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Sample records for hw6915 mobile messenger

  1. Mobile Immersion: An Experiment Using Mobile Instant Messenger to Support Second-Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Immersion has been an acclaimed approach for second-language acquisition, but is not available to most students. The idea of this study was to create a mobile immersion environment on a smartphone using a mobile instant messenger, WhatsApp™. Forty-five Form-1 (7th grade) students divided into the Mobile Group and Control Group participated in a…

  2. The effect of addiction to mobile messenger software and mental health among physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bagherianfar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the present study is to the effect of addiction to mobile messenger software on mental health among physical education university students of Torbat-e-Heydarieh city.  Materials and Methods: The statistical population of this descriptive-correlational study included all physical education university students of Torbat-e-Heydarieh city. 169 students out of 302 were chosen as the sample of study, for which stratified sampling method was applied. In order to collect data, Goldberg general health questionnaire and addiction to mobile messenger software inventory were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive and illative statistics.  Results: The research findings showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between addiction to mobile messenger software's and mental health among the students of physical education (P

  3. Phloem-mobile messenger RNAs and root development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hannapel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous signal molecules move through the phloem to regulate development, including proteins, secondary metabolites, small RNAs and full-length transcripts. Several full-length mRNAs have been identified that move long distances in a shootward or rootward direction through the plant vasculature to modulate both floral and vegetative processes of growth. Here we discuss two recently discovered examples of long-distance transport of full-length mRNAs into roots and the potential target genes and pathways for these mobile signals. In both cases, the mobile RNAs regulate root growth. Previously, RNA movement assays demonstrated that transcripts of StBEL5, a transcription factor from the three-amino-loop-extension superclass, move through the phloem to stolon tips to enhance tuber formation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. StBEL5 mRNA originates in the leaf and its movement to stolons is induced by a short-day photoperiod. Movement of StBEL5 RNA to roots correlated with increased growth and the accumulation of several transcripts associated with hormone metabolism, including GA2-oxidase1, YUCCA1a and -c, several Aux/IAA types, and PIN1, -2, and -4 was observed. In another example, heterografting techniques were used to identify phloem-mobile Aux/IAA transcripts in Arabidopsis. Movement assays confirmed that these Aux/IAA transcripts are transported into the root system where they suppress lateral root formation. Phloem transport of both StBEL5 and Aux/IAA RNAs are linked to hormone metabolism and both target auxin synthesis genes or auxin signaling processes. The mechanisms of transport for these mobile RNAs, the impact they have on controlling root growth, and a potential transcriptional connection between the BEL1/KNOX complex and Aux/IAA genes are discussed.

  4. The intranuclear mobility of messenger RNA binding proteins is ATP dependent and temperature sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapez, Alexandre; Pereira, Henrique M; Calado, Angelo; Braga, José; Rino, José; Carvalho, Célia; Tavanez, João Paulo; Wahle, Elmar; Rosa, Agostinho C; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2002-12-09

    After being released from transcription sites, messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) must reach the nuclear pore complexes in order to be translocated to the cytoplasm. Whether the intranuclear movement of mRNPs results largely from Brownian motion or involves molecular motors remains unknown. Here we have used quantitative photobleaching techniques to monitor the intranuclear mobility of protein components of mRNPs tagged with GFP. The results show that the diffusion coefficients of the poly(A)-binding protein II (PABP2) and the export factor TAP are significantly reduced when these proteins are bound to mRNP complexes, as compared with nonbound proteins. The data further show that the mobility of wild-type PABP2 and TAP, but not of a point mutant variant of PABP2 that fails to bind to RNA, is significantly reduced when cells are ATP depleted or incubated at 22 degrees C. Energy depletion has only minor effects on the intranuclear mobility of a 2,000-kD dextran (which corresponds approximately in size to 40S mRNP particles), suggesting that the reduced mobility of PABP2 and TAP is not caused by a general alteration of the nuclear environment. Taken together, the data suggest that the mobility of mRNPs in the living cell nucleus involves a combination of passive diffusion and ATP-dependent processes.

  5. Medical Information Exchange: Pattern of Global Mobile Messenger Usage among Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil; Dagan, Elad; Wolf, Michael; Duvdevani, Shay; Alon, Eran E

    2016-11-01

    Information technology has revolutionized health care. However, the development of dedicated mobile health software has been lagging, leading to the use of general mobile applications to fill in the void. The use of such applications has several legal, ethical, and regulatory implications. We examined the experience and practices governing the usage of a global mobile messenger application (WhatsApp) for mobile health purposes in a national cohort of practicing otolaryngologists in Israel, a known early adaptor information technology society. Cross-sectional data were collected from practicing otolaryngologists and otolaryngology residents via self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of a demographic section, a section surveying the practices of mobile application use, mobile health application use, and knowledge regarding institutional policies governing the transmission of medical data. The sample included 22 otolaryngology residents and 47 practicing otolaryngologists. Of the physicians, 83% worked in academic centers, and 88% and 40% of the physicians who worked in a hospital setting or a community clinic used WhatsApp for medical use, respectively. Working with residents increased the medical usage of WhatsApp from 50% to 91% (P = .006). Finally, 72% were unfamiliar with any institutional policy regarding the transfer of medical information by personal smartphones. Mobile health is becoming an integral part of modern medical systems, improving accessibility, efficiency, and possibly quality of medical care. The need to incorporate personal mobile devices in the overall information technology standards, guidelines, and regulation is becoming more acute. Nonetheless, practices must be properly instituted to prevent unwanted consequences. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  6. The Effectiveness of Using WhatsApp Messenger as One of Mobile Learning Techniques to Develop Students' Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Said Fathy El Said Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to determine the effectiveness of using a WhatsApp Messenger as one of mobile learning techniques to develop students' writing skills. Participants were 30 second year college students, English department from a private university in Saudi Arabia. The experimental group (N = 15) used WhatsApp technology to develop…

  7. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroft, Scott L.

    2017-05-01

    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  8. Messenger RNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cullen

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to DNA, messenger RNA (mRNA) in complex substrata is rarely analyzed, in large part because labile RNA molecules are difficult to purify. Nucleic acid extractions from fungi that colonize soil are particularly difficult and plagued by humic substances that interfere with Taq polymerase (Tebbe and Vahjen 1993 and references therein). Magnetic capture...

  9. Diphosphoinositol Polyphosphates: Metabolic Messengers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    The diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (“inositol pyrophosphates”) are a specialized subgroup of the inositol phosphate signaling family. This review proposes that many of the current data concerning the metabolic turnover and biological effects of the diphosphoinositol polyphosphates are linked by a common theme: these polyphosphates act as metabolic messengers. This review will also discuss the latest proposals concerning possible molecular mechanisms of action of this intriguing class of molecules. PMID:19439500

  10. Dynamical Messengers for Gauge Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-17

    We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.

  11. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    RNA messenger stability is in uenced by how well it is protected from ribonuclase degradation. The level and distribution of translating ribosomes on the messenger has an effect on messenger stability, which is tuned partly by the nature of the ribosome binding site and partly by the codon...... composition of the coding sequence of a gene. This thesis focussed on illuminating the impact of ribosome binding sites on the functional messenger half-life using a range of ribosome binding sites with altered binding strength. Furthermore, the additive in uence of the transcription terminator, Rho......, on messenger stability was examined. Depending on the translation initiation frequency, the chance of an initial ribosome trailing the RNA polymerase get better for better initiation sites, thus protecting transcription from termination by Rho. A polarity assay in which the activity of the downstream lac...

  12. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  13. Mercury after three MESSENGER flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Prockter, Louise M.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; Phillips, Roger J.; Zuber, Maria T.

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) space-craft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, is the first space probe to visit the planet Mercury in more than 30 years. MESSENGER flew by the innermost planet twice in 2008 and once last fall. The flybys confirmed that Mercury's internal magnetic field is dominantly dipolar, with a vector moment closely aligned with the spin axis. MESSENGER detected mag-nesium in Mercury's exosphere, demonstrated that Mercury's anti-sunward neutral tail contains multiple species, and revealed that the distributions of sodium, calcium, and magnesium in the exosphere and tail vary differently with latitude, time of day, and Mercury's position in or-bit, signatures of multiple source processes. MESSENGER's laser altimeter showed that the equatorial topographic relief of Mercury exceeds 5 km, revealed an equatorial ellipticity aligned with the ellipticity in Mercury's gravitational potential, and documented the form of numer-ous impact craters and fault scarps. MESSENGER images provided evidence for widespread volcanism, and candidate sites for volcanic centers were identified. In addition, newly imaged lobate scarps and other tectonic landforms support the hypothesis that Mercury contracted globally in response to interior cooling. The ˜1500-km-diameter Caloris basin, viewed in its entirety for the first time by MESSENGER, was the focus for concentrations of volcanic cen-ters, some with evidence of pyroclastic deposits, and widespread contractional and extensional deformation; smooth plains interior and exterior to the basin are demonstrably younger than the basin-forming event. The ˜700-km-diameter Rembrandt basin, less volcanically infilled than Caloris, was likewise a focus for concentrated magmatic and deformational activity. A ˜290-km-diameter basin contains interior plains that are among the youngest volcanic material on the planet. The nearly global observations of Mercury surface units

  14. Geodesy at Mercury with MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria t.; Peale, Stanley J.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    In 2011 the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft will enter Mercury orbit and begin the mapping phase of the mission. As part of its science objectives the MESSENGER mission will determine the shape and gravity field of Mercury. These observations will enable the topography and the crustal thickness to be derived for the planet and will determine the small libration of the planet about its axis, the latter critical to constraining the state of the core. These measurements require very precise positioning of the MESSENGER spacecraft in its eccentric orbit, which has a periapsis altitude as low as 200 km, an apoapsis altitude near 15,000 km, and a closest approach to the surface varying from latitude 60 to about 70 N. The X-band tracking of MESSENGER and the laser altimetry are the primary data that will be used to measure the planetary shape and gravity field. The laser altimeter, which has an expected range of 1000 to 1200 km, is expected to provide significant data only over the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. For the southern hemisphere, radio occultation measurements obtained as the spacecraft passes behind the planet as seen from Earth and images obtained with the imaging system will be used to provide the long-wavelength shape of the planet. Gravity, derived from the tracking data, will also have greater resolution in the northern hemisphere, but full global models for both topography and gravity will be obtained at low harmonic order and degree. The limiting factor for both gravity and topography is expected to be knowledge of the spacecraft location. Present estimations are that in a combined tracking, altimetry, and occultation solution the spacecraft position uncertainty is likely to be of order 10 m. This accuracy should be adequate for establishing an initial geodetic coordinate system for Mercury that will enable positioning of imaged features on the surface, determination of

  15. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  16. MESSENGER Spacecraft and Payload Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. E.; Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, J. R., Jr.; Leary, J. C.; MESSENGER Team

    The Mercury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, launched in May of this year, will be the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury. The >14 kWm-2 solar thermal input and the large velocity change required to reach Mercury orbit make this a very challenging mission from thermal and mass perspectives. MESSENGER overcomes these challenges with innovative applications of existing technologies and materials. The spacecraft uses ordinary space electronics, has minimal moving parts, and has extensive redundancy and cross strapping to enhance its robustness. The major innovations are a ceramic-cloth thermal shade, an integrated lightweight structure, a high-performance propulsion system, and a solar array incorporating optical solar reflectors to prevent overheating. Seven miniaturized instruments, along with the spacecraft telecommunications system, satisfy all scientific objectives of the mission. The payload includes a dual imaging system with wide-angle and narrow-angle cameras; an integrated ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectrometer that is sensitive enough to detect atmospheric emissions and robust enough to map mineralogical absorption features on the sun-lit surface; gamma-ray, X-ray, and neutron spectrometers for remote geochemical mapping; a vector magnetometer; a laser altimeter to determine the topography of surface features and determine whether Mercury has a fluid core; and an energetic particle and plasma spectrometer to characterize ionized species in the magnetosphere. The payload was fully calibrated before launch, and an additional series of calibration measurements are planned during the 5-year cruise to Mercury. The first of the three Venus flybys and two Mercury flybys during the cruise phase of the mission will occur in November 2004

  17. MESSENGER: Exploring the Innermost Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    One of Earth's closest planetary neighbors, Mercury remained comparatively unexplored for the more than three decades that followed the three flybys of the innermost planet by the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1974-75. Mariner 10 imaged 45% of Mercury's surface at about 1 km/pixel average resolution, confirmed Mercury's anomalously high bulk density and implied large fractional core size, discovered Mercury's internal magnetic field, documented that H and He are present in the planet's tenuous exosphere, and made the first exploration of Mercury's magnetosphere and solar wind environment. Ground-based astronomers later reported Na, K, and Ca in Mercury's exosphere; the presence of deposits in the floors of polar craters having radar characteristics best matched by water ice; and strong evidence from the planet's forced libration amplitude that Mercury has a fluid outer core. Spacecraft exploration of Mercury resumed with the selection for flight, under NASA's Discovery Program, of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. Launched in 2004, MESSENGER flew by the innermost planet three times in 2008-2009 en route to becoming the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury in March of this year. MESSENGER's first chemical remote sensing measurements of Mercury's surface indicate that the planet's bulk silicate fraction differs from those of the other inner planets, with a low-Fe surface composition intermediate between basalts and ultramafic rocks and best matched among terrestrial rocks by komatiites. Moreover, surface materials are richer in the volatile constituents S and K than predicted by most planetary formation models. Global image mosaics and targeted high-resolution images (to resolutions of 10 m/pixel) reveal that Mercury experienced globally extensive volcanism, including large expanses of plains emplaced as flood lavas and widespread examples of pyroclastic deposits likely emplaced during explosive eruptions of volatile

  18. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to social networks, personal identities, and our relationship to the built environment. The omnipresence of mobilities within everyday life, high politics, technology, and tourism (to mention but a few) all point to a key insight harnessed by the ‘mobilities turn’. Namely that mobilities is much more than...... and environmental degradation. The spaces and territories marked by mobilities as well as the sites marked by the bypassing of such are explored. Moreover, the architectural and technological dimensions to infrastructures and sites of mobilities will be included as well as the issues of power, social exclusion......, consumption, surveillance and mobilities history to mention some of the many themes covered by this reference work. This new title will focus on the academic contributions to this understanding by primarily focusing on works and publications in the aftermath of the seminal book and landmark text ‘Sociology...

  19. MESSENGER SPICE KERNELS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the complete set of MESSENGER SPICE data files (''kernel files''), which can be accessed using SPICE software. The SPICE data contains...

  20. Sweet spot supersymmetry and composite messengers

    OpenAIRE

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2008-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10^5 G...

  1. Anti-competitiveness of Instant Messenger Tying by Microsoft

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaehong; Bang, Se Hoon; Hwang, Sunjoo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically analyze Microsoft's tying practice in the instant messenger market. Using a model that highlights distinct features of the instant messenger, which are different from the cases of the web browser and the media player, we show that Microsoft can leverage its monopoly power in the operating system (OS) market to the instant messenger market through tying strategy. Microsoft's messenger tying hurts consumers because it enables Microsoft to monopolize messenger mar...

  2. Higgs mass from neutrino-messenger mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byakti, Pritibhajan [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India); Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,2A & 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Khosa, Charanjit K. [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mummidi, V.S. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Vempati, Sudhir K. [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2017-03-06

    The discovery of the Higgs particle at 125 GeV has put strong constraints on minimal messenger models of gauge mediation, pushing the stop masses into the multi-TeV regime. Extensions of these models with matter-messenger mixing terms have been proposed to generate a large trilinear parameter, A{sub t}, relaxing these constraints. The detailed survey of these models (DOI: 10.1007/JHEP05(2013)055; 10.1007/JHEP08(2013)093 ) so far considered messenger mixings with only MSSM superfields. In the present work, we extend the survey to MSSM with inverse-seesaw mechanism. The neutrino-sneutrino corrections to the Higgs mass in the inverse seesaw model are not significant in the minimal gauge mediation model, unless one considers messenger-matter interaction terms. We classify all possible models with messenger-matter interactions and perform thorough numerical analysis to find out the promising models. We found that out of the 17 possible models 9 of them can lead to Higgs mass within the observed value without raising the sfermion masses significantly. The successful models have stop masses ∼1.5 TeV with small or negligible mixing and yet a light CP even Higgs at 125 GeV.

  3. Sweet spot supersymmetry and composite messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2008-05-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenological effective Lagrangian of weak scale supersymmetry with a certain set of natural assumptions. This framework is designed to avoid problems in low-energy phenomenology and cosmology of supersymmetric models. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation, whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 105 GeV ≲Mmess ≲1010 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields Nmess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group.

  4. Intercultural Learning via Instant Messenger Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Erben, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating the viability of instant messenger (IM) interaction to facilitate intercultural learning in a foreign language class. Eight students in a Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) class participated in the study. Each student was paired with a native speaker (NS) of Chinese, and each pair…

  5. Messenger RNA surveillance: neutralizing natural nonsense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischelfeldt, Joachim Lütken; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Porse, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Messenger RNA transcripts that contain premature stop codons are degraded by a process termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Although previously thought of as a pathway that rids the cell of non-functional mRNAs arising from mutations and processing errors, new research suggests a more general...

  6. 12 CFR 7.1012 - Messenger service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section and appropriate to assure compliance with safe and sound banking practices. (c) Pick-up and... section and appropriate to assure compliance with safe and sound banking practices. (2) The OCC reviews...) The messenger service maintains ultimate responsibility for scheduling, movement, and routing; (iv...

  7. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sound + images show Bailey was out in the India-Australia match on 12 Jan 2016. Image credit: Rediff / Fox news / Twitter. Page 10. Electromagnetic follow up: the Indian context. Page 11. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves | LIGO-G1601377-v2. Varun Bhalerao (IUCAA) | 1 July 2016. 11. 20 – 60 keV:.

  8. On cryptographic security of end-to-end encrypted connections in WhatsApp and Telegram messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Zapechnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the available possibilities for improving secure messaging with end-to-end connections under conditions of external violator actions and distrusted service provider. We made a comparative analysis of cryptographic security mechanisms for two widely used messengers: Telegram and WhatsApp. It was found that Telegram is based on MTProto protocol, while WhatsApp is based on the alternative Signal protocol. We examine the specific features of messengers implementation associated with random number generation on the most popular Android mobile platform. It was shown that Signal has better security properties. It is used in several other popular messengers such as TextSecure, RedPhone, GoogleAllo, FacebookMessenger, Signal along with WhatsApp. A number of possible attacks on both messengers were analyzed in details. In particular, we demonstrate that the metadata are poorly protected in both messengers. Metadata security may be one of the goals for further studies.

  9. Multi-messenger aspects of cosmic neutrinos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlers Markus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of TeV-PeV neutrinos by IceCube has opened a new window to the high-energy Universe. I will discuss this signal in the context of multi-messenger astronomy. For extragalactic source scenarios the corresponding gamma-rays are not directly observable due to interactions with the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma ray background observed by Fermi-LAT contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. Interestingly, the overall energy density of the observed neutrino flux is close to a theoretical limit for neutrino production in ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources and might indicate a common origin of these phenomena. I will highlight various multi-messenger relations and their implications for neutrino source scenarios.

  10. The Energy Messenger, Number 1, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancil, J. [ed.

    1995-01-01

    `The Energy Messenger` is a Department of Energy publication on energy activities of interest to American Indians. The first issue of 1995 (in a magazine format) includes articles on: tribes winning grants to develop energy resources, recruiting of internships for DOE, information about Title XXVI-Indian Energy Resources, American Indian Heritage Month, tribal perspective on DOE actions, joint ventures between tribes and the DOE, and brief description of recent DOE activities.

  11. Mercury's Na Exosphere from MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Sarantos, M.; Vervack, R. J.; McClintock, W. El; Merkel, A. W.; Sprague, A. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER entered orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. Since then, the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UWS) channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) has been observing Mercury's exosphere nearly continuously. Daily measurements of Na brightness were fitted with non-uniform exospheric models. With Monte Carlo sampling we traced the trajectories of a representative number of test particles, generally one million per run per source process, until photoionization, escape from the gravitational well, or permanent sticking at the surface removed the atom from the simulation. Atoms were assumed to partially thermally accommodate on each encounter with the surface with accommodation coefficient 0.25. Runs for different assumed source processes are run separately, scaled and co-added. Once these model results were saved onto a 3D grid, we ran lines of sight from the MESSENGER spacecraft :0 infinity using the SPICE kernels and we computed brightness integrals. Note that only particles that contribute to the measurement can be constrained with our method. Atoms and molecules produced on the nightside must escape the shadow in order to scatter light if the excitation process is resonant-light scattering, as assumed here. The aggregate distribution of Na atoms fits a 1200 K gas, with a PSD distribution, along with a hotter component. Our models constrain the hot component, assumed to be impact vaporization, to be emitted with a 2500 K Maxwellian. Most orbits show a dawnside enhancement in the hot component broadly spread over the leading hemisphere. However, on some dates there is no dawn/dusk asymmetry. The portion of the hot/cold source appears to be highly variable.

  12. Unsupervised Classification of MESSENGER MASC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ammannito, Eleonora

    2010-05-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft flew by Mercury as part of its journey to Mercury orbit insertion. The Mercury At-mospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) observed Mercury during the first two flybys, includ-ing high-spatial-and spectral-resolution visible to near-infrared (IR) spectra of the Mercury surface. The Visible and InfraRed Spectrograph (VIRS) component of MASCS consists of two linear photodiode arrays covering a spectral range 320-1450 nm. We applied classification method to MASCS data in order to extract information on the mineralogy of Mercury. The classification of the Messenger data will permit to obtain maps of Mercury surface, giving us indication of the different mineralogy and maturity present on the Hermean surface. The data were pre-processed applying photometric correction and the VIS and NIR data were collected in a single spectrum. The data set show very similar featureless spectra. The main differences are in the reflectance levels and in the spectral slopes. To emphasize the spectral differences we have normalized the spectra to an average reflectance spectrum for each flyby. This allows to point out variation of different regions with respect to the aver-age spectral behaviour. Two different approaches have been used to analyze MASCS data of the two Messenger flybys: ISODATA unsupervised classification and a classification based on three different spectral slopes (in the wavelengths' ranges 0.3-0.55, 0.55-0.8 and 0.95-1.49 µm). The identified classes shows differences linked with slopes and reflectance's level: the proposed methods allows to correlate the most important classes with different morphological features on Mercury's surface which differ for weathering, maturity and composition. Our analysis is done in order to test and verify these classification methods that shall be necessary to analyze similar data harvested by SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible and Infrared Hyper-spectral Imager) aboard the future ESA's BepiColombo mission

  13. Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.

  14. PEMBUATAN SYSTEM CORPORATE MESSENGER PADA JARINGAN LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Puspa Dewi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate messenger is the one of the application that can be used for communication in a local area network. The backgrounds of this topic are needs of sending message process in the LAN. The messages which want to be presented are not only in a text format, but also can be in audio visual format. Computer client will connect to the server. When the connection has been established, the client continued the authentication and started sending message between client and server. Audio and video message sending can be done with peer to peer connection with entering the IP address first from remote user that we want to communicate with. The evaluation of this application was done by using 3 computers and as the result, we found that authentication process can work properly, sending text message was done properly and communication using audio can be heard clearly. In addition to video sending message, we could see directly in remote client. The average time to show the video on remote client is 3.771 seconds. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Corporate messenger merupakan suatu aplikasi yang dapat digunakan untuk berkomunikasi dalam sebuah Local Area Network. Hal ini dilatarbelakangi oleh perlu adanya proses pengiriman pesan secara bersama-sama dalam sebuah Local Area Network. Pesan yang ingin dikomunikasikan tidak hanya berupa teks, tetapi dapat juga menggunakan video maupun audio Komputer client akan melakukan koneksi dengan server. Jika sudah terjadi koneksi dengan server, maka client tersebut akan melanjutkan dengan autentikasi dan kemudian dapat melakukan pengiriman pesan dengan client yang telah terdaftar dalam database server. Pengiriman pesan audio dan video terjadi dengan koneksi peer to peer dengan terlebih dahulu memasukkan IP address dari remote user yang ingin diajak berkomunikasi. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menggunakan tiga buah komputer dan diperoleh bahwa proses autentikasi dapat berjalan dengan baik, pengiriman pesan teks dapat dilakukan

  15. Mercury after the Third MESSENGER Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L.; Bedini, P. D.; Anderson, B. J.; Evans, L. G.; Gold, R. E.; Head, J. W.; Krimigis, S. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Nittler, L.; Phillips, R. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Zuber, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    MESSENGER is the first spacecraft to visit the planet Mercury in more than 30 years. Images from MESSENGER’s first Mercury flyby, in January 2008, provided evidence for widespread volcanism, and candidate sites for volcanic centers were identified. Newly imaged lobate scarps and other tectonic landforms confirmed that Mercury contracted globally in response to interior cooling. The ~1500-km-diameter Caloris basin, viewed in its entirety for the first time by MESSENGER, was the focus for concentrations of volcanic centers, some with evidence of pyroclastic deposits, and widespread contractional and extensional deformation. Smooth plains interior and exterior to the basin are demonstrably younger than the basin-forming event. Reflectance spectra of Mercury’s surface showed no evidence for FeO in surface silicates. Reflectance and color imaging observations provided fresh support for earlier inferences that Mercury’s surface material consists dominantly of iron-poor, calcium-magnesium silicates with an admixture of spectrally neutral opaque minerals. MESSENGER’s second flyby, in October 2008, revealed the presence of neutral Mg and Ca in Mercury’s anti-sunward tail and documented strongly differing distributions of Mg, Ca, and Na in the nightside exosphere, the result of different combinations of time-variable source, transfer, and loss processes. A southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was accompanied by multiple indications of magnetic reconnection at rates ~10 times typical at Earth; in combination with the more quiescent conditions under northward IMF seen during the first flyby, the results indicate that Mercury’s magnetosphere is more responsive to IMF direction than those of other planets. The internal magnetic field is dominantly dipolar with a vector moment closely aligned with the spin axis. The nearly global observations of Mercury surface units distinguishable by color and composition enforce the importance of the largely volcanic

  16. [Irisin: a messenger from the gods?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Due to the need to understand the basis of the metabolic benefits of exercise, irisin was discovered a few years ago. This cytokine, secreted by skeletal muscle due to exercise, should have positive effects on energetic metabolism. In particular, it could act as a messenger on white adipose tissue, modifying its phenotype into the beige adipocyte, and increasing its thermogenic capacity. Since it was described, there have been numerous studies led to depict its function, with the aim of determining if irisin could become a therapeutic target in the context of diseases associated with a caloric excess, such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, the irisin discovery is summarized, along with its in vitro and in vivo effects described up until now. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Emerging roles in plant biotechnology for the second messenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second messengers are small transient molecules that transmit and/or modulate environmental or hormonal signals linking them to complex and often systemic physiological responses. Recent reports have renewed interest in the second messenger guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) since it has been shown ...

  18. WhatsApp Messenger as an Adjunctive Tool for Telemedicine: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Koch, Hilton; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre; Dias Belangero, William; Esteves Santos Pires, Robinson; Labronici, Pedro

    2017-07-21

    The advent of telemedicine has allowed physicians to deliver medical treatment to patients from a distance. Mobile apps such as WhatsApp Messenger, an instant messaging service, came as a novel concept in all fields of social life, including medicine. The use of instant messaging services has been shown to improve communication within medical teams by providing means for quick teleconsultation, information sharing, and starting treatment as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive systematic review of present literature on the use of the WhatsApp Messenger app as an adjunctive health care tool for medical doctors. Searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library using the term "whatsapp*" in articles published before January 2016. A bibliography of all relevant original articles that used the WhatsApp Messenger app was created. The level of evidence of each study was determined according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence ranking system produced by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The impact and the indications of WhatsApp Messenger are discussed in order to understand the extent to which this app currently functions as an adjunctive tool for telemedicine. The database search identified a total of 30 studies in which the term "whatsapp*" was used. Each article's list of references was evaluated item-by-item. After literature reviews, letters to the editor, and low-quality studies were excluded, a total of 10 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. Of these studies, 9 had been published in the English language and 1 had been published in Spanish. Five were published by medical doctors. The pooled data presents compelling evidence that the WhatsApp Messenger app is a promising system, whether used as a communication tool between health care professionals, as a means of communication between health care professionals and the general public, or as a learning tool for providing health care information

  19. MESSENGER MERCURY RSS/MLA LEVEL 5 DERIVED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival results from radio science investigations conducted during the MESSENGER mission. Radio measurements were made using the MESSENGER...

  20. Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere: Modeling MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, M. H.; Killen, R. M.; McClintock, W. E.; Merkel, A. W.; Vervack, R. J.; Sarantos, M.; Sprague, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a surface-bounded exosphere known to contain hydrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Because the exosphere is collisionless, its composition represents a balance of active source and loss processes. The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has made high-spatial-resolution observations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium near Mercury's surface and in the extended, anti-sunward direction. The most striking feature of these data is the substantial differences among species, which was detected during three close flybys of the planet and has been persistantly present during MESSENGER's orbital phase. Our modeling demonstrates that these differences are not because of post-ejection dynamics such as differences in photo-ionization rate and radiation pressure, but rather result from differences in the source mechanisms and regions on the surface from which each species is ejected. The observations of calcium have revealed a strong dawn/dusk asymmetry, with the abundance over the dawn hemisphere substantially greater than that on the dusk side. To understand this asymmetry, we use a Monte Carlo model of Mercury's exosphere that we developed to track the motions of exospheric neutrals under the influence of gravity and radiation pressure. In this model, Ca atoms can be ejected directly from the surface or produced by ejection of CaO followed by dissociation to produce Ca and O. Particles are removed from the system if they stick to the surface or escape from the model region of interest (within 15 Mercury radii). Photoionization reduces the final weighting given to each particle when simulating the Ca radiance. Data from the flybys are consistent with a high temperature (~1-2 x 104 K) source of atomic Ca concentrated over the dawn hemisphere. Such a high temperature resutls from dissociation of CaO in a near

  1. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  2. Compact Imagers Based on MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.; Murchie, S. L.; Hawkins, S. E.; Hayes, J. R.; Boldt, J. D.; Barnouin, O. S.; Heffernan, K.; Noble, M. W.

    2012-10-01

    MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has acquired >130,000 images since launch in 2004, including the first images from Mercury orbit. MDIS, composed of two miniature cameras, has capabilities well matched to future planetary missions.

  3. Processivity and coupling in messenger RNA transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Aitken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of messenger RNA processing is now being uncovered by experimental techniques that are capable of detecting individual copies of mRNA in cells, and by quantitative real-time observations that reveal the kinetics. This processing is commonly modelled by permitting mRNA to be transcribed only when the promoter is in the on state. In this simple on/off model, the many processes involved in active transcription are represented by a single reaction. These processes include elongation, which has a minimum time for completion and processing that is not captured in the model.In this paper, we explore the impact on the mRNA distribution of representing the elongation process in more detail. Consideration of the mechanisms of elongation leads to two alternative models of the coupling between the elongating polymerase and the state of the promoter: Processivity allows polymerases to complete elongation irrespective of the promoter state, whereas coupling requires the promoter to be active to produce a full-length transcript. We demonstrate that these alternatives have a significant impact on the predicted distributions. Models are simulated by the Gillespie algorithm, and the third and fourth moments of the resulting distribution are computed in order to characterise the length of the tail, and sharpness of the peak. By this methodology, we show that the moments provide a concise summary of the distribution, showing statistically-significant differences across much of the feasible parameter range.We conclude that processivity is not fully consistent with the on/off model unless the probability of successfully completing elongation is low--as has been observed. The results also suggest that some form of coupling between the promoter and a rate-limiting step in transcription may explain the cell's inability to maintain high mRNA levels at low noise--a prediction of the on/off model that has no supporting evidence.

  4. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  5. Privacy implications of presence sharing in mobile messaging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchenscheit, Andreas; Könings, Bastian; Neubert, Andreas; Schaub, Florian; Schneider, Matthias; Kargl, Frank

    Mobile messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, provide a free alternative for mobile texting on smartphones. Mobile messengers typically also share presence information about users to indicate when a user is online. We investigated the privacy implications of such presence updates, using WhatsApp

  6. Privacy implications of presence sharing in mobile messaging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchenscheit, Andreas; Könings, Bastian; Neubert, Andreas; Schaub, Florian; Schneider, Matthias; Kargl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mobile messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, provide a free alternative for mobile texting on smartphones. Mobile messengers typically also share presence information about users to indicate when a user is online. We investigated the privacy implications of such presence updates, using WhatsApp

  7. How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshon, B.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hallau, K. G.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach (Epo) Team

    2010-12-01

    How MESSENGER Meshes Simulations and Games with Citizen Science In the film The Last Starfighter, an alien civilization grooms their future champion—a kid on Earth—using a video game. As he gains proficiency in the game, he masters the skills he needs to pilot a starship and save their civilization. The NASA MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team is using the same tactic to train citizen scientists to help the Science Team explore the planet Mercury. We are building a new series of games that appear to be designed primarily for fun, but that guide players through a knowledge and skill set that they will need for future science missions in support of MESSENGER mission scientists. As players score points, they gain expertise. Once they achieve a sufficiently high score, they will be invited to become participants in Mercury Zoo, a new program being designed by Zooniverse. Zooniverse created Galaxy Zoo and Moon Zoo, programs that allow interested citizens to participate in the exploration and interpretation of galaxy and lunar data. Scientists use the citizen interpretations to further refine their exploration of the same data, thereby narrowing their focus and saving precious time. Mercury Zoo will be designed with input from the MESSENGER Science Team. This project will not only support the MESSENGER mission, but it will also add to the growing cadre of informed members of the public available to help with other citizen science projects—building on the concept that engaged, informed citizens can help scientists make new discoveries. The MESSENGER EPO Team comprises individuals from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE); Center for Educational Resources (CERES) at Montana State University (MSU) - Bozeman; National Center for Earth and Space Science Education (NCESSE); Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL); National Air and Space Museum (NASM); Science

  8. Decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA and somatostatin messenger RNA in the striatum of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P J; Waldvogel, H J; Faull, R L; Love, D R; Emson, P C

    1996-06-01

    The cellular abundance of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and somatostatin messenger RNAs was compared in the caudate nucleus, putamen and sensorimotor cortex of Huntington's disease and control cases. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA was significantly decreased in the caudate nucleus and putamen, but not in the sensorimotor cortex in Huntington's disease; the decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA became more pronounced with the severity of the disease. Somatostatin gene expression was significantly decreased in the dorsal putamen in Huntington's disease, but was essentially unchanged in all other regions examined. The density of neurons expressing detectable levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA was reduced in the striata of Huntington's disease cases with advanced pathology; the density of neurons expressing detectable levels of somatostatin messenger RNA was similar in control and Huntington's disease cases. Neuropeptide Y-, somatostatin- and NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons were consistently present throughout the striatum across all the grades of the disease. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-diaphorase activity (a histochemical marker for nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons) co-localize with somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in interneurons in the human striatum and cerebral cortex. Although the neurodegeneration associated with Huntington's disease is most evident in the striatum (particularly the dorsal regions), neuronal nitric oxide synthase/neuropeptide Y/somatostatin interneurons are relatively spared. Nitric oxide released by neuronal nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons may mediate glutamate-induced excitotoxic cell death, a mechanism proposed to be instrumental in causing the neurodegeneration seen in Huntington's disease. The results described here suggest that although the population of interneurons containing somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase do survive in

  9. POEMMA: Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olinto, A. V.; Adams, J. H.; Aloisio, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics (POEMMA) mission is being designed to establish charged-particle astronomy with ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and to observe cosmogenic tau neutrinos (CTNs). The study of UHECRs and CTNs from space will yield orders-of-magnitude increase...

  10. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA Translation. The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical ...

  11. The Impact of Mobile Learning on ESP Learners' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhezzi, Fahad; Al-Dousari, Wadha

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of using mobile phone applications, namely Telegram Messenger, on teaching and learning English in an ESP context. The main objective is to test whether using mobile phone applications have an impact on ESP learners' performance by mainly investigating the influence such teaching technique can have on learning…

  12. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    CERN Document Server

    Brümmer, Felix; Weiler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3)_F symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3)_F is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3)_F breaking.

  13. Nonrepetitive DNA Sequence Representation in Sea Urchin Embryo Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert B.; Galau, Glenn A.; Britten, Roy J.; Davidson, Eric H.

    1973-01-01

    Messenger RNA was prepared from developing sea urchin gastrulae by puromycin release from polyribosomes. Approximately 60% of the total mRNA radioactivity of the postnuclear supernatant was recovered and shown to be free of any other labeled RNA species such as ribosomal and nuclear RNA. The mRNA was examined by hybridization to DNA present in great excess. The mRNA hybridizes almost exclusively with nonrepetitive DNA. Almost all of the messenger RNA molecules of sea urchin gastrulae therefore consist of transcripts from nonrepetitive sequences. It appears that the structural genes expressed at this stage are typically not repeated in the genome and the mRNA does not include recognizable repetitive sequence. PMID:4519642

  14. The models evaluating courier and messenger companies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodakowska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is a well-established, popular, and often used method for efficiency evaluation of units from all sector, both commercial and non-profit organisations, of any scale of operations. Network DEA models are a relatively recent approach used to examine the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs having an internal structure of sub-processes. The article presents the concept of DEA network models in estimating the efficiency of courier and messenger companies with relations to their business clients. The considerations are supported by an example of data concerning leaders from the sector of couriers and messengers in Poland and one of the biggest and most popular online stores. The results are compared with the traditional DEA approach. In addition, to measure reliability for DEA scores, the jackknife procedure was performed. The author proves the usefulness of network DEA as a research and management tool.

  15. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  16. The Morphology of Craters on Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Oliver S.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Herrick, Robert R.; Chappelow, John E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic data measured from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft were used for investigations of the relationship between depth and diameter for impact craters on Mercury. Results using data from the MESSENGER flybys of the innermost planet indicate that most of the craters measured with MLA are shallower than those previously measured by using Mariner 10 images. MDIS images of these same MLA-measured craters show that they have been modified. The use of shadow measurement techniques, which were found to be accurate relative to the MLA results, indicate that both small bowl-shaped and large complex craters that are fresh possess depth-to-diameter ratios that are in good agreement with those measured from Mariner 10 images. The preliminary data also show that the depths of modified craters are shallower relative to fresh ones, and might provide quantitative estimates of crater in-filling by subsequent volcanic or impact processes. The diameter that defines the transition from simple to complex craters on Mercury based on MESSENGER data is consistent with that reported from Mariner 10 data.

  17. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations during the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; McClintock, William E.; Benna, Mehdi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18,2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na. K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29. 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He(+), 0(+), and Na(+),

  18. Ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) to improve engagement and behavior for smart campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    The recent popularity of internet messenger based smartphone technologies has motivated some university lecturers to use them for educational activities. These technologies have enormous potential to enhance the teaching and ubiquitous learning experience for smart campus development. However, the design ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application of mobile and ubiquitous learning in smart campus settings to improve engagement and behavior is still limited. In addition, the expectation that mobile learning could improve engagement and behavior on smart campus cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present ubiquitous learning model design and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior using IIMG for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous learning and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect, and its contribution to learning.

