concentration (0. 01 mol/L PBS) gave a Cd-binding peak with MW of 10 ,000 determined by SEC HPLC. After oxidation with performic acid, its SEC HPLC molecular weight decreased to below 1300 and the reverse phase HPLC showed one peptide peak, whose amino acid composition is the same as that of the sample never undertaking oxidation, and (Glu/Gln):Cys:Gly=2:2:1. According to the general structure of phytochelatin (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n is 2 in this case. The protocol including the sequential steps of Sephadex G-50 chromatography→performic acid oxidation→reverse phase HPLC→amino acid analysis is a rapid and effective method to identify the existence of phytochelatin and determine its values of n.

  8. Effect of Briquetting Process Variables on Hygroscopic Property of Water Hyacinth Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of water resistance capacity of briquettes is important in order to determine how sensitive the produced briquettes are to moisture change during storage. The relative changes in length and diameter of briquettes during immersion in water for 6 hours were investigated. This was conducted to determine hygroscopic property of produced briquettes under process variables levels of binder (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight of residue, compaction pressure (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 MPa and particle size (0.5, 1.6, and 4 mm of dried and ground water hyacinth. Data was statistically analysed using Analysis of Variance, the Duncan Multiple Range Test, and descriptive statistics. The relative change in length of briquettes with process variables ranged significantly from % to % (binder, % to % (compaction pressure, and % to % (particle size (. Furthermore, the relative change in diameter of briquettes with binder, compaction pressure, and particle size varied significantly from % to %, % to %, and % to %, respectively (. This study suggests optimum process variables required to produce briquettes of high water resistance capacity for humid environments like the Niger Delta, Nigeria, as 50% (binder proportion, 9 MPa (compaction pressure, and 0.5 mm (particle size.

  9. Dielectric spectroscopic studies on the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M.; Fahem, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to changes in concentrations of pollutants (heavy metals and metal oxides) uptake by the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture wastewater drainage. The measurements were carried out on the dried root and shoot plant parts before and after subjecting to different microwave heating powers for different times. Dielectric properties of the untreated root were investigated at temperature range (30-90 °C). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) results showed that the concentration of metals and metals oxides are higher in plant root than in plant shoot. Accordingly, the obtained dielectric properties were found to depend on the applied electric field frequency, magnitude of heating power as well as concentrations of pollutants. Analysis of experimental data represented by the imaginary part of the dielectric modulus M″ (ω) revealed to the presence of three different relaxation processes. The lower frequency relaxation process was associated to charge carriers conduction whereas those appeared at higher frequencies were associated to different types of interfacial polarization. The plant ability for removing heavy metals and metal oxides from the aquatic environments would be enhanced upon subjecting to microwave heating power with 400 W for 30 min.

  10. Ulcerative dermatitis and valvular endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus in a hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh; Carnaccini, Silvia; Driggers, Todd; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-06-01

    An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners.

  11. Statistical optimization of FPase production from water hyacinth using Rhizopus oryzea PR 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Karmakar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pretreated water hyacinth was used as sole carbon source for the production of cellulase enzyme by Rhizopus oryzae PR 7 MTCC 9642 in both liquid state (LSF and solid state fermentation (SSF that was measured by the FPase activity. To maximize the FPase production, the critical parameters like substrate concentration, cultivation temperature and pH on enzyme production were optimized using response surface methodology using Central Composite Design (CCD. The LSF was found to be better than SSF for the production of FPase. The best preferred combination for highest FPase activity from LSF was with substrate concentration 1.25%,pH 7.32 and temperature 25.25°C. Estimated optimum conditions for FPase production from SSF was a combination of substrate concentration of 0.5%, pH 6, temperature 18°C. Under the optimized cultivation condition, the strain synthesized 123 U/ml and 48U/ml FPase from LSF and SSF respectively and the highest production was achieved within only 48 hours of cultivation.

  12. Metaphase I orientation of Robertsonian trivalents in the water-hyacinth grasshopper, Cornops aquaticum (Acrididae, Orthoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo César Colombo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trivalents resulting from polymorphic Robertsonian rearrangements must have a regular orientation in metaphase I if the polymorphisms are to be maintained. It has been argued that redistribution of proximal and interstitial chiasmata to more distal positions is necessary for a convergent orientation, the only one that produces viable gametes. Cornops aquaticum is a South-American grasshopper that lives and feeds on water-hyacinths, and has three polymorphic Robertsonian rearrangements in its southernmost distribution area in Central Argentina and Uruguay. The orientation of trivalents in metaphase I, the formation of abnormal spermatids and the frequency and position of chiasmata in the trivalents, was analysed in a polymorphic population of C. aquaticus. In this study we observed a correlation between the number of trivalents with the frequency of abnormal spermatids; additionally, the number of chiasmata, especially proximal and interstitial ones, was strongly correlated with the frequency of the linear orientation. Therefore we confirmed our previous assumption, based on other evidence, that the chiasmata redistribution in fusion carriers is essential to the maintenance of the polymorphisms.

  13. Ensilaging Water Hyacinth: Effects of Water Hyacinth Compound Silage on the Performance of Goats%水葫芦青贮条件及水葫芦复合青贮对山羊生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云峰; 周卫星; 严少华; 刘建; 张浩; 蒋磊

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在建立合理的水葫芦青贮方法及调查水葫芦复合青贮对羊生产性能的影响.通过调整干物质含量、底物(稻草、醋糟、麦麸)及添加剂(糖蜜、玉米粉)组合,对水葫芦进行了14种青贮处理,以稻草醋糟复合青贮为对照,青贮后进行感官评定和营养成分分析,从中选取3种水葫芦复合青贮.选用180日龄山羊(波尔山羊×徐淮山羊)20只,随机分为4组,每组5只,试验组分别以选出的3种水葫芦复合青贮为粗饲料,对照组以玉米青贮为粗饲料,饲喂40 d后测定山羊生产性能变化.结果表明:1)通过与底物组合,水葫芦在无外源添加剂的情况下能够自然发酵成功;水葫芦经挤压脱水后,与玉米粉、醋糟复合青贮所得产物的pH最低,需时最短.2)水葫芦经过挤压脱水仍保持较高的营养价值,该处理能够提高其在山羊全混合日粮(TMR)中添加比例,可达到73.16%.3)饲喂水葫芦复合青贮的山羊的采食量为2 152 g/d、平均日增重为122g/d、饲料转化效率为6.6.结果提示,将水葫芦挤压脱水与其他底物、添加剂复合青贮发酵作为粗饲料用于山羊,可达到中等以上生产水平.%The trial was conducted to establish a feasible method for water hyacinth silage and to investigate the effects of water hyacinth compound silage on the performance of goats. Fourteen treatments of water hyacinth compound silage were assorted according to the adjustment of dry matter contents, substrates ( rice straw, vinegar dreg and wheat bran), and additives ( molasses and corn power), and compound silage of rice straw and vinegar dreg was used as the control. Three treatments of water hyacinth compound silage were selected after organoleptic investigation and nutrient components analysis. Twenty goats (Boer goats x Xuhuai goats) of l80 days old were allotted into four groups with five replicates in each. The three selected compound silages were used as the roughages in the

  14. Adaptability of two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae) with potential to control water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neochetina weevils have potential as biocontrol agents for water hyacinth, an aquatic weed which seriously affects irrigation water supply in sugarcane, vegetables and other horticultural crop production in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. A study was conducted on (i) the adaptability and duration of de

  15. Agrobotanical attributes, nitrogen-fixation, enzyme activities and nutraceuticals and tyrosinase enzyme of hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) - a bio-functional medicinal legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) accessions of different origins received from USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA, U.S.A. were evaluated for agrobotanical attributes, enzyme activities, nutraceuticals and quality in pot culture at AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. Fresh ...

  16. A Novel Biosorbent, Water-Hyacinth, Uptaking Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasir Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of MB dye from aqueous solution onto HCl acid treated water-hyacinth (H-WH was investigated by carried out batch sorption experiments. The effect of process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, concentrations and contact time, and ionic strength were studied. Adsorption of MB onto H-WH was found highly pH dependent and ionic strength shows negative impact on MB removal. To predict the biosorption isotherms and to determine the characteristic parameters for process design, Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Halsey isotherms models were utilized to equilibrium data. The adsorption kinetics was tested for pseudo-first-order (PFO, pseudo-second-order (PSO, intraparticle diffusion (IPD, and Bangham’s kinetic models. The Langmuir isotherm model showed the goodness-of-fit among the tested models for equilibrium adsorption of MB over H-WH and indicated the maximum adsorption capacity as 63.30 mg/g. Higher coefficient of determination (R2>0.99 and better agreement between the qe (experimental and qe (calculated values predicted that PSO kinetic model showed the goodness-of-fit for kinetic data along with rate constant 1.66×10-3, 4.42×10-3, and 3.57×10-3 mg·g-1min⁡-1/2⁡, respectively, for the studied concentration range. At the initial stage of adsorption, the overall rate of dye uptake was found to be dominated by external mass transfer, and afterwards, it is controlled by IPD mechanism.

  17. Influência da chuva na eficiência de diquat no controle de Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes e Eichhornia crassipes Influence of rainfall on diquat efficiency in controlling Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.F Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da ocorrência de chuva em diferentes períodos de tempo após a aplicação do herbicida diquat, em sua eficiência de controle sobre plantas de Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes e Eichhornia crassipes. Foram estudadas chuvas de 10 mm, aplicadas durante 5min, em diferentes períodos de tempo (0h, 0,25h, 0,5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h e não simulação de chuva após a aplicação de diquat, na formulação Reward, a 600 g i.a. ha-1 (2,5 L p.c. ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram avaliadas visualmente aos 3, 5, 7 e 12 dias após a aplicação (DAA, sendo os resultados submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias dos tratamentos, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (pThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rainfall events at different time periods after application of diquat on the efficiency of this herbicide in controlling Salvinia auriculata, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. Simulation of 10 mm rainfall applied during 5 min was studied at different time periods (0h, 0.25h, 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and no rain simulation after application of diquat in Reward formulation, 600 g a.i. ha-1 (2.5Lcp ha-1. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. Plants were evaluated at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days after application (DAA, and the results submitted to analysis of variance by the F test and the treatment means compared by the Tukey test (p < 0.05. Diquat provided excellent control of all the species studied, regardless of the time period for rain occurrence after application, even when immediately after application.

  18. Adsorption of heavy metal from aqueous solution by dehydrated root powder of long-root Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Bo; Lin, Peng; Zhou, Jiali; Zhan, Juhong; Shen, Qiuying; Pan, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    The root powder of long-root Eichhornia crassipes, as a new kind of biodegradable adsorbent, has been tested for aqueous adsorption of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd. From FT-IR, we found that the absorption peaks of phosphorous compounds, carbonyl, and nitrogenous compounds displayed obvious changes before and after adsorption which illustrated that plant characteristics may play a role in binding with metals. Surface properties and morphology of the root powders have been characterized by means of SEM and BET. Energy spectrum analysis showed that the metals were adsorbed on root powders after adsorption. Then, optimum quantity of powder, pH values, and metal ion concentrations in single-system and multi-system were detected to discuss the characteristics and mechanisms of metal adsorption. Freundlich model and the second-order kinetics equation could well describe the adsorption of heavy metals in single-metal system. The adsorption of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the multi-metal system decreased with the concentration increased. At last, competitive adsorption of every two metals on root powder proved that Cu and Pb had suppressed the adsorption performance of Cd and Zn.

  19. Biogas production using water hyacinths to meet collective energy needs in a sahelian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Almoustapha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot project that investigates the possibility of producing biogas from a mixture of water hyacinth and fresh rumen residue – replacing firewood as a source of fuel – to meet the energy needs of a maternity facility in Niamey (Niger. The discontinuous-type installation (batch reactors is made up of six digesters measuring 5 m3 each. The output during hot and cool seasons, 0.52 m3 and 0.29 m3 respectively of biogas per m3 of digester per day, has met the energy needs of the maternity facility, estimated at 8 m3 of biogas per day. The study revealed strong seasonal variations: output during the hot season is approximatively 1.8 times greater than it is during the cool season. Large quantities of water hyacinth, an invasive plant present in Niger since 1986, are manually harvested in aquatic environments. The project is run by a local NGO, the Groupe d’Initiative pour les Energies Renouvelables (GIER, and supported by UNICEF and the Niger Basin Authority. The duration of the project is 8 months.Ce papier présente un projet pilote vérifiant la possibilité de produire du biogaz à partir d’un mélange de jacinthe d’eau et de résidu frais de rumen, en substitution au bois de chauffe pour satisfaire aux besoins en énergie d’une maternité de Niamey (Niger. L’installation de type discontinu (réacteurs batch est composée de six digesteurs de 5 m3. Les rendements en saison chaude et en saison fraîche, respectivement 0,52 et de 0,29 m3 de biogaz par m3 de digesteur par jour et ont permis de couvrir les besoins de la maternité évalués à 8 m3 de biogaz par jour. L’étude révèle une forte variation saisonnière : le rendement en saison chaude est d’environ 1,8 fois supérieur à celle de la saison fraîche. La jacinthe d’eau est une plante envahissante présente au Niger depuis 1986, dont des quantités importantes sont récoltées en  milieux aquatiques. Le projet est porté par une ONG locale, le

  20. Optimization of Bioethanol Production Using Whole Plant of Water Hyacinth as Substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Weng, Chen; Huang, Huiqin; Achal, Varenyam; Wang, Duanchao

    2015-01-01

    Water hyacinth was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the present study. Combination of acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was the most effective process for sugar production that resulted in the production of 402.93 mg reducing sugar at optimal condition. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to response surface method in saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87°C in 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast, where 1.291 g/L bioethanol was produced. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced during experimentation, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this research. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  1. Aspects of the scientific network and communication of John Hyacinth de Magellan in Britain, Flanders and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, Isabel

    2008-11-01

    The subject of gases was on the agenda of many learned scientific gentlemen in the second half of the eighteenth century. This was not only because of the extraordinary account that had been given as to the physical and chemical composition of the third state of matter, but also, and perhaps mainly, because of the extraordinary properties that at least one of these gases seemed to offer for food preservation, the medicinal properties of natural waters and medical applications. These putative practical applications were highly sought after by society at the time, particularly for long-distance sea journeys. This paper focuses on the Portuguese polymath João Jacinto de Magalhães (1722-1790), also known as John Hyacinth de Magellan. It shows some specific aspects of his activities as a disseminator of Priestley's discoveries on pneumatics, mainly in Flanders, Holland and France, and through his large network of scientific correspondents.

  2. Deposição de calda de pulverização sobre plantas de salvínia em função de pontas de pulverização e arranjos populacionais entre plantas de Aguapé e Alface-D'Água Spray deposition on water fern plants in function of nozzle tips and population arrangements with water Hyacinth and Water Lettuce plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Marchi

    2011-03-01

    salvínia.This study aimed to evaluate two types of spray tips (ConeJet TXVK-8 and TeeJet DG 11002 VS and the amount of spray mix deposited on Salvinia auriculata plants organized under different population arrangements with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes plants. In addition to a full-dominance proportion over the area, corresponding to 100% cover of the water tank by eared water moss plants, arrangements with either water hyacinth or water lettuce were made at 75%:25%, 50%:50%, and 25%:75%. A triple density, in which the three species were equally disposed at a 33.33% proportion, was also used. Dye solutions of FD&C Yellow no. 5 at 3,500 ppm and FD&C Blue no.1 at 1,000 ppm were used, as spraying tracers for TXVK-8 and DG 11002 VS nozzles, respectively. Both solutions were sprayed at the same plot within a 30-minute interval each, through a CO2 pressured backpack, calibrated to deliver a spray volume of around 200 L ha-1. The total spray deposits were estimated in mL per plant and the unit deposits in mL cm² of foliar surface. No significant differences were observed between the nozzle tips used at different population arrangements, except total spray mix deposited on plants at 100% of eared water moss dominance proportion, with ConeJet TXVK-8, providing superior spray mix deposition, compared with TeeJet DG 11002 VS. The highest spray mix deposition was obtained under 100% of salvínia dominance. However, the spray mix quantity decreased with increase of water hyacinth in the proportion and reached the lowest value when 25% of eared water moss plants were associated with 75% of water hyacinth plants. The presence of water lettuce did not influence spray mix deposition over eared water moss plants.

  3. Of lemurs and louse flies: The biogeochemical and biotic effects of forest disturbance on Propithecus edwardsi and its obligate ectoparasite Allobosca crassipes in Ranomafana National Park, southeastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Stanley

    2017-08-01

    From alleles to ecosystems and landscapes, anthropogenic activity continues to affect the environment, with particularly adverse effects on biodiversity hotspots such as Madagascar. Selective logging has been proposed as a "win-win" conservation strategy, yet its effects on different components of biodiversity are still not fully understood. Here we examine biotic factors (i.e., dietary differences) that may be driving differences in biogeochemical stocks between disturbed and undisturbed forests. We present the stable nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) isotope composition of hair from the lemur Propithecus edwardsi and of whole bodies of its obligate ectoparasite, the louse-fly Allobosca crassipes, from sites in Ranomafana National Park (RNP) that are comparable except for the history of logging and subsequent forest regeneration. P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from the disturbed (i.e., heavily selectively logged) site are lower in (15) N and (13) C relative to P. edwardsi and A. crassipes from sites that were minimally selectively logged or not commercially logged at all. There is a ∼3‰ decrease in (15) N between disturbed and undisturbed sites that corresponds to a difference of nearly a full trophic level. Flowers from Bakerella clavata, a staple food source for P. edwardsi in disturbed habitats and a fallback food for P. edwardsi in primary forests, were also analyzed isotopically. B. clavata is δ(15) N-depleted in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Data from longitudinal behavioral surveys of P. edwardsi in RNP and other forests in eastern Madagascar point to significant differences in consumption patterns of B. clavata, with P. edwardsi in disturbed forests consuming almost twice as much of this plant. Depletion of (15) N in animal tissues is a complex issue, but likely the result of the interaction of physiological and ecological factors. Anthropogenic disturbance in RNP from selective logging has had both biotic and biogeochemical effects that

  4. Process optimization for densification of water hyacinth pellets fuel%水葫芦颗粒燃料成型工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 蔡宗寿; 张得政; 张哲

    2016-01-01

    Water hyacinth has been identified as one of the top worst water weeds over the world. Due to its characteristics of rapid growth rate and broad environmental tolerance, it has widely spread in most waterways in 17 provinces of south areas of China since 1930’s. However, water hyacinth has a strong ability to absorb nitrogen, phosphorus and other harmful heavy metal elements from water, so it has been widely used in the projects of ecological rehabilitation of water bodies in recent years over the world, which has made the problem of resource utilization of water hyacinth more important and urgent than before. Because water hyacinth is high in cellulose and hemicellulose content, it has the potential to be transformed into biomass fuel. Using mechanical force, water hyacinth can be extruded or compressed into biomass pellets, and could be an important way to utilize water hyacinth as an energy source. In the process of biomass densification, different chemical compositions of biomass can result in different compressing process parameters of biomass pellets. As an aquatic plant, the difference in the chemical composition of water hyacinth from other terrestrial plants can result in different compressing process parameters of water hyacinth pellets from other biomass pellets. Among all the compressing process parameters of biomass pellets, compressing force, temperature, moisture content and particle size of material are the 4 important process parameters that greatly influence the quality of biomass pellet fuel. In order to improve the densification quality of pellet fuel made from water hyacinth, the densification process of water hyacinth pellets was experimentally studied by using a compressing apparatus in the laboratory. Firstly, the single-factor tests were carried out, in which the variables were compressing force (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 kN), temperature (80, 90, 100, 110 and 120℃), moisture content of material (8%, 10%, 12%, 14% and 16%), and

  5. Kinetic modeling of the biosorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions onto Eichhornia crassipes roots using potentiometry: low-cost alternative to conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of potentiometric measurements for kinetic studies of biosorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions on Eichhornia crassipes roots. The open circuit potential of the Cd/Cd2+ electrode of the first kind was measured during the bioadsorption process. The amount of Cd2+ ions accumulated was determined in real time. The data were fit to different models, with the pseudo-second-order model proving to be the best in describing the data. The advantages and limitations of the methodology proposed relative to the traditional method are discussed.

  6. Estimativa da área foliar de plantas daninhas de ambiente aquático: Eichhornia crassipes Leaf area determination of aquatic weeds: waterhyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Marchi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter equações que, através de parâmetros lineares dimensionais do limbo e do pecíolo, permitam estimar a área foliar do limbo e a área externa do pulvino de Eichhornia crassipes. Para isso, estudaram-se correlações entre a área foliar real e os parâmetros dimensionais do limbo foliar, como o comprimento ao longo da nervura principal (C e a largura máxima (L perpendicular ao eixo principal, assim como correlações entre a área externa real e o comprimento máximo (CP e o maior diâmetro transversal (DP do pulvino. Todas as equações lineares simples, geométricas ou exponenciais permitiram boas estimativas da área foliar e área externa do pecíolo. Do ponto de vista prático, sugere-se optar pela equação linear simples envolvendo os respectivos produtos do comprimento pela largura máxima, considerando o coeficiente linear igual a zero. Desse modo, a estimativa da área foliar do limbo (AF de E. crassipes pode ser feita pela fórmula AF = 0,720 (C x L; e a área externa do pulvino (AP pode ser estimada pela fórmula AP = 2,378 (CP x DP, com coeficientes de determinação (R² de 0,9716 e 0,9268, respectivamente.The objective of this study was to obtain equations that allowed to estimate the leaf area and the float petiole outward area of Eichhornia crassipes, by studying the correlations between true leaf area and leaf dimensional parameters such as leaf length in the mid rib direction (C, and maximum leaf width (L, in the mid rib perpendicular direction, as well as the correlations between true float petiole outward area and maximum length (CP and the largest transversal diameter (DP of the float petiole. All the linear, geometric and exponential equations provided good leaf area and float petiole outward area estimates. It is suggested to opt for simple linear equations involving the respective C x L, considering zero as the linear coefficient. Thus, leaf area (AF of E. crassipes can be

  7. Celebrating Two Centuries since the Invention of the Stethoscope. René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomos, Ioannis; Karakatsani, Anna; Manali, Effrosyni D; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-10-01

    René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826), a French physician, is considered one of the pioneers of respiratory medicine. His contribution to the invention of the stethoscope and to the development of clinical auscultation played a key role in the progress of the diagnosis of chest diseases. Almost two centuries after his invention of the stethoscope, his achievements continue to be widely appreciated and used by modern physicians in current pulmonology.

  8. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks.

  9. Molecular identification of two strains of Cercospora rodmanii isolated from water hyacinth present in Yuriria lagoon, Guanajuato, Mexico and identification of new hosts for several other strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Calderón, José Guadalupe; Martínez-Álvarez, José Ascención; Vieyra-Hernández, Ma Teresa; Rangel-Macías, Luz Imelda; Razzo-Soria, Tannia; Chávez-Herrera, Roberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Leal-Morales, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Water hyacinth is a beautiful monocotyledon plant that has been dispersed all over the world by humans. The plant has been present in Mexico since 1907, and many water bodies have become infested with it since then. In 2001, we initiated a survey in Yuriria lagoon in southern Guanajuato state to isolate fungi able to biocontrol the plant. We isolated 25 morphologically distinct fungal cultures, of which two were identified as members of the genus Cercospora. Cercospora species are among the most prevalent and destructive of plant pathogens and can be found on leaves, pedicels, stems, fruits, and bracts. Only two species of Cercospora, Cercospora piaropi, and Cercospora rodmanii, have been described on water hyacinth; however, the classification of these species has been controversial. Several molecular approaches have been used for Cercospora identification, and some candidate genes have been identified for use in Cercospora species determination. Although the nrRNA genes alone do not show sufficient resolution for species determination, histone H3, translation elongation factor1-α, β-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin have been shown in previous studies to have an adequate number of nucleotide changes to allow species identification. In the present study, we used partial sequences of the histone H3, actin, and calmodulin genes to identify our two isolates as C. rodmanii. Our two strains are not specific to water hyacinth, as they are also pathogenic to beet and sugar beet. Similar host ranges were found for C. rodmanii strains isolated from Tabasco in México, Zambia, and Brazil, however, the specificity for water hyacinth persists in Cercospora piaropi Tharp and C. rodmanii Conway, the latter being the most pathogenic.

  10. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Long-Term Monitoring of Eleven Corps of Engineers Habitat Development Field Sites Built of Dredged Material, 1974-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Phraginites australis Common spikerush Eleocharis palus tris Common velvetgrass Holcus lanatus Coontail Ceratophyliwn sp. Cowpea Vigna sp. Crabgrass Diqitaria...monnieri Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes Watermelon Citrullus vulgaris Water parsnip Sium sauve Water pennywort Hydrocoty is bonariensis Water plantain

  11. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  12. Page 1 Tropical Freshwater Biology, 8 (1999) 31- 40 31 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samples was collected for analysis. The range of water ... multiple factor dependent. ... Estuarine communities of coastal rivers and lagoons have lately been attracting ..... hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the physico-chemical environment of.

  13. 378-IJBCS-Article-Kouamé Kouamé Victor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Physico-chemical factors involved in rivers and lagoons invasion by water hyacinth ... The invasion of freshwaters and coastal ecosystems by Eichhornia crassipes in tropical and subtropical .... samples for nutrient analyses were collected.

  14. Large-scale utilization of water hyacinth for nutrient removal in Lake Dianchi in China: the effects on the water quality, macrozoobenthos and zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Junqian; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Haiqing; Yan, Shaohua

    2012-11-01

    An ecological engineering project using water hyacinth for nutrient removal was performed in Baishan Bay of a large shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Dianchi in China. In the present study, a systematic survey of water quality, macrozoobenthos and zooplankton inside (IWH), around (AWH) and far away (FWH) water hyacinth mats was conducted in Baishan Bay from August to October 2010. The results showed that the water quality significantly improved at AWH area. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were lower and transparency was higher at AWH area than those in IWH and FWH areas. Total densities, dominant species densities, and biodiversity indexes of macrozoobenthos and cladocerans as well as copepods did not differ (P>0.05) among each other in all three areas. It was significantly (P<0.05) different for those of rotifers at IWH area compared to those in AWH and FWH areas. The results might suggest a tremendous potential for the utilization of water hyacinth in the eutrophic lake like Lake Dianchi for nutrients removal.

  15. Extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth using inexpensive contraptions, and the use of the VFAs as feed supplements in conventional biogas digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar Ganesh, P.; Ramasamy, E.V.; Gajalakshmi, S.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Univ., Pondicherry (India). Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed and a readily available organic waste which can be fermented anaerobically. However, it cannot be fed to conventional biogas digesters because the phytomass is lighter than water and therefore floats on top of the digester contents and clogs the digester. This study used a simple and low-cost apparatus to extract volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth. The VFAs were then used as a supplement feed in cow dung-fed floating dome biogas digesters which are widely used in third World countries. The objective was to provide such digesters with feed derived from phytomass, particularly for times when animal dung is in short supply. The extraction of VFA occurs by aerobic degradation of water hyacinth. Methanogenesis takes place when the VFAs are fed into the biogas digesters, resulting in methane rich biogas. This newly developed VFA extraction method enables phytomass to be used as a feed supplement for biogas digesters without the adverse effects of solid accumulation, frothing or clogging that occurs with phytomass feed. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  16. In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activity and In Vivo Effect of Syngonium podophyllum and Eichhornia crassipes Leaf Extracts on Isoniazid Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Markers

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    Shashank Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic potential of Syngonium podophyllum (SP and Eichhornia crassipes (EC leaf aqueous extracts as well as their in vivo effect on oxidative stress and hepatic biomarkers in isoniazid induced rats. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, and saponins. Phenolic content in SP and EC extracts was 5.36±0.32 and 10.63±0.13 mg PGE/g, respectively, while flavonoid content was 1.26±0.03 and 0.51±0.03 μg QE/mg, respectively. EC extract exhibited comparatively better antioxidant activity as indicated by reducing power (0.197–0.775, DPPH radical scavenging potential (11%–96%, and metal ion chelating ability (42%–93%. Both the extracts provided 13%–65% protection against lipid peroxidation in rat tissue (liver, kidney, and brain homogenate. SP and EC extracts exhibited 51% and 43% cytotoxicity against lung cancer (NCI-H322 cell line, respectively. Both extracts demonstrated considerable antibacterial activity against Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Coadministration of E. crassipes extract with isoniazid in rats accounted for 46% decrease in malondialdehyde content and 21% increase in FRAP value of plasma. It also mitigated the isoniazid induced alterations in serum enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine, and hemoglobin contents. S. podophyllum extract was found to be hepatotoxic.

