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Sample records for hw sw cpr

  1. The Importance of Interfaces: A HW/SW Codesign Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan C. Raun; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a codesign case study in image analysis. The main objective is to stress the importance of handling HW/SW interfaces more precisely at the system level. In the presented case study, there is an intuitive and simple HW/SW interface, which is based upon the functional modules...

  2. Speculative dynamic vectorization to assist static vectorization in a HW/SW co-designed environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R.; Martinez, A.; Gonzalez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Compiler based static vectorization is used widely to extract data level parallelism from computation intensive applications. Static vectorization is very effective in vectorizing traditional array based applications. However, compilers inability to reorder ambiguous memory references severely limits vectorization opportunities, especially in pointer rich applications. HW/SW co-designed processors provide an excellent opportunity to optimize the applications at runtime. The availability of dy...

  3. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustache Yvan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  4. Reconfiguration Management in the Context of RTOS-Based HW/SW Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Eustache

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a safe and efficient solution to manage asynchronous configurations of dynamically reconfigurable systems-on-chip. We first define our unified RTOS-based framework for HW/SW task communication and configuration management. Then three issues are discussed and solutions are given: the formalization of configuration space modeling including its different dimensions, the synchronization of configuration that mainly addresses the question of task configuration ordering, and the configuration coherency that solves the way a task accepts a new configuration. Finally, we present the global method and give some implementation figures from a smart camera case study.

  5. A HW-SW Co-Designed System for the Lunar Lander Hazard Detection and Avoidance Breadboarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Pedro; Latorre, Antonio; Valle, Carlos; Gomez de Aguero, Sergio; Hagenfeldt, Miguel; Parreira, Baltazar; Lindoso, Almudena; Portela, Marta; Garcia, Mario; San Millan, Enrique; Zharikov, Yuri; Entrena, Luis

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the HW-SW co-design approach followed to tackle the design of the Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) system breadboarding for the Lunar Lander ESA mission, undertaken given the fact that novel GNC technologies used to promote autonomous systems demand processing capabilities that current (and forthcoming) space processors are not able to satisfy. The paper shows how the current system design has been performed in a process in which the original HDA functionally validated design has been partitioned between SW (deemed for execution in a microprocessor) and HW algorithms (to be executed in an FPGA), considering the performance requirements and resorting to a deep analysis of the algorithms in view of their adequacy to HW or SW implementation.

  6. USB HW/SW Co-Simulation Environment with Custom Test Tool Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor Y. Zargaryan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new verification environment for USB 2.0 controller. New methodology is presented, where a co-simulation environment is used as one of the starting points for the embedded hardware/software development and as an accelerator of the overall design process. The verification environment is based on the device emulation/virtualization technique, using USB controller’s real register transfer level (RTL instead of models. This approach is functionally very close to the corresponding real-world devices and allows wider opportunities for hardware debugging. The new software utilities for USB host and device functionality testing are also presented. This tool allows generating custom tests by including various transfer types and modifying parameters such as data payload, interval, number of pipes, etc. It can be used for both hardware (HW and software (SW limitations characterization, as well as debugging.

  7. Use of Student Experiments for Teaching Embedded Software Development Including HW/SW Co-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, H.; Kambe, H.; Koizumi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded systems have been applied widely, not only to consumer products and industrial machines, but also to new applications such as ubiquitous or sensor networking. The increasing role of software (SW) in embedded system development has caused a great demand for embedded SW engineers, and university education for embedded SW engineering has…

  8. Simulator with integrated HW and SW for prediction of thermal comfort to provide feedback to the climate control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jan; Kopečková, Barbora; Fišer, Jan; JÍcha, Miroslav

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to assemble a simulator for evaluation of thermal comfort in car cabins in order to give a feedback to the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system. The HW (hardware) part of simulator is formed by thermal manikin Newton and RH (relative humidity), velocity and temperature probes. The SW (software) part consists of the Thermal Comfort Analyser (using ISO 14505-2) and Virtual Testing Stand of Car Cabin defining the heat loads of car cabin. Simulator can provide recommendation for the climate control how to improve thermal comfort in cabin by distribution and directing of air flow, and also by amount of ventilation power to keep optimal temperature inside a cabin. The methods of evaluation of thermal comfort were verified by tests with 10 test subjects for summer (summer clothing, ambient air temperature 30 °C, HVAC setup: +24 °C auto) and winter conditions (winter clothing, ambient air temperature -5 °C, HVAC setup: +18 °C auto). The tests confirmed the validity of the thermal comfort evaluation using the thermal manikin and ISO 14505-2.

  9. Simulator with integrated HW and SW for prediction of thermal comfort to provide feedback to the climate control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorný Jan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assemble a simulator for evaluation of thermal comfort in car cabins in order to give a feedback to the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning system. The HW (hardware part of simulator is formed by thermal manikin Newton and RH (relative humidity, velocity and temperature probes. The SW (software part consists of the Thermal Comfort Analyser (using ISO 14505-2 and Virtual Testing Stand of Car Cabin defining the heat loads of car cabin. Simulator can provide recommendation for the climate control how to improve thermal comfort in cabin by distribution and directing of air flow, and also by amount of ventilation power to keep optimal temperature inside a cabin. The methods of evaluation of thermal comfort were verified by tests with 10 test subjects for summer (summer clothing, ambient air temperature 30 °C, HVAC setup: +24 °C auto and winter conditions (winter clothing, ambient air temperature -5 °C, HVAC setup: +18 °C auto. The tests confirmed the validity of the thermal comfort evaluation using the thermal manikin and ISO 14505-2.

  10. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  11. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  12. CPR - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartbeat has stopped. This may happen after an electric shock , drowning, or heart attack. CPR involves: Rescue ... to swim. Teach your child to watch for cars and ride bikes safely. Teach your child firearm ...

  13. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  14. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  15. Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haili Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine (SW is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08 could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1 increased their body weights; (2 showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3 decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4 reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning.

  16. GPS pro výukovou HW/SW platformu

    OpenAIRE

    Pajgrt, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    Práce se zabývá popisem spojení výukové platformy FITkit s GPS modulem. Seznámíme se v ní s problematikou systému GPS z teoretického i praktického hlediska, s výukovou platformou FITkit a jejím obecným využitím.Také podrobně popisuje spojení těchto dvou systémů ve spolupracující celek. Rozebírá též různé komunikační rozhraní a protokoly, které byly pro toto spojení využity. Ve druhé části práce je pak uveden postup zpracovávání dat od GPS modulu až po výsledné zobrazení na monitoru, samotná i...

  17. CPR (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain, and other organs and restoring breathing until advanced life support can be given by health care providers. About CPR CPR (or cardiopulmonary resuscitation ) is a combination of chest compressions and rescue ...

  18. Hands-Only CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Schools Training Kits RQI AHA Blended Learning & eLearning Guide AHA Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR ... In Schools Training Kits RQI AHA Blended Learning & eLearning Guide AHA Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR ...

  19. CPR Facts and Stats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Schools Training Kits RQI AHA Blended Learning & eLearning Guide AHA Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR ... In Schools Training Kits RQI AHA Blended Learning & eLearning Guide AHA Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR ...

  20. CPR Education before Internship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ashoorion

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The importance of training basic and advanced life support for undergraduates and graduated physicians are now widely recognized. Graduates of medical schools in Iran immediately get license to practice medicine without any supervision. Therefore,Clarification of the best phases for training CPR and the optimum mastery level in each phase is very important. This study is an attempt to find out the ideas of stakeholders about training CPR beforeinternship, the experience needed at the beginning of internship, the best phase for training it and the assessment method.Methods: It is a survey study designed in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences to investigate the opinions of head-nurses, interns, residents and educational directors (in ten clinical departments/wards about training CPR before internship. Respondents completed self administered anonymous questionnaires. The questionnaires’ items covered opinions of respondents about CPR as interns’ duty, level of experience; best course for training and the assessment method. Meanwhile, views of participants were compared against educational directors’ idea by Fisher exact test.Results:32 head-nurse, 285 interns, 13 resident and15 educational directors participated in the study and all agreed with CPR as interns’ duty in all clinical wards. Although, directors had different idea about level of experience for CPR to be achieved by interns, residents suggested level 3 of experience. According to the results externship is the best phase for CPR training and combination of observation and OSCE suggested as the best assessment method.Conclusion: To prepare the graduates achieving full competency in CPR performance, it is needed to implement training programs before internship. Internship is the best phase for getting expertise in CPR. Based on the results CPR considered as interns’ responsibility and medical schools should feel confidence about the competency ofinterns

  1. The development of CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart

    2008-10-17

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is now the standard treatment for someone having a cardiac arrest. It is, however, a procedure that has emerged only relatively recently. For a number of scientific and religious reasons, it was long considered impossible, even blasphemous, to attempt to reverse 'death'. Because of these factors, the area of resuscitation failed to progress until the Enlightenment in the 18th Century. The main elements of resuscitation were then developed over the next 200 years, and eventually brought together to create CPR in the early 1960s. The increased demands that morality was seen to place on the medical profession to combat sudden cardiac death subsequent to this development may have been an important factor in why CPR has come to be used in the widespread manner it currently is.

  2. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automated external defibrillator ( ... and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacotherapy In Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNAYDIN, Berrin

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is defined as cessation of cardiac mechanical activity. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through several maneuvers and techniques. Although the two interventions, which are competent basic life support and prompt defibrillation, improve the survival rate, several adjuvant cardiac medication drugs are advocated to treat cardiac arrest during advanced cardiac life support. Since the introduction of modern CPR there have been man...

  4. Mechanical CPR: Who? When? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kurtis; Couper, Keith; Smyth, Michael A; Yeung, Joyce; Perkins, Gavin D

    2018-05-29

    In cardiac arrest, high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key determinant of patient survival. However, delivery of effective chest compressions is often inconsistent, subject to fatigue and practically challenging.Mechanical CPR devices provide an automated way to deliver high-quality CPR. However, large randomised controlled trials of the routine use of mechanical devices in the out-of-hospital setting have found no evidence of improved patient outcome in patients treated with mechanical CPR, compared with manual CPR. The limited data on use during in-hospital cardiac arrest provides preliminary data supporting use of mechanical devices, but this needs to be robustly tested in randomised controlled trials.In situations where high-quality manual chest compressions cannot be safely delivered, the use of a mechanical device may be a reasonable clinical approach. Examples of such situations include ambulance transportation, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, as a bridge to extracorporeal CPR and to facilitate uncontrolled organ donation after circulatory death.The precise time point during a cardiac arrest at which to deploy a mechanical device is uncertain, particularly in patients presenting in a shockable rhythm. The deployment process requires interruptions in chest compression, which may be harmful if the pause is prolonged. It is recommended that use of mechanical devices should occur only in systems where quality assurance mechanisms are in place to monitor and manage pauses associated with deployment.In summary, mechanical CPR devices may provide a useful adjunct to standard treatment in specific situations, but current evidence does not support their routine use.

  5. Perception of CPR quality: Influence of CPR feedback, Just-in-Time CPR training and provider role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pCPR quality was poor for chest compression depth (0-13%), rate (5-46%) and chest compression fraction (60-63%). Perception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Run-Time HW/SW Scheduling of Data Flow Applications on Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari Fakhreddine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient dynamic and run-time Hardware/Software scheduling approach. This scheduling heuristic consists in mapping online the different tasks of a highly dynamic application in such a way that the total execution time is minimized. We consider soft real-time data flow graph oriented applications for which the execution time is function of the input data nature. The target architecture is composed of two processors connected to a dynamically reconfigurable hardware accelerator. Our approach takes advantage of the reconfiguration property of the considered architecture to adapt the treatment to the system dynamics. We compare our heuristic with another similar approach. We present the results of our scheduling method on several image processing applications. Our experiments include simulation and synthesis results on a Virtex V-based platform. These results show a better performance against existing methods.

  7. Reconfigurable Computing Platforms and Target System Architectures for Automatic HW/SW Compilation

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Embedded systems found their way into all areas of technology and everyday life, from transport systems, facility management, health care, to hand-held computers and cell phones as well as television sets and electric cookers. Modern fabrication techniques enable the integration of such complex sophisticated systems on a single chip (System-on-Chip, SoC). In many cases, a high processing power is required at predetermined, often limited energy budgets. To adjust the processing power even more...

  8. Low-Cost Super-Resolution Algorithms Implementation Over a HW/SW Video Compression Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llopis Rafael Peset

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches are presented in this paper to improve the quality of digital images over the sensor resolution using super-resolution techniques: iterative super-resolution (ISR and noniterative super-resolution (NISR algorithms. The results show important improvements in the image quality, assuming that sufficient sample data and a reasonable amount of aliasing are available at the input images. These super-resolution algorithms have been implemented over a codesign video compression platform developed by Philips Research, performing minimal changes on the overall hardware architecture. In this way, a novel and feasible low-cost implementation has been obtained by using the resources encountered in a generic hybrid video encoder. Although a specific video codec platform has been used, the methodology presented in this paper is easily extendable to any other video encoder architectures. Finally a comparison in terms of memory, computational load, and image quality for both algorithms, as well as some general statements about the final impact of the sampling process on the quality of the super-resolved (SR image, are also presented.

  9. Design of A Development Platform for HW/SW Codesign of Wireless IOntegrated Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Wireless integrated sensor networks are a new class of embedded computer systems which have been made possible mainly by the recent advances in the micro and the nano technology. In order to efficiently utilize the limited resources available on a sensor node, we need to optimize its key design...... parameters which is only possible by making system-level design decisions about its hardware and software (operating system and applications) architecture. In this paper, we present the design of a sensor node development platform in relation to an application of wireless integrated sensor networks for sow...

  10. Dispatcher instruction of chest compression-only CPR increases actual provision of bystander CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Tomonari; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Sakai, Tomohiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    A preceding randomized controlled trial demonstrated that chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction by dispatcher was more effective to increase bystander CPR than conventional CPR instruction. However, the actual condition of implementation of each type of dispatcher instruction (chest compression-only CPR [CCCPR] or conventional CPR with rescue breathing) and provision of bystander CPR in real prehospital settings has not been sufficiently investigated. This registry prospectively enrolled patients aged =>18 years suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of non-traumatic causes before emergency-medical-service (EMS) arrival, who were considered as target subjects of dispatcher instruction, resuscitated by EMS personnel, and transported to medical institutions in Osaka, Japan from January 2005 through December 2012. The primary outcome measure was provision of CPR by a bystander. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors that were potentially associated with provision of bystander CPR. Among 37,283 target subjects of dispatcher instruction, 5743 received CCCPR instruction and 13,926 received conventional CPR instruction. The proportion of CCCPR instruction increased from 5.7% in 2005 to 25.6% in 2012 (p for trend bystander CPR more frequently than conventional CPR instruction group (70.0% versus 62.1%, pbystander CPR compared with conventional CPR instruction (adjusted odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.34-1.55). CCCPR dispatcher instruction among adult OHCA patients significantly increased the actual provision of bystander CPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing CPR training: The willingness of teaching credential candidates to provide CPR in a school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Jack L; Fischbach, Ronald; Spinello, Elio F

    2009-12-01

    The study explores the anticipated willingness of teacher credential candidates at one California public university in the U.S. to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO) skills in a school setting. Objectives included (1) identifying reasons that credential candidates would elect or decline to perform CPR, (2) assisting schools to remediate cardiac/respiratory emergency preparedness, and (3) assessing CPR training courses to determine how they may influence teachers' willingness to perform CPR. Participants included 582 teacher credential candidates, who were 95.2% of those surveyed after completion of a health science course and CPR certification. Participants described their attitudes regarding the importance of CPR, the CPR training course, and their willingness to perform CPR in a school environment. Based upon chi-square analysis, an association was found between the willingness to perform CPR and the presence of any one concern regarding training, with 68.6% of those expressing concerns willing to perform CPR compared to 81.9% of those expressing no concerns (pteachers (76.9% vs. 43.5%, pteachers' willingness to perform CPR. Recommendations based on these findings include pedagogical changes to CPR curricula, focusing on the importance of CPR as a teacher skill and additional time for hands-on practice. Future research should include U.S. and international participants from a broader geographic area and assessment of both learning and affective outcomes.

  12. Reliability measures of a computer system with priority to PM over the H/W repair activities subject to MOT and MRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the evaluation of reliability measures of a computer system of two-identical units having independent failure of h/w and s/w components. Initially one unit is operative and the other is kept as spare in cold standby. There is a single server visiting the system immediately whenever needed. The server conducts preventive maintenance of the unit after a maximum operation time. If server is unable to repair the h/w components in maximum repair time, then components in the unit are replaced immediately by new one. However, only replacement of the s/w components has been made at their failure. The priority is given to the preventive maintenance over repair activities of the h/w. The time to failure of the components follows negative exponential distribution whereas the distribution of preventive maintenance, repair and replacement time are taken as arbitrary. The expressions for some important reliability measures of system effectiveness have been derived using semi-Markov process and regenerative point technique. The graphical behavior of the results has also been shown for a particular case.

  13. Learn CPR You Can Do It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first aid training. Please try to attend a CPR training course in your community and help save a life. Francais Español ... Life Sciences Discovery Fund © 1998 - 2010 Learn CPR . All Rights Reserved. Replication of any of the ...

  14. CPR: A Real Lifesaver (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español CPR: A Real Lifesaver KidsHealth / For Kids / CPR: A Real Lifesaver What's in this article? ...

  15. Does Non-Targeted Community CPR Training Increase Bystander CPR Frequency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Amy; Sadler, Richard C; Chassee, Todd; Reynolds, Joshua C

    2018-05-01

    Only 37% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) receive bystander Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Kent County, MI. In May 2014, prehospital providers offered one-time, point-of-contact compression-only CPR training to 2,253 passersby at 7 public locations in Grand Rapids, Michigan. To assess the impact of this intervention, we compared bystander CPR frequency and clinical outcomes in regions surrounding training sites before and after the intervention, adjusting for prehospital covariates. We aimed to assess the effect of this broad, non-targeted intervention on bystander CPR frequency, type of CPR utilized, and clinical outcomes. We also tested for differences in geospatial variation of bystander CPR and clinical outcomes clustered around training sites. Retrospective, observational, before-after study of adult, EMS-treated OHCA in Kent County from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. We generated a 5-kilometer radius surrounding each training site to estimate any geospatial influence that training sites might have on bystander CPR frequency in nearby OHCA cases. Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, and t-tests assessed differences in subject features. Difference-in-differences analysis with generalized estimating equation (GEE) modeling assessed bystander CPR frequency, adjusting for training site, covariates (age, sex, witnessed, shockable rhythm, public location), and clustering around training sites. Similar modeling tested for changes in bystander CPR type, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital discharge, and cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1-2 at hospital discharge. We included 899 cases before and 587 cases post-intervention. Overall, we observed no increase in the frequency of bystander CPR or favorable clinical outcomes. We did observe an increase in compression-only CPR, but this was paradoxically restricted to OHCA cases falling outside radii around training sites. In adjusted modeling, the bystander CPR training

  16. Compression-only CPR training in elementary schools and student attitude toward CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Murakami, Yukiko; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Nakai, Shohei; Hamanishi, Masayoshi; Marukawa, Seishiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Iwami, Taku

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of systematic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training for elementary school children. We introduced systematic training of chest compression-only CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) use to elementary school students aged 10-12 years at 17 schools. The questionnaire compared student attitudes towards CPR and their knowledge about it before and after CPR training. We also evaluated parent and teacher views about CPR training in school education. The primary outcome was positive attitude, defined as "yes" and "maybe yes" on a 5 point Likert-type scale of student attitudes towards CPR.1 RESULTS: A total of 2047 elementary school students received CPR training. Of them, 1899 (92.8%) responded to the questionnaire regarding their attitude towards CPR before and after the training. Before training, 50.2% answered "yes" and 30.3% answered "maybe yes", to the question: "If someone suddenly collapses in front of you, can you do something such as check response or call emergency?" After training, their answers changed to 75.6% and 18.3% for "yes" and "maybe yes", respectively. Many of the students (72.3%, 271/370) who did not have a positive attitude before CPR training had a positive attitude after the training (P CPR (97.7%) and use an AED (98.5%). Parents (96.2%, 1173/1220) and teachers (98.3%, 56/57) answered that it was "good" and "maybe good" for children to receive the training at elementary schools. Systematic chest compression-only CPR training helped elementary school students to improve their attitude towards CPR. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they have not already. See www. ...

  18. Prediction of Recovery from Coma After CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to pain. There is good evidence* that myoclonus status epilepticus within the first day after CPR accurately predicts poor recovery from coma. Myoclonus status epilepticus is a constant twitching of muscles, including the ...

  19. Screening of degradative plasmids from Arthrobacter sp. HW08 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Media were solidified, if necessary, by the addition of 15 g agar ... genome extraction reagent kit, plasmid DNA fast extraction kit and. DNA segments ... spectrophotometer (Spectronic Instruments, Rochester, NY) and. SW content .... cultivation on LB slant for 100 times at 30 °C for 2 days, it was found that ...

  20. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-06-05

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystander CPR region using data on adult, bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac etiology (n=7175) from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. We then surveyed adult Victorians (n=404) and compared CPR training data of the respondents from low and high bystander CPR regions. Of the 404 adults surveyed, 223 (55%) resided in regions with low bystander CPR. Compared with respondents from high bystander CPR regions, respondents residing in regions with low bystander CPR had lower rates of CPR training (62% versus 75%, P =0.009) and lower self-ratings for their overall knowledge of CPR (76% versus 84%, P =0.04). There were no differences between the regions in their reasons for not having undergone CPR training or in their willingness to perform CPR. Rates of survival for bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly lower in low bystander CPR regions (15.7% versus 17.0%, P CPR training and lower survival in regions with lower rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. Targeting these regions with CPR training programs may improve bystander CPR rates and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  1. A tribute to H.W. van der Merwe: Peace builder, colleague, and friend

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Centre for Conflict Resolution at the University of Cape Town) for 21 years, where the main focus of his work and H.W. van der Merwe's was conflict and peace studies (CAPS). (More about him on the first page of his article in this issue.) A tribute to H.W. van der Merwe: Peace builder, colleague, and friend. Ampie Muller* ...

  2. Applying CPR to a gas utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, R.

    1995-01-01

    The latest management tool to hit the United States over the past five years is Core Process Re-engineering (CPR). Though not as radical a procedure as the well-known rescue method it shares an abbreviation with, it is viewed as the radical thinking of a business process. CPR has helped breathe new life into gas and electric utilities in recent years, which have been using it to find ways to increase customer satisfaction, decrease operating costs, reduce process time and/or increase quality. The first phase of a typical project identifies and reviews current processes and obtains information that can point out re-engineering opportunities. The second phase involves the actual redesign of the current process. In this phase new teams may be formed, since the skill requirements are different (creative thinking becomes very important, for instance). Once alternatives are finalized and approved, the actual change process begins. Implementing all the recommendations can take several years, primarily because of labor and regulatory implications; therefore, planning the implementation is the most important part of the project. First, develop an overall implementation strategy. This overall strategy should address four major questions: What to implement? Who will implement? When to implement? How to implement? CPR is not an automatic solution to a problem. Any company wanting to expedite a CPR effort should consider the following factors: Align the CPR objectives to the overall company objectives; Ensure that senior management is actively involved and supports the CPR activities; Select the right team of people and ensure they are committed to the project; Develop a case for change and instill a sense of urgency in all the stakeholders; Focus on business results and not on specific activities; and Communicate, communicate, communicate

  3. Using High-Level RTOS Models for HW/SW Embedded Architecture Exploration: Case Study on Mobile Robotic Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdier François

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We are interested in the design of a system-on-chip implementing the vision system of a mobile robot. Following a biologically inspired approach, this vision architecture belongs to a larger sensorimotor loop. This regulation loop both creates and exploits dynamics properties to achieve a wide variety of target tracking and navigation objectives. Such a system is representative of numerous flexible and dynamic applications which are more and more encountered in embedded systems. In order to deal with all of the dynamic aspects of these applications, it appears necessary to embed a dedicated real-time operating system on the chip. The presence of this on-chip custom executive layer constitutes a major scientific obstacle in the traditional hardware and software design flows. Classical exploration and simulation tools are particularly inappropriate in this case. We detail in this paper the specific mechanisms necessary to build a high-level model of an embedded custom operating system able to manage such a real-time but flexible application. We also describe our executable RTOS model written in SystemC allowing an early simulation of our application on top of its specific scheduling layer. Based on this model, a methodology is discussed and results are given on the exploration and validation of a distributed platform adapted to this vision system.

  4. Interruptions in Chest Compressions by Surf Lifeguards: A Comparison of Face-mask Ventilation in Over-the-head CPR vs Standard CPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørkjær, Louise; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Bomholt, Katrine Bjørnshave

    . The International Life Saving Federation recommends CPR using face-mask ventilation. It is currently unknown if OH-CPR using face-mask ventilation improves CPR quality. We hypothesized that OH-CPR is superior to standard CPR with face-mask ventilation among surf lifeguards. Methods: Surf lifeguards were trained......Introduction: Ventilation is a priority in drowning resuscitation. Over-the-head CPR (OH-CPR), i.e. with the rescuer located at the top of the victim’s head instead of alongside the victim’s torso, has been demonstrated to be superior when doing bag-valve-mask ventilation compared to standard CPR...... in OH-CPR and standard CPR with face-mask ventilation and randomized to a crossover comparison on a manikin. CPR quality data were obtained from the manikin and video recordings. Interruptions in chest compressions were used as a primary measure of CPR quality. A sample size of 14 participants...

  5. Shock outcome prediction before and after CPR: a comparative study of manual and automated active compression-decompression CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, M S; Watson, J N; Addison, P S; Clegg, G R; Robertson, C E

    2008-09-01

    We report on a study designed to compare the relative efficacy of manual CPR (M-CPR) and automated mechanical CPR (ACD-CPR) provided by an active compression-decompression (ACD) device. The ECG signals of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients of cardiac aetiology were analysed just prior to, and immediately after, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to assess the likelihood of successful defibrillation at these time points. The cardioversion outcome prediction (COP) measure previously developed by our group was used to quantify the probability of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after counter-shock and was used as a measure of the efficacy of CPR. An initial validation study using COP to predict shock outcome from the patient data set resulted in a performance of 60% specificity achieved at 100% sensitivity on a blind test of the data. This is comparable with previous studies and provided confidence in the robustness of the technique across hardware platforms. Significantly, the COP marker also displayed an ability to stratify according to outcomes: asystole, ventricular fibrillation (VF), pulseless electrical activity (PEA), normal sinus rhythm (NSR). We then used the validated COP marker to analyse the ECG data record just prior to and immediately after the chest compression segments. This was initially performed for 87 CPR segments where VF was both the pre- and post-CPR waveform. An increase in the mean COP values was found for both CPR types. A signed rank sum test found the increase due to manual CPR not to be significant (p>0.05) whereas the automated CPR was found to be significant (pCPR (1.26, p=0.024) than for the manual CPR (0.99, p=0.124). These results indicate that the application of CPR does indeed provide beneficial preparation of the heart prior to defibrillation therapy whether manual or automated CPR is applied. The COP marker shows promise as a definitive, quantitative determinant of the immediate positive effect of both types of CPR

  6. CPR in the nursing home: fool's errand or looming dilemma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, D

    2011-09-01

    The indications for CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) have expanded greatly since the technique was introduced and theoretically it can be attempted on all prior to death. Policy initiatives (such as the British Medical Association\\/Royal College of Nursing guidelines) have attempted to provide a clinical rationale for the withholding of inappropriate CPR. Traditionally a care home was felt to be an inappropriate environment to attempt CPR but increased use of advance directives may bring the issue to the fore in this setting.

  7. [Effects of functional interactions between nonhomologous insulators Wari and Su(Hw)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, M M; Georgiev, P G; Chetverina, D A

    2010-01-01

    Insulators are regulatory DNA elements restricting gene activation by enhancers. Interactions between insulators can lead to both insulation and activation of promoters by enhancers. In this work, we analyzed the effects of interaction of two Drosophila insulators, Wari and Su(Hw). The functional interaction between these insulators was found to enhance the activity of the Su(Hw) insulator only, but not of the Wari insulator. This suggests that the formation of a chromatin loop between interacting insulators is not a key factor for enhancement of insulation, which is in disagreement with the main idea of structural models. In addition, the effect of interaction between Wari and Su(Hw) depends on a distance between them and on the position in the system relative to other regulatory elements.

  8. SW21 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories hosted the tenth annual Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century Conference (SW21) on 21 January 2016 to reinforce the national commitment to leadership and institutional excellence for nuclear deterrence. The event has been successful over the years in drawing together a diverse, high-level group of policy makers and experts from multiple disciplines to engage in informed dialogue on topics related to strategic weapons in national and international security.

  9. Guidelines for CPR Training in Louisiana Schools. Bulletin No. 1638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Completion of a course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is required for graduation from high school in Louisiana. This bulletin presents the guidelines for a course in CPR and was prepared with the cooperation of the American Red Cross (ARC) and the American Heart Association (AHA). At the conclusion of the course, students will be prepared…

  10. Prevalence and hemodynamic effects of leaning during CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Dana E.; Sutton, Robert M.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Glatz, Andrew; Zuercher, Mathias; Maltese, Matthew R.; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Abella, Benjamin S.; Becker, Lance B.; Berg, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend complete release between chest compressions (CC). Objective Evaluate the hemodynamic effects of leaning (incomplete chest wall release) during CPR and the prevalence of leaning during CPR. Results In piglet ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests, 10% and 20% (1.8 kg and 3.6 kg, respectively), leaning during CPR increased right atrial pressures, decreased coronary perfusion pressures, and decreased cardiac index and left ventricular myocardial blood flow by nearly 50%. In contrast, residual leaning of a 260 g accelerometer/ force feedback device did not adversely affect cardiac index or myocardial blood flow. Among 108 adult in-hospital CPR events, leaning ≥2.5 kg was demonstrable in 91% of the events and 12% of the evaluated CC. For 12 children with in-hospital CPR, 28% of CC had residual leaning ≥2.5 kg and 89% had residual leaning ≥0.5 kg. Conclusions Leaning during CPR increases intrathoracic pressure, decreases coronary perfusion pressure, and decreases cardiac output and myocardial blood flow. Leaning is common during CPR. PMID:22208173

  11. A randomized controlled trial comparing traditional training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to self-directed CPR learning in first year medical students: The two-person CPR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppolo, Lynn P; Heymann, Rahm; Pepe, Paul; Wagner, James; Commons, Bradford; Miller, Ronna; Allen, Emilie; Horne, Leyla; Wainscott, Michael P; Idris, Ahamed H

    2011-03-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare two, shorter, self-directed methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education for healthcare professionals (HCP) to traditional training with a focus on the trainee's ability to perform two-person CPR. First-year medical students with either no prior CPR for HCP experience or prior training greater than 5 years were randomized to complete one of three courses: 1) HeartCode BLS System, 2) BLS Anytime, or 3) Traditional training. Only data from the adult CPR skills testing station was reviewed via video recording by certified CPR instructors and the Laerdal PC Skill Reporter software program (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). There were 180 first-year medical students who met inclusion criteria: 68 were HeartCode BLS System, 53 BLS Anytime group, and 59 traditional group Regarding two-person CPR, 57 (84%) of Heartcode BLS students and 43 (81%) of BLS Anytime students were able to initiate the switch compared to 39 (66%) of traditional course students (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in the quality of chest compressions or ventilations between the three groups. There was a trend for a much higher CPR skills testing pass rate for the traditional course students. However, failure to "clear to analyze or shock" while using the AED was the most common reason for failure in all groups. The self-directed learning groups not only had a high level of success in initiating the "switch" to two-person CPR, but were not significantly different from students who completed traditional training. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel protocol for dispatcher assisted CPR improves CPR quality and motivation among rescuers-A randomized controlled simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Stinne Eika; Nebsbjerg, Mette Amalie; Krogh, Lise Qvirin; Bjørnshave, Katrine; Krogh, Kristian; Povlsen, Jonas Agerlund; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Grøfte, Thorbjørn; Kirkegaard, Hans; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Emergency dispatchers use protocols to instruct bystanders in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Studies changing one element in the dispatcher's protocol report improved CPR quality. Whether several changes interact is unknown and the effect of combining multiple changes previously reported to improve CPR quality into one protocol remains to be investigated. We hypothesize that a novel dispatch protocol, combining multiple beneficial elements improves CPR quality compared with a standard protocol. A novel dispatch protocol was designed including wording on chest compressions, using a metronome, regular encouragements and a 10-s rest each minute. In a simulated cardiac arrest scenario, laypersons were randomized to perform single-rescuer CPR guided with the novel or the standard protocol. a composite endpoint of time to first compression, hand position, compression depth and rate and hands-off time (maximum score: 22 points). Afterwards participants answered a questionnaire evaluating the dispatcher assistance. The novel protocol (n=61) improved CPR quality score compared with the standard protocol (n=64) (mean (SD): 18.6 (1.4)) points vs. 17.5 (1.7) points, pCPR. A novel bundle of care protocol improved CPR quality score and motivation among rescuers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermophysical Modeling of Contact Binary Near-Earth Asteroid 1996 HW1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magri, C.; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Taylor, P. A.; Fernández, Y. R.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Vervack, R. J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1 was observed spectroscopically at 1.9-4.0 microns during August- October 2008 using the SpeX instrument at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). These spectra are being modeled using a new thermophysical program that accounts for the object's spin orientation

  14. Special radio call signal, HW6SPS, used on the SPS Inauguration Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Sagnell, Bengt

    1977-01-01

    CERN had been given a special French call sign for the occasion - HW6SPS - which was used over the weekend to contact a large number of amateur stations in Europe and world-wide to spread the happy message. The stations were manned by ~10 licensed amateur radio operators in SPS.

  15. A hybrid approach EMD-HW for short-term forecasting of daily stock market time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awajan, Ahmad Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2017-08-01

    Recently, forecasting time series has attracted considerable attention in the field of analyzing financial time series data, specifically within the stock market index. Moreover, stock market forecasting is a challenging area of financial time-series forecasting. In this study, a hybrid methodology between Empirical Mode Decomposition with the Holt-Winter method (EMD-HW) is used to improve forecasting performances in financial time series. The strength of this EMD-HW lies in its ability to forecast non-stationary and non-linear time series without a need to use any transformation method. Moreover, EMD-HW has a relatively high accuracy and offers a new forecasting method in time series. The daily stock market time series data of 11 countries is applied to show the forecasting performance of the proposed EMD-HW. Based on the three forecast accuracy measures, the results indicate that EMD-HW forecasting performance is superior to traditional Holt-Winter forecasting method.

  16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related posterior rib fractures in neonates and infants following recommended changes in CPR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, I; Pingen, A; Schiffmann, H; Vogel, M; Vlajnic, D; Ganschow, R; Born, M

    2014-07-01

    Posterior rib fractures are highly indicative of non-accidental trauma (NAT) in infants. Since 2000, the "two-thumbs" technique for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of newborns and infants has been recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). This technique is similar to the grip on an infant's thorax while shaking. Is it possible that posterior rib fractures in newborns and infants could be caused by the "two-thumbs" technique? Using computerized databases from three German children's hospitals, we identified all infants less than 12 months old who underwent professional CPR within a 10-year period. We included all infants with anterior-posterior chest radiographs taken after CPR. Exclusion criteria were sternotomy, osteopenia, various other bone diseases and NAT. The radiographs were independently reviewed by the Chief of Pediatric Radiology (MB) and a Senior Pediatrician, Head of the local Child Protection Team (IF). Eighty infants with 546 chest radiographs were identified, and 50 of those infants underwent CPR immediately after birth. Data concerning the length of CPR was available for 41 infants. The mean length of CPR was 11min (range: 1-180min, median: 3min). On average, there were seven radiographs per infant. A total of 39 infants had a follow-up radiograph after at least 10 days. No rib fracture was visible on any chest X-ray. The results of this study suggest rib fracture after the use of the "two-thumbs" CPR technique is uncommon. Thus, there should be careful consideration of abuse when these fractures are identified, regardless of whether CPR was performed and what technique used. The discovery of rib fractures in an infant who has undergone CPR without underlying bone disease or major trauma warrants a full child protection investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PyCPR - a python-based implementation of the Conjugate Peak Refinement (CPR) algorithm for finding transition state structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisdon, Florian J; Culka, Martin; Ullmann, G Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Conjugate peak refinement (CPR) is a powerful and robust method to search transition states on a molecular potential energy surface. Nevertheless, the method was to the best of our knowledge so far only implemented in CHARMM. In this paper, we present PyCPR, a new Python-based implementation of the CPR algorithm within the pDynamo framework. We provide a detailed description of the theory underlying our implementation and discuss the different parts of the implementation. The method is applied to two different problems. First, we illustrate the method by analyzing the gauche to anti-periplanar transition of butane using a semiempirical QM method. Second, we reanalyze the mechanism of a glycyl-radical enzyme, namely of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (HPD) using QM/MM calculations. In the end, we suggest a strategy how to use our implementation of the CPR algorithm. The integration of PyCPR into the framework pDynamo allows the combination of CPR with the large variety of methods implemented in pDynamo. PyCPR can be used in combination with quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical methods (and hybrid methods) implemented directly in pDynamo, but also in combination with external programs such as ORCA using pDynamo as interface. PyCPR is distributed as free, open source software and can be downloaded from http://www.bisb.uni-bayreuth.de/index.php?page=downloads . Graphical Abstract PyCPR is a search tool for finding saddle points on the potential energy landscape of a molecular system.

  18. The use of CPR data in fisheries research [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, A.; Lindley, J. A.

    2003-08-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by technological developments in fish detection, but the former has been the subject of continuing, and in recent years expanding use of the CPR data. Examples are presented of application of the data to studies on North Sea herring, cod, mackerel, blue whiting and redfish as well as more general plankton studies relevant to fisheries research. Variations in the migration patterns of herring as well as recruitment have been related to abundances and species composition of the plankton in the CPR survey. Extensive use has been made of the CPR data in relation to cod, particularly in the development and testing of the ‘match-mismatch’ hypothesis. Advection of sufficient numbers of Calanus from the core oceanic areas of its distribution into the areas where the cod stocks occur may partly determine the success of those stocks. The analysis of the distribution and abundances of mackerel larvae in the CPR survey have shown contrasting variations between the North Sea and Celtic Sea. The expansion of the horse mackerel fishery in the north-eastern North Sea since 1987 has been related to physical events and a ‘regime shift’ in the plankton, described from CPR data. The oceanic spawning areas of the blue whiting and redfish were highlighted by the expansion of the CPR survey into the north-eastern and north-western Atlantic respectively. These results helped to focus the attention of fisheries scientists on stocks that have subsequently become the targets for commercial exploitation. The results of the CPR survey, particularly those on Calanusfinmarchicus, the phytoplankton standing stock as measured by the CPR colour index, the overall patterns of trends in plankton abundance and

  19. A mixed-methods study exploring student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Futile CPR has the potential to inflict significant, avoidable harms on dying patients. Futile CPR is widely debated in the literature, but there is little research into futile CPR in the context of nursing. There are no published studies exploring student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR. Aim: To explore student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR Methods: A mixed methods study, using questionnaires to establish background data and identify prominent issues. ...

  20. A circumstellar molecular gas structure associated with the massive young star Cepheus A-HW 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection via VLA-D observations of ammonia of a circumstellar high-density molecular gas structure toward the massive young star related to the object Cepheus A-HW 2, a firm candidate for the powering source of the high-velocity molecular outflow in the region. We suggest that the circumstellar molecular gas structure could be related to the circumstellar disk previously suggested from infrared, H2O, and OH maser observations. We consider as a plausible scenario that the double radio continuum source of HW 2 could represent the ionized inner part of the circumstellar disk, in the same way as proposed to explain the double radio source in L1551. The observed motions in the circumstellar molecular gas can be produced by bound motions (e.g., infall or rotation) around a central mass of about 10-20 solar masses (B0.5 V star or earlier).

  1. Updated O-C Diagrams for Several Bright HW Vir Binaries Observed with the Evryscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Kyle A.; Barlow, Brad; Corbett, Hank; Fors, Octavi; Howard, Ward S.; Law, Nicholas; Ratzloff, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    HW Vir systems are eclipsing, post-common-envelope binaries consisting of a hot subdwarf star and a cooler M dwarf or brown dwarf companion. They show a strong reflection effect and have characteristically short orbital periods of only a few hours, allowing observers to detect multiple eclipses per night. Observed minus calculated (O-C) studies allow one to measure miniscule variations in the orbital periods of these systems by comparing observed eclipse timings to a calculated ephemeris. This technique is useful for detecting period changes due to secular evolution of the binary, gravitational wave emission, or reflex motion from an orbiting circumbinary object. Numerous eclipse timings obtained over several years are vital to the proper interpretation and analysis of O-C diagrams. The Evryscope – an array of twenty-four individual telescopes built by UNC and deployed on Cerro Tololo – images the entire Southern sky once every two minutes, producing an insurmountable amount of data for objects brighter than 16th magnitude. The cadence with which Evryscope exposes makes it an unparalleled tool for O-C analyses of HW Vir binaries; it will catalogue thousands of eclipses over the next several years. Here we present updated O-C diagrams for several HW Vir binaries using recent measurements from the Evryscope. We also use observations of AA Dor, an incredibly stable astrophysical clock, to characterize the accuracy of the Evryscope’s timestamps.

  2. The insulator protein SU(HW fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke G van Bemmel

    Full Text Available Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW weakens genome - NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions.

  3. Medical students and physical education students as CPR instructors: an appropriate solution to the CPR-instructor shortage in secondary schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Cuijpers, P. J. P. M.; Bookelman, G.; Kicken, W.; de Vries, W.; Gorgels, A. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in secondary schools will increase the number of potential CPR providers. However, currently too few certified instructors are available for this purpose. Training medical students and physical education student teachers to become CPR instructors could decrease this shortage. Aim Examine whether medical students and physical education student teachers can provide CPR training for secondary school pupils as well as (i.?e., non...