  19. Interobserver Variability of Radiographic Assessment Using a Mobile Messaging Application as a Teleconsultation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Sezai; Mellema, Jos J; Ring, David; Chen, Neal C

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether interobserver reliability, decision-making, and confidence in decision-making in the treatment of distal radius fractures changes if radiographs are viewed on a messenger application on a mobile phone compared to a standard DICOM viewer. Radiographs of distal radius fractures were presented to surgeons on either a smart phone using a mobile messenger application or a laptop using a DICOM viewer application. Twenty observers participated: 10 (50%) were randomly assigned to the DICOM viewer group and 10 (50%) to the mobile messenger group. Each observer was asked to evaluate the cases and (1) classify the fracture type according to the AO classification, (2) recommend operative or conservative treatment and (3) rate their confidence about this decision. There was no significant difference in interobserver reliability for AO classification and recommendation for surgery for distal radius fractures in both groups. The percentage of recommendation for surgery was significantly higher in the messenger application group compared to the DICOM viewer group (89% versus 78%, P =0.019) and the confidence for treatment decision was significantly higher in the mobile messenger group compared to the DICOM viewer group (8.9 versus 7.9, P =0.026). Messenger applications on mobile phones could facilitate remote decision-making for patients with distal radius fractures, but should be used with caution.

  20. A Test of General Relativity with MESSENGER Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A.; Mazarico, E.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Nicholas, J. B.; Rowlands, D. D.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Solomon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft initiated collection of scientific data from the innermost planet during its first flyby of Mercury in January 2008. After two additional Mercury flybys, MESSENGER was inserted into orbit around Mercury on 18 March 2011 and operated for more than four Earth years through 30 April 2015. Data acquired during the flyby and orbital phases have provided crucial information on the formation and evolution of Mercury. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the radio science system, for example, obtained geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, orientation, and tides of Mercury, which helped constrain its surface and deep interior structure. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, as well as refinement of the planet's obliquity and estimation of the tidal Love number k2. These geophysical parameters are derived from the range-rate observables that measure precisely the motion of the spacecraft in orbit around the planet. However, the DSN stations acquired two other kinds of radio tracking data, range and delta-differential one-way ranging, which also provided precise measurements of Mercury's ephemeris. The proximity of Mercury's orbit to the Sun leads to a significant perihelion precession, which was used by Einstein as confirmation of general relativity (GR) because of its inconsistency with the effects predicted from classical Newtonian theory. MESSENGER data allow the estimation of the GR parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) coefficients γ and β. Furthermore, determination of Mercury's orbit also allows estimation of the gravitational parameter (GM) and the flattening (J2) of the Sun. We modified our orbit determination software, NASA GSFC's GEODYN II, to enable simultaneous orbit integration of both MESSENGER and the planet Mercury. The

  1. Mercury's complex exosphere: results from MESSENGER's third flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J; McClintock, William E; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Anderson, Brian J; Burger, Matthew H; Bradley, E Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R

    2010-08-06

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal altitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere.

  2. Was my message read?: Privacy and Signaling on Facebook Messenger

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, Roberto; Das, Srijita; Kapadia, Apu; Lee, Adam J.; Vaniea, Kami

    2017-01-01

    Major online messaging services such as Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp are starting to provide users with real-time information about when people read their messages. While useful, this feature has the potential to negatively impact privacy as well as cause concern over access to self. We report on two surveys using Mechanical Turk which looked at senders' (N=402) use of and reactions to the `message seen' feature, and recipients' (N=316) privacy and signaling behaviors in the face of such v...

  3. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED FIPS DDR V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as DDRs. The system...

  4. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED EPS CDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. The system...

  5. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED FIPS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. The system...

  6. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED FIPS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) calibrated observations, also known as DDRs. The system...

  7. MESSENGER E/V/H MERCURY LASER ALTIMETER 2 EDR RAW DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) uncalibrated observations, also known as Experiment Data Records, or EDRs....

  8. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 3 NEUTRON SPECTROMETER CDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer (NS) calibrated data records (CDRs). The NS experiment is a neutron spectrometer...

  9. Role of WhatsApp Messenger in the Laboratory Management System: A Boon to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorwal, Pranav; Sachdev, Ritesh; Gautam, Dheeraj; Jain, Dharmendra; Sharma, Pooja; Tiwari, Assem Kumar; Raina, Vimarsh

    2016-01-01

    The revolution of internet and specifically mobile internet has occurred at a blinding pace over the last decade. With the advent of smart phones, the hand held device has become much more than a medium of voice calling. Healthcare has been catching up with the digital revolution in the form of Hospital Information System and Laboratory Information System. However, the advent of instant messaging services, which are abundantly used by the youth, can be used to improve communication and coordination among the various stake holders in the healthcare sector. We have tried to look at the impact of using the WhatsApp messenger service in the laboratory management system, by forming multiple groups of the various subsections of the laboratory. A total of 35 members used this service for a period of 3 months and their response was taken on a scale of 1 to 10. There was significant improvement in the communication in the form of sharing photographic evidence, information about accidents, critical alerts, duty rosters, academic activities and getting directives from seniors. There was also some increase in the load of adding information to the application and disturbance in the routine activities; but the benefits far outweighed the minor hassles. We thereby suggest and foresee another communication revolution which will change the way information is shared in a healthcare sector, with hospital specific dedicated apps.

  10. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections observed by MESSENGER and Venus Express

    CERN Document Server

    Good, S W

    2015-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed by the MESSENGER (MES) and Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft have been catalogued and analysed. The ICMEs were identified by a relatively smooth rotation of the magnetic field direction consistent with a flux rope structure, coinciding with a relatively enhanced magnetic field strength. A total of 35 ICMEs were found in the surveyed MES data (primarily from March 2007 to April 2012), and 84 ICMEs in the surveyed VEX data (from May 2006 to December 2013). The ICME flux rope configurations have been determined. Ropes with northward leading edges were about four times more common than ropes with southward leading edges, in agreement with a previously established solar cycle dependence. Ropes with low inclinations to the solar equatorial plane were about four times more common than ropes with high inclinations, possibly an observational effect. Left and right-handed ropes were observed in almost equal numbers. In addition, data from MES, VEX, STEREO-A, STEREO-B ...

  11. Advanced LIGO and Multi-Messenger Transient Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawhan, Peter S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first Advanced LIGO observing run, which began in September 2015, is on track to extend the volume*time reach of the gravitational wave (GW) detector network by an order of magnitude by the end of the year. Searches for transient GW signals from compact binary mergers and other possible sources are a central part of the LIGO-Virgo science program. To enhance those searches and to try to place any detected signals into an astronomical context, we have undertaken an extensive program of partnering with observers to enable prompt transient survey correlations and follow-up observations at all wavelengths, from optical and radio telescopes on the ground to astroparticle detectors to space missions including Fermi and Swift. I will summarize the data collected from the first Advanced LIGO observing run, the transient searches being carried out, and the multi-messenger observing effort.

  12. Tissue distribution of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jbilo, O.; Barteles, C.F.; Chatonnet, A.; Toutant, J.P.; Lockridge, O.

    1994-12-31

    Tissue distribution of human acetyicholinesterase and butyryicholinesterase messenger RNA. 1 Cholinesterase inhibitors occur naturally in the calabar bean (eserine), green potatoes (solanine), insect-resistant crab apples, the coca plant (cocaine) and snake venom (fasciculin). There are also synthetic cholinesterase inhibitors, for example man-made insecticides. These inhibitors inactivate acetyicholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as well as other targets. From a study of the tissue distribution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase mRNA by Northern blot analysis, we have found the highest levels of butyrylcholinesterase mRNA in the liver and lungs, tissues known as the principal detoxication sites of the human body. These results indicate that butyrylcholinesterase may be a first line of defense against poisons that are eaten or inhaled.

  13. Messenger in The Barn: networking in a learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Rutter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes the use of a synchronous communication application (MSN Messenger in a large academic computing environment. It draws on data from interviews, questionnaires and student marks to examine the link between use of the application and success measured through module marks. The relationship is not simple. Total abstainers and heavy users come out best, while medium level users do less well, indicating the influence of two factors. The discussion section suggests possible factors. The study also highlights the benefits of support and efficiency of communication that the application brings. Although there have been many studies of synchronous communication tool use in the office and in social life, this is one of the first to examine its informal use in an academic environment.

  14. Using an Instant Messenger to Learn a Foreign Language in a Peer-Tutoring Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Joeun; Yoo, Yungtai; Lee, Kyungsuk; Jung, Bokmoon; Baek, Youngkyun

    2017-01-01

    This study explores useful ways of using an instant messenger in a peer-tutoring environment when two students exchange their mother languages. Seven learners of Korean and seven Korean students learning English were paired randomly to conduct language exchange via an instant messenger, KakaoTalk. The pairs (five of male and female pair and two of…

  15. Insights into the Nature of Mercury's Exosphere: Early Results from the MESSENGER Orbital Mission Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft has been making routine observations of Mercury's exosphere since March 29, 2011. Correlations of the spatial distributions of Ca, Mg, and Na with MESSENGER magnetic field and energetic particle distribution data provide insight into the processes that populate the neutral exosphere

  16. Nitric Oxide: The Coming of the Second Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferid Murad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available (Excerpt The concept of communications between cells or cell signaling dates back over 100 years to Pavlov. He discovered that neuronal signals, first generated by the smell of food and later by the ringing of a bell, enhanced gastric secretion. The neurons communicated with cells in the stomach. Today it is well established that cell signaling is a universal phenomenon, occurring throughout the body and even between unicellular organisms such as yeast, fungi, and bacteria. The molecules that are used for the purpose of communicating between cells are diverse and comprise amino acids, peptides, proteins, and other organic molecules. These molecules, which number in the hundreds, were initially called “first messengers” and are now called hormones, cytokines, growth factors, paracrine substances, neurotransmitters, and a variety of other names. These molecules find their target cell by identifying and binding to a receptor that is mostly located on the surface of the target cell. This binding ensures the specificity of the interaction, since only cells with specific receptors will bind to specific ligands. The binding of the ligand to the receptor initiates a biochemical cascade, resulting in the accumulation of an intracellular second messenger, which then goes on to trigger the desired effect on the cell. The first second messenger, which was discovered in 1957, was cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP. Others came along in the ensuing 10–15 years. Today, we know there are many such molecules, including cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, nitric oxide (NO, calcium, diacylglycerol, phosphatidylinositols, and more, some surely yet to be discovered. Many of these discoveries eventually led to a Nobel Prize.

  17. A comprehensive study of Mercury and MESSENGER orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Rowlands, David D.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-10-01

    The MErcury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited the planet Mercury for more than 4 years. The probe started its science mission in orbit around Mercury on 18 March 2011. The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and radio science system were the instruments dedicated to geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, orientation, and tides of Mercury. X-band radio-tracking range-rate data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, the planet's obliquity, and the Love number k2.The extensive range data acquired in orbit around Mercury during the science mission (from April 2011 to April 2015), and during the three flybys of the planet in 2008 and 2009, provide a powerful dataset for the investigation of Mercury's ephemeris. The proximity of Mercury's orbit to the Sun leads to a significant perihelion precession attributable to the gravitational flattening of the Sun (J2) and the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) coefficients γ and β, which describe the space curvature produced by a unit rest mass and the nonlinearity in superposition of gravity, respectively. Therefore, the estimation of Mercury's ephemeris can provide crucial information on the interior structure of the Sun and Einstein's general theory of relativity. However, the high correlation among J2, γ, and β complicates the combined recovery of these parameters, so additional assumptions are required, such as the Nordtvedt relationship η = 4β - γ - 3.We have modified our orbit determination software, GEODYN II, to enable the simultaneous integration of the spacecraft and central body trajectories. The combined estimation of the MESSENGER and Mercury orbits allowed us to determine a more accurate gravity field, orientation, and tides of Mercury, and the values of GM and J2 for the Sun, where G is the gravitational constant and M is the solar mass

  18. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites......In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived......, and systems 'hosting' these multiple and complex mobilities are designed and how they are staging these in terms of their physical layout. By analysing specific cases of ‘mobilities design’ related to the four modes of moving; Walk, Bike, Train, and Car, the book uncover important and until now neglected...

  19. Results and prospects in multi-messenger particle astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy particle astrophysics the old days were certainly not better than these. Our field has thrived in the past decade with experiments covering thousands of square kilometers to measure the suppression in the flux of the highest energy cosmic rays ever observed, instrumenting a cubic kilometer of Antarctic ice to discover astrophysical neutrinos, and measuring a change in arm length as small as 10-19 m for the ground-breaking direct observation of gravitational waves. Additionally, the current generation of space-borne and ground-based gamma-ray experiments have revealed a plethora of gamma-ray sources, including pulsars, compact binaries, the galactic center, and extragalactic sources such as starburst galaxies and radio galaxies. Before the next generation of instruments bring us yet another order of magnitude in sensitivity, we can combine current observations to probe physics beyond the standard model, and to extend the high-energy frontier well above the energies accessible to laboratory accelerators. One example of this potential is the search for dark-matter annihilation and decay products. To use the multi-messenger approach effectively for probing dark-matter signatures and physics beyond the LHC energy requires understanding the origin (or acceleration mechanism) and the propagation processes. High energy protons and nuclei, neutrinos, gamma-rays, X-rays, and gravitational waves bring new and complementary views of the astrophysical sources. By comparing observations through different windows, we can use the sites of violent phenomena as a laboratory to probe the physical processes under extreme conditions throughout the Universe, and to test the fundamental laws of particle physics and gravitation. As a community we need to engage in a bold synergistic approach to understanding the violent processes that give rise to the high-energy cosmic phenomena in the Universe. In this invited talk, I will present on-going multi-messenger studies to

  20. Nonthermal electromagnetic fields: from first messenger to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Arthur A

    2013-06-01

    Nonthermal pulsed electromagnetic fields, from low frequency to pulse-modulated radio frequency, have been successfully employed as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of delayed and non-union fractures, fresh fractures and chronic wounds. Recent increased understanding of the mechanism of action of electromagnetic fields (EMF) has permitted technologic advances allowing the development of EMF devices which are portable and disposable, can be incorporated into dressings, supports and casts, and can be used over clothing. This broadens the use of non-pharmacological, non-invasive EMF therapy to the treatment of postoperative pain and edema to enhance surgical recovery. EMF therapy is rapidly becoming a standard part of surgical care, and new, more significant, clinical applications for osteoarthritis, brain and cardiac ischemia and traumatic brain injury are in the pipeline. This study reviews recent evidence which suggests that calmodulin (CaM)-dependent nitric oxide signaling is involved in cell and tissue response to weak nonthermal EMF signals. There is abundant evidence that EMF signals can be configured a priori to increase the rate of CaM activation, which, in turn, can modulate the biochemical cascades living cells and tissues employ in response to external insult. Successful applications in pilot clinical trials, coupled with evidence at the cellular and animal levels, provide support that EMF is a first messenger that can modulate the response of challenged biological systems.

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of the messenger RNA cap-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, R.; Patzelt, E.; Blaas, D.; Kuechler, E.

    1986-05-01

    A photoaffinity derivative of a cap analogue, ..gamma..(/sup 32/P)-(4-(benzoylphenyl)methylamido)-7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate, was reacted with the 28-kDa messenger RNA cap-binding protein (CBP), purified by affinity chromatography from rabbit erythrocyte lysate. The predominant labeling was of the 28-kDa species. No labeling occurred without photoillumination or in the presence of 250 ..mu..M m/sup 7/GTP. In addition CBP, two polypeptides of 19 and 17kDa, present in the affinity-purified preparation, were specifically labeled. Another sample tested was the eIF-3 region of a sucrose gradient fractionation, in 100 mM KCl, of rabbit reticulocyte high salt ribosomal wash. The only polypeptide labeled was the 28-kDa CBP. Labeling was more intense than with an equivalent amount of affinity-purified CBP, suggesting the presence of stabilizing or stimulatory factors in the eIF-3 preparation.

  2. Internet messenger based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Internet messenger (IM) has become an important educational technology component in college education, IM makes it possible for students to engage in learning and collaborating at smart virtual class learning (SVCL) using ubiquitous computing. However, the model of IM-based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application to improve engagement and behavior are still limited. In addition, the expectation that IM based SVCL using ubiquitous computing could improve engagement and behavior on smart class cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present the model of IM-based SVCL using ubiquitous computing and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous computing and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect and its contribution to learning

  3. Topicality and impact in social media: diverse messages, focused messengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Weng

    Full Text Available We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user's interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact.

  4. Monitoring global messenger RNA changes in externally controlled microarray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Peppel, Jeroen; Kemmeren, Patrick; van Bakel, Harm; Radonjic, Marijana; van Leenen, Dik; Holstege, Frank C.P.

    2003-01-01

    Expression profiling is a universal tool, with a range of applications that benefit from the accurate determination of differential gene expression. To allow normalization using endogenous transcript levels, current microarray analyses assume that relatively few transcripts vary, or that any changes that occur are balanced. When normalization using endogenous genes is carried out, changes in expression levels are calculated relative to the behaviour of most of the transcripts. This does not reflect absolute changes if global shifts in messenger RNA populations occur. Using external RNA controls, we have set up microarray experiments to monitor global changes. The levels of most mRNAs were found to change during yeast stationary phase and human heat shock when external controls were included. Even small global changes had a significant effect on the number of genes reported as being differentially expressed. This suggests that global mRNA changes occur more frequently than is assumed at present, and shows that monitoring such effects may be important for the accurate determination of changes in gene expression. PMID:12671682

  5. Topicality and impact in social media: diverse messages, focused messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user's interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact.

  6. Interobserver Variability of Radiographic Assessment using a Mobile Messaging Application as a Teleconsultation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine whether interobserver reliability, decision-making, and confidence in decision-making in thetreatment of distal radius fractures changes if radiographs are viewed on a messenger application on a mobile phonecompared to a standard DICOM viewer.Methods: Radiographs of distal radius fractures were presented to surgeons on either a smart phone using a mobilemessenger application or a laptop using a DICOM viewer application. Twenty observers participated: 10 (50% wererandomly assigned to the DICOM viewer group and 10 (50% to the mobile messenger group. Each observer was askedto evaluate the cases and (1 classify the fracture type according to the AO classification, (2 recommend operative orconservative treatment and (3 rate their confidence about this decision.Results: There was no significant difference in interobserver reliability for AO classification and recommendation forsurgery for distal radius fractures in both groups. The percentage of recommendation for surgery was significantlyhigher in the messenger application group compared to the DICOM viewer group (89% versus 78%, P=0.019 and theconfidence for treatment decision was significantly higher in the mobile messenger group compared to the DICOM viewergroup (8.9 versus 7.9, P=0.026.Conclusion: Messenger applications on mobile phones could facilitate remote decision-making for patients with distalradius fractures, but should be used with caution.

  7. De regreso al origen? La escritura simbolica y el lenguaje escrito en los usuarios del Messenger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valencia-Cerino, Yaditzy; Garcia-Martinez, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio es el resultado de un trabajo de tesis de comunicacion en el que se aborda el tema de la utilizacion del lenguaje en el Messenger y sus posibles repercusiones en los manuscritos...

  8. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 5 VIRS DERIVED ANALYSIS DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS derived analysis product, also known as the DAP. The DAP is a 500 meter per pixel mosaic map of...

  9. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 2 VIRS UNCALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS uncalibrated observations, also known as EDRs. The MASCS VIRS experiment is a fixed concave...

  10. MESSENGER V/H RADIO SCIENCE SUBSYSTEM 1 EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting radio science data acquired during the MESSENGER mission. The radio observations...

  11. MESSENGER H XRS 5 REDUCED DATA RECORD (RDR) FOOTPRINTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER XRS reduced data record (RDR) footprints which are derived from the navigational meta-data for each...

  12. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 3 UVVS CALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS UVVS calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. The MASCS UVVS experiment is a scanning grating...

  13. MESSENGER E/V/H XRS CALIBRATED (CDR) SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER XRS calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. Each XRS observation results in four X-ray spectra. When...

  14. MESSENGER E/V/H MASCS 3 VIRS CALIBRATED DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER MASCS VIRS calibrated observations, also known as CDRs. The MASCS VIRS experiment is a fixed concave...

  15. MESSENGER E/V/H/SW EPPS CALIBRATED EPS DDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) advanced data products, also known as DDR/DAPs. The...

  16. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 3 GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER CALIBDATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER GRS calibrated observations (CDRs) and the reduced data product (RDR). The GRS experiment is a gamma ray...

  17. MESSENGER E/V/H GRNS 2 GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETER RAW DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER GRS uncalibrated observations, also known as EDRs. The GRS experiment is a gamma ray spectrometer designed...

  18. Crosstalk between secondary messengers, hormones and MAPK modules during abiotic stress signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smékalová, Veronika; Doskočilová, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The crosstalk between second messengers, hormones and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in plant signalling systems facilitates adaptation and survival in the face of diverse environmental stresses. This review focuses on the transduction of second messenger and hormone signals by MAPK modules in plant abiotic stress responses. We discuss how this crosstalk regulates gene expression (e.g. by controlling transcription factor activity) and other cellular and physiological responses to enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stresses. © 2013.

  19. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that {beta}-endorphin 1-31 ({beta}-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca{sup 2+} uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that {beta}-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} uptake was not affected by {beta}-END 1-31. {beta}-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca{sup 2+} uptake by either cell type. Using ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, {beta}-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E{sub 1} (PGE{sub 1}) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. {beta}-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by {beta}-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca{sup 2+} influx was not a major mechanism involved.

  20. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  1. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  2. The Dual Role of Calcium as Messenger and Stressor in Cell Damage, Death, and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cerella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ is an important second messenger participating in many cellular activities; when physicochemical insults deregulate its delicate homeostasis, it acts as an intrinsic stressor, producing/increasing cell damage. Damage elicits both repair and death responses; intriguingly, in those responses Ca2+ also participates as second messenger. This delineates a dual role for Ca2+ in cell stress, making difficult to separate the different and multiple mechanisms required for Ca2+-mediated control of cell survival and apoptosis. Here we attempt to disentangle the two scenarios, examining on the one side, the events implicated in deregulated Ca2+ toxicity and the mechanisms through which this elicits reparative or death pathways; on the other, reviewing the role of Ca2+ as a messenger in the transduction of these same signaling events.

  3. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Barabash, Stas; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Fraenz, Markus; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho,George C.; hide

    2009-01-01

    At 23:08 UTC on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude of 338 kin during its final flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements provides a rare opportunity to examine the influence of upstream conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of new features of the Venus - solar wind interaction including hot flow anomalies upstream of the bow shock, a flux rope in the near-tail and a two-point determination of the timescale for magnetic flux transport through this induced magnetosphere. Citation: Stavin, J. A., et al. (2009), MESSENGER and Venus Express observations of the solar wind interaction with Venus,

  4. Kindling and second messengers: an approach to the neurobiology of recurrence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S N; Boiman, E E; Goodwin, F K

    1999-01-15

    Since bipolar disorder is inherently a longitudinal illness characterized by recurrence and cycling of mood episodes, neurobiological theories involving kindlinglike phenomena appear to possess a certain explanatory power. An approach to understanding kindlinglike phenomena at the molecular level has been made possible by advances in research on second-messenger systems in the brain. The time frame of interest has shifted from the microseconds of presynaptic events to hours, days, months, and even years in the longer duration of events beyond the synapse--through second messengers, gene regulation, and synthesis of long-acting trophic factors. These complex interlocking systems may explain how environmental stress could interact over time with genetic vulnerability to produce illness. In its two sections, this paper will review an approach to understanding two major aspects of the neurobiology of bipolar disorder: kindling phenomena and second-messenger mechanisms. We will suggest that these two fields of research together help explain the biology of recurrence.

  5. Collaboration and decision making tools for mobile groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, Suren; Balyan, Serob; Ter-Minasyan, Harutyun; Degtyarev, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays the use of distributed collaboration tools is widespread in many areas of people activity. But lack of mobility and certain equipment-dependency creates difficulties and decelerates development and integration of such technologies. Also mobile technologies allow individuals to interact with each other without need of traditional office spaces and regardless of location. Hence, realization of special infrastructures on mobile platforms with help of ad-hoc wireless local networks could eliminate hardware-attachment and be useful also in terms of scientific approach. Solutions from basic internet-messengers to complex software for online collaboration equipment in large-scale workgroups are implementations of tools based on mobile infrastructures. Despite growth of mobile infrastructures, applied distributed solutions in group decisionmaking and e-collaboration are not common. In this article we propose software complex for real-time collaboration and decision-making based on mobile devices, describe its architecture and evaluate performance.

  6. Mercury's Exosphere During MESSENGER's Second Flyby: Detection of Magnesium and Distinct Distributions of Neutral Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Killen, Rosemary M.; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer observed emission from Mercury's neutral exosphere. These observations include the first detection of emission from magnesium. Differing spatial distributions for sodium, calcium, and magnesium were revealed by observations beginning in Mercury's tail region, approximately 8 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet, continuing past the nightside, and ending near the dawn terminator. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  7. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglià, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Márka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H.; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  8. Students Engaging the Public in Exciting Discoveries by NASA's MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallau, K. G.; Morison, J.; Schuele, H.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft entered into orbit around Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun. As the first mission to orbit and study Mercury in depth, MESSENGER sought to answer six primary scientific questions: why is Mercury so dense; what is the geologic history of Mercury; what is the nature of Mercury's magnetic field; what is the structure of Mercury's core; what are the unusual materials at Mercury's poles; and what volatiles are important at Mercury? In the first year of orbit, MESSENGER answered all of these questions, and also made several surprising discoveries. Student interns working with the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) team are using MESSENGER Mosaic Postcards (MPC) in both print and digital formats to present this new information to a broad audience. These MPCs, in conjunction with the rest of the MESSENGER EPO tools, present a unified and global resource for the public. By creating this resource in a variety of media, from printable cards to interactive features on the EPO website (http://www.messenger-education.org/), the EPO team can reach a larger audience, further the goal of the MPC project to share newly discovered features and phenomena with the general public, and thereby generate increased interest in and excitement about science and planetary exploration. One side of each MPC shows a MESSENGER image of a portion of Mercury's surface, and together the postcards can be arranged to form a complete image of the planet. On the reverse side of some cards is information pertaining to an item of interest in view on the image-side. One of us (physics undergraduate JEM) researches interesting features on the surface of Mercury and creates descriptions for the informational side of the postcards, and another (computer science undergraduate HCS) creates the digital versions of cards and associated resources for the Surface Interactive, an interactive tool on the MESSENGER EPO website. Postcards already in distribution

  9. La escritura simbólica y el lenguaje escrito en los usuarios del Messenger The Symbols and Written Language of Users of Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica García Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio es el resultado de un trabajo de tesis de comunicación en el que se aborda el tema de la utilización del lenguaje en el Messenger y sus posibles repercusiones en los manuscritos de los estudiantes de nivel medio superior. Es un estudio desarrollado entre adolescentes usuarios del Messenger, que utilizan la gama de símbolos y signos que les proporciona esta herramienta, para sustituir la escritura que comúnmente se usa en los manuscritos. La metodología es del enfoque cualitativo y se trata de un estudio comparativo basado en el modelo de comunicación referencial. El trabajo empírico se realizó entre un total de 16 jóvenes de dos escuelas diferentes de nivel medio superior, cuya edad está entre los 15 y 17 años, los cuales a su vez se integraron en dos grupos de ocho sujetos para el estudio en una primera etapa y otros ocho en una segunda. Básicamente se diferenciaron los que utilizan con mucha frecuencia el Messenger y los que lo utilizan muy poco, o no lo utilizan. Las técnicas de recolección de datos fueron: observación durante sesiones de chat, escritos a máquina (ordenador y manuscritos. La técnica para la interpretación de los datos fue de análisis de contenido. Los resultados sugieren que existe escasa relación entre la utilización de signos y símbolos en el Messenger y la calidad en la redacción de los textos, particularmente en los manuscritos.This work presents the results of a postgraduate thesis on communication, particularly the use of language. Messenger is one of the most popular ways for communicating by signs and symbols. This study was carried out on junior high school students in state education. This research explores the possible impact on junior high school students’ written work due to their use of Messenger. To address this question, the referential communication model with the qualitative approach was used in order to carry out a comparative study. Data were gathered from 16

  10. Social and Virtual Networks: Evaluating Synchronous Online Interviewing Using Instant Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliffe, Vanessa; Gavin, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of the quality and utility of synchronous online interviewing for data collection in social network research. Synchronous online interviews facilitated by Instant Messenger as the communication medium, were undertaken with ten final year university students. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of…

  11. 29 CFR 516.30 - Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped workers employed under special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped... handicapped workers employed under special certificates as provided in section 14 of the Act. (a) With respect... education, or handicapped workers employed at special minimum hourly rates under Special Certificates...

  12. Observations of Mercury’s Neutral Hydrogen Exosphere During the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J.; Hurley, Dana; Pryor, Wayne R.

    2017-10-01

    Because of the difficulty of observing H Lyman α at Mercury remotely, the MESSENGER mission afforded the first chance since the Mariner 10 flybys to investigate the neutral hydrogen exosphere of Mercury in detail. Mariner 10 discovered H at Mercury, but left many questions about the puzzling temperature and density distributions unanswered. Sparse observations during the MESSENGER flybys of Mercury suggested that the H exosphere was grossly similar to what was observed by Mariner 10, but with higher overall emission levels, and they provided no answers to the outstanding issues from Mariner 10. Observations of H Lyman α emission by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) component of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) instrument onboard MESSENGER were conducted regularly throughout the MESSENGER orbital phase. These observations provide a much more complete picture of the H exosphere at Mercury. We present an analysis of the UVVS orbital observations, focusing on the temporal and spatial distribution of the hydrogen about the planet. Preliminary models will be shown, and the UVVS data will be compared and contrasted to the Mariner 10 data to address the long-outstanding questions about this element of Mercury’s complex exosphere. Support from the NASA Discovery Data Analysis Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  14. Comparing Strategies for Health Information Dissemination: Messengers That Can Help or Hinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jessica; Greenberg, Patricia; Bagga, Margy Barbieri; Casarett, David; Propert, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    To test the effects of different messengers on the dissemination of health information. An experimental study exposed participants to 12 news articles pertaining to 1 of 3 health topics framed from the perspective of 4 generic messengers: religious figures, doctors, celebrity patients, or ordinary patients. Participants select as many of the 12 articles as desired. A cancer clinic within a large, urban hospital serving a sociodemographically diverse patient population. Eighty-nine patients with a history of cancer. The primary outcome was the frequency with which each news story was selected. Summary statistics and a general estimating equation model. For each health topic, news articles using celebrity messengers were the least likely to be selected; almost half of the participants (36 [41.4%] of 87) rejected all such articles. Articles linked to religious figures were equally unpopular ( P = .59). Articles that used doctors or ordinary patients as the messenger were very likely to be selected: Nearly all women (84 [96.6%] of 87) selected at least one of these. Furthermore, the odds of choosing articles linked to celebrities or religious leaders were statistically significantly lower than the odds of choosing those linked to ordinary patients or doctors ( P celebrities or religious figures were consistently less likely to be selected than those linked to ordinary patients, or doctors.

  15. A Contemporary, Laboratory-Intensive Course on Messenger RNA Transcription and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Sue; Miller, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) plays a pivotal role in the central dogma of molecular biology. Importantly, molecular events occurring during and after mRNA synthesis have the potential to create multiple proteins from one gene, leading to some of the remarkable protein diversity that genomes hold. The North Carolina State University…

  16. Unit Messengers, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set, [Australian Science Education Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Education Project is producing material designed for use in grades 7-10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit concerned with sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. The teacher's guide outlines the use of the two booklets ("Messengers" and "Use of the Senses") intended for all…

  17. Single-cell messenger RNA sequencing reveals rare intestinal cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Dominic; Lyubimova, Anna; Kester, Lennart; Wiebrands, Kay; Basak, Onur; Sasaki, Nobuo; Clevers, Hans; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the development and function of an organ requires the characterization of all of its cell types. Traditional methods for visualizing and isolating subpopulations of cells are based on messenger RNA or protein expression of only a few known marker genes. The unequivocal identification

  18. Shooting the Messenger: Mediating the Public and the Role of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shooting the Messenger: Mediating the Public and the Role of the Media in South Africa's Xenophobic Violence. ... at: there has been a communications breakdown in South Africa at a local level between communities and the state, as well as within communities, which lies at the root of much of the anger and violence.

  19. Farm Women, Solidarity, and "The Suffrage Messenger": Nebraska Suffrage Activism on the Plains, 1915-1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In 1914 Nebraska men once again voted against the amendment that would have granted full suffrage to Nebraska women. This article focuses on the three years immediately after that defeat. It explores the remaining seventeen issues of the "Suffrage Messenger" and asks the following question: how did the suffrage newspaper portray and…

  20. Mobile payment

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Paying with mobile devices such as mobile phones or smart phones will expand worldwide in the coming years. This development provides opportunities for various industries (banking, telecommunications, credit card business, manufacturers, suppliers, retail) and for consumers.

  1. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have completely transformed the way we live, work, learn and conduct our everyday activities. Mobile phones have also changed the way users access lexicographic data. In fact, it can be argued that mobile phones and lexicography are not yet compatible. Modern users...... are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app Medicin...... and that lexicographic innovation is needed. A new type of users, new user situations and new access methods call for new lexicographic solutions, and this article proposes a six-pointed hexagram model, which can be used during dictionary app design to lexicographically calibrate the six dimensions in mobile...

  2. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Klečková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  3. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation...

  4. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  5. Analisis dan Perancangan Aplikasi Bee-Messenger Sebagai Media-Media Instant Messanging di Universitas Bina Nusantara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Santosa Jaya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology today has progressed at a rapid rate, as well as with instant messaging growing into all aspects of life, even more so in the advancement of communication technology. By using the VoIP feature, users can communicate by voice via the Internet. Messenger as a communication medium that is fast, accurate and low cost is expected to meet the need for a practical communication media. The purpose of this study is to analyze and design a messaging application called Bee-Messenger which will be used as a medium of instant messaging in Bina Nusantara University, and also analyze the needs of users with feature-contained in commonly used messenger applications. Research methods used are literature review, field studies, and field observations. Evaluation is based on the comparison of Bee-Messenger features with the same features found in Yahoo Messenger and MSN Messenger. Bee-Messenger can also activate YM and MSN messaging accounts simultaneously in a single application that gives users a practical application messaging. 

  6. The Exploration of Mercury by MESSENGER: Looking Ahead to Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L.; Bedini, P. D.; Anderson, B. J.; Prockter, L. M.; Blewett, D. T.; Evans, L. G.; Gold, R. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Nittler, L. R.; Phillips, R. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Zuber, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft flew by Mercury three times in 2008-09 en route to insertion into orbit about the planet in March 2011. The flybys confirmed that the planet's internal magnetic field is dominantly dipolar, with a vector moment closely aligned with the spin axis. MESSENGER detected Mg and Ca+ in Mercury’s exosphere, demonstrated that Mercury's anti-sunward neutral tail contains multiple species, and revealed that exospheric Na, Ca, and Mg vary differently with space and time, signatures of multiple source processes. MESSENGER's laser altimeter showed that the equatorial topographic relief of Mercury exceeds 5 km, revealed an equatorial ellipticity aligned with the ellipticity in Mercury's gravitational potential, and profiled numerous impact craters and fault scarps. MESSENGER images provided evidence for widespread volcanism, and candidate sites for volcanic centers were identified. Newly imaged lobate scarps and other tectonic landforms support the hypothesis that Mercury contracted globally in response to interior cooling. The ˜1500-km-diameter Caloris basin was a focus for volcanic centers, some with evidence of pyroclastic deposits, and widespread contractional and extensional deformation; smooth plains interior and exterior to the basin postdate the basin-forming event. The interior plains of the ˜290-km-diameter Rachmaninoff basin are among the youngest volcanic material on the planet. Mercury surface units are distinguishable by color and composition; smooth plains occupy ˜40% of the surface area, and low-reflectance material occupies ˜15% of the surface area and is primarily seen in deposits excavated by impact. Reflectance spectra show no evidence for FeO in surface silicates, and reflectance and color imaging observations support the view that Mercury's surface material consists dominantly of Fe-poor, Ca-Mg silicates with an admixture of spectrally neutral opaque minerals. In support of the hypothesis that those opaque minerals are Fe

  7. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  8. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Loading and Unloading of Mercury's Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the magnetic field in the planet's magnetotail increased by factors of 2 to 3.5 over intervals of 2 to 3 min. Magnetospheric substorms at Earth are powered by similar tail loading, but the amplitude is approx.10 times less and typical durations are approx.1 hour. The extreme tail loading observed at Mercury implies that the relative intensity of sub storms must be much larger than at Earth. The correspondence between the duration of tail field enhancements and the characteristic time for the Dungey cycle, which describes plasma circulation through Mercury's magnetosphere. suggests that such circulation determines substorm timescale. A key aspect of tail unloading during terrestrial substorms is the acceleration of energetic charged particles, but no acceleration signatures were seen during the MESSENGER flyby.

  9. Return to Mercury: a global perspective on MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L; Watters, Thomas R; Lawrence, David J; Feldman, William C; Head, James W; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Murchie, Scott L; Phillips, Roger J; Slavin, James A; Zuber, Maria T

    2008-07-04

    In January 2008, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft became the first probe to fly past the planet Mercury in 33 years. The encounter revealed that Mercury is a dynamic system; its liquid iron-rich outer core is coupled through a dominantly dipolar magnetic field to the surface, exosphere, and magnetosphere, all of which interact with the solar wind. MESSENGER images confirm that lobate scarps are the dominant tectonic landform and record global contraction associated with cooling of the planet. The history of contraction can be related to the history of volcanism and cratering, and the total contractional strain is at least one-third greater than inferred from Mariner 10 images. On the basis of measurements of thermal neutrons made during the flyby, the average abundance of iron in Mercury's surface material is less than 6% by weight.

  10. Isolation and Translation of Hordein Messenger RNA from Wild Type and Mutant Endosperms in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders Bøving; Ingwersen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of four cDNA clones coding for the carboxy-terminal portion of at least two different B1 hordein polypeptides are presented. The open reading frame in the nucleotide sequence of the the largest clone (pc hor2-4, 720 nucleotides) translates into the 181 carboxy-terminal amino.......30 megadaltons. The 11S messenger RNA was translated in vitro into hordein precursor polypeptides which are 2–4 kilodaltons larger than the native hordein polypeptides. The endosperm cell of mutant No. 1508 contained twice as much RNA as the wild type endosperm cell but the same amount of polyadenylated 11S RNA....... The template activity of the latter was 10% of that found for the 11S hordein messenger RNA from the wild type and was limited to translation into one hordein precursor polypeptide....