  17. Revealing crosstalk of plant and fungi in the symbiotic roots of sewage-cleaning Eichhornia crassipes using direct de novo metatranscriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Gu, Wei; Zhong, Jiayong; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation and environmental changes can induce development of novel phenotypes in plants. For example, the root morphology of cultivated purple root Eichhornia crassipes differs remarkably from normal Eichhornia crassipes and also shows an enhanced ability to absorb heavy metal from groundwater. However, the changes in gene expression associated with these processes are unknown because of the lack of information on its large and unsequenced genome and its complex plant-rhizosphere symbiotic system. To investigate these gene expression changes, we applied a new strategy, direct de novo metatranscriptome analysis. Using this approach, we assembled the metatranscriptome of the entire rhizosphere and identified species-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via hyper-accurate algorithms, showing a polarized plant/fungus distribution: the plant genes were responsible for morphological changes to the root system, offering a greater volume and surface area that hosts more fungi; while genes associated with heavy metal response in the fungus Fusarium were upregulated more than 3600-fold. These results suggested a distinct and synergistic functional response by the plant and fungal transcriptomes, indicating significant plant/fungal crosstalk during environmental changes. This study demonstrates that the metatranscriptomic approach adopted here offers a cost-efficient strategy to study symbiosis systems without the need for a priori genomic knowledge.

  18. Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associado a Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae em um Lago de Várzea na Amazônia Central, Brasil

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    Carlos Elias BRAGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La tucura Neotropical, Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, vive asociada a las macrófitas de la familia Pontederiaceae, de las cuales se alimenta. En los lagos de la Amazonia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (camalote o aguape constituye la planta huésped más importante de esta tucura. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la fenología de los adultos y las ninfas de C. aquaticum en los camalotales de E. crassipes, en relación al régimen hidrológico de la Amazonia Central. Los muestreos se realizaron entre los meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007, en el Lago Camaleón (03o17’05”S 60o11’11”O en la Várzea de la Amazonia Central. Los individuos fueron capturados desde una embarcación a motor, utilizando una red entomológica de 70 cm de diámetro. Durante este estudio, se capturaron un total de 850 ejemplares (296 adultos y 554 ninfas. Se observó que la abundancia y la biomasa de los adultos y de las ninfas de C. aquaticum, así como la planta huésped, están estrechamente relacionados con la oscilación estacional del nivel del río (pulso de inundación.

  19. 凤眼莲净化富营养化水体效果影响因素的综述%Water Hyacinth Eutrophic Water Purification Effect of Influential Factors Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄露露; 马晓建

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive list of some of the factors that influence water hyacinth purify water eutrophication, and described the influence of water on the effect of these factors purify eutrophic water hyacinth, water hyacinth purification in order to promote the industrial application of eutrophic water bodies.%全面列举了一些影响凤眼莲净化富营养化水体的因素,并阐述了这些因素对凤眼莲净化富营养化水体效果的影响,以期推动凤眼莲净化富营养化水体的工业化应用。

  20. Research Review on Application of Microorganism in Resources Utilization of Water Hyacinth%微生物在水葫芦资源化利用中的应用研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁华; 涂卫国; 王琼瑶

    2016-01-01

    对水葫芦资源化利用中微生物的应用研究进行归纳和评述,并对如何进一步提高微生物作用效率进行探讨,以期为进一步开展水葫芦的资源化利用工作提供参考。%Studies on application of microorganism in resources utilization of water hyacinth were reviewed , the way to enhance the efficiency of microorganisms was discussed , so as to provide reference for resources utilization of water hyacinth .

  1. Optimization of bioethanol production using whole plant of Water Hyacinth as substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process

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    Qiuzhuo eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole plant of Water Hyacinth that had potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the current study. It was found that acid pretreatment exhibited the most effective for reducing sugars production. An amount of 402.93 mg reducing sugars was achieved at optimal condition after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to Response Surface Method (RSM in Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87℃ for 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast. 1.291 g/L bioethanol could be achieved by our predicted model in optimal condition. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this study. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  2. Co-fermentation of water hyacinth and beverage wastewater in powder and pellet form for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Sen, Biswarup; Chen, Chin-Chao; Wu, Jou-Hsien; Lee, Shih-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2013-05-01

    Hydrogen (H2) production potential of water hyacinth (WH) and beverage wastewater (BW) mixture in powder and pellet form at various combination ratios were evaluated. Batch co-fermentation results showed peak biogas production of 105.5 mL and H2 production of 55.6 mL at the combination ratio of 1.6 g WH and 2.4 g BW in pellet form. With the same ratio in pellet form, the maximum H2 production rate 542 mL H2/L-d, maximum specific H2 production rate 869 mL H2/g VSS-d and H2 yield 13.65 mL/g feedstock were obtained, and were 88, 88 and 34% higher than its powder form. The predominant soluble metabolite was acetate in the concentration of 1059-2639 mg COD/L (40-79% of total metabolites) in most runs during co-fermentation of mixed feedstock. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and the physical form of the combined feedstock are essential criteria for optimum H2 production. Co-fermentation also alleviates the waste disposal problem of the industries.

  3. Reducing the bioavailability and leaching potential of lead in contaminated water hyacinth biomass by phosphate-assisted pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingna; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianfa; Huang, Xiaoyi; Cai, Jing; Lü, Jinhong; Wang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    For the purpose of safe disposal of biomass contaminated by biosorption of heavy metals, phosphate-assisted pyrolysis of water hyacinth biomass contaminated by lead (Pb) was tried to reduce the bioavailability and leaching potential of Pb, using direct pyrolysis without additive as a control method. Direct pyrolysis of the contaminated biomass at low temperatures (300 and 400°C) could reduce the bioavailability of Pb, but the leaching potential of Pb was increased with the rising pyrolysis temperature. While phosphate-assisted pyrolysis significantly enhanced the recovery and stability of Pb in the char. Specifically, the percentages of bioavailable Pb and leachable Pb in the chars obtained by phosphate-assisted pyrolysis at low temperatures were reduced to less than 5% and 7%, respectively. The sequential extraction test indicated the transformation of Pb into more stable fractions after phosphate-assisted pyrolysis, which was related to the formation of Pb phosphate minerals including pyromorphite and lead-substituted hydroxyapatite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction and antioxidant activities assay of polysaccharides from white Hyacinth bean and promoting-growth to probiotics

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    Ni LEI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction parameters of water-soluble polysaccharides (WPs from white hyacinth bean were optimized using single-factor and orthogonal experiment. The antioxidant activities of WPs were presented by assaying three different radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy radical (DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging ability. In addition, the effects of WPs obtained on the growth of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5, Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were also determined by measuring the OD and pH value of culture medium. According to the results, the optimum extraction parameters were as follows: the ratio of water to material was 50, extraction time was 2h and the extraction temperature was 95°C. The yield of WPs reached 1.15±0.07% under this condition. In addition, the WPs had different scavenging ability on three radicals (hydroxyl > DPPH > superoxide. And the WPs could promote the growth of LA5, BB01 and LB6.

  5. 不同水培条件对风信子生长的影响%Influence of different hydroponic conditions on the hyacinth's growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娇娇; 王波; 纪羚; 刘颖; 王晶; 马慧; 董必慧

    2012-01-01

      以含有不同KH2PO4浓度控制不同的风信子水培条件,选择卡耐基品系大小均一的风信子鳞茎设置对照组进行试验,观察并记录不同水培条件下风信子叶芽、根系、花的生长等情况.初步总结不同水培条件对风信子生长的影响,结果表明:卡耐基品系的风信子在水培时,其根系在浓度为0.05 mmol/L KH2PO4水培条件下的长度与其他KH2PO4浓度水培条件下的风信子根系长度有显著差异.而在不同的KH2PO4浓度水培条件下,风信子的花期时长、花茎高度和叶片长度并没有显著差异.此外,试验还讨论证实适当的钾和磷可以提前风信子的花期、提高花的品质和观赏价值.%  Taking homogeneous hyacinth bulbs of Carnegie strains as materials, the effect of different KH2PO4 hydroponic concentra-tion on the growth of leaf, root, flower etc. were observed and recorded. The results show the root length of the hyacinth of Carnegie strains in 0.05 m mol/L KH2PO4 hydroponic concentration has significant deference with the other hydroponic treatments. As to the duration of flowering, stem height and length of leaf, there is no significant deference between the different KH2PO4 hydroponic con-centration treatments. In addition, the paper also proved that the appropriate potassium and phosphorus can advance the flowing time of hyacinth and improve the quality and ornamental value of hyacinth flower.

  6. Ultrafast spectroscopy studies on the mechanism of electron transfer and energy conversion in the isolated pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The spectroscopy characteristics and the fluorescence lifetime for the chloroplasts isolated from the pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach plant leaves have been studied by absorption spectra, low temperature steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and single photon counting measurement under the same conditions and by the same methods. The similarity of the absorption spectra for the chloroplasts at room temperature suggests that different plants can efficiently absorb light of the same wavelength. The fluorescence decays in PS II measured at the natural QA state for the chloroplasts have been fitted by a three-exponential kinetic model. The three fluorescence lifetimes are 30, 274 and 805 ps for the pseudo ginseng chloroplast; 138, 521 and 1494 ps for the water hyacinth chloroplast; 197, 465 and 1459 ps for the spinach chloroplast, respectively. The slow lifetime fluorescence component is assigned to a collection of associated light harvesting Chl a/b proteins, the fast lifetime component to the reaction center of PS II and the middle lifetime component to the delay fluorescence of recombination of and Pheo-. The excitation energy conversion efficiency (η) in PS II RC is defined and calculated on the basis of the 20 ps electron transfer time constant model, 60%, 87% and 91% for the pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach chloroplasts, respectively. This interesting result is in unconformity with what is assumed to be 100% efficiency in PS II RC. Our result in this work stands in line with the 20 ps electron transfer time constant in PS II rather sound and the water hyacinth plant grows slower than the spinach plant does as envisaged on the efficiency. But, our results predict that those plants can perform highly efficient transfer of photo-excitation energy from the light-harvesting pigment system to the reaction center (closely to 100%). The conclusion contained in this paper reveals the plant growth characteristics expressed in the primary processes of

  7. Solar dehydration of the water hyacinth and his characterization as fuel; Desidratacao solar do jacinto d'agua e sua caracterizacao como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcio Amaral de [Universidade Salgado de Oliveira, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Pinto, Carmen Lucia R. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Meio Ambiente; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    Because of a new technology for waste water treatment utilizing water treatment utilizing water hyacinth as an instrument for water pollution control, studies were developed to profit the resultant biomass from this process proposing its utilization like an energy source after its dehydration. A direct exposition solar dryer with double glazing was utilized in the process. During the process were evaluated the following parameters: time of drying: physicochemistry characteristics of the plant; and inlet air, outlet air and inside air temperatures during the whole process of drying. (author)

  8. 凤眼莲有性繁殖与种子结构及其活力研究%Research on sexual reproduction, seed structure and its vigor of Eichhornia crassipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎颖; 吴富勤; 张志勇; 刘海琴; 王亚雷; 王智; 张君倩; 申仕康; 严少华

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction, seed structure and its vigor of Eichhornia crassipes in Dianchi Lake were investigated in order to determine whether its seeds dispersion would initiate ecological risk. The results showed that E. Crassipes preferred sexual reproduction by blossom with the ability of clonal propagation decreasing in Waihai Baishan Bay waters of Dianchi Lake, but the seed setting rate was very low,about 5% -10%. The seeds of E. Crassipes were extremely small and the thousand seed weight was only (0. 429±0. 009) g. Observed with an unaided eye, the ripe seeds were of yellowish-brown color and shaped like common jujube seeds. Observed with scanning electric microscope (SEM) , single embryo was shaped like bone which was surrounded by endosperm and spermoderm. Test results of seed vigor showed that 87% -95% of full seeds had a viability.%为了探讨凤眼莲(Eichhornia crassipes)种子扩散潜在的生态风险,开展了滇池大水面凤眼莲有性繁殖和种子结构及其活力的研究.结果表明:滇池外海白山湾水域凤眼莲克隆繁殖能力较弱,大面积开花可进行有性繁殖,但结实率极低,约为5%~10%.凤眼莲种子极其微小,千粒质量仅为(0.429±0.009)g.肉眼观察其表观性状,成熟的种子呈黄褐色,状似枣核;以扫描电镜观察其种胚结构,为单胚种子,状如骨头,外包胚乳和种皮.87% ~95%的饱满种子具有生活力.

  9. (eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms)

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  10. (Eichhornia crassipes) root biomass

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    Zaranyika

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  11. Novel rhythms of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and its precursor melatonin in water hyacinth: importance for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Di Mascio, Paolo; Martinez, Glaucia R; Prado, Fernanda M; Reiter, Russel J

    2007-06-01

    N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMFK) is a major metabolite of melatonin in mammals. To investigate whether AFMK exists in plants, an aquatic plant, water hyacinth, was used. To achieve this, LC/MS/MS with a deuterated standard was employed. AFMK was identified in any plant for the first time. Both it and its precursor, melatonin, were rhythmic with peaks during the late light phase. These novel rhythms indicate that these molecules do not serve as the chemical signal of darkness as in animals but may relate to processes of photosynthesis or photoprotection. These possibilities are supported by higher production of melatonin and AFMK in plants grown in sunlight (10,000-15,000 microW/cm2) compared to those grown under artificial light (400-450 microW/cm2). Melatonin and AFMK, as potent free radical scavengers, may assist plants in coping with harsh environmental insults, including soil and water pollutants. High levels of melatonin and AFMK in water hyacinth may explain why this plant more easily tolerates environmental pollutants, including toxic chemicals and heavy metals and is successfully used in phytoremediation. These novel findings could lead to improvements in the phytoremediative capacity of plants by either stimulating endogenous melatonin synthesis or by adding melatonin to water/soil in which they are grown.

  12. Pb(II) Adsorption from Aqueous Solution by Water Hyacinth%水葫芦对水中Pb(Ⅱ)的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    閤明勇; 杨光

    2012-01-01

    通过静态吸附实验,研究了干体水葫芦对水中的重金属离子Pb(II)的吸附性能,考察了吸附剂投加量、重金属溶液起始浓度、溶液起始pH值及吸附时间对Pb(II)去除效果的影响。研究结果表明,水葫芦对Pb(II)吸附效果明显优于桔子皮、木屑和玉米芯屑,具有吸附时间短、投加量少、适应pH值范围广的特点。%Pb (II) adsorption effects of adsorbent dosage, initial results showed that water hyacinth sawdust and corn cob with respect from aqueous solution by dried water hyacinth was studied asing batch technique. The concentration, initial pH and contact time on Pb (II) adsorption were investigated. The was much more effective in Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution than orange peel, to shorter equilibrium time, less adsorption dosage and broader pH range.

  13. Effects of Additives on Quality of Water Hyacinth and Corn Straw Mixed Silages%添加剂对水葫芦玉米秸秆混合青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄益芬; 陈鑫珠; 廖惠珍; 林志城; 祁瑞雪; 张文昌

    2011-01-01

    For the purpose of producing high quality silage, water hyacinth silage and water hyacinth & corn straw mixed silage were studied. Water hyacinth & corn straw were mixed into 5 silages with their weight ratio of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60, besides water hyacinth silage. Water hyacinth silage and mixed silage with CON, corn straw fermented green juice (FGJC), water hyacinth fermented green juice (FGJW), and formic acid (FA), foraform (FOR) was ensiled to study the effect of the additives. Each treatment was 2 repeats. Silages were fermented for 60 days under normal temperature. Then the pH value, dry matter rate (DMR), gas loss rate (GLR), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and other items were measured. The result showed that 4 additives significantly affected the fermentation quality of silages. The effect of FGJC and FGJW to the mixed silages with 80:20 mixed ratio was the best. The fermentation quality of mixed silages with additives was better than water hyacinth silages. Preparing of water hyacinth & corn straw mixed silages is a good way to utilize water hyacinth.%为开发利用水葫芦生产优质青贮,研究制作了水葫芦单贮和5种水葫芦玉米秸秆混合青贮(混贮),5种混贮的水葫芦:玉米秸秆(质量比)分别为80∶20、70∶30、60∶40、50∶50和40∶60(简称为80∶20混贮等),并在单贮和各种混贮中设对照(CON)组、添加玉米秸秆绿汁发酵液(FGJC)组、添加水葫芦绿汁发酵液(FGJW)组、添加蚁酸(FA)组和添加四蚁酸铵(FOR)组.每个处理作2次重复,常温下贮存60天,开封后测定青贮的pH、干物质回收率(DMR)、气体损失率(GLR)、氨态氮(NH3-N)等指标.结果表明,4种添加剂在所有青贮中都有一定的添加效果,其中,FGJC组和FGJW组在80:20混贮中的添加效果最佳;混贮的品质均优于单贮.调制水葫芦玉米秸秆混贮是开发利用水葫芦的一条极佳途径.

  14. The development from kinetic coefficients of a predictive model for the growth of Eichhomia crassipes in the field. I. Generating kinetic coefficients for the model in greenhouse culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Musil

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of N- and P- limited growth of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart . Solms were investigated in greenhouse culture with the object of developing a model for predicting population sizes, yields, growth rates and frequencies and amounts of harvest, under varying conditions of nutrient loading and climate, to control both nutrient inputs and excessive growth in eutrophied aquatic systems. The kinetic coefficients, maximum specific growth rate (Umax, half saturation coefficient (Ks and yield coefficient (Yc were measured under N and P limitation in replicated batch culture experiments. Umax values and Ks concentrations derived under N limitation ranged from 5,37 to 8,86% d + and from 400 to 1 506 µg  N ℓ1respectively. Those derived under P limitation ranged from 4,51 to 10,89% d 1 and from 41 to 162 fig P ℓ1 respectively. Yc values (fresh mass basis determined ranged from 1 660 to 1 981 (87 to 98 dry mass basis for N and from 16 431 to 18 671 (867 to 980 dry mass basis for P. The reciprocals of Yc values (dry mass basis, expressed as percentages, adequately estimated the minimum limiting concentrations of N and P {% dry mass in the plant tissues. Kinetic coefficients determined are compared with those reported for algae. The experimental method used and results obtained are critically assessed.

  15. Diseño y evaluación de un biosistema de tratamiento a escala piloto de aguas de curtiembres a través de la Eichhornia crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Fernando Carreño Sayago

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista ambiental, el sector de curtiembres siempre ha sido catalogado como altamente contaminante, donde su proceso productivo del cuero a partir de un tratamiento físico-químico de pieles de animales genera contaminantes químicos como el cromo y desechos orgánicos que causan impactos ambientales negativos sobre los ecosistemas.  Los ecosistemas naturales, tales como los humedales, son los sistemas más productivos en el mundo como resultado de la abundancia de luz, agua, nutrientes. Debido a esta abundancia y favorabilidad es común encontrar la presencia de plantas que han desarrollado adaptaciones morfológicas y bioquímicas permitiéndoles aprovechar al máximo las ventajas de estas condiciones de su entorno, las cuales han sido comúnmente denominadas malezas acuáticas. Entre estas malezas flotantes (macrofitas se encuentra el Jacinto de Agua (Eichornia crassipes, el cual tiene una amplia presencia en los cuerpos húmedos de Cundinamarca (Colombia, presentan un alta capacidad invasiva  desarrollando un  esparcimiento elevado en estos sistemas acuáticos. Pero esta planta tiene la capacidad de transformar la materia orgánica y sobre todo acumular diferentes metales pesados en su morfología. En la presente investigación, se diseñó y construyó un biosistema de tratamiento para la remoción y retención de cromo de aguas contaminadas por los residuos del proceso de las curtiembres, siendo la Eichhornia crassipes, el agente retenedor de estos compuestos contaminantes, donde se evidencio una solución económica y tecnológicamente viable para el sector industrial. Palabras claves: Eichhornia crassipes, cromo, curtiembres,  biosistema.

  16. Influência do hábitat na estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados às raízes de Eichhornia crassipes na região do Lago Catalão, Amazonas, Brasil Influence of habitat on community structure of macroinvertebrate associated with roots of Eichhornia crassipes in the Lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Por possuírem ciclos de vida curtos, os macroinvertebrados aquáticos podem responder rapidamente às modificações ambientais, alterando a estrutura das suas populações e comunidades. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se há relação entre a composição de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associados a bancos de Eichhornia crassipes o gradiente de condutividade elétrica da água e a biomassa das raízes destes bancos. No pico da cheia de 2005, 21 bancos de macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes dominados por E. crassipes foram amostrados no rio Negro (baixa condutividade 30 µS cm-1 e 50 µS cm-1. Foram encontrados 1707 macroinvertebrados aquáticos, distribuídos em 14 ordens e 35 famílias. A abundância de invertebrados aquáticos foi maior em bancos na confluência das águas. O aumento da biomassa das raízes de E. crassipes levou a um aumento da abundância e da riqueza de famílias de macroinvertebrados. A abundância dos coletores-catadores, coletores-filtradores e raspadores variou com o tipo de água, e apenas a abundância dos coletores-catadores e coletores-filtradores variou em função da biomassa das raízes. A riqueza de famílias dos raspadores variou em função do tipo de água. A organização da comunidade depende do gradiente de biomassa de raízes, indicando a importância da estrutura do hábitat para o estabelecimento dos macroinvertebrados.Owing to their short life cycles aquatic macroinvertebrates may quickly respond to environmental modifications by changing the structure of their populations and communities. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the composition of aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia crassipes stands, the gradient of water conductivity and biomass of the roots of these stands. At the peak of the floods of 2005, 21 banks of floating aquatic macrophytes dominated by E. crassipes were sampled in the Solimões River (high conductivity > 50 µS cm-1, the

  17. Evaluación de la remoción de nutrientes y compuestos organoclorados y sus rutas de bioacumulación con la planta flotante Eichhornia crassipes expuesta a efluentes de pulpa de celulosa

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Margarita Míguez Caramés; Anabel Martínez-Bengochea; María Victoria Carrara Balbi; Natalia Ferreira; Katherine Bombi Haedo; Elise Cartmell

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo piloto tuvo como objetivo estudiar el proceso de bioacumulación de nutrientes y compuestos organoclorados en Eichhornia crassipes expuesta a efluentes de una fábrica de celulosa que vierte en aguas del Río Uruguay, cerca de la ciudad de Fray Bentos, Río Negro, Uruguay. Se caracterizaron los principales atributos del efluente, antes y después del cultivo con Eichhornia, así como también se estudiaron las concentraciones de los halógenos orgánicos en plantas control y en pla...

  18. Elaboración de abono orgánico a partir de plantas acuáticas: Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto o Lirio de agua (Eichhornia crassipes), procedentes del Lago de Coatepeque y Lago de Güija

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes de Cabrales, Cecilia Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por finalidad elaborar un abono orgánico bajo la técnica de compostaje, conocida como proceso de descomposición aeróbica. Se realizaron tres formulaciones de abono a partir de las plantas acuáticas Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto de agua (Eichhornia crassipes) en las siguientes proporciones: Elodea 100%, Jacinto de agua 100% y mezcla de ambas en una proporción de 50:50. A los abonos obtenidos se les realizaron análisis químico con la finalidad de cuantificar...

  19. PENGEMBANGAN TEPUNG KAYA PROTEIN (TKP dari KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet DAN KORO KRATOK (Phaseolus lunatus [Development of Protein Rich Flour (PRF from Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nafi1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to high content of carbohydrate and protein, Protein Rich Flour (PRF were developed from non-oilseed legumes i.e. hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus PRF. PRFs were prepared using water and NaOH solution (0.01N as extraction solvent. After precipitation in isoelectric point (pHs the PRFs produced were characterized to determine the potential applications. The results showed that PRF from hyacinth bean which extracted by water was the best product with yield of 31.19%, protein content 58.41±4.45%, solubility 82-100% and oil holding capacity 93.92±9.19. Moreover pepsin-digestibility of the hyacinth bean PRF was higher (8.29±0.34% than soybean protein isolate (7.10±0.37% or casein (7.04±0.14%. Based on their characteristics, PRFs regarded as potential to be developed as novel food ingredient.

  20. A Statistical Approach for Optimization of Simultaneous Production of β-Glucosidase and Endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae from Solid-State Fermentation of Water Hyacinth Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production cost of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase could be reduced by using water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, as the sole carbon source and using cost-efficient fermentation strategies like solid-state fermentation (SSF. In the present study, the effect of different production conditions on the yield of β-glucosidase and endoglucanase by Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 9642 from water hyacinth was investigated systematically using response surface methodology. A Central composite experimental design was applied to optimize the impact of three variables, namely, substrate concentration, pH, and temperature, on enzyme production. The optimal level of each parameter for maximum enzyme production by the fungus was determined. Highest activity of endoglucanase of 495 U/mL was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.23%, pH 7.29, and temperature 29.93°C whereas maximum β-glucosidase activity of 137.32 U/ml was achieved at a substrate concentration of 1.25%, pH 6.66, and temperature 32.09°C. There was a direct correlation between the levels of enzymatic activities and the substrate concentration of water hyacinth as carbon source.

  1. Residue Determination of Glyphosate in Water Hyacinth and Aquaculture Water by Ion Chromatography%离子色谱法测试草甘膦在水葫芦及其养殖水中的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林岸清

    2012-01-01

      Glyphosate, which named N-(Phosphonomethyl)glycine, is a non-selective chronic organophosphorus systemic insecticides. It shows good controlling effect on water hyacinth. In this paper, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of glyphosate in hyacinth leaves and aquaculture water after different spray time were processed by ion chromatography, and the residue and degradation of ghyphosate in water hyacinth and the aquaculture water were investigated.%  草甘膦(glyphosate)学名N-(邻酰基甲基)甘氨酸,是一种灭生性慢性内吸有机磷除草剂,对水葫芦具有较好的防治效果。本文中用离子色谱法对喷药后不同时间水葫芦茎叶中和养殖水中的草甘膦进行定性定量分析,研究喷药后草甘膦在水葫芦中及其养殖水中的残留和降解情况。

  2. O uso do camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, para confecção de artesanato no Distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brasil The use of the camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, for handicraft in the District of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Maria Bortolotto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, conhecida localmente como camalote, é uma planta aquática nativa da América do Sul, abundante no Pantanal. Os índios Guató usavam essa planta no Pantanal para a confecção de esteiras para dormir. Atualmente a comunidade não indígena do distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, está fazendo artesanato com essa planta. O processo foi ensinado por uma índia Guató (74 anos que manteve a tradição de trançar o camalote. O uso do camalote para a confecção de artesanato é descrito aqui. O método utilizado inclui entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante. A extração do camalote é feita nos rios, corixos e lagoas da região. As folhas são cortadas e somente os pecíolos são transportados para casa, lavados em água corrente e colocados para secar ao sol. Depois de secos os pecíolos são trançados e costurados. A técnica original dos Guató consiste em costurar o artesanato com linhas confeccionadas com algodão (Gossypium sp. ou tucum (Bactris sp., atualmente substituídos por fios de nylon, em Albuquerque. O artesanato é vendido aos turistas.Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, known locally as camalote, is an aquatic plant indigenous to South America, abundant in the Pantanal, Brazil. Guató Indians used it for making sleeping mats in the Pantanal. The non-Indian community of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, nowadays, is also using it for the same purposes. An ancient Guató Indian 74 years old taught the process. The use of the camalote for handicraft in Albuquerque is described here. The methods of investigation included both semi structured interviews and participant observations. The extraction of the camalote is made on the rivers, corixos and lagoons of the area. The leaf blades are cut and only petioles are carried to the houses, washed in clear water, and dried in the sun. After dried, the petioles are woven and sewed. The Guató original technique consists of sewing the craft

  3. Analysis of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA of Xanthomonas hyacinthi: application in PCR-mediated detection of yellow disease in Hyacinths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, J; Hollinger, T C; Oudega, B

    2001-02-01

    A sensitive and specific detection method was developed for Xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA from strain S148. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate DNA primers designed by using the N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of FimA. The nucleotide sequence of fimA was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type IV fimbria-producing bacteria, such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella bovis. In a PCR internal primers JAAN and JARA, designed by using the nucleotide sequences of the variable central and C-terminal region of fimA, amplified a 226-bp DNA fragment in all X. hyacinthi isolates. This PCR was shown to be pathovar specific, as assessed by testing 71 Xanthomonas pathovars and bacterial isolates belonging to other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas. Southern hybridization experiments performed with the labelled 226-bp DNA amplicon as a probe suggested that there is only one structural type IV fimbrial-gene cluster in X. hyacinthi. Only two Xanthomonas translucens pathovars cross-reacted weakly in PCR. Primers amplifying a subsequence of the fimA gene of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (T. Ojanen-Reuhs, N. Kalkkinen, B. Westerlund-Wikström, J. van Doorn, K. Haahtela, E.-L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, K. Wengelink, U. Bonas, and T. K. Korhonen, J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280-1290, 1997) were shown to be pathovar specific, indicating that the fimbrial-subunit sequences are more generally applicable in xanthomonads for detection purposes. Under laboratory conditions, approximately 1,000 CFU of X. hyacinthi per ml could be detected. In inoculated leaves of hyacinths the threshold was 5,000 CFU/ml. The results indicated that infected hyacinths with early symptoms could be successfully screened for X. hyacinthi with PCR.