  4. Timely bystander CPR improves outcomes despite longer EMS times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwan Jin; Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Kyung Won; Ahn, Ki Ok; Lee, Eui Jung; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of bystander CPR on clinical outcomes in patients with increasing response time from collapse to EMS response. A population-based observational study was conducted in patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of presumed cardiac etiology from 2012 to 2014. The time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers was categorized into quartile groups: fastest group (bystander CPR and the time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers. A total of 15,354 OHCAs were analyzed. Bystander CPR was performed in 8591 (56.0%). Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 1632 (10.6%) and favorable neurological outcome in 996 (6.5%). In an interaction model of bystander CPR, compared to the fastest group, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (95% CIs) for survival to discharge were 0.89 (0.66-1.20) in the fast group, 0.76 (0.57-1.02) in the late group, and 0.52 (0.37-0.73) in the latest group. For favorable neurological outcome, AORs were 1.12 (0.77-1.62) in the fast group, 0.90 (0.62-1.30) in the late group, 0.59 (0.38-0.91) in the latest group. The survival from OHCA decreases as the ambulance response time increases. The increase in mortality and worsening neurologic outcomes appear to be mitigated in those patients who receive bystander CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a CPR feedback device and refresher simulations (CPR CARES Study): a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Brown, Linda L; Duff, Jonathan P; Davidson, Jennifer; Overly, Frank; Tofil, Nancy M; Peterson, Dawn T; White, Marjorie L; Bhanji, Farhan; Bank, Ilana; Gottesman, Ronald; Adler, Mark; Zhong, John; Grant, Vincent; Grant, David J; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Marohn, Kimberly; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Kessler, David O; Wong, Hubert; Robertson, Nicola; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duval-Arnould, Jordan M; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2015-02-01

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) affects hemodynamics, survival, and neurological outcomes following pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Most health care professionals fail to perform CPR within established American Heart Association guidelines. To determine whether "just-in-time" (JIT) CPR training with visual feedback (VisF) before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA improves the quality of chest compressions (CCs) during simulated CPA. Prospective, randomized, 2 × 2 factorial-design trial with explicit methods (July 1, 2012, to April 15, 2014) at 10 International Network for Simulation-Based Pediatric Innovation, Research, & Education (INSPIRE) institutions running a standardized simulated CPA scenario, including 324 CPR-certified health care professionals assigned to 3-person resuscitation teams (108 teams). Each team was randomized to 1 of 4 permutations, including JIT training vs no JIT training before CPA and real-time VisF vs no real-time VisF during simulated CPA. The proportion of CCs with depth exceeding 50 mm, the proportion of CPR time with a CC rate of 100 to 120 per minute, and CC fraction (percentage CPR time) during simulated CPA. The quality of CPR was poor in the control group, with 12.7% (95% CI, 5.2%-20.1%) mean depth compliance and 27.1% (95% CI, 14.2%-40.1%) mean rate compliance. JIT training compared with no JIT training improved depth compliance by 19.9% (95% CI, 11.1%-28.7%; P 89.0%) in all groups. Combining both interventions showed the highest compliance with American Heart Association guidelines but was not significantly better than either intervention in isolation. The quality of CPR provided by health care professionals is poor. Using novel and practical technology, JIT training before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA, alone or in combination, improves compliance with American Heart Association guidelines for CPR that are associated with better outcomes. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02075450.

  6. Assessment of in-vessel corium retention in CPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xing; Zhang Shishun; Lin Jiming

    2011-01-01

    The In-Vessel corium Retention (IVR) strategy of Chinese 1000 MW class commercial pressurized water reactor (CPR1000) is assessed by Risk-Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). Four representative severe accident scenarios are selected for the IVR assessment in this paper. According to four representative severe accident scenarios consequence calculated by the deterministic code combined with engineering judgment, the input probability distribution of the assessment is determined. Success probability of IVR from the viewpoint of thermal failure is then predicted using MOPOL code. MOPOL is a code developed basing on the well known ROAAM frame and heat transfer model of corium. It is demonstrated that the success probability of IVR by Reactor Cavity Flooding in CPR1000 is potentially higher than 99%. Application of IVR strategy in CPR1000 is envisioned probable if a further more comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation conclusion is positive. (authors)

  7. Between symbol and index. Notes on H.W. Diamond's psychiatric pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Marco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes into examination the work of one of the pioneers of photographic portrait, the English psychiatrist H.W. Diamond, in the light of Sekula’s reflection on the role played by the physiognomic theory in shaping this photographic genre during the Victorian era, and resorting to Peirce’s classification of signs into indices, icons, and symbols. These conceptual tools help understanding the functioning of Diamond’s photographs as epistemic devices, while developing a wider analysis of the indexical, iconic and symbolic nature of photographic images and photographic archives.

  8. HwPMI: An Extensible Performance Monitoring Infrastructure for Improving Hardware Design and Productivity on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Schmidt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing hardware cores for FPGAs can quickly become a complicated task, difficult even for experienced engineers. With the addition of more sophisticated development tools and maturing high-level language-to-gates techniques, designs can be rapidly assembled; however, when the design is evaluated on the FPGA, the performance may not be what was expected. Therefore, an engineer may need to augment the design to include performance monitors to better understand the bottlenecks in the system or to aid in the debugging of the design. Unfortunately, identifying what to monitor and adding the infrastructure to retrieve the monitored data can be a challenging and time-consuming task. Our work alleviates this effort. We present the Hardware Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (HwPMI, which includes a collection of software tools and hardware cores that can be used to profile the current design, recommend and insert performance monitors directly into the HDL or netlist, and retrieve the monitored data with minimal invasiveness to the design. Three applications are used to demonstrate and evaluate HwPMI’s capabilities. The results are highly encouraging as the infrastructure adds numerous capabilities while requiring minimal effort by the designer and low resource overhead to the existing design.

  9. Gluon fusion and bb¯ corrections to HW+W−/HZZ production in the POWHEG-BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Baglio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Higgs boson properties is one of the most important tasks to be accomplished in the next years, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC and at future colliders such as the Future Circular Collider in hadron–hadron mode (FCC-hh, the potential 100 TeV follow-up of the LHC machine. In this view the precise study of the Higgs couplings to weak gauge bosons is crucial and requires as much information as possible. After the recent calculation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the production cross sections and differential distributions of a Standard Model Higgs boson in association with a pair of weak bosons, matched with parton shower in the POWHEG-BOX framework, we present the gluon fusion correction gg→HW+W−(HZZ to the process pp→HW+W−(HZZ. This correction can be sizeable and amounts to +3% (+10% in the HW+W− process and +5% (+18% in the HZZ process at the LHC (FCC-hh. We also present the first study of the impact of the bottom-quark initiated channels bb¯→HW+W−/HZZ and find that they induce a significant +18% correction in the HW+W− channel at the FCC-hh. We present results on total cross sections and distributions at the LHC and at the FCC-hh.

  10. Communication for Policy Research (CPR) South-South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of telecom researchers : measures and messages relevant to CPRsouth. Download PDF. Reports. CPRafrica 2010-2012 : a comparative analysis vis-í -vis TPRC, EuroCPR, and CPRsouth/africa. Download PDF. Reports. Communication for Policy Research Africa (CPRafrica) (South-South in contract) : final technical and ...

  11. The use of CPR data in fisheries research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Lindley, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by

  12. Barriers and Facilitators to Community CPR Education in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Kristin M; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Hammes, Andrew; Kroehl, Miranda; García, Raquel Quiros; McDermott, Manrique Umaña; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2016-10-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival after prehospital cardiac arrest. While community CPR training programs have been implemented across the US, little is known about their acceptability in non-US Latino populations. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to enrolling in CPR training classes and performing CPR in San José, Costa Rica. After consulting 10 San José residents, a survey was created, pilot-tested, and distributed to a convenience sample of community members in public gathering places in San José. Questions included demographics, CPR knowledge and beliefs, prior CPR training, having a family member with heart disease, and prior witnessing of a cardiac arrest. Questions also addressed barriers to enrolling in CPR classes (cost/competing priorities). The analysis focused on two main outcomes: likelihood of registering for a CPR class and willingness to perform CPR on an adult stranger. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated to test for associations between patient characteristics and these outcomes. Among 371 participants, most were male (60%) and education (OR: 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2). Believing that CPR does not work was associated with a higher likelihood of not attending a CPR class (OR: 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-7.9). Fear of performing mouth-mouth, believing CPR is against God's will, and fear of legal risk were associated with a likelihood of not attending a CPR class and not performing CPR on a stranger (range of ORs: 2.4-3.9). Most San José residents are willing to take CPR classes and perform CPR on a stranger. To implement a community CPR program, barriers must be considered, including misgivings about CPR efficacy and legal risk. Hands-only CPR programs may alleviate hesitancy to perform mouth-to-mouth. Schmid KM , Mould-Millman NK , Hammes A , Kroehl M , Quiros García R , Umaña McDermott M , Lowenstein SR . Barriers and facilitators to community CPR education in San José, Costa Rica. Prehosp Disaster Med

  13. Dissemination of CPR video self-instruction materials to secondary trainees: results from a hospital-based CPR education trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Daniel J.; Buckler, David G.; Li, Jiaqi; Agarwal, Amit K.; Di Taranti, Laura J.; Kurtz, James; dos Reis, Ryan; Leary, Marion; Abella, Benjamin S.; Blewer, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) video self-instruction (VSI) materials have been promoted as a scalable approach to increase the prevalence of CPR skills among the lay public, in part due to the opportunity for secondary training (i.e., sharing of training materials). However, the motivations for, and barriers to, disseminating VSI materials to secondary trainees is poorly understood. Methods This work represents an ancillary investigation of a prospective hospital-based CPR education trial in which family members of cardiac patients were trained using VSI. Mixed-methods surveys were administered to primary trainees six months after initial enrollment. Surveys were designed to capture motivations for, and barriers to, sharing VSI materials, the number of secondary trainees with whom materials were shared, and the settings, timing, and recipients of trainings. Results Between 07/2012–05/2015, 653 study participants completed a six-month follow-up interview. Of those, 345 reported sharing VSI materials with 1455 secondary trainees. Materials were shared most commonly with family members. In a logistic regression analysis, participants in the oldest quartile (age > 63 years) were less likely to share materials compared to those in the youngest quartile (age ≤ 44 years, OR 0.58, CI 0.37–0.90, p=0.02). Among the 308 participants who did not share their materials, time constraints was the most commonly cited barrier for not sharing. Conclusions VSI materials represent a strategy for secondary dissemination of CPR training, yet older individuals have a lower likelihood of sharing relative to younger individuals. Further work is warranted to remedy perceived barriers to CPR dissemination among the lay public using VSI approaches. PMID:26776900

  14. Production and properties of biosurfactants from a newly isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens HW-6 growing on hexandecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, E.; Galabova, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Dept. of Microbial Biochemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoimenova, E.; Lalchev, Z. [Dept. of Biochemistry, Sofia Univ. ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-07-15

    The newly isolated from industrial wastewater Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HW-6 produced glycolipid biosurfactants at high concentrations (1.4-2.0 g 1{sup -1}) when grown on hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Biosurfactants decreased the surface tension of the air/water interface by 35 mN m{sup -1} and possessed a low critical micelle concentration value of 20 mg 1{sup -1}, which indicated high surface activity. They efficiently emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons, kerosene, n-paraffins and mineral oils. Biosurfactant production contributed to a significant increase in cell hydrophobicity correlated with an increased growth of the strain on hexadecane. The results suggested that the newly isolated strain of Ps. fluorescens and produced glycolipid biosurfactants with effective surface and emulsifying properties are very promising and could find application for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites. (orig.)

  15. An efficient HW and SW design of H.264 video compression, storage and playback on FPGA devices for handheld thermal imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Omer; Ozsarac, Ismail; Kamisli, Fatih

    2017-05-01

    Video recording is an essential property of new generation military imaging systems. Playback of the stored video on the same device is also desirable as it provides several operational benefits to end users. Two very important constraints for many military imaging systems, especially for hand-held devices and thermal weapon sights, are power consumption and size. To meet these constraints, it is essential to perform most of the processing applied to the video signal, such as preprocessing, compression, storing, decoding, playback and other system functions on a single programmable chip, such as FPGA, DSP, GPU or ASIC. In this work, H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) compatible video compression, storage, decoding and playback blocks are efficiently designed and implemented on FPGA platforms using FPGA fabric and Altera NIOS II soft processor. Many subblocks that are used in video encoding are also used during video decoding in order to save FPGA resources and power. Computationally complex blocks are designed using FPGA fabric, while blocks such as SD card write/read, H.264 syntax decoding and CAVLC decoding are done using NIOS processor to benefit from software flexibility. In addition, to keep power consumption low, the system was designed to require limited external memory access. The design was tested using 640x480 25 fps thermal camera on CYCLONE V FPGA, which is the ALTERA's lowest power FPGA family, and consumes lower than 40% of CYCLONE V 5CEFA7 FPGA resources on average.

  16. Radar and photometric observations and shape modeling of contact binary near-Earth Asteroid 1996 HW1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magri, Christopher; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Mueller, Michael; Vervack, Ronald J.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Ostro, Steven J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Hicks, Michael D.; Rhoades, Heath; Somers, James M.; Gaftonyuk, Ninel M.; Kouprianov, Vladimir V.; Krugly, Yurij N.; Molotov, Igor E.; Busch, Michael W.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Benishek, Vladimir; Protitch-Benishek, Vojislava; Galád, Adrian; Higgins, David; Kušnirák, Peter; Pray, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    We observed near-Earth Asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1 at the Arecibo Observatory on six dates in September 2008, obtaining radar images and spectra. By combining these data with an extensive set of new lightcurves taken during 2008-2009 and with previously published lightcurves from 2005, we were able to

  17. Does the sex of a simulated patient affect CPR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Chelsea E; Wilkins, Matthew S; Davies, Jan M; Caird, Jeff K; Hallihan, Gregory M

    2015-01-01

    While males and females are equally at risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), females are less likely to be resuscitated. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) may be inhibited by socio-cultural norms about exposing female victims' chests. Empirically confirming this hypothesis is limited by lack of patient simulators modeling realistic female physiques. A commercially-available patient simulator was transformed to evaluate how physical attributes of a patient's sex might influence lay participants who were asked to resuscitate a female versus a male during simulated cardiac arrest. Sixty-nine participants consented to be in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to provide CPR and defibrillation as instructed by a commercially-available automated external defibrillator on a patient simulator presented as either a male or female experiencing cardiac arrest. Rescuers removed significantly more clothing from the male than the female, with men removing less clothing from the female. More rescuers' initial hand placements for CPR were centered between the female's breasts compared to the male, on which placement was distributed across the chest towards the nipples. While rescuers had better hand placement for CPR on the female, both men and women rescuers were reluctant to remove the female's clothing, with men significantly more hesitant. Reticence to remove clothing was often articulated relative to social norms during structured interviews. We suggest that using only male simulators will not allow trainees to experience social differences associated with the care of a female simulated patient. Realistic female patient simulators are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  19. Brief compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation training video and simulation with homemade mannequin improves CPR skills

    OpenAIRE

    Wanner, Gregory K.; Osborne, Arayel; Greene, Charlotte H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has traditionally involved classroom-based courses or, more recently, home-based video self-instruction. These methods typically require preparation and purchase fee; which can dissuade many potential bystanders from receiving training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching compression-only CPR to previously untrained individuals using our 6-min online CPR training video and skills practice on a homemade mannequin, r...

  20. RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 1: Evidence analysis and consensus process: collaborative path toward small animal CPR guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Manuel; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    To describe the methodology used by the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) to evaluate the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR and to compose consensus-based clinical CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This report is part of a series of 7 articles on the RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis and consensus-based small animal CPR guidelines. It describes the organizational structure of RECOVER, the evaluation process employed, consisting of standardized literature searches, the analysis of relevant articles according to study design, species and predefined quality markers, and the drafting of clinical CPR guidelines based on these data. Therefore, this article serves as the methodology section for the subsequent 6 RECOVER articles. Academia, referral practice. RECOVER is a collaborative initiative that systematically evaluated the evidence on 74 topics relevant to small animal CPR and generated 101 clinical CPR guidelines from this analysis. All primary contributors were veterinary specialists, approximately evenly split between academic institutions and private referral practices. The evidence evaluation and guideline drafting processes were conducted according to a predefined sequence of steps designed to reduce bias and increase the repeatability of the findings, including multiple levels of review, culminating in a consensus process. Many knowledge gaps were identified that will allow prioritization of research efforts in veterinary CPR. Collaborative systematic evidence review is organizationally challenging but feasible and effective in veterinary medicine. More experience is needed to refine the process. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  1. Barriers and Facilitators to Learning and Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Neighborhoods with Low Bystander CPR Prevalence and High Rates of Cardiac Arrest in Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Bond, Cindy; Rabe, Marilyn; Colbert, Susan H.; King, Renee; Sayre, Michael; Heisler, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background Residents who live in neighborhoods that are primarily African-American, Latino, or poor are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and less likely to survive. No prior studies have been conducted to understand the contributing factors that may decrease the likelihood of residents learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR in three low-income, “high-risk” predominantly African American, neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio. Methods and Results Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches were used to develop and conduct six focus groups in conjunction with community partners in three target high-risk neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio in January-February 2011. Snowball and purposeful sampling, done by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Three reviewers analyzed the data in an iterative process to identify recurrent and unifying themes. Three major barriers to learning CPR were identified and included financial, informational, and motivational factors. Four major barriers were identified for performing CPR and included fear of legal consequences, emotional issues, knowledge, and situational concerns. Participants suggested that family/self-preservation, emotional, and economic factors may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Conclusion The financial cost of CPR training, lack of information, and the fear of risking one's own life must be addressed when designing a community-based CPR educational program. Using data from the community can facilitate improved design and implementation of CPR programs. PMID:24021699

  2. EXTREMELY BROAD RADIO RECOMBINATION MASER LINES TOWARD THE HIGH-VELOCITY IONIZED JET IN CEPHEUS A HW2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Serra, I.; Patel, N.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Baez-Rubio, A.; Thum, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first detection of the H40α, H34α, and H31α radio recombination lines (RRLs) at millimeter wavelengths toward the high-velocity ionized jet in the Cepheus A HW2 star-forming region. From our single-dish and interferometric observations, we find that the measured RRLs show extremely broad asymmetric line profiles with zero-intensity line widths of ∼1100 km s -1 . From the line widths, we estimate a terminal velocity for the ionized gas in the jet of ≥500 km s -1 , consistent with that obtained from the proper motions of the HW2 radio jet. The total integrated line-to-continuum flux ratios of the H40α, H34α, and H31α lines are 43, 229, and 280 km s -1 , clearly deviating from LTE predictions. These ratios are very similar to those observed for the RRL masers toward MWC349A, suggesting that the intensities of the RRLs toward HW2 are affected by maser emission. Our radiative transfer modeling of the RRLs shows that their asymmetric profiles could be explained by maser emission arising from a bi-conical radio jet with a semi-opening angle of 18 deg., electron density distribution varying as r -2.11 , and turbulent and expanding wind velocities of 60 and 500 km s -1 .

  3. An analytical framework for common-pool resource–large technical system (CPR-LTS constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Blomkvist

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an analytical framework for a special phenomenon: when a common-pool resource (CPR institution and a large technical system (LTS are connected and mutually interdependent. The CPR in this case is a node managed by its appropriators within a centrally planned and managed system; here named CPR-LTS constellations. Our framework is empirically derived from two historical investigations of CPR institutions within two LTSs, the agricultural-technical system and the road transport system of Sweden. By comparing similarities and differences it is possible to identify paths to successes and failures. To understand why one survived and the other disappeared we connect Elinor Ostrom’s theories about management of CPRs with Thomas P. Hughes’s theories about LTSs. We are proposing a framework that can bridge the gap between theories about management of CPRs and LTSs. By combining the two theories it should be possible to better understand how small-scale producers using bottom-up CPRs can be linked to top-down LTSs.We will argue that to fit within an LTS, a CPR needs alignment between different parts or components within the constellation/system and alignment with other systems and institutions in society. We propose three analytical levels to deal with the phenomenon of aligning a CPR project to an existing, large sociotechnical system:Local alignment (CPR: How are CPRs organized and managed at local sites?Sociotechnical alignment (CPR-LTS: How are CPRs connected to the sociotechnical system?Contextual alignment: How are CPR-LTS constellations aligned with neighboring institutions and systems in society?Our work indicates that for successful management of a CPR-LTS constellation it is important that the CPR be included in legislation and that government agencies support the CPR in alignment with the LTS. Legislators must recognize the CPR-part in the CPR-LTS constellation so that its institutional body is firmly established in

  4. Pay It Forward: High School Video-based Instruction Can Disseminate CPR Knowledge in Priority Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Josiah; Cano, Alejandra; Ramirez, Victor; Morales, Gabriel; Campbell, Teri L.; Hoek, Terry Vanden

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. Methods We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a “pay-it-forward” component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates. Ninth and tenth graders followed a video self-instruction kit in a classroom setting to learn CPR. As homework, students were required to use the training kit to “pay it forward” and teach CPR to their friends and family. We administered pre- and post-intervention knowledge surveys to measure knowledge acquisition among classroom and “pay-it-forward” participants. Results Seventy-one classroom participants trained 347 of their friends and family, for an average of 4.9 additional persons trained per kit. Classroom CPR knowledge survey scores increased from 58% to 93% (p CPR educational intervention with a “pay-it-forward” component can disseminate CPR knowledge beyond the classroom. Because schools are centrally-organized settings to which all children and their families have access, school-based interventions allow for a broad reach that encompasses all segments of the population and have potential to decrease disparities in bystander CPR provision. PMID:29560076

  5. Bioinformatics analysis for structure and function of CPR of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhigang; Zhang, Lingmin; Yan, Guogang; Wu, Qiang; Gan, Xiufeng; Zhong, Saifeng; Lin, Guifen

    2011-02-01

    To analyse the structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome p450 reductase (CYPOR or CPR) from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), and to predict its' drug target and vaccine target. The structure, function, drug target and vaccine target of CPR from Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed and predicted by bioinformatics methods. PfCPR, which was older CPR, had close relationship with the CPR from other Plasmodium species, but it was distant from its hosts, such as Homo sapiens and Anopheles. PfCPR was located in the cellular nucleus of Plasmodium falciparum. 335aa-352aa and 591aa - 608aa were inserted the interior side of the nuclear membrane, while 151aa-265aa was located in the nucleolus organizer regions. PfCPR had 40 function sites and 44 protein-protein binding sites in amino acid sequence. The teriary structure of 1aa-700aa was forcep-shaped with wings. 15 segments of PfCPR had no homology with Homo sapien CPR and most were exposed on the surface of the protein. These segments had 25 protein-protein binding sites. While 13 other segments all possessed function sites. The evolution or genesis of Plasmodium falciparum is earlier than those of Homo sapiens. PfCPR is a possible resistance site of antimalarial drug and may involve immune evasion, which is associated with parasite of sporozoite in hepatocytes. PfCPR is unsuitable as vaccine target, but it has at least 13 ideal drug targets. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pay It Forward: High School Video-based Instruction Can Disseminate CPR Knowledge in Priority Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Han

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. Methods: We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a “pay-it-forward” component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates. Ninth and tenth graders followed a video self-instruction kit in a classroom setting to learn CPR. As homework, students were required to use the training kit to “pay it forward” and teach CPR to their friends and family. We administered pre- and post-intervention knowledge surveys to measure knowledge acquisition among classroom and “pay-it-forward” participants. Results: Seventy-one classroom participants trained 347 of their friends and family, for an average of 4.9 additional persons trained per kit. Classroom CPR knowledge survey scores increased from 58% to 93% (p < 0.0001. The pay-it-forward cohort saw an increase from 58% to 82% (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: A high school-centered, CPR educational intervention with a “pay-it-forward” component can disseminate CPR knowledge beyond the classroom. Because schools are centrally-organized settings to which all children and their families have access, school-based interventions allow for a broad reach that encompasses all segments of the population and have potential to decrease disparities in bystander CPR provision.

  7. SHERMAN - A shape-based thermophysical model II. Application to 8567 (1996 HW1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Vervack, R. J.; Nolan, M. C.; Taylor, P. A.; Fernández, Y. R.; Hicks, M. D.; Somers, J. M.; Lawrence, K. J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Marshall, S. E.; Crowell, J. L.

    2018-03-01

    We apply a new shape-based thermophysical model, SHERMAN, to the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 8567 (1996 HW1) to derive surface properties. We use the detailed shape model of Magri et al. (2011) for this contact binary NEA to analyze spectral observations (2-4.1 microns) obtained at the NASA IRTF on several different dates to find thermal parameters that match all the data. Visible and near-infrared (0.8-2.5 microns) spectral observations are also utilized in a self-consistent way. We find that an average visible albedo of 0.33, thermal inertia of 70 (SI units) and surface roughness of 50% closely match the observations. The shape and orientation of the asteroid is very important to constrain the thermal parameters to be consistent with all the observations. Multiple viewing geometries are equally important to achieve a robust solution for small, non-spherical NEAs. We separate the infrared beaming effects of shape, viewing geometry and surface roughness for this asteroid and show how their effects combine. We compare the diameter and albedo that would be derived from the thermal observations assuming a spherical shape with those from the shape-based model. We also discuss how observations from limited viewing geometries compare to the solution from multiple observations. The size that would be derived from the individual observation dates varies by 20% from the best-fit solution, and can be either larger or smaller. If the surface properties are not homogeneous, many solutions are possible, but the average properties derived here are very tightly constrained by the multiple observations, and give important insights into the nature of small NEAs.

  8. Presentation of the CPR ISMIR (Insulators: IRradiation Modelling); Presentation du CPR ISMIR (ISolants: modelisation de l'IRradiation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozes, G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DSOE), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    The CPR ISMIR is a CEA-CNRS program on the behaviour of materials submitted to irradiation; it has been begun to support the applied current research programs on the aging of nuclear fuels, the storage and incineration matrices and the future reactors. Its aim is to contribute to scientifically set up the methods for anticipating the behaviour of ceramic materials under irradiation in using the important development of calculation means. Thus have been developed the basic knowledge and the interactions physics and calculation models at pertinent scales have been elaborated. (O.M.)

  9. Application of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Writing Assignments to Enhance Experiments with an Environmental Chemistry Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Lawrence D.; Gulsrud, Maren; Manlapez, Ronald; Rebong, Rachelle; Love, Austin

    2007-01-01

    The browser-based software program, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) developed by the Molecular Science Project enables instructors to create structured writing assignments in which students learn by writing and reading for content. Though the CPR project covers only one experiment in general chemistry, it might provide lab instructors with a method…

  10. 77 FR 74278 - Proposed Information Collection (Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... (Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration.... Title: Internet Student CPR Web Registration Application, VA Form 10-0468. OMB Control Number: 2900-0746... Minneapolis VA Medical Center Education Service. Students will be able to identify and register for a training...

  11. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications ...

  12. CPR Instruction in U.S. High Schools: What Is the State in the Nation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lorrel E; Lynes, Carlos; Carroll, Travis; Halperin, Henry

    2017-11-28

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in high schools is required by law in the majority of U.S. states. However, laws differ from state to state, and it is unknown how this legislation is being enacted. The authors sent a cross-sectional, closed survey to educational superintendents in 32 states with CPR laws in June 2016. The authors subsequently performed direct examination and categorization of CPR legislation in 39 states (several states passed legislation as of September 2017). Survey results indicated differing practices with regard to CPR instruction in areas such as course content (63% perform automated external defibrillator training), instructor (47% used CPR-certified teachers/coaches, 30% used other CPR-certified instructors, 11% used noncertified teachers/coaches), and method (7% followed American Red Cross methods, 55% followed American Heart Association methods). CPR laws differ, although almost all (97%) require hands-on training. Although hands-on practice during CPR instruction in high school is required by law in the majority of U.S. states, there is currently no standardized method of implementation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of mobile application-based versus DVD-based CPR training on students’ practical CPR skills and willingness to act: a cluster randomised study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Anette; Svensson, Leif; Hult, Håkan; Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to compare students’ practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills and willingness to perform bystander CPR, after a 30 min mobile application (app)-based versus a 50 min DVD-based training. Settings Seventh grade students in two Swedish municipalities. Design A cluster randomised trial. The classes were randomised to receive app-based or DVD-based training. Willingness to act and practical CPR skills were assessed, directly after training and at 6 months, by using a questionnaire and a PC Skill Reporting System. Data on CPR skills were registered in a modified version of the Cardiff test, where scores were given in 12 different categories, adding up to a total score of 12–48 points. Training and measurements were performed from December 2013 to October 2014. Participants 63 classes or 1232 seventh grade students (13-year-old) were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary end point was the total score of the modified Cardiff test. The individual variables of the test and self-reported willingness to make a life-saving intervention were secondary end points. Results The DVD-based group was superior to the app-based group in CPR skills; a total score of 36 (33–38) vs 33 (30–36) directly after training (pCPR skill components. Both groups improved compression depth from baseline to follow-up. If a friend suffered cardiac arrest, 78% (DVD) versus 75% (app) would do compressions and ventilations, whereas only 31% (DVD) versus 32% (app) would perform standard CPR if the victim was a stranger. Conclusions At 6 months follow-up, the 50 min DVD-based group showed superior CPR skills compared with the 30 min app-based group. The groups did not differ in regard to willingness to make a life-saving effort. PMID:27130166

  14. Report on the Southern Ocean Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR Standards Workshop 2016: SCAR SO-CPR Database Expert Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio T. Takahashi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The“Southern Ocean Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR Survey Standards Workshop”was held at the Australian Antarctic Division on 12−16December 2016. The purposes of the workshop were to confirm that consistent and high standards of species identification, methodology, and data quality were being maintained amongst the main analysts in the SO-CPR Survey, and to discuss future training methods, including a SO-CPR manual that will include a counting rule book, and a future road map for the SO-CPR program. During the workshop we discussed a range of topics including: taxonomic resolution issues (particularly for Foraminifera and euphausiid larval identification and staging; laboratory methods (preservation and storage, with emphasis on maintaining correct pH; shipboard techniques; training methods; data handling (metadata, database, data sharing; gap analysis (spatial, temporal, data, quantitative; and future workshops/conferences, including comprehensive training workshops for emerging SO-CPR survey partners (India. We agreed that there should be a larger workshop every two years to ensure that the high standards of the SO-CPR program are maintained.

  15. Comparing three CPR feedback devices and standard BLS in a single rescuer scenario: a randomised simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Bernhard; Greif, Robert; Stumpf, Dominik; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Frantal, Sophie; Haugk, Moritz; Ruetzler, Kurt; Schlimp, Christoph; Fischer, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    Efficiently performed basic life support (BLS) after cardiac arrest is proven to be effective. However, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is strenuous and rescuers' performance declines rapidly over time. Audio-visual feedback devices reporting CPR quality may prevent this decline. We aimed to investigate the effect of various CPR feedback devices on CPR quality. In this open, prospective, randomised, controlled trial we compared three CPR feedback devices (PocketCPR, CPRmeter, iPhone app PocketCPR) with standard BLS without feedback in a simulated scenario. 240 trained medical students performed single rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8min. Effective compression (compressions with correct depth, pressure point and sufficient decompression) as well as compression rate, flow time fraction and ventilation parameters were compared between the four groups. Study participants using the PocketCPR performed 17±19% effective compressions compared to 32±28% with CPRmeter, 25±27% with the iPhone app PocketCPR, and 35±30% applying standard BLS (PocketCPR vs. CPRmeter p=0.007, PocketCPR vs. standard BLS p=0.001, others: ns). PocketCPR and CPRmeter prevented a decline in effective compression over time, but overall performance in the PocketCPR group was considerably inferior to standard BLS. Compression depth and rate were within the range recommended in the guidelines in all groups. While we found differences between the investigated CPR feedback devices, overall BLS quality was suboptimal in all groups. Surprisingly, effective compression was not improved by any CPR feedback device compared to standard BLS. All feedback devices caused substantial delay in starting CPR, which may worsen outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pay It Forward: High School Video-based Instruction Can Disseminate CPR Knowledge in Priority Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rios, Marina; Han, Josiah; Cano, Alejandra; Ramirez, Victor; Morales, Gabriel; Campbell, Teri L; Hoek, Terry Vanden

    2018-03-01

    The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a "pay-it-forward" component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates. Ninth and tenth graders followed a video self-instruction kit in a classroom setting to learn CPR. As homework, students were required to use the training kit to "pay it forward" and teach CPR to their friends and family. We administered pre- and post-intervention knowledge surveys to measure knowledge acquisition among classroom and "pay-it-forward" participants. Seventy-one classroom participants trained 347 of their friends and family, for an average of 4.9 additional persons trained per kit. Classroom CPR knowledge survey scores increased from 58% to 93% (p pay-it-forward cohort saw an increase from 58% to 82% (p pay-it-forward" component can disseminate CPR knowledge beyond the classroom. Because schools are centrally-organized settings to which all children and their families have access, school-based interventions allow for a broad reach that encompasses all segments of the population and have potential to decrease disparities in bystander CPR provision.

  17. Bench evaluation: three face-shield CPR barrier devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M; Deao, D; Moon, L; Peters, K; Cavanaugh, S

    1995-06-01

    Due to the fear of disease transmission, the practice of mouth-to-mouth (M-M) rescue breathing is rarely performed; to address this concern, many types of CPR barrier devices have been developed. These include bag-valve-mask devices, mouth-to-mask devices, and face shields (FS). The purpose of this study was to measure the volumes delivered during mouth-to-face shield (M-FS) breathing, to measure the back pressure and calculate the resistance to flow through their 1-way valves, and to test for backward leak of gas through the valves. Three FS brands were evaluated: Kiss of Life (KOL), MicroSHIELD (Micro) and Res-Cue Key (RCK). Volume delivered during M-M and M-FS breathing was evaluated by 10 rescuers who used the devices while performing rescue breathing on a CPR mannequin. Back pressure was measured and resistance calculated by directing airflow through the 1-way valves. Backward leak was evaluated by measuring the O2 concentration at the rescuer side of the valve while 100% O2 was directed toward the patient side of the valve. Differences among the brands were evaluated using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) values for volumes in L were: M-M 1.00 (0.25), Micro 0.77 (0.20), RCK 0.64 (0.10), and KOL 0.24 (0.11). Mean values for back pressure in cm H2O at 50 L/min were Micro 16.7 (1.29), KOL 7.22 (0.13), and RCK 2.15 (0.16). Significant backward leak only occurred with RCK. Not one of the FSs tested met all of the requirements suggested by the American Heart Association and by the International Standards Organization.

  18. Simple CPR: A randomized, controlled trial of video self-instructional cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in an African American church congregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, K H; Heron, S L; Thompson, M; Dennis, R; O'Connor, J; Kellermann, A L

    1999-12-01

    Despite the proven efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), only a small fraction of the population knows how to perform it. As a result, rates of bystander CPR and rates of survival from cardiac arrest are low. Bystander CPR is particularly uncommon in the African American community. Successful development of a simplified approach to CPR training could boost rates of bystander CPR and save lives. We conducted the following randomized, controlled study to determine whether video self-instruction (VSI) in CPR results in comparable or better performance than traditional CPR training. This randomized, controlled trial was conducted among congregational volunteers in an African American church in Atlanta, GA. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 34 minutes of VSI or the 4-hour American Heart Association "Heartsaver" CPR course. Two months after training, blinded observers used explicit criteria to assess CPR performance in a simulated cardiac arrest setting. A recording manikin was used to measure ventilation and chest compression characteristics. Participants also completed a written test of CPR-related knowledge and attitudes. VSI trainees displayed a comparable level of performance to that achieved by traditional trainees. Observers scored 40% of VSI trainees competent or better in performing CPR, compared with only 16% of traditional trainees (absolute difference 24%, 95% confidence interval 8% to 40%). Data from the recording manikin confirmed these observations. VSI trainees and traditional trainees achieved comparable scores on tests of CPR-related knowledge and attitudes. Thirty-four minutes of VSI can produce CPR of comparable quality to that achieved by traditional training methods. VSI provides a simple, quick, consistent, and inexpensive alternative to traditional CPR instruction, and may be used to extend CPR training to historically underserved populations.

  19. Verification Process of Behavioral Consistency between Design and Implementation programs of pSET using HW-CBMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Ah; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoo, Jun Beom

    2011-01-01

    Controllers in safety critical systems such as nuclear power plants often use Function Block Diagrams (FBDs) to design embedded software. The design is implemented using programming languages such as C to compile it into particular target hardware. The implementation must have the same behavior with the design and the behavior should be verified explicitly. For example, the pSET (POSAFE-Q Software Engineering Tool) is a loader software to program POSAFE-Q PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and is developed as a part of the KNICS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System R and D Center) project. It uses FBDs to design software of PLC, and generates ANSI-C code to compile it into specific machine code. To verify the equivalence between the FBDs and ANSI-C code, mathematical proof of code generator or a verification tools such as RETRANS can help guarantee the equivalence. Mathematical proof, however, has a weakness that requires high expenditure and repetitive fulfillment whenever the translator is modified. On the other hand, RETRANS reconstructs the generated source code without consideration of the generator. It has also a weakness that the reconstruction of generated code needs additional analysis This paper introduces verification process of behavioral consistency between design and its implementation of the pSET using the HW-CBMC. The HW-CBMC is a formal verification tool, verifying equivalence between hardware and software description. It requires two inputs for checking equivalence, Verilog for hard-ware and ANSI-C for software. In this approach, FBDs are translated into semantically equivalent Verilog pro-gram, and the HW-CBMC verifies equivalence between the Verilog program and the ANSI-C program which is generated from the FBDs

  20. Verification Process of Behavioral Consistency between Design and Implementation programs of pSET using HW-CBMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ah; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoo, Jun Beom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Controllers in safety critical systems such as nuclear power plants often use Function Block Diagrams (FBDs) to design embedded software. The design is implemented using programming languages such as C to compile it into particular target hardware. The implementation must have the same behavior with the design and the behavior should be verified explicitly. For example, the pSET (POSAFE-Q Software Engineering Tool) is a loader software to program POSAFE-Q PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and is developed as a part of the KNICS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System R and D Center) project. It uses FBDs to design software of PLC, and generates ANSI-C code to compile it into specific machine code. To verify the equivalence between the FBDs and ANSI-C code, mathematical proof of code generator or a verification tools such as RETRANS can help guarantee the equivalence. Mathematical proof, however, has a weakness that requires high expenditure and repetitive fulfillment whenever the translator is modified. On the other hand, RETRANS reconstructs the generated source code without consideration of the generator. It has also a weakness that the reconstruction of generated code needs additional analysis This paper introduces verification process of behavioral consistency between design and its implementation of the pSET using the HW-CBMC. The HW-CBMC is a formal verification tool, verifying equivalence between hardware and software description. It requires two inputs for checking equivalence, Verilog for hard-ware and ANSI-C for software. In this approach, FBDs are translated into semantically equivalent Verilog pro-gram, and the HW-CBMC verifies equivalence between the Verilog program and the ANSI-C program which is generated from the FBDs

  1. Effects of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) during and post-CPR in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M S; Fan, C; Tran, H; Zhao, H; Zhou, L

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) can produce improved resuscitation during cardiac arrest. DCLHb, a derivative of human hemoglobin, has previously been demonstrated to produce a vasopressor response that is associated with increased blood flow to vital organs. In addition, it is an oxygen carrier. These effects may be beneficial to extreme low flow states, such as that during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Experimental cardiac arrest and CPR were carried out in 32 anesthetized immature pigs. In each animal, ventricular fibrillation was induced for 5 min, followed by 10 min of standard CPR with a pneumatic device and room air ventilation. High (15 ml/kg) and low (5 ml/kg) doses of DCLHb or equivalent volume of normal saline were infused at the beginning of CPR in a random and blind manner. Cardiac output, organ blood flow, aortic pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, blood gases, and lactate concentrations were obtained before and during CPR. Following the 10-min CPR, the animals were defibrillated and the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) determined. DCLHb treatment achieved 75% ROSC compared with 25% in the saline group (p CPR significantly improves ROSC. This is most likely related to its improvement in coronary perfusion and myocardial oxygen delivery.