  11. Mercury's rotational state from combined MESSENGER laser altimeter and image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Preusker, Frank; Margot, Jean-Luc; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-04-01

    With orbital data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, we measured the rotational state of Mercury. We developed a novel approach that combined digital terrain models from stereo images (stereo DTMs) and laser altimeter data, and we applied it to 3 years of MESSENGER observations. We find a large libration amplitude, which in combination with the measured obliquity confirms that Mercury possesses a liquid outer core. Our results confirm previous Earth-based observations of Mercury's rotational state. However, we measured a rotation rate that deviates significantly from the mean resonant rotation rate. The larger rotation rate can be interpreted as the signature of a long-period libration cycle. From these findings we derived new constraints on the interior structure of Mercury. The measured rotational parameters define Mercury's body-fixed frame and are critical for the coordinate system of the planet as well as for planning the future BepiColombo spacecraft mission.

  12. Effect of Thymine Starvation on Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzati, Denise

    1966-01-01

    Luzzati, Denise (Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Paris, France). Effect of thymine starvation on messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1435–1446. 1966.—During the course of thymine starvation, the rate of synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA, the rapidly labeled fraction of the RNA which decays in the presence of dinitrophenol or which hybridizes with deoxyribonucleic acid) decreases exponentially, in parallel with the viability of the thymine-starved bacteria. The ability of cell-free extracts of starved bacteria to incorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates into RNA was determined; it was found to be inferior to that of extracts from control cells. The analysis of the properties of cell-free extracts of starved cells shows that their decreased RNA polymerase activity is the consequence of a modification of their deoxyribonucleic acid, the ability of which to serve as a template for RNA polymerase decreases during starvation. PMID:5332402

  13. Comment on "Length-dependent translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes"

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2011-01-01

    In recent paper [Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 83}, 042903 (2011)], a simple model for the translation of messenger RNA by ribosomes is provided, and the expression of translational ratio of protein is given. In this comments, varied methods to get this ratio are addressed. Depending on a different method, we find that, roughly speaking, this translational ratio decays exponentially with mRNA length in prokaryotic cell, and reciprocally with mRNA length in eukaryotic cells.

  14. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the background of the ‘mobilities turn’ (e.g. Cresswell 2006, Urry 2007) this book articulates a new and emerging research field, namely that of ‘m......Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the background of the ‘mobilities turn’ (e.g. Cresswell 2006, Urry 2007) this book articulates a new and emerging research field, namely...... that of ‘mobilities design’. The book revolves around the following research question: How are design decisions and interventions staging mobilities? It builds upon the Staging Mobilities model (Jensen 2013) in an explorative inquiry into the problems and potentials of the design of mobilities. The exchange value...... between mobilities and design research is twofold. To mobilities research this means getting closer to the ‘material’, and to engage in the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world which offer new potentials for innovative research. Design research, on the other hand, might...

  15. Second Messenger Signaling in Bacillus subtilis: Accumulation of Cyclic di-AMP Inhibits Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Jan; Rath, Hermann; Herzberg, Christina; Mäder, Ulrike; Stülke, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis produces the essential second messenger signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP. In B. subtilis and other bacteria, c-di-AMP has been implicated in diverse functions such as control of metabolism, cell division and cell wall synthesis, and potassium transport. To enhance our understanding of the multiple functions of this second messenger, we have studied the consequences of c-di-AMP accumulation at a global level by a transcriptome analysis. C-di-AMP accumulation affected the expression of about 700 genes, among them the two major operons required for biofilm formation. The expression of both operons was severely reduced both in the laboratory and a non-domesticated strain upon accumulation of c-di-AMP. In excellent agreement, the corresponding strain was unable to form complex colonies. In B. subtilis, the transcription factor SinR controls the expression of biofilm genes by binding to their promoter regions resulting in transcription repression. Inactivation of the sinR gene restored biofilm formation even at high intracellular c-di-AMP concentrations suggesting that the second messenger acts upstream of SinR in the signal transduction pathway. As c-di-AMP accumulation did not affect the intracellular levels of SinR, we conclude that the nucleotide affects the activity of SinR.

  16. Optimal and fast \\cal {E}/\\cal {B} separation with a dual messenger field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Doogesh Kodi; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-02-01

    We adapt our recently proposed dual messenger algorithm for spin field reconstruction and showcase its efficiency and effectiveness in Wiener filtering polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. Unlike conventional preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solvers, our preconditioner-free technique can deal with high-resolution joint temperature and polarization maps with inhomogeneous noise distributions and arbitrary mask geometries with relative ease. Various convergence diagnostics illustrate the high quality of the dual messenger reconstruction. In contrast, the PCG implementation fails to converge to a reasonable solution for the specific problem considered. The implementation of the dual messenger method is straightforward and guarantees numerical stability and convergence. We show how the algorithm can be modified to generate fluctuation maps, which, combined with the Wiener filter solution, yield unbiased constrained signal realizations, consistent with observed data. This algorithm presents a pathway to exact global analyses of high-resolution and high-sensitivity CMB data for a statistically optimal separation of \\cal {E} and \\cal {B} modes. It is therefore relevant for current and next-generation CMB experiments, in the quest for the elusive primordial \\cal {B}-mode signal.

  17. Optimal and fast E/B separation with a dual messenger field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Doogesh Kodi; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-02-01

    We adapt our recently proposed dual messenger algorithm for spin field reconstruction and showcase its efficiency and effectiveness in Wiener filtering polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. Unlike conventional preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solvers, our preconditioner-free technique can deal with high-resolution joint temperature and polarization maps with inhomogeneous noise distributions and arbitrary mask geometries with relative ease. Various convergence diagnostics illustrate the high quality of the dual messenger reconstruction. In contrast, the PCG implementation fails to converge to a reasonable solution for the specific problem considered. The implementation of the dual messenger method is straightforward and guarantees numerical stability and convergence. We show how the algorithm can be modified to generate fluctuation maps, which, combined with the Wiener filter solution, yield unbiased constrained signal realizations, consistent with observed data. This algorithm presents a pathway to exact global analyses of high-resolution and high-sensitivity CMB data for a statistically optimal separation of E and B modes. It is therefore relevant for current and next-generation CMB experiments, in the quest for the elusive primordial B-mode signal.

  18. Dashboard Monitoring System Berbasis Web Sebagai Pemantau Layanan liteBIG Instant Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigih Forda Nama

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini hampir semua pengguna ponsel pintar menggunakan layanan perpesanan instan sebagai media komunikasi dikarenakan layanan perpesanan instan lebih hemat biaya dengan hanya menggunakan jaringan internet dibandingkan layanan pesan singkat (SMS. Layanan yang diberikan harus dapat melayani pengguna dengan baik agar pesan yang dikirim oleh pengirim dapat diterima oleh penerima dengan cepat dan akurat. Layanan ini juga harus dijaga keandalannya untuk menjamin kualitas pelayanan dan untuk menghindari ketidaknyamanan pengguna. Sehingga, diperlukan adanya sistem pemantauan berupa perangkat lunak untuk pengawasan status layanan setiap saat dapat diakses dari manapun dan kapanpun. PT.Sandika Cahaya Mandiri memiliki produk layanan perpesanan instan dengan brand name liteBIG Messenger. Perusahaan ini memerlukan perangkat lunak untuk pemantauan layanan liteBIG Messenger. Dengan adanya perangkat lunak pemantauan layanan, petugas pemantauan dapat melihat secara realtime status layanan utama pada setiap komputer server, pemakaian sumber daya (cpu, memory, dan harddisk, dan statistik pengguna baru liteBIG Messenger  melalui antarmuka web. Petugas pemantauan juga akan mendapat pemberitahuan ketika terjadi masalah pada layanan sehingga masalah dapat lebih dini diketahui dan downtime dapat dikurangi.

  19. MESSENGER E/V/H MLA 3/4 CDR/RDR DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Calibrated Data Record (CDR) and Reduced Data Record (RDR) products. The MLA...

  20. MESSENGER E/V/H MLA 3/4 CDR/RDR DATA V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract ======== This data set consists of the MESSENGER Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Reduced Data Record (RDR) products. The MLA is a solid-state pulsed laser...

  1. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2016-01-01

    of increasing concern and societal importance, regardless if the focus is on new inequalities, environmental sustainability, or the meaning of vernacular mobilities design to the everyday life. The theme of ‘mobilities design’ opens up the agenda of architectural research into infrastructure spaces as ‘spaces...... of the perspective in the direction of a material and design oriented turn. In order to fulfill this purpose we articulate a new and emerging research field, namely that of ‘mobilities design’. In our understanding time has come to articulate ‘Mobilities Design’ as a dedicated research field in and of its own....... There is a need for research targeting the material, physical and design-oriented dimensions of the multiple mobilities from the local to the global. Despite its cross-disciplinary identity the ‘mobilities turn’ has not sufficiently capitalized from the potential in exploring issues of material design...

  2. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments......’ in the everyday life and cast light on how design and ‘materialities of mobilites’ are creating differential mobilities across societies, social networks, and communities of practices....... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...

  3. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary......-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary mobilities landscapes....

  4. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon; Jensen, Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    is a relevant field of knowledge for urban design, because of its focus on a nuanced conceptualization of the daily journeys that we all undertake in mobilities spaces. Second, the mobilities turn aids a theoretical “mobilization” of the design of mobilities spaces with a point of departure in a fused theory...... field with particular attention to actor-network theory (ANT), which offers tools to understand the embeddedness of mobilities spaces in hybrid and dynamic relationships. Through these linkages between the mobilities turn and urban design, the article suggests a pathway for a carefully radical...... for urban designers and architects to address mobilities spaces in relation not only to technical demands, but also to the wide host of social, cultural, political, economic, and affective formations in which they are embedded and which they influence....

  5. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  6. INSTANT MESSENGER (IM) APPLICATION USAGE AT WORKPLACE AND WORKING CULTURE OF A PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SUPPORTING STAFF IN KOTA KINABALU SABAH.

    OpenAIRE

    Nading, Dorina; Morshidi, Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Instant Messenger (IM) has becoming a new form of social relations tool in which people interact, dialogue, collaborate and exchange information. Many organizations and companies have adapted their management strategies with the utilization of IM applications, both internally or externally. The popularity of IM in local organizational management in such a way that government agencies, companies, universities, colleges and schools. The use of applications such as wechat, whatsApp messenger...

  7. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    is a ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may......This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place...

  8. The Impact of Mobile Learning on ESP Learners' Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alkhezzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of using mobile phone applications, namely Telegram Messenger, on teaching and learning English in an ESP context. The main objective is to test whether using mobile phone applications have an impact on ESP learners’ performance by mainly investigating the influence such teaching technique can have on learning vocabulary, and how this can affect the learner's’ ability to use grammar correctly and whether their writing skill is improved. The results showed that using mobile phone applications to teach a foreign language skill or subskill is fruitful and does impact learners’ comprehension of vocabulary and grammatical rules. The results specifically indicate that mobile phones can be used in many different ways to teach and learn technical and semi-technical vocabulary easily outside the classroom, however, to teach grammatical rules and writing it is recommended that certain strategies be used due to certain limitations.

  9. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is about how to comprehend the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The paper explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. The theoretical scope...... is therefore an attempt to mobilize semiotics by drawing on a central body of theory within and adjacent to the discipline. For instance the founding works of C. S. Peirce will be related to the contemporary notions of ‘geosemiotics’ by Scollon & Scollon. The paper’s theoretical claim is that semiotics hold...... a potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design...

  10. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...

  11. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This practical guidebook supports and promotes new and creative thinking on resource mobilization for ... sources and come up with creative resource mobilization strategies to ensure survival. The Importance of ...... funds had already been earmarked for buying new classroom facilities. Maintain integrity of auction. 2.

  12. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...

  13. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience...

  14. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2016-01-01

    and physical form. The exchange value with design is twofold; first this means getting closer to the ‘material’ which is needed if mobilities research can claim to have understood contemporary mobilities, second it means that the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world becomes...... insights, concepts of space and place, and relations between fixities and flows. The new and emerging field of ‘mobilities design’ will be exploring the borderlines between architecture, urban design, urban planning, and infrastructure design. The field will address the ‘gap’ in research on an issue...... of increasing concern and societal importance, regardless if the focus is on new inequalities, environmental sustainability, or the meaning of vernacular mobilities design to the everyday life. The theme of ‘mobilities design’ opens up the agenda of architectural research into infrastructure spaces as ‘spaces...

  15. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    networks, creating a vast fertile ground for novel developments in both research and practical applications Considers research directions, emerging trends and visions This book is an excellent resource for wireless/networking researchers in industry and academia, students and mobile phone programmers...... users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept...

  16. Key science issues after MESSENGER and current observation plans of BepiColombo MMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Go; Hayakawa, Hajime; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Little had been known about the Hermean magnetosphere until MESSENGER explored the region. The region is formed as the weak planetary magnetic field stands against the intense solar wind in the close proximity of the Sun. Various prediction had been given by noting the difference in the parameters from the well-studied terrestiral magnetosphere of a similar setting and scaling the well-knowns to the Hermean environment. MESSENGER results, however, show a wide varieity of phenomena that are out of the scope of what one could have reasonably argued. The micro-magnetosphere of Mercury is much more dynamic than one had predicted. BepiColombo MMO, the JAXA spacecraft of the BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission which will be launched in 2018 and will arrive at Mercury in 2025, is equipped to study the space environment of the planet Mercury. BepiColombo MMO is mainly designed for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we are now working to optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. Here we review MESSENGER results and how MMO will contribute to deepen our understanding of space plasmas by addressing the puzzles raised by MESSEGNER.

  17. Performance Assessment of the Mercury Laser Altimeter on MESSENGER from Mercury Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of seven instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft,a mission in NASA's Discovery Program. MESSENGER was launched on August 3, 2004, and entered into orbit about Mercury on March 29, 2011. As of June 30, 2011 MLA started to collect science Measurements on March 29, 2011. As of June 30, 2011 MLA had accumulated about 3 million laser ranging measurements to the Mercury surface through one Mercury year, i.e ., one complete cycle of the spacecraft thermal environment. The average MLA laser output-pulse energy remained steady despite the harsh thermal environment, in which the laser bench temperature changed by as much as 15 C over a 35 min operating period . The laser beam-collimating telescope experienced a 30 C temperature swing over the same period, and the thermal cycling repeated every 12 hours. Nonetheless, MLA receiver optics appeared to be aligned and in focus throughout these temperature excursions. The maximum ranging distance of MLA was 1500 km at near-zero laser-beam incidence angle (and emission angle) and 600 km at 60 deg incidence angle. The MLA instrument performance in Mercury orbit has been consistent with the performance demonstrated during MESSENGER's Mercury flybys in January and October 2008 and during pre-launch testing. In addition to range measurements, MLA data are being used to estimate the surface reflectance of Mercury at 1064 nm wavelength, including regions of permanent shadow on the floors of polar craters. MLA also provides a measurement of the surface reflectance of sunlight at 1064 nm wavelength by its noise counters, for which output is a monotonic function of the background light.

  18. Pathophysiological implications of the chemical messengers; Implicaciones fisiopatologicas de los mensajeros quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Fernandez, E.

    2009-07-01

    To maintain a physical organization and a different composition of its surroundings environment, living beings use a great part of the energy that they produce. Vital processes require an elevated number of reactions which are regulated and integrated by chemical messengers. They use autocrine, paracrine, endocrine and synaptic signals through receptors of cell surface, nuclear or associated with ionic channels, enzymes, trim eric G proteins and to intracellular kinases. Through these mechanisms pheromones play an important role in the relationships between different individuals, and hormones are able to regulate the integrative functions of our organism. In the nervous system, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, sensors and receptors between other messengers, play functions of great relevance, while growth factors stimulate cell proliferation and cytokines have many effects but the most important is the ones related with the control of the immflamatory process. Alterations of these messengers permit us a better understanding of the diseases and possibly of its treatments in a near future. Modifications of the expression of genes from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are responsible of monogenic, polygenic and mitochondrial diseases, while alterations in the activities of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters are related with schizophrenia, Parkinson disease and depression, respectively. Other example is the hyperthyroidism of the Graves-Bassedow disease due to the competitive interference of the LATS immunoglobulin with TSH at the level of the follicular cells producing thyroid hormones Twenty five years ago in the reviews on the mechanisms of insulin action, there was presentations in which the insulin receptor was located in the plasma membrane of the target cells while in the cytoplasm only a big interrogative was observed, that at present is replaced by chemical mediators cascades responsible of the multiple effects of insulin. This finding is similar

  19. Messenger molecules of the phospholipase signaling system have dual effects on vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulescu, Cristina; Mironneau, J.; Mironneau, Chantal; Popescu, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Background and methods. In order to investigate the role of phospholipases and their immediately derived messengers in agonist-induced contraction of portal vein smooth muscle, we used the addition in the organ bath of exogenous molecules such as: phospholipases C, A(2), and D, diacylglycerol, arachidonic acid, phosphatidic acid, choline. We also used substances modulating activity of downstream molecules like protein kinase C, phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, or cyclooxygenase. Results. a) Exogenous phospholipases C or A(2), respectively, induced small agonist-like contractions, while exogenous phospholipase D did not. Moreover, phospholipase D inhibited spontaneous contractions. However, when added during noradrenaline-induced plateau, phospholipase D shortly potentiated it. b) The protein kinase C activator, phorbol dibutyrate potentiated both the exogenous phospholipase C-induced contraction and the noradrenaline-induced plateau, while the protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(-5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methyl-piperazine relaxed the plateau. c) When added before noradrenaline, indomethacin inhibited both phasic and tonic contractions, but when added during the tonic contraction shortly potentiated it. Arachidonic acid strongly potentiated both spontaneous and noradrenaline-induced contractions, irrespective of the moment of its addition. d) In contrast, phosphatidic acid inhibited spontaneous contractile activity, nevertheless it was occasionally capable of inducing small contractions, and when repetitively added during the agonist-induced tonic contraction, produced short potentiations of the plateau. Pretreatment with propranolol inhibited noradrenaline-induced contractions and further addition of phosphatidic acid augmented this inhibition. Choline augmented the duration and amplitude of noradrenaline-induced tonic contraction and final contractile oscillations. Conclusions. These data suggest that messengers produced by phospholipase C and phospholipase A(2

  20. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired...... by mobility management, a concept aiming to reduce carbon emissions from transportation in western societies. The article focuses on how municipal planners formulate the role of mobility management activities organized around private companies, and how their practices are connected to wider ideas on planning....

  1. Going Mobile?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallon, Loic; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2011-01-01

    If the future is mobile, how is the museum community developing within that future? What are the challenges museums face within it? In which directions should we be seeking to evolve our collective knowledge share? It was to gain observations on questions such as these that the 2011 Museums...... & Mobile survey was developed: 660 museum professionals responded. In this paper the authors highlight nine survey observations that they believe are important to the museum community’s increased understanding of and continued progress within mobile interpretation....

  2. Particle Tracing of Heavy Ions in Hermean Exosphere With Applications to the MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paral, J.; Travnicek, P.; Rankin, R.; Kabin, K.

    2008-12-01

    We carry out Monte Carlo simulations of heavy particle species which are released from the surface of the planet Mercury as neutral particles and later on they are ionized. We consider three major sources of particle injection, namely Photon stimulated desorption, Solar wind sputtering and Micro-meteoroid vaporisation to build neutral exosphere. Then, we investigate the resulting exosphere and identify regions of particle acceleration due to the electromagnetic fields as well as distribution of ionization in the simulation box. The results are put into the context of the MESSENGER mission which measure the in situ data during its first fly by on January, 14 2008.

  3. Computer Self-Efficiency as an Antecedent to the Acceptance of Instant Messenger Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F. Stafford

    2005-01-01

    AOL Instant Messenger (IM) is a widely used Internet chat technology. There are indications that users initially do not find it easy to use, and this concerns AOL management; they consider that if popular applications are not easy to use, the ability of AOL to attract and hold loyal customers will be impeded. In this paper, the acceptance of IM technology is investigated within the familiar framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in which ease of use plays a pivotal role in promot...

  4. High-throughput and quantitative genome-wide messenger RNA sequencing for molecular phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, John E; Wali, Neha; Sealy, Ian M; Morris, James A; White, Richard J; Leonard, Steven R; Jackson, David K; Jones, Matthew C; Smerdon, Nathalie C; Zamora, Jorge; Dooley, Christopher M; Carruthers, Samantha N; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Stemple, Derek L; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth M

    2015-08-05

    We present a genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA) sequencing technique that converts small amounts of RNA from many samples into molecular phenotypes. It encompasses all steps from sample preparation to sequence analysis and is applicable to baseline profiling or perturbation measurements. Multiplex sequencing of transcript 3' ends identifies differential transcript abundance independent of gene annotation. We show that increasing biological replicate number while maintaining the total amount of sequencing identifies more differentially abundant transcripts. This method can be implemented on polyadenylated RNA from any organism with an annotated reference genome and in any laboratory with access to Illumina sequencing.

  5. Regional distribution of glycine receptor messenger RNA in the central nervous system of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imboden, M; Devignot, V; Korn, H; Goblet, C

    2001-01-01

    We report the cloning of the zebrafish beta subunit of the glycine receptor and compare the anatomical distribution of three glycine receptor subunit constituents in adult zebrafish brain (alphaZ1, alphaZ2 and betaZ) to the expression pattern of homologous receptor subunits (alpha1, alpha2 and beta) in the mammalian adult CNS. Non-radioactive hybridization was used to map the distribution of the alphaZ1, alphaZ2 and betaZ glycine receptor subunit messenger RNAs in the adult zebrafish brain. The anterior-posterior expression gradient found in adult zebrafish brain was similar to that reported in mammalian CNS. However, the glycine receptor transcripts, notably the alphaZ1 subunit, were more widely distributed in the anterior regions of the zebrafish than in the adult mammalian brain. The isoform-specific distribution pattern was less regionalized in zebrafish than in the rat mammalian CNS. Nevertheless, there was some regionalization of alphaZ1, alphaZ2 and betaZ transcripts in the diencephalic and mesencephalic nuclei where different sensory and motor centers express either alphaZ1/betaZ or alphaZ2 subunits. In contrast to the widespread distribution of the beta subunit in adult mammalian brain, alphaZ2 messenger RNA presented the widest expression territory of all three glycine receptor subunits tested. alphaZ2 messenger RNA was expressed in the absence of alphaZ1 and betaZ messenger RNA in the outer nuclear layer of the retina, the inferior olive and the raphe of the medulla oblongata, as well as in the nucleus of Cajal of the medulla spinalis. In contrast, an identified central neuron of the reticular formation, the Mauthner cell, expresses all three glycine receptor subunits (alphaZ1, alphaZ2 and betaZ). This report extends the already described glycine receptor expression in the vertebrate CNS and confirms the importance of glycine-mediated inhibition in spinal cord and brainstem.

  6. MESSENGER Observations of the Spatial Distribution of Planetary Ions Near Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Gloeckler, George; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Global measurements by MESSENGER of the fluxes of heavy ions at Mercury, particularly sodium (Na(+)) and oxygen (O(+)), exhibit distinct maxima in the northern magnetic-cusp region, indicating that polar regions are important sources of Mercury's ionized exosphere, presumably through solar-wind sputtering near the poles. The observed fluxes of helium (He(+)) are more evenly distributed, indicating a more uniform source such as that expected from evaporation from a helium-saturated surface. In some regions near Mercury, especially the nightside equatorial region, the Na(+) pressure can be a substantial fraction of the proton pressure.

  7. Mercury's Hollows: New Information on Distribution and Morphology from MESSENGER Observations at Low Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, D. T.; Stadermann, A. C.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    MESSENGER's orbital mission at Mercury led to the discovery of an unusual landform not known from other airless rocky bodies of the Solar System. Hollows are irregularly shaped, shallow, rimless depressions, often occurring in clusters and with high-reflectance interiors and halos. The fresh appearance of hollows suggests that they are relatively young features. For example, hollows are uncratered, and talus aprons downslope of hollows in certain cases appear to be covering small impact craters (100-200 in diameter). Hence, some hollows may be actively forming at present. The characteristics of hollows are suggestive of formation via destruction of a volatile-bearing phase (possibly one or more sulfides) through solar heating, micrometeoroid bombardment, and/or ion impact. Previous analysis showed that hollows are associated with low-reflectance material (LRM), a color unit identified from global color images. The material hosting hollows has often been excavated from depth by basin or crater impacts. Hollows are small features (tens of meters to several kilometers), so their detection and characterization with MESSENGER's global maps have been limited. MESSENGER's low-altitude orbits provide opportunities for collection of images at high spatial resolutions, which reveal new occurrences of hollows and offer views of hollows with unprecedented detail. As of this writing, we have examined more than 21,000 images with pixel sizes images. Locations of the hollows (e.g., crater floor, rim, central peak, plains) were recorded. Shadow-length measurements were made on 280 images, yielding the depths of 1343 individual hollows. The mean depth is 30 m, with a standard deviation of 17 m. We also explored correlations between the geographic locations of hollows and maps provided by the MESSENGER geochemical sensors (X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Spectrometers), including the abundances of Al/Si, Ca/Si, Fe/Si, K, Mg/Si, and S/Si, as well as total neutron cross-section. No

  8. Transfer-messenger RNA controls the translation of cell-cycle and stress proteins in Streptomyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barends, Sharief; Zehl, Martin; Bialek, Sylwia

    2010-01-01

    The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation mechanism is highly conserved in bacteria and functions primarily as a system for the rescue of stalled ribosomes and the removal of aberrantly produced proteins. Here, we show that in the antibiotic-producing soil bacterium Streptomyc...... functionality for tmRNA, promoting the translation of the same mRNA it targets, at the expense of sacrificing the first nascent protein. In streptomycetes, tmRNA has evolved into a dedicated task force that ensures the instantaneous response to the exposure to stress....

  9. SPEECH ACTS PREFERENCE IN COMPUTER – MEDIATED INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION VIA FACEBOOK MESSENGER: A NETNOGRAPHIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nugraha, Yehezkiel Adhi

    2016-01-01

                People will not only use language for sharing message but also due to do an action. Through language, people will ask, promise, refuse, greet, invite, thank, and so on. The purpose of this research is to identify the speech acts preference used by Indonesian and Filipino non – native speakers of English via Facebook Messenger. Besides, to identify the similar or different of speech acts preference they used.             The source of data are utterances of conversation in Facebook...

  10. Synthesis of potentially caged sphingolipids, possible precursors of cellular modulators and second messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, U

    1997-11-19

    An increasing number of sphingolipids, glycosphingolipids and some of their degradation products have been recognized in recent years as second messengers involved in signal transduction and as modulators of numerous cellular functions. These can be converted into inert, caged compounds, introduced into cells and tissues and subsequently photolysed to active compounds thus enabling the study of fast biological processes. The novel, potentially caged compounds synthesized here are substituted 2-nitrobenzyl urethans and 2-nitrobenzyl amines derived from sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, N-methylsphingosine, N-methyldihydrosphingosine, psychosine and glucosylsphingosine. Upon irradiation of the afore mentioned compounds they release, or are expected to release, the free biologically active amines.

  11. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... in the article is that the many mobility systems enable specialization of places that are targeted at a special section of the population. This means that various forms of motilities not only create new opportunities for urban life but it is also one of the most critical components of production of new exclusion...

  12. Staying Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... favorite. People who use scooters and wheelchairs bowl, fish, ski, and play golf, tennis or basketball. Enable ... the Independent Care System of NY addresses the importance of selecting the wheeled mobility device that best ...

  13. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    Drawing together perspectives from museology, digital culture studies and fashion theory, this thesis considers changes in and challenges for current - day museums as related to ‘mobile museology’. This concept is developed for and elucidated in the thesis to describe an orientation towards...... the fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...... and institutional mindsets. The research project’s transdisciplinary and exploratory approach takes inspiration from critical design, minding Latour’s (2004a) call for rethink ing critical approaches in the humanities. Through a creative process, focused on designs for framing fashion in everyday contexts...

  14. Mobile Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Enache

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  15. Time Domain Astronomy with Fermi GBM in the Multi-messenger Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fermi GBM team, GBM-LIGO team

    2018-01-01

    As the Multi-Messenger era begins with detections of gravitational waves with LIGO/Virgo and neutrinos with IceCube, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) provides context observations of gamma-ray transients between 8 keV and 40 MeV. Fermi GBM has a wide field of view, high uptime, and both in-orbit triggering and high time resolution continuous data enabling offline searches for weaker transients. GBM detects numerous gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), soft gamma-ray repeaters, X-ray bursters, solar flares and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Longer timescale transients, predominantly in our galaxy so far, are detected using the Earth occultation technique and epoch-folding for periodic sources. The GBM team has developed two ground-based searches to enhance detections of faint transients, especially short GRBs. The targeted search uses the time and location of an event detected with another instrument to coherently search the GBM data, increasing the sensitivity to a transient. The untargeted search agnostically searches the GBM data for all directions and times to find weaker transients. This search finds about 80 short GRBs per year, adding to the 40 per year triggered on-orbit. With its large field of view, high duty cycle and increasingly sophisticated detection methods, Fermi GBM is expected to have a major role in the Multi-Messenger era.

  16. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.

  17. Active site structure and catalytic mechanism of phosphodiesterase for degradation of intracellular second messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2002-03-01

    Phosphodiesterases are clinical targets for a variety of biological disorders, because this superfamily of enzymes regulate intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides that serve as the second messengers playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes. Understanding structure and mechanism of a phosphodiesterase will provide a solid basis for rational design of the more efficient therapeutics. Although a three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human phosphodiesterase 4B2B was recently reported, it was uncertain whether a critical bridging ligand in the active site is a water molecule or a hydroxide ion. The identity of this bridging ligand has been determined by performing first-principles quantum chemical calculations on models of the active site. All the results obtained indicate that this critical bridging ligand in the active site of the reported X-ray crystal structure is a hydroxide ion, rather than a water molecule, expected to serve as the nucleophile to initialize the catalytic degradation of the intracellular second messengers.

  18. The rotational state of Mercury after four years of MESSENGER observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Preusker, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke

    2017-04-01

    We measured the rotational state of Mercury with orbital data from NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. We use accurate co-registration of digital terrain models from stereo images (stereo DTMs) and laser altimeter data to measure the orientation of the rotation axis, the libration amplitude and the mean rotation rate with improved precision. In contrast to our previous study, we use the full four years of near-continuous Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) observations and stereo DTMs with a higher spatial coverage. We confirm a large libration amplitude and a mean rotation rate which is significantly higher than the assumed resonant rotation rate based on a perfect 3:2 spin orbit resonance. The estimated orientation of the rotation axis is consistent with the assumption that Mercury occupies a Cassini state. We compare our estimates with values based on Earth-based observations and MESSENGER radio science. Our results confirm that Mercury possesses a liquid outer core and we discuss further implications of our estimates on the interior structure of the planet.

  19. Expression of P450c17 messenger ribonucleic acid in postmenopausal human ovary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, M; Puche, C; Cabero, A; Cabero, L; Meseguer, A

    1999-03-01

    To investigate the expression of the P450c17 gene in postmenopausal human ovaries compared with normal cycling ovaries. Prospective nonrandomized clinical research study. Servei de Medicina Reproductiva and Centre d'Investigacions en Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Hospitals Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. Six premenopausal women and four postmenopausal women undergoing bilateral oophorectomy for nonovarian gynecologic disease. Extraction of 10 mL of peripheral venous blood for hormone measurements. Extraction of RNA from surgically removed ovaries for Northern blot, ribonuclease protection, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Southern blot assays. Definition of the reproductive cycle state of each patient and determination of the level of P450c17 gene expression in all samples with the use of the semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Southern blot assay. P450c17 messenger RNA levels in postmenopausal ovaries varied considerably between samples. Although the levels were similar to those detected in the early follicular phase, one of the samples had levels as high as those observed in the late follicular phase. Although the degree varied from one sample to another, all the postmenopausal ovaries studied expressed the P450c17 gene at the messenger RNA level. In a sample from a patient with endometrial adenocarcinoma, the level was as high as the levels observed in the late follicular phase.

  20. Thermal Design and Performance of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer for the MESSENGER Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, M; Cork, C P; Eckels, D; Hull, E; Madden, N W; Miller, W; Goldsten, J; Rhodes, E; Williams, B

    2004-10-13

    A gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) has been built and delivered to the Mercury MESSENGER spacecraft which launched on August 3, 2004, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The GRS, a part of seven scientific instruments on board MESSENGER, is based on a coaxial high-purity germanium detector. Gamma-ray detectors based on germanium have the advantage of providing excellent energy resolution, which is critical to achieving the science goals of the mission. However, germanium has the disadvantage that it must operate at cryogenic temperatures (typically {approx}80 K). This requirement is easy to satisfy in the laboratory but difficult near Mercury, which has an extremely hot thermal radiation environment. To cool the detector, a Stirling cycle mechanical cooler is employed. In addition, radiation and conduction techniques a are used to reduce the GRS heat load. Before delivering the flight sensor, a complete thermal prototype was built and tested. The results of these test, including thermal design, radiative and conductive heat loads, and cooler performance are described.

  1. A novel frameshift mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene is rescued by alternative messenger RNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Andrew D; Kyle, Campbell V

    Type I hyperlipoproteinemia, manifesting as chylomicronemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder usually caused by mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL). We sought to determine whether mutations in LPL could explain the clinical indications of a patient presenting with pancreatitis and hypertriglyceridemia. Coding regions of LPL were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by nucleotide sequencing. The LPL messenger RNA transcript was also analyzed to investigate whether alternative splicing was occurring. The patient was homozygous for the mutation c.767_768insTAAATATT in exon 5 of the LPL gene. This mutation is predicted to result in either a truncated nonfunctional LPL, or alternatively a new 5' donor splice site may be used, resulting in a full-length LPL with an in-frame deletion of 3 amino acids. Analysis of messenger RNA from the patient showed that the new splice site is used in vivo. Homozygosity for a mutation in the LPL gene was consistent with the clinical findings. Use of the new splice site created by the insertion mutation rescues an otherwise damaging frameshift mutation, resulting in expression of an almost full-length LPL that is predicted to be partially functional. The patient therefore has a less severe form of type I hyperlipoproteinemia than would be expected if she lacked any functional LPL. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Time Domain Astronomy with Fermi GBM in the Multi-messenger Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2017-08-01

    As the Multi-Messenger era begins with detections of gravitational waves with LIGO and neutrinos with IceCube, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor provides context observations of gamma-ray transients between 8 keV and 40 MeV. Fermi GBM has a wide field of view, high uptime, and both in-orbit triggering and high time resolution continuous data enabling offline searches for weaker transients. GBM detects numerous gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), soft gamma-ray repeaters, X-ray bursters, solar flares and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Longer timescale transients, predominantly in our galaxy so far, are detected using the Earth occultation technique and epoch-folding for periodic sources. The GBM team has developed two ground-based searches to enhance detections of faint transients, especially short GRBs. The targeted search uses the time and location of an event detected with another instrument to coherently search the GBM data, increasing the sensitivity to a transient. The untargeted search agnostically searches the GBM data for all directions and times to find weaker transients. This search finds about 80 short GRBs per year, in addition to the 40 per year triggered on-orbit. With its large field of view, high duty cycle and increasingly sophisticated detection methods, Fermi GBM is expected to have a major role in the Multi-Messenger era.

  3. Follow-up of GW150914 and multi-messenger studies of transient astrophysical sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleiro Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By constantly monitoring at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, neutrino telescopes are well designed to detect neutrinos emitted by transient astrophysical sources. In particular, the ANTARES telescope is currently the largest high-energy neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. Searches for ANTARES neutrino candidates coincident with multi-wavelength and multi-messenger transient phenomena are performed by triggering optical, X-ray and radio observations immediately after the detection of an interesting ANTARES event and also by looking for neutrino emission spatially and temporally coincident with transient astrophysical events detected across the electromagnetic spectrum or with new messengers as gravitational-wave signals. The latest results of the multi-messenger analyses performed with ANTARES will be presented in this contribution. In particular, we will focus on the neutrino follow-up performed after the detection of the first gravitation-wave event, GW150914.

  4. The legal aspects of a location-based mobile advertising platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatrix Cleff, Evelyn; Gidofalvi, Gyozo

    2008-01-01

    -advertising is predicted to represent a high-yield revenue stream. In this article, the possibilities of using a Location-Aware Mobile Messenger (LAMM) for the purpose of m-advertising is introduced. To avoid m-advertising becoming an extremely intrusive practice by neglecting the user's privacy, the objective...... of this article is to introduce a location-based advertising platform which complies with the provisions imposed by European Union (EU) law with regard to personal data protection....

  5. Mobile healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephen A; Agee, Nancy Howell

    2012-01-01

    Mobile technology's presence in healthcare has exploded over the past five years. The increased use of mobile devices by all segments of the US population has driven healthcare systems, providers, and payers to accept this new form of communication and to develop strategies to implement and leverage the use of mobile healthcare (mHealth) within their organizations and practices. As healthcare systems move toward a more value-driven model of care, patient centeredness and engagement are the keys to success. Mobile healthcare will provide the medium to allow patients to participate more in their care. Financially, mHealth brings to providers the ability to improve efficiency and deliver savings to both them and the healthcare consumer. However, mHealth is not without challenges. Healthcare IT departments have been reluctant to embrace this shift in technology without fully addressing security and privacy concerns. Providers have been hesitant to adopt mHealth as a form of communication with patients because it breaks with traditional models. Our healthcare system has just started the journey toward the development of mHealth. We offer an overview of the mobile healthcare environment and our approach to solving the challenges it brings to healthcare organizations.

  6. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    are often still not engaged with in a sufficiently manner. Often social sciences keep distance to the physical and material as if the social was still to be understood as a realm separate of technology, architecture, and design (for a critique of this see; Latour 2005 and Urry 2000). This paper takes point...... of departure in the sociological perspective termed ‘Staging Mobilities’ (Jensen 2013a) and utilizes this as an analytical frame for exploring cases of mobility design. The paper put focus on how the material shape, design and architectures of technologies, spaces and sites influence mobilities practices......, mobilitiy technologies or urban sites of movement we get much closer to understanding the meaning of mobilities to social interaction and culture. The cases are still representing work-in-progress but will be reported in the book ‘Designing Mobilites’ (Jensen 2013b) and will cover the four cases of...

  7. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  8. NEUTRINOS AS COSMIC MESSENGERS IN THE ERA OF ICECUBE, ANTARES AND KM3NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli F. Katz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using neutrinos as cosmic messengers for observation of non-thermal processes in the Universe is a highly attractive and promising vision, which has been pursued in various neutrino telescope projects for more than two decades. Recent results from ground-based TeV gamma-ray observatories and refinements of model calculations of the expected neutrino fluxes indicate that Gigaton target volumes will be necessary to establish neutrino astronomy. A first neutrino telescope of that size, IceCube, is operational at the South Pole. Based on experience with the smaller first-generation ANTARES telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, the multi-Gigaton KM3NeT device is in preparation. These neutrino telescopes are presented, and some selected results and the expected KM3NeT performance are discussed.