  4. Comparison of Genomic DNA Extraction Methods From Hyacinth%风信子DNA不同提取方法的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤荣; 任翠; 鲍仁蕾; 罗凤霞

    2011-01-01

    采用简易CTAB法、改良CTAB法、SDS-CTAB法、高盐法和CTAB-硅珠法等5种方法对风信子花蕾、叶片和鳞片基因组DNA进行提取.比较DNA纯度、电泳、得率等指标,结果表明:CTAB-硅珠法没有获得DNA,其他方法均可提出DNA;在纯度方面,简易CTAB法>SDS-CTAB法>改良CTAB法>高盐法;在得率方面,简易CTAB法>改良CTAB法>高盐法>SDS-CTAB法.简易CTAB法提取的DNA纯度较高,OD260/OD280为2.01,OD260/OD230为2.33,浓度为406.8ng·μL-1,得率为175.95ng· μL-1.花蕾、叶片适合风信子基因组DNA的提取.%Five methods including simple CTAB, CTAB improved method, SDS-CTAB method, high salt precipitation method and silica-purification method were used to extract genomic DNA from different parts of Hyacinth such as bud, leaves, scale. The results were compared by three parts, purity, the electrophoreses results and yield of the extracted DNA. The results showed that all of these DNA extraction methods except for CTAB-silica-purification method could obtain DNA. The purity of extracted DNA was as following : simple CTAB method >SDS-CTAB method >CTAB improved method>high salt precipitation method, and yield as following : simple CTAB method >CTAB improved method >high salt precipitation method >SDS-CTAB method. Simple CTAB method could obtain more purity DNA than the other methods and OD260/OD280 was 2.01,OD260/OD230 was 2.33. The concentration was 406.8ng-L~1 and the yield was 175.95ng·g-1.The extraction results from different parts showed that flower buds and leaves were both suit for Hyacinth obtain DNA.

  5. Comparison of alcoholic fermentation performance of the free and immobilized yeast on water hyacinth stem pieces in medium with different glucose contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Nguyen; Le, Van Viet Man

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was performed in medium with different glucose concentrations. As the glucose content augmented from 200 to 250 g/L, the growth of the immobilized cells did not change while that of the free cells was reduced. At higher glucose concentration (300, 350, and 400 g/L), the cell proliferation significantly decreased and the residual sugar level sharply augmented for both the immobilized and free yeast. The specific growth rate of the immobilized cells was 27–65 % higher than that of the free cells, and the final ethanol concentration in the immobilized yeast cultures was 9.7–18.5 % higher than that in the free yeast cultures. However, the immobilized yeast demonstrated similar or slightly lower ethanol yield in comparison with the free yeast. High fermentation rate of the immobilized yeast was associated with low unsaturation degree of fatty acids in cellular membrane. Adsorption of S. cerevisiae cells on water hyacinth stem pieces in the nutritional medium decreased the unsaturation degree of membrane lipid and the immobilized yeast always exhibited lower unsaturation degree of membrane lipid than the free yeast in ethanol fermentation.

  6. Determination and Visualization of pH Values in Anaerobic Digestion of Water Hyacinth and Rice Straw Mixtures Using Hyperspectral Imaging with Wavelet Transform Denoising and Variable Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy represents a huge supplement for meeting current energy demands. A hyperspectral imaging system covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used to determine the pH value of anaerobic digestion liquid produced by water hyacinth and rice straw mixtures used for methane production. Wavelet transform (WT was used to reduce noises of the spectral data. Successive projections algorithm (SPA, random frog (RF and variable importance in projection (VIP were used to select 8, 15 and 20 optimal wavelengths for the pH value prediction, respectively. Partial least squares (PLS and a back propagation neural network (BPNN were used to build the calibration models on the full spectra and the optimal wavelengths. As a result, BPNN models performed better than the corresponding PLS models, and SPA-BPNN model gave the best performance with a correlation coefficient of prediction (rp of 0.911 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.0516. The results indicated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to determine pH values during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, a distribution map of the pH values was achieved by applying the SPA-BPNN model. The results in this study would help to develop an on-line monitoring system for biomass energy producing process by hyperspectral imaging.

  7. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using water hyacinth root by fixed-bed column and ANN modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tania; Singha, Biswajit; Bar, Nirjhar; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2014-05-30

    Hyacinth root was used as a biosorbent for generating adsorption data in fixed-bed glass column. The influence of different operating parameters like inlet Pb(II) ion concentration, liquid flow rate and bed height on the breakthrough curves and the performance of the column was studied. The result showed that the adsorption efficiency increased with increase in bed height and decreased with increase in inlet Pb(II) ion concentration and flow rate. Increasing the flow rate resulted in shorter time for bed saturation. The result showed that as the bed height increased the availability of more number of adsorption sites in the bed increased, hence the throughput volume of the aqueous solution also increased. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using different models. It was observed that maximum adsorption capacity increased with increase in flow rate and initial Pb(II) ion concentration but decreased with increase in bed height. Applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for the prediction of Pb(II) ion removal was also reported by using multilayer perceptron with backpropagation, Levenberg-Marquardt and scaled conjugate algorithms and four different transfer functions in a hidden layer and a linear output transfer function.

  8. 生活垃圾协同水葫芦干式厌氧发酵制沼气的研究%Dry Anaerobic Co-digestion of Water Hyacinth and Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 陈砺; 严宗诚; 王红林; 黄和茂

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and municipal solid waste (MSW) under mesophilic conditions was investigated.Effects of total solid (TS),inoculum ratio (IR) and water hyacinth ratio (WR) on anaerobic digestion process were studied.Results showed that adding 5% water hyacinth to MSW anaerobic digestion system could effectively prevent the impact on the system pH value caused by variations of TS and IR,shorten the lag phase,centralize the biogas yield peak and enhance biogas production.But the biogas production decreased when WR increased to 10%.Volatile solid (VS) degradation rates of all experiments were between 38.18% and 58.10% after 70d anaerobic digestion.Orthogonal experiment results indicated that the optimum process conditions were TS 23%,IR 100% and WR 5% for the anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and MSW.%探讨了水葫芦和生活垃圾在中温条件下联合发酵的可行性,研究了系统总固体含量(TS)、发酵母液添加比例(IR)以及水葫芦添加比例(WR)对厌氧发酵过程的影响.试验结果表明,添加5%的水葫芦能够有效防止因TS和IR的变化对系统pH值所带来的影响,缩短发酵启动时间,使产气高峰集中出现,并提高产气量.但是当水葫芦添加比例增加到10%时,沼气产量反而下降.发酵70d后,挥发性固体(VS)降解率为38.18%~58.10%.通过对正交试验结果进行分析,得到水葫芦与生活垃圾联合发酵制沼气的较优工艺条件为:系统总固体含量23%,发酵母液添加比例100%,水葫芦添加比例5%.

  9. Uso de biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes visando à remoção de metais pesados de soluções contaminadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i1.3166

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a eficiência da biomassa seca de aguapé (Eichornia crassipes na remoção dos metais pesados cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb, cromo (Cr, cobre (Cu, zinco (Zn e níquel (Ni de soluções preparadas com estes metais. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (soluções com diferentes concentrações dos metais pesados e quatro repetições. A biomassa seca permaneceu nas soluções dos tratamentos por um período de 48h, e nos intervalos de 1; 2; 3; 6; 12; 24; 36 e 48h após a instalação do experimento, coletaram-se alíquotas de cada tratamento, determinando-se a maior remoção de cada metal pesado pela biomassa seca do aguapé. Foi realizada digestão nitroperclórica na biomassa seca e determinação dos teores dos metais na biomassa e nas alíquotas por espectrometria de absorção atômica, modalidade chama. Para os metais Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu e Zn ocorreu remoção significativa pela massa seca do aguapé nos diferentes tratamentos, enquanto para o Ni não foi encontrada diferença significativa. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a biomassa seca produzida, a partir do aguapé Eichornia crassipes, é um excelente material para a remoção, tanto em pequena como em grande escala, de corpos hídricos contaminados com metais pesados.

  10. Preparation technique of Eichhornia crassipes-based composite packaging materials%凤眼莲生物质复合内包装材料的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昊; 王万章; 李伟平; 张新昌

    2014-01-01

    oxygen in the seabed, and the destruction of scenery, as well as generate an awful smell. Moreover, with the development of a social economy, land resources are becoming increasingly scarce;therefore, much scientific research has focused on the world’s oceans and rivers in the search for new resources. In this study, a new method for producing biomass packaging material is proposed; using Eichhornia Crassipes based on the hot compression processing technology. The purpose of this study is to utilize the algae Eichhornia Crassipes to produce biodegradable biomass packaging material. Through structure and feature analysis of fiber, the refining technique of Eichhornia Crassipes is determined. The process of producing biodegradable biomass packaging material involves refining, adding additives, and compression molding and drying technologies. First, Eichhornia Crassipes is pulverized, and the long fibers are cut during refining. This changed the macromolecule fibers into microfibers, exposed more active hydroxy groups, and laid the foundation for physical adsorption. Second, the adhesives are added into pulverized Eichhornia Crassipes to increase performance of the biomass packaging material. Third, the materials are compressed with a hot presser. While preheating the mold and the materials, pressure is gradually applied. The hot press temperature and hot press pressure finally reach 160℃and 5 MPa, respectively, and the hot compression time is about 20 min. During the hot compression, another connection opportunity is obtained. Since the moist algae are primarily dehydrated, the water in the experimental material is pressed and the many exposed active hydroxyl groups in the cellulose are more active with the heat, which causes them to reunite with the hydroxy and hydro groups. Finally, Eichhornia Crassipes is dried in the hot presser, and the hot press temperature and hot press pressure have remained at 160℃and 5 MPa, respectively. In this study, three kinds of safety

  11. BIOSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE DYE (MB)IN WASTEWATER BY DIRED EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES SOLM.BIOMASS%水葫芦干体对亚甲基蓝的生物吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱罡; 林少敏; 陈少瑾

    2012-01-01

    以水葫芦干体为吸附剂将其用于模拟废水中亚甲基蓝(MB)的生物吸附,考察吸附时间、初始pH、水葫芦干体投加量、干体粒径以及摇床转速等因素对MB的吸附影响.结果表明,MB初始质量浓度为50 mg/L、溶液初始pH为6.0、粒径0.425~0.250 mm的水葫芦干体用量为0.5 g/40 mL、于(25±1)℃的恒温振荡摇床中以150 r/min振荡吸附反应120 min后,吸附率可达76.5%.在一定范围里,吸附率随初始pH、干体投加量和摇床转速等增大而升高,随干体粒径增大而降低.准2级动力学模型比准1级动力学模型能更好地描述水葫芦干体对MB的吸附过程;温度升高,平衡吸附量减少.水葫芦干体对MB的吸附过程较好的符合Freundlich吸附等温方程.在水葫芦干体及其浸出液中砷、镉、铅等常见的有毒重金属含量远远低于国标限量,所以将水葫芦干体做为吸附剂应用在染料废水处理中,不会带入有毒金属物质.%The dried Eichhornia crassipes Solm. biomass was used as a biosorbent for the removal of methylene biue dye (MB) from in simulated wastewater under the experimental conditions, such as contact time, initial pH, sorbent dosage, particle size and shaker's rotating speed. Results showed that MB in the water could be removed up to 76.5% at pH value of 6.0, biosorbent dosage of 0.5 g/40 mL, particle size of 0.425~0.250 mm, shaker's rotating speed of 150 r/min, adsorption time of 120 min, and initial concentration of MB of 50 mg/L, and ambient temperature of (25±1)℃. In an appropriate range, the adsorption capacity increased with initial pH of solution, biosorbent dosage and rotating speed while decreased with increasing particle size. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model could better characterize the biosorption processes of the metals than the pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature. The adsorption data showed a good fit with

  12. 红花酢浆草花色素的稳定性及抑菌性研究%The stability and antibacterial activity of the pigment from the petals of Oxalis crassipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金耀; 杨晓玲; 黄玲

    2011-01-01

    The experiment study mainly on the stability and bacteriostasis of the pigment from petals of Oxalis crassipes by spectrophotometry.The results demonstrated that the stability of the pigment is greatly impacted by the pH,it is in a very stable red color when pH is 2~3,the color of the pigment become gradually purple to black,when pH augment.The stability of the pigment is highest in the hidden place,next under the natural light,and the lowe under the daylight lamp.The thermostability of the pigment is good below 50 ℃,but it decreases above 50 ℃.The sucrose,the sodium chloride,the malic acid,the citric acid and the lactic acid had function obviously adding color and protecting to the pigment from the petals of Oxalis crassipes,and can significantly improved or increase the stability.The pigment in Petals of the Oxalis crassipes had bacteriostasis on the Escherichia coli,Bacillus snbtilis and Staphyloccus aureus.Along with pigment concentration increases,the bacteriostasis effect is also more obvious.Therefore the pigment is as savageness pigment and antiseptic in a certain condition.%实验对红花酢浆草花瓣中所含色素的稳定性和抑菌性进行了研究。结果表明:pH对红花酢浆草色素的稳定性影响较大,在pH2~3时呈稳定的红色,pH增大时颜色变紫变黑。红花酢浆草色素在暗处稳定性最高,自然光下次之,日光灯下低。红花酢浆草色素在50℃以下热稳定性较好,50℃以上热稳定性降低。蔗糖、氯化钠、苹果酸、柠檬酸和乳酸对红花酢浆草色素均有明显的增色、护色作用,可明显改善或提高其稳定性。红花酢浆草色素对大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌均有抑制效果,并且随着色素溶液浓度的增加,抑菌效果也越明显。因此红花酢浆草色素在一定条件下可作食品色素兼天然防腐剂使用。

  13. 生物添加剂对水葫芦与甜玉米秸秆混合青贮品质的影响%Effects of biological additives on the quality of water hyacinth and maize straw mixed silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫珠; 庄益芬; 张建国; 廖惠珍; 张文昌; 张兆阳; 陈庆达

    2011-01-01

    本研究设计了4种混合比例的水葫芦玉米秸秆混合青贮,即水葫芦:玉米秸秆按鲜重比为8:2,7:3,6:4和5:5(略为W8M2、W7M3、W6M4和W5 M5),探讨生物添加剂绿汁发酵液(FGJ)、纤维素酶(CEL)和绿汁发酵液+纤维素酶(MIX)的效果.每个处理3次重复,常温下贮存60 d,开封后评定其青贮品质.结果表明,3种添加剂对不同混合比例的材料均能显著(P<0.05)提高其青贮品质,特别是绿汁发酵液和纤维素酶的混合添加,具有相乘作用,效果更好.随着玉米秸秆混合比例的升高,青贮品质提高,W5M5的效果最好.%In order to investigate the effects of biological additives on the quality of mixing water hyacinth and maize stalk, four mixture ratios of water hyacinth and maize stalk at 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 and 5: 5 (W8M2, W7M3, W6M4 and W5M5) were designed. In addition, no-additive, fermented green juice (FGJ), cellulase (CEL) and FGJ + CEL (MIX) were added for all materials. After ensiled for 60 days at ambient temperature, the nutritional composition were measured for each treatment. Three kinds of additives significant improved the fermentation quality of water hyacinth and maize straw mixed silages (P<0.05). FGJ and CEL also had obvious interaction. In addition, with the increase of corn straw mixture ratio, the quality of silage was improved. W5M5 was the best silage.

  14. 水葫芦与甜玉米秸秆混合半干青贮的研究%The mixing silage of water hyacinth and maize straw under the low moisture conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫珠; 庄益芬; 张建国; 廖惠珍

    2011-01-01

    Three mixture ratios of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and maize (Zea mays) stalk at 9 : 1, 8 : 2 and 7 : 3 (W9M1, W8M2 and W7M3) with the addition of no-additive, fermented green juice (FGJ), formic acid and foraform (FOR), were designed to investigate the effects of mixing ensilage of wa- ter hyacinth and maize stalk on the fermentation quality in this study. The nutritional compositions were measured for each treatment after ensiling for 60 days at ambient temperature. This study showed that three kinds of additives significantly improved the fermentation quality of mixing silages of water hyacinth and maize straw (P〈0.01). W9M1 was the best and had higher DM recovery than W8M2 and W7M3 did (P〈0.05). The WSC contents of no-additive and FGJ in WTM3 was significantly higher than those in W9M1 and W8M2 (P〈0.01).%本试验设3种比例的混合青贮,即水葫芦(Eichhorniacrassipes):甜玉米(Zeamays)秸秆按鲜质量比为9:l、8:2和7:3(W9M1、W8M2和w7M3)混合,并在每种混合比例中设无添加(CK)、添加2mL/kg绿汁发酵液(FGD、添加3mL/kg蚁酸(FA)和添加3mL/kg四蚁酸铵(FOR)4个处理,探讨混合比例和添加剂对水葫芦与甜玉米秸秆混合半千青贮发酵品质的影响。每个处理3次重复,常温下贮存60d,开封后评定其青贮品质。结果表明,3种添加剂均能显著(P〈0.05)提高不同混合比

  15. Biomagnification of Heavy Metals during Vemicomposting of Water Hyacinth by Earthworm%蚯蚓堆制技术处理水葫芦过程中的重金属生物放大作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟娟; 李战军

    2012-01-01

    水葫芦对重金属有较强的生物富集作用.在利用蚯蚓堆制技术处理水葫芦时,蚯蚓可通过生物放大作用进一步累积重金属.为了研究蚯蚓堆制技术处理水葫芦过程中,蚯蚓对重金属的富集规律,测定了模拟废水中生长的水葫芦茎叶部和根部的Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅵ),Pb(Ⅱ),Cu(Ⅱ),Ni(Ⅱ)含量,研究了蚯蚓堆制处理水葫芦茎叶过程中蚯蚓蚓体和蚓粪中的重金属含量.研究结果表明,术葫芦虽然可富集重金属,但主要集中在根部,茎叶部含量较少,以茎叶部饲养蚯蚓是较为安全的.当以茎叶部饲养蚯蚓时,受重金属污染的水葫芦可导致蚯蚓生长速率下降.但蚯蚓对重金属有一定耐受力,蚓粪中重金属含量远大于蚯蚓蚓体中的含量.%Heavy metals could be bio-concentrated by water hyacinth and might be further cumulated by earthworm via the bio-magnification effect during vemicomposting. In order to realize the biomagnification of heavy metals, the concentrations of Cd(II),Cr(VI),Pb(II),Cu(ir),Ni(II) in the leaves and root of water hyacinth cultured in simulated wastewaler, earthworms, and worrodung were tested. Hie results indicated that heavy metals could be bio-concentrated by water hyacinth and the growth rate of earthworms was decreased when the heavy meatals concentrations increased. Nevertheless, most of the heavy metals were distributed in the root. So it was relatively safe to feed earthworms with the leaves. Moreover, earthworms were somewhat patient towards low levels of heavy metals while most of the heavy metals were retained in their dung.

  16. 水葫芦提取植物蛋白废液培养小球藻初步研究%A Preliminary Study on the Culture of Chlorella Vulgaris with Waste Solution of Eichhornia Crassipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕富; 崔刚; 陈洪兴; 封功能; 余晓红

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the economic benefits of Chlorella vulgaris culture and efficient utilization of Eichhornia crassipes,effect of waste solution of Eichhornia crassipes on the growth,the chlorophyll and the protein content of Chlorella vulgaris were studied preliminarily.The results showed that under light conditions,the growth,the chlorophyll and the protein content of Chlorella vulgaris increased with the increase of waste solution volume from 0% to 6%,and even if there is nothing but waste solution volume from 1% to 6% in the algae solution,the chlorella growth rate and chlorophyll and protein content could achieve or exceed the cultured in basic nutrient solution,which proved that the waste solution can greatly improve the economic benefits of chlorella culture,or even completely replace the nutrients;but without light conditions,it is invalid and can not act as nutrients source of heterotrophic.%为提高小球藻培养的经济效益和高效资源化综合利用水葫芦,初步研究了水葫芦提取植物蛋白废液对小球藻生长、叶绿素和蛋白质含量的影响。研究结果表明,光照条件下,培养藻液中添加不超过6%体积的水葫芦废液,小球藻的生长速度及藻体叶绿素和蛋白质含量均随废液添加量的增加而提高,即使培养藻液中不添加任何营养元素而只添加1%~6%体积的废液,小球藻的生长速度及藻体叶绿素和蛋白质含量即可达到和超过基础营养液培养组的小球藻,说明水葫芦提取植物蛋白的废液可极大地提高小球藻培养的经济效益,甚至可完全替代营养盐的添加;但在无光条件下,添加废液对小球藻生长无效,说明未经处理的水葫芦废液尚不能作为小球藻异养培养的营养源。

  17. Rentabilité d'un biogaz de type chinois au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorsters, A.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of a Chinese-Model Biogas in Benin. A 20 m3 digestor of Chinese type is fed by water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes and pig droppings. Enough gas is produced to cook three meals a day for 50 students, which means that wood is no more used. The efficient is used for vegetable cultivation.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Sterna antillarum N T Mammals Florida panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians ...Casuarina glauca Australian pine Dioscorea bulbifera Air potato Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry Hydrilla...Cuban treefrog (Osteophilus septentrionalis), Cuban brown anole (Anole sagrei) and the Indo-Pacific gecko (Hemidactylus garnoti) are some amphibian and

  19. Lake Alaotra wetlands: how long can Madagascar's most important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) which shows a mean ..... are data measured within the open water in the dry season (surface water) and ...... Texas. Journal of Science 20, 4: 305–313. Hill, R., Webb, G. J. and Smith, A. M. 1987.

  20. Changes in enzymatic activities and microbial properties in vermicompost of water hyacinth as affected by pre-composting and fungal inoculation: a comparative study of ergosterol and chitin for estimating fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, P

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, three different fungal species, viz. Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were inoculated in 7 day and 15 day partially decomposed water hyacinth to study their effect on enzymatic activities, microbial respiration and fungal biomass of the final stabilized product. The results suggested that increasing the duration of pre-composting from 7 days to 15 days did not show any significant effect on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes. Inoculation of fungi significantly (P vermicomposts. Inoculation of P. chrysosporium in initial organic waste registered the highest chitin content in vermicompost. A comparison of fungal biomass and chitin content revealed a conversion factor of 2.628 with a standard deviation of 0.318. Due to significant correlation (r = 0.864), this conversion factor allows for the calculation of fungal biomass from chitin, which is comparatively more stable than ergosterol.

  1. 水葫芦与玉米秸秆混合青贮向研究%Use of Mixed Silage of Water Hyacinth and Corn Straw as Feed Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄益芬; 陈鑫珠; 廖惠珍; 张文昌

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在利用水葫芦(water hyacinth)调制出优质青贮.试验共分24(2×3×4)个处理,每个处理3个重复,以2种水分(约40%和50%)的原料,按3种混合比例(晾晒后的水葫芦与玉米秸秆质量比分别为9∶1、8∶2和7∶3)制成共6种原料混合物,每种混合物中不添加或分别添加2 mL/kg绿汁发酵液、3 mL/kg蚁酸和3mL/kg四蚁酸铵后进行青贮.常温发酵60 d,测定青贮的pH、氨态氮浓度以及乳酸、乙酸、丙酸和丁酸的含量.结果表明:降低原料水分显著提高了青贮的pH(P<0.05)、显著减少了乳酸生成(P<0.05);随玉米秸秆比例的升高,青贮pH有不同程度的下降;3种添加剂也都不同程度地改善了青贮品质.综合而言,原料水分50%、水葫芦与玉米秸秆混合比例7∶3,并以绿汁发酵液作为添加剂的青贮的品质最优.%The study was conducted to produce high quality silage with water hyacinth. It consisted of 24 (2 × 3×4) treatments with 3 replicates in each, six kinds of mixture were made from ingredients with two moistures (about 40% and 50% ) according to three mixed ratios (mass of water hyacinth and corn straw after dried in the sun were 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3). After supplemented with no additive, 2 mL/kg fermented green juice, 3 mL/kg formic acid and 3 mL/kg foraform, respectively, the mixture were fermented. The fermentation las ted for 60 d in normal temperature. Silages were determined for pH, ammoniacal nitrogen ( NH3-N) concen tration , contents of lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The results showed as follows: the decreasing of moisture of ingredients significantly increased the pH (P <0.05), but significantly decreased the production of lactic acid (P<0.05)in silages; with the increasing of corn straw' s rate, the pH of silage de creased at different levels; supplementation of the three additives also improved the quality of silages in varying degrees. In conclusion, the mixed silage

  2. Karyotype description of two Neotropical Psittacidae species: the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus (Psittaciformes: Aves, and its significance for conservation plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor de Oliveira Lunardi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots are among the most threatened groups of birds in the world, and many species are facing extinction in a near future. At the same time, the taxonomic position of many species remains unclear. Karyotype analysis has been used to elucidate the phylogenetic status of many bird groups, also providing important information for both in situ and ex situ conservation plans. The objective of the present study was to describe for the first time the karyotypes of the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and of the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus. A diploid number of 2n = 70 and a karyotype similar to the main pattern previously found for the genera Ara, Cyanopsitta, Aratinga, Propyrrhura, Pionites, Pionopsitta, Nandayus, and Guaruba were found for both species. These karyotype descriptions can be a starting point for the genetic monitoring of these two declining species.

  3. NiSe@NiOOH Core-Shell Hyacinth-like Nanostructures on Nickel Foam Synthesized by in Situ Electrochemical Oxidation as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Han, Guan-Qun; Liu, Yan-Ru; Dong, Bin; Hu, Wen-Hui; Shang, Xiao; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2016-08-10

    NiSe@NiOOH core-shell hyacinth-like nanostructures supported on nickel foam (NF) have been successfully synthesized by a facile solvothermal selenization and subsequent in situ electrochemical oxidation (ISEO). First, the unique NiSe/NF nanopillar arrays were prepared in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a precursor template that can provide a large surface area, excellent conductivity, and robust support. Next, amorphous NiOOH covering the surface of NiSe nanopillars was fabricated by ISEO, as confirmed by XPS andEDX spectroscopy. SEM images revealed the hyacinth-like morphology of NiSe@NiOOH/NF with NiOOH as the shell and NiSe as the core. The electrochemical performance of NiSe@NiOOH/NF for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was investigated. NiSe@NiOOH/NF demonstrates an obviously enhanced OER activity with much lower overpotential of 332 mV at 50 mA cm(-2) compared to other Ni-based electrocatalysts. The low charge-transfer resistance (Rct), large electrochemical double-layer capacitance (Cdl) of electrochemically active surface areas (ECSAs), and excellent long-term stability of NiSe@NiOOH/NF confirm the enhancement of its electrochemical performance for the OER, which can be ascribed to the large amount of active sites derived from the amorphous NiOOH shell and the good conductivity and stability derived from the NiSe core. In addition, the synergistic effect between the NiSe core and NiOOH shell could serve for a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst.