  2. Arabidopsis CPR5 regulates ethylene signaling via molecular association with the ETR1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Qiao, Longfei; Chen, Jiacai; Pappa, Maria Belen; Pei, Haixia; Zhang, Tao; Chang, Caren; Dong, Chun-Hai

    2017-11-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays various functions in plant growth, development and response to environmental stress. Ethylene is perceived by membrane-bound ethylene receptors, and among the homologous receptors in Arabidopsis, the ETR1 ethylene receptor plays a major role. The present study provides evidence demonstrating that Arabidopsis CPR5 functions as a novel ETR1 receptor-interacting protein in regulating ethylene response and signaling. Yeast split ubiquitin assays and bi-fluorescence complementation studies in plant cells indicated that CPR5 directly interacts with the ETR1 receptor. Genetic analyses indicated that mutant alleles of cpr5 can suppress ethylene insensitivity in both etr1-1 and etr1-2, but not in other dominant ethylene receptor mutants. Overexpression of Arabidopsis CPR5 either in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, or ectopically in tobacco, significantly enhanced ethylene sensitivity. These findings indicate that CPR5 plays a critical role in regulating ethylene signaling. CPR5 is localized to endomembrane structures and the nucleus, and is involved in various regulatory pathways, including pathogenesis, leaf senescence, and spontaneous cell death. This study provides evidence for a novel regulatory function played by CPR5 in the ethylene receptor signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Thermohydraulic Margins in Embalse Power Station, CARA Vs. CANDU with Cobra IV-HW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daverio, H; Juanico, L

    2000-01-01

    Comparative analysis of thermohydraulic margins were studied of the CANDU 37 and CARA fuel bundles (FB) in Embalse power station with COBRA IV-HW code ., the geometry of the bundle laying on the channel was particularly modeled and discussing the results in comparison with former calculations with 1/6 simetry .The CARA design with enriched uranium (0.9 %) and extended burn up lets maintain the current thermohydraulic nominal margins , while compared with CANDU 37 rods FB enriched , the CARA design permits widely improve the current margins

  4. Metronome improves compression and ventilation rates during CPR on a manikin in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Karl B; Stickney, Ronald E; Gallison, Leanne; Smith, Robert E

    2010-02-01

    We hypothesized that a unique tock and voice metronome could prevent both suboptimal chest compression rates and hyperventilation. A prospective, randomized, parallel design study involving 34 pairs of paid firefighter/emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performing two-rescuer CPR using a Laerdal SkillReporter Resusci Anne manikin with and without metronome guidance was performed. Each CPR session consisted of 2 min of 30:2 CPR with an unsecured airway, then 4 min of CPR with a secured airway (continuous compressions at 100 min(-1) with 8-10 ventilations/min), repeated after the rescuers switched roles. The metronome provided "tock" prompts for compressions, transition prompts between compressions and ventilations, and a spoken "ventilate" prompt. During CPR with a bag/valve/mask the target compression rate of 90-110 min(-1) was achieved in 5/34 CPR sessions (15%) for the control group and 34/34 sessions (100%) for the metronome group (pmetronome or control group during CPR with a bag/valve/mask. During CPR with a bag/endotracheal tube, the target of both a compression rate of 90-110 min(-1) and a ventilation rate of 8-11 min(-1) was achieved in 3/34 CPR sessions (9%) for the control group and 33/34 sessions (97%) for the metronome group (pMetronome use with the secured airway scenario significantly decreased the incidence of over-ventilation (11/34 EMT pairs vs. 0/34 EMT pairs; pmetronome was effective at directing correct chest compression and ventilation rates both before and after intubation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of CPR1000 and AP1000 rod position indication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the structure, the function, the digital detection principle of reactor control rod position and monitoring systems in CPR1000 and AP1000, comparing with the characteristics of the system design. The results show that the operation mode and function of AP1000 Rod position indication system are similar to that of CPR1000, but AP1000 rod position system provides higher reliability, and reduces the numbers of containment electrical penetrations and is with better characteristics than that of CPR1000, since it incorporated the redundancy design and data communication. (authors)

  6. Arabidopsis CPR5 independently regulates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development through LOX pathway and ABA signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Gao

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA and the lipoxygenases (LOXs pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downstream of the ABI1 in the ABA signaling pathway. However, the cpr5 mutant showed an ABA independent drought-resistant phenotype. It was also found that the cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to NDGA and NDGA treatment aggravated the ABA-induced delay in the seed germination and cotyledon greening. Taken together, these results suggest that the CPR5 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth through ABA and LOX pathways independently.

  7. Hospital implementation of resuscitation guidelines and review of CPR training programmes: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anders S; Lauridsen, Kasper G; Adelborg, Kasper; Løfgren, Bo

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guideline implementation and CPR training in hospitals. This nationwide study included mandatory resuscitation protocols from each Danish hospital. Protocols were systematically reviewed for adherence to the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 guidelines and CPR training in each hospital. Data were included from 45 of 47 hospitals. Adherence to the ERC basic life support (BLS) algorithm was 49%, whereas 63 and 58% of hospitals adhered to the recommended chest compression depth and rate. Adherence to the ERC advanced life support (ALS) algorithm was 81%. Hospital BLS course duration was [median (interquartile range)] 2.3 (1.5-2.5) h, whereas ALS course duration was 4.0 (2.5-8.0) h. Implementation of ERC 2010 guidelines on BLS is limited in Danish hospitals 2 years after guideline publication, whereas the majority of hospitals adhere to the ALS algorithm. CPR training differs among hospitals.

  8. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC...... and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPRprior. RESULTS: The study...... included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPRpriorgroup and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPRduringgroup. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPRpriorand CPRduring...

  9. Brief compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation training video and simulation with homemade mannequin improves CPR skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Gregory K; Osborne, Arayel; Greene, Charlotte H

    2016-11-29

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has traditionally involved classroom-based courses or, more recently, home-based video self-instruction. These methods typically require preparation and purchase fee; which can dissuade many potential bystanders from receiving training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching compression-only CPR to previously untrained individuals using our 6-min online CPR training video and skills practice on a homemade mannequin, reproduced by viewers with commonly available items (towel, toilet paper roll, t-shirt). Participants viewed the training video and practiced with the homemade mannequin. This was a parallel-design study with pre and post training evaluations of CPR skills (compression rate, depth, hand position, release), and hands-off time (time without compressions). CPR skills were evaluated using a sensor-equipped mannequin and two blinded CPR experts observed testing of participants. Twenty-four participants were included: 12 never-trained and 12 currently certified in CPR. Comparing pre and post training, the never-trained group had improvements in average compression rate per minute (64.3 to 103.9, p = 0.006), compressions with correct hand position in 1 min (8.3 to 54.3, p = 0.002), and correct compression release in 1 min (21.2 to 76.3, p 100/min), but an improved number of compressions with correct release (53.5 to 94.7, p 50 mm) remained problematic in both groups. Comparisons made between groups indicated significant improvements in compression depth, hand position, and hands-off time in never-trained compared to CPR-certified participants. Inter-rater agreement values were also calculated between the CPR experts and sensor-equipped mannequin. A brief internet-based video coupled with skill practice on a homemade mannequin improved compression-only CPR skills, especially in the previously untrained participants. This training method allows for widespread compression-only CPR

  10. Rescuer fatigue under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and its effect on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine H; Heggie, James; Jones, Christopher M; Thorne, Christopher J; Hulme, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Updated life-support guidelines were published by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in 2010, increasing the required depth and rate of chest compression delivery. This study sought to determine the impact of these guidelines on rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. 62 Health science students performed 5 min of conventional CPR in accordance with the 2010 ERC guidelines. A SkillReporter manikin was used to objectively assess temporal change in determinants of CPR quality. Participants subjectively reported their end-fatigue levels, using a visual analogue scale, and the point at which they believed fatigue was affecting CPR delivery. 49 (79%) participants reported that fatigue affected their CPR performance, at an average of 167 s. End fatigue averaged 49.5/100 (range 0-95). The proportion of chest compressions delivered correctly decreased from 52% in min 1 to 39% in min 5, approaching significance (p=0.071). A significant decline in chest compressions reaching the recommended depth occurred between the first (53%) and fifth (38%) min (p=0.012). Almost half this decline (6%) was between the first and second minutes of CPR. Neither chest compression rate, nor rescue breath volume, were affected by rescuer fatigue. Fatigue affects chest compression delivery within the second minute of CPR under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and is poorly judged by rescuers. Rescuers should, therefore, be encouraged to interchange after 2 min of CPR delivery. Team leaders should be advised to not rely on rescuers to self-report fatigue, and should, instead, monitor for its effects.

  11. Comparison of team-focused CPR vs standard CPR in resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Results from a statewide quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David A; Darrell Nelson, R; Monk, Lisa; Tyson, Clark; Jollis, James G; Granger, Christopher B; Corbett, Claire; Garvey, Lee; Runyon, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Team-focused CPR (TFCPR) is a choreographed approach to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with emphasis on minimally interrupted high-quality chest compressions, early defibrillation, discourages endotracheal intubation and encourages use of the bag-valve-mask (BVM) and/or blind-insertion airway device (BIAD) with a ventilation rate of 8-10 breaths/min to minimize hyperventilation. Widespread incorporation of TFCPR in North Carolina (NC) EMS agencies began in 2011, yet its impact on outcomes is unknown. To determine whether TFCPR improves survival with good neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients compared to standard CPR. This retrospective cohort analysis of NC EMS agencies reporting data to the Cardiac Arrest Registry for Enhanced Survival (CARES) database from January 2010 to June 2014 included adult, non-traumatic OHCA with presumed cardiac etiology where EMS performed CPR or patient received defibrillation. Exclusions were arrest terminated per EMS policy or DNR. EMS agencies self-reported the TFCPR implementation dates. Patients were categorized as receiving either TFCPR or standard CPR. The primary outcome was good neurologic outcome at time of hospital discharge defined as Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1-2. Of 14,994 OHCAs, 14,129 patients were included for analysis with a mean age 65 (IQR 50-81) years, 61% male, 7.3% with good neurologic outcome, 24.3% with shockable initial rhythm, and 71.5% receiving TFCPR. Of the 3427 (24.3%) with an initial shockable rhythm, 739 (71.9%) had a good neurological outcome. Good neurologic outcome was higher with TFCPR [836 (8.3%, 95%CI 7.7-8.8%)] vs. standard CPR [193 (4.8%, 95%CI 4.2-5.5%)]. Logistic regression controlling for demographic and arrest characteristics revealed TFCPR (OR 1.5), witnessed arrest (OR 4.3), initial shockable rhythm (OR 7.1), and in-hospital hypothermia (OR 3.3) were associated with good neurologic outcome. Mechanical CPR device (OR 0.68), CPR

  12. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival-An evaluation of 548 emergency calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPR prior ) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPR during ) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 30-day survival. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of CPR prior . This observational study evaluated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring in the Capital Region of Denmark from 01.01.2013 to 31.12.2013. OHCAs were linked to emergency medical dispatch centre records and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPR prior . The study included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPR prior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPR during group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPR prior and CPR during . Predictors positively associated with CPR prior included witnessed OHCA and healthcare professional bystanders. Predictors negatively associated with CPR prior included residential location, solitary bystanders, and bystanders related to the patient. The majority of bystander CPR (65%) was initiated during the emergency call, following dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions. Whether bystander CPR was initiated prior to emergency call versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR was not associated with ROSC or 30-day survival. Dispatcher-assisted CPR was especially beneficial for the initiation of bystander CPR in residential areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Disparities in Survival with Bystander CPR following Cardiopulmonary Arrest Based on Neighborhood Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Thakkar Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association reports the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests (OHCA is greater than 300,000 with a survival rate of 9.5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR saves one life for every 30, with a 10% decrease in survival associated with every minute of delay in CPR initiation. Bystander CPR and training vary widely by region. We conducted a retrospective study of 320 persons who suffered OHCA in South Florida over 25 months. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with increasing income (p=0.05, with a stronger disparity between low- and high-income neighborhoods (p=0.01 and p=0.03, resp.. Survival with bystander CPR was statistically greater in white- versus black-predominant neighborhoods (p=0.04. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with high- versus low-education neighborhoods (p=0.03. Neighborhoods with more high school age persons displayed the lowest survival. We discovered a significant disparity in OHCA survival within neighborhoods of low-income, black-predominance, and low-education. Reduced survival was seen in neighborhoods with larger populations of high school students. This group is a potential target for training, and instruction can conceivably change survival outcomes in these neighborhoods, closing the gap, thus improving survival for all.

  14. Implementation of a mechanical CPR device in a physician staffed HEMS - a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Simon; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Brodmann, Monika; Fop, Ernst; Masoner, Christian; Rauch, Lydia; Forti, Alessandro; Pietsch, Urs; Mair, Peter; Brugger, Hermann

    2018-04-28

    In this prospective, observational study we describe the incidence and characteristics of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases who received mechanical CPR, after the implementation of a mechanical CPR device (LUCAS 2; Physio Control, Redmond, WA, USA) in a physician staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in South Tyrol, Italy. During the study period (06/2013-04/2016), 525 OHCA cases were registered by the dispatch centre, 271 (51.6%) were assisted by HEMS. LUCAS 2 was applied in 18 (6.6%) of all HEMS-assisted OHCA patients; ten were treated with LUCAS 2 at the scene only, and eight were transported to hospital with ongoing CPR. Two (11.1%) of the 18 patients survived long term with full neurologic recovery. In seven of eight patients transferred to hospital with ongoing CPR, CPR was ceased in the emergency room without further intervention. Retrospectively, all HEMS-assisted OHCA cases were screened for proposed indication criteria for prolonged CPR. Thirteen patients fulfilled these criteria, but only two of them were transported to hospital. Based on these results, we propose a standard operating procedure for HEMS-assisted patients with refractory OHCA in a region without hospitals with ECLS capacity.

  15. Schoolchildren as BLS instructors for relatives and friends: Impact on attitude towards bystander CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroobants, Jan; Monsieurs, Koenraad; Devriendt, Bart; Dreezen, Christa; Vets, Philippe; Mols, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the impact of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) instruction by children on the attitude of people to perform bystander CPR. In 2012, children from primary and secondary school (age span 11–13 years) received a free individual CPR training package containing an inexpensive manikin and a training video. After a CPR training session by their class teacher, they were invited to teach their relatives and friends. After the training, the trainees of the children were invited to participate in a web survey, containing a test and questions about prior CPR training and about their attitude towards bystander CPR (BCPR) before and after the training. We measured the impact on the attitude to perform BCPR and the theoretical knowledge transfer by the children. A total of 4012 training packages were distributed to 72 schools of which 55 class teachers subscribed their students (n = 822) for the training programme for relatives and friends. After a validation procedure, 874 trainees of 290 children were included in the study. In comparison to trainees of secondary schoolchildren, trainees of primary schoolchildren scored better for the test as well as for a positive change of attitude towards future BCPR (P attitude towards BCPR positively. Instructing schoolchildren to teach their relatives and friends in Basic Life Support (BLS) led to a more positive attitude towards BCPR. The results were more positive with trainees from primary schoolchildren than with trainees from secondary schoolchildren.

  16. Animation-assisted CPRII program as a reminder tool in achieving effective one-person-CPR performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choa, Minhong; Cho, Junho; Choi, Young Hwan; Kim, Seungho; Sung, Ji Min; Chung, Hyun Soo

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the skill retention of two groups of lay persons, six months after their last CPR training. The intervention group was provided with animation-assisted CPRII (AA-CPRII) instruction on their cellular phones, and the control group had nothing but what they learned from their previous training. This study was a single blind randomized controlled trial. The participants' last CPR trainings were held at least six months ago. We revised our CPR animation for on-site CPR instruction content emphasizing importance of chest compression. Participants were randomized into two groups, the AA-CPRII group (n=42) and the control group (n=38). Both groups performed three cycles of CPR and their performances were video recorded. These video clips were assessed by three evaluators using a checklist. The psychomotor skills were evaluated using the ResusciAnne SkillReporter. Using the 30-point scoring checklist, the AA-CPRII group had a significantly better score compared to the control group (pCPR could be used as a reminder tool in achieving effective one-person-CPR performance. By installing the CPR instruction on cellular phones and having taught them CPR with it during the training enabled participants to perform better CPR.

  17. Mobile-phone dispatch of laypersons for CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringh, Mattias; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Hollenberg, Jacob; Jonsson, Martin; Fredman, David; Nordberg, Per; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Hasselqvist-Ax, Ingela; Riva, Gabriel; Svensson, Leif

    2015-06-11

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders is associated with increased survival rates among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated whether rates of bystander-initiated CPR could be increased with the use of a mobile-phone positioning system that could instantly locate mobile-phone users and dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR to a patient nearby with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We conducted a blinded, randomized, controlled trial in Stockholm from April 2012 through December 2013. A mobile-phone positioning system that was activated when ambulance, fire, and police services were dispatched was used to locate trained volunteers who were within 500 m of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; volunteers were then dispatched to the patients (the intervention group) or not dispatched to them (the control group). The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR before the arrival of ambulance, fire, and police services. A total of 5989 lay volunteers who were trained in CPR were recruited initially, and overall 9828 were recruited during the study. The mobile-phone positioning system was activated in 667 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: 46% (306 patients) in the intervention group and 54% (361 patients) in the control group. The rate of bystander-initiated CPR was 62% (188 of 305 patients) in the intervention group and 48% (172 of 360 patients) in the control group (absolute difference for intervention vs. control, 14 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 6 to 21; PCPR was associated with significantly increased rates of bystander-initiated CPR among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (Funded by the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and Stockholm County; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01789554.).

  18. Training hospital providers in basic CPR skills in Botswana: Acquisition, retention and impact of novel training techniques☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Peter A.; Sutton, Robert M.; Tsima, Billy; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Shilkofski, Nicole; Boulet, John R.; Davis, Amanda; Kestler, Andrew M.; Church, Kasey K.; Niles, Dana E.; Irving, Sharon Y.; Mazhani, Loeto; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Globally, one third of deaths each year are from cardiovascular diseases, yet no strong evidence supports any specific method of CPR instruction in a resource-limited setting. We hypothesized that both existing and novel CPR training programs significantly impact skills of hospital-based healthcare providers (HCP) in Botswana. Methods HCP were prospectively randomized to 3 training groups: instructor led, limited instructor with manikin feedback, or self-directed learning. Data was collected prior to training, immediately after and at 3 and 6 months. Excellent CPR was prospectively defined as having at least 4 of 5 characteristics: depth, rate, release, no flow fraction, and no excessive ventilation. GEE was performed to account for within subject correlation. Results Of 214 HCP trained, 40% resuscitate ≥1/month, 28% had previous formal CPR training, and 65% required additional skills remediation to pass using AHA criteria. Excellent CPR skill acquisition was significant (infant: 32% vs. 71%, p CPR skill retention was significant at 3 (39% vs. 70%, p CPR skills were retained to 3 months (34% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, low cognitive score and need for skill remediation, but not instruction method, impacted CPR skill performance. Conclusions HCP in resource-limited settings resuscitate frequently, with little CPR training. Using existing training, HCP acquire and retain skills, yet often require remediation. Novel techniques with increased student: instructor ratio and feedback manikins were not different compared to traditional instruction. PMID:22561463

  19. Production of a highly active, soluble form of the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR A) from Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides soluble cytochrome p450 reductase (CPR) proteins from Candida sp. having an altered N-terminal region which results in reduced hydrophobicity of the N-terminal region. Also provided are host cells comprising the subject soluble CPR proteins. In addition, the present invention provides nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences for soluble CPR proteins and vectors comprising the nucleotide sequences. Methods for producing a soluble CPR, for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid, and for detecting a cytochrome P450 are also provided.

  20. Human c-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) in blood and urine - evaluation of a radioimmunoassay method and its clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzuya, T; Matsuda, A; Saito, T; Yoshida, S

    1976-01-01

    A double-antibody radioimmunoassay method, using synthetic human connecting peptide as an immunizing antigen and standard, was evaluated for clinical assay of blood and urine samples. Normal fasting blood connecting peptide immunoreacivity (CPR) was 2.45 +- 0.96 ng/ml, increasing promptly after a 50 g oral glucose load, but somewhat slower than insulin. Molar concentration of CPR exceeded that of insulin. CPR responses to glucose were subnormal in diabetics, very low in juvenile-type cases, and often poor in patients on insulin treatment. Fasting CPR levels were elevated in patients on corticosteroid treatment and with uraemia. A patient with insulin 'auto-antibody' had high serum CPR. A considerable amount of CPR appeared in urine. Normal daily excretion of CPR was 1.52 +- 0.55 ..mu..g/kg or 55.1 +- 18.2 ng/mg creatinine. Urine CPR was very low in juvenile-type diabetics, and elevated in patients on corticosteroid treatment. The results confirm that blood and urine CPR are useful measures of the endocrine pancreatic function.

  1. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  2. Edaravone improves survival and neurological outcomes after CPR in a ventricular fibrillation model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Lei, Ling-Yan; Li, Nuo; Shi, Fangying Ruan; Chen, Meng-Hua; Xie, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Overproduction of free radicals is a main factor contributing to cerebral injury after cardiac arrest (CA)/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We sought to evaluate the impact of edaravone on the survival and neurological outcomes after CA/CPR in rats. Rats were subjected to CA following CPR. For survival study, the rats with restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were randomly allocated to one of the two groups (edaravone and saline group, n=20/each group) to received Edaravone (3 mg/kg) or normal saline. Another 10 rats without experiencing CA and CPR served as the sham group. Survival was observed for 72 hours and the neurological deficit score (NDS) was calculated at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after ROSC. For the neurological biochemical analysis study, rats were subjected to the same experimental procedures. Then, edaravone group (n=24), saline group (n=24) and sham group (n=16) were further divided into 4 subgroups according to the different time intervals (12, 24, 48, and 72 hours following ROSC). Brain tissues were harvested at relative time intervals for evaluation of oxidative stress, TUNEL staining and apoptotic gene expression. Edaravone improved postresuscitative survival time and neurological deficit, decreased brain malonylaldehyde level, increased superoxide dismutase activities, decreased proapoptotic gene expression of capase-8, capase-3, and Bax, and increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after ROSC. Edaravone improves survival and neurological outcomes following CPR via antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using a serious game to complement CPR instruction in a nurse faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Imma; Rodriguez-Benitez, Antonio; Garcia-Gonzalez, Juan Manuel; Olivet, Josep; Carreras, Vicenç; Sbert, Mateu

    2015-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid key survival technique used to stimulate breathing and keep blood flowing to the heart. Its effective administration can significantly increase the chances of survival for victims of cardiac arrest. LISSA is a serious game designed to complement CPR teaching and also to refresh CPR skills in an enjoyable way. The game presents an emergency situation in a 3D virtual environment and the player has to save the victim applying the CPR actions. In this paper, we describe LISSA and its evaluation in a population composed of 109 nursing undergraduate students enrolled in the Nursing degree of our university. To evaluate LISSA we performed a randomized controlled trial that compares the classical teaching methodology, composed of self-directed learning for theory plus laboratory sessions with a mannequin for practice, with the one that uses LISSA after self-directed learning for theory and before laboratory sessions with a mannequin. From our evaluation we observed that students using LISSA (Group 2 and 3) gave significantly better learning acquisition scores than those following traditional classes (Group 1). To evaluate the differences between students of these groups we performed a paired samples t-test between Group 1 and 2 (μ1=35, 67, μ2=47, 50 and pevaluated student performance of main steps of CPR protocol. Students that use LISSA performed better than the ones that did not use it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metronome Use for Coordination of Breaths and Cardiac Compressions Delivered by Minimally-Trained Caregivers During Two-Person CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Victor, IV; West, Sarah; Austin, Paul; Branson, Richard; Beck, George

    2005-01-01

    Astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) receive 40 hours of medical training over 18 months before each mission, including two-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (2CPR) as recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA). Recent studies have concluded that the use of metronomic tones improves the coordination of 2CPR by trained clinicians. 2CPR performance data for minimally-trained caregivers has been limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether use of a metronome by minimally-trained caregivers (CMO analogues) would improve 2CPR performance. 20 pairs of minimally-trained caregivers certified in 2CPR via AHA guidelines performed 2CPR for 4 minutes on an instrumented manikin using 3 interventions: 1) Standard 2CPR without a metronome [NONE], 2) Standard 2CPR plus a metronome for coordinating compression rate only [MET], 3) Standard 2CPR plus a metronome for coordinating both the compression rate and ventilation rate [BOTH]. Caregivers were evaluated for their ability to meet the AHA guideline of 32 breaths-240 compressions in 4 minutes. All (100%) caregivers using the BOTH intervention provided the required number of ventilation breaths as compared with the NONE caregivers (10%) and MET caregivers (0%). For compressions, 97.5% of the BOTH caregivers were not successful in meeting the AHA compression guideline; however, an average of 238 compressions of the desired 240 were completed. None of the caregivers were successful in meeting the compression guideline using the NONE and MET interventions. This study demonstrates that use of metronomic tones by minimally-trained caregivers for coordinating both compressions and breaths improves 2CPR performance. Meeting the breath guideline is important to minimize air entering the stomach, thus decreasing the likelihood of gastric aspiration. These results suggest that manifesting a metronome for the ISS may augment the performance of 2CPR on orbit and thus may

  5. How to provide around-the-clock CPR certification without losing any sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umlauf, M G

    1990-01-01

    Teaching and reviewing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to employees is an important part of the role and responsibilities of hospital nurse educators. The new teaching technologies of computer-assisted instruction and interactive video have been merged into a teaching/learning system that was tested by a rural federal hospital. Over a 2-month period, more than one third of the hospital's staff members were certified in CPR by the standards of the American Heart Association with the learning system. Ease of operation, employee enthusiasm, and easy access to the equipment were identified as important factors that contributed to the successful implementation of this innovative CPR training/review program. Additional evaluation of the system confirmed that the system was efficient, cost effective, and time-saving.

  6. Difference of reactor core nuclear instrument between AP1000 and CPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shidong; Zhou Can; Deng Tian

    2014-01-01

    As a typical generation Ⅲ reactor technique, the AP1000 applies many advanced design concepts, simplifies the design, reduces equipment quantities, and thus enhances systematic reliability. The comparison of reactor core measurement instrument differences between AP1000 and CPR1000 from several aspects was involved in the paper. Through analysis and comparison of these differences, passive design concepts and characteristics of AP1000 are familiarized, and conveniences for staffs engaged in CPR1000 to learn and grasp AP1000 technique are provided. It is useful in reactor start up, operation and maintenance. (authors)

  7. Nurses' behaviour regarding CPR and the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Trudy; Mosel Williams, Leonie

    2002-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been used in hospitals for approximately 40 years. Nurses are generally the first responders to a cardiac arrest and initiate basic life support while waiting for the advanced cardiac life support team to arrive. Speed and competence of the first responder are factors contributing to the initial survival of a person following a cardiac arrest. Attitudes of individual nurses may influence the speed and level of involvement in true emergency situations. This paper uses the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour to examine some behavioural issues with CPR involvement.

  8. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during paediatric resuscitation training: time to stop the blind leading the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshid, Muhammad; Lo, Tsz-Yan Milly; Reynolds, Fiona

    2009-05-01

    Recent evidence suggested that the quality of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during adult advanced life support training was suboptimal. This study aimed to assess the CPR quality of a paediatric resuscitation training programme, and to determine whether it was sufficiently addressed by the trainee team leaders during training. CPR quality of 20 consecutive resuscitation scenario training sessions was audited prospectively using a pre-designed proforma. A consultant intensivist and a senior nurse who were also Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) instructors assessed the CPR quality which included ventilation frequency, chest compression rate and depth, and any unnecessary interruption in chest compressions. Team leaders' response to CPR quality and elective change of compression rescuer during training were also recorded. Airway patency was not assessed in 13 sessions while ventilation rate was too fast in 18 sessions. Target compression rate was not achieved in only 1 session. The median chest compression rate was 115 beats/min. Chest compressions were too shallow in 10 sessions and were interrupted unnecessarily in 13 sessions. More than 50% of training sessions did not have elective change of the compression rescuer. 19 team leaders failed to address CPR quality during training despite all team leaders being certified APLS providers. The quality of CPR performance was suboptimal during paediatric resuscitation training and team leaders-in-training had little awareness of this inadequacy. Detailed CPR quality assessment and feedback should be integrated into paediatric resuscitation training to ensure optimal performance in real life resuscitations.

  10. A Testing Framework for Critical Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs ([1]). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.

  11. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation using a load-distributing band external cardiac support device for in-hospital cardiac arrest: a single centre experience of AutoPulse-CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, J R; White, S; Quinn, N; Gubran, C J; Ludman, P F; Townend, J N; Doshi, S N

    2015-02-01

    Poor quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) predicts adverse outcome. During invasive cardiac procedures automated-CPR (A-CPR) may help maintain effective resuscitation. The use of A-CPR following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) remains poorly described. Firstly, we aimed to assess the efficiency of healthcare staff using A-CPR in a cardiac arrest scenario at baseline, following re-training and over time (Scenario-based training). Secondly, we studied our clinical experience of A-CPR at our institution over a 2-year period, with particular emphasis on the details of invasive cardiac procedures performed, problems encountered, resuscitation rates and in-hospital outcome (AutoPulse-CPR Registry). Scenario-based training: Forty healthcare professionals were assessed. At baseline, time-to-position device was slow (mean 59 (±24) s (range 15-96s)), with the majority (57%) unable to mode-switch. Following re-training time-to-position reduced (28 (±9) s, pCPR Registry: 285 patients suffered IHCA, 25 received A-CPR. Survival to hospital discharge following conventional CPR was 28/260 (11%) and 7/25 (28%) following A-CPR. A-CPR supported invasive procedures in 9 patients, 2 of whom had A-CPR dependant circulation during transfer to the catheter lab. A-CPR may provide excellent haemodynamic support and facilitate simultaneous invasive cardiac procedures. A significant learning curve exists when integrating A-CPR into clinical practice. Further studies are required to better define the role and effectiveness of A-CPR following IHCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of bystander CPR quality during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using data derived from automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Shannon M; Vaillancourt, Christian; Morrow, Stanley; Stiell, Ian G

    2018-07-01

    Little is known regarding the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We sought to determine quality of bystander CPR provided during OHCA using CPR quality data stored by Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs). We used the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium database to identify OHCA cases of presumed cardiac etiology where an AED was utilized. We then matched AED data to each case identified. AED data was analyzed using manufacturer software in order to determine overall measures of bystander CPR quality, changes in bystander CPR quality over time, and adherence to existing 2010 Resuscitation Quality Guidelines. 100 cases of OHCA of presumed cardiac etiology involving bystander CPR and with corresponding AED data. Mean age was 62.3 years, and 75% were male. Bystanders demonstrated high-quality CPR over all minutes of resuscitation, with a chest compression fraction of 76%, a compression depth of 5.3 cm, and a compression rate of 111.2 compressions/min. Mean perishock pause was 26.8 s. Adherence rates to 2010 Resuscitation Guidelines for compression rate and depth were found to be 66% and 55%, respectively. CPR quality was lowest in the first minute, resulting from increased delay to rhythm analysis (mean 40.7 s). In cases involving shock delivery, latency from initiation of AED to shock delivery was 59.2 s. We found that bystanders perform high-quality CPR, with strong adherence rates to existing Resuscitation Guidelines. High-quality CPR is maintained over the first five minutes of resuscitation, but was lowest in the first minute. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a Brief Intervention Designed to Increase CPR Training among Pregnant Pool Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girasek, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a brief videotape could motivate pregnant pool owners to be trained in infant/child cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Women were recruited from prenatal classes in South Florida. Eligible volunteers were randomized to view a video or receive standard treatment, after completing a questionnaire. The video explained…

  14. Classroom versus Computer-Based CPR Training: A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Robb S.; Gazzillo Diaz, Linda; Middlemas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computer-based CPR training is comparable to traditional classroom training. Design and Setting: This study was quantitative in design. Data was gathered from a standardized examination and skill performance evaluation which yielded numerical scores. Subjects: The subjects were 64…

  15. CPR in the Schools: Training Students to Save Heart Attack Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Royce J.

    1978-01-01

    A community cardiac emergency medical plan should include training of family and co-workers of high risk patients, including teenage students. The American Heart Association lists ways to introduce cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) into school curricula and describes the plan implemented in Pennsylvania. (MF)

  16. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 5. CPR, Oxygen Therapy. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual, the fifth in a set of 14 modules, is designed to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Ohio. The module contains two sections covering the following course content; cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (including artificial ventilation, foreign body obstructions, adjunctive equipment and special techniques, artificial…

  17. An evaluation of designed passive Core Makeup Tank (CMT) for China pressurized reactor (CPR1000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Tian, Wenxi; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Zhang, Yapei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Only PRHRS is not sufficient to maintain reactor safety in case of SGTR accident. ► The Core Makeup Tank (CMT) is designed for CPR1000. ► Joint operation of PRHRS and CMT can keep reactor safety during the SGTR transient. ► CMT is a vital supplement for CPR1000 passive safety system design. - Abstract: Emergency Passive Safety System (EPSS) is an innovative design to improve reliability of nuclear power plants. In this work, the EPSS consists of secondary passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) and the reactor Core Makeup Tank (CMT) system. The PRHRS, which has been studied in our previous paper, can effectively remove the core residual heat and passively improve the inherent safety by passive methods. The designed CMT, representing the safety improvement for CPR1000, is used to inject cool boron-containing water into the primary system during the loss of coolant accident. In this study, the behaviors of EPSS and transient characteristics of the primary loop system during the Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accident are investigated using the nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD3.4. The results show that the designed CMT can protect the reactor primary loop from boiling and maintain primary loop coolant in single phase state. Both PRHRS and CMT operation ensures reactor safety during the SGTR accident. Results reported in this paper show that the designed CMT is a further safety improvement for CPR1000

  18. Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2013, 23 September). Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support. Presentation given during the 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps and Internet/Web 2.0 in Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research, London, UK.

  19. Accident Analysis of Chinese CPR1000 in Response to Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cilliers, Anthonie [North-West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    Stress tests required evaluation of the consequences of loss of safety functions from any initiating event (e.g., earthquake or flooding) causing loss of electrical power, including station blackout (SBO). The SBO scenario involves a loss of offsite power, failure of the redundant emergency diesel generators, failure of alternate current (AC) power restoration and the eventual degradation of the reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals resulting in a long term loss of coolant. Using PCTRAN/CPR1000, this study analyses the station blackout on a Chinese CPR1000 which is the most representative type reactor in terms of number of reactors, operating period, power capacity and geological distance from Korean Peninsula. Both the physical effects of the accidents as well as the releases of radioisotopes are calculated and discussed. Station blackout simulation was conducted in this study. The resulting effects seen are consistent with other stress test station blackout tests used utilizing licensed simulation codes. An exact comparison is however not possible as the plants on which the simulations was done vary greatly and the limitations of availability to Chinese FSAR. PCTRAN/CPR1000 is an extremely useful simulation package that provides engineers and scientists very accurate feedback to how a nuclear power plant would react as a whole under various plant conditions. It is able to do this extremely fast as well. As a training tool PCTRAN/CPR1000 provides hands-on experience with many of the primary plant operations and develops an intuitive understanding of the plant.

  20. Training and Confidence Level of Junior Anaesthetists in CPR- Experience in A Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalu Ibironke

    2008-01-01

    There is low confidence among junior anaesthetists in Nigeria in performance of CPR, poor knowledge of ECG interpretation of cardiac arrest rhythm and little practice in defibrillation. The establishment of a Resuscitation council would ensure adequate and frequent training which would improve knowledge, boost confidence and result in better patient care.

  1. Organ donation in cardiac arrest patients treated with extracorporeal CPR: A single centre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Maria Chiara; Coppo, Anna; Vargiolu, Alessia; Villa, Jacopo; Rota, Matteo; Avalli, Leonello; Citerio, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    In a consecutive cohort of cardiac arrest (CA) treated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR), we describe the incidence of brain death (BD), the eligibility for organ donation and the short-term follow-up of the transplanted organs. All refractory in- and out-of-hospital CA admitted to our Cardiac Intensive Care Unit between January 2011 and September 2016 treated with eCPR were enrolled in the study. 112 CA patients received eCPR. 82 (73.2%) died in hospital, 25 BD (22.3%) and 57 for other causes (50.9%). At the time of first neurological evaluation after rewarming, variables related to evolution to BD were a lower GCS (3 [3-3] vs. 8 [3-11], pdonation in BD patients was 56%, with 39 donated organs: 23 kidneys, 12 livers, and 4 lungs. 89.74% of the transplanted organs reached an early good functional recovery. In refractory CA patients treated with eCPR, the prevalence of BD is high. This population has a high potential for considering organ donation. Donated organs have a good outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Decarbonylated cyclophilin A Cpr1 protein protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y when exposed to stress induced by menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Sup; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Cyclophilins are conserved cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that are implicated in protein folding and function as molecular chaperones. The accumulation of Cpr1 protein to menadione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377Y suggests a possibility that this protein may participate in the mechanism of stress tolerance. Stress response of S. cerevisiae KNU5377Y cpr1Δ mutant strain was investigated in the presence of menadione (MD). The growth ability of the strain was confirmed in an oxidant-supplemented medium, and a relationship was established between diminishing levels of cell rescue enzymes and MD sensitivity. The results demonstrate the significant effect of CPR1 disruption in the cellular growth rate, cell viability and morphology, and redox state in the presence of MD and suggest the possible role of Cpr1p in acquiring sensitivity to MD and its physiological role in cellular stress tolerance. The in vivo importance of Cpr1p for antioxidant-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) neutralization and chaperone-mediated protein folding was confirmed by analyzing the expression changes of a variety of cell rescue proteins in a CPR1-disrupted strain. The cpr1Δ to the exogenous MD showed reduced expression level of antioxidant enzymes, molecular chaperones, and metabolic enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)- or adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating systems. More importantly, it was shown that cpr1Δ mutant caused imbalance in the cellular redox homeostasis and increased ROS levels in the cytosol as well as mitochondria and elevated iron concentrations. As a result of excess ROS production, the cpr1Δ mutant provoked an increase in oxidative damage and a reduction in antioxidant activity and free radical scavenger ability. However, there was no difference in the stress responses between the wild-type and the cpr1Δ mutant strains derived from S. cerevisiae BY4741 as a control strain under the same stress. Unlike BY4741, KNU5377Y Cpr1

  3. Design of the RINSE Trial: The Rapid Infusion of cold Normal Saline by paramedics during CPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Ian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH (33°C for 12-24 hours as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods/Design This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres ice-cold (4°C normal saline. The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors. Discussion This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01172678

  4. Progress Towards a Global Understanding of Plankton Dynamics: The Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, S.; Richardson, A.; Melrose, C.; Muxagata, E.; Hosie, G.; Verheye, H.; Hall, J.; Edwards, M.; Koubbi, P.; Abu-Alhaija, R.; Chiba, S.; Wilson, W.; Nagappa, R.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) was first used in 1931 to routinely sample plankton and its continued deployment now sustains the longest-running, and spatially most extensive marine biological sampling programme in the world. Towed behind, for the most part commercial, ships it collects plankton samples from the surface waters that are subsequently analysed to provide taxonomically-resolved abundance data on a broad range of planktonic organisms from the size of coccolithophores to euphausiids. Plankton appear to integrate changes in the physical environment and by underpinning most marine food-webs, pass on this variability to higher trophic levels which have societal value. CPRs are deployed increasingly around the globe in discrete regional surveys that until recently interacted in an informal way. In 2011 the Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS) was launched to bring these surveys together to collaborate more productively and address issues such as: methodological standardization, data integration, capacity building, and data analysis. Early products include a combined global database and regularly-released global marine ecological status reports. There are, of course, limitations to the exploitation of CPR data as well as the current geographic coverage. A current focus of GACS is integration of the data with models to meaningfully extrapolate across time and space. In this way the output could be used to provide more robust synoptic representations of key plankton variables. Recent years have also seen the CPR used as a platform in itself with the inclusion of additional sensors and water samplers that can sample the microplankton. The archive of samples has already been used for some molecular investigations and curation of samples is maintained for future studies. Thus the CPR is a key element of any regional to global ocean observing system of biodiversity.

  5. Cardiopulmonary Re-Immonation (CPR: How Long Should A Person Insist On Performing The Maneuvers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique José Bandeira Formiga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The study had the aim to describe the exact moment of interrupting CPR maneuvers in patients in CRP situations. Method: This is an exploratory and descriptive research, with quantitative character and approach. It was performed with 67 (seventy-seven nurses from a Regional Hospital, who were informed about the objectives of the same. There were included those who act in direct patient care; of effective position and contracted in the service; And with more than one (1 year of training. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire, previously elaborated, containing objective, subjective and non-inductive questions, which allowed the informant to answer the data pertinent to the study. It was found that the majority of the interviewees were women, aged between 31 and 35 years, specialists, with more than 4 years of training and 3 years of service, medical / surgical clinic attendees, and without reports of training. Results: They demonstrated they know the exact timing of CPR maneuvers but reported that they would not apply CPR in situations in which the patient had cadaveric stiffness, decomposition, crushing of the skull and thorax, or a CPA report of more than 20 minutes. Faced with conditions in which the team could decide not to perform CPR, they reported not applying CPR in the vegetative state, in terminal or chronic patients. Conclusion: Therefore, they conclude that the said moment of interrupting the protocol is determined in a personal and ethical way, that is, by the individuality of each situation. Keywords: Nurses. Cardiovascular Stop. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  6. VLBA DETERMINATION OF THE DISTANCE TO NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS. VI. THE DISTANCE TO THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT HW 9 IN CEPHEUS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio; Loinard, Laurent; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Torres, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), we have observed the radio continuum emission from the young stellar object HW 9 in the Cepheus A star-forming region at 10 epochs between 2007 February and 2009 November. Due to its strong radio variability, the source was detected at only four of the ten epochs. From these observations, the trigonometric parallax of HW 9 was determined to be π = 1.43 ± 0.07 mas, in excellent agreement with a recent independent determination by Moscadelli et al. of the trigonometric parallax of a methanol maser associated with the nearby young stellar source HW 2 (π = 1.43 ± 0.08 mas). This concordance in results, obtained in one case from continuum and in the other from line observations, confirms the reliability of VLBA trigonometric parallax measurements. By combining the two results, we constrain the distance to Cepheus A to be 700 +31 - 28 pc, an uncertainty of 3.5%.

  7. Two-thumb technique is superior to two-finger technique during lone rescuer infant manikin CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udassi, Sharda; Udassi, Jai P; Lamb, Melissa A; Theriaque, Douglas W; Shuster, Jonathan J; Zaritsky, Arno L; Haque, Ikram U

    2010-06-01

    Infant CPR guidelines recommend two-finger chest compression with a lone rescuer and two-thumb with two rescuers. Two-thumb provides better chest compression but is perceived to be associated with increased ventilation hands-off time. We hypothesized that lone rescuer two-thumb CPR is associated with increased ventilation cycle time, decreased ventilation quality and fewer chest compressions compared to two-finger CPR in an infant manikin model. Crossover observational study randomizing 34 healthcare providers to perform 2 min CPR at a compression rate of 100 min(-1) using a 30:2 compression:ventilation ratio comparing two-thumb vs. two-finger techniques. A Laerdal Baby ALS Trainer manikin was modified to digitally record compression rate, compression depth and compression pressure and ventilation cycle time (two mouth-to-mouth breaths). Manikin chest rise with breaths was video recorded and later reviewed by two blinded CPR instructors for percent effective breaths. Data (mean+/-SD) were analyzed using a two-tailed paired t-test. Significance was defined qualitatively as pCPR, but there was no significant difference in percent effective breaths delivered between the two techniques. Two-thumb CPR had 4 fewer delivered compressions per minute, which may be offset by far more effective compression depth and compression pressure compared to two-finger technique. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of whole body CT to detect patterns of CPR-related injuries after sudden cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Gregor M; Perez-Girbes, Alexandre; Bolster, Ferdia; Sheehan, Kellie; Linnau, Ken F

    2017-11-09

    We have recently implemented a dedicated sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) - whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) protocol to evaluate SCA patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this study is to evaluate the number and pattern of CPR-related injuries in ROSC patients with SCA-WBCT. Single-centre retrospective review of 39 patients (13 female; 20 male, mean age 51.8 years) with non-traumatic, out-of-hospital SCA and ROSC and evaluation with dedicated SCA-WBCT over a 10-month period. In-hospital mortality was 54%. CPR-related injuries were detected in 85% (33/39). Chest injuries were most common on WBCT: 85% (33) subjects had rib fractures (mean of 8.5 fractures/subject); 31% (12) sternal fractures; 13% (5) mediastinal haematoma; 10% (4) pneumothorax; 8% (3) pneumomediastinum and 3% (1) haemothorax. Three subjects (8%) had abdominal injuries on WBCT, including one hepatic haematoma with active haemorrhage. CPR-related injuries on WBCT after ROSC are common, with serial rib fractures detected most commonly. An unexpectedly high rate of abdominal injuries was detected on SCA-WBCT. Radiologists need to be attuned to the spectrum of CPR-related injuries in WBCT, including abdominal injuries and subtle rib fractures. • CPR frequently causes injuries. • Radiologists should be aware of the spectrum of CPR related injuries. • Rib fractures are frequent and radiologic findings often subtle. • Clinically unexpected abdominal injuries may be present.