  9. Effects of local structural transformation of lipid-like compounds on delivery of messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Luo, Xiao; Deng, Binbin; Giancola, Jolynn B.; McComb, David W.; Schmittgen, Thomas D.; Dong, Yizhou

    2016-02-01

    Lipid-like nanoparticles (LLNs) have shown great potential for RNA delivery. Lipid-like compounds are key components in LLNs. In this study, we investigated the effects of local structural transformation of lipid-like compounds on delivery of messenger RNA. Our results showed that position change of functional groups on lipid-like compounds can dramatically improve delivery efficiency. We then optimized formulation ratios of TNT-b10 LLNs, a lead material, increasing delivery efficiency over 2-fold. More importantly, pegylated TNT-b10 LLNs is stable for over four weeks and is over 10-fold more efficient than that of its counterpart TNT-a10 LLNs. Additionally, the optimal formulation O-TNT-b10 LLNs is capable of delivering mRNA encoding luciferase in vivo. These results provide useful insights into the design of next generation LLNs for mRNA delivery.

  10. Light is a Messenger - The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Graeme K.

    2004-10-01

    Light is a Messenger , is the first biography of William Lawrence Bragg, who was only 25 when he won the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics-the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Prize. It describes how bragg discovered how to use X-rays to determine the arrangement of atoms in crystals and his pivotal role in developing this technique to the point that the structures of the most complex molecules known to man-the proteins and nucelic acids-could be solved. Although Bragg's Nobel Prize was for Physics, his research profoundly affected chemistry and the new field of molecular biology, of which he became a founding figure. This book explains how these revolutionary scientific events occurred while Bragg struggled to emerge from the shadow of his father, Sir William Bragg, and amidst a career-long rivalry with the brilliant American chemist, Linus Pauling.

  11. Messenger RNA Fluctuations and Regulatory RNAs Shape the Dynamics of Negative Feedback Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, María Rodríguez; Tlusty, Tsvi; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Furman, Itay; 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.031924

    2010-01-01

    Single cell experiments of simple regulatory networks can markedly differ from cell population experiments. Such differences arise from stochastic events in individual cells that are averaged out in cell populations. For instance, while individual cells may show sustained oscillations in the concentrations of some proteins, such oscillations may appear damped in the population average. In this paper we investigate the role of RNA stochastic fluctuations as a leading force to produce a sustained excitatory behavior at the single cell level. Opposed to some previous models, we build a fully stochastic model of a negative feedback loop that explicitly takes into account the RNA stochastic dynamics. We find that messenger RNA random fluctuations can be amplified during translation and produce sustained pulses of protein expression. Motivated by the recent appreciation of the importance of non--coding regulatory RNAs in post--transcription regulation, we also consider the possibility that a regulatory RNA transcri...

  12. MESSENGER observations of the composition of Mercury's ionized exosphere and plasma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H; Raines, Jim M; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Slavin, James A; Koehn, Patrick L; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    The region around Mercury is filled with ions that originate from interactions of the solar wind with Mercury's space environment and through ionization of its exosphere. The MESSENGER spacecraft's observations of Mercury's ionized exosphere during its first flyby yielded Na+, O+, and K+ abundances, consistent with expectations from observations of neutral species. There are increases in ions at a mass per charge (m/q) = 32 to 35, which we interpret to be S+ and H2S+, with (S+ + H2S+)/(Na+ + Mg+) = 0.67 +/- 0.06, and from water-group ions around m/q = 18, at an abundance of 0.20 +/- 0.03 relative to Na+ plus Mg+. The fluxes of Na+, O+, and heavier ions are largest near the planet, but these Mercury-derived ions fill the magnetosphere. Doubly ionized ions originating from Mercury imply that electrons with energies less than 1 kiloelectron volt are substantially energized in Mercury's magnetosphere.

  13. Radioactive elements on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER: implications for the planet's formation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, Patrick N; Evans, Larry G; Hauck, Steven A; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Gillis-Davis, Jeffery J; Ebel, Denton S; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Nittler, Larry R; Solomon, Sean C; Rhodes, Edgar A; Sprague, Ann L; Starr, Richard D; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer measured the average surface abundances of the radioactive elements potassium (K, 1150 ± 220 parts per million), thorium (Th, 220 ± 60 parts per billion), and uranium (U, 90 ± 20 parts per billion) in Mercury's northern hemisphere. The abundance of the moderately volatile element K, relative to Th and U, is inconsistent with physical models for the formation of Mercury requiring extreme heating of the planet or its precursor materials, and supports formation from volatile-containing material comparable to chondritic meteorites. Abundances of K, Th, and U indicate that internal heat production has declined substantially since Mercury's formation, consistent with widespread volcanism shortly after the end of late heavy bombardment 3.8 billion years ago and limited, isolated volcanic activity since.

  14. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI AUTORESPONDER BERBASIS INSTANT MESSENGER GOOGLE HANGOUTS (Studi Kasus Perusahaan Valuta Asing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ita anariyanti ni putu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Money Changer adalah salah satu bidang usaha dimana frekuensi pergantian data tinggi dan dibutuhkan penyajian informasi yang bersifat cepat dan real time. Aplikasi Autoresponder adalah salah satu pemanfaatan teknologi untuk mempermudah mendapatkan informasi valuta asing. Aplikasi dirancang untuk mampu memberikan respon/ jawaban ataupun hanya sekedar menampung dari sebuah masukan secara otomatis dari layanan instant messenger Google Hangouts. Dari aplikasi ini, cukup dengan meregistrasi diri sebagai teman dari akun Gmail valas server. Selanjutnya dari Google Hangouts dapat melakukan cek nilai valuta asing dengan masukan keyword tertentu. Keuntungan yang bisa diberikan oleh aplikasi Autoresponder dilihat dari sisi pengembang adalah biaya untuk proses produksi maupun perawatan yang minimum karena aplikasi Autoresponder menggunakan open source.

  15. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...

  16. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms...

  17. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    of the mobility it enables. This article, thus, looks at the motives and manners in which young men in Bissau become caught up in transnational flows of cocaine. It shows how motion is emotively anchored and affectively bound: tied to and directed toward a feeling of worth and realisation of being, and how...

  18. Mobile IP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Sallent, S.; Pras, Aiko

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to

  19. Applying computer techniques in maxillofacial reconstruction using a fibula flap: a messenger and an evaluation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-jing; Gui, Lai; Mao, Chi; Peng, Xin; Yu, Guang-yan

    2009-03-01

    While the application of computer-assisted maxillofacial surgery becomes increasingly popular, the translation from virtual models and surgical plans to actual bedside maneuvers and the evaluation of the repeatability of virtual planning remain to be major challenges. The objective of this study was to experiment the technique of using a resin template as a messenger in maxillofacial reconstruction involving a fibula flap. Another aim was to find a quantitative and objective method to evaluate the repeatability of preoperative planning. Seven patients who underwent maxillary or mandibular reconstruction were included in this study. The mean age was 25 years, and the mean follow-up period was 18.7 months. Virtual planning was carried out before surgery. A resin template was made according to the virtual design of bone graft through rapid prototyping technique and served as a guide when surgeons shaped the fibula flap during surgery. The repeatability of the virtual plan was evaluated based on the matching percentage between the actual postoperative model and the computer-generated outcome. All patients demonstrated satisfactory clinical outcomes. The mean repeatability was 87.5% within 1 mm and 96.5% within 2 mm in isolated bone graft. It was 71.4% within 1 mm and 89.9% within 2 mm in reconstructed mandible or maxilla. These results demonstrated that a resin template based on virtual plan and rapid prototyping technique is a reliable messenger to translate from computer modeling to bedside surgical procedures. The repeatability of a virtual plan can be easily and quantitatively evaluated through our three-dimensional differential analysis method.

  20. Gastrin response to candidate messengers in intact conscious rats monitored by antrum microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Peter; Håkanson, Rolf; Norlén, Per

    2010-08-09

    We monitored gastrin release in response to locally applied candidate messengers in intact conscious rats. Earlier studies have been performed on anaesthetized animals, isolated pieces of antrum, or purified preparations of gastrin cells. In this study we created an experimental situation to resemble physiological conditions, using reverse microdialysis to administer regulatory peptides and amines that might affect gastrin secretion. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the submucosa of the antrum of the rat stomach. Three days later, putative messenger compounds were administered via the probe. Their effects on basal (24 h fast) and omeprazole-stimulated (400 micromol/kg/day, 4 days peroral administration) gastrin release were monitored by continuous measurement (3 h) of gastrin in the perfusate (radioimmunoassay). Fasted rats (low microdialysate gastrin, 2.1+/-0.1 pmol l(-1)) were used to study stimulation of gastrin release. Omeprazole-treated rats (high microdialysate gastrin, 95.8+/-6.7 pmol l(-1)) were used to study suppression of gastrin release. The following agents raised the concentration of microdialysate gastrin (peak response): gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) (11-fold increase at a near-maximal dose), carbachol (5-fold increase), serotonin (2-fold increase) and isoprenaline (20-fold increase). Adrenaline and noradrenaline induced transient but powerful elevation (40- and 20-fold increase). Somatostatin, galanin and bradykinin (at near-maximal doses) suppressed omeprazole-stimulated gastrin release (50% decrease). Calcitonin gene-related peptide, ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide, motilin, neurotensin, neuromedin U-25, peptide YY and vasoactive intestinal peptide were without effect on gastrin release, as were aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, glycine, dopamine and histamine. The results support the view that G cells operate under neurocrine/paracrine control. They were stimulated by agents present in enteric neurons (GRP, galanin

  1. Serotonergic transmission at Merkel discs: modulation by exogenously applied chemical messengers and involvement of Ih currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weipang; Kanda, Hirosato; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2017-05-01

    The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In this study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers. We found that SA1 responses were potentiated by serotonin at low concentration (10 μM) but almost completely occluded by serotonin at high concentration (2 mM). In contrast, SA1 responses were not significantly affected by ATP and its metabolically stable analog α,β-methylene-ATP, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and histamine. SA1 responses were also not affected by antagonists for P2X receptors, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reconfirm the presence of both ionotropic and metabotropic 5-HT receptors on afferent neurons and their terminals innervating whisker hair follicles. All whisker afferent neurons expressed hyperpolarization-activated inward currents (Ih ), which are potentiated by serotonin through the activation of metabotropic 5-HT receptors. Taken together, the findings substantiate the serotonergic mechanism of tactile transmission at Merkel discs and identify the involvement of Ih currents in postsynaptic excitatory actions of serotonin. In addition, the findings do not favor any significant involvement of ATP, glutamate, histamine, GABA, or glycine in tactile transmission at the Merkel discs of whisker hair follicles. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Linking The Universe To The Community: Students As Starry Messengers For IYA2009-Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Carmen; Lebrón, M.

    2008-05-01

    This poster presents a project at Puerto Rico to establish a working team of undergraduate students (Starry Messengers) to promote and experience the wonders of space science and education with all the senses. The students are expected to assist during the activities of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). During 2008 the students will receive the appropriate instruction on observational astronomy through two workshops. These workshops follow the active learning model and therefore prepare students for outreach activities in astronomy. An innovative model of inclusion will be developed, adapting all the activities and material to include blind or visually impaired. We will encourage the participation of at least one visually impaired student or teacher on the Starry Messengers team. The greatest challenge in this project will be to develop adequate accessible activities in astronomy. The workshops will be held at the Arecibo Observatory and "El Parque de las Ciencias" Planetarium. These two centers have the facilities to develop the workshops and have the adequate settings for the participants to gain experience with astronomy research and outreach. This project targets underrepresented groups in science and engineering: hispanic students and students with visual impairments. The inquiry-based learning activities and material designed as part of the program will also be made available to the public to further promote excellence in astronomy. The workshops will serve as templates for future K-12 teacher workshops. This work has been funded by the NASA IDEAS-ER program. We would like to acknowledge the support from the Arecibo Observatory. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a Cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  3. Second messenger signaling mechanisms of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program: an integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fubiao; Collins, Sheila

    2017-09-26

    β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are well established for conveying the signal from catecholamines to adipocytes. Acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) they stimulate lipolysis and also increase the activity of brown adipocytes and the 'browning' of adipocytes within white fat depots (so-called 'brite' or 'beige' adipocytes). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are enriched with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is a regulated proton channel that allows the dissipation of chemical energy in the form of heat. The discovery of functional brown adipocytes in humans and inducible brown-like ('beige' or 'brite') adipocytes in rodents have suggested that recruitment and activation of these thermogenic adipocytes could be a promising strategy to increase energy expenditure for obesity therapy. More recently, the cardiac natriuretic peptides and their second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) have gained attention as a parallel signaling pathway in adipocytes, with some unique features. In this review, we begin with some important historical work that touches upon the regulation of brown adipocyte development and physiology. We then provide a synopsis of some recent advances in the signaling cascades from β-adrenergic agonists and natriuretic peptides to drive thermogenic gene expression in the adipocytes and how these two pathways converge at a number of unexpected points. Finally, moving from the physiologic hormonal signaling, we discuss yet another level of control downstream of these signals: the growing appreciation of the emerging roles of non-coding RNAs as important regulators of brown adipocyte formation and function. In this review, we discuss new developments in our understanding of the signaling mechanisms and factors including new secreted proteins and novel non-coding RNAs that control the function as well as the plasticity of the brown/beige adipose tissue as it responds to the energy needs and environmental

  4. Messenger RNA during early embryogenesis in Artemia salina: altered translatability and sequence complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T C; Tata, J R

    1980-02-01

    RNA from developing embryos of Artemia salina (5, 10, and 20 h after re-initiation of development) was translated 3-10 times more efficiently in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free protein synthesizing system than RNA from dormant gastrulae. The latter did not appear to contain any significant amount of translation inhibitor activity. Ninety percent of the translatable activity in dormant gastrulae was recovered as poly(A)--RNA, whereas 80% of that in post-gastrular developing embryos was present as poly(A)+-RNA. The size of most polypeptides coded for by dormant gastrular RNA was less than 130,000 daltons whereas the size of those coded for by developing embryonic RNA was up to 200,000 daltons, which correlated with a corresponding shift to poly A-containing RNA of higher molecular weight. Two major polypeptides of about 37,000 daltons coded for by dormant gastrular RNA disappeared at 20 h after resumption of development. Hybridization of complementary DNA (cDNA) to a 1000-fold excess of the homologous poly(A)+-RNA revealed the presence of three complexity classes of mRNA. Forty-five percent, 30%, and 25% of RNA in dormant gastrulae were present as high, middle, and low abundance classes comprising about 10, 80, and 9700 species, respectively whereas in the nauplii there were 10, 150, and 7900 species of high, middle, and low abundancy sequences, respectively. Heterologous hybridizations using cDNA complementary to highly abundant messenger population of nauplii (isolated by chromatography on hydroxyapatite) to poly(A)+-RNA from dormant cysts showed considerably divergence in this class of messengers from the two developmental stages. Re-initiation of development of dormant Artemia gastrulae is thus characterized by a "re-programming" seen as a simultaneous and rapid increase in the polyadenylation and translatability of poly(A)+-RNA accompanied by a qualitative change in its sequence complexity.

  5. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Verhulst, E.C.; Leussen, van M.; Zande, L.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2017-01-01

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid

  6. Differential intragraft cytokine messenger RNA profiles during rejection and repair of clinical heart transplants. A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A; Mol, Wendy M; Niesters, Hubert G M; Maat, Alex P W; van Gelder, Teun; Balk, Aggie H M M; Weimar, Willem; Baan, Carla C

    After clinical heart transplantation, ischemia, acute rejection, and repair mechanisms can trigger the up-regulation of cytokines. To investigate the cytokine profile early after transplantation, we monitored messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte

  7. Gene Expression in Archaea: Studies of Transcriptional Promoters, Messenger RNA Processing, and Five Prime Untranslated Regions in "Methanocaldococcus Jannashchii"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in Archaea is less understood than those in Bacteria and Eucarya. In general, three steps are involved in gene expression--transcription, RNA processing, and translation. To expand our knowledge of these processes in Archaea, I have studied transcriptional promoters, messenger RNA processing, and 5'-untranslated regions in…

  8. Just How Important Is the Messenger versus the Message? The Case of Framing Physician-Assisted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider-Markel, Donald P.; Joslyn, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    As a political issue, death and dying topics only sometimes reach the political agenda. However, some issues, such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been highly salient. This article explores attitudes toward PAS by examining the malleability of opinion when respondents are exposed to issue frames and when specific messengers present those…

  9. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Verhulst, E.C.; Leussen, van M.; Zande, L.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2018-01-01

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid

  10. Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zajic, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

  11. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  12. Pancreatic Beta Cell G-Protein Coupled Receptors and Second Messenger Interactions: A Systems Biology Computational Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid E Fridlyand

    Full Text Available Insulin secretory in pancreatic beta-cells responses to nutrient stimuli and hormonal modulators include multiple messengers and signaling pathways with complex interdependencies. Here we present a computational model that incorporates recent data on glucose metabolism, plasma membrane potential, G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCR, cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum calcium dynamics, cAMP and phospholipase C pathways that regulate interactions between second messengers in pancreatic beta-cells. The values of key model parameters were inferred from published experimental data. The model gives a reasonable fit to important aspects of experimentally measured metabolic and second messenger concentrations and provides a framework for analyzing the role of metabolic, hormones and neurotransmitters changes on insulin secretion. Our analysis of the dynamic data provides support for the hypothesis that activation of Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases play a critical role in modulating the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and catecholamines. The regulatory properties of adenylyl cyclase isoforms determine fluctuations in cytoplasmic cAMP concentration and reveal a synergistic action of glucose, GLP-1 and GIP on insulin secretion. On the other hand, the regulatory properties of phospholipase C isoforms determine the interaction of glucose, acetylcholine and free fatty acids (FFA (that act through the FFA receptors on insulin secretion. We found that a combination of GPCR agonists activating different messenger pathways can stimulate insulin secretion more effectively than a combination of GPCR agonists for a single pathway. This analysis also suggests that the activators of GLP-1, GIP and FFA receptors may have a relatively low risk of hypoglycemia in fasting conditions whereas an activator of muscarinic receptors can increase this risk. This computational analysis demonstrates that study of

  13. The African Mobile Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  14. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...... discursive perceptions of the concept would foster greater insight into and understanding of both the challenges and potentials that it represents. It focused on some of the key themes currently facing cities and the urban: the transformation of the city and our built environment; migration; rural decline......; the interaction between city, architecture, and inhabitants; the role of architects and architecture in the creation of democratic and sustainable urban contexts; the city and its representation; the politics of intervention; and the actions of governing and developing. This proceedings publication from...

  15. Structural Mobility, Exchange Mobility and Subgroup Consistent Mobility Measurement – US–German Mobility Measurements Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Schluter, C.; D. VAN DE GAER

    2008-01-01

    We formalize the concept of structural mobility and use the framework of subgroup consistent mobility measurement to derive a relative and an absolute measure of mobility that is increasing both in upward structural mobility and exchange mobility. In our empirical illustration, we contribute substantively to the ongoing debate about mobility rankings between the USA and Germany.

  16. Mercury surface composition: how the new insights from MESSENGER can drive the future exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Cristian; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Zambon, Francesca; Serventi, Giovanna; Altieri, Francesca; De Sanctis, MariaCristina; Sgavetti, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The surface composition of Mercury, as well as the relationship between morphological expressions and lithologies, is one of the most interesting goal to be still explored. After Mariner10, despite relevant differences observed in geophysical characteristics, Mercury surface composition was compared to the Moon (Murray et al, 1974, Science), and, subsequently, lunar surface was considered as analogue (e.g., Blewett et al., 2002, Meteor.Planet.Sci.). After MESSENGER, Mercury surface appeared mainly volcanic in origin. Plains (intercrater and smooth) seem to have a primary flood effusive origin, and even cratered terrains could have the same origin with a higher crater concentration. These volcanic units range from high reflectance red plains to low reflectance blue plains (Denevi et al., 2009, Science). No absorption is present in the visible and near-infrared spectra, indicating very low abundance of transitional elements in silicates (i.e. very low iron and titanium, e.g. FeO < 1%, Klima et al., 2014, Whispers). XRS and GRS, onboard MESSENGER, confirmed a very low Fe/Si ratio in the surface material (Weider et al., 2014, Icarus), not only in silicates, differently from the volcanic compositions present in all the other planetary surfaces. K, Th, U GRS-based are consistent with chondritic source but with greater volatile abundances (Peplowski et al., 2011, Science; 2012, JGR). Moreover, XRS measured high volatile abundances (i.e., S, Na, K) (Evans et al., 2012, JGR; Weider et al., 2012, JGR), with a variable distribution on the surface. The presence of high level of volatiles is in agreement with the evidence of pyroclastic materials (Kerber et al., 2009, EPSL). Mg/Si shows relative high values, with a high variability on the surface. Higher values of Mg/Si are detected in some terrains related to high concentration of Ca/Si, and low Al/Si, indicating ultramafic composition, a relative high degree of partial melting and high temperature, in particular in older

  17. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  18. The effect of 648 nm diode laser irradiation on second messengers in senescent human keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins Evans, D.; Abrahamse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Background/purpose: Stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) is defined as the long-term effect of subcytotoxic stress on proliferative cell types. Cells in SIPS display differences at the level of protein expression which affect energy metabolism, defense systems, redox potential, cell morphology and transduction pathways. This study aimed to determine the effect of laser irradiation on second messengers in senescent cells and to establish if that effect can be directly linked to changes in cellular function such as cell viability or proliferation. Materials and Methods: Human keratinocyte cell cultures were modified to induce premature senescence using repeated sub-lethal stresses of 200 uM H2O2 or 5% OH every day for four days with two days recovery. SIPS was confirmed by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Control conditions included normal, repeated stress of 500 uM H2O2 to induce apoptosis and 200 uM PBN as an anti-oxidant or free radical scavenger. Cells were irradiated with 1.5 J/cm2 on day 1 and 4 using a 648 nm diode laser (3.3 mW/cm2) and cellular responses were measured 1 h post irradiation. The affect on second messengers was assessed by measuring cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) while functional changes were assessed using cell morphology, ATP cell viability, LDH membrane integrity and WST-1 cell proliferation. Results: Results indicate an increase in NO and a decrease in cGMP and Ca2+ in 200 uM H2O2 irradiated cells while PBN irradiated cells showed a decrease in cAMP and an increase in ATP viability and cell proliferation. Conclusion: Laser irradiation influences cell signaling which ultimately changes the biological function of senescent cells. If laser therapy can stimulate the biological function of senescent cells it may be beneficial to conditions such as immune senescence, skin ageing, muscle atrophy, premature ageing of arteries in patients with advanced heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders and

  19. Mobility Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    IV-419 Strauss, A.M. - V-55 Stuller, J. - IV-470 Stuller, J.G. - IV-457 Sugarman , R.C. - IV-707 Suhier, S.A. - IV-540 Sullivan, E. - 111-214 Sullivan...military vehicle mobility 148 110. AU - Brannon, W.; David , R.H.; Hodges, W., Jr.; Janowski, W.R. TI - Design and development of the twister testbed SO...OS - Aluminum Co of America Alcoa Center PA, David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center, Bethesda, MD SO - 20 Feb 76, 59 p, ADA024262

  20. Downwardly mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    P & H Mining Equipment has produced the 250XP rotary blasthole drill, its first `clean sheet` drill after eight years of upgrading the line of large rotaries it acquired from Gardner Denver in 1991. A prototype has been working on an Australian coal mine since June 1998. A further two units of the 250XP are being erected at a diamond mine in Botswana for start-up in January 1999 and another will begin drilling at a Wyoming, USA coal mine in February. The drill is a highly mobile, heavy duty, highly reliable diesel/hydraulic drill weighing 113,500 kg and can drill holes at angles up to 30 degrees.

  1. Wapice News Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Söylemez, Ilke

    2017-01-01

    Since the mobile phones started to have an increasingly significant role in daily life, the mobile application development also started to be an important area in the software industry. The problem for mobile application developers is to develop a mobile application which supports all the devices and platforms on the market. This issue created a need for cross platform mobile applications. The cross platform mobile development refers to the development of mobile applications that could be use...

  2. An Overview of Ultraviolet Through Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopic Observations of Mercury During the First MESSENGER Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, N. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Blewett, D. T.; Domingue, D. L.; Head, J. W.; Jensen, E. A.; Kochte, M. C.; Lankton, M. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Sprague, A. L.; Vilas, F.; Solomon, S. C.

    2008-05-01

    During the first MESSENGER flyby of Mercury on January 14, 2008, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) measured reflectance spectra from Mercury's surface over the wavelength range 220-1450 nm. These are the first high-spatial-resolution (Mozart crater and in Tir Planitia. Ground-based observations of Mercury reveal a surface with a red, nearly featureless spectrum in the visible and near-infrared (wavelengths greater than ~ 500 nm) that has been interpreted as evidence for a largely iron-poor feldspathic composition. Initial analyses of VIRS spectra also show strongly red-sloped, near featureless spectra, appearing to support contentions of low iron abundance in surface materials. However, interpretation of Mercury's spectral reflectance is complicated by our lack of knowledge about the effects on its surface materials of space weathering, which both suppresses the strength of spectral absorption features and reddens the spectrum. Brightness variations and absorption bands in ultraviolet reflectance may help determine both the nature and extent of processes that modify observed reflectance at longer wavelengths. MASCS surface observation data demonstrate spectral variations across the Mercury surface that can be related to previous telescopic observations, compared and contrasted with lunar observations, and linked to possible influences of space weathering.

  3. ER/K linked GPCR-G protein fusions systematically modulate second messenger response in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Rabia U; Dysthe, Matthew; Ritt, Michael; Sunahara, Roger K; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2017-08-10

    FRET and BRET approaches are well established for detecting ligand induced GPCR-G protein interactions in cells. Currently, FRET/BRET assays rely on co-expression of GPCR and G protein, and hence depend on the stoichiometry and expression levels of the donor and acceptor probes. On the other hand, GPCR-G protein fusions have been used extensively to understand the selectivity of GPCR signaling pathways. However, the signaling properties of fusion proteins are not consistent across GPCRs. In this study, we describe and characterize novel sensors based on the Systematic Protein Affinity Strength Modulation (SPASM) technique. Sensors consist of a GPCR and G protein tethered by an ER/K linker flanked by FRET probes. SPASM sensors are tested for the β2-, α1-, and α2- adrenergic receptors, and adenosine type 1 receptor (A 1 R), tethered to Gαs-XL, Gαi 2 , or Gαq subunits. Agonist stimulation of β2-AR and α2-AR increases FRET signal comparable to co-expressed FRET/BRET sensors. SPASM sensors also retain signaling through the endogenous G protein milieu. Importantly, ER/K linker length systematically tunes the GPCR-G protein interaction, with consequent modulation of second messenger signaling for cognate interactions. SPASM GPCR sensors serve the dual purpose of detecting agonist-induced changes in GPCR-G protein interactions, and linking these changes to downstream signaling.

  4. POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics) Science and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Perkins, Jeremy S.; POEMMA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In this poster we describe the preliminary design of POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics). The two satellites flying in formation consists of an innovative Schmidt telescope design optimized for low energy threshold and large geometry factor for observations. The 4 meter mirror was designed to fit in a dual manifest launch vehicle. A novel corrector lens and fast optics are design to optimized the full field of view to 45 degrees. The large focal surface will be populated by two systems: a multi-anode PMT (MAPMT) array for fluorescence detection and a Silicon PM (SiPM) array for Cherenkov detection around the limb of the Earth. At an altitude of 525 km, the LEO orbit will have a 28.5o inclination the mission can be launched from KSC and have a mission life of 3 years with a 5 year goal. The mission will improve by orders of magnitude the observations of ultra-high energy cosmic rays above tens of EeV and search for neutrinos above tens of PeVs.

  5. Messages do diffuse faster than messengers: reconciling disparate estimates of the morphogen bicoid diffusion coefficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Sigaut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gradient of Bicoid (Bcd is key for the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila embryos. The gradient properties are compatible with the SDD model in which Bcd is synthesized at the anterior pole and then diffuses into the embryo and is degraded with a characteristic time. Within this model, the Bcd diffusion coefficient is critical to set the timescale of gradient formation. This coefficient has been measured using two optical techniques, Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS, obtaining estimates in which the FCS value is an order of magnitude larger than the FRAP one. This discrepancy raises the following questions: which estimate is "correct''; what is the reason for the disparity; and can the SDD model explain Bcd gradient formation within the experimentally observed times? In this paper, we use a simple biophysical model in which Bcd diffuses and interacts with binding sites to show that both the FRAP and the FCS estimates may be correct and compatible with the observed timescale of gradient formation. The discrepancy arises from the fact that FCS and FRAP report on different effective (concentration dependent diffusion coefficients, one of which describes the spreading rate of the individual Bcd molecules (the messengers and the other one that of their concentration (the message. The latter is the one that is more relevant for the gradient establishment and is compatible with its formation within the experimentally observed times.

  6. Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger in Physiology and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuteja Narendra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an intra- and extracellular messenger that mediates diverse signaling pathways in target cells and is known to play an important role in many physiological processes including neuronal signaling, immune response, inflammatory response, modulation of ion channels, phagocytic defense mechanism, penile erection, and cardiovascular homeostasis and its decompensation in atherogenesis. Recent studies have also revealed a role for NO as signaling molecule in plant, as it activates various defense genes and acts as developmental regulator. In plants, NO can also be produced by nitrate reductase. NO can operate through posttranslational modification of proteins (nitrosylation. NO is also a causative agent in various pathophysiological abnormalities. One of the very important systems, the cardiovascular system, is affected by NO production, as this bioactive molecule is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular motor tone, modulation of myocardial contractivity, control of cell proliferation, and inhibition of platelet activation, aggregation, and adhesion. The prime source of NO in the cardiovascular system is endothelial NO synthase, which is tightly regulated with respect to activity and localization. The inhibition of chronic NO synthesis leads to neurogenic and arterial hypertensions, which later contribute to development of myocardial fibrosis. Overall, the modulation of NO synthesis is associated with hypertension. This review briefly describes the physiology of NO, its synthesis, catabolism, and targeting, the mechanism of NO action, and the pharmacological role of NO with special reference to its essential role in hypertension.

  7. Statistical study of ICME effects on Mercury's magnetospheric boundaries and northern cusp region from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Philpott, Lydia; Paty, Carol S.; Lugaz, Noé; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Korth, Haje

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of the large-scale processes in Mercury's magnetosphere during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using observations from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. We study the motion of the bow shock and magnetopause boundaries, quantify the magnetospheric compression, and characterize the size, extent, and plasma pressure of the northern cusp region and the plasma precipitation to the surface. During ICMEs, the magnetopause was substantially compressed, as the subsolar standoff distance from the center of the planet was reduced by ˜15% compared with the value during nominal solar wind conditions, and the magnetopause reached the surface of the planet ˜30% of the time. On the other hand, the bow shock under ICME conditions was located farther from the planet than for nominal solar wind conditions. The cusp was observed to extend ˜10° farther equatorward and 2 h wider in local time. In addition, the average plasma pressure in the cusp was more than double that determined under nominal conditions. For the most extreme cases, the particle precipitation to the surface was an order of magnitude higher than on average. The solar wind ram pressure and the Alfvén Mach number are found to be the dominant factors affecting these changes in the magnetosphere, with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction and the IMF magnetic pressure playing a small but likely nonnegligible role.

  8. Hypophosphorylated ASF/SF2 binds TAP and is present in messenger ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Chih; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2004-07-23

    Serine/arginine-rich proteins (SR proteins) function in precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing and may also act as adaptors for mRNA export. SR proteins are dynamically phosphorylated in their RS domain, and differential phosphorylation modulates their splicing activity and subcellular localization. In this study, we investigated the influence of phosphorylation on the function of SR proteins in events occurring during mRNA maturation. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the mRNA export receptor TAP associates preferentially with the hypophosphorylated form of shuttling SR proteins, including ASF/SF2. Overexpression of ASF induced subnuclear relocalization of TAP to SR protein-enriched nuclear speckles, suggesting their interaction in vivo. Moreover, the ASF found in a nucleoplasmic fraction rich in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complexes is hyperphosphorylated, whereas mature messenger RNP (mRNP)-bound ASF is hypophosphorylated. Therefore, hypophosphorylation of ASF in mRNPs coincides with its higher affinity for TAP, suggesting that dephosphorylation of ASF promotes both its incorporation into mRNPs and recruitment of TAP for mRNA export. Thus, the phosphorylation state of RS domains may modulate the function of mammalian shuttling SR proteins during mRNA maturation or export.

  9. Chemical Heterogeneity on Mercury's Surface Revealed by the MESSENGER X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weider, Shoshana Z.; Nittler, Larry R.; Starr, Richard D.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R.; Byrne, Paul K.; Denevi, Brett W.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of 205 spatially resolved measurements of the surfacecomposition of Mercury from MESSENGERs X-Ray Spectrometer. The surfacefootprints of these measurements are categorized according to geological terrain. Northernsmooth plains deposits and the plains interior to the Caloris basin differ compositionallyfrom older terrain on Mercury. The older terrain generally has higher MgSi, SSi, andCaSi ratios, and a lower AlSi ratio than the smooth plains. Mercurys surface mineralogyis likely dominated by high-Mg mafic minerals (e.g., enstatite), plagioclase feldspar, andlesser amounts of Ca, Mg, andor Fe sulfides (e.g., oldhamite). The compositionaldifference between the volcanic smooth plains and the older terrain reflects differentabundances of these minerals and points to the crystallization of the smooth plains from amore chemically evolved magma source. High-degree partial melts of enstatite chondritematerial provide a generally good compositional and mineralogical match for much ofthe surface of Mercury. An exception is Fe, for which the low surface abundance onMercury is still higher than that of melts from enstatite chondrites and may indicate anexogenous contribution from meteoroid impacts.

  10. Involvement of second messengers in regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auwerx, J.H. (Leuven Univ. (Belgium). ECHEM Labs.); Chait, A.; Wolfbauer, G.; Deeb, S.S. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (USA). Dept. of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Transcription of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene in the human monocytic leukemic cell line THP-1 and in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep-G2 is regulated by second messengers of the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C (DAG-PKC), inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-Ca/sup 2+/, and cyclic AMP pathways. Exogeneous phospholipase C (which releases DAG and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate), PKC activators (phorbol esters and DAG), Ca/sup 2+/ ionophores, and a cyclic AMP analog all transiently induced accumulation of LDL-R mRNA. The effects of these three signal-transducing pathways were to a large extend additive. Furthermore, PKC stimulation effected an increase in LDL binding, which suggested that the increase in LDL-R mRNA resulted in an increase in functional cell surface receptor activity. These results suggest that uptake of cholesterol by these cells is under control of both intracellular cholesterol levels and external signals.

  11. Aberrant herpesvirus-induced polyadenylation correlates with cellular messenger RNA destruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon J Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA stability plays critical roles in controlling gene expression, ensuring transcript fidelity, and allowing cells to respond to environmental cues. Unregulated enhancement of mRNA turnover could therefore dampen cellular responses to such signals. Indeed, several herpesviruses instigate widespread destruction of cellular mRNAs to block host gene expression and evade immune detection. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV promotes this phenotype via the activity of its viral SOX protein, although the mechanism of SOX-induced mRNA turnover has remained unknown, given its apparent lack of intrinsic ribonuclease activity. Here, we report that KSHV SOX stimulates cellular transcriptome turnover via a unique mechanism involving aberrant polyadenylation. Transcripts in SOX-expressing cells exhibit extended poly(A polymerase II-generated poly(A tails and polyadenylation-linked mRNA turnover. SOX-induced polyadenylation changes correlate with its RNA turnover function, and inhibition of poly(A tail formation blocks SOX activity. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic poly(A binding proteins are critical cellular cofactors for SOX function, the latter of which undergoes striking nuclear relocalization by SOX. SOX-induced mRNA turnover therefore represents both a novel mechanism of host shutoff as well as a new model system to probe the regulation of poly(A tail-stimulated mRNA turnover in mammalian cells.

  12. Ames stereo pipeline-derived digital terrain models of Mercury from MESSENGER stereo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 96 digital terrain models (DTMs) of Mercury were created using the Ames Stereo Pipeline, using 1456 pairs of stereo images from the Mercury Dual Imaging System instrument on MESSENGER. Although these DTMs cover only 1% of the surface of Mercury, they enable three-dimensional characterization of landforms at horizontal resolutions of 50-250 m/pixel and vertical accuracy of tens of meters. This is valuable in regions where the more precise measurements from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) are sparse. MLA measurements nonetheless provide an important geodetic framework for the derived stereo products. These DTMs, which are publicly released in conjunction with this paper, reveal topography of features at relatively small scales, including craters, graben, hollows, pits, scarps, and wrinkle ridges. Measurements from these data indicate that: (1) hollows have a median depth of 32 m, in basic agreement with earlier shadow measurement, (2) some of the deep pits (up to 4 km deep) that are interpreted to form via volcanic processes on Mercury have surrounding rims or rises, but others do not, and (3) some pits have two or more distinct, low-lying interior minima that could represent multiple vents.

  13. Messenger RNA- versus retrovirus-based induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming strategies: analysis of genomic integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Clara; Luce, Eléanor; Maluenda, Jérôme; Tosca, Lucie; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; Desterke, Christophe; Dianat, Noushin; Goulinet-Mainot, Sylvie; Awan-Toor, Sarah; Burks, Deborah; Marie, Joëlle; Weber, Anne; Tachdjian, Gérard; Melki, Judith; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The use of synthetic messenger RNAs to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is particularly appealing for potential regenerative medicine applications, because it overcomes the common drawbacks of DNA-based or virus-based reprogramming strategies, including transgene integration in particular. We compared the genomic integrity of mRNA-derived iPSCs with that of retrovirus-derived iPSCs generated in strictly comparable conditions, by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) analyses. We showed that mRNA-derived iPSCs do not differ significantly from the parental fibroblasts in SNP analysis, whereas retrovirus-derived iPSCs do. We found that the number of CNVs seemed independent of the reprogramming method, instead appearing to be clone-dependent. Furthermore, differentiation studies indicated that mRNA-derived iPSCs differentiated efficiently into hepatoblasts and that these cells did not load additional CNVs during differentiation. The integration-free hepatoblasts that were generated constitute a new tool for the study of diseased hepatocytes derived from patients' iPSCs and their use in the context of stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation. Our findings also highlight the need to conduct careful studies on genome integrity for the selection of iPSC lines before using them for further applications. ©AlphaMed Press.