  4. Evaluación de la remoción de nutrientes y compuestos organoclorados y sus rutas de bioacumulación con la planta flotante Eichhornia crassipes expuesta a efluentes de pulpa de celulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Margarita Míguez Caramés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo piloto tuvo como objetivo estudiar el proceso de bioacumulación de nutrientes y compuestos organoclorados en Eichhornia crassipes expuesta a efluentes de una fábrica de celulosa que vierte en aguas del Río Uruguay, cerca de la ciudad de Fray Bentos, Río Negro, Uruguay. Se caracterizaron los principales atributos del efluente, antes y después del cultivo con Eichhornia, así como también se estudiaron las concentraciones de los halógenos orgánicos en plantas control y en plantas sometidas al efluente. Se observaron cambios macroscópicos en la planta, los compuestos organoclorados se bioacumularon principalmente en las hojas, registrándose valores de 9,4 µg/g frente a 2,1 µg/g observados en la biomasa control. La remoción de nutrientes fue del orden del 90%. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la fitorremediación con plantas flotables es un método potencialmente ventajoso para ser utilizado como tratamiento terciario en países tropicales y subtropicales para disminuir la concentración de compuestos orgánicos clorados recalcitrantes y como método de remoción de nitratos y fosfatos de efluentes de plantas de celulosa.

  5. Flow Characteristics and Numerical Simulation of Pollutants in Ecological Watercourse of Eichhormia crassipes%水葫芦生态型河道水流特性及污染物扩散数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居燕秋

    2011-01-01

    以水葫芦生态型河道为研究对象,采用数值模拟方法应用二维水动力模型对水葫芦生态型河道的流场进行模拟计算,建立了水葫芦生态型河道水质模型,对河道中污染物质的扩散和降解过程进行模拟,率定了有关参数,求得了浓度场的分布情况,分析了污染物在水体中的迁移规律,取得了较为满意的结果.%The hydrodynamic model is used to simulate the flow field ecological watercourse of Eichhormia crassipes.Based on the results of the hydrodynamic model,the water quality model is established and the diffusion and degradation process of pollutants are simulated.The relative parameters,distribution of concentration field are determined and the transportation and circulation of pollutants are analyzed.

  6. Digestibilidade aparente da farinha de aguapé em tilápias-do-nilo Apparent digestibility of water hyacinth meal by Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Vicente Biudes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar e comparar as digestibilidades aparentes da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e energia bruta (EB e as disponibilidades aparentes de minerais das farinhas da biomassa emersa (lâmina foliar e pecíolo, submersa (raiz e rizoma e total do aguapé em tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram elaboradas quatro rações marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio-III (uma ração-referência purificada e três contendo 30,0% de cada ingrediente. As tilápias-do-nilo (125,5 ± 10,5 g foram alimentadas até a saciedade e a coleta de fezes foi realizada pelo sistema Ghelph modificado. As digestibilidades aparentes da farinha da biomassa emersa (MS = 57,8; PB = 72,3; EE = 63,2 e EB = 62,0% foram maiores que as das farinhas da biomassa total (MS = 45,7; PB = 57,3; EE = 50,3 e EB = 42,3% e submersa (MS = 38,3; PB = 50,8; EE = 43,5 e EB = 32,0%. As disponibilidades aparentes de fósforo (P, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, manganês (Mn, cobre (Cu e zinco (Zn da farinha da biomassa emersa também foram maiores. A farinha de biomassa emersa do aguapé apresenta melhor digestibilidade e disponibilidade aparente dos nutrientes em comparação às farinhas da biomassa total e submersa.This study was carried out to determine and compare the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fat (CF, gross energy (GE, and the apparent availability of minerals (P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn of emergent (leaf and petiole, submerged (root and rhizome and total biomass meal of water hyacinth for Nile tilapia. Four diets were prepared, containing 0.10% chromic oxide-III, one being the reference diet (purified and the others containing 30% of each ingredient. The Nile tilapias (125.5 ± 10.5 g were fed until satiation and the feces were collected by the modified Guelph system. The apparent digestibility of emergent biomass meal (DM = 57.8, CP = 72.3, CF = 63.2, and GE = 62.0% was higher than

  7. Studies of the Organoleptic Properties of Eichhomia crassipes Residuals Ensilage Mixed with Wheat Bran%水葫芦渣与麦麸混合青贮的感官品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志斌; 杨琏; 张红兵; 宋任彬; 黄伟; 韩亚平

    2012-01-01

    为将水葫芦渣资源饲料化利用,本试验将水葫芦渣与麦麸混合青贮,通过感官品质评分确定青贮的效果.试验设6个处理组:处理组1~3添加青贮发酵菌,且麦麸混合比例为0%、20%、30%;处理组4~6不使用发酵菌,麦麸混合比例0%、20%、30%,连续测定0~22天混合物料pH值,结果显示:青贮6~16天,处理组1~3物料pH值显著小于(P<0.05)处理组4~6;青贮18~22天,处理组2和3物料pH值显著小于处理组1;第18天,除处理组4外,其他处理组pH值均降至5.0以下.因此,对第18天青贮物料进行感官评分,结果显示:处理组2、3、6青贮等级为“优等”.以上结果表明:20%麦麸与水葫芦渣混合青贮18天,并添加青贮发酵菌,混合青贮物料感官品质优异.%The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of Eichhomia crassipes residuals ensilage mixed with wheat bran by organoleptic scorings for livestock feedstuff utilization. Six treatment groups were including as follows: Group 1 to 3 adding of zymophyte and 0%, 20%, 30% ratios of wheat bran, and Group 4 to 6 adding of 0%, 20% and 30% ratios of wheat bran only. During the ensiling periods of 6 to 16 days, the pH values of Group 1, 2 and 3 were lower (P<0.05) than those of Group 4, 5 and 6. The pH values of Group 2 and 3 were lower than those of Group 1 from 18 to 22 days of ensiling. The pH values of all treatment groups were decreased to below 5.0 after 18 days of ensiling expect of Group 4. Therefore, the organoleptic properties by scoring were determined at 18 days of ensiling. The results showed that Group 2, 3 and 6 graded level of "Superiority". These findings proved that Eichhomia crassipes residuals mixed with 20% wheat bran could improved the organoleptic properties of the mixing ensilages with the addition of zymophyte within 18 days.

  8. Efeitos do manejo de Eichhornia crassipes sobre a qualidade da água em condições de mesocosmos Effects of waterhyacynth management on water quality under mesocosmic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Martins

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As macrófitas, apesar da enorme importância na dinâmica do ambiente aquático, quando formam extensas e densas colonizações, promovem uma série de prejuízos ao ambiente e aos usos múltiplos dos reservatórios. Nessas situações, há necessidade de redução de seu tamanho populacional, seja reduzindo as condições favoráveis ao crescimento, seja por meio do controle direto das plantas. Dentre as macrófitas aquáticas que promovem esses tipos de problema, o aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes é considerada a mais importante. Seu controle é praticado em todo o mundo. O diquat tem sido bastante utilizado para o controle desta planta, em razão de seu baixo custo, eficácia, rapidez de controle e baixa toxicidade no ambiente aquático. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os possíveis impactos causados pelo controle de Eichhornia crassipes sobre algumas características de qualidade da água em mesocosmos. Para isso, cinco situações experimentais foram estudadas: CPCH - mesocosmo colonizado por aguapé, o qual foi controlado pela aplicação do herbicida diquat; CPCG - mesocosmo colonizado por aguapé, o qual foi morto por congelamento; CPSH - mesocosmo colonizado com aguapé, sem controle; SPCH - mesocosmo sem macrófitas e com aplicação de diquat na superfície da água; e SPSH - mesocosmo sem macrófitas aquáticas e sem aplicação. O herbicida diquat foi utilizado na dose de 7,0 L da formulação comercial Reward/ha. A temperatura foi mais elevada nos mesocosmos sem plantas, devido à maior incidência de raios solares na coluna d'água. As concentrações de oxigênio dissolvido foram menores nos mesocosmos colonizados pelo aguapé e também tiveram rápida queda após o controle das plantas tanto com diquat como por congelamento. O pH da água foi maior nos mesocosmos sem a cobertura da macrófita. Os valores de sólidos totais dissolvidos (STD e de condutividade elétrica foram maiores nos tratamentos com morte por

  9. Mecanismos anatômicos e fisiológicos de plantas de aguapé para a tolerância à contaminação por Arsênio Anatomical and physiological mechanisms of water hyacinth plants to Arsenic contamination tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Pereira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação das características anatômicas e fisiológicas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes em resposta ao estresse por arsênio. As plantas de aguapé foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva hidropônica de Hoagland em casa de vegetação sob cinco concentrações de arsênio: 0,0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; e 2,0 mg L-1 por período de 20 dias. As plantas demonstraram aumento na taxa fotossintética, na condutância estomática, na transpiração e na relação Ci/Ca, bem como na atividade de todas as enzimas do sistema antioxidante, com maior atividade nas folhas em relação às raízes nos tratamentos contendo arsênio. As características anatômicas das folhas das plantas sob as maiores concentrações de arsênio mostraram aumento na densidade estomática, no índice estomático e na espessura do parênquima esponjoso. A anatomia radicular não evidenciou alterações decorrentes da intoxicação por arsênio e modificações nas características do xilema e floema, porém não houve prejuízos à sua estrutura e função. Dessa forma, o estresse por intoxicação pelo arsênio, nas concentrações testadas, não é evidente nas plantas de E. crassipes, e os mecanismos de tolerância são relacionados com modificações na anatomia e fisiologia das plantas.This work aimed to evaluate the anatomical and physiological characteristics of Eichhornia crassipes in response to arsenic stress. Plants of E. crassipes were grown in Hoagland hydroponic nutritive solution under greenhouse conditions at five arsenic levels: 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 during 20 days. The plants showed an increase in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration and Ci/Ca rate, as well as in the activity of all the enzymes in the antioxidant system, with higher activity in the leaves than in the roots, in all the treatments with arsenic. The anatomical characteristics observed on the leaves of the plants under higher

  10. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  11. Sensibilidade a herbicidas de acessos de aguapé coletados em reservatórios do Estado de São Paulo Chemical control of different water hyacinth accesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de herbicidas em diferentes acessos de aguapé coletados em reservatórios de hidrelétricas do Estado de São Paulo, foi realizado um estudo no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia da FCA-UNESP, campus de Botucatu. A escolha das plantas geneticamente diferentes foi feita com base em estudos de variabilidade genética, nos quais se utilizou a técnica de RAPD. Avaliou-se o efeito dos herbicidas imazapyr nas doses de 62,5 e 125,0 g e.a. ha-1, glyphosate a 1.680 e 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 + 0,5% V/V de Extravon, diquat a 480 e 960 g i.a. ha-1 e 2,4-D a 670 e 1.340 g e.a. ha-1. Os seis acessos escolhidos foram colocados em caixas plásticas de 28,0 x 14,0 x 12,0 cm, contendo 4 litros de água. A aplicação dos produtos foi realizada com um simulador de pulverização pressurizado com ar comprimido, equipado com barra de aplicação com quatro bicos de jato plano Teejet 110.02 VS. A pressão constante de trabalho foi de 1,6 bar, e o consumo de calda, de 193 L ha-1. A velocidade de aplicação foi de 3,69 km h-1. Durante as aplicações, a temperatura do ar foi de 25 ºC e a umidade relativa de 73%. Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle aos 3, 5, 7, 11, 21 e 28 dias, nas quais 0 consistiu em nenhum controle e 100 em morte de plantas. Todos os herbicidas e doses testados proporcionaram controle eficiente das plantas de aguapé, e os seis acessos estudados responderam de forma semelhante.A study was carried out at the Advanced Weed Science Research Nucleus , UNESP/Botucatu, to verify the effect of herbicides on different collected accesses of water hyacinth in hydroelectric reservoirs in São Paulo. The different genetic materials were chosen based on studies of genetic variability, using the RAPD technique. The herbicides and rates evaluated were imazapyr at 62.5 and 125.0g a.e. ha-1, glyphosate at 480 and 960 g a.e. ha-1, diquat at 1.680 and 3.360g a.i. ha + 5% V/V of Extravon and 2.4-D at 670 and 1

  12. Adsorption of Pb(II) on mesoporous activated carbons fabricated from water hyacinth using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} activation: Adsorption capacity, kinetic and isotherm studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yang, E-mail: zzsfxyhy@163.com [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Shunxing; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Yiping [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2014-02-28

    Activated carbons with high mesoporosity and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups were prepared from water hyacinth using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} activation (WHAC) to eliminate Pb(II) in water. Characterizations of the WHAC were performed using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The BET analysis showed that WHAC possesses a high mesoporosity (93.9%) with a BET surface area of 423.6 m{sup 2}/g. The presence of oxygen-containing functional groups including hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and phosphate groups renders the WHAC a favorable adsorbent for Pb(II) with the maximum monolayer capacity (q{sub m}) 118.8 mg/g. The adsorption behavior follows pseudo-first order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm. The desorption study demonstrated that the WHAC could be readily regenerated using 0.1 M HCl (pH = 1.0). The desorbed WHAC could be reused at least six times without significant adsorption capacity reduction. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic with ΔG (−0.27, −1.13, −3.02, −3.62, −5.54, and −9.31 kJ/mol) and ΔH (38.72 kJ/mol). Under the optimized conditions, a small amount of the adsorbent (1.0 g/L) could remove as much as 90.1% of Pb(II) (50 mg/L) in 20 min at pH 6.0 and temperature of 298 K. Therefore, the WHAC has a great potential to be an economical and efficient adsorbent in the treatment of lead-contaminated water.

  13. Generación de electricidad en horas de punta a partir de la digestión anaeróbica de camalote Generating electricity during peak hours in Asuncion, Paraguay, through anaerobic digestion of cultivated water hyacinths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulfer J.

    2011-10-01

    sustainable proposal for generating electricity in the metropolitan area of Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, based on a renewable source of energy. Electricity would mainly be generated during peak hours with the aim of reducing power contracted by the Paraguayan Electricity Administration (ANDE from existing hydroelectric power plants and thus reduce costs and stabilise transmission and distribution grids in the area of Asuncion. Electricity would be generated at a 130 MW combined cycle thermal power plant using biogas as fuel, this being obtained by anaerobic digestion of water hyacinths cultivated in pools, which would be built on the banks of the Paraguay river opposite Asuncion’s botanical garden. The main advantage of using water hyacinths is their high growth rate, this being 100 to 500 g/day/m2 depending on environmental conditions, thereby allowing plant mass to double every 6 to 15 days. Additionally, carbon to nitrogen ratio in water hyacinth vegetal mass is optimum for biogas generation. About 6.4 kWh/m3 biogas calorific value is high enough to be used for producing heat and, therefore, for generating electricity in a thermal power plant. Such power plant could be directly connected to the national grid through the Puerto Botanic transformer station by building a 2 km long 220 kV transmission line crossing the Paraguay River. This project could save ANDE up to 25 million US$ every year due to reduced contracted power at the Itaipu power plant. Although this reduction will decline by 3% each year due to increased electricity demand, the investment of around 98 million US$ could be repaid within 15 years and would have 5% IRR and US$ 40.5 million NPV.

  14. Remoção de compostos fenólicos de soluções aquosas utilizando carvão ativado preparado a partir do aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes: estudo cinético e de equilíbrio termodinâmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was produced from the water hyacinth (CAA by impregnation with ZnCl2 (1:2, followed by pyrolysis at 700 ºC, under N2. CAA was used for the adsorption of phenol, m-cresol and o-cresol from aqueous solutions, using batch adsorption. The effects of contact time, pH, temperature and concentration on sorption were investigated. Adsorption capacity, calculated using the Langmuir model proved to be dependent on temperature, reaching values of 163.7, 130.2 and 142.3 mg g-1 for phenol, m-cresol and o-cresol, respectively, at 45 ºC. Thermodynamic data at the solid-liquid interface suggests an endothermic, spontaneous and environmentally-friendly process.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (MART.) SOLMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-07-21

    Jul 21, 2000 ... significant diflerences (p>0.01) in the relative growth rates and net assimilation ... recreational value of inland waters (Mitchell ... ecosystem (Odum 1971, McNaughton & Wolf .... of these parameters use was made of the data.

  16. Phaeohyphomycotic Cyst Caused by Colletotrichum crassipes

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A case of phaeohyphomycosis is reported in a male renal transplant recipient with a nodular lesion in the right leg who was treated with immunosuppressing drugs. The lesion consisted of a purulent cyst with thick walls. The cyst was excised surgically, and the patient did not receive any antifungal therapy. One year later he remains well. Histological study of the lesion showed a granulomatous reaction of epithelioid and multinucleate giant cells, with a central area of necrosis and pus. Font...

  17. Studies of the growth performance and muscle mineral contents in Yunnan Guishan goats by feeding the Eichhornia crassipes residuals ensilage mixing with bran meal%水葫芦渣与麦麸混合青贮料对山羊生长性能及肌肉矿物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟; 杨琏; 王桂瑛; 韩亚平; 宋任彬; 廖国周; 苏子峰; 程志斌

    2013-01-01

    按照试验饲粮不同,将36头平均始重(21.5±0.9) kg的云南圭山山羊分为2个处理组,对照组日粮为“50%精料+50%鸭茅草”,试验组日粮为“50%精料+20%鸭茅草+30%水葫芦渣混合青贮料”,用于研究水葫芦渣与麦麸粉混合青贮料对山羊生长性能及肌肉矿物质元素含量的影响。结果显示:试验组山羊平均日增重和平均日采食量显著大于对照组山羊(P<0.05)。试验组山羊背最长肌和股二头肌的磷、铁和锰元素含量显著大于对照组(P<0.05);山羊背最长肌重金属汞含量指标,试验组大于对照组,且均低于农业部标准限量。试验结果表明:山羊全价饲料中添加30%的水葫芦渣混合青贮料,不会对山羊生长性能及肉品安全产生负面影响。%The objective of this experiment was to study the growth performance and muscle min-eral contents in Yunnan Guishan goats by feeding the Eichhornia crassipes residuals ensilage mixing with wheat bran. Thirty six Yunnan Guishan goats with the initial body weight of (21.5± 0.9) kg were designed into two groups. The control group diet was composed of 50% concentrat-ed feed and 50% Dactylis glomerata L. grass, and the trail group diet was composed of 50%concentrated feed, 20% Dactylis glomerata L. grass, and 30% Eichhornia crassipes residuals en-silage mixing with bran meal. In the feeding period of 30 days, the average daily weight gain and the average daily feed intake of the trail group goats were higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The trail group goats had the higher contents of iron, phosphorus and manganese than the control in both longissimus dorsi muscles and biceps femoris muscles(P<0.05). For the mer-cury content of longissimus dorsi muscles, the trial group was higher than those of the control(P<0.05). Moreover, the mercury contents of all experimental goat muscle were agreed with the limited value of the safety goat meat stan-dard of China

  18. Environmental Effects of Algae Blooms Cluster:The Impact on Ecology Character of theEichhornia crassipes%藻华聚集的环境效应:对凤眼莲生态学性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包先明; 何俊; 刘国锋

    2016-01-01

    3 d, and then decreased to 0.14μg·g-1·h-1 to the end. The root length, plant biomass and root/stem leaf ratio of the plant decreased during the experiment, indicated theEichhornia crassipes had the ecological response to the adversity stress of the algae cells accumulated, which manifested the concentration of root vigor, plant biomass, K+ dropped. So the deterioration of water ecological environment posing the strong stress to the Eichhornia crassipesis the main reason of the die for the death of aquatic plant.

  19. Seleção do algodoeiro para resistência à fusariose em área onde ocorre doença semelhante em plantas de labelabe (Dolichos lablab L. Selection of cotton plants resistant to fusarium wilt in a plot where similar disease occurs on hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre L. Gridi-Papp

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Em área de Latossolo Roxo, localizada na Estação Experimental "Theodureto de Camargo", em Campinas, verificou-se incidência de doença provocando "murcha", com sintomas internos caracterizados pelo escurecimento dos vasos, sucessivamente em plantas de labelabe e em algodoeiro. Em ambas as espécies vegetais determinou-se a presença de fungos do gênero Fusarium, mediante isolamento feito em plantas doentes. Seleções, feitas na referida área, de plantas pertencentes a linhagem de algodoeiro suscetível à murcha de Fusariumderam origem a linhagens que revelaram apreciável resistência quando testadas em solo infestado por Fusarium oxysporum f.vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder & Hansen. São discutidos aspectos relacionados com a possível descoberta de nova fonte genética de resistência à doença e com a existência desse fungo sob infestação natural na Estação Experimental mencionada. Também é apontada a possibilidade de serem o algodoeiro e a leguminosa em questão hospedeiras do mesmo agente patogênico.The occurrence of wilt disease, successively in plants of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L. and cotton, was observed in a plot of latosolic B (Terra Roxa soil at the "Theodureto de Camargo" Experiment Station at Campinas, where no Fusarium wilt has been recorded before. Both species presented internal symptoms consisting in darkened vessels. Fungi of the genus Fusarium were isolated from these plants. Plant selection for wilt resistance was made in the above mentioned area where a Fusarium - susceptible variety (IAG 51/1104 of cotton had been planted. The progenies when tested in soils infested by Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum Atk. Snyder & Hansen revealed fair resistance to wilt. IAG 51/1104 comes from a cross between the varieties Delfos and Delta Pineland-10, both wilt susceptible under field conditions of the State of São Paulo. It is likely that the wilt resistance of some of its progeny might have originated by recombination

  20. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  1. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN TUMBUHAN AIR PADA AIR LIMBAH RUMAH TANGGA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN IKAN GURAMI (Osphronemus gouramy SEBAGAI INFORMASI BAGI MASYARAKAT TENTANG PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DAN DAUR ULANG LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafzon Exaputra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilization fern (Azolla pinnata and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes in addition to preserving the environment also produces elements that are needed for the growth of living things. Household wastewater by plants Azolla pinnata and hyacinth will return sustainability, and can be used as a maintenance gourami (Osphronemus gouramy.        The purpose of this research are: (1 to determine the effect of aquatic plants in domestic wastewater to the quality of the water quality standard household waste and growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy. (2 to find out which one is better growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy in household waste water between the new and old by fern (Azolla pinnata and by plants hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes. (3 as a source of information for the public about environmental pollution and recycling of waste water by using plants in domestic wastewater.        This type of research experiments. Samples of each treatment 20 fish carp with 4 treatments. Treatment I (wastewater new households by ferns, treatment of II (wastewater new households by plants hyacinth, Treatment III (domestic wastewater long by ferns, treatment IV (household wastewater long by water hyacinth plants. The measured parameters ie width, length and weight of carp within a certain period. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA two lanes and qualitative analysis.        The results obtained by analysis of existing water plants on the effect of domestic wastewater on growth of carp (Osphronemus gouramy, as well as the provision of fern (Azolla pinnata provides the most good influence on the growth of carp. Kata Kunci: Tumbuhan air, air limbah rumah tangga, pertumbuhan ikan gurami.

  2. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  3. Cloning and Analysis of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase cDNA from Eichharnia crassipes%水葫芦胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶EcGS1全长cDNA的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽花; 傅明辉; 李园枚; 严国花; 郑李军; 陈肖丽; 彭进平

    2014-01-01

    以水葫芦根部总RNA逆转录得到的cDNA为模板,参照其他植物的胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS1)氨基酸保守序列设计简并引物,进行PCR扩增,以得到的产物为基础,采用RACE技术获得水葫芦胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶EcGS1全长cDNA。全长为1434 bp,开放阅读框为1071 bp,编码356个氨基酸,分子量为39.3 kD,等电点pI为5.52。序列相似性分析显示,该序列与其他植物的GS1氨基酸序列具有较高的相似性。通过亚细胞定位预测,确定EcGS1为胞质型谷氨酰胺合成酶。%In this study, the template cDNA which was reversely transcribed from the total RNA of Eichharnia crassipes, was subjected to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)with the degenerate primers which was designed according to sequences of the Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase(GS1)from other plants. The full-length cDNA sequence was achieved with Rapid Amplification of cDNA End method(RACE) from the amplification product. It includes 1 434 bp with the open reading frame of 1 071 bp which encoded 356 coding amino acids with a predicted size of 39.3 kD and a calculated pI of 5.52. The result of sequence homology analysis showed that the deduced protein had relatively high amino acid identity with GS1s from other plants. The prediction of sub-cellular localization showed that EcGS1 is a cytosolic glutamine synthetase.

  4. 水葫芦生态净化工程对竺山湖底栖动物群落结构变化的影响%Effects of Ecological Purification Engineering of Planting Water Hyacinth on Macro-Benthos Community Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国锋; 韩士群; 何俊; 严少华; 周庆

    2014-01-01

    , which has the wide adaptability, large biomass, strong purification ability, especially the eutrophication water, after solving the mechanized harvesting, recycling use of terminal processing. The conventional ecological engineering practice is mainly in small water body or inland rivers, which has the obvious purification effects for no wind disturbance. But controlled planting the aquatic plants in large water body to purify the polluted water is still rare now. According to the instruction and requirements of Jiangsu Province, the ecological effects of planting 67 hectares water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, which is one of the polluted lake water purification measures in Jiangsu Province and mainly planted by Jiangsu Academic Agricultural Science, on macro-benthos population and structure and benthos environment, were studied during 4~11 month in 2011 with consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average density mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area was 15.13、15.63、22.63 ind·m-2,respectively, and biomass was 17.00、17.60、25.50 g·m-2,respectively, showed that benthos biomass in planting area was higher than that the others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species were Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that outside of planting area, and it demonstrated that the benthic environment gradually improved after controlled planting the floating plants. It indicated that the ecological engineering management through planting water hyacinth couldn’t show the obvious purification effects of polluted water in a short time, especially in a shallow, wind disturbance of large lake, and it need long-term, lasting approached to reach the purifying goals. The index of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was severe polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high

  5. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  6. Parametric Analysis of a Heavy Metal Sorption Isotherm Based on Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico M. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are widely recognized as being hazardous to human health and environmentally aggressive. The literature reports different approaches for lead removal, for example, water hyacinths. Heavy metal sorption isotherm modeling represents an important tool towards the study of equilibrium conditions. Fractional calculus represents a novel approach and a growing research field for process modeling, based on derivatives of arbitrary order. Recently, a novel isotherm based on fractional calculus was proposed for lead sorption using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes. This paper reports a general procedure on error analysis and its influence on parameter estimation. It was applied to mathematical models based on fractional differential equations, focusing on a heavy metal novel isotherm sorption model. Parameter variance was calculated by using two different approaches (with the complete Hessian matrix and with a simplified Hessian matrix, and joint parameter confidence regions were generated, being successfully able to show that the fractional nature of the model is statistically valid.

  7. A preliminary study of the feasibility of detecting the floating macrophytes by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping the floating macrophytes (mostly water hyacinth: (Eichornia crassipes) in the Salto Grande reservoir in Americana, SP, by means of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data is described. The area occupied by the macrophytes was extracted by exclusion after the merging of two thematic masks representing the area of vegetation free water surface. One of the masks was obtained from a date when the vegetal cover is insignificant, while the other represents a large infestation episode. The utilization of digital processing of MSS/LANDSAT data techniques for the documentation of macrophytes infestation is feasible only when the phenomenon occurs in large areas.

  8. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  9. Energy from aquatic plant wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemma sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 days to an average of 23 days and produced 0.14-0.28 cu m CH4/kg (dry weight) (2.3-4.5 cu ft/lb) from mature filters. The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimum balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  10. Phytodepuration plant for the treatment of domestic waste water - realized in a hotel. La fitodepurazione degli effluenti domestici - il caso di una struttura alberghiera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, M.

    1982-12-01

    The processes and the parameters which cause eutrophization of a water system are reported. In addition, the advantage of a phytodepuration plant with respect to conventional plants for the treatment of waste waters are listed. In this paper the phytodepuration plant for the treatment of domestic waste water is described which was by ENEA during 1980 and 1981 in collaboration with the Grand Hotel S. Michele in Cetraro (Italy). The plant utilizes the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a biological filter. The results so far obtained suggest the convenience of the phytodepuration system for touristic village, camping or industries which are operating during the summer time.