  9. Use of impedance threshold device in conjunction with our novel adhesive glove device for ACD-CPR does not result in additional chest decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Andre; Udassi, Sharda; Porvasnik, Stacy L; Lamb, Melissa A; Badugu, Srinivasarao; Venkata, Giridhar Kaliki; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Haque, Ikram U; Zaritsky, Arno L; Udassi, Jai P

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of using an adhesive glove device (AGD) to perform active compression-decompression CPR (AGD-CPR) in conjunction with an impedance threshold device (ITD) in a pediatric cardiac arrest model. Controlled, randomized animal study. In this study, 18 piglets were anesthetized, ventilated, and continuously monitored. After 3min of untreated ventricular fibrillation, animals were randomized (6/group) to receive either standard CPR (S-CPR), active compression-decompression CPR via adhesive glove device (AGD-CPR) or AGD-CPR along with an ITD (AGD-CPR+ITD) for 2min at 100-120compressions/min. AGD is delivered using a fingerless leather glove with a Velcro patch on the palmer aspect and the counter Velcro patch adhered to the pig's chest. Data (mean±SD) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with pair wise multiple comparisons to assess differences between groups. p-Value≤0.05 was considered significant. Both AGD-CPR and AGD-CPR+ITD groups produced lower intrathoracic pressure (IttP, mmHg) during decompression phase (-13.4±6.7, p=0.01 and -11.9±6.5, p=0.01, respectively) in comparison to S-CPR (-0.3±4.2). Carotid blood flow (CBF, % of baseline mL/min) was higher in AGD-CPR and AGD-CPR+ITD (respectively 64.3±47.3%, p=0.03 and 67.5±33.1%, p=0.04) as compared with S-CPR (29.1±12.5%). Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP, mmHg) was higher in AGD-CPR and AGD-CPR+ITD (respectively 19.7±4.6, p=0.04 and 25.6±12.1, p=0.02) when compared to S-CPR (9.6±9.1). There was no statistically significant difference between AGD-CPR and AGD-CPR+ITD groups with reference to intra-thoracic pressure, carotid blood flow and coronary perfusion pressure. Active compression decompression delivered by this simple and inexpensive adhesive glove device resulted in improved cerebral blood flow and coronary perfusion pressure. There was no statistically significant added effect of ITD use along with AGD-CPR on the decompression of the chest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  10. Développement d'architectures HW/SW tolérantes aux fautes et auto-calibrantes pour les technologies Intégrées 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Pasca , Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    3D technology promises energy-efficient heterogeneous integrated systems, which may open the way to thousands cores chips. Silicon dies containing processing elements are stacked and connected by vertical wires called Through-Silicon-Vias. In 3D chips, interconnecting an increasing number of processing elements requires a scalable high-performance interconnect solution: the 3D Network-on-Chip. Despite the advantages of 3D integration, testing, reliability and yield remain the major challenges...

  11. Considering the CPR Decision Through the Lens of Prospect Theory in the Context of Advanced Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2017-02-01

    It is common for people with advanced chronic illness to have many health care providers and many health care-related visits. It is also common, during those visits, to be asked whether attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are desired, in the event of cardiac arrest. Although the question is common, the implications of a "yes" or a "no" may not be well understood. Although CPR can be a life-saving procedure, it is not always in the patient's best interest. This article discusses experiences with CPR of 2 older women (and their adult children) during their last years of life, and uses concepts from prospect theory to make suggestions for changes in the way health care providers and patients approach advance care planning including the CPR decision. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Effects of Visual Feedback on CPR Skill Retention in Graduate Student Athletic Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies examining the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR chest compressions have found compression depth and rate to be less than optimal and recoil to full release to be incomplete. Objective: To determine if visual feedback affects the rate and depth of chest compressions and chest recoil values during CPR training of athletic trainers and to determine retention of proficiency over time. Design: Pre-test, post-test. Setting: Medical simulation laboratory. Participants: Eleven females and one male (23.08+.51 years old, from an Athletic Training Graduate Program. All participants were Certified Athletic Trainers (1.12+.46 years of experience and certified in CPR for the Professional Rescuer. Interventions: Participants completed a pre-test, practice sessions, and a post-test on a SimMan® (Laerdal Medical manikin with visual feedback of skills in real time. After the pre-test, participants received feedback by the investigators. Participants completed practice sessions as needed (range=1-4 sessions, until they reached 100% skill proficiency. After achieving proficiency, participants returned 8 weeks later to perform the CPR skills. Main Outcome Measures: The average of all compression outcome measures (rate, depth, recoil was captured every 10 seconds (6x per min. All participants performed 5 cycles of 30 compressions. A two-tailed paired samples t-test (pre to post was used to compare rate of chest compressions, depth of chest compressions, and recoil of the chest. Significance was set a priori at pResults: There was a significant difference between pre and post-test compression depth average, p=.002. The pre-depth average was 41mm + 9.83mm compared to the post-depth average of 52.26mm + 5mm. There were no significant differences between pre and post-test chest compression rates and recoil. Conclusions: The use of a simulated manikin with visual feedback facilitated participants to reach the recommended compression

  13. Evaluation of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) for Patient Outcomes and their Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Swati; Grewal, Anju; Gautam, Parshotam L; Luthra, Neeru; Tanwar, Gayatri; Kaur, Amarpreet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac arrest continues to be a common cause of in-hospital deaths. Even small improvements in survival can translate into thousands of lives saved every year. Aim The aim of our prospective observational study was to elicit the outcomes and predictors of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation among adult patients. Settings and Design All in-hospital adult patients (age >14) who suffered cardiac arrest & were attended by a Code Blue Team between 1st January 2012 & 30th April 2013 were part of the study. Materials and Methods The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was assessed in terms of: Response time, Presenting initial rhythm, Time to first defibrillation, Duration of CPR and Outcome (Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at discharge). Statistical Analysis Age, GOS and mean response time were analysed using t-test and ANOVA. Logistic regression was applied to determine the significance of the various factors in determining mortality. Results ROSC was achieved in 44% of a total of 127 patients included in our study. Asystole/Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) was the most common presenting rhythm (87.5%). The survival to discharge was seen in 7.1% patients of whom only 3.9% patients had good neurological outcome. Regression and survival analysis depicted achievement of ROSC during CPR, absence of co-morbidities and shorter response time of code blue team as predictors of good outcome. Conclusion We found poor outcome of CPR after in-hospital cardiac arrest. This was mainly attributed to an initial presenting rhythm of Asystole/PEA in most cases and delayed response times. PMID:26894150

  14. Can the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) predict intrapartum fetal compromise? : a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Ann-Sophie; Page, Geert; Dehaene, Isabelle; Roets, Ellen; Roelens, Kristien

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential clinical use of serial fetal CPR measurements during the last month of pregnancy for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in unselected low-risk pregnancies. Methods: A multicenter prospective observational cohort study in 315 consecutively recruited low-risk pregnancies. All eligible pregnancies underwent serial sonographic evaluation of fetal weight and Doppler indices at two week intervals, from 36 weeks gestation until delivery. Data were ...

  15. Training and Confidence Level of Junior Anaesthetists in CPR- Experience in A Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Desalu Ibironke; O Oyedepo Olanrewaju; J Olatosi Olutola

    2008-01-01

    Training in resuscitation is done worldwide by a dedicated council who is responsible for training and frequent recertification. Nigeria has no Resuscitation council and training is the responsibility of individual health institutions. There is no mandatory law on resuscitation training or recertification. This study sought to investigate how much training in CPR occurs, how effective this training is and how confident our anaesthetic trainees are in implementing present guidelines. A deta...

  16. Simulation of advanced accumulator and its application in CPR1000 LBLOCA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongwei; Shan, Jianqiang; Gou, Junli; Cao, Jianhua; Shen, Yonggang; Fu, Xiangang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis model was developed for advanced accumulator. • The sensitivity analysis of each key parameter was performed. • The LBLOCA was analyzed for the CPR1000 with advanced accumulator. • The analysis shows that advanced accumulator can improve CPR1000 safety performance. - Abstract: The advanced accumulator is designed to improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000 by providing a small injection flow to keep the reactor core in flooded condition. Thus, the core still stays in a cooling state without the intervention of low pressure safety injection and the startup grace time of the low pressure safety injection pump can be greatly extended. A new model for the advanced accumulator, which is based on the basic conservation equations, is developed and incorporated into RELAP5/MOD 3.3. The simulation of the advanced accumulator can be carried out and results show that the behavior of the advanced accumulator satisfied its primary design target. There is a large flow in the advanced accumulator at the initial stage. When the accumulator water level is lower than the stand pipe, a vortex appears in the damper, which results in a large pressure drop and a small flow. And then the sensitivity analysis is performed and the major factors which affected the flow rate of the advanced accumulator were obtained, including the damper diameter, the initial volume ratio of the water and the nitrogen and the diameter ratio of the standpipe and the small pipe. Additionally, the primary coolant loop cold leg double-ended guillotine break LBLOCA in CPR1000 with advanced accumulator is analyzed. The results show that the criterion for maximum cladding temperature limit (1477 K) (NRC, 1992) can be met ever with 200 s after the startup of the low pressure safety injection. From this point of view, passive advanced accumulator can strive a longer grace time for LPSI. Thus the reliability, safety and economy of the reactor system can be improved

  17. An Appropriate Compression Pace is Important for Securing the Quality of Hands-only CPR : A manikin study

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ishikawa, Masami; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Oue, Kana; Yoshinaka, Taiga; Kurihara, Hidemi; Irifune, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    It is important to implement good quality chest compressions for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This manikin study examined the effects of different compression rates on chest compression depth variables using a metronome sound guide. Fifty sixth-year dentistry students participated in the study. Each participant performed CPR at 3 different compression rates, 110, 100, and 90 compressions per min (pace-110-g, pace-100-g, and pace-90-g) for 2 consecutive one-minute sets with a ten-secon...

  18. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straney, Lahn D; Bray, Janet E; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008-2010 to 68.6% in 2010-2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates.

  19. Prevention of oral bacterial flora transmission by using mouth-to-mask ventilation during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydulka, R K; Connor, P J; Myers, T F; Pavza, G; Parker, M

    1991-01-01

    The Emergency Cardiac Care Committee of the American Heart Association has recently recommended utilizing protective barrier precautions during CPR (1,2). We assessed 17 mask and faceshield resuscitation devices for adequacy of barrier protection. Eight of the devices were faceshields (CPR Microshield, Hygenic, MedCare Mask, Resusci, Samaritan, Sealeasy, Portex); 8 were mask devices (Laerdal, Dyna Med, MTM Emergency Lung Ventilator, MTM Emergency Resuscitator, Res-Q-Flo, Rightway Mouth-to-Mask Resuscitation, Trufit), and one of the devices did not meet the criteria for either faceshield or mask (Lifesaver). All masks were disinfected, applied to the investigator's face as directed by the manufacturers' instructions, and then cultured for oral aerobic bacterial flora on the rescuer side. No mask devices cultured positive for oral aerobic bacterial flora, while 6 of 8 faceshield devices cultured positive for oral aerobic bacterial flora (P less than 0.007). The CPR Microshield and the Portex faceshield were the only devices that did not develop a positive culture. We conclude that all ventilation devices with a one-way valve, except the Sealeasy device, provide adequate barrier type protection from oral aerobic bacterial flora when simulating mouth-to-barrier type protection when performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

  20. Computer-Based CPR Simulation Towards Validation of AHA/ERC Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Alka Rachel; Manivannan, M; Ramakrishnan, T V

    2017-06-01

    As per the AHA 2015 and ERC 2015 guidelines for resuscitation, chest compression depth should be between 5 and 6 cm with a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute. Theoretical validation of these guidelines is still elusive. We developed a computer model of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) system to validate these guidelines. A lumped element computer model of the cardiovascular system was developed to simulate cardiac arrest and CPR. Cardiac output was compared for a range of compression pressures and frequencies. It was observed from our investigation that there is an optimum compression pressure and rate. The maximum cardiac output occurred at 100 mmHg, which is approximately 5.7 cm, and in the range of 100 to 120 compressions per minute with an optimum value at 110 compressions per minute, validating the guidelines. Increasing the pressure or the depth of compression beyond the optimum, limits the blood flow by depleting the volume in the cardiac chambers and not allowing for an effective stroke volume. Similarly increasing the compression rate beyond the optimum degrades the ability of the chambers to pump blood. The results also bring out the importance of complete recoil of the chest after each compression with more than 400% increase in cardiac output from 90% recoil to 100% recoil. Our simulation predicts that the recommendation to compress harder and faster is not the best counsel as there is an optimum compression pressure and rate for high-quality CPR.

  1. Analysis of small break loss of coolant accident for Chinese CPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cilier, Anthonie [North-West University, Mahikeng (South Africa); Poc, Li-chi Cliff [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville (United States)

    2016-05-15

    This research analyses the small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) on a Chinese CPR1000 type reactor. LOCA accident is used as benchmark for the PCTRAN/CPR1000 code by comparing the effects and results to the Manshaan FSAR accident analysis. LOCA is a design basis accident in which a guillotine break is postulated to occur in one of the cold legs of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Consequently, the primary system pressure would drop and almost all the reactor coolant would be discharged into the reactor containment. The drop in pressure would activate the reactor protection system and the reactor would trip. The simulation of a 3-inch small break loss of coolant accident using the PCTRAN/CPR1000 has revealed this code's effectiveness as well as weaknesses in specific simulation applications. The code has the ability to run at 16 times real time and produce very accurate results. The results are consistently producing the same trends as licensed codes used in Safety Assessment Reports. It is however able to produce these results in a fraction of the time and also provides a whole plant simulation coupling the various thermal, hydraulic, chemical and neutronic systems together with a plant specific control system.

  2. Effect of a reminder video using a mobile phone on the retention of CPR and AED skills in lay responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Shon, You Dong; Park, Seung Min; Kang, Ku Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Skills related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) use by lay responders decay rapidly after training, and efforts are required to maintain competence among trainees. We examined whether repeated viewing of a reminder video on a mobile phone would be an effective means of maintaining CPR and AED skills in lay responders. In a single-blind case-control study, 75 male students received training in CPR and AED use. They were allocated either to the control or to the video-reminded group, who received a memory card containing a video clip about CPR and AED use for their mobile phone, which they were repeatedly encouraged to watch by SMS text message. CPR and AED skills were assessed in scenario format by examiners immediately and 3 months after initial training. Three months after initial training, the video-reminded group showed more accurate airway opening (PCPR after defibrillation (PCPR confidence scores and increased willingness to perform bystander CPR in cardiac arrest than the controls at 3 months (PCPR and AED skills in lay responders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Plant Immunity Regulating F-Box Protein CPR1 Supports Plastid Function in Absence of Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hedtmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The redox imbalanced 6 mutant (rimb6 of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated in a genetic screening approach for mutants with defects in chloroplast-to-nucleus redox signaling. It has an atypically low activation status of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin-A promoter in the seedling stage. rimb6 shows wildtype-like germination, seedling development and greening, but slower growth and reduced biomass in the rosette stage. Mapping of the casual mutation revealed that rimb6 carries a single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED (PR GENES 1, CPR1 (At4g12560, leading to a premature stop codon. CPR1 is known as a repressor of pathogen signaling and regulator of microtubule organization. Allelism of rimb6 and cpr1 revealed a function of CPR1 in chloroplast stress protection. Expression studies in pathogen signaling mutants demonstrated that CPR1-mediated activation of genes for photosynthesis and chloroplast antioxidant protection is, in contrast to activation of pathogen responses, regulated independently from PAD4-controlled salicylic acid (SA accumulation. We conclude that the support of plastid function is a basic, SA-independent function of CPR1.

  4. The effect of step stool use and provider height on CPR quality during pediatric cardiac arrest: A simulation-based multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Lin, Yiqun; Nadkarni, Vinay; Wan, Brandi; Duff, Jonathan; Brown, Linda; Bhanji, Farhan; Kessler, David; Tofil, Nancy; Hecker, Kent; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether a) step stool use is associated with improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality; b) provider adjusted height is associated with improved CPR quality; and if associations exist, c) determine whether just-in-time (JIT) CPR training and/or CPR visual feedback attenuates the effect of height and/or step stool use on CPR quality. We analysed data from a trial of simulated cardiac arrests with three study arms: No intervention; CPR visual feedback; and JIT CPR training. Step stool use was voluntary. We explored the association between 1) step stool use and CPR quality, and 2) provider adjusted height and CPR quality. Adjusted height was defined as provider height + 23 cm (if step stool was used). Below-average height participants were ≤ gender-specific average height; the remainder were above average height. We assessed for interaction between study arm and both adjusted height and step stool use. One hundred twenty-four subjects participated; 1,230 30-second epochs of CPR were analysed. Step stool use was associated with improved compression depth in below-average (female, p=0.007; male, pstep stool use (pStep stool use is associated with improved compression depth regardless of height. Increased provider height is associated with improved compression depth, with visual feedback attenuating the effects of height and step stool use.

  5. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P. M.

    2013-02-21

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.

  6. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-16

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  7. Association between oxidative stress index and post-CPR early mortality in cardiac arrest patients: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Hasan; Türkdoğan, Kenan Ahmet; Zorlu, Ali; Aydın, Hüseyin; Kurt, Recep; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of lifesaving actions that improve the chance of survival following cardiac arrest (CA). Many clinical and laboratory parameters, such as the presence of asystole, out-of-hospital CPR, and duration of cardiac arrest, are associated with failed CPR in patients with CA. Asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, along with the absence of contractions of the myocardium and absence of cardiac output. Oxidative stress index (OSI), which is the ratio of total oxidative status to total antioxidant status, increases by ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated whether OSI levels in patients with CA could predict early mortality after CPR. This study has a prospective observational cohort design. Five patients with a history of cancer, four patients who developed hemolysis in their blood, six patients who were transferred to our hospital from other hospitals, and six patients in whom blood samples for OSI could not be stored properly were excluded. Finally, a total of 90 in-hospital or out-of-hospital CA patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as the control group were evaluated prospectively. The patients were classified according to the CPR response into a successful group (n=46) and a failed group (n=44). Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis by Tukey's HSD or independent samples t-test and the Kruskal-Wallis tests or Mann- Whitney U test for normally and abnormally distributed data, respectively. Also, we used chi-square test, Spearman's correlation test, univariate and multible logistic regression analyses, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. OSI was 3.0±4.0, 5.6±4.3, and 8.7±3.8 in the control group, the successful CPR group, and the failed CPR group, respectively (pOSI on admission, ischemia-modified albumin, presence of asystole, mean duration of cardiac arrest, out-of-hospital CPR, pH, and potassium and sodium levels were

  8. The impact of CPR and AED training on healthcare professionals' self-perceived attitudes to performing resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källestedt Marie-Louise

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professionals have shown concern about performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation due to the risks to themselves with the procedure. However, little is known about healthcare professionals' fears and attitudes to start CPR and the impact of training. Objective To examine whether there were any changes in the attitudes among healthcare professionals to performing CPR from before to after training. Methods Healthcare professionals from two Swedish hospitals were asked to answer a questionnaire before and after training. The questions were relating to physical and mental discomfort and attitudes to CPR. Statistical analysis used was generalized McNemar's test. Results Overall, there was significant improvement in 10 of 11 items, reflecting various aspects of attitudes to CPR. All groups of health care professionals (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses, and "others" = physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social welfare officers, psychologists, biomedical analysts felt more secure in CPR knowledge after education. In other aspects, such as anxiety prior to a possible cardiac arrest, only nurses and assistant nurses improved. The concern about being infected, when performing mouth to mouth ventilation, was reduced with the most marked reduction in physicians (75%; P Conclusion In this hospital-based setting, we found a positive outcome of education and training in CPR concerning healthcare professionals' attitudes to perform CPR. They felt more secure in their knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In some aspects of attitudes to resuscitation nurses and assistant nurses appeared to be the groups that were most markedly influenced. The concern of being infected by a disease was low.

  9. Effects of bystander CPR following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on hospital costs and long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geri, Guillaume; Fahrenbruch, Carol; Meischke, Hendrika; Painter, Ian; White, Lindsay; Rea, Thomas D; Weaver, Marcia R

    2017-06-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with a greater likelihood of survival to hospital discharge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However the long-term survival benefits in relationship to cost have not been well-studied. We evaluated bystander CPR, hospital-based costs, and long-term survival following OHCA in order to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of bystander CPR. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive EMS-treated OHCA patients >=12years who arrested prior to EMS arrival and outside a nursing facility between 2001 and 2010 in greater King County, WA. Utstein-style information was obtained from the EMS registry, including 5-year survival. Costs from the OHCA hospitalization were obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cost effectiveness was based on hospital costs divided by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for a 5-year follow-up window. Of the 4448 eligible patients, 18.5% (n=824) were discharged alive from hospital and 12.1% (n=539) were alive at 5 years. Five-year survival was higher in patients who received bystander CPR (14.3% vs. 8.7%, pbystander CPR. The average (SD) total cost of the initial acute care hospitalization was USD 19,961 (40,498) for all admitted patients and USD 75,175 (52,276) for patients alive at year 5. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with bystander CPR was USD 48,044 per QALY. Based on this population-based investigation, bystander CPR was positively associated with long-term survival and appears cost-effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Corpuls cpr resuscitation device generates superior emulated flows and pressures than LUCAS II in a mechanical thorax model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, S; Mendoza Garcia, A; Polski, M; Spindler, J; Stroh, A; Heller, M; Lange, R; Krane, M

    2017-06-01

    The provision of sufficient chest compression is among the most important factors influencing patient survival during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). One approach to optimize the quality of chest compressions is to use mechanical-resuscitation devices. The aim of this study was to compare a new device for chest compression (corpuls cpr) with an established device (LUCAS II). We used a mechanical thorax model consisting of a chest with variable stiffness and an integrated heart chamber which generated blood flow dependent on the compression depth and waveform. The method of blood-flow generation could be changed between direct cardiac-compression mode and thoracic-pump mode. Different chest-stiffness settings and compression modes were tested to generate various blood-flow profiles. Additionally, an endurance test at high stiffness was performed to measure overall performance and compression consistency. Both resuscitation machines were able to compress the model thorax with a frequency of 100/min and a depth of 5 cm, independent of the chosen chest stiffness. Both devices passed the endurance test without difficulty. The corpuls cpr device was able to generate about 10-40% more blood flow than the LUCAS II device, depending on the model settings. In most scenarios, the corpuls cpr device also generated a higher blood pressure than the LUCAS II. The peak compression forces during CPR were about 30% higher using the corpuls cpr device than with the LUCAS II. In this study, the corpuls cpr device had improved blood flow and pressure outcomes than the LUCAS II device. Further examination in an animal model is required to prove the findings of this preliminary study.

  11. The effectiveness of CPR training during anesthesia internship rotation on improvement of interns, knowledge and clinical skills of Lorestan university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sepideh Vahabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Since only the correct and effective Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR can increase the survival of patients with cardiopulmonary arrest, the aim of this study is to determine the effects of CPR training in the anesthetioligy ward to improve CPR knowledge and clinical skills of interns of Lorestan university of medical sciences. Materials and Methods : A 10-month Educational experimental study was done on 31 undergraduate medical students at Lorestan university of medical sciences in 2013. During a period of 15 days of anesthesiology internship course, all these students underwent CPR training including Basic Life Support ( BLS , Advanced Cardiac Life Support ( ACLS and practical skills. Data were collected via a questionnaire with 4 parts including demographic, pre and post knowledge and skills as standpoint of interns and ward,s professor. Results: After training the mean of score about knowledge of CPR and its practical skills significantly increased from 5.68 to 7.94 and 10.65 to 23.45 respectivly (PV=0.0001 . A significant relationship between preinternship exam score and knowledge of CPR before anesthesiology internship course was shown (PV=0.001, but there was no significant relationship with practical skills score pre and post CPR training in anesthesilogy ward.(PV=0.38 Conclusion: The CPR training course in anesthetiology ward leads to significant increase in CPR skills and Knowledge of medical interns. Adding this course to undergraduated medical students is essential

  12. CPR performance in the presence of audiovisual feedback or football shoulder pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shota; Rodrigues, Wayne; Sotir, Susan; Sagisaka, Ryo; Tanaka, Hideharu

    2017-01-01

    The initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be complicated by the use of protective equipment in contact sports, and the rate of success in resuscitating the patient depends on the time from incident to start of CPR. The aim of our study was to see if (1) previous training, (2) the presence of audiovisual feedback and (3) the presence of football shoulder pads (FSP) affected the quality of chest compressions. Six basic life support certified athletic training students (BLS-ATS), six basic life support certified emergency medical service personnel (BLS-EMS) and six advanced cardiac life support certified emergency medical service personnel (ACLS-EMS) participated in a crossover manikin study. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used to measure the chest compression depth (cm), rate (cpm), depth accuracy (%) and rate accuracy (%) on four different conditions by using feedback and/or FSP. Real CPR Help manufactured by ZOLL (Chelmsford, Massachusetts, USA) was used for the audiovisual feedback. Three participants from each group performed 2 min of chest compressions at baseline first, followed by compressions with FSP, with feedback and with both FSP and feedback (FSP+feedback). The other three participants from each group performed compressions at baseline first, followed by compressions with FSP+feedback, feedback and FSP. CPR performance did not differ between the groups at baseline (median (IQR), BLS-ATS: 5.0 (4.4-6.1) cm, 114(96-131) cpm; BLS-EMS: 5.4 (4.1-6.4) cm, 112(99-131) cpm; ACLS-EMS: 6.4 (5.7-6.7) cm, 138(113-140) cpm; depth p=0.10, rate p=0.37). A statistically significant difference in the percentage of depth accuracy was found with feedback (median (IQR), 13.8 (0.9-49.2)% vs 69.6 (32.3-85.8)%; p=0.0002). The rate accuracy was changed from 17.1 (0-80.7)% without feedback to 59.2 (17.3-74.3)% with feedback (p=0.50). The use of feedback was effective for depth accuracy, especially in the BLS-ATS group, regardless of the

  13. Functions of standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshan, Meng; Lin, Zhao; Wenqing, Liu; Chunlei, Lu; Yongqiang, Liu; Naiyi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a sudden emergency procedure that requires a rapid and efficient response, and personnel training in lifesaving procedures. Regular practice and training are necessary to improve resuscitation skills and reduce anxiety among the staff. As one of the most important skills mastered by medical volunteers serving for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, we randomly selected some of them to evaluate the quality of CPR operation and compared the result with that of the untrained doctors and nurses. In order to evaluate the functions of repeating standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, their performance qualities of CPR were compared with those of the untrained medical workers working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian. The CPR performance qualities of 52 medical volunteers (Standard Training Group), who had continually taken part in standard CPR technical training for six months, were tested at random and were compared with those of 68 medical workers (Compared Group) working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian who hadn't attended CPR training within a year. The QCPR 3535 monitor (provided by Philips Company) was used to measure the standard degree of single simulated CPR performance, including the chest compression depth, frequency, released pressure between compressions and performance time of compression and ventilation, the results of which were recorded in the table and the number of practical compression per minute was calculated. The data were analyzed by x2 Test and t Test. The factors which would influence CPR performance, including gender, age, placement, hand skill, posture of compression and frequency of training, were classified and given parameters, and were put to Logistic repression analysis. The CPR performance qualities of volunteers were much higher than those of the compared group. The overall pass rates

  14. CPR in medical schools: learning by teaching BLS to sudden cardiac death survivors – a promising strategy for medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herkner Harald

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training is gaining more importance for medical students. There were many attempts to improve the basic life support (BLS skills in medical students, some being rather successful, some less. We developed a new problem based learning curriculum, where students had to teach CPR to cardiac arrest survivors in order to improve the knowledge about life support skills of trainers and trainees. Methods Medical students who enrolled in our curriculum had to pass a 2 semester problem based learning session about the principles of cardiac arrest, CPR, BLS and defibrillation (CPR-D. Then the students taught cardiac arrest survivors who were randomly chosen out of a cardiac arrest database of our emergency department. Both, the student and the Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD survivor were asked about their skills and knowledge via questionnaires immediately after the course. The questionnaires were then used to evaluate if this new teaching strategy is useful for learning CPR via a problem-based-learning course. The survey was grouped into three categories, namely "Use of AED", "CPR-D" and "Training". In addition, there was space for free answers where the participants could state their opinion in their own words, which provided some useful hints for upcoming programs. Results This new learning-by-teaching strategy was highly accepted by all participants, the students and the SCD survivors. Most SCD survivors would use their skills in case one of their relatives goes into cardiac arrest (96%. Furthermore, 86% of the trainees were able to deal with failures and/or disturbances by themselves. On the trainer's side, 96% of the students felt to be well prepared for the course and were considered to be competent by 96% of their trainees. Conclusion We could prove that learning by teaching CPR is possible and is highly accepted by the students. By offering a compelling appreciation of what CPR can achieve in using

  15. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the prospect of E-CPR in the Maastricht region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A S; Pijls, R W M; Weerwind, P W; Delnoij, T S R; de Jong, W C; Gorgels, A P M; Maessen, J G

    2016-02-01

    The current outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in the Maastricht region was analysed with the prospect of implementing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR). A retrospective analysis of adult patients who were resuscitated for OHCA during a 24-month period was performed. 195 patients (age 66 [57-75] years, 82 % male) were resuscitated for OHCA by the emergency medical services and survived to admission at the emergency department. Survival to hospital discharge was 46.2 %. Notable differences between non-survivors and survivors were observed and included: age (70 [58-79] years) vs. (63 [55-72] years, p = 0.01), chronic heart failure (18 vs. 7 %, p = 0.02), shockable rhythm (67 vs. 99 %, p < 0.01), and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) at departure from the site of the arrest (46 vs. 99 %, p < 0.01) and on arrival to the emergency department (43 vs. 98 %, p < 0.01), respectively. Acute coronary syndrome was diagnosed in 32 % of non-survivors vs. 59 % among survivors, p < 0.01. Therapeutic hypothermia was provided in non-survivors (20 %) vs. survivors (43 %), p < 0.01. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed in 14 % of non-survivors while 52 % of survivors received PCI (p < 0.01). No statistical significance was observed in terms of gender, witnessed arrest, bystander CPR, or automated external defibrillator deployed among the cohort. At hospital discharge, moderately severe neurological disability was present in six survivors. These observations are compatible with the notion that a shockable rhythm, ROSC, and post-arrest care improve survival outcome. Potentially, initiating E-CPR in the resuscitation phase in patients with a shockable rhythm and no ROSC might serve as a bridge to definite treatment and improve survival outcome.

  16. When to Stop CPR and When to Perform Rhythm Analysis: Potential Confusion Among ACLS Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberson, Brandon; Uber, Amy; F Gaieski, David; Miller, Joseph B; Wira, Charles; Berg, Katherine; Giberson, Tyler; Cocchi, Michael N; S Abella, Benjamin; Donnino, Michael W

    2016-09-01

    Health care providers nationwide are routinely trained in Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), an American Heart Association program that teaches cardiac arrest management. Recent changes in the ACLS approach have de-emphasized routine pulse checks in an effort to promote uninterrupted chest compressions. We hypothesized that this new ACLS algorithm may lead to uncertainty regarding the appropriate action following detection of a pulse during a cardiac arrest. We conducted an observational study in which a Web-based survey was sent to ACLS-trained medical providers at 4 major urban tertiary care centers in the United States. The survey consisted of 5 multiple-choice, scenario-based ACLS questions, including our question of interest. Adult staff members with a valid ACLS certification were included. A total of 347 surveys were analyzed. The response rate was 28.1%. The majority (53.6%) of responders were between 18 and 32 years old, and 59.9% were female. The majority (54.2%) of responders incorrectly stated that they would continue CPR and possibly administer additional therapies when a team member detects a pulse immediately following defibrillation. Secondarily, only 51.9% of respondents correctly chose to perform a rhythm check following 2 minutes of CPR. The other 3 survey questions were correctly answered an average of 89.1% of the time. Confusion exists regarding whether or not CPR and cardiac medications should be continued in the presence of a pulse. Education may be warranted to emphasize avoiding compressions and medications when a palpable pulse is detected. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Strain measurement in and analysis for hydraulic test of CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dan; Zhuang Dongzhen

    2013-01-01

    The strain measurement in hydraulic test of CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel performed in Dongfang Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. is introduced. The detail test scheme and method was introduced and the measurement results of strain and stress was given. Meanwhile the finite element analysis was performed for the pressure vessel, which was generally matched with the measurement results. The reliability of strain measurement was verified and the high strength margin of vessel was shown, which would give a good reference value for the follow-up hydraulic tests and strength analysis of reactor pressure vessel. (authors)

  18. Preliminary assessment of a combined passive safety system for typical 3-loop PWR CPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zijiang; Shan, Jianqiang, E-mail: jqshan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Gou, Junli

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A combined passive safety system was placed on a typical 3-loop PWR CPR1000. • Three accident analyses show the three different accident mitigation methods of the passive safety system. • The three mitigation methods were proved to be useful. - Abstract: As the development of the nuclear industry, passive technology turns out to be a remarkable characteristic of advanced nuclear power plants. Since the 20th century, much effort has been given to the passive technology, and a number of evolutionary passive systems have developed. Thoughts have been given to upgrade the existing reactors with passive systems to meet stricter safety demands. In this paper, the CPR1000 plant, which is one kind of mature pressurized water reactor plants in China, is improved with some passive systems to enhance safety. The passive systems selected are as follows: (1) the reactor makeup tank (RMT); (2) the advanced accumulator (A-ACC); (3) the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST); (4) the passive emergency feed water system (PEFS), which is installed on the secondary side of SGs; (5) the passive depressurization system (PDS). Although these passive components is based on the passive technology of some advanced reactors, their structural and trip designs are adjusted specifically so that it could be able to mitigate accidents of the CPR1000. Utilizing the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code, accident analyses (small break loss of coolant accident, large break loss of coolant accident, main feed water line break accident) of this improved CPR1000 plant were presented to demonstrate three different accident mitigation methods of the safety system and to test whether the passive safety system preformed its function well. In the SBLOCA, all components of the passive safety system were put into work sequentially, which prevented the core uncover. The LBLOCA analysis illustrates the contribution of the A-ACCs whose small-flow-rate injection can control the maximum cladding

  19. The process and risk of the CPR1000 cold function test in the cold area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tinghao; Zhang Jian; Ji Dapeng; Shi Quanjian; Tian Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Hong yanhe nuclear power station is the first CPR1000 reactor which is under construction in the cold area of north China. It is also the first time to carry out the cold functional test (CFT) in the winter of north China. The preparation and process of CFT are described in the paper. According to the experience feedback of CFT of Unit 1, the risk and solution which are significance for the CFT of the other NPS in the cold area are analysed. (authors)

  20. Design and transient analyses of emergency passive residual heat removal system of CPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.P.; Qiu, S.Z.; Su, G.H.; Tian, W.X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Designing an EPRHRs for CPR1000. ► Developing a RELAP model of the EPRHRs. ► The EPRHRs could take away the decay heat effectively. - Abstract: The steam generator secondary emergency passive residual heat removal system (EPRHRs) is a new design for traditional generation II + reactor CPR1000. The EPRHRs is designed to improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000 by completely or partially replacing traditional emergency water cooling system in the event of the station blackout or loss of heat sink accident. The EPRHRs consists of steam generator (SG), heat exchanger (HX), emergency makeup tank (EMT), cooling water tank (CWT), and corresponding pipes and valves. In order to improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000, the model of the primary loop and the EPRHRs was developed to investigate residual heat removal capability of the EPRHRs and the transient characteristics of the primary loop affected by the EPRHRs using RELAP5/MOD3.4. The transient characteristics of the primary loop and the EPRHRs were calculated in the event of station blackout accident. Sensitivity studies of the EPRHRs were also conducted to investigate the response of the primary loop and the EPRHRs on the main parameters of the EPRHRs. The EPRHRs could supply water to the SG shell side from the EMT successfully. The calculation results showed that the EPRHRs could take away the decay heat from the primary loop effectively, and that the single-phase and two-phase natural circulations were established in the primary loop and EPRHRs loop, respectively. The results also indicated that the effect of isolation valve open time on the transient characteristics of the primary loop was little. However, the effect of isolation valve open time on the EPRHRs condensate flow was relatively greater. The isolation valves should not be opened too rapidly during the isolation valve opening process, and the isolation valve opening time should be greater than 10 s, which could avoid the

  1. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  2. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  3. The combined use of mechanical CPR and a carry sheet to maintain quality resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients during extrication and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard M; Crawford, Anna; Crookston, Colin; Short, Steven; Clegg, Gareth R

    2015-08-01

    Quality of manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during extrication and transport of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims is known to be poor. Performing manual CPR during ambulance transport poses significant risk to the attending emergency medical services crew. We sought to use pre-hospital video recording to objectively analyse the impact of introducing mechanical CPR with an extrication sheet (Autopulse, Zoll) to an advanced, second-tier cardiac arrest response team. The study was conducted prospectively using defibrillator downloads and analysis of pre-hospital video recording to measure the quality of CPR during extrication from scene and ambulance transport of the OHCA patient. Adult patients with non-traumatic OHCA were included. The interruption to manual CPR to during extrication and to deploy the mechanical CPR device was analysed. In the manual CPR group, 53 OHCA cases were analysed for quality of CPR during extrication. The median time that chest compression was interrupted to allow the patient to be carried from scene to the ambulance was 270 s (IQR 201-387 s). 119 mechanical CPR cases were analysed. The median time interruption from last manual compression to first Autopulse compression was 39 s (IQR 29-47 s). The range from last manual compression to first Autopulse compression was 14-118 s. Mechanical CPR used in combination with an extrication sheet can be effectively used to improve the quality of resuscitation during extrication and ambulance transport of the refractory OHCA patient. The time interval to deploy the mechanical CPR device can be shortened with regular simulation training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reactions and coping strategies in lay rescuers who have provided CPR to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Wenche Torunn; Bjørshol, Conrad Arnfinn; Braut, Geir Sverre; Søreide, Eldar

    2016-05-25

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provided by community citizens is of paramount importance for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims' survival. Fortunately, CPR rates by community citizens seem to be rising. However, the experience of providing CPR is rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to explore reactions and coping strategies in lay rescuers who have provided CPR to OHCA victims. This is a qualitative study of 20 lay rescuers who have provided CPR to 18 OHCA victims. We used a semistructured interview guide focusing on their experiences after providing CPR. The study was conducted in the Stavanger region of Norway, an area with very high bystander CPR rates. Three themes emerged from the interview analysis: concern, uncertainty and coping strategies. Providing CPR had been emotionally challenging for all lay rescuers and, for some, had consequences in terms of family and work life. Several lay rescuers experienced persistent mental recurrences of the OHCA incident and had concerns about the outcome for the cardiac arrest victim. Unknown or fatal outcomes often caused feelings of guilt and were particularly difficult to handle. Several reported the need to be acknowledged for their CPR attempts. Health-educated lay rescuers seemed to be less affected than others. A common coping strategy was confiding in close relations, preferably the health educated. However, some required professional help to cope with the OHCA incident. Lay rescuers experience emotional and social challenges, and some struggle to cope in life after providing CPR in OHCA incidents. Experiencing a positive patient outcome and being a health-educated lay rescuer seem to mitigate concerns. Common coping strategies are attempts to reduce uncertainty towards patient outcome and own CPR quality. Further studies are needed to determine whether an organised professional follow-up can mitigate the concerns and uncertainty of lay rescuers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  5. The effect of formal training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR skills on medical students perceived self-sufficiency

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    Shaghaghi A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experience of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in real clinical setting is not easily possible for all medical students. Purpose: To assess medical student perceived self-sufficiency on three procedural skill on internship courses after they had taken a training course in clerkship period. Methods: Forty three medical students who had attended a workshop on CPR, tracheal intubations and venopuncture answered the questionnaires on their perceived self-sufficiency in performing these procedures after serving a few months as interns. Results: The mean score for perceived self-sufficiency (PSS was 75.84 (±18.63.Thre were a high correlation between the score given for the applicability of training in real life situation and the stress reduction scores on first time performing the procedure. Conclusion: The high degree of correlation between PSS scores and applicability scores, may warrant the consideration of new methods in procedural skills. Keywords: SKILL TRAINING, CPR TRAINING, PERCEIVED SELF-SUFFICIENCY

  6. Crystal structure of conjugated polyketone reductase (CPR-C1) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 complexed with NADPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hui-Min; Yamamura, Akihiro; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Michihiko; Maruoka, Shintaro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated polyketone reductase (CPR-C1) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 is a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and reduces ketopantoyl lactone to d-pantoyl lactone in a NADPH-dependent and stereospecific manner. We determined the crystal structure of CPR-C1.NADPH complex at 2.20 Å resolution. CPR-C1 adopted a triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold at the core of the structure in which Thr25 and Lys26 of the GXGTX motif bind uniquely to the adenosine 2'-phosphate group of NADPH. This finding provides a novel structural basis for NADPH binding of the AKR superfamily. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An appropriate compression pace is important for securing the quality of hands-only CPR--a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ishikawa, Masami; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Oue, Kana; Yoshinaka, Taiga; Kurihara, Hidemi; Irifune, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    It is important to implement good quality chest compressions for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This manikin study examined the effects of different compression rates on chest compression depth variables using a metronome sound guide. Fifty sixth-year dentistry students participated in the study. Each participant performed CPR at 3 different compression rates, 110, 100, and 90 compressions per min (pace-110-g, pace-100-g, and pace-90-g) for 2 consecutive one-minute sets with a ten-second break between the sets. The percentage of compressions deeper than 5 cm at pace-110-g decreased significantly from 22.1 ± 4.7% in the first set to 16.7 ± 4.4%* in the second set (*p CPR.