  14. LIN28 binds messenger RNAs at GGAGA motifs and regulates splicing factor abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, Melissa L; Huelga, Stephanie C; Kapeli, Katannya; Stark, Thomas J; Liang, Tiffany Y; Chen, Stella X; Yan, Bernice Y; Nathanson, Jason L; Hutt, Kasey R; Lovci, Michael T; Kazan, Hilal; Vu, Anthony Q; Massirer, Katlin B; Morris, Quaid; Hoon, Shawn; Yeo, Gene W

    2012-10-26

    LIN28 is a conserved RNA-binding protein implicated in pluripotency, reprogramming, and oncogenesis. It was previously shown to act primarily by blocking let-7 microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, but here we elucidate distinct roles of LIN28 regulation via its direct messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. Through crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq) in human embryonic stem cells and somatic cells expressing exogenous LIN28, we have defined discrete LIN28-binding sites in a quarter of human transcripts. These sites revealed that LIN28 binds to GGAGA sequences enriched within loop structures in mRNAs, reminiscent of its interaction with let-7 miRNA precursors. Among LIN28 mRNA targets, we found evidence for LIN28 autoregulation and also direct but differing effects on the protein abundance of splicing regulators in somatic and pluripotent stem cells. Splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrated that exogenous LIN28 expression causes widespread downstream alternative splicing changes. These findings identify important regulatory functions of LIN28 via direct mRNA interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-messenger Light Curves from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Internal Shock Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heinze, Jonas; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Murase, Kohta, E-mail: bustamanteramirez.1@osu.edu, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de, E-mail: jonas.heinze@desy.de, E-mail: murase@psu.edu [Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA16802 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma-rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure can be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  16. Multi-messenger light curves from gamma-ray bursts in the internal shock model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Mauricio [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP); Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Murase, Kohta [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure tend to be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  17. Nuclease escape elements protect messenger RNA against cleavage by multiple viral endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mandy; Glaunsinger, Britt A

    2017-08-01

    During lytic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonu- clease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA). However, select mRNAs, including the transcript encoding interleukin-6 (IL-6), escape SOX-induced cleavage. IL-6 escape is mediated through a 3' UTR RNA regulatory element that overrides the SOX targeting mechanism. Here, we reveal that this protective RNA element functions to broadly restrict cleavage by a range of homologous and non-homologous viral endonucleases. However, it does not impede cleavage by cellular endonucleases. The IL-6 protective sequence may be representative of a larger class of nuclease escape elements, as we identified a similar protective element in the GADD45B mRNA. The IL-6 and GADD45B-derived elements display similarities in their sequence, putative structure, and several associated RNA binding proteins. However, the overall composition of their ribonucleoprotein complexes appears distinct, leading to differences in the breadth of nucleases restricted. These findings highlight how RNA elements can selectively control transcript abundance in the background of widespread virus-induced mRNA degradation.

  18. Multi-messenger studies of compact binary mergers in the in the ngVLA era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    We explore some of the scientific opportunities that the next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will open in the field of multi-messenger time-domain astronomy. We focus on compact binary mergers, golden astrophysical targets of ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as advanced LIGO. A decade from now, a large number of these mergers is likely to be discovered by a world-wide network of GW detectors. We discuss how a radio array with 10 times the sensitivity of the current Karl G. Jansky VLA and 10 times the resolution, would enable resolved radio continuum studies of binary merger hosts, probing regions of the galaxy undergoing star formation (which can be heavily obscured by dust and gas), AGN components, and mapping the offset distribution of the mergers with respect to the host galaxy light. For compact binary mergers containing at least one neutron star (NS), from which electromagnetic counterparts are expected to exist, we show how the ngVLA would enable direct size measurements of the relativistic merger ejecta and probe, for the first time directly, their dynamics.

  19. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10-5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10-5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, J2⊙J2⊙ = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10-7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, GM⊙°/GM⊙GM⊙°/GM⊙ = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10-14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain ∣∣G°∣∣/GG°/G to be <4 × 10-14 per year.

  20. eIF3 targets cell-proliferation messenger RNAs for translational activation or repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy S Y; Kranzusch, Philip J; Cate, Jamie H D

    2015-06-04

    Regulation of protein synthesis is fundamental for all aspects of eukaryotic biology by controlling development, homeostasis and stress responses. The 13-subunit, 800-kilodalton eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) organizes initiation factor and ribosome interactions required for productive translation. However, current understanding of eIF3 function does not explain genetic evidence correlating eIF3 deregulation with tissue-specific cancers and developmental defects. Here we report the genome-wide discovery of human transcripts that interact with eIF3 using photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP). eIF3 binds to a highly specific program of messenger RNAs involved in cell growth control processes, including cell cycling, differentiation and apoptosis, via the mRNA 5' untranslated region. Surprisingly, functional analysis of the interaction between eIF3 and two mRNAs encoding the cell proliferation regulators c-JUN and BTG1 reveals that eIF3 uses different modes of RNA stem-loop binding to exert either translational activation or repression. Our findings illuminate a new role for eIF3 in governing a specialized repertoire of gene expression and suggest that binding of eIF3 to specific mRNAs could be targeted to control carcinogenesis.

  1. Disturbances in lipid second messengers generation by stimulated blood lymphocytes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan H. M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main objective of this study was the comparative investigation of diverse lipid second messenger (LSM generation by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL at different (5, 10, 30 and 60 s time points of cell co-stimulation by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in norm and breast cancer (BC. Methods. Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Results. The data obtained indicate that some mechanisms of LSM generation/utilization in stimulated crude HPBL were significantly altered in BC compared to norm. Particularly, the reliable generation of arachidonyl-1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG at the initial step (5 s of cell stimulation observed in norm was depressed in BC and reached the value below the basal level in unstimulated cells. It is important that the disturbances in 1,2-DAG formation in HPBL obtained from patients with BC were identical with those observed earlier in other forms of cancer. Conclusions. We conclude that the regularities revealed are common characteristics for all the types of malignancy studied and can be used as additional testing parameters for cancer definition and individual correction of the chemotherapy programs for disease treatment

  2. Unusual stability of messenger RNA in snake venom reveals gene expression dynamics of venom replenishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel B Currier

    Full Text Available Venom is a critical evolutionary innovation enabling venomous snakes to become successful limbless predators; it is therefore vital that venomous snakes possess a highly efficient venom production and delivery system to maintain their predatory arsenal. Here, we exploit the unusual stability of messenger RNA in venom to conduct, for the first time, quantitative PCR to characterise the dynamics of gene expression of newly synthesised venom proteins following venom depletion. Quantitative PCR directly from venom enables real-time dynamic studies of gene expression in the same animals because it circumvents the conventional requirement to sacrifice snakes to extract mRNA from dissected venom glands. Using qPCR and proteomic analysis, we show that gene expression and protein re-synthesis triggered by venom expulsion peaks between days 3-7 of the cycle of venom replenishment, with different protein families expressed in parallel. We demonstrate that venom re-synthesis occurs very rapidly following depletion of venom stores, presumably to ensure venomous snakes retain their ability to efficiently predate and remain defended from predators. The stability of mRNA in venom is biologically fascinating, and could significantly empower venom research by expanding opportunities to produce transcriptomes from historical venom stocks and rare or endangered venomous species, for new therapeutic, diagnostic and evolutionary studies.

  3. Messenger RNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification: research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Su-hua; Di, Zhou; Zhao, Shu-min; Li, Cheng-tao

    2013-10-01

    Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. However, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time consumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Recently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profiling, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibility with current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review, we provided an overview of the present knowledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  4. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: new insights into geological processes and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W., III; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Blewett, David T.; Chapman, Clark R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Evans, Larry G.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Helbert, Jörn; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Merline, William J.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larrz R.; Phillips, Roger J.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Sprague, Ann L.; Strom, Robert G.; Vilas, Faith; Watters, Thomas R.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2008-09-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, a part of NASA's Discovery Program, was designed to answer six questions [1]: (1) What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high ratio of metal to silicate? (2) What is the geological history of Mercury? (3) What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? (4) What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? (5) What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? (6) What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks near Mercury? MESSENGER is currently midway through a complex interplanetary cruise phase that involves three flybys of Mercury. The first of these, on 14 January 2008, provided important new information relating to several of the questions above [2-13]. Here we summarize observations made during the flyby that are most relevant to new insights about geological processes that have operated on Mercury and implications for the planet's history [3, 8-13]. The instruments that provided the most direct information on the geological history of Mercury during this first encounter were the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) [14], the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) [15], and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [16]. Among the many specific questions remaining following the Mariner 10 mission to Mercury (1974- 1975) were (1) the level of mineralogical and compositional diversity of the crust, which appeared relatively bland in Mariner 10 data, (2) the nature of the rest of the huge Caloris impact basin seen only partially in Mariner 10 images, (3) the origin of the extensive plains observed on the surface (ponded impact ejecta or extrusive lava flows?), (4) the diversity and global distribution of tectonic features that have deformed the crust and their implications for strain as a function of time, and (5) the bombardment chronology and geological history of Mercury [1, 17-19]. The viewing

  5. Synaptic plasticity in the medial vestibular nuclei: role of glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers in rat brainstem slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-08-01

    The analysis of cellular-molecular events mediating synaptic plasticity within vestibular nuclei is an attempt to explain the mechanisms underlying vestibular plasticity phenomena. The present review is meant to illustrate the main results, obtained in vitro, on the mechanisms underlying long-term changes in synaptic strength within the medial vestibular nuclei. The synaptic plasticity phenomena taking place at the level of vestibular nuclei could be useful for adapting and consolidating the efficacy of vestibular neuron responsiveness to environmental requirements, as during visuo-vestibular recalibration and vestibular compensation. Following a general introduction on the most salient features of vestibular compensation and visuo-vestibular adaptation, which are two plastic events involving neuronal circuitry within the medial vestibular nuclei, the second and third sections describe the results from rat brainstem slice studies, demonstrating the possibility to induce long-term potentiation and depression in the medial vestibular nuclei, following high frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. In particular the mechanisms sustaining the induction and expression of vestibular long-term potentiation and depression, such as the role of various glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers have been described. The relevant role of the interaction between the platelet-activating factor, acting as a retrograde messenger, and the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, in determining the full expression of vestibular long-term potentiation is also underlined. In addition, the mechanisms involved in vestibular long-term potentiation have been compared with those leading to long-term potentiation in the hippocampus to emphasize the most significant differences emerging from vestibular studies. The fourth part, describes recent results demonstrating the essential role of nitric oxide, another retrograde messenger, in the induction of vestibular

  6. WhatsApp messenger as a tool to supplement medical education for medical students on clinical attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Raiman, Lewis; Antbring, Richard; Mahmood, Asad

    2017-01-01

    Background Instant messaging applications have the potential to improve and facilitate communication between hospital doctors and students, hence generating and improving learning opportunities. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of instant messaging communication to supplement medical education for medical students whilst on clinical attachment. Methods A total of 6 WhatsApp Messenger (WhatsApp Inc.) groups were created for medical students on clinical attachmen...

  7. Advertising on mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevsky, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the new method of mobile advertising. Advertising in mobile applications - a subspecies of mobile marketing, where advertising is distributed using mobile phones and smartphones. Ad placement is going on inside of applications and games for smartphones. It has a high potential due to the large number of mobile phone users (over 6.5 billion in 2013).

  8. MESSENGER, MErcury: Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging; A Mission to Orbit and Explore the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    MESSENGER is a scientific mission to Mercury. Understanding this extraordinary planet and the forces that have shaped it is fundamental to understanding the processes that have governed the formation, evolution, and dynamics of the terrestrial planets. MESSENGER is a MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission to orbit Mercury for one Earth year after completing two flybys of that planet following two flybys of Venus. The necessary flybys return significant new data early in the mission, while the orbital phase, guided by the flyby data, enables a focused scientific investigation of this least-studied terrestrial planet. Answers to key questions about Mercury's high density, crustal composition and structure, volcanic history, core structure, magnetic field generation, polar deposits, exosphere, overall volatile inventory, and magnetosphere are provided by an optimized set of miniaturized space instruments. Our goal is to gain new insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system, including Earth. By traveling to the inner edge of the solar system and exploring a poorly known world, MESSENGER fulfills this quest.

  9. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  10. Mobile shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Michael; Jueptner, Werner

    2005-04-01

    By reason of their sensitivity, accuracy and non-contact as well as non-destructive characteristics, modern optical methods such as digital speckle shearography have found an increasing interest for NDT applications on the factory floor. With new carbon filter technologies and other lightweight constructions in aircraft and automotive manufacturing, adapted examination designs and especially developed testing methods are necessary. Shearography as a coherent optical method has been widely accepted as an useful NDT tool. It is a robust interferometric method to determine locations with maximum stress on various material structures. However, limitations of this technique can be found in the bulky equipment components, the interpretation of the complex sherographic result images and at the work with non-cooperative surfaces (dark absorber, bright shining reflectors). We report a mobile shearography system that was especially designed for investigations at aircraft and automotive constructions.

  11. Joint mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Deborah Gross; Walker, J Randy; Levine, David

    2005-11-01

    Therapeutic touch has been used in human beings to soothe aches and pains. Most dogs also seem to enjoy being touched. Manual therapy techniques are skilled hand movements intended to improve tissue extensibility; increase range of motion; induce relaxation; mobilize or manipulate soft tissue and joints; modulate pain; and reduce soft tissue swelling, inflammation, or restriction. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of the principles of manual therapy, followed by selected treatment techniques for the hip, stifle, elbow, shoulder, carpus.and thoracic and lumbar spine. The techniques of G.D. Maitland, an Australian physical therapist who developed a clinically based approach in the 1960s and 1970s, are emphasized.

  12. [Social mobilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bop, C

    1990-04-01

    One of the principal recommendations from Alma Ata and the Bamako Initiative was the need for communities to take responsibility for their own health--a recommendation that still remains unmet and in need of reform in Africa because of the severe economic recession and lack of resources allocated for health care in the region. The mobilization of communities "is the opposite of passivity and submission." People must demystify the notion that health care is the exclusive right of health professionals and should realize that they themselves can bring about changes from the household to the village levels; community mobilization is an integral component of development planning. African societies have developed very centralized structures requiring changes that only their own communities can bring about. Because women remain the principal agents for the family's health they should be informed, about the multiple dimensions leading to good health care to enable them to provide the rest of the family with good nourishment and health care follow-up. Children are a vulnerable and important group that require preventive care. A UNICEF experiment in Senegal is training 10-13 year old school children to visit the parents of 5 children, inform them about vaccinating their children, and to follow-up on their activities with these "adopted families." The need for short and long-term IEC interventions in Africa are a priority and effective strategies must be found to reach the majority of the rural populations where all obstacles such as the lack of infrastructure and illiteracy exist. Mali has used traditional theatre "Koteba" to reach the rural populations on a variety of health issues such as oral rehydration and diarrhea as well as the Rural Audio Library (it used cassettes rather than books) to reach villagers in their own languages. The worst obstacle facing Africa today is the refusal of officials in power to allow people to manage their own lives, of which health is a

  13. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  14. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Striuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major trends in academic mobility are identified (the transition from student mobility to mobility programs and educational services providers, the new mobility programs (franchising, double/joint degrees, combinations, nostrification etc. are characterized. The new types of mobility providers are reviewed and attention is focused on virtual universities that are now the basis of virtual mobility of students and activities which are based on the use of new ICT in higher education, especially – the Internet and mobile learning environments.

  15. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location......, in our case a medium-sized retail supermarket. Two prototypes based on push and pull marketing strategies are implemented and evaluated. Taking outset in a synthesis of central issues in contemporary research on mobile marketing, we discuss their role in micro mobility marketing to point to similarities...

  16. The Geology of Mercury: The View Prior to the MESSENGER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.; Chapman, Clark R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Hawkins, S. Edward; McClintock, William E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Strom, Robert G.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2007-08-01

    internally generated volcanic resurfacing may have ceased at ˜3.8 Ga; (5) a planet where impact craters can be used to disentangle the fundamental roles of gravity and mean impactor velocity in determining impact crater morphology and morphometry; (6) an environment where global impact crater counts can test fundamental concepts of the distribution of impactor populations in space and time; (7) an extreme environment in which highly radar-reflective polar deposits, much more extensive than those on the Moon, can be better understood; (8) an extreme environment in which the basic processes of space weathering can be further deduced; and (9) a potential end-member in terrestrial planetary body geological evolution in which the relationships of internal and surface evolution can be clearly assessed from both a tectonic and volcanic point of view. In the half-century since the launch of Sputnik, more than 30 spacecraft have been sent to the Moon, yet only now is a second spacecraft en route to Mercury. The MESSENGER mission will address key questions about the geologic evolution of Mercury; the depth and breadth of the MESSENGER data will permit the confident reconstruction of the geological history and thermal evolution of Mercury using new imaging, topography, chemistry, mineralogy, gravity, magnetic, and environmental data.

  17. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile Payment Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2006-01-01

    Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile Payment Referenzmodell / K. Pousttchi, D. G. Wiedemann. - In: Handbuch E-Money, E-Payment & M-Payment / Thomas Lammer (Hrsg.). - Heidelberg : Physica-Verl., 2006. - S. 363-377

  18. Cooperating mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  19. Characterization of long noncoding RNA and messenger RNA signatures in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siqi; Fan, Wenliang; Wan, Bing; Tu, Mengqi; Jin, Feng; Liu, Fang; Xu, Haibo; Han, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive and life-threatening form of skin cancer, has significantly risen over recent decades. Therefore, it is essential to identify the mechanisms that underlie melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and to explore novel and effective melanoma treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence s uggests that aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have vital functions in multiple cancers. However, lncRNA functions in melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles in primary melanomas, metastatic melanomas and normal skin samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We used GSE15605 as the training set (n = 74) and GSE7553 as the validation set (n = 58). In three comparisons (primary melanoma versus normal skin, metastatic melanoma versus normal skin, and metastatic melanoma versus primary melanoma), 178, 295 and 48 lncRNAs and 847, 1758, and 295 mRNAs were aberrantly expressed, respectively. We performed Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses to examine the differentially expressed mRNAs, and potential core lncRNAs were predicted by lncRNA-mRNA co-expression networks. Based on our results, 15 lncRNAs and 144 mRNAs were significantly associated with melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. A subsequent analysis suggested a critical role for a five-lncRNA signature during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. Low expression of U47924.27 was significantly associated with decreased survival of patients with melanoma. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the expression patterns of lncRNAs and mRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis by re-annotating microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray dataset. These findings reveal potential roles for lncRNAs during melanoma tumorigenesis and metastasis and provide a rich candidate reservoir for

  20. Opioid Tolerance and Physical Dependence: Role of Spinal Neuropeptides, Excitatory Amino Acids and Their Messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khem Jhamandas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic opioid treatment results in the development of tolerance and physical dependence. The mechanisms underlying opioid tolerance and/or physical dependence are unclear. Recent studies suggest that opioid receptor or nociceptive, neural network-based adaptations contribute to this phenomenon. At the spinal level, the genesis of tolerance and physical dependence is associated with increased excitatory amino acid activity expressed through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the dorsal horn. However, recent evidence also implicates spinal neuropeptide transmitters such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and  substance P in the development of opioid tolerance. Long term spinal morphine treatment increases CGRP-like immunostaining in the dorsal horn, and coadministration of morphine with CGRP8-37, a competitive CGRP1 receptor antagonist, prevents this response as well as loss of the analgesic potency. CGRP8-37, like N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, has the potential to restore morphine potency in experimental animals who are already tolerant to the opioid agonist. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of excitatory amino acid and neuropeptide receptor activity may be expressed through the generation of messengers such as nitric oxide and prostanoids. Agents that inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostanoids have the potential to inhibit and reverse spinal opioid tolerance, suggesting that this phenomenon may be expressed through the activity of these mediators. Nociceptive transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord also involves activity of a number of other mediators including morphine modulatory neuropeptides, neuropeptide FF  and neuropeptide SF. The role of these mediators and their relationship with other factors implicated in tolerance remain to be determined.

  1. School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoue Tetsuya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School children have been increasingly recognized as health messengers for malaria control. However, little evidence is available. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school-based malaria education intervention on school children and community adults. Methods This study was conducted in the Dangme-East district of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, between 2007 and 2008. Trained schoolteachers designed participatory health education activities and led school children to disseminate messages related to malaria control to their communities. Three schools and their respective communities were chosen for the study and assigned to an intervention group (one school and a control group (two schools. Questionnaire-based interviews and parasitological surveys were conducted before and after the intervention, with the intervention group (105 children, 250 community adults and the control group (81 children, 133 community adults. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used to analyse differences in knowledge, practices, and parasite prevalence between pre- and post-intervention. Results After the intervention, the misperception that malaria has multiple causes was significantly improved, both among children and community adults. Moreover, the community adults who treated a bed net with insecticide in the past six months, increased from 21.5% to 50.0% (p p = 0.003. These positive changes were observed only in the intervention group. Conclusions This study suggests that the participatory health education intervention contributed to the decreased malaria prevalence among children. It had a positive impact not only on school children, but also on community adults, through the improvement of knowledge and practices. This strategy can be applied as a complementary approach to existing malaria control strategies in West African countries where school health management systems have been strengthened.

  2. School-based participatory health education for malaria control in Ghana: engaging children as health messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Irene; Nonaka, Daisuke; Adjovu, Josiah K; Hanafusa, Shigeki; Jimba, Masamine; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Boakye, Daniel A; Kobayashi, Jun

    2010-04-18

    School children have been increasingly recognized as health messengers for malaria control. However, little evidence is available. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school-based malaria education intervention on school children and community adults. This study was conducted in the Dangme-East district of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, between 2007 and 2008. Trained schoolteachers designed participatory health education activities and led school children to disseminate messages related to malaria control to their communities. Three schools and their respective communities were chosen for the study and assigned to an intervention group (one school) and a control group (two schools). Questionnaire-based interviews and parasitological surveys were conducted before and after the intervention, with the intervention group (105 children, 250 community adults) and the control group (81 children, 133 community adults). Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used to analyse differences in knowledge, practices, and parasite prevalence between pre- and post-intervention. After the intervention, the misperception that malaria has multiple causes was significantly improved, both among children and community adults. Moreover, the community adults who treated a bed net with insecticide in the past six months, increased from 21.5% to 50.0% (p < 0.001). Parasite prevalence in school children decreased from 30.9% to 10.3% (p = 0.003). These positive changes were observed only in the intervention group. This study suggests that the participatory health education intervention contributed to the decreased malaria prevalence among children. It had a positive impact not only on school children, but also on community adults, through the improvement of knowledge and practices. This strategy can be applied as a complementary approach to existing malaria control strategies in West African countries where school health management systems have been strengthened.

  3. Mercury's Solar Wind Interaction as Characterized by Magnetospheric Plasma Mantle Observations With MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; DiBraccio, Gina A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze 94 traversals of Mercury's southern magnetospheric plasma mantle using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The mean and median proton number densities in the mantle are 1.5 and 1.3 cm-3, respectively. For sodium number density these values are 0.004 and 0.002 cm-3. Moderately higher densities are observed on the magnetospheric dusk side. The mantle supplies up to 1.5 × 108 cm-2 s-1 and 0.8 × 108 cm-2 s-1 of proton and sodium flux to the plasma sheet, respectively. We estimate the cross-electric magnetospheric potential from each observation and find a mean of 19 kV (standard deviation of 16 kV) and a median of 13 kV. This is an important result as it is lower than previous estimations and shows that Mercury's magnetosphere is at times not as highly driven by the solar wind as previously thought. Our values are comparable to the estimations for the ice giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, but lower than Earth. The estimated potentials do have a very large range of values (1-74 kV), showing that Mercury's magnetosphere is highly dynamic. A correlation of the potential is found to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude, supporting evidence that dayside magnetic reconnection can occur at all shear angles at Mercury. But we also see that Mercury has an Earth-like magnetospheric response, favoring -BZ IMF orientation. We find evidence that -BX orientations in the IMF favor the southern cusp and southern mantle. This is in agreement with telescopic observations of exospheric emission, but in disagreement with modeling.

  4. Calibration, Projection, and Final Image Products of MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Becker, Kris J.; Blewett, David T.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Hash, Christopher D.; Hawkins, S. Edward; Keller, Mary R.; Laslo, Nori R.; Nair, Hari; Robinson, Mark S.; Seelos, Frank P.; Stephens, Grant K.; Turner, F. Scott; Solomon, Sean C.

    2018-02-01

    We present an overview of the operations, calibration, geodetic control, photometric standardization, and processing of images from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER spacecraft's mission at Mercury (18 March 2011-30 April 2015). We also provide a summary of all of the MDIS products that are available in NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). Updates to the radiometric calibration included slight modification of the frame-transfer smear correction, updates to the flat fields of some wide-angle camera (WAC) filters, a new model for the temperature dependence of narrow-angle camera (NAC) and WAC sensitivity, and an empirical correction for temporal changes in WAC responsivity. Further, efforts to characterize scattered light in the WAC system are described, along with a mosaic-dependent correction for scattered light that was derived for two regional mosaics. Updates to the geometric calibration focused on the focal lengths and distortions of the NAC and all WAC filters, NAC-WAC alignment, and calibration of the MDIS pivot angle and base. Additionally, two control networks were derived so that the majority of MDIS images can be co-registered with sub-pixel accuracy; the larger of the two control networks was also used to create a global digital elevation model. Finally, we describe the image processing and photometric standardization parameters used in the creation of the MDIS advanced products in the PDS, which include seven large-scale mosaics, numerous targeted local mosaics, and a set of digital elevation models ranging in scale from local to global.

  5. The ribosome uses two active mechanisms to unwind messenger RNA during translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaohui; Wen, Jin-Der; Lancaster, Laura; Noller, Harry F; Bustamante, Carlos; Tinoco, Ignacio

    2011-07-06

    The ribosome translates the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA into protein. Folded structures in the coding region of an mRNA represent a kinetic barrier that lowers the peptide elongation rate, as the ribosome must disrupt structures it encounters in the mRNA at its entry site to allow translocation to the next codon. Such structures are exploited by the cell to create diverse strategies for translation regulation, such as programmed frameshifting, the modulation of protein expression levels, ribosome localization and co-translational protein folding. Although strand separation activity is inherent to the ribosome, requiring no exogenous helicases, its mechanism is still unknown. Here, using a single-molecule optical tweezers assay on mRNA hairpins, we find that the translation rate of identical codons at the decoding centre is greatly influenced by the GC content of folded structures at the mRNA entry site. Furthermore, force applied to the ends of the hairpin to favour its unfolding significantly speeds translation. Quantitative analysis of the force dependence of its helicase activity reveals that the ribosome, unlike previously studied helicases, uses two distinct active mechanisms to unwind mRNA structure: it destabilizes the helical junction at the mRNA entry site by biasing its thermal fluctuations towards the open state, increasing the probability of the ribosome translocating unhindered; and it mechanically pulls apart the mRNA single strands of the closed junction during the conformational changes that accompany ribosome translocation. The second of these mechanisms ensures a minimal basal rate of translation in the cell; specialized, mechanically stable structures are required to stall the ribosome temporarily. Our results establish a quantitative mechanical basis for understanding the mechanism of regulation of the elongation rate of translation by structured mRNAs. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  6. Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis and Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Express High Levels of Myostatin and Its Receptors Messenger RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrarelli, Patrizia; Funghi, Lucia; Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Centini, Gabriele; Reis, Fernando M; Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Mattei, Alberto; Vannuccini, Silvia; Petraglia, Felice

    2017-12-01

    Myostatin is a growth factor member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, which is known to play major roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. The present study investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of myostatin and myostatin receptors (activin receptor-like kinase 4 [ALK4], transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor kinase [ALK5] and activin receptor type IIB [ActRIIB]) in endometrium of healthy women during menstrual cycle as well as in benign (endometriosis, polyps) and malignant (endometrial adenocarcinoma) conditions. Endometrial specimens were collected by hysteroscopy, whereas endometriotic lesions were collected by laparoscopy, and adenocarcinomas were sampled after hysterectomy. Total RNA was extracted from tissue homogenates, and gene expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Myostatin and myostatin receptors mRNAs were expressed by healthy endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle, with no differences between the proliferative and secretory phase. The highest myostatin mRNA expression was found in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and in endometrial carcinoma; expression was also found in ovarian endometrioma (OMA ) and endometrial polyps. Myostatin receptors mRNA expression was higher in DIE and adenocarcinomas compared to control endometrium. The expression of ALK5 and ActRIIB in OMA was higher than in controls, whereas polyps had an increased expression of ALK5 mRNA. In conclusion, the present data showed for the first time the expression of myostatin in healthy endometrium and a higher expression in endometriosis and endometrial cancer, suggesting myostatin involvement in human endometrial physiology and related pathologies.

  7. Faraday rotation fluctuations of MESSENGER radio signals through the equatorial lower corona near solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, D. B.; Jensen, E. A.; Hollweg, J. V.; Heiles, C.; Efimov, A. I.; Vierinen, J.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) of transcoronal radio transmissions from spacecraft near superior conjunction enables study of the temporal variations in coronal plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field. The MESSENGER spacecraft 8.4 GHz radio, transmitting through the corona with closest line-of-sight approach 1.63-1.89 solar radii and near-equatorial heliolatitudes, was recorded soon after the deep solar minimum of solar cycle 23. During egress from superior conjunction, FR gradually decreased, and an overlay of wave-like FR fluctuations (FRFs) with periods of hundreds to thousands of seconds was found. The FRF power spectrum was characterized by a power law relation, with the baseline spectral index being -2.64. A transient power increase showed relative flattening of the spectrum and bands of enhanced spectral power at 3.3 mHz and 6.1 mHz. Our results confirm the presence of coronal FRF similar to those described previously at greater solar offset. Interpreted as Alfvén waves crossing the line of sight radially near the proximate point, low-frequency FRF convey an energy flux density higher than that of the background solar wind kinetic energy, but only a fraction of that required to accelerate the solar wind. Even so, this fraction is quite variable and potentially escalates to energetically significant values with relatively modest changes in estimated magnetic field strength and electron concentration. Given the uncertainties in these key parameters, as well as in solar wind properties close to the Sun at low heliolatitudes, we cannot yet confidently assign the quantitative role for Alfvén wave energy from this region in driving the slow solar wind.

  8. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  9. TYPOLOGIES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu; Dragoş Palaghiţă3

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  10. Genome-Wide Scleral Micro- and Messenger-RNA Regulation During Myopia Development in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlapally, Ravikanth; Park, Han Na; Chakraborty, Ranjay; Wang, Kevin K; Tan, Christopher C; Light, Jacob G; Pardue, Machelle T; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNA (miRNAs) have been previously implicated in scleral remodeling in normal eye growth. They have the potential to be therapeutic targets for prevention/retardation of exaggerated eye growth in myopia by modulating scleral matrix remodeling. To explore this potential, genome-wide miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) scleral profiles in myopic and control eyes from mice were studied. C57BL/6J mice (n = 7; P28) reared under a 12L:12D cycle were form-deprived (FD) unilaterally for 2 weeks. Refractive error and axial length changes were measured using photorefraction and 1310-nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, respectively. Scleral RNA samples from FD and fellow control eyes were processed for microarray assay. Statistical analyses were performed using National Institute of Aging array analysis tool; group comparisons were made using ANOVA, and gene ontologies were identified using software available on the Web. Findings were confirmed using quantitative PCR in a separate group of mice (n = 7). Form-deprived eyes showed myopic shifts in refractive error (-2.02 ± 0.47 D; P RNA profiles of test eyes with those of control eyes revealed 54 differentially expressed miRNAs and 261 mRNAs fold-change >1.25 (maximum fold change = 1.63 and 2.7 for miRNAs and mRNAs, respectively) (P < 0.05; minimum, P = 0.0001). Significant ontologies showing gene over-representation (P < 0.05) included intermediate filament organization, scaffold protein binding, detection of stimuli, calcium ion, G protein, and phototransduction. Significant differential expression of Let-7a and miR-16-2, and Smok4a, Prph2, and Gnat1 were confirmed. Scleral mi- and mRNAs showed differential expression linked to myopia, supporting the involvement of miRNAs in eye growth regulation. The observed general trend of relatively small fold-changes suggests a tightly controlled, regulatory mechanism for scleral gene expression.

  11. Nitric oxide in guard cells as an important secondary messenger during stomatal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunja eGayatri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available he modulation of guard cell function is the basis of stomatal closure, essential for optimizing water use and CO2 uptake by leaves. Nitric oxide (NO in guard cells plays a very important role as a secondary messenger during stomatal closure induced by effectors, including hormones. For example, exposure to abscisic acid (ABA triggers a marked increase in NO of guard cells, well before stomatal closure. In guard cells of multiple species, like Arabidopsis, Vicia and pea, exposure to ABA or methyl jasmonate or even microbial elicitors (e.g. chitosan induces production of NO as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS. The role of NO in stomatal closure has been confirmed by using NO donors (e.g. SNP and NO scavengers (like cPTIO and inhibitors of NOS (L-NAME or NR (tungstate. Two enzymes: a L-NAME-sensitive, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-like enzyme and a tungstate-sensitive nitrate reductase (NR, can mediate ABA-induced NO rise in guard cells. However, the existence of true NOS in plant tissues and its role in guard cell NO-production are still a matter of intense debate. Guard cell signal transduction leading to stomatal closure involves the participation of several components, besides NO, such as cytosolic pH, ROS, free Ca2+ and phospholipids. Use of fluorescent dyes has revealed that the rise in NO of guard cells occurs after the increase in cytoplasmic pH and ROS. The rise in NO causes an elevation in cytosolic free Ca2+ and promotes the efflux of cations as well as anions from guard cells. Stomatal guard cells have become a model system to study the signalling cascade mechanisms in plants, particularly with NO as a dominant component. The interrelationships and interactions of NO with cytosolic pH, ROS, and free Ca2+ are quite complex and need further detailed examination. While assessing critically the available literature, the present review projects possible areas of further work related to NO-action in stomatal guard cells.

  12. Gingival Toll-like receptor and cytokine messenger RNA levels in equine periodontitis and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R; Lappin, D F; Dixon, P M; Bennett, D; Riggio, M P

    2017-05-01

    Equine periodontitis is a common and painful condition. However, the disease often goes unnoticed by owners and is thus a major welfare concern. The aetiopathogenesis of the condition remains poorly understood and has been investigated in few studies. The innate immune system is known to play an important role in human periodontitis, but its role in equine periodontitis has not been examined. To quantify the messenger (m)RNA levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines in gingival tissue from orally healthy horses and those affected by periodontitis. Observational study. Gingival tissue samples were taken post-mortem from 13 horses with no clinical signs of oral disease and 20 horses with periodontitis. mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The statistical significance of results was assessed using appropriate t tests. mRNA levels of all TLRs and cytokines were upregulated in equine periodontitis. Significant increases in mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR9, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 (P≤0.05) and IFN-γ (P≤0.01) were observed for both unweighted and age-weighted analyses of diseased gingival tissue samples compared with healthy gingival samples. In comparisons of samples of periodontitis lesions with healthy gingival control samples from the same horse, significant increases in mRNA levels of TLR4, TLR9, IL-10, IFN-γ (P≤0.05), TLR2, IL-1β and IL-12p35 (P≤0.01) were observed. This study has provided an initial insight into the involvement of the immune system in equine periodontitis. Increased mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 indicate substantial microbial challenge in diseased gingival tissue. A mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine response is produced in equine periodontitis. Further studies are required to more fully characterise the role of the innate immune system in this disease. © 2016

  13. Venus upper clouds and the UV-absorber from MESSENGER/MASCS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia Munoz, Antonio; Irwin, Patrick; Peralta, Javier; Holsclaw, Greg; McClintock, William

    2014-11-01

    In June 2007, the MESSENGER spacecraft performed its second Venus flyby on its route to Mercury. The spacecraft’s MASCS instrument (VIRS channel) acquired numerous spectra of the sunlight reflected from the equatorial region of the planet at wavelengths from the near ultraviolet (300nm) to the near infrared (1450 nm). In this work we present an analysis of the data and their spectral and spatial variability following the mission footprint on the Venus disk. In order to reproduce the observed reflectivity and obtain information on the upper clouds and the unknown UV absorber, we use the NEMESIS retrieval code, including SO2 , CO2 and H2O absorption together with absorption and scattering by mode-1, -2 and -3 cloud particles. This spectral range provides sensitivity to the uppermost cloud levels, above 60 km. Vertical profiles of the mode-1 and mode-2 particles have been retrieved along the equatorial region of Venus, with average retrieved sounding levels of 70 +/- 2 km at 1 micron, in good agreement with previous investigations. This spectral range is also very interesting because of the existence of a mysterious absorber in the blue and UV side of the reflected spectra, whose origin remains as one of the key questions about the Venus atmosphere. Here we report a comparison with some of the previously proposed absorbers: (1) sulfur-related compounds (amorphous and liquid sulfur, S3, S4, S8, S2O); (2) chlorine related species (Cl2, FeCl3); (3) organics (C3O2, Croconic acid). Preliminary results show that the first group provides better fits to the data, although combinations of the proposed agents might be required in order to produce better results. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009- 10701, AYA2012-38897-C02-01, and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, PRICIT-S2009/ESP-1496, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13, and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. S.P.-H. acknowledges support from the Jose Castillejo Program funded by Ministerio de Educaci

  14. The Swift and Secret Messenger: John Wilkins’s Mercury and the Paradoxes of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łączyńska Klaudia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available John Wilkins’s Mercury or the Secret and Swift Messenger: Showing How a Man May with Privacy and Speed Communicate His Thoughts to a Friend at Any Distance was first published in 1641. As a book on cryptography presenting a variety of secret means of communication at a distance it seems to have appeared at just the right time, when the biblical curse of the confusion of tongues was doubled by the curse of political confusion on the brink of the English civil war. However, the book seems to be more than just a detailed account of methods of secret writing; its topic gives the author a chance to present his views on language which he would later develop in his life’s work An Essay towards Real Character and a Philosophical Language published in 1668. The Essay had received much greater critical attention than the early pamphlet, which is usually referred to as merely a prelude to an account of his universal language project. Indeed, in the little book on cryptography, Wilkins already demonstrated his awareness of the conventional character of language and its role within the system of human interactions, as well as advertised a project of philosophical language that would enhance communication between all nations and remedy the curse of Babel. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the value of the pamphlet lies also in the insight that it gives into the seventeenth-century debates on the nature of language and into arguments which were often provided, in equal measure, by theology, Hermetic lore, mythology, literature and early modern science. Wilkins’s meticulous recording of the contradictory views and propositions on language produces a sense of methodological inconsistency that leads to ambiguities and paradoxes. However, in the medley of concepts and the collection of linguistic “curiosities” that Mercury presents, a careful reader will discern the growing mistrust of language as a means of representing reality and as a

  15. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  16. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  17. Compact, Passively Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser for the MESSENGER Mission to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Danny J.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Li, Steven X.; Lindauer, Steven J.; Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Antony

    2004-01-01

    A compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been developed for the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument which is an instrument on the MESSENGER mission to the planet Mercury. The laser achieves 5.4 percent efficiency with a near diffraction limited beam. It has passed all space flight environmental tests at system, instrument, and satellite integration. The laser design draws on a heritage of previous laser altimetry missions, specifically ISESAT and Mars Global Surveyor; but incorporates thermal management features unique to the requirements of an orbit of the planet Mercury.

  18. Kommunikasjonskultur i sosiale medier i Japan og Norge. Sammenlikning av smarttelefon-apper mellom LINE og Facebook Messenger

    OpenAIRE

    Abumi, Asaki

    2015-01-01

    Denne oppgaven analyser hvordan norske og japanske brukere kommuniserer på sosiale medier på smarttelefoner. Analysen er basert på en spørreundersøkelse med 20 deltagere fra Japan som bruker appen LINE, og 20 deltagere fra Norge som bruker Facebook Messenger. Informantene består av unge universitetsstudenter fra 18 til 25 år. Resultatene viser blant annet at japanere foretrekker LINE fordi den har et stort utvalg av søte sticker, som gjør kommunikasjon lettere for japanere som bor i et stort ...