  11. Wastewater treatment of chemical laboratory using electro assisted-phytoremediation (EAPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Rudy Syah; Trahadinata, Gilang Ahmad; Latif, Arif; Solehudin, Mochamad

    2017-03-01

    The EAPR process using water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) on the wastewater treatment of chemical laboratory had been evaluated. The purpose of the EAPR process was to decrease the BOD, COD and heavy metal concentration in the wastewater. The effectiveness of the process on the wastewater treatment was evaluated using COD, BOD, and heavy metal (Pb, Cu) concentration, respectively. The result showed that the EAPR process decrease the COD, BOD, Pb and Cu in the 4 h of EAPR process. Those concentrations were met the water quality standard of class IV according to government regulation No. 82/2001 regarding the water quality management and water pollution control of the Republic of Indonesia.

  12. Polluting macrophytes Colombian lake Fúquene used as substrate by edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Nieto, Patricia; García-Gómez, Gustavo; Mora-Ortiz, Laura; Robles-Camargo, George

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aquatic plants from Lake Fúquene (Cundinamarca, Colombia), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.) have been removed mechanically from the lake and can be used for edible mushrooms production. The growth of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on these aquatic macrophytes was investigated in order to evaluate the possible use of fruiting bodies and spent biomass in food production for human and animal nutrition, respectively. Treatments included: water hyacinth, Brazilian elodea, sawdust, rice hulls and their combinations, inoculated with P. ostreatus at 3%. Water hyacinth mixed with sawdust stimulated significantly fruiting bodies production (P = 3.3 × 10(-7)) with 71% biological efficacy, followed by water hyacinth with rice husk (55%) and elodea with rice husk (48%), all of these have protein contents between 26 and 47%. Loss of lignin (0.9-21.6%), cellulose (3.7-58.3%) and hemicellulose (1.9-53.8%) and increment in vitro digestibility (16.7-139.3%) and reducing sugars (73.4-838.4%) were observed in most treatments. Treatments spent biomass presented Relative Forage Values (RFV) from 46.1 to 232.4%. The results demonstrated the fungus degrading ability and its potential use in aquatic macrophytes conversion biomass into digestible ruminant feed as added value to the fruiting bodies production for human nutrition.

  13. ( Eichhornia crassipes ) control in the Vaalharts Irrigation Scheme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Sustainable management must include the control of any additional factors that may ... based on water's relative proportion of total costs (TC), to serve as a proxy for the value of water ...

  14. Weedy lignocellulosic feedstock and microbial metabolic engineering: advancing the generation of 'Biofuel'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Anuj K; Singh, Om V

    2011-03-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are the most abundant renewable organic resources (~200 billion tons annually) on earth that are readily available for conversion to ethanol and other value-added products, but they have not yet been tapped for the commercial production of fuel ethanol. The lignocellulosic substrates include woody substrates such as hardwood (birch and aspen, etc.) and softwood (spruce and pine, etc.), agro residues (wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, etc.), dedicated energy crops (switch grass, and Miscanthus etc.), weedy materials (Eicchornia crassipes, Lantana camara etc.), and municipal solid waste (food and kitchen waste, etc.). Despite the success achieved in the laboratory, there are limitations to success with lignocellulosic substrates on a commercial scale. The future of lignocellulosics is expected to lie in improvements of plant biomass, metabolic engineering of ethanol, and cellulolytic enzyme-producing microorganisms, fullest exploitation of weed materials, and process integration of the individual steps involved in bioethanol production. Issues related to the chemical composition of various weedy raw substrates for bioethanol formation, including chemical composition-based structural hydrolysis of the substrate, need special attention. This area could be opened up further by exploring genetically modified metabolic engineering routes in weedy materials and in biocatalysts that would make the production of bioethanol more efficient.

  15. STUDY ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION AND THE EFFECT OF HEATING ON THE MALATHION RESIDUE ANALYZED USING THE RADIOTRACER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine, the comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Waterhyacinth (Eichhomia crassipes of malathion insecticide residues in water and comparison of malathion concentrationin tissues of fish fed with of contaminated water plants (Water hyacinth with tissues of fish, which was not fedcontaminated water plant. The effect of heating the contaminated fish tissue, on its level in tissues of rats that consumeit. For the first experiment (aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + H. verticillata 100 gr + Water hyacinth 100 gr + 20uci 14C-labeled malathion; for the second experiment (the first aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + 30 tails ofgoldfish + 20 uci 14C-labeled malathion; second aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + Water hyacinth 100 gr + 30 tailof goldfist + 20 uci 14C –labeled malathion. For the third experiment (most of contaminated fish tissue in the secondexperiment was dried at room temperature and then given to 30 mice and partly heated and then given to another 30mice. Malathion levels were then analyzed by using a liquid scintillation counter LSC-753 (Aloka. The results of alltreatments were compared using the Student t-test. It can be concluded, H. verticillata was more efficient compared tothe enceng gondok in absorbing the insecticide malathion residues in water; malathion concentration in the tissues offish fed Water hyacinth was higher than those of fish not fed Water hyacinth; contaminated fish tissue residues ofmalathion, although be heated, can not be lowered significantly, levels in the tissue.

  16. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    Studies were continued during 1977-1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants. A preliminary budget for recycled nitrogen has been determined for water hyacinths. Productivity of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been calculated from nitrate-nitrogen assimilation and good agreement with measured yields was obtained.

  17. 几个主要因子对水葫芦链格孢生长和侵染力的影响%Effects of Some Major Factors on Growth and Pathogenicity of Alternaia tenuissima Causing Black Spot of Water Hyacinth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽; 谭万忠; 殷利利; 刘佳; 罗华东

    2011-01-01

    测试引起水葫芦黑斑病的生防真菌水葫芦链格孢(Alternaria tenuissima)的主要生物学特性(培养基、温度、pH值对菌落生长以及光照对产孢量的影响)和影响该菌株侵染力的3个主要因子(接种温度、光照、保湿时间),以期为该菌的大量发酵和真菌除草剂的研制奠定基础.试验结果表明,培养基、温度和酸碱度是影响该菌生长的主要因素,其最佳培养基、温度和酸碱度分别是马铃薯蔗糖培养基、25℃和pH值9.0.最适合该菌产孢的光照条件是近紫外光(12h光/12h暗),培养20d后产孢量达到3.44×105个/皿.在室内控制条件下测定,温度、湿度和光照对菌株的致病力都有很大的影响.30℃处理的原生叶片的病害严重度明显高于20℃和25℃2个处理,21d时达到7.77;保湿处理时间设定为0~48h,保湿12h时,4周后水葫芦叶片平均病害严重度达到5.21,感病率达到95%,且发病速度较快;弱光照处理(1 2001x)的叶片病害严重度较强光照处理(3000 lx)的严重度级数高,因此,在一定程度上强光照对菌丝的侵染有抑制作用.%The effects of several major factors on growth(medium, temperature and pH) ,sporula-tion(illumination)and pathogenicity(inoculation temperature,illumination and moisture time) of Alternaria tenuissima , a biological control agent for water hyacinth, were investigated in the present study. Experimental results indicated that the best medium,temperature and pH were,respectively, PSA,25℃- and pH 9. 0 for the fungus growth. UV light (12h/d) was the most appropriate for its sporulatioh,and the spore production reached 3. 44 X 105 per dish after 20 days. Temperature, light intensity and moisture were shown marked impacts on conidial germination and infection of the fungus. The highest disease intensity on the primary leaves at 21 days after inoculation and incubation at 30℃ reached 7. 77,obviously higher than at 20℃ and 25℃. Moisture duration was

  18. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by wetland plants: Potential for in situ heavy metal detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, C.M.; Qian, J.H.; Hansen, D.; Zayed, A.; Terry, N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lytle, F.W. [The EXAFS Co., Pioche, NV (United States); Yang, N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-10-15

    Reduction of heavy metals in situ by plants may be a useful detoxification mechanism for phytoremediation. Using X-ray spectroscopy, the authors show that Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), supplied with Cr(VI) in nutrient culture, accumulated nontoxic Cr(III) in root and shoot tissues. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) appeared to occur in the fine lateral roots. The Cr(III) was subsequently translocated to leaf tissues. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of Cr in leaf and petiole differed when compared to Cr in roots. In roots, Cr(III) was hydrated by water, but in petiole and more so in leaf, a portion of the Cr(III) may be bound to oxalate ligands. This suggests that E. crassipes detoxified Cr(VI) upon root uptake and transported a portion of the detoxified Cr to leaf tissues. Cr-rich crystalline structures were observed on the leaf surface. The chemical species of Cr in other plants, collected from wetlands that contained Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater, was also found to be Cr(III). The authors propose that this plant-based reduction of Cr(VI) by E. crassipes has the potential to be used for the in situ detoxification of Cr(VI)-contaminated wastestreams.

  19. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-25

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade.

  20. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade.

  1. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae ( Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to arsenic by 40-50 %; whereas, water hyacinth could reduce arsenic by only 20 %. Cladophora sp. is thus suitable for co-treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  2. Physical and chemical properties of substrates produced using macrophytes aquatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walda Monteiro Farias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are widely used as bioindicators of water quality because their proliferation usually occurs in eutrophic water sources and has hit several parts of Brazil and the world, restricted the multiple uses of aquatic ecosystems. However, this group of plants is able to retain considerable amounts of nutrients, presenting high productivity and high growth rate, thus, a good source of biomass for use in the production of substrates. In order to evaluate the potential of aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Solms., water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L. and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers. in the production of substrates was performed in this work, the physical and chemical characterization and evaluation of the degree of humification. The treatments were arranged in a 3 × 4 factorial, completely randomized design with three replications. All substrates produced with 100% macrophyte density present within the limits of 400 kg m-3, considered ideal. The composite substrates with water hyacinth and water lettuce are with the electrical conductivity of 0,79 a 2,49 dS m-1 within recommended. organic compounds produced are considered mature and have high levels of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium; The substrate produced with 70% water lettuce +30 % dung and 70% composed of cattail manure +20% +10% topsoil and 70 +30% cattail manure have C/N ratio within the considered ideal; the humification ratio and humification index, except for the four treatments (70 % water lettuce manure +30%, 5 (100% water hyacinth and 8 (70% water hyacinth manure +30% are within the considered ideal, the percentage of humic acids and polymerization rate, except for treatments 1 (100% water lettuce and 12 (100% cattail, are shown below the ideal.

  3. Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Map Changes in Aquatic Invasive Plant Cover in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed a 80% overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  4. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were continued during 1977 to 1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of Gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. The yields of several other species of freshwater plants were investigated. Only the pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) appears to approach the productivity of water hyacinth on the basis of preliminary measurements. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants.

  5. Spatial-temporal dynamics and sources of total Hg in a hydroelectric reservoir in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, I A; Bastos, W R; Almeida, M G; de Carvalho, D P; Rezende, C E; Souza, C M M

    2016-05-01

    Damming rivers to construct hydroelectric reservoirs results in a series of impacts on the biogeochemical Hg cycle. For example, modifying the hydrodynamics of a natural watercourse can result in the suspension and transport of Hg deposits in the water column, which represents an exposure risk for biota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of seasonality on the dispersion of total Hg in the Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP)-Samuel Reservoir (Porto Velho/Brazil). Sampling campaigns were performed during the three following hydrological periods characteristic of the region: low (Oct/2011), ebbing (May/2012), and high (Feb/2013) water. Sediment profiles, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and aquatic macrophytes (Eicchornia crassipes and Oryza spp.) were collected, and their Hg concentrations and isotopic and elemental C and N signatures were determined. The drainage basin significantly influenced the SPM compositions during all the periods, with a small autochthonous influence from the reservoir during the low water. The highest SPM Hg concentrations inside the reservoir were observed during the high water period, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of this environment favor the suspension of fine SPM, which has a higher Hg adsorption capacity. The Hg concentrations in the sediment profiles were ten times lower than those in the SPM, indicating that large particles with low Hg concentrations were deposited to form the bottom sediment. Hg concentrations were higher in aquatic macrophyte roots than in their leaves and appeared to contribute to the formation of SPM during the low water period. In this environment, Hg transport mainly occurs in SPM from the Jamari River drainage basin, which is the primary source of Hg in this environment.

  6. Reproduction et régime alimentaire de Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichodontidae dans la zone de confluence du fleuve Congo et des rivières Lindi et Tshopo à Kisangani (R.D. Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osombause Sango, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and Feeding of Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891 (Distichopdontidae in the Confluence Area of the Congo River and Rivers Lindi and Tshopo in Kisangani (R.D. Congo. The study of the reproduction and the feeding of D. antonii in the confluence area of the Congo river and rivers Lindi & Tshopo in Kisangani (R. D. Congo was carried out across 105 fish. The species D. antonii has a phytophagous regime and does not seem to have a preference for a given species of semi-aquatic macrophyte. This diet shows the variation related to the seasonal periods and to the sex of the individuals. The species of plant ingested are: Bambusa vulgaris (Poaceae, Pseudospondias microcarpa (Anacardiaceae, Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae, Commelina diffusa (Commelinaceae, Echinochloa pyramidalis (Poaceae, Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae, Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae, Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae et Eicchornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae but the organs consumed of these plants remain the leaves, stems, fruits, roots, and seeds. The evolution of the gonadosomatic ratio presents two peaks in april and september. The estimated absolute fertility varies from 94,000 to 344,500 oocytes for an average of 196,878±72,122 oocytes and the relative fertility varies from 11,750 to 73,600 oocytes kg-1 for an average of 38,224± 15,893 oocytes kg-1. The diameter of the oocytes varies from 0, 95 to 1, 42 mm with an average of 1, 16±1,13 mm. The absolute fertility is correlated to the total length according to F= 4,28 Lt5, 35.

  7. The biological control of aquatic weeds in South Africa: Current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Hill

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems in South Africa are prone to invasion by several invasive alien aquatic weeds, most notably, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laub. (Pontederiaceae (water hyacinth; Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae (water lettuce; Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitch. (Salviniaceae (salvinia; Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Conc. Verd. (parrot’s feather; and Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae (red water fern. Objective: We review the biological control programme on waterweeds in South Africa. Results: Our review shows significant reductions in the extent of invasions, and a return on biodiversity and socio-economic benefits through the use of this method. These studies provide justification for the control of widespread and emerging freshwater invasive alien aquatic weeds in South Africa. Conclusions: The long-term management of alien aquatic vegetation relies on the correct implementation of biological control for those species already in the country and the prevention of other species entering South Africa.

  8. Use of dried aquatic plant roots to adsorb heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of heavy metal ions by dried aquatic macrophytes was investigated. The ability of the biomass, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Typha latifolia (cattail), Sparganium minimum (burr reed) and Menyanthes trifoliata to abstract lead and mercury ions is presented here, along with a conceptual filter design. This paper examines an alternative to both the traditional and recent systems designed for metal removal. It involves the use of dried aquatic macrophytes. There are numerous advantages for the use of dried macrophytes in the treatment of industrial wastewater. First, it is cost-effective. There are also funding opportunities through a variety of Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) programs. It is more environmentally conscious because a wetland, the harvesting pond, has been created. And, it creates public goodwill by providing a more appealing, less hardware-intensive, natural system.

  9. Suitability of aquatic biomass from Lake Toba (North Sumatra, Indonesia) for energy generation by combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, A.; Roubík, H.; Herák, D.

    2017-09-01

    Several aquatic plant species were identified as aquatic pollution of Lake Toba, North Sumatra (Indonesia); specifically, water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and aquatic weeds Hydrilla verticillata and Myriophyllum spicatum due to their high biomass yield which causes impenetrable mats at the bottom and surface of the lake. That complicates other vegetation growth and utilization of water areas for fishing or recreation. In attempt to clean the lake and prevent plants expansion, great amount of plants populations are removed from water but subsequent efficient utilization of such aquatic biomass is not ensured. Present research investigated energy potential of aquatic biomass originated from mentioned aquatic plants from Lake Toba and its possible utilization for energy production by direct combustion. Performed chemical analysis contained from determination of moisture, ash and volatile matter contents and calorific values. Evaluation of results proved highest suitability and energy potential of Eichhornia crassipes with gross calorific value (GCV) 16.31 MJ·kg–1, followed by Hydrilla verticillata with GCV 15.24 MJ·kg–1. Samples of Myriophyllum spicatum exhibited unsatisfactory results due to its low GCV (11.27 MJ·kg–1) in combination with high ash content (36.99%) which indicates complications during combustion, thus, low energy production efficiency and overall unsuitability for combustion purposes.

  10. The ecology of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the control of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazo, B. C.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Dawood, I. K.

    1966-01-01

    The respective vectors of the two forms of bilharziasis in Egypt do not have the same ecological distribution. Bulinus truncatus is most abundant in large canals, and decreases in density as the water approaches and flows into drains. Biomphalaria alexandrina is most abundant in drains, and decreases in density upstream from these habitats. Both species are most abundant in the presence of aquatic vegetation, but they differ in their respective associations with the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Biomph. alexandrina reaches maximum abundance in the presence of this plant, but Bul. truncatus is as uncommon in the absence of plants as in the presence of E. crassipes. Calculation of life-table parameters from field data shows that, under optimum field conditions, both species can double their populations in 14-16 days. The reproductive rates of both species are greatest in March and the death rates in midsummer. The observed peak densities in May and June give a false impression of optima because of undercollection of young snails, which are most abundant in March and April. Control operations should take advantage of the findings on population parameters. A single area-wide treatment with molluscicide in April is recommended. During the remainder of the year, search for isolated foci of snail breeding and individual treatment of these will effect large savings of chemical and will be effective in controlling the transmission of the parasites. PMID:5297630

  11. The Comparative Evaluation of the Performance of Two Phytoremediation Systems for Domestic Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, A; Azizi, Sh; Raman, V K; Jamshidi, S; Hamnabard, N

    2014-07-01

    The constructed wetlands as well engineered techniques have been used effectively for phytoremediation of wastewater and pollution control during the last decades. In these technologies, the naturally occurring processes of plants alongside micro-organisms present in the bio-film attached to the roots, soil substrate and water column degrade the organic pollutants. The study seeks to compare the potential use of Phragmites sp. reed bed and floating macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system for domestic wastewater treatment. The sewage treatment performance is evaluated as 80% & 76% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 90% & 87% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 24% & 18% total dissolved solids (TDS), 69% & 67% total suspended solids (TSS), 12% & 5% Chlorides, 73% & 69% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 42% & 31% phosphate (PO4-P), 93% & 91% most probable number (MPN) and 95% & 92% total viable count (TVC) reduction at optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 & 43 h in Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth systems, respectively. Likewise, the floating macrophyte pond contrary to reed bed process shows insignificant pollutant diminution at 24 h HRT. This paper also highlights the microbial population present through the wetland systems by estimation of total viable count (TVC). The botanical aspect with reference to the plant growth is shown a significant increase in vegetation yield. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency by preferred Phragmites sp. root zone system at low foot print area for domestic wastewater.

  12. Modeling Heavy Metal Sorption Kinetics Using Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Friesen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are commonly regarded as environmentally aggressive and hazardous to human health. Among the different metals, lead plays an important economic role due to its large use in the automotive industry, being an essential component of batteries. Different approaches have been reported in the literature aimed at lead removal, and among them a very successful one considers the use of water hyacinths for sorption-based operation. The modeling of the metal sorption kinetics is a fundamental step towards in-depth studies and proper separation equipment design and optimization. Fractional calculus represents a novel approach and a growing research field for process modeling, which is based on the successful use of derivatives of arbitrary order. This paper reports the modeling of the kinetics of lead sorption by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes using a fractional calculus. A general procedure on error analysis is also employed to prove the actual fractional nature of the proposed model by the use of parametric variance analysis, which was carried out using two different approaches (with the complete Hessian matrix and with a simplified Hessian matrix. The joint parameter confidence regions were generated, allowing to successfully show the fractional nature of the model and the sorption process.

  13. A Survey on the Growth of Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in Kagoshima Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    本村, 輝正; 宮内, 信文; ホンムラ, テルマサ; ミヤウチ, ノブフミ; HONMURA, Terumasa; MIYAUCHI, Nobufumi

    1998-01-01

    1.鹿児島県下の主なホテイアオイの群落地は20カ所で, 用水路5カ所, 池10カ所, 河川4カ所, 水田1カ所であった.2.群落地の水源は水田用水7カ所, 河川水5カ所, 湧出水8カ所であった.3.群落地の水の汚染源は生活廃水, 畜産廃水, 化学肥料及び工場排水であった.4.ホテイアオイの群落地は大雨によってホテイアオイが流失しない場所であることが条件であった.5.ホテイアオイは機会的に繁殖を開始するが, その後の群落形成には養分の供給源が必要であり, 環境水の汚染度と増殖度は相互関係があると推定された.6.自然界でのホテイアオイの最適水環境は水は流入と流出があり, 水が流動し, 水温が夏季に上がり過ぎず, 冬季には結氷が少ない状態の場所であると考えられた.7.ホテイアオイの生育は抽水状態の方が浮遊状態より生育の良いことが確認された....

  14. Exploring rhizosphere bacteria of Eichhornia crassipes for metal tolerance and biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Gomez, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Deshpande, S.A.; Singh, K.S.; DeSouza, L.

    Cl3, They were further screened for antibiotic sensitivity and biological activity according to Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method The MTB under metal stress condition showed significant biological activity against clinical pathogens, fouling...

  15. 77 FR 39965 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Hyacinth Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... nongovernmental organizations, Rede Cerrado, has been established to promote local sustainable-use practices for natural resources (Klink and Machado 2005, p. 710). Rede Cerrado provided the Brazilian Ministry of the...

  16. Non-invasive genetic sampling for molecular sexing and microsatellite genotyping of hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia T. Presti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molted feather sampling is a useful tool for genetic analyses of endangered species, but it is often very laborious due to the low quality and quantity of the DNA obtained. In the present study we show the parts of feathers that resulted in better yield of DNA. In descending order these were: blood clot outside the umbilicus, umbilicus (without blood clot, tip, inner membrane, and small calamus. Compared to DNA extracted from blood samples, DNA extracted from feathers produced microsatellite alleles of poorer quality and had to be processed immediately after extraction. As expected due to the level of DNA degradation, molecular sexing protocols that result in shorter PCR products were more efficient.

  17. Non-invasive genetic sampling for molecular sexing and microsatellite genotyping of hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Flavia T.; Meyer, Janaína; Antas, Paulo T.Z.; Guedes, Neiva M.R.; Miyaki, Cristina Y.

    2013-01-01

    Molted feather sampling is a useful tool for genetic analyses of endangered species, but it is often very laborious due to the low quality and quantity of the DNA obtained. In the present study we show the parts of feathers that resulted in better yield of DNA. In descending order these were: blood clot outside the umbilicus, umbilicus (without blood clot), tip, inner membrane, and small calamus. Compared to DNA extracted from blood samples, DNA extracted from feathers produced microsatellite alleles of poorer quality and had to be processed immediately after extraction. As expected due to the level of DNA degradation, molecular sexing protocols that result in shorter PCR products were more efficient. PMID:23569419

  18. Ectopic expression of a hyacinth AGL6 homolog caused earlier flowering and homeotic conversion in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; JinHui; LI; WenQing; DONG; XiuChun; GUO; Wei; SHU; HuaiRui

    2007-01-01

    MADS-box genes are involved in floral organ development. Here we report that an AGL6(Agamous-like 6)-like MADS-box gene, HoAGL6, was isolated from Hyacinthus orientalis L. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that HoAGL6 transcript was detected in inflorescence buds, tepals, carpels and ovules, but not in stamina, leaves or scales. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing HoAGL6 exhibited novel phenotypes of significantly reduced plant size, extremely early flowering, and losing inflorescence indeterminacy. In addition, wide homeotic conversion of sepals, petals, and leaves into carpel-like or ovary structures, and disappearance or number reduction of stamens in 35S::HoAGL6 Arabidopsis plants were also observed. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expressions of flowering time gene SOC1 and flower meristem identity gene LFY were significantly up-regulated in 35S::HoAGL6 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and the expression levels of floral organ identity genes AG and SEP1 in leaves were also elevated. These results indicated that HoAGL6 was involved in the regulation of flower transition and flower organ formation.

  19. Restoring biodiversity in the Gwydir Wetlands through environmental flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, W A

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Water Reforms process, environmental flow rules have been progressively implemented in New South Wales rivers. The Integrated Monitoring of Environmental Flows (IMEF) is a major project established to better understand how rivers and associated wetlands respond to environmental water allocations. The results presented here represent the vegetation data collected for the testing of the hypothesis that "protecting or restoring a portion of freshes and high flows and otherwise maintaining natural flow variability will replenish anabranches and riverine wetlands, restoring their biodiversity". The study site is the Ramsar listed Gwydir Wetlands, located on the Gingham and Gwydir (Big Leather) Watercourses in the Lower Gwydir Valley, 100 km west of Moree. The expansion of irrigated agriculture in the lower Gwydir valley has severely altered flow regimes in the wetlands. The spread of the weed Phyla canescens (Lippia) is of major concern to landholders in the Gwydir Wetlands. Results indicate that Paspalum distichum (Water couch) and Eleocharis plana (Ribbed spike-rush) can maintain dominance over Phyla canescens if flooding occurs on a semi-regular basis. Conversely, Eichhornia crassipes (Water hyacinth) is a rampant noxious weed of open water in the Gwydir Wetlands, and has quickly spread in areas that are inundated for long periods. Management of this weed requires periodic drying of the wetlands to cause desiccation and death of the plants. The flooding requirement of individual species and plant associations in the Gwydir Wetlands are currently not fully understood. By providing better information on the consequence of different flows, the IMEF project will help to develop better management strategies to shift the dominance from introduced species such as P. canescens and E. crassipes to more desirable native plant species.

  20. Penurunan Logam Timbal (Pb pada Limbah Cair TPA Piyungan Yogyakarta dengan Constructed Wetlands Menggunakan Tumbuhan Eceng Gondok (Eichornia Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Siswoyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu permasalahan lingkungan yang ditimbulkan dari adanya lindi di TPA Piyungan yaitu pencemaran pada badan air, sungai dan air tanah. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan ini salah satunya dengan sistem Constructed Wetlands dengan menggunakan tumbuhah eceng gondok. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat penurunan konsentrasi Timbal (Pb yang terdapat dalam limbah cair TPA Piyungan dengan Constructed Wetlands menggunakan tumbuhan eceng gondok dan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kapasitas serapan tumbuhan eceng gondok terhadap kandungan Timbal (Pb dalam limbah cair TPA Piyungan.Dalam penelitian ini digunakan reaktor yang terbuat dari kayu yang dilapisi plastik dengan ukuran 0,5 m x 1,0 m. Setiap reaktor diberi media tanah 5 cm, dan diberi tumbuhan sebanyak 14 buah. Reaktor tersebut diberi perlakuan dengan konsentrasi limbah yang bervariasi (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, dan 0%, dan waktu pengambilan sampel (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 hari. Dengan menggunakan metode SSA (Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom.Berdasarkan pengujian diperoleh bahwa penurunan logam Pb pada limbah cair TPA Piyungan hari ke- 12, yaitu sebesar 0.0501mg/L pada konsentrasi 100%, 0.0295mg/L pada konsentrasi 75%, 0.0267mg/L pada konsentrasi 50% dan 0.0041 mg/L pada konsentrasi 25%.

  1. Jacinto de agua (Eichhornia crassipes una alternativa para la alimentación de cerdos en ceba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    |MsC. Isaías Febrero Toussaint .- Centro Universitario Las Tuna

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de cerdos en ceba alimentados con Jacinto de agua fresco o ensilado (con un 20% de afrecho de trigo, se utilizaron 21 cerdos Yorkshire - Landrace x Duroc de 23 kg de peso vivo promedio y 160 días de edad, distribuidos según diseño completamente aleatorizado en tres tratamientos, los que incluyeron King grass, Jacinto fresco y ensilaje. Estos alimentos se ofrecieron a voluntad y los animales se suplementaron en todos los casos con afrecho de trigo, harina de soya y miel final. Los cerdos fueron alojados en 3 corrales de 7 animales cada uno. La prueba tuvo una duración de 89 días de los cuales los 13 primero fueron de adaptación. Los cerdos fueron pesados a los 13; 24; 45; 59; 74 y 89 días en horas de la mañana antes de ser alimentados. También se determinó la ganancia media total, la ganancia media diaria, el consumo y la conversión alimentaria. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la ganancia media diaria entre tratamientos a los 89 días de prueba. Los valores más altos fueron de 483,55 y 422,15 g para el Jacinto fresco y el ensilaje de Jacinto respectivamente. El consumo de alimento en base seca fue menor en el grupo que se alimentó con Jacinto fresco (1,01 kg respecto del ensilaje de Jacinto (1,22 kg. Es factible desde el punto de vista económico el uso de estas fuentes en la alimentación de cerdos en ceba, pues el costo de alimentación fue de 21,91; 16,74; y 17,59 $ el costo por peso fue de 0,16; 0,11; y 0,13 $ para el ensilaje de Jacinto, Jacinto fresco y King grass respectivamente. Se sugiere incluir en la dieta de cerdos en ceba el Jacinto de agua lo mismo fresco que ensilado.