  8. Protocol of a Multicenter International Randomized Controlled Manikin Study on Different Protocols of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for laypeople (MANI-CPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Enrico; Contri, Enrico; Burkart, Roman; Borrelli, Paola; Ferraro, Ottavia Eleonora; Tonani, Michela; Cutuli, Amedeo; Bertaia, Daniele; Iozzo, Pasquale; Tinguely, Caroline; Lopez, Daniel; Boldarin, Susi; Deiuri, Claudio; Dénéréaz, Sandrine; Dénéréaz, Yves; Terrapon, Michael; Tami, Christian; Cereda, Cinzia; Somaschini, Alberto; Cornara, Stefano; Cortegiani, Andrea

    2018-04-19

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in industrialised countries. Survival depends on prompt identification of cardiac arrest and on the quality and timing of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation. For laypeople, there has been a growing interest on hands-only CPR, meaning continuous chest compression without interruption to perform ventilations. It has been demonstrated that intentional interruptions in hands-only CPR can increase its quality. The aim of this randomised trial is to compare three CPR protocols performed with different intentional interruptions with hands-only CPR. This is a prospective randomised trial performed in eight training centres. Laypeople who passed a basic life support course will be randomised to one of the four CPR protocols in an 8 min simulated cardiac arrest scenario on a manikin: (1) 30 compressions and 2 s pause; (2) 50 compressions and 5 s pause; (3) 100 compressions and 10 s pause; (4) hands-only. The calculated sample size is 552 people. The primary outcome is the percentage of chest compression performed with correct depth evaluated by a computerised feedback system (Laerdal QCPR). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: . Due to the nature of the study, we obtained a waiver from the Ethics Committee (IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy). All participants will sign an informed consent form before randomisation. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journal. The data collected will also be made available in a public data repository. NCT02632500. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. A study assessing the impact of different teaching modalities for pharmacy students in a Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Rasool, Sahibzada Tasleem

    2013-10-01

    The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of different teaching methods adopted for the practical session of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). CPR training is one of the compulsory modules of the Public Health Pharmacy (PHP) course at Universiti Sains Malaysia. CPR training comprises of 10% of total marks of the PHP course. To test the effectiveness of the different teaching strategies, three groups were defined using a two-stage cohort distribution-i.e. based on grade point average (GPA) and different teaching modalities. Group One was instructed using images and PowerPoint lecture slides. Group Two was instructed using videos and PowerPoint lecture slides. Group Three was instructed using PowerPoint slides with white boards and videos. Students in Group Three were not provided with a hard/soft copy of the PowerPoint slides and were encouraged to write down all the information on their personal notebooks. A 20-item questionnaire was used to assess the students' understanding toward the CPR session. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science Students, SPSS version 13®. Based on the response attained, the comparison of the final score among the groups was undertaken using one way ANOVA. Twenty-seven students have participated in this study. Final evaluation using the questionnaire revealed that student's in Group Three had a better understanding of CPR (18.1 ± 1.5, p lecture and use of traditional chalkboard teaching were found significant to improve the students' understanding and learning in the CPR session.

  10. The silkworm Bombyx mori cuticular protein CPR55 gene is regulated by the transcription factor βFTZ-F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saheb Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The insect cuticle is composed of various proteins and formed during the moult under a complex biological process that depends on the cross talk between hormone levels and gene expression. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the ecdysone-dependent temporal regulation mechanisms of cuticular proteins expression and the underlying control of Bombyx mori metamorphosis. The expression of CPR55 was observed from the W3 early stage and peaked at pupation when the ecdysteroid titre declined. CPR55 was induced by the ecdysone pulse, and their expression peaked at 24 h after transfer to a hormone free medium. Transcripts of CPR55 were neither observed after the 20E pulse treatment in the presence of cycloheximide nor after the addition of 20E in V4 wing discs. We analysed the upstream region of the CPR55 gene using a transient reporter assay with a gene gun system which identified only one βFTZ-F1 binding site important for cis-acting elements for the transcription activation of the luciferase reporter gene by an ecdysone pulse. Site-directed mutagenesis of this element in the context of the 589-bp promoter fragment drastically decreased the reporter activity. The nuclear protein bound to βFTZ-F1 sites was identified by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggesting that CPR55 expression was regulated by βFTZ-F1 through the ecdysone pulse. The results confirmed that transcription factor, BmβFTZ-F1, binds to the cis-regulatory elements in the promoter of the gene coding for cuticle protein, CPR55, and regulates its expression during B. mori metamorphosis.

  11. Importance of basic CPR techniques. A study in the Region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arturo Abraldes Valeiras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Spain many people die from diseases related to heart. Heart attack is the main cause of such deaths. Know and control the basic techniques of basic Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR are essential to help a person away from these features. This study examined 1 the importance of knowing these techniques in the general population, and 2 the perception of the difficulty of understanding and application of techniques. We used a questionnaire designed "ad hoc" as a tool for collecting information. The instrument was subjected to validation and reliability for the study. The questionnaire was completed by 235 volunteers aged between 10 and 65. We performed a descriptive analysis, based on gender and the variables importance of knowledge and learning / apply techniques. Among the most relevant results, we emphasize an interest of society to improve training in this type of knowledge. Training would be ideal in most age groups of people (teens to seniors. Likewise, CPR techniques are easy to understand and execute a lesser extent, relevant perception among people who acknowledge and application these techniques

  12. Emergency nurses' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madden, Eilis

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To examine emergency nurses\\' current practices and understanding of family presence during CPR in the emergency department, Cork University Hospital, Republic of Ireland. METHOD: A quantitative descriptive design was used in the study. A questionnaire developed by ENA was distributed to emergency nurses working in a level I trauma emergency department at Cork University Hospital. The total sample number was 90, including all emergency nurses with at least 6 months\\' emergency nursing experience. RESULTS: Emergency nurses often took families to the bedside during resuscitation efforts (58.9%) or would do so if the opportunity arose (17.8%). A high percentage (74.4%) of respondents would prefer a written policy allowing the option of family presence during CPR. The most significant barrier to family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) was conflicts occurring within the emergency team. The most significant facilitator to FWR was a greater understanding of health care professionals on the benefits of FWR to patients and families, indicating the need for educational development. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study and previously published studies indicate the need for development of written polices and guidelines on the practice to meet the needs of patients, families, and staff by providing consistent, safe, and caring practices for all involved in the resuscitation process. Recommendations of the study include the development of a written policy and an educational programme on the safe implementation and practices of FWR.

  13. Effects of head-up vs. supine CPR on cerebral oxygenation and cerebral metabolism - a prospective, randomized porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, Gabriel; Braun, Patrick; Martini, Judith; Niederstätter, Ines; Abram, Julia; Lindner, Andrea Katharina; Neururer, Sabrina; Mulino, Miriam; Glodny, Bernhard; Helbok, Raimund; Mair, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) head-up position (HUP) as compared to standard supine position (SUP) decreases intracranial pressure (ICP) and increases cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The impact of this manoeuvre on brain oxygenation and metabolism is not clear. We therefore investigated HUP as compared to SUP during basic life support (BLS) CPR for their effect on brain oxygenation and metabolism. Twenty pigs were anaesthetized and instrumented. After 8 min of cardiac arrest (CA) pigs were randomized to either HUP or SUP and resuscitated mechanically for 20 min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), ICP, CPP, cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ) and brain tissue oxygen tension (P bt O 2 ) were measured at baseline, after CA and every 5 min during CPR. Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (S cv O 2 ) was measured at baseline, after CA and after 20 min of CPR. Cerebral microdialysis parameters, e.g. lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) were taken at baseline and the end of the experiment. ICP was significantly lower in HUP compared to SUP animals after 5 min (18.0 ± 4.5 vs. 24.1 ± 5.2 mmHg; p = 0.033) and 20 min (12.0 ± 3.4 vs. 17.8 ± 4.3 mmHg; p = 0.023) of CPR. Accordingly, CPP was significantly higher in the HUP group after 5 min (11.2 ± 9.5 vs. 1.0 ± 9.2 mmHg; p = 0.045) and 20 min (3.4 ± 6.4 vs. -3.8 ± 2.8 mmHg; p = 0.023) of CPR. However, no difference was found in rSO 2 , P bt O 2 , S cv O 2 and L/P ratio between groups after 20 min of CPR. In this animal model of BLS CPR, HUP as compared to SUP did not improve cerebral oxygenation or metabolism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Two-Component System CprRS Senses Cationic Peptides and Triggers Adaptive Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Independently of ParRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Luca; Jenssen, Håvard; Bains, Manjeet

    2012-01-01

    dependency on the CprRS and ParRS systems in a concentration-dependent manner. It was further demonstrated that, following exposure to inducing antimicrobial peptides, cprRS mutants did not become adaptively resistant to polymyxins as was observed for wild-type cells. Our microarray studies demonstrated...

  15. Abstract 20854: A Tale of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Emergency Medical Technicians Deliberately Perform Substandard CPR When Anticipating Poor Prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtker, Henrik; Klausen, Troels M; Lauridsen, Kasper G

    2017-01-01

    ) if they believe resuscitation to be futile. Furthermore, to investigate if different patient and resuscitation attempt characteristics result in EMTs deliberately performing substandard CPR.Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey study conducted in 2016 through 2017 including EMTs from a Danish...... and compressions). Overall, 22% and 51% would perform substandard CPR if the patient were 80 or 90 years old respectively, 46% if the patient was living in a nursing home and up to 31% due to comorbidity such as cancer. EMTs (51%) would deliberately perform substandard CPR in case of on-going bystander CPR >20...... minutes. EMTs (72%) felt competent to terminate resuscitation, but only 9% knew international termination guidelines.Conclusion: EMTs delay start of resuscitation if they anticipate resuscitation to be futile. Furthermore, they deliberately perform substandard CPR based on controversial patient...

  16. The Castleisland radon Survey (Sw Ireland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, C. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); O' sullivan, F. [London Univ. College, Dept of Geomatic Engineering, London, (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: In September 2003, following the identification of a house near Castleisland in County Kerry (Sw Ireland) with a seasonally adjusted annual average radon concentration of 49,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, the Radiological Protection of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) undertook to carry out a localised radon survey, the so-called 'Castleisland Radon Survey' (C.R.S.). The aim was to investigate the possibility that similarly extreme radon concentrations could be present in other houses in the surrounding area. A studied area of 400 km{sup 2} was designated around the town of Castleisland, divided in four 10 x 10 km{sup 2} grid squares, and all of the approximately 2,500 householders living in this area were invited to participate. Four hundred and eighteen householders responded to the invitation (17% response rate) but only 383 completed the survey. Fourteen percent of these 383 homes were found to have an annual average radon concentration above the Irish national Reference Level for domestic dwellings of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} while 2% were found to be above 800 Bq/m{sup 3}. An arithmetic mean of 147 Bq/m{sup 3} and a geometric mean of 70 Bq/m{sup 3} were calculated for the four studied grid squares. These can be compared with the respective values of 98 and 56 Bq/m3 calculated for the same area by the Irish National Radon Survey (N.R.S.). Similar trends are observed on a grid square by grid square basis where in one of them in particular, the C.R.S. allowed us to predict that 21% of all houses would have radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, against 6% predicted by the N.R.S.. This clearly indicates that the extent of the radon problem in the area has been underestimated by the N.R.S.. Two of the four grid squares investigated are currently designated as High Radon Areas (where 10% or more of all houses are predicted to exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}) based on the results from the N.R.S.. If one was to use predictions based on the results from the C.R.S., all four grid

  17. A Comparison of Internet-Based Learning and Traditional Classroom Lecture to Learn CPR for Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Nima; Omrani, Soghra; Hemmati, Naser

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL) and traditional classroom lecture (TCL) for continuing medical education (CME) programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum guidelines training…

  18. Arabidopsis CPR5 is a senescence-regulatory gene with pleiotropic functions as predicted by the evolutionary theory of senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Hai-Chun; Anderson, Lisa; Sturre, Marcel J. G.; Hille, Jacques; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis CPR5 is a senescence-regulatory gene with pleiotropic functions as predicted by the evolutionary theory of senescence Hai-Chun Jing1,2, Lisa Anderson3, Marcel J.G. Sturre1, Jacques Hille1 and Paul P. Dijkwel1,* 1Molecular Biology of Plants, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and

  19. Design optimization on structure of blowdown in CPR1000 steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guoxian; Ren Hongbing; Zuo Chaoping; Zhu Yong; Mo Shaojia

    2014-01-01

    The structure of blowdown in CPR1000 steam generator has been optimized by eliminating the blowdown pipe and tube lane blocking, drilling holes in the peripheral tube lane, which can improve the accessibility of the central tube lane and facilitate inspecting and lancing. This paper detailed compares and analyzes the thermal hydraulic characteristic before and after optimization using GENEPI code which a special software for SG thermal hydraulic analysis. The results showed that the thermal hydraulic characteristic of steam generator meets the design requirements compared with the original design. Structure optimization can improve lancing effects, although the change of flow field distribution above the tubesheet leads to increase the number of tube subjected to sludge deposit. The analysis results proved the feasibility of the optimization. (authors)

  20. Full vessel CFD analysis on thermal-hydraulic characteristics of CPR1000 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Yanmeng; Yang Lixin; Zhang Mingqian

    2014-01-01

    To obtain flow distributions and thermal-hydraulic properties in a full vessel PWR under limited computation ability and time, a full vessel simulation model of CPR1000 was built based on two simplification methods. One simplified the inner geometry of the control rod guide tubes using equivalent flow area. Another substituted the core by a porous domain to maintain the pressure drop and temperature rise. After the computation, global and localized flow distributions, hydraulic loads of some main assemblies were obtained, as well as other thermal-hydraulic properties. The results indicate the flow distribution in the full vessel is asymmetrical. Therefore it is essential to use the full vessel model to simulate. The calculated thermal-hydraulic characteristics agree well with the operation statistics, providing the reference data for the reactor safety operation. (authors)

  1. Basic-CPR and AIDS: are volunteer life-savers prepared for a storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierens, J J; Berden, H J

    1996-10-01

    Professional health care workers have access to guidelines, equipment and techniques to reduce the exposure to infectious material in case of resuscitation. The current official content of national courses for volunteer life-savers do not address this issue, as far as we know. Concern about the risks of infection due to resuscitation is increasing in this group. This article describes a rational approach of the problem, that includes data on the infection risk of basic-CPR, and an approach that accepts that the concern can not be controlled by objective data. In such an emotional approach, direct contact has to be minimised by using devices. Requirements for resuscitation devices with a barrier function are listed. Although both approaches will reduce the fear of infection, we advice a rational approach.

  2. Introducing systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR) in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS): implementation process and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, Fabrice; Fuchs, Vincent; Praz, Laurent; Vader, John-Paul

    2010-07-01

    In order to improve the quality of our Emergency Medical Services (EMS), to raise bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates and thereby meet what is becoming a universal standard in terms of quality of emergency services, we decided to implement systematic dispatcher-assisted or telephone-CPR (T-CPR) in our medical dispatch center, a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System. The aim of this article is to describe the implementation process, costs and results following the introduction of this new "quality" procedure. This was a prospective study. Over an 8-week period, our EMS dispatchers were given new procedures to provide T-CPR. We then collected data on all non-traumatic cardiac arrests within our state (Vaud, Switzerland) for the following 12 months. For each event, the dispatchers had to record in writing the reason they either ruled out cardiac arrest (CA) or did not propose T-CPR in the event they did suspect CA. All emergency call recordings were reviewed by the medical director of the EMS. The analysis of the recordings and the dispatchers' written explanations were then compared. During the 12-month study period, a total of 497 patients (both adults and children) were identified as having a non-traumatic cardiac arrest. Out of this total, 203 cases were excluded and 294 cases were eligible for T-CPR. Out of these eligible cases, dispatchers proposed T-CPR on 202 occasions (or 69% of eligible cases). They also erroneously proposed T-CPR on 17 occasions when a CA was wrongly identified (false positive). This represents 7.8% of all T-CPR. No costs were incurred to implement our study protocol and procedures. This study demonstrates it is possible, using a brief campaign of sensitization but without any specific training, to implement systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System such as our EMS that had no prior experience with systematic T-CPR. The results in terms of T-CPR delivery

  3. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%. Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85% and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to

  4. Updated teaching techniques improve CPR performance measures: a cluster randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Florian; Testori, Christoph; Weiser, Christoph; Fleischhackl, Sabine; Mayer-Stickler, Monika; Herkner, Harald; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Fleischhackl, Roman

    2011-06-01

    The first-aid training necessary for obtaining a drivers license in Austria has a regulated and predefined curriculum but has been targeted for the implementation of a new course structure with less theoretical input, repetitive training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and structured presentations using innovative media. The standard and a new course design were compared with a prospective, participant- and observer-blinded, cluster-randomized controlled study. Six months after the initial training, we evaluated the confidence of the 66 participants in their skills, CPR effectiveness parameters and correctness of their actions. The median self-confidence was significantly higher in the interventional group [IG, visual analogue scale (VAS:"0" not-confident at all,"100" highly confident):57] than in the control group (CG, VAS:41). The mean chest compression rate in the IG (98/min) was closer to the recommended 100 bpm than in the CG (110/min). The time to the first chest compression (IG:25s, CG:36s) and time to first defibrillator shock (IG:86s, CG:92s) were significantly shorter in the IG. Furthermore, the IG participants were safer in their handling of the defibrillator and started with countermeasures against developing shock more often. The management of an unconscious person and of heavy bleeding did not show a difference between the two groups even after shortening the lecture time. Motivation and self-confidence as well as skill retention after six months were shown to be dependent on the teaching methods and the time for practical training. Courses may be reorganized and content rescheduled, even within predefined curricula, to improve course outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The validity and reliability of the handheld SW-100 autokeratometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghosasere Iyamu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The agreement of new instruments or clinical tests with other instruments or tests defines the possibility of these being used interchangeably. Aim: To investigate the validity and reliability of the SW-100 autokeratometer using a Bausch & Lomb (B&L keratometer as the ‘gold standard’. Methods: Eighty subjects (80 right eyes aged between 21 and 38 years were recruited. For intra-test repeatability, two measurements of the corneal radius of curvature were taken with the SW-100 and B&L keratometers. Forty of the 80 subjects participated in the inter-test repeatability measurement. Results: Corneal radius of curvature was found to be statistically different between the two instruments (p < 0.001, with the SW-100 providing slightly flatter values of 0.11 mm and 0.05 mm for the horizontal and vertical meridians, respectively, than the B&L keratometer. The average corneal curvature was 0.07 mm flatter with the SW-100 autokeratometer than with the B&L device. Agreement between the SW-100 and B&L keratometers’ axes was 45% within ± 5°, 60.3% within ± 10°, 78.8% within ± 15°, 80.3% within ± 20°, and 88.7% within ± 40°. Intertest repeatability was better for the B&L device than the SW-100 and showed no significant difference between the two sessions. Both instruments demonstrated comparable intrasession repeatability. As such, both instruments were comparatively reliable (per coefficients of repeatability. The range of limits of agreement of ± 0.14 mm (horizontal meridian and ± 0.17 mm (vertical meridian between the SW-100 and B&L devices showed good agreement. Conclusion: The results suggest that the SW-100 autokeratometer is a reliable and objective instrument that, however, provides flatter radii of curvature measurements than the B&L keratometer. A compensating factor incorporated into the instrument could reduce the difference between the two instruments and make them more interchangeable.

  6. Effects of pre-training using serious game technology on CPR performance – an exploratory quasi-experimental transfer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creutzfeldt Johan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplayer virtual world (MVW technology creates opportunities to practice medical procedures and team interactions using serious game software. This study aims to explore medical students’ retention of knowledge and skills as well as their proficiency gain after pre-training using a MVW with avatars for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR team training. Methods Three groups of pre-clinical medical students, n = 30, were assessed and further trained using a high fidelity full-scale medical simulator: Two groups were pre-trained 6 and 18 months before assessment. A reference control group consisting of matched peers had no MVW pre-training. The groups consisted of 8, 12 and 10 subjects, respectively. The session started and ended with assessment scenarios, with 3 training scenarios in between. All scenarios were video-recorded for analysis of CPR performance. Results The 6 months group displayed greater CPR-related knowledge than the control group, 93 (±11% compared to 65 (±28% (p  At start the pre-trained groups adhered better to guidelines than the control group; mean violations 0.2 (±0.5, 1.5 (±1.0 and 4.5 (±1.0 for the 6 months, 18 months and control group respectively. Likewise, in the 6 months group no chest compression cycles were delivered at incorrect frequencies whereas 54 (±44% in the control group (p  Conclusions This study supports the beneficial effects of MVW-CPR team training with avatars as a method for pre-training, or repetitive training, on CPR-skills among medical students.

  7. Bystander fatigue and CPR quality by older bystanders: a randomized crossover trial comparing continuous chest compressions and 30:2 compressions to ventilations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shawn; Vaillancourt, Christian; Kasaboski, Ann; Taljaard, Monica

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to measure bystander fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality after five minutes of CPR using the continuous chest compression (CCC) versus the 30:2 chest compression to ventilation method in older lay persons, a population most likely to perform CPR on cardiac arrest victims. This randomized crossover trial took place at three tertiary care hospitals and a seniors' center. Participants were aged ≥55 years without significant physical limitations (frailty score ≤3/7). They completed two 5-minute CPR sessions (using 30:2 and CCC) on manikins; sessions were separated by a rest period. We used concealed block randomization to determine CPR method order. Metronome feedback maintained a compression rate of 100/minute. We measured heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and Borg Exertion Scale. CPR quality measures included total number of compressions and number of adequate compressions (depth ≥5 cm). Sixty-three participants were enrolled: mean age 70.8 years, female 66.7%, past CPR training 60.3%. Bystander fatigue was similar between CPR methods: mean difference in HR -0.59 (95% CI -3.51-2.33), MAP 1.64 (95% CI -0.23-3.50), and Borg 0.46 (95% CI 0.07-0.84). Compared to 30:2, participants using CCC performed more chest compressions (480.0 v. 376.3, mean difference 107.7; pCPR quality decreased significantly faster when performing CCC compared to 30:2. However, performing CCC produced more adequate compressions overall with a similar level of fatigue compared to the 30:2 method.

  8. Does real-time objective feedback and competition improve performance and quality in manikin CPR training--a prospective observational study from several European EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J R; Kranz, K; Carmona, F; Lindner, T W; Newton, A

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important for patient survival. Real time objective feedback during manikin training has been shown to improve CPR performance. Objective measurement could facilitate competition and help motivate participants to improve their CPR performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether real time objective feedback on manikins helps improve CPR performance and whether competition between separate European Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and between participants at each EMS helps motivation to train. Ten European EMS took part in the study and was carried out in two stages. At Stage 1, each EMS provided 20 pre-hospital professionals. A questionnaire was completed and standardised assessment scenarios were performed for adult and infant out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). CPR performance was objectively measured and recorded but no feedback given. Between Stage 1 and 2, each EMS was given access to manikins for 6 months and instructed on how to use with objective real-time CPR feedback available. Stage 2 was undertaken and was a repeat of Stage 1 with a questionnaire with additional questions relating to usefulness of feedback and the competition nature of the study (using a 10 point Likert score). The EMS that improved the most from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was declared the winner. An independent samples Student t-test was used to analyse the objective CPR metrics with the significance level taken as p Competition between EMS organisations recorded a mean score of 5.8 and competition between participants recorded a mean score of 6.0. The results suggest that the use of real time objective feedback can significantly help improve CPR performance. Competition, especially between participants, appeared to encourage staff to practice and this study suggests that competition might have a useful role to help motivate staff to perform CPR training.

  9. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  10. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  11. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays ...

  12. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  13. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of an electronic health record integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR randomized trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnivesky Juan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical prediction rules (CPRs represent well-validated but underutilized evidence-based medicine tools at the point-of-care. To date, an inability to integrate these rules into an electronic health record (EHR has been a major limitation and we are not aware of a study demonstrating the use of CPR's in an ambulatory EHR setting. The integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR trial integrates two CPR's in an EHR and assesses both the usability and the effect on evidence-based practice in the primary care setting. Methods A multi-disciplinary design team was assembled to develop a prototype iCPR for validated streptococcal pharyngitis and bacterial pneumonia CPRs. The iCPR tool was built as an active Clinical Decision Support (CDS tool that can be triggered by user action during typical workflow. Using the EHR CDS toolkit, the iCPR risk score calculator was linked to tailored ordered sets, documentation, and patient instructions. The team subsequently conducted two levels of 'real world' usability testing with eight providers per group. Usability data were used to refine and create a production tool. Participating primary care providers (n = 149 were randomized and intervention providers were trained in the use of the new iCPR tool. Rates of iCPR tool triggering in the intervention and control (simulated groups are monitored and subsequent use of the various components of the iCPR tool among intervention encounters is also tracked. The primary outcome is the difference in antibiotic prescribing rates (strep and pneumonia iCPR's encounters and chest x-rays (pneumonia iCPR only between intervention and control providers. Discussion Using iterative usability testing and development paired with provider training, the iCPR CDS tool leverages user-centered design principles to overcome pervasive underutilization of EBM and support evidence-based practice at the point-of-care. The ongoing trial will determine if this collaborative

  14. Estudio comparativo de la productividad y calidad obtenidas en la soldadura de tubos de calidad T9 empleados en el sector petroquímico, mediante los procesos TIG, HW-TIG y PAW Comparative study of productivity and quality obtained in tube welding quality T9 employees in the petrochemical industry, through TIG, HW-TIG and PAW processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César García González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, la fabricación soldada de tuberías de acero Cr-Mo empleadas en serpentines de hornos para la industria petroquímica se ha venido realizando de forma masiva mediante procesos de baja productividad, principalmente TIG para la pasada de raíz y SMAW para las pasadas de relleno, ambos manuales. En este estudio se muestran los resultados de la investigación realizada por el Centro Tecnológico AIMEN, en relación al empleo de tecnologías de alto rendimiento, concretamente TIG, HW-TIG y PAW robotizadas, aplicadas a los mismos materiales y productos. De este modo se calculan y comparan cuatro índices de productividad: Tiempo de Soldadura, Tasa de Deposición, Material Depositado y Volumen de Gas Consumido. El objetivo del estudio es contribuir a la reducción de los tiempos de producción, de los costes de fabricación, y a la mejora de la calidad del producto.Traditionally, the manufacture of welded Cr-Mo steel pipes used in furnace coils for petrochemical industry has been carried out on a massive scale by low productivity processes, mainly TIG for root pass and SMAW for layers of filling run, both of them manuals. This study presents the results of a research, conducted by AIMEN Technology Centre, related to the use of high performance technologies, specifically robotic processes such as TIG, TIG-HW and PAW, applied to the same materials and products. Thus, four productivity ratios have been calculated and compared: welding time, deposition rate, deposited material and volume of consumed gas. The aim of the study is to contribute to the reduction of the production time, manufacturing costs and to the improvement of the product quality.

  15. A Comparison Of Internet-Based Learning And Traditional Classroom Lecture To Learn Cpr For Continuing Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    HEMMATI, Nima; OMRANI, Soghra; HEMMATI, Naser

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL) and traditional classroom lecture (TCL) for continuing medical education (CME) programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum guidelines training either by traditional or by an Internet-based CME. A randomized two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Postgraduate general ...

  16. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus i-gel® airway ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Vincent-Lambert

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The use of the i-gel® airway resulted in a considerable decrease in the amount of time spent on ventilations and in more compressions being performed. The overall reduction in HOT was, however, offset by the time it took to secure the device. Further investigation into the use and securing of the i-gel® airway in single rescuer CPR is recommended.

  17. Early leaf senescence is associated with an altered cellular redox balance in Arabidopsis cpr5/old1 mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, H. -C.; Hebeler, R.; Oeljeklaus, S.; Sitek, B.; Stuehler, K.; Meyer, H. E.; Sturre, M. J. G.; Hille, J.; Warscheid, B.; Dijkwel, P. P.; Stühler, K.

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the inevitable by-products of essential cellular metabolic and physiological activities. Plants have developed sophisticated gene networks of ROS generation and scavenging systems. However, ROS regulation is still poorly understood. Here, we report that mutations in the Arabidopsis CPR5/OLD1 gene may cause early senescence through deregulation of the cellular redox balance. Genetic analysis showed that blocking stress-related hormonal signalling pathways, suc...

  18. Neonatal CPR: room at the top—a mathematical study of optimal chest compression frequency versus body size

    OpenAIRE

    Babbs, Charles F; Meyer, Andrew; Nadkarni, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore in detail the expected magnitude of systemic perfusion pressure during standard CPR as a function of compression frequency for different sized people from neonate to adult. Method: A 7-compartment mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system—upgraded to include inertance of blood columns in the aorta and vena cavae—was exercised with parameters scaled to reflect changes in body weight from 1 to 70 kg. Results: Maximal systemic perfusion pressure occurs at chest...

  19. A third-order gas-kinetic CPR method for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on triangular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Qibing; Fu, Song; Wang, Z. J.

    2018-06-01

    A third-order accurate gas-kinetic scheme based on the correction procedure via reconstruction (CPR) framework is developed for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on triangular meshes. The scheme combines the accuracy and efficiency of the CPR formulation with the multidimensional characteristics and robustness of the gas-kinetic flux solver. Comparing with high-order finite volume gas-kinetic methods, the current scheme is more compact and efficient by avoiding wide stencils on unstructured meshes. Unlike the traditional CPR method where the inviscid and viscous terms are treated differently, the inviscid and viscous fluxes in the current scheme are coupled and computed uniformly through the kinetic evolution model. In addition, the present scheme adopts a fully coupled spatial and temporal gas distribution function for the flux evaluation, achieving high-order accuracy in both space and time within a single step. Numerical tests with a wide range of flow problems, from nearly incompressible to supersonic flows with strong shocks, for both inviscid and viscous problems, demonstrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the present scheme.

  20. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus i-gel® airway ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Vincent-Lambert

    2016-10-01

    Objectives: This pilot study evaluated how interruptions to chest compressions or hands-off time (HOT are affected by the placement of an i-gel® airway vs. simple BVM ventilation during single rescuer CPR. Method: 16 participants performed two, ten-minute single rescuer CPR simulations, firstly using the BVM and later the i-gel® airway for ventilation. Data pertaining to ventilations and HOT in each scenario was statistically analysed and compared. Results: The i-gel® airway demonstrated a superior ease of ventilation compared to BVM alone and resulted in a reduction of time spent on ventilations overall. The i-gel® however took a mean of 29 s, ± 10 s, to secure which contributes considerably to HOT. Conclusion: The use of the i-gel® airway resulted in a considerable decrease in the amount of time spent on ventilations and in more compressions being performed. The overall reduction in HOT was, however, offset by the time it took to secure the device. Further investigation into the use and securing of the i-gel® airway in single rescuer CPR is recommended.

  1. Corpuls CPR Generates Higher Mean Arterial Pressure Than LUCAS II in a Pig Model of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichhorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Resuscitation Council guidelines, the use of mechanical chest compression devices is a reasonable alternative in situations where manual chest compression is impractical or compromises provider safety. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a recently developed chest compression device (Corpuls CPR with an established system (LUCAS II in a pig model. Methods. Pigs (n = 5/group in provoked ventricular fibrillation were left untreated for 5 minutes, after which 15 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with chest compressions. After 15 min, defibrillation was performed every 2 min if necessary, and up to 3 doses of adrenaline were given. If there was no return of spontaneous circulation after 25 min, the experiment was terminated. Coronary perfusion pressure, carotid blood flow, end-expiratory CO2, regional oxygen saturation by near infrared spectroscopy, blood gas, and local organ perfusion with fluorescent labelled microspheres were measured at baseline and during resuscitation. Results. Animals treated with Corpuls CPR had significantly higher mean arterial pressures during resuscitation, along with a detectable trend of greater carotid blood flow and organ perfusion. Conclusion. Chest compressions with the Corpuls CPR device generated significantly higher mean arterial pressures than compressions performed with the LUCAS II device.

  2. Mutation of a cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, alters larval body shape and adaptability in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Xiong, Gao; Wang, Ri-xin; He, Song-zhen; Chen, Jie; Tong, Xiao-ling; Hu, Hai; Li, Chun-lin; Gai, Ting-ting; Xin, Ya-qun; Liu, Xiao-fan; Chen, Bin; Xiang, Zhong-huai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fang-yin

    2014-04-01

    Cuticular proteins (CPs) are crucial components of the insect cuticle. Although numerous genes encoding cuticular proteins have been identified in known insect genomes to date, their functions in maintaining insect body shape and adaptability remain largely unknown. In the current study, positional cloning led to the identification of a gene encoding an RR1-type cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, highly expressed in larval chitin-rich tissues and at the mulberry leaf-eating stages, which is responsible for the silkworm stony mutant. In the Dazao-stony strain, the BmorCPR2 allele is a deletion mutation with significantly lower expression, compared to the wild-type Dazao strain. Dysfunctional BmorCPR2 in the stony mutant lost chitin binding ability, leading to reduced chitin content in larval cuticle, limitation of cuticle extension, abatement of cuticle tensile properties, and aberrant ratio between internodes and intersegmental folds. These variations induce a significant decrease in cuticle capacity to hold the growing internal organs in the larval development process, resulting in whole-body stiffness, tightness, and hardness, bulging intersegmental folds, and serious defects in larval adaptability. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the corresponding phenotype of stony in insects caused by mutation of RR1-type cuticular protein. Our findings collectively shed light on the specific role of cuticular proteins in maintaining normal larval body shape and will aid in the development of pest control strategies for the management of Lepidoptera.

  3. Aseismic safety analysis of a prestressed concrete containment vessel for CPR1000 nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Wang, Qingkang; Kong, Xianjing

    2017-01-01

    The containment vessel of a nuclear power plant is the last barrier to prevent nuclear reactor radiation. Aseismic safety analysis is the key to appropriate containment vessel design. A prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model with a semi-infinite elastic foundation and practical arrangement of tendons has been established to analyze the aseismic ability of the CPR1000 PCCV structure under seismic loads and internal pressure. A method to model the prestressing tendon and its interaction with concrete was proposed and the axial force of the prestressing tendons showed that the simulation was reasonable and accurate. The numerical results show that for the concrete structure, the location of the cylinder wall bottom around the equipment hatch and near the ring beam are critical locations with large principal stress. The concrete cracks occurred at the bottom of the PCCV cylinder wall under the peak earthquake motion of 0.50 g, however the PCCV was still basically in an elastic state. Furthermore, the concrete cracks occurred around the equipment hatch under the design internal pressure of 0.4MPa, but the steel liner was still in the elastic stage and its leak-proof function soundness was verified. The results provide the basis for analysis and design of containment vessels.

  4. Institutional property rights structure, common pool resource (CPR), tragedy of the urban commons: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, G; Ho, C S; Ali, H M

    2014-01-01

    There have been a plethora of researches on the significance of public open space (POS) in contributing to societies' sustainability. However, by virtue of identified maladaptive policy-based-property rights structure, such a shared good becomes vulnerable to tragedy of the urban commons (overexploitation) that subsequently leads to burgeoning number of mismanaged POS e.g., degraded and unkempt urban public spaces. By scrutinising the literatures within property rights domain and commons resources, an objective is highlighted in this paper which is to insightfully discourse institutional property rights structure pertaining to the mechanism, roles and interrelationship between property-rights regimes, bundle of property rights and resource domains; types of goods on how they act upon and tie in the POS with the social quandary. In summary, urban POS tragedy can potentially be triggered by the institutional structure especially if the ownership is left under open-access resource regime and ill-defined property rights which both successively constitute the natures of Common Pool Resource (CPR) within the commons, POS. Therefore, this paper sparks an idea to policy makers that property rights structure is a determinant in sustainably governing the POS in which adaptive assignment of property regimes and property rights are impelled

  5. Institutional property rights structure, common pool resource (CPR), tragedy of the urban commons: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, G.; Ho, C. S.; Ali, H. M.

    2014-02-01

    There have been a plethora of researches on the significance of public open space (POS) in contributing to societies' sustainability. However, by virtue of identified maladaptive policy-based-property rights structure, such a shared good becomes vulnerable to tragedy of the urban commons (overexploitation) that subsequently leads to burgeoning number of mismanaged POS e.g., degraded and unkempt urban public spaces. By scrutinising the literatures within property rights domain and commons resources, an objective is highlighted in this paper which is to insightfully discourse institutional property rights structure pertaining to the mechanism, roles and interrelationship between property-rights regimes, bundle of property rights and resource domains; types of goods on how they act upon and tie in the POS with the social quandary. In summary, urban POS tragedy can potentially be triggered by the institutional structure especially if the ownership is left under open-access resource regime and ill-defined property rights which both successively constitute the natures of Common Pool Resource (CPR) within the commons, POS. Therefore, this paper sparks an idea to policy makers that property rights structure is a determinant in sustainably governing the POS in which adaptive assignment of property regimes and property rights are impelled.

  6. Comparison of Knowledge of Medical and Paramedical Intern about of CPR, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastoor Bekhradian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Every day a number of people from the heart stops beating for most of them that this early cessation of heartbeat. With operations of CPR in 4 to 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest and before the onset of brain death can be established circulation and survival for patients with the death of 2 to 4 folds. The aim of this study was to Comparison of knowledge of medical and paramedical intern about of CPCR, 2015. This descriptive analytical and sampling method was census. Restore their data using a standard questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82 .Spss20 data using statistical software analysis and descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used. The mean score of 3/6 students that showed poor knowledge of students participating in the study. The lowest score of zero and the highest score was 12. Was found between gender and level of knowledge (p=0/05. Between education and the knowledge of the relationship was not statistically significant (p=0/764. The knowledge of medical and paramedical students groups scheduled for next semester as part of the treatment system personnel are working poor and require special attention in order to provide guidelines for planning authorities to increase the awareness of students.

  7. Development of a smart backboard system for real-time feedback during CPR chest compression on a soft back support surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohier, Francis; Dellimore, Kiran; Scheffer, Cornie

    2013-01-01

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is often inconsistent and frequently fails to meet recommended guidelines. One promising approach to address this problem is for clinicians to use an active feedback device during CPR. However, one major deficiency of existing feedback systems is that they fail to account for the displacement of the back support surface during chest compression (CC), which can be important when CPR is performed on a soft surface. In this study we present the development of a real-time CPR feedback system based on an algorithm which uses force and dual-accelerometer measurements to provide accurate estimation of the CC depth on a soft surface, without assuming full chest decompression. Based on adult CPR manikin tests it was found that the accuracy of the estimated CC depth for a dual accelerometer feedback system is significantly better (7.3% vs. 24.4%) than for a single accelerometer system on soft back support surfaces, in the absence or presence of a backboard. In conclusion, the algorithm used was found to be suitable for a real-time, dual accelerometer CPR feedback application since it yielded reasonable accuracy in terms of CC depth estimation, even when used on a soft back support surface.

  8. How well does the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) sample zooplankton? A comparison with the Longhurst Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) in the northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; John, Eurgain H.; Irigoien, Xabier; Harris, Roger P.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2004-09-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey has collected data on basin-scale zooplankton abundance in the North Atlantic since the 1930s. These data have been used in many studies to elucidate seasonal patterns and long-term change in plankton populations, as well as more recently to validate ecosystem models. There has, however, been relatively little comparison of the data from the CPR with that from other samplers. In this study we compare zooplankton abundance estimated from the CPR in the northeast Atlantic with near-surface samples collected by a Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) at Ocean Weather Station India (59°N, 19°W) between 1971 and 1975. Comparisons were made for six common copepods in the region: Acartia clausi, Calanus finmarchicus, Euchaeta norvegica, Metridia lucens, Oithona sp., and Pleuromamma robusta. Seasonal cycles based on CPR data were similar to those recorded by the LHPR. Differences in absolute abundances were apparent, however, with the CPR underestimating abundances by a factor of between 5 and 40, with the exception of A. clausi. Active avoidance by zooplankton is thought to be responsible. This avoidance is species specific, so that care must be taken describing communities, as the CPR emphasises those species that are preferentially caught, a problem common to many plankton samplers.

  9. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland under modest regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Meilby, Henrik; Kollmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Shrub expansion has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic. This phenomenon has been partially attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century. However, relationships among shrub expansion, grazing, and human disturbance have been studied little. SW Greenland...... is a subarctic to low-arctic region with a long and complex land-use history and only modest temperature increases over the past 50 years (0.2 °C decade-1), but changes in shrub cover have not previously been studied in this region. We compiled historical photographs of vegetation in SW Greenland (1898......–1974) and repeated the photos in 2010 and 2011. Sixty-four photo pairs were cropped into 133 smaller units and classified by aspect, substrate stability, muskoxen grazing, and human disturbance. The photo material was evaluated by 22 experts with respect to changes in shrub cover, revealing a general increase across...