  19. The first Messenger data supporting main theses of the wave planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2008-09-01

    The first fundamental statement of the wave planetology [1-6 & others] is about ubiquity of tectonic dichotomy. All celestial bodies move, as it was established by I. Kepler, in non-round but elliptical orbits. This means that they all notwithstanding their sizes, masses, physical states and chemical compositions have alternating increasing and decreasing accelerations producing forces (Newton: F = m·a) warping celestial bodies. This wave warping rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) is decomposed into four orthogonal and diagonal directions of standing waves. An interference of these directions gives tectonic blocks of three kinds: uplifting (+), subsiding (-) and neutral (0). The block sizes depend on warping wavelengths. The fundamental wave long 2πR (R - a body radius) is present in all bodies thus making one hemisphere rising and the opposite one falling (more precise relation is 1/3 to 2/3 or 2/3 to 1/3). A geometrical proof of this relation is given in [6] where two famous tectonic dichotomies of Earth and Mars were explained by one wave reason. This ubiquitous phenomenon was described as the first theorem of the wave planetology: "Celestial bodies are dichotomous". There are many examples proving it among planets, satellites and asteroids, even Sun is dichotomous. But up to recent time the studied partially Mercury's surface was not a good example of this phenomenon as not fully visible Caloris basin didn't show its real dimension. Now, after the Messenger flyby we know that it is about 1500 km in diameter, that is about 1/3 of the Mercury's diameter and the rule is not violated. The third theorem of the wave planetary tectonics states: "Celestial bodies are granular". This means that celestial bodies are warped by individual waves lengths of which are inversely proportional to their orbital frequencies: higher frequency - finer granules, lower frequency - larger granules (Fig. 1). Observations fully support it not only in sense of granules diameters

  20. Charging of mobile services by mobile payment reference model

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  1. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  2. MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND MOBILE HEALTH DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Meghisan; Georgeta-Madalina Meghisan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the potential of mobile health devices with a positive impact on the public health care system from Romania. More people monitoring their health situation with the help of mobile health applications could lead to less money spent by the public health sector with treating more advanced diseases. Approach/ methodology. The analysis of the Romanian mobile telecommunications market and health situation of the population from Romania was based on s...

  3. Mercury: a prediction for bulk chemical composition and internal structure in readiness for new MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft has confirmed that Mercury's magnetic field is dominantly dipolar and due to an active dynamo in a molten outer core (Solomon et al, 2008 Science 321 59). An energy source is needed to maintain this dynamo. Either liquid iron is freezing at the surface of an inner solid core (as proposed here) or solid iron is precipitating within an outer sulphur-rich core (Chen et al, 2008 GRL 35 L07201). If the outer core does not contain sulphur and consists solely of pure metal (Fe, Ni, Cr,..), then an active dynamo is inconsistent with previous numerical models for the radiogenic thermal evolution of the planet. Those earlier models found that the present temperature at the core/mantle boundary (CMB) is ~ 500 K below the melting temperature of metal ~ 2030 K for a CMB pressure of 70 kbar. The earlier calculations were based on low lunar abundances of U and Th. Here I present a new model for the bulk chemical composition, thermal evolution and current internal structure of Mercury. The model is based on the modern Laplacian theory of solar system origin (Prentice, 1978 Moon Planets 19 341; 2001 Earth Moon & Planets 87 11; 2006 Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. (PASA) 23 1; 2008 - URL below). A key feature of this theory is that the planets formed from a concentric system of gas rings (n = 0, 1, 2,..) that were shed by the contracting protosolar cloud. The temperatures Tn of the rings scale with mean orbital radius Rn closely as Tn ~ Rn-0.9. Mercury plays a crucial role in calibrating this relationship because of a condensation process of metal/silicate fractionation (Lewis, 1972 EPSL 15 286). Choosing Tn ~ 1630 K for mean orbit gas ring pressure of 0.17 bar, the condensate consists mostly of Fe-Ni-Cr (mass fraction 0.671), gehlenite (0.190) and Mg-silicates (0.081). It has mean density 5.30 g/cm3. Na, K and S are absent. The mass fractions of U and Th, namely 5.66 × 10-8 & 2.08 × 10-7, are a factor of 4.3 times greater than those of the proto-Earth condensate

  4. Making Sense of 2.5 Million Surface Reflectance Spectra of Mercury from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, M.; Helbert, J.; D'Incecco, P.; Domingue, D. L.; Izenberg, N. R.; McClintock, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface and Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has mapped the surface of Mercury on a global basis during its one-year primary orbital mission and the first third of its extended mission, producing ~2.5 million spectra from March 2011 to July 2012. The primary challenge to analyzing this dataset is to cope with its large size. In earlier studies of MASCS data, we combined several approaches, ranging from principal component analysis (PCA) to unsupervised cluster analysis and regridding to global and local fixed grids. Each of those techniques provided insight into spectral variations for different volumes of data, but each was quickly overcome by the growing dataset. The most recent version of our data analysis procedure uses PostgreSQL, a type of database management that controls the creation, integrity, maintenance, and use of a database. It embeds a high-level query language, which greatly simplifies database organization as well as retrieval and presentation of database information. We set up a data pipeline to update automatically the MASCS data, read them from the NASA Planetary Data System format, regrid the data to a common grid length, and store all information in the database. All data are then readily available to any authorized user in our network. We are working on a library to access the data directly from within our analysis software, and some preliminary functions have been implemented. As an example, the calculation of a parameter representing the database takes 2 s even for the full dataset of 2.5 million entries. It is thus straightforward to create and analyze rapidly the data, as for example the distribution of normalized radiance at a fixed wavelength. The new methodology provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency control, and recovering the database after a failure and

  5. CCL20 and IL22 Messenger RNA Expression After Adalimumab vs Methotrexate Treatment of Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldminz, Ari M.; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Wang, Andrew C.; Dumont, Nicole; Krueger, James G.; Gottlieb, Alice B.

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Methotrexate is a first-line systemic agent for treating of psoriasis, although its onset of effects is slower and overall it is less effective than tumor necrosis factor blockers. OBJECTIVE To differentiate the response of psoriatic disease to adalimumab and methotrexate sodium. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Single-center, randomized, assessor-blind, 2-arm clinical trial of 30 patients from the outpatient dermatology center of Tufts Medical Center, enrolled from August 18, 2009, to October 11, 2011. Patients aged 18 to 85 years with chronic plaque-type psoriasis, a minimum Physician Global Assessment score of 3 (higher scores indicate more severe disease), and a psoriatic plaque of at least 2 cm were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to receive subcutaneous adalimumab or oral methotrexate. Skin biopsy specimens obtained at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, and 16 were given a histologic grade by blinded assessors to evaluate treatment response. Analyses were conducted from April 16, 2013, to January 5, 2015. INTERVENTIONS A 16-week course of subcutaneous adalimumab (40 mg every 2 weeks after a loading dose) or low-dosage oral methotrexate sodium (7.5–25 mg/wk). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Changes in genomic, immunohistochemical, and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles. RESULTS Methotrexate responders experienced significant downregulation of helper T-cell– related (TH1, TH17, and TH22) mRNA expression compared with methotrexate nonresponders. Comparisons among adalimumab-treated patients were limited by the number of nonresponders (n = 1). Between adalimumab and methotrexate responders, we found no significant differences in gene expression at any study point or in the expression of T-cell–related mRNA at week 16. Adalimumab responders demonstrated early downregulation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) mRNA (mean [SE] at week 2, −1.83 [0.52], P < .001; week 16, −3.55 [0.54], P < .001) compared with late downregulation for methotrexate responders

  6. Germination Potential of Dormant and Nondormant Arabidopsis Seeds Is Driven by Distinct Recruitment of Messenger RNAs to Polysomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basbouss-Serhal, Isabelle; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy is a complex evolutionary trait that temporally prevents seed germination, thus allowing seedling growth at a favorable season. High-throughput analyses of transcriptomes have led to significant progress in understanding the molecular regulation of this process, but the role of posttranscriptional mechanisms has received little attention. In this work, we have studied the dynamics of messenger RNA association with polysomes and compared the transcriptome with the translatome in dormant and nondormant seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during their imbibition at 25°C in darkness, a temperature preventing germination of dormant seeds only. DNA microarray analysis revealed that 4,670 and 7,028 transcripts were differentially abundant in dormant and nondormant seeds in the transcriptome and the translatome, respectively. We show that there is no correlation between transcriptome and translatome and that germination regulation is also largely translational, implying a selective and dynamic recruitment of messenger RNAs to polysomes in both dormant and nondormant seeds. The study of 5′ untranslated region features revealed that GC content and the number of upstream open reading frames could play a role in selective translation occurring during germination. Gene Ontology clustering showed that the functions of polysome-associated transcripts differed between dormant and nondormant seeds and revealed actors in seed dormancy and germination. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the essential role of selective polysome loading in this biological process. PMID:26019300

  7. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce......, and can be generalized to studying other networked technologies...

  8. Mobile Router Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  9. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  10. 33 CFR 165.835 - Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. 165.835 Section 165.835 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.835 Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. (a) Definition. As used in... following areas are security zones: all waters of the Port of Mobile and Mobile Ship Channel— (1) Within 100...

  11. Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users

    CERN Document Server

    Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

  12. Tandem mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  13. Mobile IP: Security & application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuquerres, G.; Salvador, M.R.; Sprenkels, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As required in the TGS Mobile IP Advanced Module, this paper presents a survey of common security threats which mobile IP networks are exposed to as well as some proposed solutions to deal with such threats.

  14. Seasonality, mobility, and livability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Signature project 4a, Seasonality, Mobility, and Livability investigated the effects of weather, season, built environment, community amenities, attitudes, and demographics on mobility and quality of life (QOL). A four season panel survey exami...

  15. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  16. Innovative island mobile vet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dan

    2016-06-11

    One of the UK's first mobile veterinary clinics was recently awarded a Queen's Award for Innovation. Mobile Vet was launched on the Isle of Wight in 2013 by Dan Forster and his wife Kirsty, a veterinary nurse. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  18. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous...... and seat reservations. To reach these aims, the research design intertwines multi-sited ethnography, netnography, survey and interviews. The conclusion offers theoretical reflections pertaining to the role of mobilities designs and methodical hybrids in tourism mobilities research....

  19. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  20. Effect of the Intelligent Health Messenger Box on health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to hand hygiene and hand bacteria counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Fattahipour, Rasoul; Khalaji, Kazem; Pakpour, Amir H; Koenig, Harold G

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of the Intelligent Health Messenger Box in promoting hand hygiene using a quasiexperimental design. Knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices related to hand hygiene as well as hand bacteria counts and amount of liquid soap used were measured. The intervention involved broadcasting preventive audio messages. All outcomes showed significant change after the intervention compared with before. The Intelligent Health Messenger Box can serve as a practical way to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNA in the human CNS: a {sup 33}P in situ hybridization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peckys, D.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B. [Department of Neurology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Neurozentrum, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    The existence of at least three opioid receptor types, referred to as {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta}, is well established. Complementary DNAs corresponding to the pharmacologically defined {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptors have been isolated in various species including man. The expression patterns of opioid receptor transcripts in human brain has not been established with a cellular resolution, in part because of the low apparent abundance of opioid receptor messenger RNAs in human brain. To visualize opioid receptor messenger RNAs we developed a sensitive in situ hybridization histochemistry method using {sup 33}P-labelled RNA probes. In the present study we report the regional and cellular expression of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNAs in selected areas of the human brain. Hybridization of the different opioid receptor probes resulted in distinct labelling patterns. For the {mu} and {kappa} opioid receptor probes, the most intense regional signals were observed in striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and certain brainstem areas as well as the spinal cord. The most intense signals for the {delta} opioid receptor probe were found in cerebral cortex. Expression of opioid receptor transcripts was restricted to subpopulations of neurons within most regions studied demonstrating differences in the cellular expression patterns of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNAs in numerous brain regions. The messenger RNA distribution patterns for each opioid receptor corresponded in general to the distribution of opioid receptor binding sites as visualized by receptor autoradiography. However, some mismatches, for instance between {mu} opioid receptor receptor binding and {mu} opioid receptor messenger RNA expression in the anterior striatum, were observed. A comparison of the distribution patterns of opioid receptor messenger RNAs in the human brain and that reported for the rat suggests a homologous

  2. Consideraciones gráficas y lingüísticas del lenguaje cibernético: el chat y el messenger

    OpenAIRE

    Cabedo Nebot, Adrián

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende estudiar el comportamiento lingüístico de intercambios comunicativos en plataformas cibernéticas como el chat o el Messenger. Así mismo, el planteamiento inicial es investigar si el lenguaje cibernético constituye un código particular, diferenciado del código del lenguaje habitual. This work tries to study linguistic behavior of communicative exchanges in cybernetic platforms like chat or Messenger. Likewise, the initial approach is to investigate if the cybernetic la...

  3. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Drewes Nielsen, Lise

    interdisciplinary theoretical approaches with empirical case studies analysing and appraising innovative policies from Scandinavia, this volume demonstrates that mobility research is a key issue within social enquiry. It addresses three broad themes. Firstly, mobility as a constructed social reality, examining how...... for both research and policy. In the final section of the book new visions for research into sustainability and mobility are laid out....

  4. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  5. Mobile energy sharing futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  6. Distributed mobility management - framework & analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Seite, P.; Karagiannis, Georgios

    Mobile operators consider the distribution of mobility anchors to enable offloading some traffic from their core network. The Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) Working Group is investigating the impact of decentralized mobility management to existing protocol solutions, while taking into account

  7. Mobility Charters and Manifestos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    and ethical positions on mobility prevail. Such ‘imagined correct mobility behavior’ are drawing on larger issues of societal change that need to be brought out in a critical analysis and discussion reflecting the attempts to control, design and orchestrate mobility patterns. The paper therefore argues within......This paper explore a number of different cases of articulating notions of ‘correct’ mobility behavior and practice by looking into charters, manifestos and codes of mobility regulation. Within such discourses of ‘correct mobility’ more or less subtle expressions of power as well as normative...

  8. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  9. Engaging with mobile methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...

  10. Embodied Cultures of Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    and material artifacts. The paper target the complex relationship between the moving, sensing body and the material and built environment of infrastructures and mobility modes in order to explore what norms, and meanings, and everyday life mobility cultures are being produced and re-produced in this process...... contemporary theorists understanding bodily movement, material sites of mobility, and social interactions must be consulted along the road (e.g. Latour’s work on objects and ANT, Thrift’s work on the body and ‘non-representational theory, and Massumi’s notions of affects and emotions related to bodily mobility......The paper explores the relationship between the body and mobility by looking into a number of modes of transportation and their ways of constructing particular engagements with mobility. The ‘mobile embodiments’ are significant to a material and symbolic set of relations between human agents...

  11. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  12. Global Inventory and Characterization of Pyroclastic Deposits on Mercury: New Insights into Pyroclastic Activity from MESSENGER Orbital Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, Timothy A.; Head, James W.; Kerber, Laura; Blewett, David T.; Denevi, Brett W.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Gwinner, Klaus; Helbert, Joern; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present new observations of pyroclastic deposits on the surface of Mercury from data acquired during the orbital phase of the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. The global analysis of pyroclastic deposits brings the total number of such identified features from 40 to 51. Some 90% of pyroclastic deposits are found within impact craters. The locations of most pyroclastic deposits appear to be unrelated to regional smooth plains deposits, except some deposits cluster around the margins of smooth plains, similar to the relation between many lunar pyroclastic deposits and lunar maria. A survey of the degradation state of the impact craters that host pyroclastic deposits suggests that pyroclastic activity occurred on Mercury over a prolonged interval. Measurements of surface reflectance by MESSENGER indicate that the pyroclastic deposits are spectrally distinct from their surrounding terrain, with higher reflectance values, redder (i.e., steeper) spectral slopes, and a downturn at wavelengths shorter than approximately 400nm (i.e., in the near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum). Three possible causes for these distinctive characteristics include differences in transition metal content, physical properties (e.g., grain size), or degree of space weathering from average surface material on Mercury. The strength of the near-ultraviolet downturn varies among spectra of pyroclastic deposits and is correlated with reflectance at visible wavelengths. We suggest that this interdeposit variability in reflectance spectra is the result of either variable amounts of mixing of the pyroclastic deposits with underlying material or inherent differences in chemical and physical properties among pyroclastic deposits.

  13. Electromagnetic fields as first messenger in biological signaling: Application to calmodulin-dependent signaling in tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Arthur; Fitzsimmons, Robert; Muehsam, David; Wu, June; Rohde, Christine; Casper, Diana

    2011-12-01

    The transduction mechanism for non-thermal electromagnetic field (EMF) bioeffects has not been fully elucidated. This study proposes that an EMF can act as a first messenger in the calmodulin-dependent signaling pathways that orchestrate the release of cytokines and growth factors in normal cellular responses to physical and/or chemical insults. Given knowledge of Ca(2+) binding kinetics to calmodulin (CaM), an EMF signal having pulse duration or carrier period shorter than bound Ca(2+) lifetime may be configured to accelerate binding, and be detectable above thermal noise. New EMF signals were configured to modulate calmodulin-dependent signaling and assessed for efficacy in cellular studies. Configured EMF signals modulated CaM-dependent enzyme kinetics, produced several-fold increases in key second messengers to include nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in chondrocyte and endothelial cultures and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in neuronal cultures. Calmodulin antagonists and downstream blockers annihilated these effects, providing strong support for the proposed mechanism. Knowledge of the kinetics of Ca(2+) binding to CaM, or for any ion binding specific to any signaling cascade, allows the use of an electrochemical model by which the ability of any EMF signal to modulate CaM-dependent signaling can be assessed a priori or a posteriori. Results are consistent with the proposed mechanism, and strongly support the Ca/CaM/NO pathway as a primary EMF transduction pathway. The predictions of the proposed model open a host of significant possibilities for configuration of non-thermal EMF signals for clinical and wellness applications that can reach far beyond fracture repair and wound healing. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Induction and Magnetopause Reconnection on Mercury's Magnetosphere: MESSENGER Observations and Global MHD Simulations with Coupled Planetary Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Slavin, J. A.; Poh, G.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2016-12-01

    It has long been suggested that two processes, i.e., erosion of the dayside magnetosphere due to strong magnetopause reconnection and the shielding effect of the induction currents at the planetary core, compete against each other in governing the structure of Mercury's magnetosphere. We have combined analysis of MESSENGER data during extreme solar wind conditions with global MHD simulations to assess the relative importance of the two processes. Following the study of Slavin et al. (2014), we have analyzed an additional set of MESSENGER magnetopause crossings to determine the dependence of the magnetopause standoff distance on solar wind parameters. We have also employed the global MHD model of Jia et al. (2015) that electromagnetically couples Mercury's interior to the surrounding space environment to simulate the response of the system to solar wind forcing for a wide range of solar wind and IMF conditions. We find that while the magnetopause standoff distance decreases with increasing solar wind pressure, just as expected, its dependence on the external pressure follows closely a power-law relationship with an index of -1/6, rather than a steeper power-law falling-off expected for the case with only induction present. Our results suggest that for the external conditions examined, induction and magnetopause reconnection appear to play equally important roles in determining the global configuration of Mercury's magnetosphere, consistent with the finding obtained by Slavin et al. (2014). We also find that the magnetospheric current systems produce magnetic perturbations that are spatially non-uniform in nature, resulting in induced magnetic field at the core that contains significant power in both the dipole and high order moments. Based on the simulation results, we determine how the induced field varies with the solar wind conditions, and provide quantitative constraints on the ability of Mercury's core to shield the planetary surface from direct solar wind

  15. WhatsApp messenger as a tool to supplement medical education for medical students on clinical attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Lewis; Antbring, Richard; Mahmood, Asad

    2017-01-06

    Instant messaging applications have the potential to improve and facilitate communication between hospital doctors and students, hence generating and improving learning opportunities. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of instant messaging communication to supplement medical education for medical students whilst on clinical attachment. A total of 6 WhatsApp Messenger (WhatsApp Inc.) groups were created for medical students on clinical attachment. These were used to provide communication within Problem Based Learning (PBL) groups for a duration of 8 weeks. The frequency and type of communication were recorded. Students' opinions were evaluated through a structured interview process at the end of the study period. A thematic analysis was performed on the content of the instant messaging groups and on the results of the structured interviews. All of the participants were active in their respective messaging groups (19 students and 6 tutors). A total of 582 messages, 22 images and 19 webpage links were sent. Thematic analysis on content of the instant messaging groups identified the following themes: organisational, educational and social. Thematic analysis on the content of interviews identified themes such as the ease of use of instant messaging, benefit of instant messaging to foster understanding and learning, and the ability to access recorded discussions. The findings of this study illustrate a method by which communication within PBL groups can be facilitated by the use of instant messaging. The results indicate the feasibility and acceptability of WhatsApp Messenger in supplementing PBL teaching for medical students, and provides a framework for studies to investigate use amongst larger cohorts of students.

  16. A different glimpse into mobilities : On the interrelations between daily spatial mobility and social mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Fortunati, Leopoldina; Taipale, Sakari

    2017-01-01

    We explore the link between daily spatial mobility and social mobility, taking changes in the contemporary labor market and family as examples. We propose a new theoretical approach to mobility that is defined as a productive force of social labor. Analyzing the relationship between daily spatial mobility and social mobility, we show that spatial mobility has become a strategy of compensation for the lack of social mobility. Explanations for the increase in daily spatial mobility are also pro...

  17. Contrasting responses to interferon β-1b treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Does baseline interleukin- 12p35 messenger RNA predict the efficacy of treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxel van-Dezaire, A.H.H.; Trigt van-Hoff, S.C.J.; Killestein, J.; Schrijver, H.M.; Houwelingen, J.C. van; Polman, C.H.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2000-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β treatment is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) via an as yet unidentified mechanism. In the present study, we investigated whether the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding the interleukin (IL)-12 subunits p40 and p35, IL-12 receptor chains, IL-18,

  18. Monocytes from spontaneously hypertensive rats show increased store-operated and second messenger-operated calcium influx mediated by transient receptor potential canonical Type 3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dao Yan; Scholze, Alexandra; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    We recently showed that increased expression of the transient receptor potential canonical Type 3 (TRPC3) channel is associated with genetic hypertension. It is unknown whether store-operated TRPC3 channels, which are activated after depletion of intracellular stores, or second messenger-operated...

  19. TRANSLATION START SITE MULTIPLICITY OF THE CCAAT ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEIN-ALPHA MESSENGER-RNA IS DICTATED BY A SMALL 5' OPEN READING FRAME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CALKHOVEN, CF; BOUWMAN, PRJ; SNIPPE, L; AB, G

    1994-01-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) alpha and beta of the bZIP family of transcription factors each occur as multiple forms due to translation initiation at different in-frame AUG codons from the same messenger RNA. The C/EBP alpha mRNAs of chicken, rat and Xenopus all contain a small 5'

  20. WhatsApp Messenger as a Learning Tool: An Investigation of Pre-Service Teachers' Learning without Instructor Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenazi, Ali A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which pre-service teachers can utilize WhatsApp Messenger to create an effective learning platform without instructor interference. Twenty-six male pre-service teachers created a WhatsApp group and interacted through it independently for nine weeks. Each pre-service teacher was required to share a minimum of…

  1. Mobile healthcare informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, Keng; Shen, Zixing

    2006-06-01

    Advances in wireless technology give pace to the rapid development of mobile applications. The coming mobile revolution will bring dramatic and fundamental changes to our daily life. It will influence the way we live, the way we do things, and the way we take care of our health. For the healthcare industry, mobile applications provide a new frontier in offering better care and services to patients, and a more flexible and mobile way of communicating with suppliers and patients. Mobile applications will provide important real time data for patients, physicians, insurers, and suppliers. In addition, it will revolutionalize the way information is managed in the healthcare industry and redefine the doctor - patient communication. This paper discusses different aspects of mobile healthcare. Specifically, it presents mobile applications in healthcare, and discusses possible challenges facing the development of mobile applications. Obstacles in developing mobile healthcare applications include mobile device limitations, wireless networking problems, infrastructure constraints, security concerns, and user distrust. Research issues in resolving or alleviating these problems are also discussed in the paper.

  2. Frailty and Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Eamonn; Low Choy, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Frailty represents a state of heightened vulnerability. Mobility impairment contributes to the construct of frailty and channels adverse events. While mobility disorder is universal at a high burden of frailty, neither mobility nor balance dysfunction is sufficient to fully define frailty. Frailty represents proximity to complex system failure, with higher-order disturbance, such as mobility and balance disturbance, as a consequence. Impairment of mobility and balance is a common manifestation of illness in the frail individual and is therefore a sensitive marker of acute disease, putatively also in delirium. Clinical measurement of mobility and balance should be prioritized. Consequently, assessment tools, such as the de Morton Mobility Index and the Hierarchical Assessment of Balance and Mobility, are being explored, with the sensitivity of the latter illustrated in the acute hospital setting. Walking with speed and under dual/multi-task conditions better differentiates healthier and frail ambulant adults, providing a basis for screening older adults for pre-emptive interventions. Specific mobility and balance interventions reduce falls risk. However, patients with dementia walk too fast for their level of frailty, creating an ethical dimension to rehabilitation and risk. Overall, there is no need for reduced mobility to reinforce the frailty stereotype; both are potentially modifiable and amenable to intervention strategies. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. WhatsApp Messenger is useful and reproducible in the assessment of tibial plateau fractures: inter- and intra-observer agreement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Koch, Hilton Augusto; Mendes, Carlos Henrique; Bergamin, André; de Souza, Felipe Serrão; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer agreement in the initial diagnosis and classification by means of plain radiographs and CT scans of tibial plateau fractures photographed and sent via WhatsApp Messenger. The increasing popularity of smartphones has driven the development of technology for data transmission and imaging and generated a growing interest in the use of these devices as diagnostic tools. The emergence of WhatsApp Messenger technology, which is available for various platforms used by smartphones, has led to an improvement in the quality and resolution of images sent and received. The images (plain radiographs and CT scans) were obtained from 13 cases of tibial plateau fractures using the iPhone 5 (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) and were sent to six observers via the WhatsApp Messenger application. The observers were asked to determine the standard deviation and type of injury, the classification according to the Schatzker and the Luo classifications schemes, and whether the CT scan changed the classification. The six observers independently assessed the images on two separate occasions, 15 days apart. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for both periods of the study ranged from excellent to perfect (0.75WhatsApp Messenger. The authors now propose the systematic use of the application to facilitate faster documentation and obtaining the opinion of an experienced consultant when not on call. Finally, we think the use of the WhatsApp Messenger as an adjuvant tool could be broadened to other clinical centres to assess its viability in other skeletal and non-skeletal trauma situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Drewes Nielsen, Lise

    interdisciplinary theoretical approaches with empirical case studies analysing and appraising innovative policies from Scandinavia, this volume demonstrates that mobility research is a key issue within social enquiry. It addresses three broad themes. Firstly, mobility as a constructed social reality, examining how......Globalisation is heavily dependent on physical transport, as people and goods travel over longer distances and with higher frequency. Movement and mobility have become integrated parts of late modern identity and practice, and a state of flux can be sensed everywhere. Bringing together the latest...... individuals construct notions of mobility in their everyday life and practice. Secondly, mobility as spatial co-ordination and transgression, and finally, mobility as a policy theme, where the contributors explore recent developments in transport policy at national and European levels, suggesting ways forward...

  5. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Drewes Nielsen, Lise

    Globalisation is heavily dependent on physical transport, as people and goods travel over longer distances and with higher frequency. Movement and mobility have become integrated parts of late modern identity and practice, and a state of flux can be sensed everywhere. Bringing together the latest...... interdisciplinary theoretical approaches with empirical case studies analysing and appraising innovative policies from Scandinavia, this volume demonstrates that mobility research is a key issue within social enquiry. It addresses three broad themes. Firstly, mobility as a constructed social reality, examining how...... individuals construct notions of mobility in their everyday life and practice. Secondly, mobility as spatial co-ordination and transgression, and finally, mobility as a policy theme, where the contributors explore recent developments in transport policy at national and European levels, suggesting ways forward...

  6. Mens mobile health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie Diana Hvidbak; Castaño, Francisco Mansilla; Jensen, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    health applications in relation to fitness, heart rate, blood pressure, BMI, fat and muscle mass, BodyAge? Main messages: A CCT, that contributes with knowledge of how mobile health applications are impacting the physical activity levels among men with little or no education and frequency of how often......Abstract til: 9th European Public Health Conference – All for health – Health for All 9 – 12 November 2016. Danish title: Mænds mobile sundhed English title: Men mobile health Authors: Vinie Diana Hvidbak Levisen, Associated professor, RN, MLP Knowledge Center for Health Promotion University...... Preferences Keywords: Men with little or no education, physical health, mobile health application. Types of presentations: First presentation preference: E-Poster presentations Second presentation preference: Pitch presentation Abstract Background: Men mobile health contributes knowledge of how mobile health...

  7. Talk, Mobility and Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    The intersection of the quotidian practices of social interaction, learning and mobility outside of the classroom – for example, the ways in which talk shapes how children learn to be actively mobile – has been little studied until recently. This paper develops a social interactional approach...... to analysing talk and mobile action in what are arguably two quintessentially Nordic mobility practices, namely cycling and skiing. More specifically the focus is on investigating and comparing how a child learns to cycle in a bike-friendly urban infrastructure, and how a child learns to ski cross...... locates similarities and differences in how specific materialities are made salient in interactional practices. For example, caregivers talk about weather and surface conditions as a resource for instructed mobile action. Also, a route, a trajectory or a line of movement in a mobile formation...

  8. CERN Mobility Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Shipping and Transport of the University of the Aegean and the National Technical University of Athens are partners with CERN in a study of mobility patterns between and within the CERN sites and to that effect have realized a mobility survey dedicated to the CERN community.         The study aims to understand: How you presently get around the CERN sites; What problems you encounter regarding mobility; What your needs are; What improvements you’d like to see; What measures you would like to see implemented most. The replies we receive will enable us to define a general policy promoting the diversity of mobility at CERN and to establish and quantify the strategic actions to be implemented for both the short and medium term. The objectives of the transport mobility plans are to: Facilitate mobility within and between the CERN sites by identifying adequate solutions in response to individual ...

  9. Quality attributes for mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite

    2016-01-01

    A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...

  10. MobiLED: mobile-led and leading via mobile

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available the past three years it has become evident that many of the initiative's innovations have a wider application than originally envisaged. This paper will discuss the results of the education-related MobiLED pilots and expands on the possibilities of using...

  11. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  12. Mobile Entrepreneurship and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Imaizumi, Saori; Andjelkovic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Given its strong recent growth, the global mobile industry is now a major source of employment opportunities. Mobile industry jobs can be categorized into direct and indirect ones, with a diverse labor force supplying each category. Direct jobs are created by mobile operators and manufacturers in professions that range from engineers to managers to sales support staff. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) estimates that around 1.5 million people are directly employed in the industr...

  13. Enhancing mobile learning security

    OpenAIRE

    Shonola, Shaibu Adekunle; Joy, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices have been playing vital roles in modern day education delivery as students can access or download learning materials on their smartphones and tablets, they can also install educational apps and study anytime, anywhere. The need to provide adequate security for portable devices being used for learning cannot be underestimated. In this paper, we present a mobile security enhancement app, designed and developed for Android smart mobile devices in order to promote security awarenes...

  14. Mobile lifestyles : Conceptualizing heterogeneity in mobile youth culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanden Abeele, M.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ characteristic understanding and use of mobile phones have led observers to speak of a “mobile youth culture.” This article explores whether we can differentiate lifestyles within mobile youth culture. We construct a user typology of Flemish adolescent mobile phone users based on mobile

  15. The setup of a mobile mobility panel for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Veenstra, Sander; Thomas, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the setup of the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel project, in which GPS-enabled mobile phones (smartphones) are used as a passive multiple-week and multiple-year travel behaviour data collection tool. The data collection methodology used in the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel comprised

  16. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  17. Test for mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile application testing is a process by which application software developed for mobile devices is tested, in aspects as functionality, usability and consistency. These applications can be pre-installed or installed from distribution platforms for mobile software. Due mobile devices have witnessed of a phenomenal growth in recent years (a study by Yankee Group predicted to generate $ 4.2 billion in revenue for 2013 through 7000 million downloads of applications the U.S., it is necesary test engineers increasingly specialize. In this article are described the types of applications, the challenges of testing, and its automation.

  18. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  19. Mobile computing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE COMPUTING Wearable Computing,A. Smailagic and D.P. Siewiorek Developing Mobile Applications: A Lime Primer,G.P. Picco, A.L. Murphy, and G.-C. Roman Pervasive Application Development: Approaches and Pitfalls,G. Banavar, N. Cohen, and D. Soroker ISAM, Joining Context-Awareness and Mobility to Building Pervasive Applications,I. Augustin, A. Corrêa Yamin, J.L. Victória Barbosa, L. Cavalheiro da Silva, R. Araújo Real, G. Frainer, G.G. Honrich Cavalheiro, and C.F. Resin Geyer Integrating Mobile Wireless Devices into the Computational Grid,T. Phan, L. Huan

  20. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure...... and how this may change in the future....

  1. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  2. Mobile Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin BOJA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the development of new communication and data transfer technologies, the mobile solutions for the management process have been able to provide new ways to conduct management actions. This environment describes methods and tools available only here, which will bring information, speed and efficiency to any stage and component of the management process. The paper takes into discussion the impact of the technological development on the management process paradigm. The paper presents the main aspects regarding the business and management models used in mobile management. The role of mobile multimedia informatics applications in mobile management is highlighted.

  3. Programming the Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Firtman, Maximiliano

    2010-01-01

    Today's market for mobile apps goes beyond the iPhone to include BlackBerry, Nokia, Windows Phone, and smartphones powered by Android, webOS, and other platforms. If you're an experienced web developer, this book shows you how to build a standard app core that you can extend to work with specific devices. You'll learn the particulars and pitfalls of building mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and other standard web tools. You'll also explore platform variations, finicky mobile browsers, Ajax design patterns for mobile, and much more. Before you know it, you'll be able to create mashups using Web 2.

  4. Guest Editorial ~ Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ally

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This special IRRODL issue on mobile learning is timely because of the proliferation of mobile technology in society, globalization, and the need to re-examine how learning materials are designed and delivered for the new generation of learners. In today’s world, people are on the move and are demanding access to learning materials and information anytime and anywhere. At the same time, there is increasing use of mobile technology in different sectors of society to meet the needs of people on the move. In business, there is increasing use of mobile technologies for individuals to conduct their business anywhere and anytime. In healthcare, medical staff are using mobile technologies to access just-in-time information and to enter information in real time. People working in the field away from the central office use mobile technologies to access information and to communicate with other workers. Also, younger generations of learners are using mobile technologies for entertainment and socialization. These learners are using mobile devices to access information and multimedia materials and to communicate with friends. These new generations of learners do not see technology as something foreign. They readily accept technology and consider technology to be part of their lives. Moreover, the use of mobile technology is a 21st Century skill that students and workers must have to function in society.

  5. Predictors of Social Mobilization Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization across social networks is becoming increasingly influential, but little is known about what traits of individuals and their relationships affect their speed of mobilization between them. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they mobilized. We examined how those traits influenced the speed of mobilization. Individuals mobilized faster when they heard about the contest directly from the contest organization, and decreased in speed when hearing from less personal source types (e.g. family vs. media). Mobilization was faster when the mobilizer and the mobilized heard about the contest through the same source type, and slower when both individuals were in different countries. Females mobilized other females faster than males mobilized other males. Mobilization was faster with young recruiters and old recruits, and slower with old recruiters and young recruits. These findings suggest ways to optimize the speed of social mobilization.

  6. Volcanism on Mercury: Evidence from the first MESSENGER flyby for extrusive and explosive activity and the volcanic origin of plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Chapman, Clark R.; Strom, Robert G.; Watters, Thomas R.; Blewett, David T.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Dickson, James L.; Morgan, Gareth A.; Kerber, Laura

    2009-08-01

    The first MESSENGER flyby of Mercury obtained images of 21% of the surface not seen by Mariner 10, including the center and western half of the Caloris basin and regions near the terminator that show details of the nature of smooth and intercrater plains. These new data have helped to address and resolve a series of longstanding questions on the existence and nature of volcanism on Mercury and the distribution of volcanic materials. Data from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft have shown the following: (1) Numerous volcanic vents, in the form of irregularly shaped rimless depressions, are concentrated around the interior edge of the Caloris basin. (2) These vents appear to be sources for effusive volcanism that in one case built a shield in excess of 100 km in diameter and in some cases formed bright haloes around the vents that are interpreted to represent pyroclastic eruptions. (3) Lobate margins of plains units, seen previously in Mariner 10 data, are documented in MESSENGER images with more clarity and are often distinctive in morphology and color properties, supporting the interpretation that these features are the edges of lava flow units. (4) The interior of the Caloris basin is filled with plains units spectrally distinctive from the rim deposits, and comparison with the lunar Imbrium basin and superposed impact crater stratigraphy provide evidence that these units are volcanic in origin; detailed differences in the mineralogy of lava flow units, so prominent in Imbrium, are not seen in the Caloris interior. (5) Some of the smooth plains surrounding the exterior of the Caloris basin show distinct differences in color and morphological properties, supporting a volcanic origin. (6) Some smooth and intercrater plains units distant from the Caloris basin show evidence of flooding and embayment relations unrelated to Caloris ejecta emplacement; local and regional geological and color relationships support a volcanic origin for

  7. Oxidative stress and cutaneous ageing: the 'toxic second messengers' concept and an interesting family of products, 'pseudodipeptides'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletto, C; Nicolaÿ, J F; Courbebaisse, Y

    2000-10-01

    There are a number of factors responsible for cutaneous ageing. Apart from genetically programmed cell ageing, different external aggressors, such as solar radiation, pollution and stress, can accelerate this phenomenon. It is now accepted that deleterious oxidations of live mediums are of major importance. This so-called 'oxidative stress' is a very complex situation that covers a large number of chemical reactions, and involves very diverse oxidizing species. Being aware of this complexity, and aiming to obtain a 'universal protection' against oxidative stress, we have tailored specific protective agents. At the same time, it was necessary to design new experimental models for the evaluation of antioxidants' efficiency. Our studies have revealed that cutaneous tissue also needs protection against non-radicalar, toxic-oxidizing molecules, which we called 'toxic second messengers' of oxidative stress [1]. These molecules, against which live mediums have very poor self-defence mechanisms, are key intermediates in the oxidative reactions. They are responsible for irreversible damage, such as the deactivation of enzymatic complexes and loss of the skin's elasticity, or even DNA damage. This better understanding of oxidative stress mechanisms of action allowed us to design original protective agents against toxic second messengers, called 'pseudodipeptides'. In order to obtain a topically active compound, we have synthesized several 'biomimetic and biocompatible molecules' with improved activities and a longer life on the skin. It was also necessary to design specific tests in order to prove the unique properties of pseudodipeptides. Several experiments have been carried out, with the aim being to be as close as possible to conditions in vivo and more particularly to demonstrate their 'lipid peroxidase-like' activity or their efficiency against 'toxic aldehydes': HNE, from the oxidation of phospholipids [1], and glucosone, from that of sugars. More recent experimental

  8. Mobile human-computer interaction perspective on mobile learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying a Mobile Human Computer Interaction (MHCI) view to the domain of education using Mobile Learning (Mlearning), the research outlines its understanding of the influences and effects of different interactions on the use of mobile technology...