  2. A Simple, Efficient Method for Extracting Neochetina eichhorniae and N. bruchi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes: Pontederiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weevils Neochetina eichhorniae Warner and N. bruchi Hustache were released in Florida during 1972 and 1974, to control the floating weed waterhyacinth. Populations established readily but results were variable, with excellent control produced in some cases whereas poor control was manifested in...

  3. The Use of Megamelus scutellaris Berg in the Southern United States as a Biocontrol Agent of Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Louisiana during the International Cotton Exposition (Center 2004) in 1884. Since its primary introduction, the adventive range of waterhyacinth has...a series of Reed Model SD-947 four-channel digital thermometers ( Reed Instruments, Inc., Texas). Temperatures were recorded at 5-minute intervals

  4. KETAHANAN HIDUP (VIABILITY TELUR ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DALAM CAIRAN OLAHAN TINJA TANGKI PENCERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinardi Hadidjaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An introduction of integrated management system for human excreta was carried out in the village of Cirimekar, Cibinong subdistrict, West Java The purpose of this study is to gain the readiness and motivation of the population in that village to participate and benefit the product of this system for fish farming and the growth of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes. The study was performed integratedly between several aspects namely the socio-economica, tech­nical, medical, biologicatas well as environmental, and this involved the establishment of the profile of the community, stool, sludge, effluent and fish examinations In this paper only the Viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs is discussed. The digestion tank seemed to work as expected, resulted in the de­generation of 423%. A lumbricoides eggs found in the tank as well as in the experimental ponds It was most probable that the death of the A. lumbricoides eggs was due to aerobic decomposition which took place in the tank giving rise to an increase of temperature which would enhance the death of the eggs

  5. Variation of nutrient and metal concentrations in aquatic macrophytes along the Rio Cachoeira in Bahia (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Andreas; Bauer, Konrad; Franz-Gerstein, Charis; de Menezes, Max

    2002-07-01

    The use of cuprous fungicides in cocoa production in the southern part of the state of Bahia (Brazil) for decades has caused an accumulation of copper in various components of the cocoa plantations, and a contamination of regional freshwater ecosystems is suspected. Urban and industrial sources are supposed to contribute to water pollution and eutrophication of the Rio Cachoeira, the main river in this region. In order to study the metal contamination and nutritional status of this freshwater ecosystem, samples of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes were collected at seven sites along the river course. The samples were analysed for their copper, aluminium, chromium, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The levels of heavy metals increased in the downstream direction, particularly in the roots of water hyacinth. A dramatic increase of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in water as well as in plant tissues was found in samples collected downstream from the city of Itabuna. Metal input and eutrophication were attributed to agricultural, industrial and urban sources in the region. Biomonitoring of the water quality using aquatic macrophytes as accumulative indicator plants is recommended in addition to chemical water analyses.

  6. Production of fermentable sugars by combined chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To change the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulosic material for maximum hydrolysis yield, a comprehensive study was done by using sulphuric acid as an exclusive catalyst for the pretreatment process. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass [Water Hyacinth: Eichhornia crassipes] after pretreatment was determined by measuring the hydrolysis yield of the pretreated material obtained from twenty four different pretreatment conditions. These included different concentrations of sulphuric acid (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%, at two different temperatures (108 and 121 ºC for different residence times (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0h.The highest reducing sugar yield (36.65 g/L from enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained when plant material was pretreated at 121 ºC for 1.0 h residence time using 3.0% (v/v sulphuric acid and at 1:10 (w/v solid to liquid ratio. The total reducing sugars obtained from the two-stage process (pretreatment + enzymatic hydrolysis was 69.6g/L. The resulting sugars were fermented into ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield from the enzymatic hydrolyzate was 95.2% of the theoretical yield (0.51g/g glucose, as determined by GS-MS, and nearly 100% since no reducing sugars were detected in the fermenting media by TLC and DNS analysis.

  7. Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

  8. A combined process to treat lemon industry wastewater and produce biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, A.R.; Rubio, M.C.; Maldonado, M.C. [Quimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Bioquimica, Ayacucho, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-02-15

    We studied a process employed for treating lemon industry effluents, using the macrophyte Eishhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) in a phytoremediation tank with a 6000-L workload. The diluted effluents BOD and COD were reduced to 70 and 61%, respectively, working with a 1.5-h hydraulic residence time (HRT). We investigated the effect of adding every 12 h an inoculum consisting of a consortium of microorganisms isolated from the macrophyte roots and recirculating 30% of the outflow. In this way, we achieved a volumetric removal rate (VRR) of BOD = 354 g/m{sup 3} day. Plants were daily harvested from the tank to maintain growth rate and the density originally planted. We studied their use for biogas production in an anaerobic digester working with 12 and 16 days of hydraulic residence time. The yield obtained was 0.87 L/g and productivity 0.87 L/L day with a loading rate of 5 g/L day. Integrating both processes on an industrial scale would solve the effluent pollution problem and generate an energy source that could be used by the industry itself to lower its production costs. (orig.)

  9. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR SASIRANGAN MELALUI KOMBINASI METODE FILTRASI DAN FITOREMIDIASI SISTEM LAHAN BASAH BUATAN MENGGUNAKAN TUMBUHAN AIR YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Santoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of a combination of filtration methods and fitoremidiasi Constructed wetland systems using different water plants to test the parameters of wastewater treatment sasirangan, analyze the effectiveness and efficiency. The method used is an experimental method. The results showed that the combination of filtration methods and fitoremidiasi artificial wetland systems using different water plants able to improve the quality of effluent sasirangan, where the best result is to use water hyacinth plants (Eichornia crassipes (Mart Solms with effectiv level and the highest efficiency for each the parameters include the effective Cr concentration 0.147 mg/L and an efficiency of 29.41%, the concentration of Cd metal with the effectiveness of 0.0981 mg/L and an efficiency of 83.07%, with a BOD concentration of the effectiveness of 101.81 mg/L and an efficiency of 59.84%, the concentration of COD with the effectiveness of 4866.99 mg/L and an efficiency of 91.32%, the effectiveness of the TSS concentration 140.62 mg/L and an efficiency of 60.61%.

  10. Parthenium sp. as a plant biomass for the production of alkalitolerant xylanase from mutant Penicillium oxalicum SAU{sub E}-3.510 in submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Pallavi; Vivekanand, V.; Ganguly, Ruma; Singh, Rajesh P. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The use of congress grass (Parthenium sp.) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as low cost raw materials for xylanase production from mutant Penicillium oxalicum SAU{sub E}-3.510 in submerged fermentation was investigated. For development of mutant from wild type P. oxalicum SA-8 ITCC 6024, a strategy of mixed mutagenesis was followed using UV-irradiation and ethidium bromide, which had resulted into 1.87 fold increases in the activity of the enzyme. For enzyme production, the fungus was cultivated in mineral medium containing congress grass as carbon source. Considerably higher levels of production (475.2 {+-} 6.0 IU ml{sup -1}) were achieved in media containing congress grass, although it was slightly less than that was obtained (488.5 {+-} 6.5 IU ml{sup -1}) in presence of commercial oat spelt xylan. This fact confirms the feasibility of using this low cost non-food resource as an alternative carbon source to save costs of the enzyme production process. Maximum xylanase activity was reported at 55 C with its stability at 80 C for 2 h. The highest activity of xylanase at pH 9.0 and its stability at similar pH for 24 h denote the alkalitolerant nature of enzyme. (author)

  11. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN EM4 (Effective Microorganism-4 PADA PEMBUATAN BIOGAS DARI ECENG GONDOK DAN RUMEN SAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Megawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes merupakan tanaman yang menjadi limbah perairan dan keberadaannya belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Kandungan selulosa, hemiselulosa, dan lignin di dalamnya dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi biogas melalui proses fermentasi. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh EM4 (Effective Microorganism- 4 terhadap massa, nilai kalor, dan kecepatan pembentukan biogas dari eceng gondok. Percobaan dilakukan dalam anaerobic digester berukuran 4 liter, bahan baku yang digunakan adalah eceng gondok, rumen sapi, dan air dengan variabel penambahan EM4 sebesar 1% dan 0%. Fermentasi dilakukan secara batch dengan pengukuran gas (temperatur, tekanan, dan massa setiap 7 hari sekali sampai hari ke-35. Sebelum proses fermentasi, dilakukan pengujian terhadap rasio C/N campuran bahan baku. Pembakaran gas dilakukan untuk membuktikan gas yang didapat mengandung metana. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio C/N untuk variabel dengan penambahan EM4 1% sebesar 5,33 dan rasio C/N untuk variabel dengan penambahan EM4 0% sebesar 7. Jadi, penambahan EM4 dapat menurunkan rasio C/N. Sementara itu, hasil fermentasinya memperlihatkan bahwa EM4 memperkecil produksi biogas meskipun proses pembentukannya cepat. Massa total biogas yang didapat pada variabel EM4 1% sebesar 1,1 g dan variabel EM4 0% sebesar 1,55 g. Tekananbiogas mengalami fluktuasi (pada variabel EM4 1% sebesar 35,6 cmH2O, sedangkan pada variabel EM4 0% sebesar 40,6 cmH2O. Berdasarkan simulasi menggunakan chemical process simulator software, diketahui heating value biogas sebesar 39.180 kJ/kg. Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes is a plant that becomes waste and its existence has not been widely used. Content of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in it can be converted into biogas through a process of fermentation. Study examines the effect of EM4 (Effective Microorganism-4 on the mass, heating value, and the rate of formation of biogas from water hyacinth. An experiments were performed in anaerobic

  12. Hyperspectral reflectance features of water hyacinth growing under feeding stresses of Neochetina spp. and different heavy metal pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Newete, SW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available were correlated with the leaf chlorophyll content from the SPAD readings at the end of the experiment. Correlation results of mNDVI(sub705) was the highest followed by REP_LE. Cu-, Hg-, and Zn-treated plants showed significantly lower chlorophyll...

  13. The Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) as Aquatic Macrophage Treatment System (AMATS) in Phytoremediation for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Chukwunonso Ossai; Fauziah S. H.; Ghufran Redzwan

    2014-01-01

    The need for edible oil has increased resulting with a consequent boost in palm oil production. As a result, production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is one of the by-products of the milling process has also increased. In Malaysia, palm oil industry is identified as one of the agricultural industries that generate the highest pollution load into the rivers throughout the country. Some palm oil mills store POME in ponds or lagoons in the hope of treating and detoxifying it. Often ti...

  14. Dynamic changes in an estuary over the past eleven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S.; Bellvert, J.; Shapiro, K.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climatic events such as drought, 100-year floods, etc. can change the state of an ecosystem that is already in flux. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California is one of the most modified estuaries in the world. The hydrology of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta has been extensively altered by a network of levees, dams, and canals implemented through federal and state reclamation projects. These changes have made its ecosystem vulnerable to invasion by eliminating the competitive advantage of low-nutrient brackish-adapted native species via nutrient loading and reduced salinity which favor opportunistic species. The extreme drought in California since 2010 has likely increased shallow habitat with slow moving water, and the mild winters and lack of large storms have also favored the spread of non-native species.Six years of hyperspectral data of the Delta spread over a period of 11 years (HyMap data from 2004 to 2008, and AVIRIS-NG data in 2014) offer a unique opportunity to study the invasive species distribution in the Delta. In 2004, two aggressive freshwater invasive species were flourishing in the Delta: the floating species, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) and the submerged species, Egeria densa (Brazilian waterweed). A third invasive floating genus Ludwigia spp. (water primrose) was just beginning to establish itself in the northwest portion of the Delta. We classified these invasive species for all six years of data. Our results show that from 2004 to 2008, floating and submerged vegetation decreased overall. Among floating species, Eichhornia crassipes was co-dominant with Hydrocotyle spp., a native floating macrophyte. From 2008 to 2014 however, the total area covered by floating macrophytes in the Delta increased many-fold from 320 to 2610 hectares. The composition of this functional group also changed. Native Hydrocotyle cover reduced drastically and Ludwigia replaced it as the co-dominant comprising a third of all floating macrophyte

  15. Arsenic removal in solution using non living bio masses of aquatic weed; Remocion de As en solucion empleando biomasas no vivas de maleza acuatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A, M. J.

    2010-07-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid considered among the most dangerous to health. The As maximum level allowed of drinkable water is 0.01 mg/L established by the Who. Several techniques have been proposed to remove arsenic from water, among which are the sorption processes in economic biological materials, which has advantages for its high efficiency in dilute toxic removing from contaminated water, for these reason it is necessary to study new bio sorbents materials which are economic, simple and easy to apply in the treatment of contaminated areas. The aim of this project was evaluate the removal of As (V) in solution using two non living aquatic plants: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor), characterize these materials and compare the efficiency between both; the parameters evaluated were the As (V) initial concentration in solution, contact time, ph value and the amount of biomass in contact with them. It describes the method to prepare the non living plants. The physicochemical characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis was made. The results shown that cellulose is the main component confirmed by the techniques above mentioned. Surface characterization of Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor by specific surface area, shown 1.3521 m{sup 2}/g and 0.6395 m{sup 2}/g respectively, the hydration kinetic indicates that 24 h was the maximum hydration time for both plants; the point of zero charge determination by mass titration gives a ph=6.1 for the first plant and ph=7.1 for the second plant, finally the active site density obtained for the plants were of 8.57 sites/nm{sup 2} and 12.47 sites/nm{sup 2}. The point of zero charge was analyzed for know the ph from which the As (V) species are removal preferably. Tested contact processes between bio sorbent-As (V) were performed to assess the ability of bio masses to removal As (V) from aqueous solutions

  16. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: estados inmaduros y biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mariani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m

  17. On-site phytoremediation applicability assessment in Alur Ilmu, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia based on spatial and pollution removal analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mohd Hafiyyan; Lee, Khai Ern; Goh, Thian Lai

    2017-09-14

    The present paper aims to assess the phytoremediation performance based on pollution removal efficiency of the highly polluted region of Alur Ilmu urban river for its applicability of on-site treatment. Thirteen stations along Alur Ilmu were selected to produce thematic maps through spatial distribution analysis based on six water quality parameters of Malaysia's Water Quality Index (WQI) for dry and raining seasons. The maps generated were used to identify the highly polluted region for phytoremediation applicability assessment. Four free-floating plants were tested in treating water samples from the highly polluted region under three different conditions, namely controlled, aerated and normal treatments. The selected free-floating plants were water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), rose water lettuce (Pistia sp.) and pennywort (Centella asiatica). The results showed that Alur Ilmu was more polluted during dry season compared to raining season based on the water quality analysis. During dry season, four parameters were marked as polluted along Alur Ilmu, namely dissolve oxygen (DO), 4.72 mg/L (class III); ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), 0.85 mg/L (class IV); total suspended solid (TSS), 402 mg/L (class V) and biological oxygen demand (BOD), 3.89 mg/L (class III), whereas, two parameters were classed as polluted during raining season, namely total suspended solid (TSS), 571 mg/L (class V) and biological oxygen demand (BOD), 4.01 mg/L (class III). The thematic maps generated from spatial distribution analysis using Kriging gridding method showed that the highly polluted region was recorded at station AL 5. Hence, water samples were taken from this station for pollution removal analysis. All the free-floating plants were able to reduce TSS and COD in less than 14 days. However, water hyacinth showed the least detrimental effect from the phytoremediation process compared to other free-floating plants, thus made it a suitable free

  18. Estudio de aprovechamiento del Lechuguín Eichhornia Crassipes, del embalse de la represa Daniel Palacios como biosorbente de metales pesados en el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Abad, Sandra Magali

    2009-01-01

    La contaminación del agua con metales pesados es un problema ambiental de gran importancia en todo el mundo, que pone en riesgo la salud humana y el agotamiento de éste recurso. Ciertamente, existen varios métodos convencionales para remover los metales tóxicos del agua, pero muchos de los cuales son costosos y no brinda la reutilización. La bioadsorción es una alternativa potencial, la cual utiliza biomasas muertas o inactivas para captar y concentrar metales pesados. Varios biomateriales ya...

  19. Detection of high levels of pyrrolizidine-N-oxides in the endangered plant cryptantha crassipes (Terlingua creek cat's-eye)using HPLC-ESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical investigation of nine species of Cryptantha identified at least two chemotypes within the genus. It was determined that under especially harsh and dry growing conditions of the Chihuahuah desert of Texas, the N-oxides of two major pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine, foun...

  20. The Use of Eichhornia crassipes for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions%凤眼莲净化水中重金属的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭彩云; 林玉满; 陈祖亮

    2009-01-01

    通过静态水培养实验探讨了凤眼莲对水中重金属离子铅、锌、铬的短期去除能力.实验表明:凤眼莲对这3种重金属的耐受能力和去除能力都是Pb(II)>Cr(III)>Zn(II);pH值、凤眼莲生物量以及重金属离子的初始浓度对净化效果均有明显的影响;其中凤眼莲对含铅水溶液有很好的净化效果,经过4天的培养,300 g凤眼莲对4 L浓度为5~30 mg/L的铅离子溶液的去除率均可达到99%.因此,凤眼莲在植物修复重金属污染水体方面具有很大的潜能.

  1. [Escherichia coli: diversity of biochemical phenotypes in aquatic environments (Santa, Fe, Argentina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, F; Lajmanovich, R; González, S M

    2001-01-01

    During certain environmental conditions, the floating aquatic vegetation, mainly represented by Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) invade and even cover water courses assigned to recreational activities or to the supply of drinkable water. The rhizosphere of these plants constitutes an unknown biotope of bacteria of sanitary interest, possibly different from waters without vegetation and of the sediment of the same aquatic system. To verify such possibility, 206 isolated strains in MacConkey Agar (Difco) were typified and identified (78 from water, 65 from sediment and 63 from rhizosphere) using the API 20 E system (v. 4.0) and Apilab plus software (v 3.3.3), both of bioMérieux (Marcy-l'Etoile, France, 1998). Nineteen different biochemical phenotypes from E. coli were found. The 79% of the population belonged to only 7 phenotypes; the 21% remaining, to the other 12 phenotypes. Twelve phenotypes did not share the biotopes, while only 4 were in the three. These results (and those obtained by other authors who used the API 20 E system in other biotopes) suggest that it would be possible to characterize the rhizosphere using those phenotypes that are found in smaller proportion. The greatest index of diversity (H) and evenness (E) were found in the rhizosphere (H = 2.903; E = 0.874). The dendrogram (average distances and UPGMA method) reaffirms the dissimilarity in biochemical phenotypes of E. coli populations of the rhizosphere with regard to the other biotopes. The most abundant bacterial species in the three biotopes were E. coli, Klebsiella terrigena and K. pneumoniae, corresponding to 75.2% of the community. The rhizosphere differed from Serratia odorifera and from Klebsiella spp. because of its higher rate of isolation.

  2. Invasive plants as catalysts for the spread of human parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mack

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As serious as are the consequences of invasive species that directly cause human afflictions through their production of lethal protease inhibitors (Bryonia alba, allergens (Parthenium hysterophorus or furanocoumarins (Hercaleum mantegazzianum, other introduced species may cause even greater risks to human health by enhancing the proliferation of vectors of virulent human parasites. The dense, floating mats of Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth create habitat for larvae of the dipteran vectors of Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria, and other parasites. Facilitation of a human parasite is not restricted to aquatic systems. In Africa, the tropical American shrub Lantana camara (lantana provides essential habitat for dipteran vectors (Glossina spp. of protozoans (Trypanosoma spp. that cause trypanosomiasis. Unanticipated health consequences will likely continue to emerge from new plant introductions. Sin Nombre Virus (SNV is a rodent-borne parasite that causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, an often-lethal disease in humans. Populations of rodent vectors of SNV in South America increase rapidly in response to synchronous fruit availability among masting, native bamboos. With depletion of this temporary food source, the rodents seek food near human settlements, increasing the risk of human infections with SNV. In the United States the omnivorous deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus is also a SNV carrier. The escape of Asian cold-tolerant bamboos from cultivation raises the possibility of invasions (several have already become naturalized and providing a temporary boost to populations of infected native rodents. Proposed introductions of aquatic vascular species, species with masting reproduction and those that would occupy an unfilled niche in the proposed new range deserve careful evaluation for their possible roles as unforeseen catalysts of species interactions, especially of human parasites.

  3. Particulates, not plants, dominate nitrogen processing in a septage-treating aerated pond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamersley, M Robert; Howes, Brian L; White, David S

    2003-01-01

    In pond and wetland systems for wastewater treatment, plants are often thought to enhance the removal of ammonium and nitrogen through the activities of root-associated bacteria. In this study, we examined the role of plant roots in an aerated pond system with floating plants designed to treat high-strength septage wastewater. We performed both laboratory and full-scale experiments to test the effect of different plant root to septage ratios on nitrification and denitrification, and measured the abundances of nitrifying bacteria associated with roots and septage particulates. Root-associated nitrifying bacteria did not play a significant role in ammonium and total nitrogen removal. Investigations of nitrifier populations showed that only 10% were associated with water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] roots (at standard facility plant densities equivalent to 2.2 wet g roots L(-1) septage); instead, nitrifiers were found almost entirely (90%) associated with suspended septage particulates. The role of root-associated nitrifiers in nitrification was examined in laboratory batch experiments where high plant root concentrations (7.4 wet g L(-1), representing a 38% net increase in total nitrifier populations over plant-free controls) yielded a corresponding increase (55%) in the non-substrate-limited nitrification rate (V(max)). However, within the full-scale septage-treating pond system, nitrification and denitrification rates remained unchanged when plant root concentrations were increased to 7.1 g roots L(-1) (achieved by increasing the surface area available for plants while maintaining the same tank volume). Under normal facility operating conditions, nitrification was limited by ammonium concentration, not nitrifier availability. Maximizing plant root concentrations was found to be an inefficient mechanism for increasing nitrification in organic particulate-rich wastewaters such as septage.

  4. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Research was divided between basic physiological studies of the growth and nutrient-uptake kinetics of macroscopic marine algae and the more applied problems involved in the selection of species and the development of inexpensive, non-energy intensive culture methods for growing seaweeds and freshwater plants as a biomass source for conversion to energy. Best growth of the seaweeds occurs at low (0.1 to 1.0 ..mu..molar) concentration of major nutrients, with ammonia as a nitrogen source, with rapid exchange of the culture medium (residence time of 0.05 days or less). Of 43 species of seaweeds evaluated, representatives of the large red alga genus Gracilaria appear most promising with potential yields, in a highly intensive culture system under optimal conditions, of some 129 metric dry tons per hectare per year (about half of which is organic). Non-intensive culture methods have yielded one-third to one-half that figure. Unexplained periodicity of growth and overgrowth by epiphytes remain the most critical constraint to large-scale seaweed culture. Freshwater weed species in culture include water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna minor), and Hydrilla vertecillata, with yields to date averaging 15, 4, and 8 g dry wt/m/sup 2//day, respectively. However, these plants have not yet been grown through the winter, so average annual yields are expected to be lower. In contrast to the seaweeds, the freshwater plants grow well at high nutrient concentrations and slow culture volume exchange rates (residence time ca. 20 days or more). Experiments were initiated on the recycling of digester residues from the fermentation of the freshwater and marine plants as a possible nutrient source for growth of the same species.

  5. Methane carbon supports aquatic food webs to the fish level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Sanseverino

    Full Text Available Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane (CH(4 are produced by anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in lakes. In spite of extensive freshwater CH(4 emissions, most of the CH(4 is typically oxidized by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB before it can reach the lake surface and be emitted to the atmosphere. In turn, it has been shown that the CH(4-derived biomass of MOB can provide the energy and carbon for zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of specific fatty acids synthesized by MOB in fish tissues having low carbon stable isotope ratios. Fish species, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes were collected from a shallow lake in Brazil and analyzed for fatty acids (FA and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13C. The fatty acids 16:1ω8c, 16:1ω8t, 16:1ω6c, 16:1ω5t, 18:1ω8c and 18:1ω8t were used as signature for MOB. The δ(13C ratios varied from -27.7‰ to -42.0‰ and the contribution of MOB FA ranged from 0.05% to 0.84% of total FA. Organisms with higher total content of MOB FAs presented lower δ(13C values (i.e. they were more depleted in (13C, while organisms with lower content of MOB signature FAs showed higher δ(13C values. An UPGMA cluster analysis was carried out to distinguish grouping of organisms in relation to their MOB FA contents. This combination of stable isotope and fatty acid tracers provides new evidence that assimilation of methane-derived carbon can be an important carbon source for the whole aquatic food web, up to the fish level.

  6. Invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail Pseudosuccinea columella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Grabner

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI. Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96% and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%, Echinostoma caproni (2.36% and another echinostome (7.09% that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits

  7. Removal of high organic loads from winery wastewater by aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Schreiber, J

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory- and field-scale purification tests of raw and diluted winery wastewater (WWW) were carried out using aquatic plants at high organic loads. The laboratory tests were performed using artificial light at 1800 to 1900 lux. The objective of the current study was to define the potential of floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes and the microorganisms attached to their roots, to reduce high organic loads that characterize WWW, thereby providing, for these effluents, an effective treatment and management system. These microorganisms are believed to have a major role in the treatment process. In this context, the potential of floating and emergent macrophytes to improve the water quality of raw compared with diluted WWW was evaluated. In raw WWW (chemical oxygen demand [COD] 5.6 g/L),growth inhibition of both water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) was observed. A 1:1 dilution of WWW with fresh (tap) water facilitated growth of these plants. At this dilution level, growth of pennywort was limited, while that of water hyacinth was robust. In terms of reductions in biochemical oxygen demand, COD, and total suspended solids, both water hyacinth and pennywort performed better in diluted compared with raw WWW. At 1:1 and 1:3 dilution, 95.9 to 97% of the COD was removed after 23 days, in the presence of Hydrocotyle and Eichhornia plants and aeration. The capacity of new emergent plants to remove high organic loads from WWW, at enhanced kinetics, was demonstrated. This unique property was tested and compared with the role of the gravel media that support growth of the high-capacity emergent plants. In the presence of reed and salt marsh plants, 83 to 99% of the COD was removed within a period of 24 to 29 days, at 1.5:1 dilution. The new emergent plants proved to be effective, even at record high levels of COD. At an initial level of 16,460 mg/L, the COD was brought down to 2870 mg/L after 24 days (82.6% removal), while 12

  8. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for

  9. Ultrafast spectroscopy studies on the mechanism of electron transfer and energy conversion in the isolated pseudo ginseng, water hyacinth and spinach chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Sichuan

    2001-01-01

    Chitosans with various degrees of deacetylation (D.D.), which were used as standard sample for FTIR determination, were prepared from completely deacetylated chitosan by homogeneous N-acetylation reaction. By combining four probable probe bands, i.e. 1655, 1560, 1380 and 1320 cm-1, eight probable reference bands, i.e. 3430, 2920, 2880, 1425, 1155, 1070, 1030 and 895 cm-1 and two baseline methods, the most suitable ratios Aprobe band/Areference band from IR spectra to determine the degree of acetylation of chitosan were evaluated from 48 combinations to be A1560/A2880, A1560/A2920 and A1655/A3430(A1560/A2880 is mostly recommended). The second baseline method, i.e. linking between adjacent two valleys, was better for measuring the absorbances of 1560 and 1655 cm-1 bands. The determination range of the D.D. (1%-100%) covered almost the whole range. The standard curves with A1560/A2880 and A1655/A3430 were also suitable for the determination of degree of substitution of other N-acylated chitosan, such as N-propionyl chitosan, N-butyryl chitosan and N-hexanoyl chitosan.