  10. Three different CPR management models for riverine nitrogen polluters in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arheimer, B

    1998-12-31

    Sweden has failed in the environmental goal of reducing the nitrogen transport to the Baltic Sea by 50 per cent in ten years, mainly because of the large amounts of nitrogen still leaching from arable land. The riverine nitrogen problem can be formulated in terms of a CPR problem, as the property rights of the river water are undefined and it is possible to free-ride in the maintenance of the resource by polluting it for personal aim. Swedish water management at present is dominated by a command-and-control policy. However, to master the situation, various propositions of changed institutional arrangements for better management of water resources have been presented recently. This chapter describes and discusses three models that have been proposed for water management in the Swedish environmental policy debate: the community model, the negotiation model and the market model. To be economically efficient and ecologically sustainable, all of these models must be in accordance with local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions. According to the analysis, the proposed management models have about the same institutional requirements, although the sensitivity to various requirements may differ among the models. In the chapter it is argued that new policy implementation in Sweden should include regional water administration boards, where monitoring and problem analysis are kept within single catchments. Problem solution should be decentralized so that sub basins are managed according to the model most in accordance with local conditions. As long as the various requests for model success are met, different management models may be used in different parts of the same watershed. This may be possible since the overwhelming need of institutional arrangements is about the same for the three proposed management models and, consequently, they do not exclude each other 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Three different CPR management models for riverine nitrogen polluters in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arheimer, B.

    1997-12-31

    Sweden has failed in the environmental goal of reducing the nitrogen transport to the Baltic Sea by 50 per cent in ten years, mainly because of the large amounts of nitrogen still leaching from arable land. The riverine nitrogen problem can be formulated in terms of a CPR problem, as the property rights of the river water are undefined and it is possible to free-ride in the maintenance of the resource by polluting it for personal aim. Swedish water management at present is dominated by a command-and-control policy. However, to master the situation, various propositions of changed institutional arrangements for better management of water resources have been presented recently. This chapter describes and discusses three models that have been proposed for water management in the Swedish environmental policy debate: the community model, the negotiation model and the market model. To be economically efficient and ecologically sustainable, all of these models must be in accordance with local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions. According to the analysis, the proposed management models have about the same institutional requirements, although the sensitivity to various requirements may differ among the models. In the chapter it is argued that new policy implementation in Sweden should include regional water administration boards, where monitoring and problem analysis are kept within single catchments. Problem solution should be decentralized so that sub basins are managed according to the model most in accordance with local conditions. As long as the various requests for model success are met, different management models may be used in different parts of the same watershed. This may be possible since the overwhelming need of institutional arrangements is about the same for the three proposed management models and, consequently, they do not exclude each other 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  12. CFD simulation analysis and validation for CPR1000 pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingqian; Ran Xiaobing; Liu Yanwu; Yu Xiaolei; Zhu Mingli

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the rapid growth in the non-nuclear area for industrial use of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) which has been accompanied by dramatically enhanced computing power, the application of CFD methods to problems relating to Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS) is rapidly accelerating. Existing research data have shown that CFD methods could predict accurately the pressure field and the flow repartition in reactor lower plenum. But simulations for the full domain of the reactor have not been reported so far. Purpose: The aim is to determine the capabilities of the codes to model accurately the physical phenomena which occur in the full reactor vessel. Methods: The flow field of the CPR1000 reactor which is associated with a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) is simulated by using ANSYS CFX. The pressure loss in reactor pressure vessel, the hydraulic loads of guide tubes and support columns, and the bypass flow of head dome were obtained by calculations for the full domain of the reactor. The results were validated by comparing with the determined reference value of the operating nuclear plant (LingAo nuclear plant), and the transient simulation was conducted in order to better understand the flow in reactor pressure vessel. Results: It was shown that the predicted pressure loss with CFD code was slightly different with the determined value (10% relative deviation for the total pressure loss), the hydraulic loads were less than the determined value with maximum relative deviation 50%, and bypass flow of head dome was approximately the same with determined value. Conclusion: This analysis practice predicts accurately the physical phenomena which occur in the full reactor vessel, and can be taken as a guidance for the nuclear plant design development and improve our understanding of reactor flow phenomena. (authors)

  13. Holocene oceanographic changes in SW Labrador Sea, off Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Pearce, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages supported by selected geochemical data from three marine sediment cores collected in Placentia Bay, SE Newfoundland, are used to construct an ~13,000-year-long record of regional oceanographic changes in the SW Labrador Sea. The area is located in the boundary zo....... The Northern Hemisphere neoglacial cooling around 2.8 cal. kyr BP was characterized off SE Newfoundland by a further stabilization of the current system, dominated by the LC with some continued influx of GS water....

  14. Design and transient analyses of passive emergency feedwater system of CPR1000. Part 1. Air cooling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yapei; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Tian Wenxi; Cao Jianhua; Lu Donghua; Fu Xiangang

    2011-01-01

    The steam generator secondary passive emergency feedwater system is a new design for traditional generation Ⅱ + reactor CPR1000. The passive emergency feedwater system is designed to supply water to the SG shell side and improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000 by completely or partially replacing traditional emergency water cooling system in the event of the feed line break (FLB) or loss of heat sink accident. The passive emergency feedwater system consists of steam generator (SG), heat exchanger (HX), air cooling tower, emergency makeup tank (EMT), and corresponding pipes and valves for air cooling condition. In order to improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000, the model of the primary loop system and the passive emergency feedwater system was developed to investigate residual heat removal capability of the passive emergency feedwater system and the transient characteristics of the primary loop system affected by the passive emergency feedwater system using RELAP5/MOD3.4. The transient characteristics of the primary loop system and the passive emergency feedwater system were calculated in the event of feed line break accident. Sensitivity studies of the passive emergency feedwater system were also conducted to investigate the response of the primary loop and the passive emergency feedwater system on the main parameters of the passive emergency feedwater system. The passive emergency feedwater system could supply water to the SG shell side from the EMT successfully. The calculation results showed that the passive emergency feedwater system could take away the decay heat from the primary loop effectively for air cooling condition, and that the single-phase and two-phase natural circulations were established in the primary loop and passive emergency feedwater system loop, respectively. (author)

  15. The Robust Software Feedback Model: An Effective Waterfall Model Tailoring for Space SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipaldi, Massimo; Gotz, Christoph; Ferraguto, Massimo; Troiano, Luigi; Bruenjes, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The selection of the most suitable software life cycle process is of paramount importance in any space SW project. Despite being the preferred choice, the waterfall model is often exposed to some criticism. As matter of fact, its main assumption of moving to a phase only when the preceding one is completed and perfected (and under the demanding SW schedule constraints) is not easily attainable. In this paper, a tailoring of the software waterfall model (named “Robust Software Feedback Model”) is presented. The proposed methodology sorts out these issues by combining a SW waterfall model with a SW prototyping approach. The former is aligned with the SW main production line and is based on the full ECSS-E-ST-40C life-cycle reviews, whereas the latter is carried out in advance versus the main SW streamline (so as to inject its lessons learnt into the main streamline) and is based on a lightweight approach.

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of conjugated polyketone reductase C2 (CPR-C2) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Akihiro; Maruoka, Shintaro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Nagata, Koji; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-11-01

    Conjugated polyketone reductase C2 (CPR-C2) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 is a member of the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of ketopantoyl lactone to d-pantoyl lactone. A diffraction-quality crystal of recombinant CPR-C2 was obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The crystal diffracted X-rays to 1.7 angstrom resolution on beamline NW12A of the Photon Factory-Advanced Ring (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 55.02, b = 68.30, c = 68.93 angstrom. The Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 1.76 angstrom(3) Da(-1)) indicated that the crystal contained one CPR-C2 molecule per asymmetric unit.

  17. [11C]PR04.MZ, a promising DAT ligand for low concentration imaging: synthesis, efficient 11C-O-methylation and initial small animal PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riss, P.J.; Hooker, J.; Alexoff, D.; Kim, Sung-Won; Fowler, J.S.; Roesch, F.

    2009-01-01

    PR04.MZ was designed as a highly selective dopamine transporter inhibitor, derived from natural cocaine. Its binding profile indicates that [ 11 C]PR04.MZ may be suited as a PET radioligand for the non-invasive exploration of striatal and extrastriatal DAT populations. As a key feature, its structural design facilitates both, labelling with fluorine-18 at its terminally fluorinated butynyl moiety and carbon-11 at its methyl ester function. The present report concerns the efficient [ 11 C]MeI mediated synthesis of [ 11 C]PR04.MZ from an O-desmethyl precursor trifluoroacetic acid salt with Rb 2 CO 3 in DMF in up to 95 ± 5% labelling yield. A preliminary μPET-experiment demonstrates the reversible, highly specific binding of [ 11 C]PR04.MZ in the brain of a male Sprague-Dawley rat.

  18. Role of dominant versus non-dominant hand position during uninterrupted chest compression CPR by novice rescuers: a randomized double-blind crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandish, Reza; Shahbazi, Sharbanoo; Golabi, Sedigheh; Beygi, Najimeh

    2008-02-01

    Previous research has suggested improved quality of chest compressions when the dominant hand was in contact with the sternum. However, the study was in health care professionals and during conventional chest compression-ventilation CPR. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis, in null form, that the quality of external chest compressions (ECC) in novice rescuers during 5min of uninterrupted chest compression CPR (UCC-CPR) is independent of the hand in contact with the sternum. Confirmation of the hypothesis would allow the use of either hand by the novice rescuers during UCC-CPR. Fifty-nine first year public heath students participated in this randomised double-blind crossover study. After completion of a standard adult BLS course, they performed single rescuer adult UCC-CPR for 5 min on a recording Resusci Anne. One week later they changed the hand of contact with the sternum while performing ECC. The quality of ECC was recorded by the skill meter for the dominant and non-dominant hand during 5 min ECC. The total number of correct chest compressions in the dominant hand group (DH), mean 183+/-152, was not statistically different from the non-dominant hand group (NH), mean 152+/-135 (P=0.09). The number of ECC with inadequate depth in the DH group, mean 197+/-174 and NH group, mean 196+/-173 were comparable (P=0.1). The incidence of ECC exceeding the recommended depth in the DH group, mean 51+/-110 and NH group, mean 32+/-75 were comparable (P=0.1). Although there is a trend to increased incidence of correct chest compressions with positioning the dominant hand in contact with the sternum, it does not reach statistical significance during UCC-CPR by the novice rescuers for 5 min.

  19. A COMPARISON OF INTERNET-BASED LEARNING AND TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM LECTURE TO LEARN CPR FOR CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser HEMMATI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL and traditional classroom lecture (TCL for continuing medical education (CME programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR curriculum guidelines training either by traditional or by an Internet-based CME. A randomized two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Postgraduate general physician trainees of Iran medical schools were participated. Two methods were compared for teaching the newest curriculum guidelines of the American Heart Association: lecture method in which the teacher follows a Power point presentation with linear layout, and with interactive self-assessment and Scenario-based learning, feedback, multimedia with linear and nonlinear layout with the same power point presentation as lecture in terms of text and photography. The data on final CPR exam grades, collected both groups trained physicians, were obtained for a total of 80 physicians in 2011. An independent sample t-test analysis indicated that participants in the IBL format reported significantly higher mean ratings for this format (62.5 ±2.32 than TCL format (54.6±2.18 (p=.001. There were no significant differences between the two groups in cognitive gains (p<0.05. well-designed IBL content can be effective or a supplement component to CME.

  20. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  1. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Quality of Orle River Basin, S.W. Nigeria. ... Abstract. The water quality of small streams in Auchi area of Edo State, S.W. Nigeria was investigated with a view to ... and ecosystems. The study was carried out

  2. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriphuwanun V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visith Siriphuwanun,1 Yodying Punjasawadwong,1 Worawut Lapisatepun,1 Somrat Charuluxananan,2 Ketchada Uerpairojkit2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%, survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%, and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%. The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19; ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13; precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90; the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38; surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82; shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15

  3. A new method to detect cerebral blood flow waveform in synchrony with chest compression by near-infrared spectroscopy during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yasuaki; Wada, Takafumi; Lohman, Brandon D; Takamatsu, Yuka; Matsumoto, Junichi; Fujitani, Shigeki; Taira, Yasuhiko

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study is to demonstrate the utility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in evaluating chest compression (CC) quality in cardiac arrest (CA) patients as well as determine its prognosis predictive value. We present a nonconsecutive case series of adult patients with CA whose cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was monitored with NIRS and collected the total hemoglobin concentration change (ΔcHb), the tissue oxygen index (TOI), and the ΔTOI to assess CC quality in a noninvasive fashion. During CPR, ΔcHb displayed waveforms monitor, which we regarded as a surrogate for CC quality. Total hemoglobin concentration change waveforms responded accurately to variations or cessations of CCs. In addition, a TOI greater than 40% measured upon admission appears to be significant in predicting patient's outcome. Of 15 patients, 6 had a TOI greater than 40% measured upon admission, and 67% of the latter were in return of spontaneous circulation after CPR and were found to be significantly different between return of spontaneous circulation and death (P = .047; P < .05). Near-infrared spectroscopy reliably assesses the quality of CCs in patients with CA demonstrated by synchronous waveforms during CPR and possible prognostic predictive value, although further investigation is warranted. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "Utstein style" spreadsheet and database programs based on Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access software for CPR data management of in-hospital resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bruce D; Whitlock, Warren L

    2004-04-01

    In 1997, The American Heart Association in association with representatives of the International Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) published recommended guidelines for reviewing, reporting and conducting in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) outcomes using the "Utstein style". Using these guidelines, we developed two Microsoft Office based database management programs that may be useful to the resuscitation community. We developed a user-friendly spreadsheet based on MS Office Excel. The user enters patient variables such as name, age, and diagnosis. Then, event resuscitation variables such as time of collapse and CPR team arrival are entered from a "code flow sheet". Finally, outcome variables such as patient condition at different time points are recorded. The program then makes automatic calculations of average response times, survival rates and other important outcome measurements. Also using the Utstein style, we developed a database program based on MS Office Access. To promote free public access to these programs, we established at a website. These programs will help hospitals track, analyze, and present their CPR outcomes data. Clinical CPR researchers might also find the programs useful because they are easily modified and have statistical functions.

  5. Motion detection technology as a tool for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality training: a randomised crossover mannequin pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Federico; Frisoli, Antonio; Loconsole, Claudio; Bannò, Filippo; Tammaro, Gaetano; Imbriaco, Guglielmo; Marchetti, Luca; Cerchiari, Erga L

    2013-04-01

    Outcome after cardiac arrest is dependent on the quality of chest compressions (CC). A great number of devices have been developed to provide guidance during CPR. The present study evaluates a new CPR feedback system (Mini-VREM: Mini-Virtual Reality Enhanced Mannequin) designed to improve CC during training. Mini-VREM system consists of a Kinect(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) motion sensing device and specifically developed software to provide audio-visual feedback. Mini-VREM was connected to a commercially available mannequin (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). Eighty trainees (healthcare professionals and lay people) volunteered in this randomised crossover pilot study. All subjects performed a 2 min CC trial, 1h pause and a second 2 min CC trial. The first group (FB/NFB, n=40) performed CC with Mini-VREM feedback (FB) followed by CC without feedback (NFB). The second group (NFB/FB, n=40) performed vice versa. Primary endpoints: adequate compression (compression rate between 100 and 120 min(-1) and compression depth between 50 and 60mm); compressions rate within 100-120 min(-1); compressions depth within 50-60mm. When compared to the performance without feedback, with Mini-VREM feedback compressions were more adequate (FB 35.78% vs. NFB 7.27%, p<0.001) and more compressions achieved target rate (FB 72.04% vs. 31.42%, p<0.001) and target depth (FB 47.34% vs. 24.87%, p=0.002). The participants perceived the system to be easy to use with effective feedback. The Mini-VREM system was able to improve significantly the CC performance by healthcare professionals and by lay people in a simulated CA scenario, in terms of compression rate and depth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. First physical volcanological description of a Miocene, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall complex in the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biró, Tamás; Hencz, Mátyás; Karátson, Dávid; Márton, Emő; Bradák-Hayashi, Balázs; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    The study reports the basic physical volcanological and stratigraphical features of a hitherto unrecognized silicic phreatomagmatic fall succession from the Bükk Foreland Volcanic Area (Hungary), known as part of the extensive Miocene ignimbrite volcanism of the northern CPR. The complex have been identified at two sites, in the vicinity of Bogács and Tibolddaróc villages. Tens of mm to several dm thick layers make up the 20 m thick entire succession. The complex could be subdivided into three eruption cycles by two, intercalated well-developed paleosoil horizons, which indicate longer repose periods. The eruption cycles consist of several individual eruptive events. The volcano-sedimentological field approach was completed by granulometrical and low field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies. Combined dry sieving and laser diffraction particle size analysis were performed to get information on median grain size (MdΦ) and sorting (σΦ) of friable layers. AMS was used to infer the emplacement processes. Based on the following features the succession is proposed to record a large-scale, silicic, phreatomagmatic fall activity: i) Presence of very fine ash and abundant ash aggregates, ii) General poor sorting, and often bimodal grain-size distributions; ii) Extremely weak magnetic fabric compared to dilute, thin pyroclastic density current deposits. On the basis of comparison of the recorded grain size characteristics with data from other silicic phretomagmatic fall deposits worldwide, several units in the succession can be considered as phreatoplinian fall deposit (sensu lato), described for the first time in the CPR.

  7. The addition of voice prompts to audiovisual feedback and debriefing does not modify CPR quality or outcomes in out of hospital cardiac arrest--a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Andreas; Weber, Thomas P; Wecker, Sascha; Harding, Ulf; Osada, Nani; Van Aken, Hugo; Lukas, Roman P

    2011-03-01

    Chest compression quality is a determinant of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). ERC 2005 guidelines recommend the use of technical devices to support rescuers giving compressions. This prospective randomized study reviewed influence of different feedback configurations on survival and compression quality. 312 patients suffering an OHCA were randomly allocated to two different feedback configurations. In the limited feedback group a metronome and visual feedback was used. In the extended feedback group voice prompts were added. A training program was completed prior to implementation, performance debriefing was conducted throughout the study. Survival did not differ between the extended and limited feedback groups (47.8% vs 43.9%, p = 0.49). Average compression depth (mean ± SD: 4.74 ± 0.86 cm vs 4.84 ± 0.93 cm, p = 0.31) was similar in both groups. There were no differences in compression rate (103 ± 7 vs 102 ± 5 min(-1), p=0.74) or hands-off fraction (16.16% ± 0.07 to 17.04% ± 0.07, p = 0.38). Bystander CPR, public arrest location, presenting rhythm and chest compression depth were predictors of short term survival (ROSC to ED). Even limited CPR-feedback combined with training and ongoing debriefing leads to high chest compression quality. Bystander CPR, location, rhythm and chest compression depth are determinants of survival from out of hospital cardiac arrest. Addition of voice prompts does neither modify CPR quality nor outcome in OHCA. CC depth significantly influences survival and therefore more focus should be put on correct delivery. Further studies are needed to examine the best configuration of feedback to improve CPR quality and survival. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00449969), http://www.clinicalTrials.gov. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  9. Sedimentological characteristics and seafloor failure offshore SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, analysis results reveal two main deposition zones are located at the flank of upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon and Lower Fangliao Basin offshore SW Taiwan. The non-event related sediments deposited in past 150 years (i.e., 632 Mt km-2 was delivered and transported from Gaoping River by suspension process with tides and coastal currents and gradually spread out offshore. Meanwhile, the total mass of accumulation sediments is 1922 Mt km-2, accounting for 40% Gaoping River’s sediment load and suggesting that the deposition process is mainly controlled by natural hazards. Sedimentation rates in much of the study area, except in the main deposition zones, are less than 0.5 cm yr-1 (5 m kyr-1. Compared with the studies at the instability seafloor caused by high sedimentation rates (~30 m kyr-1, the offshore southwestern Taiwan is relatively stable. In this study, we also discovered a series of sediment waves located on the upper continental slope between Gaoping and Fangliao Submarine Canyons, which is related to the creeping process on seafloor. In summary, our results reveal the fluid activities, existence of weak layers and earthquake triggering are potential factors which might induced seafloor failures offshore southwestern Taiwan.

  10. Growth inhibitory alkaloids from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Eri; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Koji

    2004-03-01

    Plant growth inhibitory alkaloids were isolated from the extract of mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.] leaves. Their chemical structures were established by ESI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra analysis. The I50 value (concentration required for 50% inhibition of control) for root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seedlings was 400 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 500 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 100 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. On the other hand, the minimum concentration exhibiting inhibitory effect on shoot growth of cress seedlings was 10 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 100 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 1 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. Among these compounds, a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of cress seedlings.

  11. [Overexpression of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in SW480 rectal cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yang; Wan, Hongxing; Chai, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) gene in the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of rectal cancer cells. Methods Human rectal cancer SW480 cells were cultured and transfected with pCDNA3.1-NDRG2 and empty vector (SW480-Ve). SW480 cells were set as a control group. Cell proliferation was detected in SW480 cells, SW480-Ve cells and SW480-NDRG2 cells by MTT assay; cell migration distance in the three groups at 24, 48, 72 hours was tested by wound healing assay; apoptosis rate was determined in the three groups at 48 hours by flow cytometry; the expressions of Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2 proteins in the three groups were examined by Western blotting. Results After the cells were cultured for 7 days, cell survival rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; the cell survival rate decreased gradually with the prolongation of the culture time; and it had no significant difference between SW480-Ve group and SW480 group. Cell migration distance in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly lower than that in SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells, and it had also no significant difference between SW480-Ve cells and SW480 cells. The apoptosis rate in SW480-NDRG2 group was significantly higher than that in SW480 group and SW480-Ve group, and SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells had no significant difference in the rate. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480-NDRG2 group were significantly higher than those in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly lower in SW480-NDRG2 group than in SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells; and the expressions of Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2 proteins were not significantly different between SW480 cells and SW480-Ve cells. Conclusion Overexpression of NDRG2 can inhibit the proliferation, reduce cell migration, and promote cell apoptosis by regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins in SW480 cells.

  12. Theoretical calculation of shakeup intensities using Xa--SW wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, J.S.; Loubriel, G.

    1981-01-01

    The ground and 1s core hole state molecular wave functions of CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF obtained from Xa--SW calculations using the touching spheres (TS) and overlapping spheres (OS) approximations are used to calculate the intensity of shakeup satellites observed in their ls core level photoelectron spectra. The sudden approximation was assumed in the calculation. In case of TS Xa--SW wave functions, the one electron overlap integral inside the intersphere was calculated via Green's theorem. For OS Xa--SW wave functions, the integration over the awkwardly shaped intersphere region was circumvented by distributing the intersphere charge into the atomic spheres according to the charge partition scheme suggested by Case and Karplus. Our results show that there are no significant differences between the shakeup energies calculated from the TS and OS approximations. However, shakeup intensities calculated from TS Xa--SW wave functions are more reliable and in better numerical agreement with experiment

  13. Amphibians and agrochemicals: Dermal contact and pesticide uptake from irrigated croplands in SW Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Although isolated wetlands comprise a significant portion of amphibian breeding habitats throughout the United States, they are not protected under the Clean Water Act. In SW Georgia where agriculture is dominant within the landscape, many isolated ...

  14. seasonal variation in water quality of orle river basin, sw nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    The seasonal variation of water quality of Orle River and its tributatries in S.W. Nigeria was investigated forthnightly or two ... KEYWORD: water quality, river basin, wet and dry seasons; pollution. ..... Environmental Modeling and Software,.

  15. Wave hindcast experiments in the Indian Ocean using MIKE 21 SW ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wave prediction and hindcast studies are important in ocean engineering, coastal ... wave data can be used for the assessment of wave climate in offshore and coastal areas. In the .... for the change in performance during SW monsoon.

  16. Redefinition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz L. Szlachetko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of the genera Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt. Eaton is presented. The genera are briefly described and illustrated. A list of Microstylis species is added. Four new nomenclatural combinations are proposed.

  17. A Unified Electronic Tool for CPR and Emergency Treatment Escalation Plans Improves Communication and Early Collaborative Decision Making for Acute Hospital Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mae; Whyte, Martin; Loveridge, Robert; Yorke, Richard; Naleem, Shairana

    2017-01-01

    The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcomes and Death (NCEPOD) report 'Time to Intervene' (2012) stated that in a substantial number of cases, resuscitation is attempted when it was thought a 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' (DNACPR) decision should have been in place. Early decisions about CPR status and advance planning about limits of care now form part of national recommendations by the UK Resuscitation Council (2016). Treatment escalation plans (TEP) document what level of treatment intervention would be appropriate if a patient were to become acutely unwell and were not previously formally in place at King's College Hospital. A unifying paper based form was successfully piloted in the Acute Medical Unit, introducing the TEP and bringing together decision making around both treatment escalation and CPR status. Subsequently an electronic order-set for CPR status and treatment escalation was launched in April 2015 which led to a highly visible CPR and escalation status banner on the main screen at the top of the patient's electronic record. Ultimately due to further iterations in the electronic process by December 2016, all escalation decisions for acutely admitted patients now have high quality supporting, explanatory documentation with 100% having TEPs in place. There is now widespread multidisciplinary engagement in the process of defining limits of care for acutely admitted medical patients within the first 14 hours of admission and a strategy for rolling this process out across all the divisions of the hospital through our Deteriorating Patient Group (DPG). The collaborative design with acute medical, palliative and intensive care teams and the high visibility provided by the electronic process in the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) has enhanced communication with these teams, patients, nursing staff and the multidisciplinary team by ensuring clarity through a universally understood process about escalation and CPR. Clarity and

  18. Dosimetric properties of a Solid Water High Equivalency (SW557) phantom for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Fujio

    2017-07-01

    The dosimetric properties of the recently developed SW557 phantom have been investigated by comparison with those of the existing SW457 phantom in megavoltage photon beams. The electron fluence ratio φ pl w , and chamber ionization ratio k pl , of water to SW457 and water to SW557 for 4-15MV photons were calculated as a function of depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and compared with measured values. Values of φ pl w for SW457 were in the range of 1.004-1.014 for 4MV, and 1.014-1.018 for 15MV photons. The φ pl w for SW557 ranged from 1.005 to 1.008 for 4MV and from 1.010 to 1.015 for 15MV photons and the variation of φ pl w with depth for each beam energy was within ±0.5%. Values of k pl were obtained with a PTW 30013 Farmer-type ionization chamber. The k pl for SW457 ranged from 0.997 to 1.011 for 4-15MV photons. Values of k pl for SW557 were almost unity for 4 and 6MV photons, while in the case of 10 and 15MV photons they were less than 1.006, excepting the build-up region. The measured and calculated k pl values of water to SW557 were in the range of 0.997-1.002 and 1.000-1.006, respectively, for 4-15MV photons, at a depth of 10cm with a source-to-axis distance of 100cm. The measured and calculated k pl values were in agreement within their uncertainty ranges. As a water-equivalent phantom, SW557 can be used with a dosimetric difference within±0.6%, for 4-15MV photons, and is more water-equivalent than SW457 in megavoltage photon beams. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hot topics in Modern Cosmology - SW9 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.; Sigl, G.; Biondi, R.; Volkov, M.; Noller, J.; Starobinsky, A.; Toporensky, A.; Renaux, S.; Pilo, L.; Comelli, D.; Slagter, R.; Novello, M.; Padilla, A.; Antunes, V.; Kamenshchik, A.; Vernieri, D.; Kaloper, N.; Denkiewics, T.; Gohar, H.; Zahariade, G.; Frusciante, N.; Von Strauss, M.

    2016-01-01

    This 9. Spontaneous Workshop (SW9) brought together specialists on recent insights in Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The aim was to stimulate debate on common topics in views of providing us with innovating ideas. SW9 topics includes: 1) Cosmological parameters - Anomalies in CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background); 2) Dark matter and neutrinos; 3) Gravity - Dark energy; 4) Singular universes; and 5) Cosmological Large Scale Structures - Magnetic Fields; This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  20. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  1. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF THE CORE THERMO-MECHANICALLY HARDENED REINFORC-ING STEEL OF GRADE A700HW OF DIE-ROLLED SECTION NO 12, 14, 16 PRODUCTION ACCORDING TO REQUIREMENT OF FINNISH STANDARDS SFST1216 IN CONDITIONS OF SMALL-SECTION MILL 320 OF RUP «BMZ»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rusalenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology of the core thermomechanically hardened reinforcing steel of grade А700HW of die-rolled section No 12, 14, 16 production according to requirement of Finnish standards SFST1216 in conditions of small-section mill 320 of RUP «BMZ» is given.

  3. The impact of ultra-brief chest compression-only CPR video training on responsiveness, compression rate, and hands-off time interval among bystanders in a shopping mall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Ashish R; Meziab, Omar; Stolz, Uwe; Anderson, Wes; Bartlett, Mitchell; Spaite, Daniel W; Bobrow, Bentley J; Kern, Karl B

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated higher-quality chest compressions (CCs) following a 60 s ultra-brief video (UBV) on compression-only CPR (CO-CPR). However, the effectiveness of UBVs as a CPR-teaching tool for lay bystanders in public venues remains unknown. Determine whether an UBV is effective in teaching laypersons CO-CPR in a public setting and if viewing leads to superior responsiveness and CPR skills. Adult lay bystanders were enrolled in a public shopping mall and randomized to: (1) Control (CTR): sat idle for 60 s; (2) UBV: watched a 60 s UBV on CO-CPR. Subjects were read a scenario detailing a sudden collapse in the mall and asked to do what they "thought was best" on a mannequin. Performance measures were recorded for 2 min: responsiveness (time to call 911 and first CCs) and CPR quality [CC depth, rate, hands-off interval (time without CC after first CC)]. One hundred subjects were enrolled. Demographics were similar between groups. UBV subjects called 911 more frequently (percent difference: 31%) and initiated CCs sooner in the arrest scenario (median difference (MD): 5 s). UBV cohort had increased CC rate (MD: 19 cpm) and decreased hands-off interval (MD: 27 s). There was no difference in CC depth. Bystanders with UBV training in a shopping mall had significantly improved responsiveness, CC rate, and decreased hands-off interval. Given the short length of training, UBV may have potential as a ubiquitous intervention for public venues to help improve bystander reaction to arrest and CO-CPR performance. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of conjugated polyketone reductase C2 (CPR-C2) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Akihiro; Maruoka, Shintaro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Nagata, Koji; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated polyketone reductase C2 from C. parapsilosis IFO 0708 was expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution. Conjugated polyketone reductase C2 (CPR-C2) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 is a member of the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of ketopantoyl lactone to d-pantoyl lactone. A diffraction-quality crystal of recombinant CPR-C2 was obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The crystal diffracted X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution on beamline NW12A of the Photon Factory-Advanced Ring (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 55.02, b = 68.30, c = 68.93 Å. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 1.76 Å 3 Da −1 ) indicated that the crystal contained one CPR-C2 molecule per asymmetric unit

  5. Mobile phone technology identifies and recruits trained citizens to perform CPR on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims prior to ambulance arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringh, Mattias; Fredman, David; Nordberg, Per; Stark, Tomas; Hollenberg, Jacob

    2011-12-01

    In a two-parted study, evaluate a new concept were mobile phone technology is used to dispatch lay responders to nearby out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Mobile phone positioning systems (MPS) can geographically locate selected mobile phone users at any given moment. A mobile phone service using MPS was developed and named Mobile Life Saver (MLS). Simulation study: 25 volunteers named mobile responders (MRs) were connected to MLS. Ambulance time intervals from 22 consecutive OHCAs in 2005 were used as controls. The MRs randomly moved in Stockholm city centre and were dispatched to simulated OHCAs (identical to controls) if they were within a 350 m distance. Real life study: during 25 weeks 1271-1801 MRs trained in CPR were connected to MLS. MLS was activated at the dispatch centre in parallel with ambulance dispatch when an OHCA was suspected. The MRs were dispatched if they were within 500 m from the suspected OHCA. Simulation study: mean response time for the MRs compared to historical ambulance time intervals was reduced by 2 min 20s (44%), pMobile phone technology can be used to identify and recruit nearby CPR-trained citizens to OHCAs for bystander CPR prior to ambulance arrival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea: a new time series and modeling approach to CPR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Payne, Mark; Edwards, Martin; Schrum, Corinna; Pitois, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.

  7. A comparison between the two methods of chest compression in infant and neonatal resuscitation. A review according to 2010 CPR guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvanas, Alexandros; Koulouglioti, Christina; Kalafati, Maria

    2018-03-01

    The quality of chest compression (CC) delivered during neonatal and infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is identified as the most important factor to achieve the increase of survival rate without major neurological deficit to the patients. The objective of the study was to systematically review all the available studies that have compared the two different techniques of hand placement on infants and neonatal resuscitation, from 2010 to 2015 and to highlight which method is more effective. A review of the literature using a variety of medical databases, including Cochrane, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS electronic databases. The following MeSH terms were used in the search: infant, neonatal, CPR, CC, two-thumb (TT) technique/method, two-finger (TF) technique/method, rescuer fatigue, thumb/finger position/placement, as well as combinations of these. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria; nine observational studies and a randomized controlled trial. All providers performed either continuous TF or TT technique CCs and the majority of CPR performance was taken place in infant trainer manikin. The majority of the studies suggest the TT method as the more useful for infants and neonatal resuscitation than the TF.

  8. Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea: a new time series and modeling approach to CPR data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis Jansen

    Full Text Available We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.

  9. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  10. Lithological indicators of loess sedimentation of SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution grain-size investigations were carried out in two SW Polish loess sections: Biały Kościół (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills and Zaprężyn (Trzebnica Hills. Each sequence was sampled by using the same methodology and samples were taken at 5 centimeters intervals. The particle size distribution was obtained with a Mastersizer 2000 laser, used for diffraction methods. From the obtained results the basic parameters and grain size indicators were calculated: Mz, Grain Size Index ratio, U-ratio and the percentage content of clay ( 63 μm. Both loess-soil sequences are composed of interfluve and slope loess facies and consist of five litho-pedostratigraphic units developed during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene: two loess units L1LL1, L1LL2 and three polygenetic fossil soils sets S0, S1 and L1SS1. The distance between these two profiles is about 60 km. Zaprężyn, as a section located more to the north, has almost no lower younger loess and higher level of weathering which could be related to proximity of this site to the Ice Sheet margin. The climate here was more extreme and harsh. What is more, the difference in development of soil L1SS1 can be observed: while in Biały Kościół pedogenesis process was slower and less disturbed than in Zaprężyn. The upper part of L1SS1 in Biały Kościół was deformed by gelifluction, frost heave and other periglacial processes. Mz indicator by the grain-size distribution in these sediments reflects subtle variations in the climatic system. Moreover, in Zaprężyn the content of sand fraction is higher than in Biały Kościół what can be the evidence of short episodes of strong winds during cold period of sedimentation. The aim of this paper is to compare two loess profiles by their stratigraphical and lithological similarities which are result of climate conditions and features of surrounding environment.

  11. Reduced hands-off-time and time to first shock in CPR according to the ERC Guidelines 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, B; Fleischhackl, R; Losert, H; Arrich, J; Mittlboeck, M; Domanovits, H; Hoerauf, K

    2009-01-01

    Chest compressions and early defibrillation are crucial in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The Guidelines 2005 brought major changes to the basic life support and automated external defibrillator (BLS-AED) algorithm. We compared the European Resuscitation Council's Guidelines 2000 (group '00) and 2005 (group '05) on hands-off-time (HOT) and time to first shock (TTFS) in an experimental model. In a randomised, cross-over design, volunteers were assessed in performing BLS-AED over a period of 5min on a manikin in a simulated ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest situation. Ten minutes of standardised teaching and 10min of training including corrective feedback were allocated for each of the guidelines before evaluation. HOT was chosen as the primary and TTFS as the secondary outcome parameter. Forty participants were enrolled; one participant dropped out after group allocation. During the 5-min evaluation period of adult BLS-AED, HOT was significantly (p<0.001) longer in group '00 [273+/-3s (mean+/-standard error)] than in group '05 (188+/-3s). The TTFS was significantly (p<0.001) longer in group '00 (91+/-3s) than in group '05 (71+/-3s). In this manikin setting, HOT and TTFS improved with BLS-AED performed according to Guidelines 2005.

  12. Sr-Nd isotope systematics of xenoliths in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Iwata, Masatoshi; Iizumi, Shigeru; Nureki, Terukazu.

    1993-01-01

    Based on new and previously published Sr and Nd isotope data, we examined the petrogenetic relationship between deep crust- and upper mantle-derived xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks and Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan. The deep crust- and upper mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan have comparable initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in their respective districts. This may suggest that these xenoliths were genetically related to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan, and that regional variations in Sr and Nd isotope ratios observed in the granitoid rocks are attributed to differences in the geochemistry of the magma sources. (author)

  13. Effect of spray on performance of the hydrogen mitigation system during LB-LOCA for CPR1000 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.G.; Yang, Y.H.; Cheng, X.; Al-Hawshabi, N.H.A.; Casey, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper presents the spray effect on HMS during LB-LOCA by using GASFLOW. → The positive and negative effects of spray are summarized. → And the combination of DIS and PAR system is suggested as reasonable countermeasures. → This research is an important work aimed at the study of spray and hydrogen mitigation. → The contents of this paper should become a required part of the safety analysis of Chinese NPPs. - Abstract: During the course of the hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LB-LOCA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP), hydrogen is generated by a reaction between steam and the fuel-cladding inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is then ejected from the break into the containment along with a large amount of steam. Management of hydrogen safety and prevention of over-pressurization could be implemented through a hydrogen mitigation system (HMS) and spray system in CPR1000 NPP. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code GASFLOW is utilized in this study to analyze the spray effect on the performance of HMS during LB-LOCA. Results show that as a kind of HMS, deliberate igniter system (DIS) could initiate hydrogen combustion immediately after the flammability limit of the gas mixture has been reached. However, it will increase the temperature and pressure drastically. Operating the DIS under spray condition could result in hydrogen combustion being suppressed by suspended droplets inside the containment. Furthermore, the droplets could also mitigate local the temperature rise. Operation of a PAR system, another kind of HMS, consumes hydrogen steadily with a lower recombination rate which is not affected noticeably by the spray system. Numerical results indicate that the dual concept, namely the integrated application of DIS and PAR systems, is a constructive improvement for hydrogen safety under spray condition during LB-LOCA.

  14. Bystander-witnessed cardiac arrest is associated with reported agonal breathing and leads to less frequent bystander CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkrolf, P; Metelmann, B; Scharte, C; Zarbock, A; Hahnenkamp, K; Bohn, A

    2018-04-18

    Although the importance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been shown in multiple studies, the rate of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation is still relatively low in many countries. Little is known on bystanders' perceptions influencing the decision to start cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Our study aims to determine such factors. Semi-structured telephone interviews with bystanders of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests between December 2014 and April 2016 were performed in a prospective manner. This single-center survey was conducted in the city of Münster, Germany. The bystander's sex and age, the perception of the victim's breathing and initial condition were correlated with the share of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the corresponding group. 101 telephone interviews were performed with 57 male and 44 female participants showing a mean age of 52.7 (SD ± 16.3). In case of apnoea 38 out of 46 bystanders (82.6%) started cardiopulmonary resuscitation; while in case of descriptions indicating agonal breathing 19 out of 35 bystanders (54.3%) started cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p = .007). If the patient was found unconscious 47 out of 63 bystanders (74.7%) performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation, while in cases of witnessed cardiac arrest 19 out of 38 bystanders (50%) attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p = .012). Witnessed change of consciousness is an independent factor significantly lowering the probability of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (regression coefficient -1.489, p bystander-CPR was started. These data reinforce the importance of teaching the recognition of early cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Project desk evaluation of a model project CPR/5/009 industrial scale irradiation of rice and other foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The project CPR/5/009 was approved in 1993 as a model project. The project objective was to build an industrial food irradiation facility for high quality rice and other foodstuffs, with a processing capacity of 5000-9000 tonnes per year. This capacity is large compared to many other facilities of the same type elsewhere. The success of the project waste to be measured against the full utilization of the facility with an acceptable availability factor. Disbursements on Agency inputs up to the end of June 1996 were $294,716 and consisted of one 100 kCi Co-60 source, quality control equipment, bag heat sealers, one expert mission and 13.5 months of training abroad. The current budget is $323,870, following two programme changes. The total cost of the project was estimated at $1,331,300 with the Chinese Government providing the balance. The major conclusions of this evaluation are as follows: Initially, the Agency overestimated the project and business management experience of the counterpart, and consequently underestimated the extent of support required. Providing support to counterparts in facing the key challenges of project management and business operation must be considered by the Agency in future projects of this type. The counterpart institution is also encouraged to emphasize these management issues in order to maximize sustainable and cost-effective utilization of such facilities. A new operational plan has been prepared by the counterpart for 1996 through 1998 which identifies seven customers requiring treatment of a total of 1000 tonnes per year of cereal grains and 1500 tonnes per year of other foodstuffs. This plan reflects a change in overall emphasis from supporting food supply security to ensuring the safety of foodstuffs. It is not clear whether this plan will support operation of the facility at full capacity. The team in place to operate the facility also needs further strengthening. (author). Figs, tabs

  16. Grade of a doctor does not influence acquisition of knowledge and skill during CPR training in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi B Bankole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our teaching hospitals have different grades of doctors with varied exposure to cardiac arrest settings and their resuscitation skills are often inadequate. Objectives: We investigated whether the grade of a doctor influenced acquisition of knowledge and skill during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Doctors who attended a two-day resuscitation training program between December 2007 and April 2009 were scored on their knowledge of Basic Life Support, Advanced Life Support, and performance at five skill stations. A pass mark was awarded for a post-test score ≥ 75% and a pass in all skill stations. Results: A total of 130 doctors were studied with a mean of 10.99 ± 6.51 years since medical qualification (range, 2-28 years. The mean pre-test score was 54.43 ± 16.10% (range 30.5-91.8% while the mean post-test score was 88.48 ± 6.8% (range, 54.6-94%, (P < 0.001. Mean post-test scores were not significantly different between grades. Mean scores for questions on Basic Life Support, defibrillator use, and drug therapy and in performance at skill stations were not significantly different between grades. A significant difference however existed in questions on cardiac arrest rhythms (P = 0.031. Sixty-five participants (50% passed the post-test at first attempt. Consultants, senior registrars, and registrars had pass rates of 59.2%, 53.6%, and 43.5% respectively (P = 0.336. After re-training at performance stations, 124 doctors (95.4% passed the test with no significant difference in overall pass in the various grades (P = 0.605. Conclusion : Grade of doctor did not affect the acquisition of knowledge and skill during resuscitation training.