  9. Wireless mobile Internet security

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Man Young

    2013-01-01

      The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

  10. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Börner, D., Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presentation for the Education in the Wild: contextual and location-based mobile learning in action workshop at the STELLAR Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30-December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.

  11. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    comparisons of intergenerational earnings mobility. We find that intergenerational earnings mobility is found to be substantially lower when hourly wage rates rather than annual earnings are used, whether the latter are inclusive or exclusive of public transfers. Moreover, when the same specifications...

  12. Innovazione nel mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculada Arnedillo-Sànchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Descrizione, da una prospettiva europea, dell’innovazione nel settore del mobile learning e l’utilizzabilita’ del mobile learning in contesti educativi. Vengono illustrate i principali progetti europei di m-learning e si esamina le prospettive pedagogiche e teoriche relative al campo.

  13. Mobile-first Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Magno, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    A practical, step-by-step tutorial on developing websites for mobile using Bootstrap.This book is for anyone who wants to get acquainted with the new features available in Bootstrap 3 and who wants to develop websites with the mobile-first feature of Bootstrap. The reader should have a basic knowledge of Bootstrap as a frontend framework.

  14. Children, Mobility, and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia; Romero Mikkelsen, Miguel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the potentials of a mixed methods approach to the study of children’s mobility patterns. The methodology presented here combined ethnographic fieldwork with global positioning system technology and an interactive questionnaire that children completed via mobile phone. This ...

  15. Mobile light in roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, A.; Snel, J.F.H.; Elings, A.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to quantify the claimed differences between mobile and static lighting, and to clarify the mechanisms causing these differences, an experiment with rose `First Red¿ was carried out. In a greenhouse compartment half of the area was equipped with mobile lamps, and the other half with static

  16. Mobile communication security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, F.M.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Security of the mobile network Fabian van den Broek We looked at the security of the wireless connection between mobile phone and cell towers and suggested possible improvements. The security was analysed on a design level, by looking at the protocols and encryption techniques, but also on an

  17. Journalists and Mobilizing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemert, James B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of the items in 11 daily newspapers revealed that approximately 36 percent included some "mobilizing information"--information about ways readers might express their preferences and desires. However, only 6 percent of the items containing mobilizing information dealt with political issues or the political process. (GW)

  18. Mastering Mobile Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Without proper security, mobile devices are easy targets for worms, viruses, and so-called robot ("bot") networks. Hackers increasingly use bot networks to launch massive attacks against eCommerce websites--potentially targeting one's online tuition payment or fundraising/financial development systems. How can one defend his mobile systems against…

  19. Designing for mobile interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazzi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The theme of this PhD project is designing for mobile interaction with devices and services, for the accessing, making, and sharing of information, taking into account the dynamic physical and social settings that embrace this interaction. To narrow down this theme, the whole project focuses...... on the exploitation of social interaction --- in particular among senior citizens --- to enhance and support mobile interaction....

  20. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes a systems development perspective on mobility, building on preliminary findings of an on-going multiple case study covering 7 companies. The questions driving this paper are: What are the challenges facing development practice in the mobile industry, how do they affect practice...

  1. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  2. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  3. Mobile Media Photography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media photography marks a shift in orientation from the image towards photography as a mode of engagement. This leads is to explore the processes of experience and documentation that mobile media help to constitute. We unfold two aspects of the process of photography: photography as temporal...

  4. Mobile4D platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telecommunications story in Africa and the developing world is a remarkable one. Africa's mobile cellular growth rate has been the highest of any region over the past 5 years, averaging close to 60% year on year. There have been large...

  5. Children, mobility, and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia; Mikkelsen, Miguel Romero; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the potentials of a mixed methods approach to the study of children’s mobility patterns. The methodology presented here combined ethnographic fieldwork with global positioning system technology and an interactive questionnaire that children completed via mobile phone. This ...

  6. Mobile Learning Anytime, Anywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlodan, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    Some educational institutions are taking the leap to mobile learning (m-learning) by giving out free iPods. For example, Abilene Christian University gave iPods or iPhones to freshman students and developed 15 Web applications specifically for the mobile devices. The iPod is not the only ubiquitous m-learning device. Any technology that connects…

  7. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...... comparisons of intergenerational earnings mobility. We find that intergenerational earnings mobility is found to be substantially lower when hourly wage rates rather than annual earnings are used, whether the latter are inclusive or exclusive of public transfers. Moreover, when the same specifications...... are applied for Denmark as for other countries, we find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found to be higher than in the United Kingdom...

  8. Contextualizing mobile IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are moving into the era of ubiquitous computing, with increased density of technology and increased mobility and continuity in use. From a design perspective, addressing the accommodation and coordination of multiple devices and services in situated use...... across different contexts is becoming increasingly important. In the COMIT project, ethnographic fieldwork has been combined with participatory design engaging users, designers and researchers in order to explore mobile IT use as well as the design of mobile IT concepts. Four seclected scenarios from...... the project are presented and discussed regarding implications for the design of mobile IT devices, with particular focus on (1) coping with multiple social contexts, and (2) the configuration and connectivity of mobile devices...

  9. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...... the future of cities and mobilities as a matter of rather more efficient technologies than of social cohesion, integration and connectivity. Sustainable mobility needs the mobilities of ideas and concepts and the reflexivity of policies. Communicative planning theory and the ‘argumentative turn’ have given...... this article, was to explicitly provide an intersection for reflexivity, interdisciplinarity and exchange, to foster the creation of such stories....

  10. Mobilities and Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    , literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars......As the centerpiece of the eighth T2M yearbook, the following interview about representations of mobility signals a new and exciting focus area for Mobility in History. In future issues we hope to include reviews that grapple more with how mobilities have been imagined and represented in the arts...... to consider how they and their peers are currently confronting representations of mobility. This is particularly timely given the growing academic focus on practices, material mediation, and nonrepresentational theories, as well as on bodily reactions, emotions, and feelings that, according to those theories...

  11. Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Clawson, James; Lyons, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets were originally conceived and have traditionally been utilized for individual use. Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus...... going from personal/individual toward shared/multiuser experiences and interactions. However, computers are getting smaller, more powerful, and closer to our bodies. Therefore, mobile collocated interactions research, which originally looked at smartphones and tablets, will inevitably include ever......-smaller computers, ones that can be worn on our wrists or other parts of the body. The focus of this workshop is to bring together a community of researchers, designers and practitioners to explore the potential of extending mobile collocated interactions to the use of wearable devices....

  12. Mobile Health Information System: A Mobile App

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steve

    It also serves as an inventory control where statistics about a particular illness is known. Generally, Mobile Health Information System (MHIS) is built to help manage, control, and store health information, and at the same time help the health workers on field work to pass accurate and timely report to the necessary quarters.

  13. Tactical Mobile Communications (Communications tactiques mobiles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Stations that are not willing to transmit may10 switch to a sleeping mode. To enable mobile stations to be 8 . addressed and reached even when sleeping ...probe - 31 symbols of a repeated 16 symbol Frank-Heimiller polyphase code. Regularly Re-inserted Preamble - 103 symbols Figure 5 - Waveform structure. A

  14. Gone Mobile? (Mobile Libraries Survey 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2010-01-01

    Librarians, like patrons and researchers, are caught between traditional library service models and the promise of evolving information technologies. In recent years, professional conferences have strategically featured programs and presentations geared toward building a mobile agenda and adapting or adopting services to meet new demands of mobile…

  15. Mutual friends' social support and self-disclosure in face-to-face and instant messenger communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, Sabine; Masur, Philipp K; Scharkow, Michael

    2017-11-03

    In the present study, we investigated long-term effects of self-disclosure on social support in face-to-face and instant messenger (IM) communication between mutual friends. Using a representative sample of 583 German IM users, we explored whether self-disclosure and positive experiences with regard to social support would dynamically interact in the form of a reinforcing spiral across three measurement occasions. If mutual friends self-disclose today, will they receive more social support 6 months later? In turn, will this affect their willingness to self-disclose another 6 months later? We further analyzed spill-over effects from face-to-face to IM communication and vice versa. We found that self-disclosure predicted social support and vice versa in IM communication, but not in face-to-face communication. In light of these results, the impact of IM communication on how individuals maneuver friendships through the interplay between self-disclosure and social support are discussed.

  16. Clenbuterol affects the expression of messenger RNA for interleukin 10 in peripheral leukocytes from horses challenged intrabronchially with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoven, R; Duvigneau, J C; Hartl, R T; Gemeiner, M

    2006-11-01

    On four occasions, four horses with heaves and four horses with small airway inflammatory diseases inhaled 0.9% saline based aerosol mixtures with or without lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Prior to the first saline and LPS inhalation, horses were untreated, while three and a half days prior to the third and forth inhalation horses had received 0.8 microg/kg clenbuterol intravenously twice daily. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and interferon- gamma (IFN- gamma) was investigated by RT-PCR, all of which were expressed in the white blood cells of samples collected. Inhalation of LPS only changed the cytokine expression profile of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-alpha mRNA which were higher after challenge with LPS. However in those horses that were treated with clenbuterol the LPS-induced IL-10 mRNA expression was shown to be suppressed. Further changes in IL-4 and TNF-alpha were not significant. Thus the results of this study indicated that clenbuterol can modulate the expression of IL-10 mRNA in peripheral white blood cells in those horses with small airway diseases that have been exposed to LPS.

  17. The Bacterial Second Messenger Cyclic di-GMP Regulates Brucella Pathogenesis and Leads to Altered Host Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mike; Harms, Jerome S; Marim, Fernanda M; Armon, Leah; Hall, Cherisse L; Liu, Yi-Ping; Banai, Menachem; Oliveira, Sergio C; Splitter, Gary A; Smith, Judith A

    2016-12-01

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic debilitating disease significantly impacting global health and prosperity. Much remains to be learned about how Brucella spp. succeed in sabotaging immune host cells and how Brucella spp. respond to environmental challenges. Multiple types of bacteria employ the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) to coordinate responses to shifting environments. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in Brucella physiology and in shaping host-Brucella interactions, we utilized c-di-GMP regulatory enzyme deletion mutants. Our results show that a ΔbpdA phosphodiesterase mutant producing excess c-di-GMP displays marked attenuation in vitro and in vivo during later infections. Although c-di-GMP is known to stimulate the innate sensor STING, surprisingly, the ΔbpdA mutant induced a weaker host immune response than did wild-type Brucella or the low-c-di-GMP guanylate cyclase ΔcgsB mutant. Proteomics analysis revealed that c-di-GMP regulates several processes critical for virulence, including cell wall and biofilm formation, nutrient acquisition, and the type IV secretion system. Finally, ΔbpdA mutants exhibited altered morphology and were hypersensitive to nutrient-limiting conditions. In summary, our results indicate a vital role for c-di-GMP in allowing Brucella to successfully navigate stressful and shifting environments to establish intracellular infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Control of potassium homeostasis is an essential function of the second messenger cyclic di-AMP in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Jan; Herzberg, Christina; Kaever, Volkhard; Gunka, Katrin; Hoffmann, Tamara; Weiß, Martin; Gibhardt, Johannes; Thürmer, Andrea; Hertel, Dietrich; Daniel, Rolf; Bremer, Erhard; Commichau, Fabian M; Stülke, Jörg

    2017-04-18

    The second messenger cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is essential in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis and in related pathogenic bacteria. It controls the activity of the conserved ydaO riboswitch and of several proteins involved in potassium (K(+)) uptake. We found that the YdaO protein was conserved among several different bacteria and provide evidence that YdaO functions as a K(+) transporter. Thus, we renamed the gene and protein KimA (K(+) importer A). Reporter activity assays indicated that expression beyond the c-di-AMP-responsive riboswitch of the kimA upstream regulatory region occurred only in bacteria grown in medium containing low K(+) concentrations. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis indicated that c-di-AMP accumulated in bacteria grown in the presence of high K(+) concentrations but not in low concentrations. A bacterial strain lacking all genes encoding c-di-AMP-synthesizing enzymes was viable when grown in medium containing low K(+) concentrations, but not at higher K(+) concentrations unless it acquired suppressor mutations in the gene encoding the cation exporter NhaK. Thus, our results indicated that the control of potassium homeostasis is an essential function of c-di-AMP. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Protection of specific maternal messenger RNAs by the P body protein CGH-1 (Dhh1/RCK) during Caenorhabditis elegans oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Peter R.; Atalay, Arzu; Robida, Stacey; Reinke, Valerie; Blackwell, T. Keith

    2008-01-01

    During oogenesis, numerous messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are maintained in a translationally silenced state. In eukaryotic cells, various translation inhibition and mRNA degradation mechanisms congregate in cytoplasmic processing bodies (P bodies). The P body protein Dhh1 inhibits translation and promotes decapping-mediated mRNA decay together with Pat1 in yeast, and has been implicated in mRNA storage in metazoan oocytes. Here, we have investigated in Caenorhabditis elegans whether Dhh1 and Pat1 generally function together, and how they influence mRNA sequestration during oogenesis. We show that in somatic tissues, the Dhh1 orthologue (CGH-1) forms Pat1 (patr-1)-dependent P bodies that are involved in mRNA decapping. In contrast, during oogenesis, CGH-1 forms patr-1–independent mRNA storage bodies. CGH-1 then associates with translational regulators and a specific set of maternal mRNAs, and prevents those mRNAs from being degraded. Our results identify somatic and germ cell CGH-1 functions that are distinguished by the involvement of PATR-1, and reveal that during oogenesis, numerous translationally regulated mRNAs are specifically protected by a CGH-1–dependent mechanism. PMID:18695045

  20. Messenger RNA delivery of a cartilage-anabolic transcription factor as a disease-modifying strategy for osteoarthritis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aini, Hailati; Itaka, Keiji; Fujisawa, Ayano; Uchida, Hirokuni; Uchida, Satoshi; Fukushima, Shigeto; Kataoka, Kazunori; Saito, Taku; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2016-01-05

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease and a major health problem in the elderly population. No disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) has been made available for clinical use. Here we present a disease-modifying strategy for OA, focusing on messenger RNA (mRNA) delivery of a therapeutic transcription factor using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyamino acid block copolymer-based polyplex nanomicelles. When polyplex nanomicelles carrying the cartilage-anabolic, runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) 1 mRNA were injected into mouse OA knee joints, OA progression was significantly suppressed compared with the non-treatment control. Expressions of cartilage-anabolic markers and proliferation were augmented in articular chondrocytes of the RUNX1-injected knees. Thus, this study provides a proof of concept of the treatment of degenerative diseases such as OA by the in situ mRNA delivery of therapeutic transcription factors; the presented approach will directly connect basic findings on disease-protective or tissue-regenerating factors to disease treatment.

  1. Venus's winds and temperatures during the MESSENGER's flyby: towards a three-dimensional instantaneous state of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Hueso, R.; Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Lellouch, E.; Rengel, M.; Machado, P.; Omino, M.; Piccialli, A.; Imamura, T.; Horinouchi, T.; Murakami, S.; Ogohara, K.; Luz, D.; Peach, D.

    2017-09-01

    The atmosphere of the Earth or Mars globally rotates with a speed similar to the rotation of the planet (approximately 24 h). The rotation of Venus is of about 243 days, much slower than the Earth, but when scientists measured the winds by tracking the clouds of Venus, they discovered that the atmosphere rotates 60 times faster! No one has explained yet what originates this "superrotation", and we do not know well what happens either above or below the clouds. The technique of "Doppler shift" has been used to measure winds above the clouds, but results are "chaotic" and different to interpret. Thanks to a worldwide collaboration in June 2007 between NASA (MESSENGER), ESA (Venus Express), and many observatories (VLT in Chile, JCMT in Hawaii, HHSMT in Arizona, or IRAM in Spain), the authors combined the different data to obtain, for the first time, the instantaneous 3-D structure of the winds on Venus at the clouds and also above, very important for new Venus models to start "forecasts" of the Venus weather with "data assimilation". We also discovered that the superrotation seems unexpectedly different on the night of Venus and that it varies its altitude depending on the day.

  2. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuverink, E; Verhulst, E C; van Leussen, M; van de Zande, L; Beukeboom, L W

    2017-10-14

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As. tabida. Of these, At-dsx and At-tra are sex-specifically spliced, indicating a conserved function in sex determination. At-tra and At-tra2 mRNA is maternally provided to embryos but, in contrast to most studied insects, As. tabida females transmit a non-sex-specific splice form of At-tra mRNA to the eggs. In this respect, As. tabida sex determination differs from the MEGISD mechanism. How the paternal genome can induce female development in the absence of maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced mRNA remains an open question. Our study reports a hitherto unknown variant of maternal effect sex determination and accentuates the diversity of insect sex determination mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Structure of human cGAS reveals a conserved family of second-messenger enzymes in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzusch, Philip J; Lee, Amy Si-Ying; Berger, James M; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2013-05-30

    Innate immune recognition of foreign nucleic acids induces protective interferon responses. Detection of cytosolic DNA triggers downstream immune signaling through activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). We report here the crystal structure of human cGAS, revealing an unanticipated zinc-ribbon DNA-binding domain appended to a core enzymatic nucleotidyltransferase scaffold. The catalytic core of cGAS is structurally homologous to the RNA-sensing enzyme, 2'-5' oligo-adenylate synthase (OAS), and divergent C-terminal domains account for specific ligand-activation requirements of each enzyme. We show that the cGAS zinc ribbon is essential for STING-dependent induction of the interferon response and that conserved amino acids displayed within the intervening loops are required for efficient cytosolic DNA recognition. These results demonstrate that cGAS and OAS define a family of innate immunity sensors and that structural divergence from a core nucleotidyltransferase enables second-messenger responses to distinct foreign nucleic acids. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of Human cGAS Reveals a Conserved Family of Second-Messenger Enzymes in Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Kranzusch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune recognition of foreign nucleic acids induces protective interferon responses. Detection of cytosolic DNA triggers downstream immune signaling through activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS. We report here the crystal structure of human cGAS, revealing an unanticipated zinc-ribbon DNA-binding domain appended to a core enzymatic nucleotidyltransferase scaffold. The catalytic core of cGAS is structurally homologous to the RNA-sensing enzyme, 2′-5′ oligo-adenylate synthase (OAS, and divergent C-terminal domains account for specific ligand-activation requirements of each enzyme. We show that the cGAS zinc ribbon is essential for STING-dependent induction of the interferon response and that conserved amino acids displayed within the intervening loops are required for efficient cytosolic DNA recognition. These results demonstrate that cGAS and OAS define a family of innate immunity sensors and that structural divergence from a core nucleotidyltransferase enables second-messenger responses to distinct foreign nucleic acids.

  5. Test for consistence of a flyby anomaly simulation with the observed Doppler residuals for the Messenger flybys of Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Busack, Hans-Juergen

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the observed Earth flyby anomalies have been successfully simulated using an empirical formula (H. J. Busack, 2007). This simulation has led to the prediction of anomaly values, to be expected for the Rosetta flybys of Mars in 2007, and following twice of Earth in 2007 and 2009. While the data for the Mars flyby are yet under evaluation, the predictions of the formula for the last two Earth flybys of Rosetta are fully confirmed now. This is remarkable, since an alternatively proposed formula (Anderson et al., 2007) failed to predict the correct values for the recent flybys. For the Mercury flybys of the Messenger spacecraft, this alternative formula predicts a null result. In the meantime, Doppler residuals of these flybys on 14.01.2008 and 06.10.2008 are availabel. On both flybys, significant residuals were observed, using gravity data derived by Mariner 10 on Mercury (D. E. Smith et al., 2009). According to the authors, these residuals cannot be eliminated totally by adjustment of the second degree...

  6. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Peterson, B C; Waldbieser, G C

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that increased growth in channel catfish is associated with expression of the genes that code for uncoupling proteins (UCP) 2 and 3, members of the mitochondrial channel proteins involved in nutrient sensing and metabolism. The specific objective was to contrast the levels of UCP2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in fast vs slow growing catfish as well as in fed vs fasted catfish. Two distinct UCP2 transcripts were identified and named UCP2a and UCP2b, respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of catfish UCP2s were highly similar to UCP2 and other UCPs from other fish and mammals (>75%). Expression of UCP2a mRNA was detectable at very low levels in various metabolically active tissues, whereas the expression of UCP2b mRNA was readily detectable in the muscle and heart. In a 21-wk feeding study, fish that grew faster had a greater percent body fat at the end of the study (P catfish UCP2b may be the analog to UCP3. Moreover, our results suggest selection toward growth and associated fat accumulation appears to be independent of muscle UCP2b mRNA expression and UCP2b-mediated mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcium influx factor (CIF) as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H Y; Hanley, M R

    1999-06-30

    Acid extracts of thapsigargin-treated Xenopus oocytes revealed Ca2(+)-dependent Cl- currents by microinjection into Xenopus oocytes. These currents were detected in highly purified fractions by carrying out a sequence of purification steps including gel filtration chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography. The nature of the membrane currents evoked by the highly purified fractions were carried by chloride ions as blockade by the selective chloride channel blocker 1 mM niflumic acid. Injection of the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) eradicated the current activities, indicating that the current responses are completely Ca2(+)-dependent. Moreover, the currents were sensitive to the removal of extracellular calcium, indicating the dependence on calcium entry through plasma membrane calcium entry channels. These results elucidate that the highly purified fractions aquired by thapsigargin-stimulated oocytes is an authentic calcium influx factor (CIF). Thus, the detection of increased CIF production from thapsigargin treatment in Xenopus oocytes would give strong support for the existence of CIF as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry pathways in Xenopus oocytes.

  8. What is mobile in entrepreneurship?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundmark, Erik; Waern, Åsa

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the relation between entrepreneurship and different aspects of mobility and provides a basis for further studies. To date the entrepreneurship field has focused little on the role of mobility and the studies that do, have predominantly focused on labour mobility. We argue that entrepreneurship and mobility are intertwined and that limiting the concept of mobility to labour mobility limits our view of the entrepreneurial process. The study is based on a literature review...

  9. HUMAN INTERACTION WITH MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Zamfiroiu; Emanuel Herteliu; Bogdan Vintila

    2012-01-01

    Computing - human interaction is a very important paradigm because informatics applications are created to be used by people via human interaction. Nowadays mobile applications are more used so is necessarily to talk about mobile - human interaction. In this paper types of mobile devices are presented. Citizen oriented character of mobile application and his utility are described. Different means of interactions with mobile devices are analyzed and in the end of the paper direction of mobile ...

  10. Client Mobile Software Design Principles for Mobile Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a client-server mobile learning system, client mobile software must run on the mobile phone to acquire, package, and send student’s interaction data via the mobile communications network to the connected mobile application server. The server will receive and process the client data in order to offer appropriate content and learning activities. To develop the mobile learning systems there are a number of very important issues that must be addressed. Mobile phones have scarce computing resources. They consist of heterogeneous devices and use various mobile operating systems, they have limitations with their user/device interaction capabilities, high data communications cost, and must provide for device mobility and portability. In this paper we propose five principles for designing Client mobile learning software. A location-based adaptive mobile learning system is presented as a proof of concept to demonstrate the applicability of these design principles.

  11. In Vitro Translation of Oogenetic Messenger RNA of Sea Urchin Eggs and Picornavirus RNA with a Cell-Free System from Sarcoma 180

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nancy; Taylor, Milton W.; Raff, Rudolf A.

    1973-01-01

    A cell-free protein-synthesizing system prepared from mouse sarcoma 180 was characterized by use of RNA from mengo virus and sea urchin egg. In the presence of exogenous mammalian transfer RNA, total sea urchin egg RNA and mengo RNA direct incorporation of [3H]leucine into acid-insoluble material. The system is extremely efficient in that a stimulation of 100-times over background can be obtained. Studies with formylmethionyl-transfer RNA, as well as with inhibitors of initiation, indicate that multiple initiation occurs; further, 85-90% of all chains made in vitro are subsequently released from ribosomes. An average translation time of 3.5 min was determined with messenger RNA of sea urchin egg, and product analysis indicates that high-molecular-weight products (greater than 50,000 molecular weight) are being made in vitro. Sequences of sea urchin egg RNA containing poly(A) act as messenger RNA. PMID:4357864

  12. Differences in Brand Image of Online Chat Application of Blackberry Messenger, Whatsapp, and Line for Bina Nusantara University’s Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuspuji C. B. Wicaksono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article was written to find out whether there were any differences on brand image for each online chat Application such as Blackberry Messenger, Whatsapp, and LINE based on six factors of the brand image which are: benefits, attributes, cultures, values, personality, and user. Data for the research were collected from questionnaires given to respondents who had used each mention online chat application. Then each respondent was asked to give scores based on the six factors of brand image for each online chat Application. Using the ANOVA method for testing the differences between brand images for each online chat application. The result reveales that there are differences in the brand image between BlackBerry Messenger, Whatsapp, and LINE for benefits, cultures, and values. There is no difference in attributes, and personality cannot be tested. The company that creates online chat application are expected to improve their brand image to distinguish one another differently.

  13. Mobile sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-12-16

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  14. Limits of social mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-04-16

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability.

  15. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Macias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  16. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  17. Mobile and contextual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

  18. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  19. Editorial: Mobile (March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kunz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Open source software and hardware has become an accepted way of developing new and interesting applications in many information and communication technology domains: operating systems, databases, Web infrastructure, and applications. It's not surprising that with the increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices, users and researchers have explored the power of open approaches to providing innovative new applications and services in this domain. However, unlike personal computers and the Internet, mobile handsets were tightly controlled by mobile network operators (MNOs who developed a vertical ecosystem by integrating the communication infrastructure, the handheld device hardware, and often the applications installed on those devices. The software and protocols running the mobile communications infrastructure and devices are often standardized by membership-only bodies, where large MNOs and manufacturers have a predominant influence. These players invest significant financial resources into shaping the industry along their vision to gain a competitive advantage. A current example is the ongoing battle about the dominant radio access technology for 4G cellular systems: LTE vs. Wimax. These trends have changed recently. Companies such as Google, Nokia, or Openmoko and Industry Alliances such as the Open Handset Alliance are providing the core building blocks, both in hardware as well as software, of increasingly open mobile devices. This issue of the OSBR reviews the relevant trends in the open mobile platform space from a number of perspectives. As the articles in these issue show, there is a lot of exciting ongoing work that brings the power of open source development to the mobile space. This trend is not just confined to the mobile devices as there are also efforts in the development of open mobile infrastructure elements and whole systems.

  20. Mobile Context Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Skomail, Lukasz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on the Maemo mobile platform enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new hardware and software sensors and features to be added...... to the context framework. We present initial results from in-the-wild experiments where contextual data was acquired using the tool. In the experiments 6 participants were using a Nokia N900 mobile phone continuously with a logger application for an average of 33 days. The study has provided valuable insights...

  1. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  2. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  3. MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2011-01-01

    competition state – that is to be realized by fulfilling the ambitions for comprehensive knowledge mobilization through education.1 On the other hand, Denmark is having a hard time finding a broad consensus when what is, in principle, supposed to be a common political will is to be translated into knowledge...... mobilization. This lack of consensus can be traced to the political-administrative level and to the relationship between representatives of education research and representatives of the education system. So, if the concept of knowledge mobilization is not especially exploited in Denmark, it can be seen...

  4. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  5. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Drewes Nielsen, Lise

    Globalisation is heavily dependent on physical transport, as people and goods travel over longer distances and with higher frequency. Movement and mobility have become integrated parts of late modern identity and practice, and a state of flux can be sensed everywhere. Bringing together the latest...... interdisciplinary theoretical approaches with empirical case studies analysing and appraising innovative policies from Scandinavia, this volume demonstrates that mobility research is a key issue within social enquiry. It addresses three broad themes. Firstly, mobility as a constructed social reality, examining how...

  6. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...

  7. Mobile computing for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Sharma, Arjun; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Kung, Justin W; Loehfelm, Thomas W; Sherry, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advances in mobile computing technology have the potential to change the way radiology and medicine as a whole are practiced. Several mobile computing advances have not yet found application to the practice of radiology, while others have already been applied to radiology but are not in widespread clinical use. This review addresses several areas where radiology and medicine in general may benefit from adoption of the latest mobile computing technologies and speculates on potential future applications. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MOBILE GAME HALMA MULTIPLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dhimas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handphone besides as a communication tool also has a function as a medium of entertainment. Various multimedia services and communications facilities contained therein, one Bluetooth. Games is one application that always exist in the mobile phone, and with a wider variety of games development by utilizing the services in mobile. In this research, the development of the multiplayer games for mobile phones utilizing Bluetooth communication media using the programming language Java Micro Edition (J2ME. Design method using the grapple, NetBeans IDE 6.1 is used as tools to assist programming.

  9. Data mining mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

  10. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...... are applied for Denmark as for other countries, we find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found to be higher than in the United Kingdom...

  11. Mobility Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    There is today an undisputed superiority of cars on any other means of transportation, both practically and psychologically. However, the reliance on cars as the main means of transportation has led to a number of social and environmental problems. Mobility Management aims at managing the way...... people fulfil their mobility needs so that they rely less on their cars and start using alternatives such as bicycles and public transport. This article analyses the possibility to use businesses as vectors for introducing Mobility Management within social practices in Denmark in the light of the recent...

  12. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...... and the United States....... are applied for Denmark as for other countries, we find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found to be higher than in the United Kingdom...

  13. Mobile networks architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the evolutions of architecture for mobiles and summarizes the different technologies:- 2G: the GSM (Global System for Mobile) network, the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network and the EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) evolution;- 3G: the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) network and the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) evolutions:- HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access),- HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access),- HSPA+;- 4G: the EPS (Evolved Packet System) network.The telephone service and data transmission are the

  14. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Near-tail of Venus: Magnetic Flux Transport, Current Sheet Structure, and Flux Rope Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sarantos, M.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; hide

    2008-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 km) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of the near-tail of Venus with emphasis on determining the time scales for magnetic flux transport, the structure of the cross-tail current sheet at very low altitudes (approx. 300 to 1000 km), and the nature and origin of a magnetic flux rope observed in the current sheet. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express upstream measurements provides a unique opportunity to examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  15. Mobile Internet: Politics of Mobile Code and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mosemghvdlishvili (Lela)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term mobile internet refers to accessing the internet through (cellular) mobile devices and represents the convergence of mobile telephony, internet services, and personal computing. Whereas iMode (mobile internet and data services) was introduced in Japan as long

  16. cAMP-Induced Desensitization of Surface cAMP Receptors in Dictyostelium : Different Second Messengers Mediate Receptor Phosphorylation, Loss of Ligand Binding, Degradation of Receptor, and Reduction of Receptor mRNA Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wang, Mei; Bominaar, Anthony A.; Devreotes, Peter N.; Schaap, Pauline

    Surface cAMP receptors on Dictyostelium cells are linked to several second messenger systems and mediate multiple physiological responses, including chemotaxis and differentiation. Activation of the receptor also triggers events which desensitize signal transduction. These events include the

  17. Proxemic Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés; Quigley, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices. However, existing practices fail to fully account for the culturally-dependent spatial relationships between people and their d......Recent research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices. However, existing practices fail to fully account for the culturally-dependent spatial relationships between people...... would allow devices to not only react to presence and interaction, but also other indicators, such as the interpersonal distance people naturally use in everyday life. The aim of this one-day workshop is to bring together a community of researchers, designers and practitioners who are interested...

  18. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  19. Towards urban mobility designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    Functionalist traffic design aims at a rational organisation of movement from A to B in a segregated and uniform physical environment. Such urban areas have been criticized for being exclusively functional and lacking sensuous and social qualities. Recent research on mobilities challenges the more...... are concerned with. - Third, we introduce an embodied mobile perspective through insights from the mobilities turn. - Fourth, through our own journey experience en route we present a mapping of the transit site. - We conclude by outlining a few propositions on the design challenge and design potentials......, in relation to re-conceptualisation of the transit site, to mapping, and to design intervention. These propositions form part of our on-going work with urban mobility designs....

  20. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...

  1. Mobile Learning Applications Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While mobile learning (m-learning applications have proven their value in educational activities, there is a need to measure their reliability, accessibility and further more their trustworthiness. Mobile devices are far more vulnerable then classic computers and present inconvenient interfaces due to their size, hardware limitations and their mobile connectivity. Mobile learning applications should be audited to determine if they should be trusted or not, while multimedia contents like automatic speech recognition (ASR can improve their accessibility. This article will start with a brief introduction on m-learning applications, then it will present the audit process for m-learning applications, it will iterate their specific security threats, it will define the ASR process, and it will elaborate how ASR can enhance accessibility of these types of applications.

  2. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short......This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data...... rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing trafic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear...

  3. jQuery Mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Native apps have distinct advantages, but the future belongs to mobile web apps that function on a broad range of smartphones and tablets. Get started with jQuery Mobile, the touch-optimized framework for creating apps that look and behave consistently across many devices. This concise book provides HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript code examples, screen shots, and step-by-step guidance to help you build a complete working app with jQuery Mobile. If you're already familiar with the jQuery JavaScript library, you can use your existing skills to build cross-platform mobile web apps right now. This b

  4. Mobility Data Analytics Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mobility Data Analytics Center aims at building a centralized data engine to efficiently manipulate : large-scale data for smart decision making. Integrating and learning the massive data are the key to : the data engine. The ultimate goal of underst...

  5. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  6. Mens mobile health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie Diana Hvidbak; Castaño, Francisco Mansilla; Jensen, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Preferences Keywords: Men with little or no education, physical health, mobile health application. Types of presentations: First presentation preference: E-Poster presentations Second presentation preference: Pitch presentation Abstract Background: Men mobile health contributes knowledge of how mobile health...... applications affect the physical activity levels by men with little or no education and the frequency of how often they think and do something to promote their health. Men with little or no education have both the lowest life expectancy and longest patient delay, and there are not conducted researches...... and control group. N = 71, 20-62 years old men, little or no education, employed at industrial company. Intervention group N= 35, control group N = 36. There is performed a baseline, an 6 months intervention period, outcome measurement. The intervention: Intervention group use mobile application, registration...

  7. Making Everyday Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon

    practices. Specific heterogeneous configurations in mobility practices facilitate instrumental movement of family members, but can also engender care, quality time of togetherness, recreational and productive in-betweens, as well as sensorial and emotional experiences through the orchestration of affective...

  8. Mobile Tools | Smokefree 60+

    Science.gov (United States)

    These mobile resources can help you quit when you're on the go. SmokefreeTXT SmokefreeTXT is a mobile text messaging service designed for adults across the United States who are trying to quit smoking. The program offers 24/7 encouragement, advice, and tips to help smokers quit smoking and stay quit. If you are interested in signing up, fill out this form.

  9. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  10. Soft Soil Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-619A Soft Soil Mobility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TOP supersedes TOP 02-2-619, Soft Soil Vehicle Mobility, dated 21 May 1970. Marginal notations are not used in this revision to identify changes

  11. Emerging Mobile Networking Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    years to address this problem area. Basic concepts began as early a the 1970s with DARPA sponsored "packet radio" research, yet a new flurry of design...routing, MAC , middleware). The appropriate mechanisms are also not orthogonal to the intended application or deployment scenario of the mobile ad hoc...technology that can improve the capability of future mobile architectures Original work dates back to DARPA packet radio work 1970s More recent flurry of

  12. Mobile multiple access study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  13. "Mobile Fashion" Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kashanipour, Morvarid

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis investigates studies on fashion oriented people according to the "Outfit-Centric Accessories" concept. The outfit-centric accessories concept originated from recent research study by Juhlin and Zhang (2011) about mobile phone representation in fashion and Aesthetic of Interaction area of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The term outfit-centric accessories originated from clothing and wearer. In this concept an outfit is playing a role as the centerpiece and a mobile phone ...

  14. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  15. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Drewes Nielsen, Lise

    Globalisation is heavily dependent on physical transport, as people and goods travel over longer distances and with higher frequency. Movement and mobility have become integrated parts of late modern identity and practice, and a state of flux can be sensed everywhere. Bringing together the latest...... for both research and policy. In the final section of the book new visions for research into sustainability and mobility are laid out....

  16. Mobile Apps and Romanian Mobile Devices Users’ Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Tutunea, Mihaela Filofteia

    2014-01-01

    During the last years the development of mobile technologies generated the formation of a new segment of software industry dedicated to applications for mobile devices. At their turn, mobile apps created new tendencies in software development but also generated important revenues at the level of the specialized industry as well as at global level. From this perspective, the present article, on one hand, describes an image of the mobile infrastructure, mobile applications ...

  17. Adipose tissue angiopoietin-like protein 4 messenger RNA changes with altered energy balance in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltes, D A; Spurlock, D M

    2012-11-01

    Negative energy balance at the onset of lactation is unfavorably associated with fitness traits in high-producing dairy cows. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an adipokine that has been associated with the regulation of lipid metabolism through the inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity and regulation of lipolysis. Expression of ANGPTL4 messenger RNA (mRNA) increases during early lactation, but its regulation with changing energy status is currently unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine whether ANGPTL4 mRNA abundance is responsive to declining energy balance induced by the transition from pregnancy to lactation, feed restriction, and GH administration in lactating dairy cows. The mRNA abundance of leptin, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor 2 were also measured to compare adipokine mRNA profiles during changes in energy metabolism. Repeated adipose tissue biopsies were taken from different cows during transition from late pregnancy to lactation (n = 26), feed restriction (n = 19), and GH administration (n = 20). As expected, milk yield increased with the onset of lactation and GH administration (P Energy balance declined in each experiment, resulting in negative energy balance at the onset of lactation and after feed restriction. Abundance of ANGPTL4 mRNA expression increased 2- to 6-fold with declining energy balance in each experiment. Leptin mRNA declined with feed restriction, and adiponectin mRNA decreased with the onset of lactation. The consistency and magnitude of the increase in ANGPTL4 mRNA across multiple models of altered energy balance identifies it as an adipokine that is uniquely responsive to changes in energy balance in the lactating dairy cow. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of Ras exchange factors and cellular localization of Ras activation by lipid messengers in T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse E. Jun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and SOS-family GEFs.Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood.One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of Ras-GEFs´functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells.