  10. 水葫芦叶绿素面膜膏的研制%The Preparation of Water Hyacinth Chlorophyll Facial Mask Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符斌燕; 阮燕萍

    2010-01-01

    文章利用水葫芦叶固有鲜亮绿色富含叶绿素这一特性,在最佳工艺条件下提取叶绿素来制备营养保湿面膜膏.以较简单的配方为原则,选择在面膜膏中应用较为广泛的原料进行叶绿素面膜膏的试制.通过正交实验,找出一个具有最佳面膜膏的基础配方来调配面膜膏,并对该产品的理化指标进行检测和产品使用效果进行评价.

  11. System modeling of water hyacinth life cycle in Pantanal and analysis of the use of this biomass for bio-oil and bio-fertilizer production

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Selene Buller

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O Pantanal ocupa uma área extensa do Brasil em torno de 140.000 km²; seus ecossistemas são caracterizados por áreas com alagamento periódico, campos inundados constantemente e ambientes aquáticos naturais com lagoas (baías), rios e canais (vazantes e corixos); não existem quedas d¿ água para a geração de energia elétrica dentro da bacia. Em virtude das áreas alagadas existem poucas vias para o abastecimento de combustíveis para as fazendas produtoras que, assim, dependem fortemente de...

  12. Determination of Elemental Composition of Malabar spinach, Lettuce, Spinach, Hyacinth Bean, and Cauliflower Vegetables Using Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Technique at Savar Subdistrict in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of 18 different elements (K, Ca, Fe, Cl, P, Zn, S, Mn, Ti, Cr, Rb, Co, Br, Sr, Ru, Si, Ni, and Cu were analyzed in five selected vegetables through Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE technique. The objective of this study was to provide updated information on concentrations of elements in vegetables available in the local markets at Savar subdistrict in Bangladesh. These elements were found in varying concentrations in the studied vegetables. The results also indicated that P, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were found in all vegetables. Overall, K and Ca exhibited the highest concentrations. Cu and Ni exhibited the lowest concentrations in vegetables. The necessity of these elements was also evaluated, based on the established limits of regulatory standards. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption of these vegetables is not completely free of health risks.

  13. The School of Veterinary Medicine in St-Hyacinthe : energy efficiency and air quality, an inherent part of the new facility; Le CHUV de St-Hyacinthe : l'efficacite energetique et qualite de l'air, partie inherente des nouvelles installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havard, R. [SNC Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    This article described the expansion and modernization of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Veterinaire (CHUV) at the University of Montreal. The $74 million retrofit project at the School of Veterinary Medicine began in 2001 and was completed in 2008. The facility is considered to be a forerunner in the agribusiness. The facility can accommodate over 400 students at 3 different types of hospitals for pets, birds of prey, exotic animals, farm animals and equidae. Many challenges were addressed, including indoor air quality which requires specialized control for air temperature, humidity, and rigorous control of the dispersion of contaminants to ensure safety in each space. In addition to reliability, the infrastructure plan had to ensure exemplary energy performance and a reduction in costs. The energy system relies on a combination of electricity, natural gas and heat pumps for heating and cooling the premises. A novel ventilation system was designed to keep the operating rooms free of contaminants and to block contaminants from adjoining rooms. Contagious rooms requiring isolation are kept in slightly negative pressure, and air from these rooms is vented to the outside. It was concluded that the newly modernized facility meets the stringent conditions for thermal comfort in an energy efficiency manner. 3 figs.

  14. BIONOMIK NYAMUK MANSONIA DAN ANOPHELES DI DESA KARYA MAKMUR, KABUPATEN OKU TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelza Supranelfy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lymphatic filariasis is still become the health problem in Indonesia, the disease almost found inthe entire area with fairly high level endemicity. Karya Makmur Village, Madang Suku III District, EastOgan Komering Ulu Regency, South Sumatera Province in 2007 has micofilariae rate of 1,05% based fromblood survey. The aims of the research is to identify vector and the breeding habitat. This research has beenconducted in Karya Makmur Village from May to November 2011. This type of research is noninterventionstudy with spot survey research design. Mosquitoes collection using human landing andresting collection methods, while mosquito larvae were collected from breeding sites. This research found14 species of Mansonia and Anopheles were collected and the species were Mansonia uniformis, Ma.annulata, Ma. indiana, Ma. dives, Ma. bonneae, Ma. annulifera, Anopheles nigerrimus , An. annularis, An.maculatus, An. letifer, An. vagus, An. barbumbrosus, An. barbirostris and An. tesselatus. Mansoniauniformis and Anopheles nigerrimus was confirmed as filariasis vector but none containing microfilariae.Breeding habitat of Anopheles have water temperature 280C — 300C and pH 7 with vegetation (grass andEichhornia crassipes / water hyacinth and predator (Oreochromis niloticus / nile tilapia and Aplocheiluspanchax / fish head lead. Thus the community are expected to behave positively, especially avoidmosquito bites and manipulate the environment that potentially as mosquito larvae breeding habitat.Keywords: Mansonia, Anopheles, filariasis, Karya Makmur Village AbstrakFilariasis limfatik masih merupakan masalah kesehatandi Indonesia, penyebaran penyakit ini hampirdi seluruh wilayah dan dibeberapa daerah dengan tingkatendemic yang cukup tinggi. Desa Karya Makmur, Kecamatan Madang SukuIII, Kabupaten Ogan KomeringUlu Timur, Propinsi Sumatera Selatan pada tahun2007, mikrofilariarate sebesar1,05% berdasarkansurvey darah jari. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui

  15. A COMPARISON OF THE PURIFICATION CAPACITY OF FIVE PLANT TYPES CULTIVATED ON FLOATING-BED FOR RESTORATION OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT%5种浮床植物在水环境恢复治理中的净化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文芬; 刘沛芬; 颜亨梅; 付秀芹; 汪波; 许华

    2012-01-01

    选取美人蕉(Canna indica)、芦苇(Phragmites communis Trirn)、水葱(Scirpus validus Vahl)、凤眼莲(Eichhornia crassipe)水芹菜(Oenanthe javanica)5种珠海当地常见植物作为研究对象,构建珠海珠武涌水体富营养化治理生态浮床,对5种植物在富营养化水体中的生长特性,化学需氧量(COD),氨氮(NH3-N)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)质量浓度等指标间的差异进行比较研究.结果表明,株高从大至小排序为:水葱、芦苇、美人蕉、水芹菜、凤眼莲;质量增加从大至小排序为:芦苇、美人蕉、凤眼莲、水芹菜、水葱;根毛增长从大至小排序为:芦苇、水葱、水芹菜、美人蕉、凤眼莲.5种植物对水体中的COD、NH3-N、TN、TP的吸收能力差异显著,单位面积COD去除率高低排序为美人蕉、凤眼莲、芦苇、水葱、水芹菜;单位面积NH3-N去除率高低排序为美人蕉、芦苇、凤眼莲、水葱、水芹菜;单位面积氮吸收量大小排序和单位面积磷吸收量大小排序都为美人蕉、凤眼莲、芦苇、水芹菜、水葱.综合实验结果,确定采用美人蕉为主,芦苇为辅,再加上少量水葱、水芹菜作衬托来净化河涌水体.%Five types of local plants (canna, reed, water onion, water hyacinth, water celery) were chosen to construct ecological floating-beds for eutrophication control at Zhuhai Pearl Wu Chung. Differences in plant growth, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) in eutrophic water were compared. It was found that the order of height was Scirpus validus Vahl〉Phragmites communis Trirn 〉 Canna indica 〉 Oenanthe javanica 〉 Eichhornia crassipe, order of weight gain was Phragmites communis Trirn 〉 Canna indica 〉 Eichhornia crassipe 〉 Oenanthe javanica 〉 Scirpus validus Vahl, order for root hair growth was Phragmites communis Trirn 〉 Scirpus validus Vahl 〉 Oenanthe

  16. Primeiros dados quali-quantitativos do mexilhão-dourado, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, no Delta do Jacuí, no Lago Guaíba e na Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil e alguns aspectos de sua invasão no novo ambiente Quali-quantitative first data of golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, in Jacuí Delta, Guaíba Lake and Patos Lagoon and some invasion aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 1998 and the beginning of 1999, the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, Mytilidae, originating from Southeast Asia, was registered for the first time in the Guaíba Lake Basin, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Quantitative samples were taken since the first register and for two years at various localities in the Jacuí Delta, northern limit of Guaíba Lake, and in the south limit of the later where it empties into Patos Lagoon. Samplings in Patos Lagoon revealed the presence of L. fortunei in October 2000 at Arambaré (30º54'S, 51º30'W and in January 2001 at São Lourenço do Sul (31º20'S, 51º58'W. Quantitative samplings on roots of water hyacinths Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth and E. crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laubach, on rhizomes of rushes Scirpus californicus (C.A. Mey. Steud. and on trunks of Cephalanthus glabratus (Spreng. K. Schum, were made in Jacuí Delta and on the beaches of Vila de Itapuã and Pombas camping area, in the Municipality of Viamão. Limnoperna fortunei encreased in number to a maximum density of 27,275 individuals/m² one year and five months after the first register and 62,100 individuals/m² two years later. In November 2000, i.e., two years after the appearance of the species in Guaíba Lake, it was recorded the first macrofouling in the pipes catching water for the city of Porto Alegre and in filters and pipelines of the cellulose industry Riocell-Klabin, Municipality of Guaíba (30º06'S, 51º20'W. Limnoperna fortunei preferentially occur on rhizomes of rushes, initially forming flat clusters that grow to large mass. It also fix on the shells and soft parts of native bivalves and on shells and operculum of gastropods, prevening full closure of these mollusks. The recent decrease of rushy areas on the shores of Guaíba Lake is attributed to invasion of L. fortunei.

  17. Fenologia de Phlugis teres (De Geer, 1927) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) e Abundância de Artropodos em Populações de Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) em um Lago de Várzea na Amazônia Central

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    As várzeas da Amazônia Central exibem oscilação cídica anual do nível das águas entre o período de cheia. que varia de cinco a sete meses, e o período de seca, Essa dinâmica hidrológica força plantas e animais a desenvolverem estratégias adaptativas para sobreviver no ambiente. O gafanhoto predador Phlugis teres (DE GEER. 1927) passa o seu cido vital em macrófitas aquáticas, onde dispõe de recursos alimentares e lugares para oviposição. Durante as fases de enchente,cheia e vazante do rio...

  18. Aerobic Composting of Eichhornia crassipes and Effect of Compost as Pot Flower Substrate%水浮莲好氧堆肥技术及作为盆花基质效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊涛; 刘聪; 孙克君; 陈莹

    2010-01-01

    文章研究了水浮莲好氧堆肥技术,以及把其堆肥产品作为盆栽基质组成成分对草花生长的效果.试验结果表明:水浮莲与粉碎园林绿色废弃物按体积比2:3堆肥,23 d后可基本腐熟,添加EM菌剂或酵素菌可以促进堆肥腐熟;把堆肥产品与其他材料配制成的基质用于盆栽孔雀草(Tagetes patula)和风仙花(Impatiens balsamina),与使用成熟的基质相比,盆花的多数生长指标接近,个别指标更优,而且随着生长期的延长,差异越明显,而使用在堆肥过程中添加EM菌剂或酵素菌的堆肥产品制成基质的效果更佳.

  19. Effects of cAMP on Mycelial Growth and Sclerotial Morphogenesis in Morchella crassipes%环腺苷酸(cAMP)对粗柄羊肚菌菌丝生长和菌核发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培新; 黄丽娜; 刘伟; 刘苏萌; 程传可; 陈磊涛

    2015-01-01

    通过外源添加环腺苷酸(cAMP)、腺苷酸环化酶激活剂氟化钠(NaF)和cAMP降解产物腺苷酸(AMP),研究了cAMP对粗柄羊肚菌菌丝生长和菌核发生的影响,并测定了不同菌核发育阶段培养物的胞内cAMP浓度.结果表明:在测试浓度范围内,cAMP对粗柄羊肚菌菌丝生长影响不显著,但显著抑制该真菌菌核的发生.菌核数量与外源添加的cAMP和NaF具有明显的剂量负相关性.然而,AMP显著促进粗柄羊肚菌菌丝生长,却没有明显影响其菌核发生.培养物胞内cAMP浓度随着培养时间的延长而增加,与外源添加cAMP抑制菌核发生的结果一致.本研究为羊肚菌菌核发生的分子机制研究提供理论支持.

  20. Avaliações fisiológicas e bioquímicas de plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes) cultivadas com níveis excessivos de nutrientes

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, E.; L.R. Cardoso; J. Savroni; Ferreira, L. C.; BOARO, C.S.F. [UNESP; Cataneo,A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Plantas de aguapé foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon n.2, cujo aumento dos níveis de N, P e Cu estabeleceu as diferenças entre os tratamentos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As variáveis fisiológicas avaliadas foram área foliar, peso de matéria seca e taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxa assimilatória líquida, razão de área foliar, peso específico de folha, área foliar específica. ...

  1. Aprovechamiento del Lechuguín (Eichhornia Crassipes) para la generación de abono orgánico mediante la utilización de tres diseños diferentes de biodigestores

    OpenAIRE

    López Jerves, Gabriela Nataly

    2012-01-01

    El siguiente estudio se basa en la utilización de la especie "Eichhornia Crassipies" más conocida comúnmente como Lechuguín para la generación de abono orgánico mediante la utilización de tres diseños diferentes de biodigestores. Es así que se implementaron el diseño de biodigestor de bidón, el mismo que es hecho de plástico; el segundo diseño implementado fue el biodigestor de bolsa, realizado con geomembrana y por último el biodigestor de caja fabricado con cemento. Es así que mediante la d...

  2. 水葫芦渣混合青贮的感官品质研究%Study of the Organoleptic Properties of Eichhomia Crassipes Residuals Ensilage Mixed with Corn Meal or Wheat Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亚平; 杨琏; 张红兵; 宋任彬; 黄伟; 程志斌

    2013-01-01

    试验通过感官品质评分研究水葫芦渣与玉米粉或麦麸混合青贮的效果.试验设4个处理组:处理组1和2将玉米粉20%和30%加入水葫芦渣;处理组3和4将麦麸20%和30%加入水葫芦渣.连续测定混合青贮0~22 d物料pH,结果显示,随青贮时间延长,所有处理组物料pH呈降低趋势,至14d所有处理组物料pH<5.0.因此,对第14天青贮物料进行感官评分,所有处理组青贮等级为“优等”.试验结果证明,在添加优质青贮发酵茵条件下,麦麸20%与水葫芦渣混合青贮14d,可以获得感官品质优异的水葫芦渣混合青贮料.

  3. STUDY ON DAMAGE OF THE ADULTS OF WATERHYACINTH WEEVILS NEOCHETINA BRUCHI AND N. EICHHORNIAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) TO THE WATERHYACINTH EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES%水葫芦象甲成虫取食量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁剑浩; 梁广文; 曾玲; 陆永跃; 陈萍

    2002-01-01

    本文研究了从国外引进的水葫芦天敌昆虫水葫芦象甲Neochetina bruchi和N.eichhorniae的取食习性.研究结果表明两种水葫芦象甲的雌虫取食量均显著大于雄虫,雌虫取食量为206.5-209.2 mm2/d,雄虫为48.5-71.0 mm2/d,但两种雌虫之间和两种雄虫之间的取食量无差异.N.bruchi的雌虫喜欢取食叶片的叶面和叶背,日取食量分别为83.5和71.7 mm2,两者之间差异不显著;雄虫则在叶背取食较多.N.eichhorniae 雌虫在叶背取食多于叶面和叶柄,分别为102.8、43.2和63.2 mm2/d;雄虫在叶背和叶柄的取食量大于叶面.上述结果为利用这两种象甲控制水葫芦提供重要参考.

  4. Notes on Japanese Rhizocephala, with description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1935-01-01

    The following notes are based upon material of parasites on two Crustaceans from Japan, viz., Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall and Petrolisthes japonicus de Haan 1). Each of these two species may be infested by two different species of Rhizocephala: on Pachygrapsus crassipes occur the parasites Saccul

  5. The Use of Aquatic Plants in Wastewater Treatment: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    1 W ater Hyacinth ........................................................................... 11 2-2 W ater Lettuce ...new stolons being extended from the parent plant may remain at the surface and grow hydroponically . Continued growth of the first free-floating...Water Lettuce Water lettuce , Pistia stratiotes L. is a plant similar in size to the water hyacinth and requires many of the same conditions for

  6. Levulinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, Buana

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to define optimum catalysts, reaction conditions and reactor configurations for the conversion of water hyacinth plant to LA. The conversion of the C6-sugars present in the water hyacinth plant to LA involves several reactions that together form a complex reac

  7. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based on... the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of...

  8. Rescue of photoperiod/freeze-sensitive and low seed producing accessions of Lablab purpureus using hydroponic cloning and aeroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus is a legume used as a vegetable and the USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 137 hyacinth bean accessions from countries worldwide. Many accessions in this collection are photoperiod and freeze-sensitive due to their flower and seed production during November through March in t...

  9. PENGARUH FRAKSI NONPROTEIN KACANG KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN MALONALDEHIDA TIKUS DIABETES [Effect of Nonprotein Fraction of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Diet on Glucose and Malonaldehyde Serum of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Rohmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic response to Lablab nonprotein fraction (NPK was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of Lablab nonprotein fraction diet on the blood glucose concentration and the lipid peroxide level of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Two months old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups, each group contained of 5 rats. Three groups were diabetic rats induced by alloxan injection (110 mg/kg of body weight by intra-pheritonial injection while one group was a control,normal rat. The experiment groups were (1 normal (group I, (2 diabetic (group II, (3 diabetic+cholesteol 0.5% (control group, group III, and (4 diabetic+cholesterol 0.5% + lablab NPK (group IV. The concentration of rat’s blood glucose were periodically measured during diet intervenion (day 0,14,27, and 42. The Lipid peroxide was evaluated as the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA both in serum and liver of the rats by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactivity Test methode. The result demonstrated that after 42 days of intervention, the Lablab nonprotein diet decreased the blood glucose concentrations from 444.00 + 143.00 mg/dl to 310.50 +111.40 mg/dl (30%, while control group has decreased the blood glucose concentration from 458.00 +164.99 mg/dl to 455.33 + 81.95 mg/dl (0.6%. Lablab nonprotein diet significantly (P<0.05 reduced the concentration of blood glucose as compared to the control group. However, Lablab nonprotein fraction diet did not give a significant diferrence on the level of serum MDA and liver MDA as compared to the control group.

  10. Mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry. Use of cogeneration in the cultivation and hot bed of tulip and hyacinth; Mini-wkk in de bloembollensector. Toepassing van wkk bij teelt en broei van tulp en hyacint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Visser, I.; Koolwijk, E. [Cogen Projects, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    This study shows that by deploying cogeneration, energy savings can be realized in the flower bulb industry. Use of cogeneration at medium-sized to large flower bulb companies is interesting from the viewpoint of finance. [Dutch] Uit de studie blijkt dat met de toepassing van WKK energiebesparing gerealiseerd kan worden in de bollensector. Op de middelgrote tot grote bollenbedrijven is de toepassing van WKK uit financieel oogpunt interessant.

  11. Investigation into the Use of Dried Water Hyacinth as a Seed Germination Medium%水葫芦制作温室栽培苗钵的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈明卫; 郝飞麟

    2006-01-01

    水葫芦的低成本、资源化、生态合理利用是水葫芦防治的发展趋势,可降解温室栽培苗钵的制作使用可简化移苗过程.基于以上考虑,对水葫芦制作温室栽培专用有机苗钵的可行性、对水葫芦制作育苗钵的方法,所需有机生态胶粘剂的制作和性能特点,苗钵对樱桃番茄的栽培效果影响进行了研究.结果发现,对水葫芦进行干燥切割后,辅以胶粘剂能制作所要求的育苗钵;采用以淀粉为基体制作的有机胶粘剂粘结并压制成形的苗钵在耐湿性方面有待于进一步提高;在栽培过程中以水葫芦为原材料制作的育苗钵对樱桃番茄苗生长的影响作用并不明显.

  12. Effect of Temperature,Inoculums and Trace Metals on Methane Production from Water Hyacinth%温度、接种量及微量元素对水葫芦产甲烷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小梅; 周立祥; 常志州; 杜静; 徐跃定; 张建英

    2010-01-01

    在实验室进行了不同接种量(接种物VS与水葫芦VS比例分别为0, 0.5, 1, 2)、不同发酵温度(35℃,55℃)以及微量元素Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+对水葫芦厌氧发酵的影响,结果表明,加大接种量有利于提高水葫芦厌氧发酵的启动与产气率,综合产气量、原料降解率,以接种比例1较适宜.55℃高温厌氧发酵有利于加快厌氧发酵进程,缩短发酵周期,但总产气量及原料降解率与35℃无区别.添加适量的微量元素可以提高前7天总产气量,三种微量元素对水葫芦厌氧发酵的影响力为Fe2+>Co2+>Ni2+.

  13. 介入性白及凝胶经气道治疗支气管结核的实验研究%The Experimental Study on Treating Bronchial Tuberculoses by Transluminal Hyacinth Bletilla Gel through Air Passage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昕; 范勇; 刘钢; 梁春宝; 韩炳森; 尹保全

    2002-01-01

    目的:探讨建立介入性白及凝胶经气道治疗支气管结核的方法.方法:进行耐药结核菌株体外抑菌实验;介入性白及凝胶配制实验;应用实验犬对该凝胶进行靶支气管灌注、皮下埋藏及口服与支气管灌注药代动力学实验.结果:提高药物浓度可抑制耐药结核菌株生长;得到白及为载体的凝胶剂的配方,建立支气管灌注方法学;药代显示:作用时间达60小时以上,优于口服给药.结论:将纤支镜与介入技术、中药白及与抗痨药物相结合,在病变的气管、支气管内缓慢释放高浓度抗痨药物,以达到治疗目的.

  14. Towards Deriving Renewable Energy from Aquatic Macrophytes Polluting Water Bodies in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badmus Abdurrahman Adeleye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to derive methane rich biogas from biomass of harvested water hyacinth polluting water bodies in selected rivers of the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Field visits were undertaken on selected rivers in the Niger Delta region in which aquatic macrophytes were collected and inventorized. Also different types of aquatic macrophytes were surveyed. Control by harvesting macrophytes and deriving energy (methane-rich biogas from biomass of one (water hyacinth was successfully carried out in this study. An initial test was conducted to evaluate methane rich biogas production from water hyacinth collected from the wild. After a successful production of combustible biogas, laboratory experiments aimed at generating biogas from harvested biomass of aquatic mycrophyte (water hyacinth cultivated under eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions were undertaken in the laboratory. The result of the study showed highest biogas yield of 22 L over a 40 day retention time for water hyacinth raised under eutrophic conditions. Biogas yield for water hyacinth raised under oligotrophic conditions recorded the highest yield of 53L over an 11 day retention time. The conversion of the biomass of harvested aquatic macrophyte (water hyacinth from the Niger Delta into renewable energy, that is combustible biogas, demonstrated an inevitable option for the control and management of environmental pollution associated with aquatic macrophytes and their usability for poverty alleviation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  15. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 43 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization and similarity relationships among sunflower ... Dynamics of photosynthesis in Eichhornia crassipes Solms of Jiangsu of China and their ... Antitumor activity of tamoxifen loaded solid lipid nanoparticles on induced ...

  16. Influence of biological control damage on efficacy of penoxsulam and two other herbicides on waterhyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) in the southeastern U.S. have been reduced by widespread herbicidal control and by introduced waterhyacinth weevils (Neochetina spp) and native pathogens. However, damaging populations of this weed persist and integrated approaches ...

  17. Evaluation of Waterhyacinth and Paddy Straw Waste for Culture of Oyster Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Nageswaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; M. Ganesan; Vedhamurthy, A.

    2003-01-01

    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) was evaluated at ratios of 25, 50 and 75% with paddy straw ( Oryza sativa L.) for oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation. There was an increase in yield with decreasing ratio waterhyacinth.

  18. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  19. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    OpenAIRE

    MNP Henares; AFM Camargo

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m(3)) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a ...

  20. 生态沟渠对中华鳖温室养殖排放水体的净化效果%Purifying Effect of Eco-ditch on Effluent from Greenhouse-culture of Chinese Soft-shelled Turtle(Pelodiscus sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴湘; 叶金云; 吴昊; 王趁义; 韩志萍

    2012-01-01

    研究采用生态沟渠技术体系——"水生植物(凤眼莲,Eichhornia crassipes)-微生物(枯草芽孢杆菌,Bacillus subtilis)-水生动物(螺蛳,Margarya)"共生系统联合净化处理中华鳖温室养殖排放水体,并连续数月采样分析处理污水中各项主要营养盐污染物指标的动态变化规律。结果表明:经过近5个月的生态沟渠技术体系处理,中华鳖温室养殖排放水体中总氮(TN)浓度减少75%,铵氮(NH4+-N)浓度减少91%,总磷(TP)浓度减少83%,化学需氧量(CODCr)减少62%,溶解氧(DO)增加近4倍,水体酸碱度(pH)维持在中性水平,处理污水由初始的黄色或棕色、浑浊逐渐转变为微黄色、微浑浊,且无异味。由此可知,利用生态沟渠技术体系——"水生植物-微生物-水生动物"共生系统联合修复中华鳖温室养殖排放水体效果显著,具有良好的推广和应用前景。%The purifying effect of the eco-ditch technology system, which combined with "aquatic plants(water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes )-microbes (Bacillus subtilis )-aquatic animals (snail, Margarya)", on the effluent from greenhouse-culture of Chinese soft-shelled turtle(Pelodiscus sinensis) was studied. Change of each main nutrient pollutant indicators of the treated water sample was analyzed continuously for several months. The results showed that: Total nitrogen(TN) concentration of the treated water decreased 75 %, ammonia nitrogen(NH[ -N) concen- tration decreased 91 %, total phosphorus(TP) concentration decreased 83%, chemical oxygen demand (CODe,) decreased 62 %, dissolved oxygen(DO) content in water increased nearly four times, and the water pH main- tained at a neutral level, by utilizing the eco-ditch technology system to purify the effluent from the green- house-culture for nearly five months. During the experiment period, the treated water also gradually changed from initial

  1. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Biological Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual summary of wildlife population assessments (inlcuding wading birds, waterfowl, big game mammals, and alligators), weed control (water hyacinth and water...

  2. 419-IJBCS-Article-Okunowo wahad

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Phytoremediation potential of some heavy metals by water hyacinth ..... from untreated waste water to the ecosystem. Future study will examine the ... phytoremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon which is a major toxicant resulting from oil ...

  3. SIZE AND INCUBATION PERIOD '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering,. University of Dar es Salaam, ... incubation time on biogas production from water hyacinth. Substrate ..... This was attributed to high lignin content in the ..... and steam explosion. Biotechnol ...

  4. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  5. Effect of Fermented Green Juice,Cellulase and Mixture on Quality of Water Hyacinth Silage%绿汁发酵液、纤维素酶及其混合物对水葫芦青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄益芬; 张文昌; 陈鑫珠; 许丽惠

    2008-01-01

    为探明添加绿汁发酵液(FGJ)、纤维素酶(CEL)、绿汁发酵液+纤维素酶(MIX)以及原料含水率对水葫芦青贮发酵品质的影响,用2种不同含水率(高:70.58%,低:39.62%)的水葫芦进行青贮,常温下贮存40d,开封后测定青贮的发酵品质和化学成分.结果表明:FGJ和MIX能显著改善2种含水率水葫芦青贮的发酵品质,CEL能有效提高2种含水率水葫芦青贮的WSC存留量;降低原料的含水率能提高青贮的WSC含量和减少气体的损失.

  6. 水葫芦-水草人工湿地系统在再生浆造纸废水处理中的应用研究%APPLICATION STUDY OF ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS SYSTEM OF COMMON WATER HYACINTHES-WATERGRASS IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT OF PAPER MAKING WITH RECYCLING PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚治

    2000-01-01

    通过对水葫芦-水草人工湿地处理再生浆造纸废水的试验研究表明,在进水pH7.12~7.49,BOD5、CODcr、SS浓、度分别为440.5mg/L、354.2mg/L、290.7mg/L,水力负荷0.05m/d的条件下,BOD5、CODcr、SS的去除率分别为98%、93%、和89%.系统性能稳定,出水水质达到排放标准且可用于农灌.