  17. Augmented survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with the use of mobile phones for emergency communication under the DA-CPR protocol getting information from callers beside the victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tetsuo; Yamashita, Akira; Myojo, Yasuhiro; Wato, Yukihiro; Inaba, Hideo

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the impacts of emergency calls made using mobile phones on the quality of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) that were not witnessed by emergency medical service (EMS). In this prospective study, we collected data for 2530 DA-CPR-attempted medical emergency cases (517 using mobile phones and 2013 using landline phones) and 2980 non-EMS-witnessed OHCAs (600 using mobile phones and 2380 using landline phones). Time factors and quality of DA-CPR, backgrounds of callers and outcomes of OHCAs were compared between mobile and landline phone groups. Emergency calls are much more frequently placed beside the arrest victim in mobile phone group (52.7% vs. 17.2%). The positive predictive value and acceptance rate of DA-CPR in mobile phone group (84.7% and 80.6%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in landline group (79.2% and 70.9%). The proportion of good-quality bystander CPR in mobile phone group was significantly higher than that in landline group (53.5% vs. 45.0%). When analysed for all non-EMS-witnessed OHCAs, rates of 1-month survival and 1-year neurologically favourable survival in mobile phone group (7.8% and 3.5%, respectively) were higher than those in landline phone group (4.6% and 1.9%; pmobile phone calls were associated with increased 1-month survival in the subgroup of OHCAs receiving bystander CPR (adjusted odds ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.15-2.92). Emergency calls made using mobile phones are likely to augment the survival from OHCAs by improving DA-CPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perturbative determination of c{sub SW} with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept., Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We determine the improvement factor c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. c{sub SW} is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient c{sub NGI} for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

  19. On SW-minimal models and N=1 supersymmetric quantum Toda-field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallwitz, S.

    1994-04-01

    Integrable N=1 supersymmetric Toda-field theories are determined by a contragredient simple Super-Lie-Algebra (SSLS) with purely fermionic lowering and raising operators. For the SSLA's Osp(3/2) and D(2/1;α) we construct explicitly the higher spin conserved currents and obtain free field representations of the super W-algebras SW(3/2,2) and SW(3/2,3/2,2). In constructing the corresponding series of minimal models using covariant vertex operators, we find a necessary restriction on the Cartan matrix of the SSLA, also for the general case. Within this framework, this restriction claims that there be a minimum of one non-vanishing element on the diagonal of the Cartan matrix. This condition is without parallel in bosonic conformal field theory. As a consequence only two series of SSLA's yield minimal models, namely Osp(2n/2n-1) and Osp(2n/2n+1). Subsequently some general aspects of degenerate representations of SW-algebras, notably the fusion rules, are investigated. As an application we discuss minimal models of SW(3/2, 2), which were constructed with independent methods, in this framework. Covariant formulation is used throughout this paper. (orig.)

  20. Unravelling the role of SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Betancor, Sofia; Gansicke, Boris; Long, Knox; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo

    2005-08-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables whose properties contradict all predictions made by the current CV evolution theories. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assessment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. There is one particular behavior of the SW Sex stars that can allow us to overcome this problem: SW Sex stars exhibit low states during which accretion onto the white dwarf decreases or shuts off completely. Only during this rare occasions we can directly observe the white dwarf and the donor star in these systems, and measurements of the white dwarf temperature, spectral type of the donor, mass and distance to the system can be carried out. With this aim in mind, we have set up a long-term monitoring of a group of five SW Sex stars using the 1.3 m telescope at CTIO. Here we propose to activate follow-up TOOs to obtain optical spectra of the low states to accurately determine the fundamental properties of these systems.

  1. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  2. Hot topics in modern cosmology - SW6 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starobinsky, A.A.; Gorbunov, D.; Reverberi, L.; Arbuzova, E.; Arbuzov, A.; Maeda, K.; Borowiec, A.; Moschella, U.; Karshenboim, S.; Tinyakov, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Deffrayet, C.; Pilo, L.; Rham, C. de; Fasiello, M.; Tolley, A.; Chernodub, M.; Kunze, K.; Berezhiani, Z.; Kamyshkov, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This spontaneous workshop (SW) brings together specialists on recent insights in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. The aim is to stimulate debates on common topics in views of providing the scientific community with innovating ideas. The main topics are gravity, dark matter and cosmological models. This document is made of the slides of the presentations.

  3. sw-SVM: sensor weighting support vector machines for EEG-based brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jrad, N; Congedo, M; Phlypo, R; Rousseau, S; Flamary, R; Yger, F; Rakotomamonjy, A

    2011-10-01

    In many machine learning applications, like brain-computer interfaces (BCI), high-dimensional sensor array data are available. Sensor measurements are often highly correlated and signal-to-noise ratio is not homogeneously spread across sensors. Thus, collected data are highly variable and discrimination tasks are challenging. In this work, we focus on sensor weighting as an efficient tool to improve the classification procedure. We present an approach integrating sensor weighting in the classification framework. Sensor weights are considered as hyper-parameters to be learned by a support vector machine (SVM). The resulting sensor weighting SVM (sw-SVM) is designed to satisfy a margin criterion, that is, the generalization error. Experimental studies on two data sets are presented, a P300 data set and an error-related potential (ErrP) data set. For the P300 data set (BCI competition III), for which a large number of trials is available, the sw-SVM proves to perform equivalently with respect to the ensemble SVM strategy that won the competition. For the ErrP data set, for which a small number of trials are available, the sw-SVM shows superior performances as compared to three state-of-the art approaches. Results suggest that the sw-SVM promises to be useful in event-related potentials classification, even with a small number of training trials.

  4. Does SW Monsoon Influence Total Suspended Matter Flux into the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    Seasonal enhancement in the flux of total suspended matter (TSM) has been attributed to climatology of the SW monsoon (SWM) in time-series trap experiments conducted in the Arabian Sea. To determine the influence of climate on TSM flux, synoptic...

  5. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  6. Geochemistry of calcareous sediments from the SW Carlsberg Ridge: Evidence for deeper carbonate compensation depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Ambre, N.V.

    Concentration of Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Si, Ti, P and CaCO sub(3) show wide range for the calcareous sediments from SW Carlsberg Ridge (CR). Compared with the average pelagic clays, the CR sediments are enriched by Mg, Ni, Co, and Zn...

  7. Nitrogen Dynamics in the Westerschelde Estuary (Sw Netherlands) Estimated by Means of the Ecosystem Model Moses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Herman, P.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A tentative nitrogen budget for the Westerschelde (SW Netherlands) is constructed by means of a simulation model with thirteen spatial compartments. Biochemical and chemical processes in the water column are dynamically modeled; fluxes of dissolved constituents across the water-bottom interface are

  8. Contrasting styles of Sn-W mineralisation in peninsular Thailand and SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, D. A. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Sn-W deposits of SW England and SE Asia are associated with crustally derived granitic rocks with late volatile-enriched (F, Li, B, P) differentiates. In peninsular Thailand, primary ores are principally pegmatitic, and hydrothermal vein systems are only locally important. In SW England, wolframite and cassiterite mainly occur in hydrothermal vein systems, and are associated with greisening and tourmalinisation; mineralised pegmatites are rare. These two styles of mineralisation are thought to arise because of differences in the character of late magmatic processes. In peninsular Thailand, late-stage tourmaline-bearing granitic rocks are enriched in B, but not Li and F, compared to earlier biotite granites. Similar late-stage granitic rocks occur also in SW England, but a later topaz granite, enriched in F, Li and P, also occurs. The Thai pegmatitic Sn-W deposits are thought to have formed by late magmatic crystallisation from an aqueous phase enriched in metals and derived by exsolution from a B and metal-rich magma, whereas the SW England mineralisation involved essentially post-magmatic hydrothermal processes. Complexing agents (especially F) and metals may have been derived from granitic or country rocks during hydrothermal circulation at the current level of emplacement.

  9. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  10. Monitoring the potential introduction of the Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis variant (swCT) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morré, S. A.; Catsburg, A.; de Boer, M.; Spaargaren, J.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Schirm, J.; Savelkoul, P. H. M.; van Steenbergen, J.; Swaan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the actions of public health experts in cooperation with specialists in sexually transmitted diseases (STD), epidemiologists and (molecular) microbiologists to investigate the possible introduction of the swCT variant in the Netherlands: 1. Investigating trends in CT

  11. Lateglacial and early Holocene tephrostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Store Slotseng basin, SW Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Joel; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    The history of the Lateglacial and Preboreal sedimentary succession from the Store Slotseng kettle hole basin, SW Denmark is presented. A tephrostratigraphical and multi-proxy investigation of the sediments, including stable isotope geochemistry, reveals small- and large-scale changes in the surr...

  12. Keurmerk voor sociaal aannamebeleid. Prestatieladder Socialer Ondernemer ook bruikbaar voor SW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.

    2012-01-01

    De Prestatieladder Socialer Ondernemen (PSO) geeft bedrijven die meer dan gemiddeld bijdragen aan werkgelegenheid voor personen met een afstand tot de arbeidsmarkt een erkenning. De PSO is 14 juni gelanceerd door TNO en ontwikkeld in samenwerking met onder andere zeven SW-bedrijven.ln dit artikeì de

  13. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  14. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  15. Supporting Document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for SX-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area

  16. ORCA: the versatile CPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Ginneken (Astrid); H. Stam (Hendrik); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); M. de Wilde (Marcel); J.H. van Bemmel (Jan); R. van Mastrigt (Robbert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe introduction of computer-based patient records (CPRs) that fully replace paper records proves especially difficult in specialized care, despite the potential advantages of CPRs for patient care and research. Improved data legibility, availability, sharing of records, and decision

  17. CPR Facts and Stats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TRAINING Among 2,000 employees in corporate offices, hospitality, education and industry/labor: 55 percent can’t ... cannot locate an AED at work. In the hospitality industry, 66 percent of employees cannot locate an ...

  18. CPR - adult - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  19. Intercomparison of Vertical Structure of Storms Revealed by Ground-Based (NMQ and Spaceborne Radars (CloudSat-CPR and TRMM-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Fall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne radars provide great opportunities to investigate the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. Two typical spaceborne radars for such a study are the W-band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR and Ku-band Precipitation Radar (PR, which are onboard NASA’s CloudSat and TRMM satellites, respectively. Compared to S-band ground-based radars, they have distinct scattering characteristics for different hydrometeors in clouds and precipitation. The combination of spaceborne and ground-based radar observations can help in the identification of hydrometeors and improve the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE. This study analyzes the vertical structure of the 18 January, 2009 storm using data from the CloudSat CPR, TRMM PR, and a NEXRAD-based National Mosaic and Multisensor QPE (NMQ system. Microphysics above, within, and below the melting layer are studied through an intercomparison of multifrequency measurements. Hydrometeors’ type and their radar scattering characteristics are analyzed. Additionally, the study of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR reveals the brightband properties in the cold-season precipitation and its effect on the radar-based QPE. In all, the joint analysis of spaceborne and ground-based radar data increases the understanding of the vertical structure of storm systems and provides a good insight into the microphysical modeling for weather forecasts.

  20. An audiovisual feedback device for compression depth, rate and complete chest recoil can improve the CPR performance of lay persons during self-training on a manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Didon, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the scarce data available about the abilities of untrained lay persons to perform hands-only cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a manikin and the improvement of their skills during training with an autonomous CPR feedback device. The study focuses on the following questions: (i) Is there a need for such a CPR training device? (ii) How adequate are the embedded visual feedback and audio guidance for training of lay persons who learn and correct themselves in real time without instructor guidance? (iii) What is the achieved effect of only 3 min of training? This is a prospective study in which 63 lay persons (volunteers) received a debriefing to basic life support and then performed two consecutive 3 min trials of hands-only CPR on a manikin. The pre-training skills of the lay persons were tested in trial 1. The training process with audio guidance and visual feedback from a cardio compression control device (CC-Device) was recorded in trial 2. After initial debriefing for correct chest compressions (CC) with rate 85–115 min −1 , depth 3.8–5.4 cm and complete recoil, in trial 1 the lay persons were able to perform CC without feedback at mean rate 95.9 ± 18.9 min −1 , mean depth 4.13 ± 1.5 cm, with low proportions of 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' at 33%, 43%, 87%, resulting in the scarce proportion of 14% for compressions, which simultaneously fulfill the three quality criteria ('correct all'). In trial 2, the training process by the CC-Device was established by the significant improvement of the CC skills until the 60th second of training, when 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' attained the plateau of the highest quality at 82%, 90%, 96%, respectively, resulting in 73% 'correct all' compressions within 3 min of training. The training was associated with reduced variance of the mean rate 102.4 ± 4

  1. 75 FR 10026 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W-3cPR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W-3cPR, W-3PR, and W-3SS AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service....C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Forms W-2, W-2c, W-2AS, W-2GU, W-2VI, W-3, W-3c, W- 3cPR, W-3PR, and W-3SS. DATES: Written comments should be received on or...

  2. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  3. ESTABILIDAD DE ANTOCIANINAS EN JUGO Y CONCENTRADO DE AGRAZ (VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS IN JUICE AND CONCENTRATE OF AGRAZ(VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de la estabilidad térmica y de almacenamiento de las antocianinas en jugo y concentrado de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. siguiendo una cinética de primer orden. La degradación de las antocianinas con la temperatura fue modelada adecuadamente con la ecuación de Arrhenius. El efecto del pH en la estabilidad térmica de las antocianinas en los concentrados de agraz se estudió a seis diferentes valores (3,0 - 8,0 en buffer citrato-fosfato. La degradación de las antocianinas fue mayor para el jugo que para el concentrado. Una disminución significante en la estabilidad de las antocianinas del concentrado se observó a pH cercano a 5,0.The kinetics of thermal and storage stabilities of anthocyanins in agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. juice and concentrate were studied with first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. The effect of pH on thermal stability of anthocyanins in concentrate of agraz was studied at six different pHs (3.0 - 8.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The results indicated that anthocyanins degradation was higher in juice than concentrate. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at pHs above 5.0.

  4. Strategies to improve performance od SW-SAGD (Single Well-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage); Estrategias para melhor desempenho do SW-SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Richard Douglas Ribeiro [Norse Energy do Brasil S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents an extensive numerical study, using a commercial reservoir simulator, on the recovery of heavy oil by steam injection assisted by gravity drainage in single horizontal wells. The goal is to study several strategies to improve performance of the Single Well - Steam Assisted Drainage Gravity (SW-SAGD), a new but promising thermal recovery technique aimed at exploitation of heavy oils. The strategies are basically made up of two measures: cyclic steam injection prior to the main injection-production process; and well bore splitting into injection and production zones by packer settings. The measures are scrutinized when used separately or together. Cyclic injection is varied according to cycle duration. Comparisons are made between the performance of oil recovery for the developed strategies and the performance of the traditional dual well SAGD technique with similar operating parameters and field conditions. The results point out the best strategy regarding key parameters such as the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio. Results were also verified for variations of rock and fluid properties in the range of a typical heavy oil reservoir. As a result, a new strategy for the SW-SAGD process is presented, providing oil recovery, which is higher than that yielded by the equivalent DW-SAGD. (author)

  5. On the SW Sex-type eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS0756+0858

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Hernandez, Mercedes Stephania; González-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; García-Díaz, Maria Teresa, E-mail: gag@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, Baja California 22800 (Mexico)

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic and photometric study of SDSS J075653.11+085831. X-ray observations were also attempted. We determined the orbital period of this binary system to be 3.29 hr. It is a deep eclipsing system, whose spectra show mostly single-peaked, Balmer emission lines and a rather intense He II line. There is also the presence of faint (often double-peaked) He I emission lines as well as several absorption lines, Mg I being the most prominent. All of these features point toward the affiliation of this object with the growing number of SW Sex-type objects. We developed a phenomenological model of an SW Sex system to reproduce the observed photometric and spectral features.

  6. On the SW Sex-type eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS0756+0858

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Hernandez, Mercedes Stephania; González-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; García-Díaz, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic and photometric study of SDSS J075653.11+085831. X-ray observations were also attempted. We determined the orbital period of this binary system to be 3.29 hr. It is a deep eclipsing system, whose spectra show mostly single-peaked, Balmer emission lines and a rather intense He II line. There is also the presence of faint (often double-peaked) He I emission lines as well as several absorption lines, Mg I being the most prominent. All of these features point toward the affiliation of this object with the growing number of SW Sex-type objects. We developed a phenomenological model of an SW Sex system to reproduce the observed photometric and spectral features.

  7. swLORETA: a novel approach to robust source localization and synchronization tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; Dolan, Kevin; Hadamschek, Volker; Tass, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) is a widely used technique for source localization. However, this technique still has some limitations, especially under realistic noisy conditions and in the case of deep sources. To overcome these problems, we present here swLORETA, an improved version of sLORETA, obtained by incorporating a singular value decomposition-based lead field weighting. We show that the precision of the source localization can further be improved by a tomographic phase synchronization analysis based on swLORETA. The phase synchronization analysis turns out to be superior to a standard linear coherence analysis, since the latter cannot distinguish between real phase locking and signal mixing

  8. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptation of SW-846 methodology for the organic analysis of radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Schenley, R.L.; Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E. Jr.; Fleming, G.S.; Harmon, S.H.; Wachter, L.J.; Garcia, M.E.; Edwards, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Modifications to SW-846 sample preparation methodology permit the organic analysis of radioactive mixed waste with minimum personal radiation exposure and equipment contamination. This paper describes modifications to SW-846 methods 5030 and 3510-3550 for sample preparation in radiation-zoned facilities (hood, glove box, and hot cell) and GC-MS analysis of the decontaminated organic extracts in a conventional laboratory for volatile and semivolatile organics by methods 8240 and 8270 (respectively). Results will be presented from the analysis of nearly 70 nuclear waste storage tank liquids and 17 sludges. Regulatory organics do not account for the organic matter suggested to be present by total organic carbon measurements. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  10. 5-Geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin inhibits colon cancer (SW480) cells growth by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jaiprakash R; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Kim, Jinhee; Murthy, Kotamballi N Chidambara; Chetti, Mahadev B; Nam, Sang-Yong; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2013-03-01

    For the first time, three coumarins were isolated from the hexane extract of limes (Citrus aurantifolia) and purified by flash chromatography. The structures were identified by NMR (1D, 2D) and mass spectral analyses as 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, limettin, and isopimpinellin. These compounds inhibited human colon cancer (SW-480) cell proliferation, with 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin showing the highest inhibition activity (67 %) at 25 µM. Suppression of SW480 cell proliferation by 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin was associated with induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V staining and DNA fragmentation. In addition, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, and induction of apoptosis was demonstrated through the activation of tumour suppressor gene p53, caspase8/3, regulation of Bcl2, and inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin has potential as a cancer preventive agent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Compaction and evolution of rock properties and rock physics diagnostics of Albatross discovery, SW Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The Albatross discovery is located approximately 140 km northwest of Hammerfest (city of midnight sun), Norway in the central part of Hammerfest Basin, SW Barents Sea. The Albatross discovery included within Snøhvit field development project (the first gas development project in the Barents Sea) with two other discoveries, Snøhvit and Askeladd, in the area. The reservoirs contain gas and condensate in the Lower and Middle Jurassic sandstones of the Stø Formation. The study focuses compaction ...

  12. Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastlines, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Asharaf, T.T.M.; Nair, R.P.; Sanjana, M.C.; Muraleedharan, G.; Kurup, P.G.

    Sciences Vol. 30, March , 2001, pp 9-17 Surface wave statistics and spectra for Valiathura coastline, SW coast of India T T Mohamed Asharaf National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Cochin, 682 014, India and Ratish P Nair, M.... 2D), the prominent direction was MOHAMED ASHARAF et al. : WAVE STATISTICS AND SPECTRA 11 Fig. 2Direction surface plots of January-June INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL 30, MARCH 2001 12 Fig. 2  (Contd) ... Direction surface...

  13. Physico-chemical behaviour of underground waters after October 1, 1995 Dinar earthquake, SW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woith, H.; Milkereit, C.; Maiwald, U.; Pekdeger, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports the investigations conducted by a team of the German Earthquake Task Force arrived in the city of Dinar (SW Turkey) after the October 1, 1994 earthquake. The investigations recorded post-seismic changes in water discharge, water temperature and conductivity. In the first month after the event, the groundwater discharge increased at springs located within the down-thrown block, whereas a slight decrease was observed at sites on the hanging wall

  14. Alkaloids in Solanum torvum Sw (Solanaceae): (With 2 Tables & 1 Figure)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Amador, MC; Muñoz Ocotero, V; García Castañeda, JM; González Esquinca, AR

    2007-01-01

    A comparison was made between plants of Solanum torvum Sw that grow in Chiapas, Mexico, and plants of the same species originating from India. This was effected to establish either similarities or differences between these plants in total alkaloid contents and presence of solasodine, an important alkaloid for the partial synthesis of steroids. The total alkaloid content (0.12%) of the plants coming from Chiapas and India was the same. However, solasodine was found only in the plants of Chiapa...

  15. COxSwAIN: Compressive Sensing for Advanced Imaging and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwitz, Richard; Pulley, Marina; LaFerney, Nathan; Munoz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The COxSwAIN project focuses on building an image and video compression scheme that can be implemented in a small or low-power satellite. To do this, we used Compressive Sensing, where the compression is performed by matrix multiplications on the satellite and reconstructed on the ground. Our paper explains our methodology and demonstrates the results of the scheme, being able to achieve high quality image compression that is robust to noise and corruption.

  16. Light-Time Effect and Mass Transfer in the Triple Star SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper all the photoelectric times of minimum for the triple star SW Lyn have been analyzed in terms of light-time e ect due to the third-body and secular period decreases induced by mass transfer process. The light-time orbit determined recently by Ogloza et al.(1998 were modi ed and improved. And it is found that the orbital period of SW Lyn have been decreasing secularly. The third-body revolves around the mass center of triple stars every 5y.77 in a highly eccentric elliptical orbit(e=0.61. The third-body with a minimum mass of 1.13M may be a binary or a white dwarf. The rate of secular period-decrease were obtained as ¡âP/P = -12.45 x 10^-11, implying the mass-transfer from the massive primary star to the secondary. The mass losing rate from the primary were calculated as about 1.24 x 10^-8M /y. It is noticed that the mass-transfer in SW Lyn system is opposite in direction to that deduced from it's Roche geometry by previous investigators.

  17. The primary role of the SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Gaensicke, Boris; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Long, Knox; Marsh, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Munoz-Darias, Teodoro; Shahbaz, Tariq; Schmidtobreick, Linda; Schreiber, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables (CVs) which plays a fundamental role in our understanding of CV structure and evolution. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assesment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. We are monitoring the brightness of a number of SW Sex stars and request here Gemini/GMOS-N ToO time to obtain orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy if one of them enters a low state, since this is the only opportunity for studying the stellar components individually. These data will be used to accurately measure the binary parameters, white dwarf temperature, and distance to the system for a SW Sex star for the first time. The measured stellar masses and radii will especially be a precious input to the theory of compact binary evolution as a whole.

  18. Unravelling the role of the SW Sextantis stars in the evolution of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Steeghs, Danny; Gaensicke, Boris; Marsh, Tom; Rodriguez-Gil, Pablo; Schmidtobreick, Linda; Long, Knox; Schreiber, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    SW Sextantis stars are a relatively large group of cataclysmic variables (CVs) whose properties contradict all predictions made by the current CV evolution theories. Very little is known about the properties of their accreting white dwarfs and their donor stars, as the stellar components are usually outshone by an extremely bright accretion flow. Consequently, a proper assesment of their evolutionary state is illusionary. We are monitoring the brightness of a number of SW Sex stars and request here Gemini/GMOS-N ToO time to obtain orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy if one of them enters a low state, since this is the only opportunity for studying the stellar components individually. These data will be used to accurately measure the mass ratio of the system which, combined with the orbital inclination derived from modelling of either the disc eclipses in the high state or the ellipsoidal modulation in the low state, will eventually provide the first detailed system parameters for any SW Sex star.

  19. New data on distribution of Cypripedium macranthon sw. on the territory of Altai krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vazhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Family Orchidaceae Juss. –occupies an important place among the plants, which were highlighted related to their biology and ecology. The total number of species of the family in the Altai region – 27 (ruberoidny -13, rhizomatous – 14, 10 species of orchids are rare and protected. Among the many flowering plants highlights one of the most beautiful and the most noticeable because of its large flowers Orchid – lady's slipper large-flowered Cypripedium (Cypripedium macranthon Sw.. This species is rare and listed in the regional Red book, as residential landscape areas suffers from collecting in bouquets and digging out the gardeners for the introduction into the culture. Exterminated Orchid in the procurement of herbal raw materials in traditional medicine. The Shoe form a plurality of decorative forms that is of interest to collectors of plants, promotes the collection and implementation in connection with the market demand. Increasing anthropogenic load on the territory of the region, which also adversely affects the number and state of coenopopulations of C. macranthon Sw. For the Altai territory, the modern updated data on the habitat of the Orchid. Four previously unknown local populations of C. macranthon Sw. it is noted in the upper basin of the river Angara in the virgin area.

  20. Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

    2014-02-01

    Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions.

  1. Effect of nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid and docosahexanoic acid production by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auma, Khairunnisa; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2018-04-01

    A local isolate, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 has been verified to have high content of docosahexanoic acid (DHA). However, the effect of different nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid concentration and DHA content in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 is still unknown. Hence, this study is focused in using six different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources to grow Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 in optimized Burja medium. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) gave the highest biomass concentration of 15.97 g/L followed by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) with 13.37 g/L at 96 hr. These two nitrogen sources had significant effect on the biomass concentration (pDHA content in lipid showed cultivation using MSG reached 47.9% (4.95 g/L). Statistical analysis using least significant difference (LSD) showed significant lipid production (pDHA productivity (0.052 g/L hr-1) was obtained in medium containing MSG. This study proves that nitrogen component in the medium significantly affects the biomass concentration, lipid and DHA content.

  2. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Hinse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010. The two candidate companions are of stellar to substellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system’s primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behavior. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically viable explanation for measured eclipse timing variations. We conclude that dynamical considerations reveal that the proposed SW Lyncis multi-body system most likely does not exist or the companions have significantly different orbital properties from those conjectured in Kim et al. (2010.

  3. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) (NODC Accession 9700075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, phytoplankton, chlorophyll, and other data were collected from net and bottle casts in the SW Atlantic Ocean (limit-20 W) from the Almirante Saldanha...

  4. Calamagrostis nyingchiensis, a new combination for Deyeuxia nyingchiensis (Poaceae: Agrostidinae, and its first record from Yunnan Province, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszko Beata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Deyeuxia nyingchiensis is here recombined as Calamagrostis nyingchiensis comb. nov. as a result of recent studies of worldwide Agrostidinae. A new record of C. nyingchiensis is reported from Shangri-la (Zhongdian County in Yunnan Province, SW China. Previously, C. nyingchiensis was noted from eastern Xizang and southern Sichuan, SW China. It is compared with the morphologically similar species C. scabrescens. A map with all known geographic records of C. nyingchiensis is presented.

  5. The Characteristics of Seismogenic Zones in SW Taiwan: Implications from Studying Mechanisms of Microearthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Chang, Yi-Zen; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Wen, Yi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    Due to the complicated geomorphology and geological conditions, the southwest (SW) Taiwan suffers the invasion of various natural disasters, such as landslide, mud flow and especially the threat of strong earthquakes as result of convergence between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate. Several disastrous earthquakes had occurred in this area and often caused serious hazards. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the correlation between seismic activity and seismogenic structures in SW Taiwan. Previous studies have indicated that before the failure of rock strength, the behaviors of micro-earthquakes can provide essential clues to help investigating the process of rock deformation. Thus, monitoring the activity of micro-earthquakes plays an important role in studying fault rupture or crustal deformation before the occurrence of a large earthquake. Because the time duration of micro-earthquakes activity can last for years, this phenomenon can be used to indicate the change of physical properties in the crust, such as crustal stress changes or fluid migration. The main purpose of this research is to perform a nonlinear waveform inversion to investigate source parameters of micro-earthquakes which include the non-double couple components owing to the shear rupture usually associated with complex morphology as well as tectonic fault systems. We applied a nonlinear waveform procedure to investigate local stress status and source parameters of micro-earthquakes that occurred in SW Taiwan. Previous studies has shown that microseismic fracture behaviors were controlled by the non-double components, which could lead to cracks generating and fluid migration, which can result in changing rock volume and produce partial compensation. Our results not only giving better understanding the seismogenic structures in the SW Taiwan, but also allowing us to detect variations of physical parameters caused by crack propagating in stratum. Thus, the derived source

  6. Study of ex-vessel steam explosion risk of Reactor Pit Flooding System and structural response of containment for CPR1000"+ Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Juanhua; Chen Peng

    2015-01-01

    Reactor Pit Flooding System is one of the special mitigation measures for severe accident for CPR1000"+ Unit. If the In-Vessel Relocation function of Reactor Pit Flooding System is failed, there is the steam explosion risk in reactor cavity. This paper firstly adopts MC3D code to build steam explosion model in order to calculate the pressure load and impulses of steam explosion that are as the input data of containment structural response analysis. The next step is to model the containment structure and analyze the structural response by ABAQUS code. The analysis results show that the integral damage induced by steam explosion to the external containment wall is shallow, and the containment structural integrity can be maintained. The risk and damage to the containment integrity reduced by steam explosion of RPF is small, and it does not influence the design and implementation of RPF. (author)

  7. The design of instructional tools affects secondary school students' learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in reciprocal peer learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Byra, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Research investigating design effects of instructional tools for learning Basic Life Support (BLS) is almost non-existent. To demonstrate the design of instructional tools matter. The effect of spatial contiguity, a design principle stating that people learn more deeply when words and corresponding pictures are placed close (i.e., integrated) rather than far from each other on a page was investigated on task cards for learning Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) during reciprocal peer learning. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 111 students (mean age: 13 years) constituting six intact classes learned BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. Task cards combine a picture of the skill with written instructions about how to perform it. In each class, students were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control. In the control, written instructions were placed under the picture on the task cards. In the experimental group, written instructions were placed close to the corresponding part of the picture on the task cards reflecting application of the spatial contiguity principle. One-way analysis of variance found significantly better performances in the experimental group for ventilation volumes (P=.03, ηp2=.10) and flow rates (P=.02, ηp2=.10). For chest compression depth, compression frequency, compressions with correct hand placement, and duty cycles no significant differences were found. This study shows that the design of instructional tools (i.e., task cards) affects student learning. Research-based design of learning tools can enhance BLS and CPR education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of CPR-D skills of nurses in Göteborg, Sweden and Espoo, Finland: teaching leadership makes a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, M; Aune, S; Niemi-Murola, L; Herlitz, J; Varpula, T; Nurmi, J; Axelsson, A B; Thorén, A-B; Castrén, M

    2007-02-01

    Construction of an effective in-hospital resuscitation programme is challenging. To document and analyse resuscitation skills assessment must provide reliable data. Benchmarking with a hospital having documented excellent results of in-hospital resuscitation is beneficial. The purpose of this study was to assess the resuscitation skills to facilitate construction of an educational programme. Nurses working in a university hospital Jorvi, Espoo (n=110), Finland and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg (n=40), Sweden were compared. The nurses were trained in the same way in both hospitals except for the defining and teaching of leadership applied in Sahlgrenska. Jorvi nurses are not trained to be, nor do they act as, leaders in a resuscitation situation. Their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills using an automated external defibrillator (AED) were assessed using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) which was build up as a case of cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation (VF) as the initial rhythm. The subjects were tested in pairs, each pair alone. Group-working skills were registered. All Sahlgrenska nurses, but only 49% of Jorvi nurses, were able to defibrillate. Seventy percent of the nurses working in the Sahlgrenska hospital (mean score 35/49) and 27% of the nurses in Jorvi (mean score 26/49) would have passed the OSCE test. Statistically significant differences were found in activating the alarm (Pskills of Sahlgrenska nurses were also significantly better than those of Jorvi nurses. Assessment of CPR-D skills gave valuable information for further education in both hospitals. Defining and teaching leadership seems to improve resuscitation performance.

  9. Cloud effects on the SW radiation at the surface at a mid-latitude site in southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Vanda; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria; Lanconelli, Christian; Bortoli, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a study of cloud radiative effects on shortwave (CRESW) radiation at the surface in Évora region (southwestern Europe) during 2015 and a case study is analyzed. CRESW (in Wm-2) is defined as the difference between the net shortwave irradiance (downward minus upward shortwave irradiance) in cloudy and clear sky conditions. This measure is usually used to translate changes in the SW radiation that reaches the surface due to changes in clouds (type and/or cover). The CRESW is obtained using measured SW irradiance recorded with a Kipp&Zonen CM 6B pyranometer (broadband 305 - 2800 nm) during the period from January to December 2015, and is related with the cloud liquid water path (LWP) and with cloud ice water path (IWP) showing the importance of the different type of clouds in attenuating the SW radiation at the surface. The cloud modification factor, also a measure of the cloud radiative effects (CMF; ratio between the measured SW irradiance under cloudy conditions and the estimated SW irradiance in clear-sky conditions) is related with the cloud optical thickness (COT; obtained from satellite data). This relation between CMF and COT is shown for different cloud fractions revealing an exponential decreasing of CMF as COT increases. Reductions in the SW radiation of the order of 80% (CMF = 0.2) as well enhancements in the SW radiation larger than 30% (CMF = 1.3) were found for small COT values and for different cloud fractions. A case study to analyse the enhancement events in a cloudy day was considered and the cloud properties, COT and LWP (from satellite and surface measurements), were related with the CRESW.

  10. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae) in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Qiu-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae) in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee) and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet) and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee) were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  11. Dual Effect of Phenolic Nectar on Three Floral Visitors of Elsholtzia rugulosa (Lamiaceae in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Some plants secrete toxic nectar to appeal to most effective pollinators and deter non-pollinators or nectar thieves; however available information about ecological function of toxic nectar remains scarce. Elsholtzia rugulosa stands out as a plant with toxic nectar recorded in SW China. We focused on the functional significance of the phenolic compound that imparts toxic to the nectar of E. rugulosa. The effects of phenolic nectar were studied in three visitors of the flowers of the winter-blooming E. rugulosa Hemsl. (Lamiaceae in SW China. The pollinating species Apis cerana Fabricius (Apidae; Asian honey bee and two occasional visitors, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Vespidae; yellow-legged Asian hornet and Bombus eximius Smith (Apidae; a bumble bee were tested for their preferences for low and high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in hexose and sucrose solutions. The pollinator is important for the plant, which is dependent on pollinator visits to attain a higher seed production and it is most likely that the combination of phenolic toxic nectar and the adaptation to phenolic nectar by A. cerana delivers an evolutionary advantage to both actors. The low and high concentrations of the phenolic acid were nearly totally refused by both occasional visitors V. velutina and B. eximius and were preferred by the pollinator A. cerana. E. rugulosa gains by having a much higher seed production and the pollinating honey bee by having an exclusive and reliable food source during the winter season at high altitudes in SW China. We found that the function of the toxic phenolic compound has dual roles by appealing to legitimate pollinators and deterring non-pollinators of E. rugulosa.

  12. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  13. Extensional Tectonics of SW Anatolia In relation to Slab Edge Processes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, N.; Özacar, A.; Langereis, C. G.; Ozkaptan, M.; Koç, A.; Uzel, B.; Gulyuz, E.; Sözbilir, H.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonics of SW Anatolia is expressed in terms of emplacement of Lycian Nappes during the Eocene to Middle Miocene and synconvergent extension as part of the Aegean-West Anatolian extensional tectonic regime. Recent studies identified that there is a tear in the northwards subducting African Oceanic lithosphere along the Pliny-Strabo Trenches (PST). Such tears are coined as Subduction Transform-Edge Propagator (STEP) faults developed high angle to trenches. Hypothetically, the evolution of a STEP fault is somewhat similar to strike-slip fault zones and resultant asymmetric role-back of the subducting slab leads to differential block rotations and back arc type extension on the overriding plate. Recent studies claimed that the tear along the PST propagated NE on-land and developed Fethiye-Burdur Fault/Shear Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. We have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data sets from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene to test if FBFZ ever existed. The results show that there is slight (20°) counter-clockwise rotation distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, constructed paleostress configurations, along the so-called FBFZ and within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults that are parallel to subparallel to the zone are almost pure normal faults similar to earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. It is important to note that we have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion parallel to so-called "FBFZ" to support presence and transcurrent nature of it. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the

  14. Distributed power-law seismicity changes and crustal deformation in the SW Hellenic ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tzanis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A region of definite accelerating seismic release rates has been identified at the SW Hellenic Arc and Trench system, of Peloponnesus, and to the south-west of the island of Kythera (Greece. The identification was made after detailed, parametric time-to-failure modelling on a 0.1° square grid over the area 20° E – 27° E and 34° N–38° N. The observations are strongly suggestive of terminal-stage critical point behaviour (critical exponent of the order of 0.25, leading to a large earthquake with magnitude 7.1 ± 0.4, to occur at time 2003.6 ± 0.6. In addition to the region of accelerating seismic release rates, an adjacent region of decelerating seismicity was also observed. The acceleration/deceleration pattern appears in such a well structured and organised manner, which is strongly suggestive of a causal relationship. An explanation may be that the observed characteristics of distributed power-law seismicity changes may be produced by stress transfer from a fault, to a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities, i.e. a region defined by the stress field required to rupture a fault with a specified size, orientation and rake. Around a fault that is going to rupture, there are bright spots (regions of increasing stress and stress shadows (regions relaxing stress; whereas acceleration may be observed in bright spots, deceleration may be expected in the shadows. We concluded that the observed seismic release patterns can possibly be explained with a family of NE-SW oriented, left-lateral, strike-slip to oblique-slip faults, located to the SW of Kythera and Antikythera and capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes MS ~ 7. Time-to-failure modelling and empirical analysis of earthquakes in the stress bright spots yield a critical exponent of the order 0.25 as expected from theory, and a predicted magnitude and critical time perfectly consistent with the figures given above. Although we have determined an approximate location

  15. Sulfur and lead isotope characteristics of the Pontes e Lacerda gold deposits, SW Amazonian Craton Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, M.C.; Tassinari, C.C.G.; Babinski; M; Iyer, S

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the characterization of the S and Pb isotope signatures in sulfides from the Pontes e Lacerda mesothermal gold deposits located in the SW sector of Amazonian craton. Stable and radiogenic isotopes have played an important role in the study of ore deposited and hydrothermal processes and they are most useful when can be used together. The purpose of this study is to constrain the sources and the mechanisms of gold deposition in Pontes e Lacerda region which may be a helpful contribution to an exploratory model in the area (au)

  16. Ecosystem metabolism in a temporary Mediterranean marsh (Donana National Park, SW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz-Hansen, O.; Montes, C.; Duarte, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    metabolic balance of the open waters supporting submerged macrophytes of the Donana marsh (SW Spain) was investigated in spring, when community production is highest. The marsh community (benthic + pelagic) was net autotrophic with net community production rates averaging 0.61 g C m(-2) d(-1......), and gross production rates exceeding community respiration rates by, on average, 43%. Net community production increased greatly with increasing irradiance, with the threshold irradiance for communities to become net autotrophic ranging from 42 to 255 mu E m(-2) s(-1), with net heterotrophic at lower...

  17. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  18. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  19. The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song-Hyo; An, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2017-06-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M.leprae-infected Schwann cells in the nerve biopsies of lepromatous leprosy patients. M.leprae-induced LD formation favors intracellular M.leprae survival in primary Schwann cells and in a myelinating Schwann cell line referred to as ST88-14. In the current study, we initially characterized SW-10 cells and investigated the effects of LDs on M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells, which are non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells express S100, a marker for cells from the neural crest, and NGFR p75, a marker for immature or non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells, however, do not express myelin basic protein (MBP), a marker for myelinating Schwann cells, and myelin protein zero (MPZ), a marker for precursor, immature, or myelinating Schwann cells, all of which suggests that SW-10 cells are non-myelinating Schwann cells. In addition, SW-10 cells have phagocytic activity and can be infected with M. leprae. Infection with M. leprae induces the formation of LDs. Furthermore, inhibiting the formation of M. leprae-induced LD enhances the maturation of phagosomes containing live M.leprae and decreases the ATP content in the M. leprae found in SW-10 cells. These facts suggest that LD formation by M. leprae favors intracellular M. leprae survival in SW-10 cells, which leads to the logical conclusion that M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells can be a new model for investigating the interaction of M.leprae with non-myelinating Schwann cells.