  19. Designing immunostimulatory double stranded messenger RNA with maintained translational activity through hybridization with poly A sequences for effective vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Naoto; Yanagihara, Kayoko; Yuba, Eiji; Kataoka, Kazunori; Itaka, Keiji

    2018-01-01

    Messenger (m)RNA vaccines require a safe and potent immunostimulatory adjuvant. In this study, we introduced immunostimulatory properties directly into mRNA molecules by hybridizing them with complementary RNA to create highly immunogenic double stranded (ds)RNAs. These dsRNA formulations, comprised entirely of RNA, are expected to be safe and highly efficient due to antigen expression and immunostimulation occurring simultaneously in the same antigen presenting cells. In this strategy, design of dsRNA is important. Indeed, hybridization using full-length antisense (as)RNA drastically reduced translational efficiency. In contrast, by limiting the hybridized portion to the mRNA poly A region, efficient translation and intense immunostimulation was simultaneously obtained. The immune response to the poly U-hybridized mRNAs (mRNA:pU) was mediated through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I. We also demonstrated that mRNA:pU activation of mouse and human dendritic cells was significantly more effective than activation using single stranded mRNA. In vivo mouse immunization experiments using ovalbumin showed that mRNA:pU significantly enhanced the intensity of specific cellular and humoral immune responses, compared to single stranded mRNA. Our novel mRNA:pU formulation can be delivered using a variety of mRNA carriers depending on the purpose and delivery route, providing a versatile platform for improving mRNA vaccine efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Messenger RNA expression of Pabpnl1 and Mbd3l2 genes in oocytes and cleavage embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biase, Fernando Henrique; Martelli, Lúcia; Puga, Renato; Giuliatti, Silvana; Santos-Biase, Weruska Karyna Freitas; Fonseca Merighe, Giovana Krempel; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2010-05-15

    To identify genes specifically expressed in mammalian oocytes using an in silico subtraction, and to characterize the mRNA patterns of selected genes in oocytes, embryos, and adult tissues. Comparison between oocyte groups and between early embryo stages. Laboratories of embryo manipulation and molecular biology from Departamento de Genética (FMRP) and Departamento de Ciências Básicas (FZEA)--University of São Paulo. Oocytes were collected from slaughtered cows for measurements, in vitro fertilization, and in vitro embryo culture. Somatic tissue, excluding gonad and uterus tissue, was collected from male and female cattle. Messenger RNA levels of poly(A)-binding protein nuclear-like 1 (Pabpnl1) and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3-like 2 (Mbd3l2). Pabpnl1 mRNA was found to be expressed in oocytes, and Mbd3l2 transcripts were present in embryos. Quantification of Pabpnl1 transcripts showed no difference in levels between good- and bad-quality oocytes before in vitro maturation (IVM) or between good-quality oocytes before and after IVM. However, Pabpnl1 transcripts were not detected in bad-quality oocytes after IVM. Transcripts of the Mbd3l2 gene were found in 4-cell, 8-cell, and morula-stage embryos, with the highest level observed in 8-cell embryos. Pabpnl1 gene expression is restricted to oocytes and Mbd3l2 to embryos. Different Pabpnl1 mRNA levels in oocytes of varying viability suggest an important role in fertility involving the oocyte potential for embryo development. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of membrane-type 1, 2, and 3 matrix metalloproteinases messenger RNA in ovarian carcinoma cells in serous effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B; Goldberg, I; Berner, A; Nesland, J M; Givant-Horwitz, V; Bryne, M; Risberg, B; Kristensen, G B; Tropé, C G; Kopolovic, J; Reich, R

    2001-04-01

    We studied the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, membrane-type (MT)1-MMP, MT2-MMP, and MT3-MMP in 43 malignant pleural and peritoneal effusions using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cellular localization of MT1-MMP in 66 effusion specimens and 85 corresponding primary and metastatic tumors using messenger RNA (mRNA) in situ hybridization (ISH). In 43 effusions, MMP-2 mRNA was detected in 37, MT1-MMP in 25, and MT2-MMP in 32. Expression of MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP was found in 21 specimens; in 16 MT-MMP-positive specimens, mRNA for only 1 of 2 enzymes was expressed. MT3-MMP mRNA was not detected. High levels of MMP-2 mRNA were detected more often in effusions with high MT1-MMP and/or MT2-MMP mRNA expression. Using ISH, MT1-MMP mRNA was localized to cancer cells in 27 of 58 malignant effusions; focal signals were detected in mesothelial cells in 7 of 42. MT1-MMP was localized to tumor cells in 32 of 85 primary and metastatic solid lesions, and stromal cells expressed MT1-MMP in 3. Tumor cell MT1-MMP expression in effusion specimens did not differ from primary or metastatic lesions. MT-MMP expression in tumor cells in effusions showed no association with effusion site or tumor type using ISH and RT-PCR.

  2. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Chen, Kevin [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); Gough, Jonathan D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehman College, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Kanner, Jonah [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California CA 91125 (United States); Kavic, Michael [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  3. Proteomic Profiling and Differential Messenger RNA Expression Correlate HSP27 and Serpin Family B Member 1 to Apical Periodontitis Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalla, Franco; Biguetti, Claudia; Jain, Sameer; Johnson, Cleverick; Letra, Ariadne; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Silva, Renato Menezes

    2017-09-01

    Understanding protein expression profiles of apical periodontitis may contribute to the discovery of novel diagnostic or therapeutic molecular targets. Periapical tissue samples (n = 5) of patients with lesions characterized as nonhealing were submitted for proteomic analysis. Two differentially expressed proteins (heat shock protein 27 [HSP27] and serpin family B member 1 [SERPINB1]) were selected for characterization, localization by immunofluorescence, and association with known biomarkers of acute inflammatory response in human apical periodontitis (n = 110) and healthy periodontal ligaments (n = 26). Apical periodontitis samples were categorized as stable/inactive (n = 70) or progressive/active (n = 40) based on the ratio of expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG). Next, the expression of HSP27, SERPINB1, C-X-C motif Chemokine Receptor 1 (CXCR1), matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and cathepsin G (CTSG) messenger RNA was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, analysis of variance, and the Pearson test. P values periodontitis compared with a healthy periodontium, with 30 of these proteins found to be expressed in all 4 lesions. The expression of HSP27 and SERPINB1 was ∼2-fold higher in apical periodontitis. Next, an increased expression of HSP27 was detected in epithelial cells, whereas SERPINB1 expression was noted in neutrophils and epithelial cells. HSP27 and SERPINB1 transcripts were highly expressed in stable/inactive lesions (P acute inflammation including CXCR1, MPO, and CTSG. Our data suggest HSP27 and SERPINB1 as potential regulators of the inflammatory response in apical periodontitis. Additional functional studies should be performed to further characterize the role of these molecules during the development/progression of apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 American Association of

  4. Mastering jQuery mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Chip

    2015-01-01

    You've started down the path of jQuery Mobile, now begin mastering some of jQuery Mobile's higher level topics. Go beyond jQuery Mobile's documentation and master one of the hottest mobile technologies out there. Previous JavaScript and PHP experience can help you get the most out of this book.

  5. Mobility. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents information on student mobility for 2011. It offers data on the following: (1) Mobility Rates by Student Enrollment Status; (2) Mobile Student Enrollment at 2-/4-Year Institutions; and (3) Mobile Student Enrollment at Public/Private Institutions.

  6. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways...... to promote mobility in old age....

  7. Libraries and the Mobile Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Cody

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, cell phones and mobile devices are ubiquitous. The vast majority of Americans now own cell phones, and over half of them have mobile access to the Internet through a phone or other mobile device. For libraries to stay relevant, they must be able to offer content and services through the mobile web. In this issue of "Library Technology…

  8. Nurses' use of mobile instant messaging applications: A uses and gratifications perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, John Robert; Lin, Trisha T C

    2017-10-01

    To explore how and why mobile instant messaging applications are used by Filipino nurses as part of their work. Guided by the uses and gratifications theory, in-depth interviews with 20 staff nurses working in 9 hospitals (ie, 4 private and 5 public hospitals) in the Philippines were conducted in July 2015. Interview data were analysed through a phenomenological perspective to thematic analysis. Results show that mobile instant messaging applications such as Facebook Messenger and Viber were mostly used by staff nurses and these were accessed using their own smartphones. Thematic analysis indicates that they were used to meet staff nurses' need for information exchange, socialization, and catharsis. Moreover, user interactions vary depending on members within a chat group. For instance, communication via mobile instant messaging applications are much formal when superiors are included in a chat group. In general, the results show that mobile instant messaging applications are routinely used by Filipino staff nurses not only for clinical purposes (ie, information exchange) but also for non-clinical purposes (ie, socialization and catharsis). This paper ends with several practical and theoretical implications including future research directions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Mobile medical image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  10. Mobility Network and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galderisi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobility network is crucial for ensuring territorial safety with respect to natural and technological hazards. They represent a basic support to community’s everyday life although being exposed elements often characterized by high vulnerability to different hazards and, in the meanwhile, strategic equipments for emergency management. Physical damages or the lack in functioning of those networks may greatly increase the loss of human lives caused by hazardous events as well as produce relevant economic damages at medium and long term. Although the relevance of the mobility networks in assuring territorial safety is at present largely recognized, risk analyses have been long focused on buildings’ vulnerability or, even where they have paid attention to mobility network, they have been mainly focused on the physical damages that a given hazard could may induce on individual elements of such network. It is recent the awareness that mobility network represents a system, characterized by relevant interdependences both among its elements and among network infrastructures and urban systems. Based on these assumptions, this paper points out the heterogeneous aspects of the mobility network vulnerability and their relevance in increasing the overall territorial or urban vulnerability to hazardous events. Therefore, an in-depth investigation of the concept of mobility network vulnerability is provided, in order to highlight the aspects mostly investigated and more recent research perspectives. Finally, a case study in the Campania Region is presented in order to point out how traditional risk analyses, generally referred to individual hazards, can sometimes led to invest in the mobility network improvement or development which, targeted to increase the security of a territory result, on the opposite, in an increase of the territorial vulnerability.

  11. Mobile applications in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ann Chang; Endly, Dawnielle C; Henley, Jill; Amir, Mahsa; Sampson, Blake P; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2013-11-01

    With advancements in mobile technology, cellular phone-based mobile applications (apps) may be used in the practice and delivery of dermatologic care. To identify and categorize the variety of current mobile apps available in dermatology for patients and providers. Dermatology-related search terms were queried in the online app stores of the most commonly used mobile platforms developed by Apple, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, and Windows. Applications were assigned to categories based on description. Popularity, price, and reviews were recorded and target audiences were determined through websites offering online mobile apps. Number, type, and price of mobile apps in dermatology. A total of 229 dermatology-related apps were identified in the following categories: general dermatology reference (61 [26.6%]), self-surveillance/diagnosis (41 [17.9%]), disease guide (39 [17.0%]), educational aid (20 [8.7%]), sunscreen/UV recommendation (19 [8.3%]), calculator (12 [5.2%]), teledermatology (8 [3.5%]), conference (6 [2.6%]), journal (6 [2.6%]), photograph storage/sharing (5 [2.2%]), dermoscopy (2 [0.9%]), pathology (2 [0.9%]), and other (8 [3.5%]). The most reviewed apps included Ultraviolet ~ UV Index (355 reviews), VisualDx (306), SPF (128), iSore (61), and SpotMole (50). There were 209 unique apps, with 17 apps existing on more than 1 operating system. More than half of the apps were offered free of charge (117 [51.1%]). Paid apps (112 [48.9%]) ranged from $0.99 to $139.99 (median, $2.99). Target audiences included patient (117 [51.1%]), health care provider (94 [41.0%]), and both (18 [7.9%]). The widespread variety and popularity of mobile apps demonstrate a great potential to expand the practice and delivery of dermatologic care.

  12. MobilED: a mobile tools and services platform for formal and informal learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MobilED is a South African initiative aimed at designing teaching and learning environments that are meaningfully enhanced with mobile technologies and services. The deliverables are the development of a set of scenarios and guidelines on how mobile...

  13. Mobile Apps and Romanian Mobile Devices Users’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Filofteia TUTUNEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last years the development of mobile technologies generated the formation of a new segment of software industry dedicated to applications for mobile devices. At their turn, mobile apps created new tendencies in software development but also generated important revenues at the level of the specialized industry as well as at global level. From this perspective, the present article, on one hand, describes an image of the mobile infrastructure, mobile applications and their users, on the other hand, includes a study regarding Romanian users of mobile devices in order to identify the types of applications usually employed in mobile activities, the time dedicated to these activities, the number of downloaded applications and their cost levels. We consider that the results of this study may be useful to mobile app users and developers, and mobile device providers.

  14. Mobile phones, social ties, and collective action mobilization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    participants for protests, this study observes that mobile communication in China embodies guanxi, the indigenous social tie in Chinese society that introduces reciprocity as an influential facilitator of collective actions. The embedment of reciprocity facilitates the proliferation of mobilizing calls......To provide a better understanding of mobile phones as a recruitment tool in collective actions, this study explores the use of mobile phones for mobilizing protest in China. Using in-depth interviews and investigating four cases in which Chinese people employed mobile devices to recruit......, legitimizes mobilizing appeals, generates obligations and consolidates solidarity for collective actions. The study concludes with a consideration of the relevance of mobile phones for the embedment of reciprocity in social ties in the mobilization of collective action in authoritarian regimes such as China....

  15. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthi Jebaseeli Samuelraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6 is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node’s mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node’s mobility should be modified to support group nodes’ mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point.

  16. Mobile systems capability plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  17. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  18. [Mobility and balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katrin; Kressig, Reto W

    2008-08-01

    Quality of life is strongly associated with the mobility of elderly people. Falls often cause restricted mobility, a decline in activities of daily living and an increased risk of institutionalisation. Frailty, commonly associated with aging, is a biologic syndrome of decreased resistance to stressors, resulting from declines across multiple physiological systems. Changes in mobility and gait constitute part of the frailty syndrome. Since more than one third of persons over the age of 65 fall each year, prevention of falls is very important. Already while taking the patients' history special emphasis should be laid on matters associated with an increased risk of falling, such as the use of more than four medications. To assess mobility several brief tests exist (i.e. Timed up & go [17], Walking while Talking [20]) which immediately yield information regarding mobility and falling risk. Patients with poor performance on such tests or those with a history of several falls should undergo a spatio-temporal gait analysis in order to determine a possible cause as well as suitable interventions. Additionally, the objective measurement of temporo-spatial gait parameters under dual task conditions may detect deficits in cognitive function. Several interventions have been shown to have favourable effects on gait stability and the occurrence of falls. Proprioceptive problems can be partially compensated for by wearing special shoes. Also, different movement exercises such as Tai Chi Chuan, Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics and social dancing are associated with better balance and gait safety, and a reduction of falls.

  19. 'Kill' the messenger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer T.; Rasmussen, Niclas S; Heegaard, Niels H H

    2016-01-01

    Immune complex (IC) deposition in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a key early pathogenic event in lupus nephritis (LN). The clarification of the mechanisms behind IC deposition will enable targeted therapy in the future. Circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) have been proposed...... as major sources of extracellular autoantigens and ICs and triggers of autoimmunity in LN. The overabundance of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) along with immunoglobulins and a few other proteins specifically distinguish circulating MPs in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE...

  20. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.J.; Siersma, V.; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobility-related fatigue and low socioeconomic position predicts mobility limitations and disability in old age, but the interplay between these two factors is unknown. To evaluate whether mobility-related fatigue is a stronger risk factor for mobility limitations in certain...... estimating equations were performed using four waves of data on 2874 individuals without mobility limitations at baseline from The Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. RESULTS: Low socioeconomic position and mobility-related fatigue are risk factors for mobility limitations in old age...... category (high socioeconomic position and no fatigue) of -0.52, psocioeconomic position and -0.96, psocioeconomic position. CONCLUSIONS: Mobility-related fatigue is not a significantly stronger risk factor for subsequent mobility limitations among...

  1. Are mobile phones harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Berg, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data......There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal...... effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body...

  2. Intensities of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissell, David; Vannini, Phillip; Jensen, Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    to complex social and geographical dynamics of transport, housing, lifestyle, and employment. Yet, the experiential dimensions of long-distance commuting have not received the attention that they deserve within research on mobilities. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Australia, Canada, and Denmark...... this paper aims to further develop our collective understanding of the experiential particulars of long-distance workers or ‘supercommuters’. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in broad social patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions......This paper explores the intensities of long-distance commuting journeys in order to understand how bodily sensibilities become attuned to the regular mobilities which they undertake. More people are travelling farther to and from work than ever before, owing to a variety of factors which relate...

  3. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    Companies that wish to draw benefit from supplier resources beyond standard market offerings must actively make an effort to mobilize these resources. This task has been a major topic of interest in the management literature, but the continued reported problems of companies attempting to influence...... suppliers suggests that the knowledge of this challenge is yet inadequate. The purpose of this paper is therefore to establish a research agenda on supplier resource mobilization that can improve this knowledge. To fulfill the purpose we review the management literature and identify the most prevalent...... theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company...

  4. Graphene mobility mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-01-01

    Carrier mobility and chemical doping level are essential figures of merit for graphene, and large-scale characterization of these properties and their uniformity is a prerequisite for commercialization of graphene for electronics and electrodes. However, existing mapping techniques cannot directly...... assess these vital parameters in a non-destructive way. By deconvoluting carrier mobility and density from non-contact terahertz spectroscopic measurements of conductance in graphene samples with terahertz-transparent backgates, we are able to present maps of the spatial variation of both quantities over...... graphene indicates dominance by charged scatterers. Unexpectedly, significant variations in mobility rather than doping are the cause of large conductance inhomogeneities, highlighting the importance of statistical approaches when assessing large-area graphene transport properties....

  5. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  6. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings......Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  7. CCL20 and IL22 Messenger RNA Expression After Adalimumab vs Methotrexate Treatment of Psoriasis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldminz, Ari M; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Wang, Andrew C; Dumont, Nicole; Krueger, James G; Gottlieb, Alice B

    2015-08-01

    Methotrexate is a first-line systemic agent for treating of psoriasis, although its onset of effects is slower and overall it is less effective than tumor necrosis factor blockers. To differentiate the response of psoriatic disease to adalimumab and methotrexate sodium. Single-center, randomized, assessor-blind, 2-arm clinical trial of 30 patients from the outpatient dermatology center of Tufts Medical Center, enrolled from August 18, 2009, to October 11, 2011. Patients aged 18 to 85 years with chronic plaque-type psoriasis, a minimum Physician Global Assessment score of 3 (higher scores indicate more severe disease), and a psoriatic plaque of at least 2 cm were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to receive subcutaneous adalimumab or oral methotrexate. Skin biopsy specimens obtained at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, and 16 were given a histologic grade by blinded assessors to evaluate treatment response. Analyses were conducted from April 16, 2013, to January 5, 2015. A 16-week course of subcutaneous adalimumab (40 mg every 2 weeks after a loading dose) or low-dosage oral methotrexate sodium (7.5-25 mg/wk). Changes in genomic, immunohistochemical, and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles. Methotrexate responders experienced significant downregulation of helper T-cell-related (T(H)1, T(H)17, and T(H)22) mRNA expression compared with methotrexate nonresponders. Comparisons among adalimumab-treated patients were limited by the number of nonresponders (n = 1). Between adalimumab and methotrexate responders, we found no significant differences in gene expression at any study point or in the expression of T-cell-related mRNA at week 16. Adalimumab responders demonstrated early downregulation of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) mRNA (mean [SE] at week 2, -1.83 [0.52], P T-cell signaling in psoriasis. Similar genomic and immunohistochemical response signatures and levels of mRNA downregulation at study completion among adalimumab and methotrexate responders suggest a disease

  8. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury based on NASA MESSENGER images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, V.; Di Achille, G.; Ferranti, L.; Rothery, D. A.; Palumbo, P.

    The first stratigraphic and geologic study of Mercury was released by Trask & Guest (1975) followed by Spudis & Guest (1988, and references therein), whose work was based on the images taken by Mariner 10 covering 42% of the total surface of Mercury. The planet has been officially divided into fifteen quadrangles: 2 polar, 5 equatorial and 8 at midlatitudes. Quadrangle H2 (= Hermes sheet n.2), named ``Victoria'' (20oN - 65oN Lon.; 270oE - 0o Lat.), was partially mapped by McGill & King (1983), though a wide area (˜64%) remained unmapped due to the lack of imagery. Following the terrain units recognized and described by the above authors, we have produced a geologic map of the entire quadrangle using MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging) images. The images taken by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) allowed us to map geologic and tectonic features in much greater detail than the previously published map (mapping scale range between 1:300k and 1:600k). We classified craters larger than 20 km using three relative age classes, which are a simplification of the past five degradation classes defined by McCauley et al. (1981). Victoria quadrangle is characterized by a localized N-S thrust array constituted by Victoria Rupes, Endeavour Rupes and Antoniadi Dorsum to the East and by a more diffuse system of NE-SW oriented fault arrays to the West: the two systems seem to be separated by a tectonic bulge. The Victoria-Endeavour-Antoniadi system has been interpreted as a fold-and-thrust belt by Byrne et al. (2014) and a previous study made on craters cross-cut by its thrusts reveals fault dips of 15-20o and a near dip slip motion (Galluzzi et al., 2015). This geologic map has the aim to build a regional model of its structural framework. Deciphering the geological setting of this quadrangle will bring important insights for understanding the tectonic evolution of the whole planet

  9. The influence of dietary selenium on common indicators of selenium status and liver glutathione peroxidase-1 messenger ribonucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, G E; Rowntree, J E; Bondioli, K R; Southern, L L; Williams, C C

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the influence of dietary Se on various indicators of Se status and relative liver glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in growing Holstein bull calves. Calves (n = 14, 7/diet) were started 28 d after birth on a Se-adequate (SeA) or Se-deficient diet (SeD) and maintained on the diet until 180 d of age. Blood samples were taken from each calf for determination of erythrocyte GPx-1 and plasma GPx-3 activities and plasma Se concentration on d 28 of age, every 28 d thereafter, and at 180 d of age. To assess liver Se and GPx-1 mRNA, 3 calves were first killed at d 21 of age for baseline (BSL) measurements, and 4 calves from each treatment were killed at trial conclusion. Feed intake and ADG were not affected (P = 0.62) by dietary Se concentrations. However, liver Se concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for BSL calves and SeA calves than SeD calves, but no difference (P = 0.68) was observed between BSL calves and SeA calves. Plasma Se was greater for SeA calves (P < 0.01) than for SeD calves by d 56 of age. The GPx-1 activity was greater in SeA calves (P < 0.01) by d 84 of age, whereas GPx-3 activity was greater in SeA calves, but not until d 180 of age (P < 0.01). There was a 50% decrease in GPx-1 mRNA for the SeD calves (P < 0.05) compared with SeA calves. Thus, relative GPx-1 mRNA transcript level is reflective of Se status in the bovine. Furthermore, 152 d on a semi-purified, SeD diet is adequate to create a Se deficiency in growing Holstein bull calves started on a SeD diet at 28 d of age.

  10. Dexamethasone alters messenger RNA levels but not synthesis of collagens, fibronectin, or laminin by cultured rat fat-storing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, T; Schuppan, D; de Bleser, P J; Vrijsen, R; Pipeleers-Marichal, M; Beyaert, R; Wisse, E; Geerts, A

    1996-06-01

    Glucocorticoids have been shown to suppress collagen synthesis and gene expression by fibroblasts. However, little is known about their effects on fat-storing cells, the major matrix-producing cells in liver fibrosis. In this study we investigated the effect of dexamethasone on the extracellular matrix expression by cultured rat fat-storing cells. Fat-storing cells were isolated from male Wistar rats by collagenase/pronase digestion and purified by density gradient centrifugation. Fat-storing cells in early primary culture (3-day-old, representing a relatively quiescent phenotype) and in subculture (one passage, about 2-week-old, representing an activated phenotype) were treated with 10(-6) mol/L dexamethasone for messenger RNA (mRNA) study or with 10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L dexamethasone for protein study. Expression of collagen type I, III, IV, fibronectin, and laminin was analyzed at the mRNA level by Northern hybridization, and at the protein level by metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation. Dexamethasone had a variable effect on the expression of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA level. While a tendency for modest suppression was observed (5%-50%) in primary cells, the difference was not statistically significant. Variable response was observed in subcultured cells. Collagen alpha1(III) mRNA level showed a tendency for stimulation. Dexamethasone stimulated the expression of collagen alpha1 (IV), fibronectin, and laminin B1 mRNA levels by 1.4-, 2.4-, and 1.6-fold respectively, in primary fat-storing cells. Subcultured cells showed a similar response, but the magnitude of stimulation was more variable than that of primary cells. Unexpectedly, at the protein level dexamethasone had no effect on the expression of these proteins. Our results indicate that glucocorticoids do not possess a net suppressive effect on extracellular matrix synthesis by fat-storing cells. Beneficial effects of glucocorticoids may be attributable to other mechanisms of action, such as their anti

  11. Study of messenger RNA inactivation and protein degradation in an Escherichia coli cell-free expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireaux Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large amount of recombinant proteins can be synthesized in a few hours with Escherichia coli cell-free expression systems based on bacteriophage transcription. These cytoplasmic extracts are used in many applications that require large-scale protein production such as proteomics and high throughput techniques. In recent years, cell-free systems have also been used to engineer complex informational processes. These works, however, have been limited by the current available cell-free systems, which are not well adapted to these types of studies. In particular, no method has been proposed to increase the mRNA inactivation rate and the protein degradation rate in cell-free reactions. The construction of in vitro informational processes with interesting dynamics requires a balance between mRNA and protein synthesis (the source, and mRNA inactivation and protein degradation (the sink. Results Two quantitative studies are presented to characterize and to increase the global mRNA inactivation rate, and to accelerate the degradation of the synthesized proteins in an E. coli cell-free expression system driven by the endogenous RNA polymerase and sigma factor 70. The E. coli mRNA interferase MazF was used to increase and to adjust the mRNA inactivation rate of the Firefly luciferase (Luc and of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. Peptide tags specific to the endogenous E. coli AAA + proteases were used to induce and to adjust the protein degradation rate of eGFP. Messenger RNA inactivation rate, protein degradation rate, maturation time of Luc and eGFP were measured. Conclusions The global mRNA turnover and the protein degradation rate can be accelerated and tuned in a biologically relevant range in a cell-free reaction with quantitative procedures easy to implement. These features broaden the capabilities of cell-free systems with a better control of gene expression. This cell-free extract could find some applications in

  12. Reference genes for real-time PCR quantification of messenger RNAs and microRNAs in mouse model of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Hanušová, Veronika; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing health problem worldwide. Among other ways, nutritional intervention using phytochemicals is important method for treatment and prevention of this disease. Recent studies have shown that certain phytochemicals could alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity. For study of the obesity and its treatment, monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mice with developed central obesity, insulin resistance and liver lipid accumulation are frequently used animal models. To understand the mechanism of phytochemicals action in obese animals, the study of selected genes expression together with miRNA quantification is extremely important. For this purpose, real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and reproducible method, but it depends on proper normalization entirely. The aim of present study was to identify the appropriate reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in MSG mice treated with green tea catechins, potential anti-obesity phytochemicals. Two sets of reference genes were tested: first set contained seven commonly used genes for normalization of messenger RNA, the second set of candidate reference genes included ten small RNAs for normalization of miRNA. The expression stability of these reference genes were tested upon treatment of mice with catechins using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. Selected normalizers for mRNA quantification were tested and validated on expression of quinone oxidoreductase, biotransformation enzyme known to be modified by catechins. The effect of selected normalizers for miRNA quantification was tested on two obesity- and diabetes- related miRNAs, miR-221 and miR-29b, respectively. Finally, the combinations of B2M/18S/HPRT1 and miR-16/sno234 were validated as optimal reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in liver and 18S/RPlP0/HPRT1 and sno234/miR-186 in small intestine of MSG mice. These

  13. The Space Mobile Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David

    2017-01-01

    The definition and development of the next generation space communications and navigation architecture is underway. The primary goals are to remove communications and navigations constraints from missions and to enable increased autonomy. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) is an architectural concept that includes new technology and operations that will provide flight systems with an similar user experience to terrestrial wireless mobile networks. This talk will describe the SMN and its proposed new features, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN), optical communications, and User Initiated Services (UIS).

  14. To practice mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    Children’s perspectives are practically absent in new mobility studies. In this article, I wish to describe and analyze how a number of children handle having to move between homes, parents and siblings, and how they practically, emotionally and socially navigate in this changeable landscape. My...... aim is to explore mobility as an embodied and emotional practice in which children employ different strategies. I focus on bodily micro practices, routines and coping strategies, the intermediate space that occurs on their continual journeys, and the feeling of being dispensable. It is an ethnographic...

  15. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  16. Professional mobile application development

    CERN Document Server

    McWherter, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Create applications for all major smartphone platforms Creating applications for the myriad versions and varieties of mobile phone platforms on the market can be daunting to even the most seasoned developer. This authoritative guide is written in such as way that it takes your existing skills and experience and uses that background as a solid foundation for developing applications that cross over between platforms, thereby freeing you from having to learn a new platform from scratch each time. Concise explanations walk you through the tools and patterns for developing for all the mobile platfo

  17. Urban Mobility in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The April 2011 edition of Prakarsa has the theme “Urban Mobility”. In its pages you will find both an overview of the latest international approaches for achieving mobility and an examination of mobility issues in select Indonesian cities. Feature articles include “An Introduction to Urban Mobility” by Peter Midgley; “Freeing Jakarta From Gridlock” by Danang Parikesit; “The Surabaya Story: Problems and Solutions for Improving Urban Mobility” by William Vincent; and “Solving Bogor's ‘Angkot Pr...

  18. Mobile light in roses

    OpenAIRE

    Marissen, A.; Snel, J.F.H.; Elings, A.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to quantify the claimed differences between mobile and static lighting, and to clarify the mechanisms causing these differences, an experiment with rose `First Red¿ was carried out. In a greenhouse compartment half of the area was equipped with mobile lamps, and the other half with static lamps. By mounting the lamps in the centre of the greenhouse, a light gradient was achieved in both treatments. Experimental plots were chosen with daily light integrals of 1 to 3 and 3 to 5 mol m-2...

  19. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  20. Mobile network maintenance (GSM)

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN mobile network infrastructure (GSM) on the 23 and 24 July from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in order to replace discontinued equipment and to increase the bandwidth capacity of the GSM mobile network. All CERN GSM emitters (40 units) will be moved one by one to the new infrastructure during the maintenance. The call of a user connected to an emitter at the time of its maintenance will be cut off. However, the general overlapping of the GSM radio coverage should mean that users are able immediately to call again should their call be interrupted. IT/CS/CS

  1. Lazy Mobile Intruders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    We present a new technique for analyzing platforms that execute potentially malicious code, such as web-browsers, mobile phones, or virtualized infrastructures. Rather than analyzing given code, we ask what code an intruder could create to break a security goal of the platform. To avoid searching...... a small, abstract formalism that models the essence of mobile code. We provide a decision procedure for security against arbitrary intruder ambients when the honest ambients can only perform a bounded number of steps and without path constraints in communication....

  2. Segway robotic mobility platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Morrell, John; Mullens, Katherine D.; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Miles, Susan; Farrington, Nathan; Thomas, Kari M.; Gage, Douglas W.

    2004-12-01

    The Segway Robotic Mobility Platform (RMP) is a new mobile robotic platform based on the self-balancing Segway Human Transporter (HT). The Segway RMP is faster, cheaper, and more agile than existing comparable platforms. It is also rugged, has a small footprint, a zero turning radius, and yet can carry a greater payload. The new geometry of the platform presents researchers with an opportunity to examine novel topics, including people-height sensing and actuation modalities. This paper describes the history and development of the platform, its characteristics, and a summary of current research projects involving the platform at various institutions across the United States.

  3. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host...... of significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies...

  4. An electromagnetic perpetuum mobile?

    OpenAIRE

    Grøn, Øyvind; Næss, Sigurd Kirkevold

    2008-01-01

    A charge moving freely in orbit around the Earth radiates according to Larmor's formula. If the path is closed, it would constitute a perpetuum mobile. The solution to this energy paradox is found in an article by C. M. DeWitt and B. DeWitt from 1964. The main point is that the equation of motion of a radiating charge is modified in curved spacetime. In the present article we explain the physics behind this modification, and use the generalized equation to solve the perpetuum mobile paradox.

  5. Protocols in Mobile Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vivek B. Patil; Mr.Deepak G. Awate

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-commerce, also known by other terms such as M-Commerce or m-Commerce, is the capability to follow commerce with the help of a hand held devise like mobile phone, a Personal digital assistant PDA, a smart phone, or other emerging mobile equipment such as dash top mobile devices. Since decade Mobile-commerce is being expressed as follows: Mobile-commerce is where any transaction, involving the transfer of rights or ownership to use goods and services, which is initialized and/or processe...

  6. Instant XenMobile MDM

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhani, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written in a user friendly style, this guide will get readers up and running with XenMobile MDM.If you want to run your mobile enterprises on XenMobile, or work on a BYOD strategy within your organization, then this is the ideal book for you. XenMobile MDM comprehensively explores how to set up and use XenMobile to provision, secure, and manage mobile devices.

  7. Injury-Activated TGFβ Controls Mobilization of MSCs for Tissue Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mei; Li, Changjun; Zhen, Gehua; Jiao, Kai; He, Wenying; Jia, Xiaofeng; Wang, Weishan; Shi, Chenhui; Xing, Qiujuan; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Jan De Beur, Suzanne; Yu, Bing; Cao, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Upon secretion, transforming growth factor (TGF) β is maintained in a sequestered state in extracellular matrix as a latent form. The latent TGFβ is considered as a molecular sensor that releases active TGFβ in response to the perturbations of the extracellular matrix at the situations of mechanical stress, wound repair, tissue injury, and inflammation. The biological implication of the temporal discontinuity of TGFβ storage in the matrix and its activation is obscure. Here, using several animal models in which latent TGFβ is activated in vascular matrix in response to injury of arteries, we show that active TGFβ controls the mobilization and recruitment of (messenchymal stem cells) MSCs to participate in tissue repair and remodeling. MSCs were mobilized into the peripheral blood in response to vascular injury and recruited to the injured sites where they gave rise to both endothelial cells for reendothelialization and myofibroblastic cells to form thick neointima. TGFβ were activated in the vascular matrix in both rat and mouse models of mechanical injury of arteries. Importantly, the active TGFβ released from the injured vessels is essential to induce the migration of MSCs, and cascade expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) stimulated by TGFβ amplifies the signal for migration. Moreover, sustained high levels of active TGFβ were observed in peripheral blood, and at the same time points following injury, Sca1+CD29+CD11b−CD45− MSCs, in which 91% are nestin+ cells, were mobilized to peripheral blood and recruited to the remodeling arteries. Intravenously injection of recombinant active TGFβ1 in uninjured mice rapidly mobilized MSCs into circulation. Further, inhibitor of TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) blocked the mobilization and recruitment of MSCs to the injured arteries. Thus, TGFβ is an injury-activated messenger essential for the mobilization and recruitment of MSCs to participate in tissue repair/remodeling. PMID:22911900

  8. Mobile Service Platform: A Middleware for Nomadic Mobile Service Provisioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halteren, Aart; Pawar, P.

    Nowadays mobile devices are characterized by higher processing power, lower costs, multiple network interfaces, ability to support multiple auxiliary devices and connect to the Internet using a wireless network. The applications collecting statistics concerning the mobile user, computational and

  9. Mobile agents basic concepts, mobility models, and the tracy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mobile agents are software nomads that act as your personal representative, working autonomously through networks. They are able to visit network nodes directly using available computing power and are not limited by platform. This emerging field is now poised to become a cornerstone for new Web-based ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile Agents provides a practical introduction to mobile agent technology and surveys the state of the art in mobile agent research. Students and researchers can use the book as an introduction to the concepts and possibilities of this field and as an overview of ongoing research. Developers can use it to identify the capabilities of the technology to decide if mobile agents are the right solution for them. Practioners can also gain hands-on experience in programming mobile agents through exploration of the source code for a complete mobile agent environment available through the companion website.*Summarizes the state of the art in mobile agent research*Identifies the benefits...

  10. On the extent of researcher mobility and indicators for mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, S.; Baard, P.; Karlsson, S.; Jacobsson, C.; Tumpane, J.

    2016-07-01

    Researchers' mobility is significant for the quality of research, although mobility does not necessarily have an intrinsic value. Sweden appears to have a lover degree of mobility when compared to a selection of successful research countries. The Swedish Research Council shall, according to the instruction from the government , promote researcher mobility. This study explores job-mobility within the Swedish academic system based on register studies and draw some conclusions on the degree of mobility in different different disciplines, differences between men and women as well as on the development of comprehensive and easy to follow indicators for mobility. The study intends to provide support for recommendations on researcher mobility within the Research Council's overarching goal to promote excellence in research. (Author)

  11. Postprandial increase of oleoylethanolamide mobilization in small intestine of the Burmese python (Python molurus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astarita, Giuseppe; Rourke, Bryan C; Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm

    2006-01-01

    to the induction of between-meal satiety. Here we examined whether feeding-induced OEA mobilization also occurs in Burmese pythons (Python molurus), a species of ambush-hunting snakes that consumes huge meals after months of fasting and undergoes massive feeding-dependent changes in gastrointestinal hormonal...... release and gut morphology. Using liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (LC/MS), we measured OEA levels in the gastrointestinal tract of fasted (28 days) and fed (48h after feeding) pythons. We observed a nearly 300-fold increase in OEA levels in the small intestine of fed compared to fasted animals......-unsaturated, but not polyunsaturated fatty-acid ethanolamides (FAE) in the small intestine of fed pythons. The identification of OEA and other FAEs in the gastrointestinal tract of Python molurus suggests that this class of lipid messengers may be widespread among vertebrate groups and may represent an evolutionarily ancient means...

  12. Birds, Messages and Messengers in the Lais of Marie de France: “Matière de Bretagne” and/or Troubadour Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgorukova Natalia Mikhailovna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the three of Marie de France’s lais in which birds, messages and messengers play an important role. The influence of “Matière de Bretagne” over these lais is obvious. However, troubadours’ lyrics have an influence on Marie de France’s Lais as much as “Matière de Bretagne”. Very often themes from “Matière de Bretagne” and themes from Occitan poetry overlap each other forming a bizarre fusion in her lais.

  13. MobilED: a step backwards to look ahead

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Den Berg, M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available of technology development and the widespread integration of the device in social and cultural practices (Kress & Pachler, 2007), has created unique opportunities for educators, researchers and practitioners. Mobile learning has developed from a few small scale... only ever reach a small fraction of them, while the network of invisible computers continues its exponential penetration into those same regions, below the radar(Selanikio, 2008). MobilED (Mobile Education) (2005) started as an international...

  14. Mobile Agents Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  15. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book demonstrates that mobillity reseacch is a key issue within social enquiry and brings together the latest interdisciplinary theoretivcally approaches with empirical case studies. The book is a result of research from FLUX - Centre of Transport Research at Roskilde University....

  16. Mobility and emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global mobility has directed attention to the self-initiated relocation of workers from one country to another. However, not all individuals are equally suited to start up a new life in another country, and self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) could be particularly vulnerable due to havin...

  17. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  18. Learning to Be Mobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    As an antidote to the fixation with automobility, cycling and other such highly mobile ‘carbon neutral’ leisure activities are the focus of recent studies that use mobile ‘travelling with’ methods such as the ‘ride along’ or headcam POV video technology with post-ride debriefing. Much of this cre......As an antidote to the fixation with automobility, cycling and other such highly mobile ‘carbon neutral’ leisure activities are the focus of recent studies that use mobile ‘travelling with’ methods such as the ‘ride along’ or headcam POV video technology with post-ride debriefing. Much...... of this creative cyclomobility research focuses on adult cycling or more extreme sports, such as BMX trials or mountain biking. There is, however, little qualitative research to date on family bike rides, eg. how children learn to sit in or ride a bike and how parents or caregivers talk and interact with children...... are presented and discussed: 1) riding/talk formations; 2) stretchy participation frameworks; 3) navigating static and moving obstacles; 4) situated noticings: 5) learning safe riding; and 6) negotiating the appropriate road conduct of other road users....

  19. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  20. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.