  7. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and fresh water aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    The ORCA clone of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae has been in culture continuously for over two years. Yield for the past year has averaged 12 g ash-free dry wt/m/sup 2/ .day (17.5 t/a.y) in suspended 2600-1 aluminum tank cultures with four exchanges of enriched seawater per day and continuous aeration. Yields from nonintensive pond-bottom culture, similar to commercial Gracilaria culture methods in Taiwan, averaged 3 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day in preliminary experiments. Rope and spray cultures were not successful. Yields of water hyacinths from March 1978 to March 1979 averaged 25 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day (37 t/a.y). Season, nutrient availability (form and quantity) and stand density were found to affect the relative proportions of structural and nonstructural tissue in water hyacinths and thereby significantly affect digestibility of and methane production by the plants. Pennywort (Hydrocotyle) grew poorly in winter and its annual yield averaged only one-third that of water hyacinth. Water lettuce (Pistia) appears more comparable to hyacinths in preliminary studies and its yields will be monitored throughout a complete year. Stable, continuous anaerobic digestion of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been maintained with an average gas production from both species of 0.4 1/g volatile solids at 60% methane.

  8. TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS FROM WATER BY ELECTRO-PHYTOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Puthenveedu Sadasivan Pillai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of electrically stimulated phytoremediation in the removal of lead, cadmium and copper was assessed in this study. A combination of phyto and electro remediation was attempted in this study for the remediation of the metals from water. Three tanks were setup with different operating conditions for this experiment: control A (only phytoremediation system, control B (only electro remediation and treatment (combination of phyto and electro remediation. The electrically enhanced phytoremediation system and electro remediation system were operated 2h/day at voltages of 4V for 25 days continuously. In this experiment, the Eichhornia crassipes, an able phyto-remediator exhibited efficient and fast removal of heavy metals from synthetic solution in electro assisted phytoremediation system. The electrically enhanced phytoremediation using aluminum sheet electrodes showed better and effective removal of Cd, Pb and Cu than aluminum rod electrodes. A more favorable and moderate increase of pH was noticed in electrically stimulated phytoremediation system. Eichhornia crassipes has tremendous potential to reduce maximum amount of cadmium (within 15 days, lead (within 15 days and copper (within 10 days under electrically stimulated condition. Under electrified condition, maximum amount of Cd and Cu was accumulated in the aerial parts of Eichhornia crassipes but maximum concentration of Pb was attained by roots. This indicates the high heavy metal accumulation capacity of Eichhornia crassipes under electrified conditions. The results showed that 4V voltage is probably suitable to stimulate the Eichhornia crassipes to synthesize more chlorophyll and voltage can improve growth and ability to resist adverse circumstances by promoting chlorophyll synthesis. Eichhornia crassipes stimulated by an electric field has grown better and assimilated more metal. Bioconcentration factor (BCF an index of hyperaccumulation, indicates that electrically

  9. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MNP Henares

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3 with three treatments (constructed wetlands and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm. The means of suspended particulate material (SPM, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, P-orthophosphate (PO4-P and total phosphorus (TP of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05. The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%, TKN (33.7% and PO4-P (26.7% was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P. The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  10. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (Pwetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  11. Nutrient and organic matter removal from low strength sewage treated with constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, D; Carvalho, K Q; Passig, F H; Freire, F B; Borges, A C; Lima, M X; Marcelino, G R

    2017-09-11

    In this study, the role of Eichhornia crassipes for removing pollutants from low strength sewage was evaluated. For that, three pilot scale constructed wetlands (CW) were built: CW 1, planted with E. crassipes in a filter media; CW 2, unplanted, composed only by filter media; and CW 3 composed only of E. crassipes floating on the sewage. The operation of these systems was divided in three stages varying the nominal hydraulic retention time (HRT) in: (I) 24 h; (II) 48 h; and (III) 72 h. Temporal sampling profiles were carried out with collection of samples from the influent and effluent of the CWs to determine temperature, pH, COD, TKN and TP. Contents of TP and TN were analyzed in the plant tissue of the macrophyte. The best removal efficiency for phosphorus, and TKN were obtained in CW 3 38% (72 h) and 47% (72 h), respectively. The highest COD removal was observed in the CW 2 with 80% for HRT 48 h. The macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes contributed to the absorption process with uptake rate percentages of 8.3% (CW 1) and 9.0% (CW 3) for TN and 0.78% (CW 1) and 1.56% (CW 3) for TP on the dry matter of the plant. The chosen species planted in the systems contributed to the achievement of higher nutrient removal.

  12. Interactive Influence of N and P on their uptake by four different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... interaction between N and P. In this study, Pistia stratiotes (a floating plant), Eichhornia crassipes (a floating plant) ... nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater treatment experi- ments than ..... Shen (2006) used a similar technology to determine Km .... plants in wastewater treatment by artificial wetlands.

  13. Alternative energy from agriculture: biological conversion and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massantini, F.; Caporali, F.; Masoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    A review on producing methanol and ethanol from agricultural products (sugar beet, sweet sorghum sugar cane, etc.) and biogas from aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes) and algae (Azolla, Chlorella) is given. Anaerobic fermentation of liquid manure and sewage, straw, distillery residues, and other organic wastes is also covered. (Refs. 42).

  14. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu(+2), Hg(+2), Pb(+2), and Zn(+2)). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  15. The specific characters of Sacculina rotundata Miers and Sacculina yatsui nov. spec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1936-01-01

    In a previous paper (Boschma, 1935) I made some remarks concerning the parasites of Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall from Japan, viz., Sacculina confragosa and the specimens mentioned then under the name Sacculina rotundata. The latter parasite, indeed, shows some resemblance to S. rotundata, but a cl

  16. Karyotype morphology and evolution in some Lathyrus (Fabaceae species of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klamt Adriane

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of Lathyrus nervosus Lam., L. pubescens Hook. et Arn., L. paranensis Burk. and L. crassipes Gill ap. Hook et Arn., native to Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil, are described in detail for the first time. All taxa have 2n = 14 chromosomes. The karyotypic formulae were 2 m + 12 sm for L. nervosus, L. pubescens and L. paranensis and 4 m + 10 sm for L. crassipes. In all species, the smallest chromosome pair bore a secondary constriction with a satellite in the long arm. Intraspecific variability in the position and number of secondary constrictions was observed in L. nervosus and L. pubescens. All of the species had a conservative and similar karyotype morphology, but differed in total complement size by as much as 20% between the highest (L. nervosus and lowest (L. crassipes values. These results suggest that changes in chromosome size during evolution have been similar for all the chromosomes of the complement. Together with data on the life cycle and mode of reproduction, these results also indicate that L. crassipes is a derived taxon, if an evolutionary trend towards a decrease in chromosome size is accepted.

  17. First record of the genus Atrichops Verrall, 1909 in Hungary (Diptera: Athericidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Murányi, D.; Tarjányi, N.; Schöll, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first known larva of Atrichops crassipes (Meigen, 1820) from Hungary. The single specimen was caught with flushing of stones during a year-long monthly sampling in the Morgó Stream, Börzsöny Mts. Characterisation of the sampling site, list of the accompanying fauna and a figure on the habitus of the specimen are given.

  18. Evaluating Airborne Hyperspectral imagery for mapping waterhyacinth infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  19. In the Eye of the Beholder: Waterhyacinth Management in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Florida, herbicides are the primary tactic employed to control waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes with little to no consideration given to the presence of the three biological control agents introduced intentionally during the 1970's. Field research conducted at four Florida sites quantified th...

  20. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  1. Using Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Technologies to Detect and Map Two Aquatic Macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, J.H.; Yang, C.; Escobar, D.E.; Webster, C.F.; Lonard, R.I.; Davis, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the light reflectance characteristics ofwaterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mort.) Solms] and hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle] and the application of airborned videography with global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies for distinguishing and mapping the distribution of these two aquatic weeds in waterways of southern Texas. Field reflectance measurements made at several locations showed that waterhyacinth generall...

  2. Should the Waterhyacinth Mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Heteroptera: Miridae), be Considered for Release against Waterhyacinth in the United States of America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least one and as many as seven biological control agents have been released against waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in no less than 30 countries, with varying degrees of success. A mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho) (Heteroptera: Miridae), the most recent agent releas...

  3. Current levels of suppression of waterhyacinth in Florida by classical biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, has been a global target for classical biological control efforts for decades. In Florida, herbicides are the primary tactic employed, usually without regard for the activities of the three biological control agents introduced intentionally during the 1970's, na...

  4. Mapping Waterhyacinth Infestations Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  5. Biofuel Production: Considerations for USACE Civil Works Business Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Henry R. Bungay. 2008. “Potential of Eichhornia crassipes for Biomass Refining.” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 35(5):393-402... Biotechnology 97(2):107–116. Nohara, S. 1991. “A Study on the Annual Changes in Surface Cover of Floating-Leaved Plants in a Lake using Aerial

  6. Evaluation of the Nutrient Status of Some Hydrophytes in the Water Courses of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal H. Shaltout

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive values of three dominant hydrophytes along the water courses in Nile Delta, Egypt (Echinochloa stagnina, Eichhornia crassipes, and Ceratophyllum demersum were evaluated in terms of estimating their phytomass, organic, and inorganic chemical compositions. Shoots were collected seasonally from 25 permanent stands representing the distribution of the three species along 15 canals and 10 drains distributed in 5 localities within the Nile Delta. Living and dead parts and total phytomass were estimated. Their inorganic (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Mn, and Pb and organic (carbohydrates, total nitrogen, total protein, ether extract, digestible nutrient, digestible energy, metabolized energy, and net energy contents were estimated. The vegetative phase of E. stagnina extended during winter, spring, and summer, while it is flowering and fruiting during autumn. On the other hand, E. crassipes and C. demersum attained their maximum flowering during spring and maximum fruiting during summer, while maximum vegetative phase during autumn and winter. E. stagnina had the highest mean annual phytomass, while C. demersum had the lowest. The living parts of C. demersum had the highest concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg, while the living parts of E. crassipes had the highest of K and N. C. demersum had the ability to accumulate more concentrations of heavy metals than the other studied species. E. crassipes had the highest values of total carbohydrate and total proteins, while E. stagnina had the highest of crude fibers, and C. demersum had the highest of ether extract and ash contents. The living parts of E. crassipes and C. demersum were considered as excellent forages, while the dead parts of all species and the living parts of E. stagnina were evaluated as poor forage.

  7. How We Keep Mother’s Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1997-01-01

    Spring is here at last! The sun is shining. The magnolia trees in thechurchyard are in full bloom and the daffodil and hyacinth beds in RittenhouseSquare are colorful and fragrant. The buds have appeared on the rhododendronbushes; soon they will surround the square with their glorious colors. The sky

  8. Hydrologic modeling of aquatic plant treatment systems polishing dairy lagoon effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothren, G M; Chen, S; Rahman, M; Malone, R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of the hydrologic balance of an aquatic plant treatment system (APTS) has been developed. The mass balance approach has been adopted and the major components of the water balance, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET) and percolation have been incorporated into the model. For estimation of ET for duckweed and water hyacinth plants, mathematical relationships were established between ET and pan evaporation using data collected at the site. The observed ET rates of water hyacinths were up to 66% higher than the pan evaporation rates. But for duckweed, the observed ET rates were 10 to 20% lower than the pan evaporation rates. Using the available historic precipitation and pan evaporation data, several computer simulations of the model were run to estimate the HLR and HRT of the ponds under different design requirements. The results indicate that aquatic ponds with water hyacinths can operate at greater HLR's than ponds supporting duckweed. For a zero discharge system, the allowable HLR for a water hyacinth pond was found to be 5 times that of a pond containing duckweed.

  9. 'Met genetische variatie kun je heel veel doen'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarswaard, A.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Na ruim 42 jaar zet onderzoeker Jaap van Tuyl van PRI in Wageningen een punt achter zijn loopbaan. Menig bolgewas kreeg zijn aandacht en altijd ging het om de genetische kant ervan. Van hyacinth tot lelie, van Zantedeschia tot tulp, telkens waren het de genen die inzicht gaven. Een portret van een m

  10. Nutrient flows in small-scale bio-energy use in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the opportunities for the retention and return of nutrients in local bio-energy production using energy crops (oil palm, jatropha and cassava), fuel wood, manure, rice husks and a common pest plant (water hyacinth). For all bio-energy systems some return of nutrients is possible,

  11. New nanomaterial and process for the production of biofuel from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... Key words: Water hyacinth, bioethanol, metal, cobalt nano particles, nickel nano particles, photocatalyst, biofuel ... injection device; IR, infrared; SEM, scanning electron microscope; TEM ... (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectro- ... occur between carbon-containing com-pounds, water and.

  12. China Report: Science and Technology, No. 209. China Addresses Environmental Issues -- 1/83

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-12

    acacia decurrens. In the north, we can plant poplar, ailanthus altissima, and scholartree. Water hyacinth can be massively planted in the water areas...being provided them by the collec- tive or by the state. They may exchange labor with other peas- ants and have ownership of any trees or fruit

  13. PENGUASAAN KETERAMPILAN DAN MOTIVASI KERJA TERHADAP TINGKAT PENDAPATAN IBU RUMAH TANGGA DI DESA MURTIGADING BANTUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaresti Sudaresti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine: (1 contribution mastery of skills, (2 the contribution of motivation, and (3 the contribution of the mastery of the skills and motivation to work on the level of income trainee housewife hyacinth small and medium enterprises in the village Lutfi Craft Murtigading Plate II , Sanden, Bantul. This study uses a quantitative approach is correlational. The study population was a housewife trainee hyacinth UKM Lutfi Craft Village Murtigading Plate II, Sanden, Bantul. Collecting data using closed-form questionnaire scale. Data were analyzed using simple linear regression and multiple linear regression. The results showed that there is a positive and significant contribution to the mastery of the skills and motivation to work on the level of income trainee housewife hyacinth small and medium enterprises in the village Lutfi Craft Murtigading Plate II, Sanden, Bantul. The amount of the contribution of the mastery of skills and motivation of 30,4% and 22,6%, and both variables together to contribute to the household income levels mother trainee hyacinth UKM Lutfi Craft Village Murtigading Plate II Sanden, Bantul by 48,3%.

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology, 8 (1999) 31- 40 31 ... Much attention has been paid lately to the control and elimination of the weed, but ... This study of the invertebrate faunal community in the roots of water hyacinth in .... PHYLUM Arthropoda ... was not particularly suited for catching fish, fish were often encountered most of.

  15. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (17th) Held at Sacramento, California on 16-18 November 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    as the major cause of the waterhyacinth reduction in Louisiana. c. Sameodes albiguttalis. Although S. albiguttalis ( Argentine waterhyacinth moth) is a...fungus endemic to the United States. b. Sameodes albiguttali-the Argentine waterhyacinth moth imported from South America. c. Neochetina bruchi-The...including S. albiguttalis larvae, weevil adults and larvae, pickerelweed borer larvae, water- hyacinth mites, spider mites, various pathogens, frosts

  16. Biogas for Javanese villages: the products of digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, J.; Richmond, B.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and experiences with various biogas-generation and utilization devices in a Javanese village are given. Information on generation includes mostly data on mixing, temperature and time factors. Various simple and inexpensive cooking burners and lamps are also discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for the use of the biogas digester effluent as fertilizer, soil conditioner, and water hyacinth and algae substrates.

  17. Non conventional fuel resources in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, G.; Dixit, S.; Tiwari, S.

    2006-03-15

    In India there is a shortage of energy resources. The conventional sources are incapable to mitigate this problem by providing sufficient amount of energy. The crisis is gradually becoming more acute particularly in the countryside thus hampering the economic growth. To deal with this problem some new strategies have been envisaged. Generation of energy to meet daily requirement from non-conventional sources is one of the steps in this regard. With the increasing popularity of biogas plants in rural as well as in urban areas of India, it has become essential to find various location specific organic substances that can be used as feed material in biogas plant. In this study we have concentrated on use of cow dung and water hyacinth as feed material in biogas plants. The objective of the study is to assess the suitability of using mixture of cow dung and water hyacinth as feed material in biogas plants. Attempt has been made to find out the optimum proportion of cow dung and water hyacinth. The 1:1 mixture of cow dung and water hyacinth is the optimum proportion as per the study conducted. (author)

  18. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of Lalhyacinth. Hydrology, vegetation and distance towards open water explained the variation in abiotic and biotic factors. Over 30 fish species were ide

  19. Biochemical and genetical analysis reveal a new clade of biovar 3 Dickeya spp. strains isolated from potato in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slawiak, M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Czajkowski, R.L.; Grabe, G.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five potato strains of the soft rot-causing plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya spp., and two strains from hyacinth, were characterised using biochemical assays, REP-PCR genomic finger printing, 16S rDNA and dnaX sequence analysis. These methods were compared with nineteen strains representing

  20. Evaluation of portable water in five provinces of Zambia using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kabunga

    Lusaka Province is significantly high in nitrate and sodium concentration compared to other provinces considered in this ... inorganic ions and organic compounds such as oils, into rivers .... of water hyacinth and the bioaccumulation of heavy me- tals within ...... part of the ministry in charge of environmental issues. (Ministry ...

  1. Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic evaluation of water loss saving due to the biological control of water hyacinth at New ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The benefit/cost ratio at the low evapotranspiration rate was less than one, implying that ...

  2. THE EFFECT OF NATURAL WATER WITH COW DUNG AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE RATIO ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaponKeanoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming caused by energy generation from fossil fuel has accelerated the deployment of renewable fuels such as biogas. In this study, batch fermentation (5L was studied to observe the effect of natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth ratio on the biogas and methane production at ambient temperature (31°C, 7.1-7.4 of pH for 52 days. The five types of co-digestion were 2:1:1:1 (digester A, 1:1:1:1 (digester B, 0.5:1:1:1 (digester C, 1:1:1:0 (digester D and 1:1:0:1 (digester E, respectively. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively with amount of natural water to raw material. The maximum biogas production and methane concentration was 1650 mL/days and 61.47% was obtained at substrate mixture 2:1:1:1 (digester A, which there are suitable of C:N ratio at 31.1:1. Natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth was mixed for biogas production, have been found to improve highest biogas production compared to those of without rice straw and water hyacinth. Therefore, the mixing natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth can improve both biogas production and content of methane in biogas.

  3. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Comparison of the community structures of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in rhizoplanes of floating aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Shuting; Gu, Li

    2011-09-20

    Some common floating aquatic macrophytes could remove nutrients, such as nitrogen, from eutrophic water. However, the relationship between these macrophytes and the ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms on their rhizoplanes is still unknown. In this study, we examined communities of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) on the rhizoplanes of common floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Ipomoea aquatic) in a eutrophic reservoir.The results show that AOB were the predominant ammonia-oxidizer on the three rhizoplanes. The principal AOB were Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas ureae clades. The principal group of AOA was most similar to the clone from activated sludge. The ratio of AOB amoA gene copies to AOA varied from 1.36 (on E. crassipes) to 41.90 (on P. stratiotes). Diversity of AOA was much lower than that of AOB in most samples, with the exception of P. stratiotes.

  5. Produção de tilápias-do-Nilo em sistemas sem renovação de água com Wetlands para tratamento de efluentes

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, Rafael Vieira [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of master’s dissertation were: (Chapter II) to evaluate the production and the quality of water from the cultivation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in systems with substrates and without the reconditioning of water; (Chapter III) evaluate the efficiency of wetlands constructed and stocked with two species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes) in the treatment of harvest wasterwater from final growth tanks which contained tila...

  6. Identification of Nutrient Contents in Six Potential Green Biomasses for Developing Liquid Organic Fertilizer in Closed Agricultural Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Fahrurrozi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid organic fertilizer in closed agricultural production system must be combined with foliar application to improve fertilizing effectiveness.  Nutrient contents in tissues of green biomass determine the quality of liquid organic fertilizer. Six potential green biomasses, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray, Gliricidia sepium  (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk. de Wit, Ageratum conyzoides L., Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.  Solms,  and banana corms were identified its nutrient contents.  Samples were dried at 60oC for 48 hours, grinded, analyzed for N, P, K, Ca-ex, Mg-ex, C, cellulose and lignin contents. Results indicated that T. diversifolia and A. conyzoides had the highest N content compared to other biomasses.  A. conyzoides had the highest P content, followed by T. diversifolia.   A. conyzoides had the highest K content, followed by G. sepium.  The highest Ca-ex content was in L. leucocephala, followed by A. conyzoides. The highest Mg-ex content was found in A. conyzoides, followed by L. leucocephala. The highest C content was found in E.crassipes, followed by G. Sepium.  T. diversifolia had the highest cellulose content, followed by E.crassipes.  Lignin content of all biomasses was similar.  Lastly, E.crassipes had the highest C/N compared to other biomass, and both  T. diversifolia and A. conyzoides had the lowest C/N. It is concluded that  A. conyzoides  is the most promising green biomass for production of liquid organic fertilizer, followed by T. diversifolia and G. sepium.

  7. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available , including Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae), Eichhornia crassipes (C.Mart.) Solms (Pontederiaceae) and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitch. (Salviniaceae), invade dams, reservoirs and freshwater ecosystems, where they impact nega- tively on water quality...- cessful biological control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa. Biological Control 28: 25?32. MGOBOZI, M.P., SOMERS, M.J. & DIPPENAAR- SCHOEMAN, A.S. 2008. Spider responses to alien plant invasion: the effect of short- and long-term Chromolaena...

  8. First record of the genus Atrichops Verrall, 1909 in Hungary (Diptera: Athericidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murányi, D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the first known larva of Atrichops crassipes (Meigen, 1820 from Hungary. The single specimen was caught with flushing of stones during a year-long monthly sampling in the Morgó Stream, Börzsöny Mts. Characterisation of the sampling site, list of the accompanying fauna and a figure on the habitus of the specimen are given.

  9. Do tissue carbon and nitrogen limit population growth of weevils introduced to control waterhyacinth at a site in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California?

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, David F.; Ksander, Gregory G.

    2004-01-01

    Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes(Mart.) Solms), is a serious problem in the Sacramento Delta. Two weevil species (Neochetina bruchi Hustache and N. eichhorniae Warner) have been introduced as biological control agents. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that nitrogen (N) in the tissue of waterhyacinth was not sufficient to support weevil growth and reproduction. Because it grows better on plants with high N content and because it has a greater impact on the growth...

  10. Seasonal Growth of Waterhyacinth in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, California

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, David F.; Ksander, G. G.

    2005-01-01

    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms), is a serious problem in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, California. There is little published information on its phenology or seasonal growth in this system. Waterhyacinths were sampled at 2 to 3 week intervals from November, 1995 to July, 1997 and the following measurements were made on individual plants: dry weight, height, number of living leaves, number of dead leaves, and the width of the largest lamina. (P...

  11. Sympatric three-species infection by Sacculina parasites (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) of an intertidal grapsoid crab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsuchida, Kohei; Lützen, Jørgen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2006-01-01

    Parasitization by sacculinids (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) induces severe modifications in morphology, behavior, and reproduction of their host crabs. To understand the mechanisms involved, it is important to have comprehensive information on their association. However, such information...... of Sacculina, S. confragosa, S. imberbis, and S. yatsui, were found to parasitize a single host crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, sympatrically in a restricted area. This is the first finding for three-on-one association in a single locality....

  12. Computed tomography recovers data from historical amber: an example from huntsman spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Penney, David; Dalüge, Natalie; Jäger, Peter; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2011-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) methods were applied to a problematic fossil spider (Arachnida: Araneae) from the historical Berendt collection of Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. The original specimens of Ocypete crassipes Koch and Berendt 1854 are in dark, oxidised amber and the published descriptions lack detail. Despite this, they were subsequently assigned to the living Pantropical genus Heteropoda Latreille, 1804 and are ostensibly the oldest records of huntsman spiders (Sparassidae) in general. Given their normally large size, and presumptive ability to free themselves more easily from resin, it would be surprising to find a sparassid in amber and traditional (optical) methods of study would likely have left O. crassipes as an equivocal record—probably a nomen dubium. However, phase contrast enhanced X-ray CT revealed exquisite morphological detail and thus `saved' this historical name by revealing characters which confirm that it's a bona fide member both of Sparassidae and the subfamily Eusparassinae. We demonstrate here that CT studies facilitate taxonomic equivalence even between recent spiders and unpromising fossils described in older monographs. In our case, fine structural details such as eye arrangement, cheliceral dentition, and leg characters like a trilobate membrane, spination and claws, allow a precise referral of this fossil to an extant genus as Eusparassus crassipes (Koch and Berendt 1854) comb. nov.

  13. PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN MELALUI PEMBUDIDAYAAN TANAMAN SAYURAN DALAM POT BERBASIS APLIKASI TEKNOLOGI BOKASHI ECENG GONDOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Irya Ichriani Kambang Vetrani Asie Siti Zubaidah, Dan Syahrudin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables cultivation in the pot based on Eichhornia crassipes bokashi technology application is the activity toempower women synergized with the natural resources around them. The purposed of IbM program implementationwere (1 empower and provide skills to the women group in order to utilize of natural resources (Eichhorniacrassipes, sawdust and alluvial soil and obtain vitamines, minerals and fiber for households through the vegetablescultivation in the pot and utilization of Eichhornia crassipes bokashi as growing mixture media; (2 as effort tosave on household spending and to creating entrepreneurship. This program was carried out with two groupsof women (the RW I women group and RW II women group from Cemara Labat, Palangka Raya, Central ofKalimantan. Socialization, training and coaching about cultivation of vegetables in the pot and making of Eichhorniacrassipes bokashi has given the ability and skills to the women group for utilizing natural resources around them.This IbM programme has sustainability. It is caused the women groups from RW I and RW II Cemara Labatwant to continue planting vegetables in the pot using Eichhornia crassipes bokashi, to meet needs of householdvegetables daily and it has raised a family entrepreneurship.

  14. Organic fertilizer and its effects on the growth and development of tomato crop (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Luna Murillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are one of the alternatives in the group of products used in sustainable agri-culture, mainly what is obtained from organic sources of recyclable nature as compost and vermicompost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of organic fertilizers on the growth and development of tomato plants. The treatments were vermicompost, water hyacinth, and the combination 50 % vermicompost and 50 % water hyacinth control, using a completely randomized design with five replicates. The work was conducted at the Experimental Center La Playita, belonging to the Technical University of Cotopaxi La Maná extension and plant height, number of fruits, fruit diameter, fruit weight was measured. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers in tomato plant height stimulated with 114.64 cm, number of fruits with 4.08 fruits, fruit diameter with 7.96 mm and weight of 226.50 g fruits, tomato plants

  15. Effect of the isolation of Sterculia apetala trees on the emergence of seedlings in Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marçal Henrique Amici Jorge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sterculia apetala trees aren’t removed during the conversion of forests into pastures due to rural landowners’ awareness that these trees are home to 95% of the nests of Hyacinth Macaw in Pantanal. Our aim was to compare the greenhouse emergence rate of seedlings from seeds of trees at conserved forest and those left isolated in a cultivated pastures. The seeds were collected directly from the ground, under 10 S. apetala trees in each area, at the Pantanal Wetland, Corumba, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The emergence of seedlings from isolated trees was 14% lower than that obtained from trees located in the inner part of the forest. There’s a need for further studies on the ecology of this species in Pantanal focused on the mating system, the identification of the pollination agent and the evaluation of the effects of isolation on the viability of species population, which may impact the Hyacinth Macaw reproduction success.

  16. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  17. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  18. Water Operations Technical Support Program. Water Quality Management for Reservoirs and Tailwaters. Report 1. In-Reservoir Water Quality Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Durden 1984). The impact of the two weevils on waterhyacinth in Louisiana serves as an example of insect effectiveness ( Perfetti 1983, Goyer and...commercial formulation has been developed by Abbott Laboratories (Freeman et al. 1981; Perfetti 1983). The effectiveness of the fungus in Louisiana... Perfetti , P. B. 1983. "Use of Insects and Pathogens for Management of Water- hyacinth in Louisiana," Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Information

  19. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  20. Contingency Pest Management Guide. 2010 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    to 22 days. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bactimos Briquets ] 10% 6840-01-377-7049 BX Box/100 briquets Apply per label directions (10...mosquito season (or 150 days). For Aedes and Psorophora, use 1 briquet /200 sq ft for shallow depressions. For Culex, Culiseta and Anopheles, place...1 briquet /100 sq ft. For Coquillettidia and Mansonia in cattail marshes and water hyacinth beds, place 1 briquet /100 sq ft. Briquettes control