  20. Effect of an interactive cardiopulmonary resuscitation assist device with an automated external defibrillator synchronised with a ventilator on the CPR performance of emergency medical service staff: a randomised simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, Rainer; Doehn, Christoph; Kersten, Jan F; Blanz, Julian; Kalwa, Tobias J; Scotti, Norman A; Kubitz, Jens C

    2017-04-04

    The present study evaluates whether the quality of advanced cardiac life support (ALS) is improved with an interactive prototype assist device. This device consists of an automated external defibrillator linked to a ventilator and provides synchronised visual and acoustic instructions for guidance through the ALS algorithm and assistance for face-mask ventilations. We compared the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality of emergency medical system (EMS) staff members using the study device or standard equipment in a mannequin simulation study with a prospective, controlled, randomised cross-over study design. Main outcome was the effect of the study device compared to the standard equipment and the effect of the number of prior ALS trainings of the EMS staff on the CPR quality. Data were analysed using analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and binary logistic regression, accounting for the study design. In 106 simulations of 56 two-person rescuer teams, the mean hands-off time was 24.5% with study equipment and 23.5% with standard equipment (Difference 1.0% (95% CI: -0.4 to 2.5%); p = 0.156). With both types of equipment, the hands-off time decreased with an increasing cumulative number of previous CPR trainings (p = 0.042). The study equipment reduced the mean time until administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) by 23 s (p = 0.003) and that of amiodarone by 17 s (p = 0.016). It also increased the mean number of changes in the person doing chest compressions (0.6 per simulation; p < 0.001) and decreased the mean number of chest compressions (2.8 per minute; p = 0.022) and the mean number of ventilations (1.8 per minute; p < 0.001). The chance of administering amiodarone at the appropriate time was higher, with an odds ratio of 4.15, with the use of the study equipment CPR.com compared to the standard equipment (p = 0.004). With an increasing number of prior CPR trainings, the time intervals in the ALS algorithm until the

  1. The Effects of NDRG2 Overexpression on Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness of SW48 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestan, Ali; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Hamidinia, Maryam; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world. The expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is down-regulated in CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells. SW48 cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing NDRG2. After stable transfection, the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on cell migration, invasion and cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) activities were also investigated using matrigel transwell assay, wound healing assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. MTT assay showed that overexpression of NDRG2 caused attenuation of SW48 cell proliferation. Transwell and wound healing assay revealed that NDRG2 overexpression led to inhibition of migration, invasion, and motility of SW48 cells. The overexpression of NDRG2 also reduced the activity of secreted MMP-9. The results of this study suggest that NDRG2 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells, which likely occurs via suppression of MMP-9 activity.

  2. Revisiting platinum group elements of Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Liang [State Key Lab of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-08-05

    Twenty five coal samples from the Late Permian coal-bearing strata in Weining, Nayong, and Zhijin, western Guizhou Province, SW, China, were analyzed for platinum group elements (PGEs). The coal ashes were digested by the Carius tube technique and accurately measured by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for all PGEs. The results are much lower than the previous reported values. Our study suggested that the previously reported PGE values are incorrect and may due to the polyatomic interferences in ICP-MS measurements. In our study, samples from the Weining coalfield have the lowest PGE contents (from 0.019 Ir to 0.42 ng/g Pd), which represent the PGE background value in coal in western Guizhou province. Some of the coals have Pt and Pd contents about 20-times higher than the background value, indicating PGEs are concentrated. We also reported new and reliable PGE data and background value of coal in western Guizhou province, SW, China, and suggested to rework the PGE background values of Chinese coals. (author)

  3. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  4. Dynamics of root and leaf decomposition in chronosequence of rubber plantation (Hevea brasilensis) in SW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, N.S.; Yiping, Z.; Liqing, S.; Moazzam, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    This study highlighted the dynamics of stand parameters as well as root and leaf litter decomposition in the chronosequence (49, 32, 24 and 12 years old plantations established in the year 1965, 1982, 1990 and 2002) of the rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna SW China. Litter trappers were installed on the study site to collect the leaf litter and litter bag experiment was carried out to investigate the rate of root and leaf litter decomposition. The study revealed significant variation of stand characteristics during the decomposition process. The monthly litter fall and root biomass (all categories; kg m-3) showed positive correlation with stand characteristics and age. Remaining leaf litter mass % in the litter bags reduced with the passage of time and was significantly different in the chronosequence. The highest root decomposition rate (55%) was shown by fine roots and minimum (32%) by coarse roots during the study period. The investigations on elemental composition of the leaf and root provides basic important information for rate of nutrient cycle along with decomposition rate in rubber plantation and result are quite helpful for simulating the below ground carbon stock of rubber plantation in SW China. (author)

  5. Photometry of the SW Sextantis-type nova-like BH Lyncis in high state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanishev, V.; Kraicheva, Z.; Genkov, V.

    2006-08-01

    Aims.We present a photometric study of the deeply eclipsing SW Sex-type nova-like cataclysmic variable star BH Lyn. Methods: .Time-resolved V-band CCD photometry was obtained for seven nights between 1999 and 2004. Results: .We determined 11 new eclipse timings of BH Lyn and derived a refined orbital ephemeris with an orbital period of 0.155875577(14) °. During the observations, BH Lyn was in high-state with V≃15.5 mag. The star presents ~1.5 mag deep eclipses with mean full-width at half-flux of 0.0683(±0.0054)P_orb. The eclipse shape is highly variable, even changing form cycle to cycle. This is most likely due to accretion disc surface brightness distribution variations, most probably caused by strong flickering. Time-dependent accretion disc self-occultation or variations of the hot spot(s) intensity are also possible explanations. Negative superhumps with period of ˜0.145 ° are detected in two long runs in 2000. A possible connection between SW Sex and negative superhump phenomena through the presence of tilted accretion disc is discussed, and a way to observationally test this is suggested.

  6. Production, purification and characterization of an exo-polygalacturonase from Penicillium janthinellum sw09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUPING MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A soil isolate, Penicillium janthinellum sw09 has been found to produce significant amounts of an extracellular pectinase subsequently characterized as exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG. By optimizing growth conditions, P. janthinellum sw09 produced high amount of exo-PG (16.54 units/mL. The crude enzyme was purified by gel filtration chromatography and two exo-PG activity peaks (designated as PGI and PGII were revealed. On SDS-PAGE analysis, purified PGII using DEAE-Sepharose FF column, was found to be a single band with a molecular mass of 66.2 kDa. The purified PGII exhibited maximal activity at the temperature of 45 oC and pH 5.0. The stability profiles show that PGII is more stable in the pH range of 4.0-8.0 and below 60 oC. The Km and Vmax for the enzyme was 1.74 mg/mL and 18.08 μmol/ (mL•min, respectively. Due to this enzymatic characterization, this pectinase is an attractive candidate for applications in degradation of pectin.

  7. Ostreid herpesvirus in wild oysters from the Huelva coast (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanmartín, M; López-Fernández, J R; Cunha, M E; De la Herrán, R; Navas, J I

    2016-08-09

    This is the first report of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) infecting natural oyster beds located in Huelva (SW Spain). The virus was detected in 3 oyster species present in the intertidal zone: Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), C. angulata (Lamarck, 1819) and, for the first time, in Ostrea stentina Payraudeau, 1826. Oysters were identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and posterior restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA. Results confirmed that C. angulata still remains the dominant oyster population in SW Spain despite the introduction of C. gigas for cultivation in the late 1970s, and its subsequent naturalization. C. angulata shows a higher haplotype diversity than C. gigas. OsHV-1 virus was detected by PCR with C2/C6 pair primers. Posterior RFLP analyses with the restriction enzyme MfeI were done in order to reveal the OsHV-1 µVar. Detections were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and infections were evidenced by in situ hybridization in C. gigas, C. angulata and O. stentina samples. The prevalence was similar among the 3 oyster species but varied between sampling locations, being higher in areas with greater harvesting activities. OsHV-1 µVar accounted for 93% of all OsHV-1 detected.

  8. Echinacoside Induces Apoptosis in Human SW480 Colorectal Cancer Cells by Induction of Oxidative DNA Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinacoside is a natural compound with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging and anti-oxidative bioactivities, which protect cells from oxidative damages. As cancer cells are often under intense oxidative stress, we therefore tested if Echinacoside treatment would promote cancer development. Surprisingly, we found that Echinacoside significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Treatment of the human SW480 cancer cells with Echinacoside resulted in marked apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, together with a significant increase in active caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, and upregulation of the G1/S-CDK blocker CDKN1B (p21. Interestingly, immunocytochemistry examination of drug-treated cancer cells revealed that Echinacoside caused a significant increase of intracellular oxidized guanine, 8-oxoG, and dramatic upregulation of the double-strand DNA break (DSB-binding protein 53BP1, suggesting that Echinacoside induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SW480 cancer cells via induction of oxidative DNA damages. These results establish Echinacoside as a novel chemical scaffold for development of anticancer drugs.

  9. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  10. The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in SW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Czułowska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Ticks constitute important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides the Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis, other pathogens such as Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, are of increasing public health interest. In Poland, as in other European countries, Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species responsible for the majority of tick bites in humans, is the main vector of A. phagocytophilum. The aim of the study was to estimate the infection level of I. ricinus with A. phagocytophilum in selected districts, not previously surveyed for the presence of this agent. Sampling of questing ticks was performed in 12 forested sites, located in four districts (Legnica, Milicz, Lubań, and Oława) in SW Poland. Altogether, 792 ticks (151 females, 101 males, and 540 nymphs) representing I. ricinus were checked for the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The average infection level was 4.3%, with higher rate reported for adult ticks. The highest percentage of infected adults was observed in Milicz (17.4%) and the lowest in Oława (6.8%). The abundance of questing I. ricinus in all examined sites as well as the infection with A. phagocytophilum indicate for the first time the risk for HGA transmission in SW Poland.

  11. Alfinated coating structure on HS6-5-2 (SW7M high speed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szymczak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of immersion alfinated coating structure in AlSi5 silumin on HS6-5-2 (SW7M high speed steel. Alfinating bath temperature was 750 ± 5 ° C, time of sample immersion was τ = 180s. Thickness of obtained coating under specified conditions was g = 150μm. Manufactured coating consists of three layers of different construction phase. The first layer from the substrate „g1`” constructed with a AlFe phase consist of alloy additives constituents of HS6-5-2 (SW7M steel: W, Mo, V, Cr and Si. On it crystallizes the second layer „g1``” of AlFeWMoCr intermetallic phases also containing Si and small amount of V. Last, the outer layer „g2” of the coating is composed with silumin including AlFeWMoCrVSi intermetallic phases. Within all layers of the coating occurs carbides. Penetration of carbides to individual coating layers is mainly due to steel surface partial melting and crystallizing layers „g1`” and „g1``” by alfinating liquid and shifting into her of carbides as well as partial carbides rejection by crystallization front of intermetallic phases occurs in coating.

  12. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  13. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CRECIMIENTO EN ALTURA DE Hibiscus elatus Sw CULTIVADA EN CONTENEDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cobas-López

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua es una especie nativa de Cuba, incluida en los planes de reforestación del país por su importancia económica, ecológica y su condición de ser una madera preciosa. En el trabajo se describe el comportamiento en vivero del crecimiento en altura de la especie, cultivada en contenedores. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de sustratos, que fueron los siguientes: S1- Turba (40 %, humus de lombriz (40 % y corteza de pino compostada (20 %; S2- Estiércol de caballo (45 %, composta (40 %, y humus de lombriz (15 %; S3- Humus de lombriz (30 %, composta (25 %, turba (25 %, y estiércol de caballo (20 %; S4- Testigo, consistente en suelo proveniente de una plantación de la especie. A través del análisis de regresión se probaron nueve modelos matemáticos del tipo y = f (x, polinómicos, exponenciales y logarítmicos. De acuerdo con el coeficiente de determinación obtenido, del análisis de residuos y la validación de los modelos, se comprobó que la función que mejor representa el crecimiento en altura de Hibiscus elatus Sw., para los sustratos estudiados fue b t y b e 1 = 0 + .

  14. KRAS exon 2 mutations influence activity of regorafenib in an SW48-based disease model of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaj, Peter; Primo, Stefano; Wang, Yan; Heinemann, Volker; Zhao, Yue; Laubender, Ruediger Paul; Stintzing, Sebastian; Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Jung, Andreas; Gamba, Sebastian; Bruns, Christiane Josephine; Modest, Dominik Paul

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of KRAS mutation variants on the activity of regorafenib in SW48 colorectal cancer cells. Activity of regorafenib was evaluated in isogenic SW48 KRAS wild-type (WT) and mutant cells. Subcutaneous xenografts (KRAS WT and G12C mutant variants) in NOD/SCID mice were analyzed to elucidate the effect of regorafenib treatment in vivo. Compared with KRAS WT cells, all mutant variants seemed associated with some degree of resistance to regorafenib-treatment in vitro. In vivo, activation of apoptosis (TUNEL) and reduction of proliferation (Ki67) after treatment with regorafenib were more pronounced in KRAS WT tumors as compared with G12C variants. In SW48 cells, exon 2 mutations of the KRAS gene may influence antitumor effects of regorafenib.

  15. Detection of Cytotoxic Activity of Lectin on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma (Sw480 and Epithelial Cervical Carcinoma (C33-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirandeli Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins comprise a heterogeneous class of proteins that recognize the carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates with high specificity. Numerous studies have shown that lectins are capable of recognizing specific carbohydrate moieties displayed by malignant cells or tissues. The present work was performed to investigate the effects of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius lectins on proliferation, colony formation, and alteration of DNA synthesis of human malignant cells. Tepary bean lectin showed dose dependent  effects on the inhibition of viability as well as on colony formation in two human malignant cells lines (C33-A, Sw480; By contrast, tepary bean lectin only showed significant effects on DNA synthesis on Sw480 cells. Our results provide evidence of the anti- proliferative and cytotoxic effects of the tepary bean lectins on C33-A and Sw480 cells lines.

  16. Perturbative determination of c{sub sw} for plaquette and Symanzik gauge action and stout link clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division, Dept. of Mathematical Sicences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Using plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge action and stout link clover fermions we determine the improvement coefficient c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory from the off-shell quark-quark-gluon three-point function. In addition, we compute the coefficients needed for the most general form of quark field improvement and present the one-loop result for the critical hopping parameter {kappa}{sub c}. We discuss mean field improvement for c{sub SW} and {kappa}{sub c} and the choice of the mean field coupling for the actions we have considered. (orig.)

  17. Characterisation of [11C]PR04.MZ in Papio anubis baboon: A selective high-affinity radioligand for quantitative imaging of the dopamine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riss P. J.; Fowler J.; Riss, P.J.; Hooker, J.M.; Shea, C.; Xu, Y.; Carter, P.; Warner, D.; Ferrari V.; Kim, S.W.; Aigbirhio, F.I.; Fowler, J.S.; Roesch, F.

    2011-10-25

    N-(4-fluorobut-2-yn-1-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4{prime}-tolyl)nortropane (PR04.MZ, 1) is a PET radioligand for the non-invasive exploration of the function of the cerebral dopamine transporter (DAT). A reliable automated process for routine production of the carbon-11 labelled analogue [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ ([{sup 11}C]-1) has been developed using GMP compliant equipment. An adult female Papioanubis baboon was studied using a test-retest protocol with [{sup 11}C]-1 in order to assess test-retest reliability, metabolism and CNS distribution profile of the tracer in non-human primates. Blood sampling was performed throughout the studies for determination of the free fraction in plasma (fP), plasma input functions and metabolic degradation of the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-1. Time-activity curves were derived for the putamen, the caudate nucleus, the ventral striatum, the midbrain and the cerebellum. Distribution volumes (VT) and non-displaceable binding potentials (BPND) for various brain regions and the blood were obtained from kinetic modelling. [{sup 11}C]-1 shows promising results as aselective marker of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. With the reliable visualisation of the extra-striatal dopaminergic neurons and no indication on labelled metabolites, the tracer provides excellent potential for translation into man.

  18. Comportement de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. Sw. dans la basse Ruzizi et le Mosso (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancoppenolle, R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl Sw in lower Ruzizi and Mosso (Burundi. This paper describes the requirements of Stylosanthes guianensis in two ecological regions : Mosso (1 280 m alt. and lower Ruzizi (800 m alt.. This legume was introduced in 1953 into the grasslands of the east and in 1970 into lower Ruzizi, with the aim of improving the value of the natural pastures using leguminous plants. At Mosso, soil and climatic conditions were favourable for Stylosanthes and it grew well. However, since 1981. Anthracnose has severely reduced its growth and until a solution is found its general introduction will not be possible. In lower Ruzizi plant development was limited by low rainfall (670, 4 mm per year and soils with a low water retention capacity (sand dunes. For this region, it is necessary to identify cultivars resistant to drought and devise a method of establishing these cultivars on sand dunes.

  19. Monitoring physical properties of a submarine groundwater discharge source at Kalogria Bay, SW Peloponnissos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papathanassiou E.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An impressive SGD in Kalogria Bay (SW Peloponnissos was surveyed for the first time in 2006, revealing the existence of 2 major and 2 minor point sources of freshwater (salinity ~l-2; the discharge was ~ 1000 m3 h−1. The major point source was located in a karstic cavity at 25 m depth. In July 2009, and for a period of one year, the site was monitored intensively. During summer, the underwater discharge was not very strong, the water was flowing from many dispersed points, and salinity range was 20–36. During autumn and winter, flow velocity increased considerably (> 1 m s−1, and the SGDs discharged water of low salinity (< 2. Gradually, the smaller SGDs ceased their operation, and the major SGD emanated brackish water during spring and summer, thus hampering the possibilities of freshwater exploitation, in a touristic area which suffers from great aridity and water demand is high during summer.

  20. Neogene to recent contraction and basin inversion along the Nubia-Iberia boundary in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-02-01

    The SW of Iberia is currently undergoing compression related to the convergence between Nubia and Iberia. Multiple compressive structures, and their related seismic activity, have been documented along the diffuse Nubia-Iberia plate boundary, including the Gorringe bank west of the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Betic-Rif orogen to the east. Despite seismic activity indicating a dominant compressive stress along the Algarve margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, the structures at the origin of this seismicity remain elusive. This paper documents the contractional structures that provide linkage across the Gulf of Cadiz and play a major role in defining the present-day seismicity and bathymetry of this area. The structures described in this paper caused the Neogene inversion of the Jurassic oblique passive margin that formed between the central Atlantic and the Ligurian Tethys. This example of a partially inverted margin provides insights into the factors that condition the inversion of passive margins.

  1. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: a.palau@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  2. Trace element mapping of two Pyrenean chert deposits (SW Europe) by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez de la Torre, Marta, E-mail: marta.sanchez-de-la-torre@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERP-Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre St 6-8, 08001 Barcelona (Spain); Angyal, Anikó; Kertész, Zsófia [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Dubernet, Stéphan; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier [IRAMAT-CRP2A (UMR 5060), CNRS/Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Csedreki, László; Furu, Enikő; Papp, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Zoltán; Szikszai, Zita [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-06-01

    The geochemical character of two chert formations from the Pyrenean mountain range (SW Europe) was established by PIXE analyses. While it was not possible to distinguish the formations through reference to major and minor elements, some variations were revealed at the trace elemental level. In order to determine if these elements are associated with the Si matrix or to the contents of a specific inclusion, elemental maps were acquired and the elemental composition of the identified inclusions were also determined. As a result, Sr, Ni and Zn are better represented in Montgaillard samples while Y, Hf, W and Zr are typical of Montsaunès cherts. Thanks to elemental maps it has been possible to determine that most of these characteristic elements are usually related to a specific inclusion content.

  3. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the 'Bay of Cadiz' Natural Park (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Vidal, J.; Melendez, M.J.; Hamani, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2009-01-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range = 0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders

  4. Physiological responses of coastal phytoplankton (Visakhapatnam, SW Bay of Bengal, India) to experimental copper addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2017-10-01

    Trace amount of copper (Cu) is essential for many physiological processes; however, it can be potentially toxic at elevated levels. The impact of variable Cu concentrations on a coastal phytoplankton community was investigated along a coastal transect in SW Bay of Bengal. A small increase in Cu supply enhanced the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic silica, total pigment, phytoplankton cell and total bacterial count. At elevated Cu levels all these parameters were adversely affected. δ 13 C POM and δ 15 N POC reflected a visible signature of both beneficial and toxic impacts of Cu supply. Skeletonema costatum, the dominant diatom species, showed higher tolerance to increasing Cu levels relative to Chaetoceros sp. Cyanobacteria showed greater sensitivity to copper than diatoms. The magnitude of Cu toxicity on the phytoplankton communities was inversely related to the distance from the coast. Co-enrichment of iron alleviated Cu toxicity to phytoplankton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Sarkar, Sampa; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2011-04-01

    Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from the Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India is reported here for the first time. Unusual shape of this Nummulites is due to the curved nature of the coiling plane, indicating space constrained postembryonic test growth. With regular development of chambers, septa and septal filaments, the saddle-shaped Nummulites constitutes the third morphotype of N. cf. fichteli Michelotti form A. Other morphotypes of the species reported earlier include inflated lenticular and conical tests. Multiple morphotypes of N. cf. fichteli form A indicates varied test growth in response to substrate conditions. Morphological variability exhibited by N. cf. fichteli form A from Kutch and some Early Oligocene reticulate Nummulites from the Far East are comparable. This faunal suite is morphologically distinct from the contemporary reticulate Nummulites of the European localities.

  6. Comparative study of uranium concentration in water samples of SW and NE Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Komal; Bajwa, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    Since the commencement of the earth, radiations and natural radioactivity has always been a part of environment. Uranium is heaviest naturally occurring element which is widespread in nature, mainly occurs in granites mineral deposits. The natural weathering of rocks such as granite dissolves the natural uranium, which goes into groundwater by leaching and precipitation called illumination process. People are always exposed to certain amount of uranium from air, water, soil and food as it is usually present in these components. About 85% of ingested uranium enter into human body through drinking water which makes it very important to estimate uranium concentration in potable water. Uranium and some other heavy metals may increase the risk of kidney damage, cancer diseases where experimental evidence suggests that respiratory and reproductive system are also affected by uranium exposure. In the present study comparative study of uranium concentration in potable water samples of SW and NE Punjab has been analysed

  7. Nuclear DNA content of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. with the analysis of flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upatham Meesawat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear DNA content for the adult plants grown in a greenhouse and in vitro young plantlets of the pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. was analyzed using flow cytometry. The resulting 2C DNA values ranged from 2.30±0.14 pgto 2.43±0.06 pg. However, nuclear DNA ploidy levels of long-term in vitro plantlets were found to be triploid and tetraploid.These ploidy levels were confirmed by chromosome counting. Tetraploid individuals (2n = 4x = 76 had approximately two times DNA content than diploid (2n = 2x = 38 individuals. This variation may be due to prolonged cultivation and thepresence of exogenous plant growth regulators.

  8. Late Pleistocene Climate Events and The Origin of Agriculture In SW Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol-Strick, M.

    In the Eastern Mediterranean sea, the climate succession of the last deglaciation is documented and dated in marine cores by the d18-O variation of foraminiferal cal- cite and pollen records. The Last Glacial Maximum is identified by a large abundance of grass pollen from a prairie-type vegetal cover with low annual precipitation in the mountainous north and east borderlands of the sea, where the pollen mainly origi- nates. During the first phase of the last deglaciation, the Bolling/Allerod chronozone, the moisture availability increases and makes possible the spread of a deciduous for- est, as shown by the increasing pollen abundance of the deciduous oak. The cold and arid Younger Dryas is identified by a reversal to semi-desert conditions, with the in- crease of sage-brush (Artemisia) and the saline-tolerant Chenopodiaceae. The climate of the earliest Holocene is Optimum for at least 3000 years (9000-6000yr BP), with the largest spread of the deciduous forest at low-middle elevations signalling wet sum- mers and of the Pistacia woodland at low elevations signalling mild, no-frost winters. This is the time when the most recent sapropel deposited in the eastern Mediterranean under anoxic bottom conditions generated by a surface lid of lower salinity due to the concomitant largest floods of the Nile River fed by the strongest African monsoon rains in the Ethiopian Highlands. In SW Asia, the pollen records of lakes and marshes have been correlated with those of the marine cores, thereby obtaining a robust time-frame. In that area, the archaeo- logical data of human settlements are independently dated by 14C. Thus the archaeo- logical succession can be securely set against the well-dated climatic succession. The Late Palaeolithic populations of SW Asia were wandering hunter-gatherers in the prairies of the Last Glacial Maximum, where they already collected wild wheat, barley and fruit. With the Bolling/Allerod wetter and warmer climate, they began to settle in

  9. Effector-driven marker development and cloning of resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans in potato breeding clone SW93-1015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenman, Marit; Ali, Ashfaq; Mühlenbock, Per

    2016-01-01

    different P. infestans effectors, containing the conserved motif RXLR (for Arg, any amino acid, Leu, Arg), revealed a specific response to Avr2, which suggests that SW93-1015 might contain a functional homolog of the R2 resistance gene. We cloned eight R2 gene homologs from SW93-1015, whereof seven have...

  10. Back analysis of an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide near the SW of Xiaoliuqiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Houh Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurred in the offshore of SW Taiwan on 26 December 2006 with a magnitude of 7, the Pingtung earthquake had triggered numbers of submarine landslides. This event provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate the back analysis approach to evaluate the in situ shear strength parameters. According to the chirp sonar images of the seabed near the SW Xiaoliuqiu obtained before and after the earthquake were adopted to establish the slope profile and identified the location of a circular sliding surface. Consequently, the in situ, effective strength parameters under the critical condition can be calculated by back slope stability analysis. Submarine sediment sampler was obtained via gravity sampling method and the laboratory tests were performed to determine the index properties and strength parameters. Test results indicate the cored sediment has the characteristics of normally consolidated (NC clay. The effective friction angle (φ’ is 15.3° with cohesion (c’ of 19.4 kPa. The effective and total stress methods were used to perform the back analysis. The strength parameters derived from back analysis of effective and total stress methods all indicate values approach the CIU triaxial tests results. Consequently, the representativeness of the marine sediment characteristics obtained from laboratory tests is identified. The total stress approach yields an undrained strength ratio cu/σ'vo of 0.26 which well fit the ratio used in geotechnical practice for estimating NC clay. According to the analytical approach, the landslide was applied seismic forces (seismic coefficient kh = 0.14 and generated excess pore pressure of 31 kPa at the sliding surface.

  11. Evaluation of thermal performance in fields subjected to steam injection (SW-SAGD mode), Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, F.; Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The first well to operate the SW-SAGD process in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela was built in 2006 by Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA). SW-SAGD is a thermal recovery process consisting in the injection of steam through a horizontal well pipe insulation. In order to follow the behavior of steam and the movement of heated fluids in such a process better, PDVSA installed a monitoring system composed of high temperature fiber optic and thermocouple type sensors. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal behavior of reservoirs in wells under the SW-SAGD process. A pilot test has been conducted over the last 3 years. Results show an increase in production and estimations show a recovery factor twice as high as in other wells. This study demonstrated that SW-SAGD is an excellent alternative solution to stimulate reservoirs in the Orinoco oil belt and valuable information on the reservoir's thermal behavior was established.

  12. Ams Fabric and Deformation of The Jawornik Granitoids In The Zloty Stok - Skrzynka Deformation Zone (sudetes, SW Poland)- Preliminary Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, T.; Bialek, D.

    Jawornik granitoids comprise the NE-SW trending sequences of the 1cm up to 1 km thick granitoid veins surrounded by schists and gneisses of the Zloty Stok - Skrzynka deformation zone in Eastern Sudetes (SW Poland). According to conflicting theories granitoids are of magmatic origin or were formed from blastomylonitic rocks that underwent multiphase deformation. AMS studies were performed for the 53 sites lo- calized within granitoid veins and within the surrounding gneisses. AMS foliations for granitoid veins of various thickness as well as for gneisses dip at moderate to steep an- gles to N-NW. AMS lineations in the surrounding gneisses plunge subhorizontally to NE-SW that reflects the regional NE-SW shearing components. Magnetic lineations for sites within wider veins of granitoids plunge at low angles (mostly from S to W) but with more varying trends between sites. Mezoscopic tectonic foliations are record- able only in 50% of sites. They show good correlation with AMS planar fabric on the site scale. The uniformity of AMS fabric on the site scale and high AMS anisotropy within all sites (P of 1.05-1.30, T of 0.3-0.6 on average) suggest syntectonic gener- ation of granitoids. Further interpretations of the AMS and tectonic fabrics will be performed when microtectonic studies and chemical analyses results are available.

  13. Late-Quaternary variations in clay minerals along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence of climatic variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Sukhija, B.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Paropkari, A.L.

    Down-core variations in illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite (the major clays) in two sup(14)C-dated cores collected along the SW continental margin of India show that illite and chlorite have enhanced abundance during 20-17, 12.5, 11-9.5, and 5...

  14. Multi-temporal InSAR evidence of ground subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal: the Montellano aquifer (SW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Constán, A.; Ruiz-Armenteros, A.M.; Lamas-Fernández, F.; Martos-Rosillo, S.; Delgado, J.M.; Bekaert, D.P.S.; Sousa, J.J.; Gil, A.J.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Hanssen, R.F.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the InSAR technique to analyse ground subsidence due to intensive exploitation of an aquifer for agricultural and urban purposes in the Montellano town (SW Spain). The detailed deformation maps clearly show that the spatial and temporal extent of subsidence is controlled by

  15. Human induced soil erosion and the implications on crop yield in a small mountainous Mediterranean catchment (SW-Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, Maarten; Dusar, Bert; Verstraeten, Gert; Renssen, Hans; Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haen, Koen; Bakker, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Many hillslopes in the limestone dominated Taurus Mountain Range (SW Turkey) are characterized by severely depleted soils, while a significant amount of sediment is being stored in the valley bottoms. The same holds true for the 11.4 km2 endorheic Gravgaz basin in the vicinity of the

  16. Comparison of chest compression quality between the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone application and the standardized traditional chest compression method during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Sub

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to grasp difference in quality of chest compression accuracy between the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone application and the standardized traditional chest compression method. Participants were progressed 64 people except 6 absentees among 70 people who agreed to participation with completing the CPR curriculum. In the classification of group in participants, the modified chest compression method was called as smartphone group (33 people). The standardized chest compression method was called as traditional group (31 people). The common equipments in both groups were used Manikin for practice and Manikin for evaluation. In the meantime, the smartphone group for application was utilized Android and iOS Operating System (OS) of 2 smartphone products (G, i). The measurement period was conducted from September 25th to 26th, 2012. Data analysis was used SPSS WIN 12.0 program. As a result of research, the proper compression depth (mm) was shown the proper compression depth (p< 0.01) in traditional group (53.77 mm) compared to smartphone group (48.35 mm). Even the proper chest compression (%) was formed suitably (p< 0.05) in traditional group (73.96%) more than smartphone group (60.51%). As for the awareness of chest compression accuracy, the traditional group (3.83 points) had the higher awareness of chest compression accuracy (p< 0.001) than the smartphone group (2.32 points). In the questionnaire that was additionally carried out 1 question only in smartphone group, the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone had the high negative reason in rescuer for occurrence of hand back pain (48.5%) and unstable posture (21.2%).

  17. Linking Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan with Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet through magmatic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jincheng; Zhu, Dicheng; Dong, Guochen; Zhao, Zhidan; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb data, along with the data reported in the literature, reveal five phases of magmatic activity in the Tengchong Terrane since the Early Paleozoic with spatial and temporal variations summarized as: Cambrian-Ordovician (500-460 Ma) to the eastern, minor Triassic (245-206 Ma) in the eastern and western, abundant Early Cretaceous (131-114 Ma) in the eastern, extensive Late Cretaceous (77-65 Ma) in the central, and Paleocene-Eocene (65-49 Ma) in the central and western Tengchong Terrane, in which the Cretaceous-Eocene magmatism was migrated from east to west (Xu et al., 2012). The increased zircon eHf(t) of the Early Cretaceous granitoids from -12.3 to -1.4 at ca. 131-122 Ma to -4.6 to +7.1 at ca. 122-114 Ma identified for the first time in this study and the magmatic flare-up at ca. 53 Ma in the central and western Tengchong Terrane (Wang et al., 2014, Ma et al., 2015) indicate the increased contributions from mantle- or juvenile crust-derived components. The spatial and temporal variations and changing magmatic compositions with time in the Tengchong Terrane closely resemble the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet. Such similarities, together with the data of stratigraphy and paleobiogeography (Zhang et al., 2013), enable us to propose that the Tengchong Terrane in SW Yunnan is most likely linked with the Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet, both of which experience similar tectonomagmatic histories since the Early Paleozoic. References Ma, L.Y., Wang, Y.J., Fan, W.M., Geng, H.Y., Cai, Y.F., Zhong, H., Liu, H.C., Xing, X.W., 2014. Petrogenesis of the early Eocene I-type granites in west Yingjiang (SW Yunnan) and its implication for the eastern extension of the Gangdese batholiths. Gondwana Research 25, 401-419. Wang, Y.J., Zhang, L.M., Cawood, P.A., Ma, L.Y., Fan, W.M., Zhang, A.M., Zhang, Y.Z., Bi, X.W., 2014. Eocene supra-subduction zone mafic magmatism in the Sibumasu Block of SW Yunnan: Implications for Neotethyan subduction and India-Asia collision

  18. Metasomatic processes in the orthogneiss-hosted Archaean peridotites of the Fiskefjord region, SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilas, K.; Cruz, M. F.; Grove, M.; Morishita, T.; Pearson, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Field observations and preliminary geochemical data are presented for large (>500x1000m) peridotite enclaves from the Fiskefjord region of SW Greenland. These ultramafic complexes are dominated by dunite, amphibole-harzburgite, lesser amounts of norite and horizons of stratiform chromitite and are therefore interpreted as cumulate rocks[1]. The ultramafic enclaves are hosted by intrusive tonalitic orthogneiss, which provide U-Pb zircon minimum age constraints of ca. 2980 Ma, whereas preliminary Re-Os isotope data on the dunite and chromitite yield TRD ages of ca. 3300 Ma[2]. Dunite has highly forsteritic olivine compositions with Mg# mostly around 92 to 93, which is uncorrelated with the bulk-rock mg# or modal chromite contents. This indicates that the primary olivine records equilibration with a highly magnesian parental magma, which may have been responsible for the strong depletion of the SCLM in this region. Amphibole and phlogopite is mostly associated with granitoid sheets or infiltrating veins in the dunite and appear to replace chromite. Argon dating (40Ar/39Ar) of the phlogopite yields ages ranging from ca. 3400 Ma to ca. 1750 Ma, with most ages clustering around 3000 Ma. This is consistent with formation of the phlogopite and amphibole by metasomatic processes involving reaction between granitoid-derived siliceous fluids and the ultramafic rocks. The older 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus most plausibly represent excess Ar, potentially inherited from the nearby Itsaq Gneiss Complex (3900 to 3600 Ga) based on its proximity. The youngest 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus on the other hand may potentially signify the closure-age for this system, which could have important implications for determining the exhumation history of the North Atlantic craton. References [1] Szilas, K., Kelemen, P. B., & Bernstein, S. (2015). Peridotite enclaves hosted by Mesoarchaean TTG-suite orthogneisses in the Fiskefjord region of southern West Greenland. GeoResJ, 7, 22-34. [2] Szilas, K., van

  19. The predicted CLARREO sampling error of the inter-annual SW variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelling, D. R.; Keyes, D. F.; Nguyen, C.; Macdonnell, D.; Young, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey has called for SI traceability of long-term hyper-spectral flux measurements in order to monitor climate variability. This mission is called the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) and is currently defining its mission requirements. The requirements are focused on the ability to measure decadal change of key climate variables at very high accuracy. The accuracy goals are set using anticipated climate change magnitudes, but the accuracy achieved for any given climate variable must take into account the temporal and spatial sampling errors based on satellite orbits and calibration accuracy. The time period to detect a significant trend in the CLARREO record depends on the magnitude of the sampling calibration errors relative to the current inter-annual variability. The largest uncertainty in climate feedbacks remains the effect of changing clouds on planetary energy balance. Some regions on earth have strong diurnal cycles, such as maritime stratus and afternoon land convection; other regions have strong seasonal cycles, such as the monsoon. However, when monitoring inter-annual variability these cycles are only important if the strength of these cycles vary on decadal time scales. This study will attempt to determine the best satellite constellations to reduce sampling error and to compare the error with the current inter-annual variability signal to ensure the viability of the mission. The study will incorporate Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) (Monthly TOA/Surface Averages) SRBAVG product TOA LW and SW climate quality fluxes. The fluxes are derived by combining Terra (10:30 local equator crossing time) CERES fluxes with 3-hourly 5-geostationary satellite estimated broadband fluxes, which are normalized using the CERES fluxes, to complete the diurnal cycle. These fluxes were saved hourly during processing and considered the truth dataset. 90°, 83° and 74° inclination precessionary orbits as

  20. Retrieving SW fluxes from geostationary narrowband radiances for the NASA-CERES SYN1deg product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, F. J., IV; Doelling, D. R.; Liang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The CERES mission was designed to measure the natural variability of the net TOA flux over long time scales relevant to climate monitoring. To achieve this goal, CERES provides the level-3 SSF1deg, SYN1deg, and EBAF monthly 1° by 1° regional TOA flux. The single satellite (Terra or Aqua) SSF1deg 24-hour shortwave flux is based on one daytime measurements and assumes constant meteorology to model the diurnal change in albedo. To accurately describe regions with a prominent diurnal signal, the SYN1deg Edition4 dataset employs hourly geostationary (GEO) measurements. This improves upon Edition3, which used 3-hourly GEO measurements and with temporal interpolation. The EBAF product combines the temporal stability of the SSF1deg product with the diurnal information from SYN1deg and removes the CERES instrument calibration bias by constraining the net flux balance to the ocean heat storage term. The SYN-1deg product retrieves hourly SW fluxes from GEO measurements. Over regions with large diurnal cycles, such as maritime stratus and land afternoon convective locations, the GEO derived SW fluxes will capture the diurnal flux not observed with Terra or Aqua sun-synchronous satellites. Obtaining fluxes from geostationary satellite radiance is a multistep process. First, most GEO visible imagers lack calibration and must be calibrated to MODIS and VIIRS. Second, the GEO imager visible channel radiances are converted to broadband radiances using empirical and theoretical models. The lack of coincident, collocated, and co-angled GEO and CERES measurements makes building an empirical model difficult. The narrowband to broadband models are a function of surface and cloud conditions, which are difficult to identify due to the inconsistent cloud retrievals between the 16 GEO imagers used in the CERES record. Third, the GEO derived broadband radiances are passed through the CERES angular distribution model (ADM) to convert the radiances to fluxes. Lastly, the GEO derived

  1. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren E; Love, Christopher G; Sieber, Oliver M; Faux, Maree C; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) Brannon et al. (2014) [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability) Reya and Clevers (2005) [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007), Sansom et al. (2004) [3], [4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001) [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004), Carothers et al. (2001) [6], [7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004) [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC) or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control) Faux et al. (2004) . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  2. Geoquímica e Geocronologia do Plutonismo Granítico Mesoproterozóico do SW do Estado de Mato Grosso (SW do Cráton Amazônico)

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Cesar Geraldes

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é o estudo geocronológico e da composição química dos granitóides da porção SW do estado do Mato Grosso. A abordagem deste projeto tem relevância para o entendimento da evolução geológica através da identificação, na área de estudo, de eventos de acresção crustal durante o Paleo e Mesoproterozóico que vieram a compor significativa fração do SW Cráton Amazônico. Na região do Terreno Jauru, tonalitos, vulcânicas ácidas e gnaisses analisados pelo método U/Pb em zircões ...

  3. Effects of Krill Oil on serum lipids of hyperlipidemic rats and human SW480 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480. Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  4. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height, while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  5. Mineralogy and origin of atmospheric particles in the industrial area of Huelva (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, J. M.; Carretero, M. I.; Galán, E.

    The mineralogy of atmospheric particles at the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, south of Huelva (a highly industrialized city in the SW Spain), was characterized in view to identify source origins. In spite of the small amount of sample collected, mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis system, using an adequate sample preparation methodology. Sedimentable (SP) and aerosols particles were sampled an one-week basis every two months for one year. Quartz, calcite and feldspars were found to be the major minerals in both fractions, and phyllosilicates, dolomite and gypsum were also identified in lower content. Minor mineral particles included barite, apatite, sphalerite and pyrite. SEM studies revealed the additional presence of chalcopyrite in both SP and aerosols, and of chalcocite-covellite, halite and sylvite in the latter. Siderite, hematite and ankerite were only detected in the SP fraction. The concentrations of the previous minerals increased in summer by effect of the limited rain and the resulting scarcity of atmosphere washing. Non-mineral particles detected by SEM in SP and aerosol fractions included spherical, biological and compositionally complex particles. The main source of mineral particles was found to be the soil suspension in addition to the metallurgical and fertilizer production industries in the area.

  6. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  7. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  8. Subaqueous rhyolite block lavas in the Miocene Ushikiri Formation, Shimane Peninsula, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Keiji; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Hoshizumi, Hideo

    1991-06-01

    A rhyolite mass of the Miocene Ushikiri Formation in the western part of the Shimane Peninsula, SW Japan, is a small subaqueous edifice about 600 m high and 4 km wide, formed at water depths between 200 and 1000 m. It consists mainly of three relatively flat, lava-flow units 50-300 m in maximum thickness, each of which includes lobes and their polyhedral fragments. The lava lobes are poorly to well vesiculated, glassy to microcrystalline and flow-banded and -folded. Compared with mafic pillows, they are large, having thick, quenched and brecciated, glassy crusts because of their high viscosity, surface tension and thermal conductivity. Their surfaces disintegrate into polyhedral fragments and grade into massive volcanic breccia. The massive volcanic breccia composed of the lobe fragments is poorly sorted and covered with stratified volcanic breccia of the same rock type. The rhyolite lavas commonly bifurcate in a manner similar to mafic pillow lavas. However, they are highly silicic with 1-5 vol.% phenocrysts and have elongated vesicles and flow-folds, implying that they were visco-plastic during flowage. Their surface features are similar to those of subaerial block lava. With respect to rheological and morphological features, they are subaqueous equivalents of block lava.

  9. ECOLOGIC FEATURES OF WOOD ANATOMY OF Casearia sylvestris SW (SALICACEAE IN THREE BRAZILIAN ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene da Silva Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Casearia sylvestris SW (Salicaceae is a highly adaptive perennial species that is found throughout Latin America and widely spread in Brazil. This work analyzed the ecological features of wood anatomy of C. sylvestris occurring in three ecosystem types: Cerrado, Gallery Forest (Northern of Minas Gerais and Mata Atlântica (Southern of Minas Gerais. Qualitative features were similar among plants in the three ecosystems, differing only in the distribution of pith flecks and neighboring tyloses that were more frequent in Cerrado and Gallery Forest. The quantitative results showed significant differences for several parameters, as well as variation between individuals of vegetation types of Northern and Southern of Minas Gerais. The correlation matrix of variables including quantitative anatomical characteristics, soil characteristics, height and diameter of the plants showed that plants were grouped by ecosystem type. Casearia sylvestris might adopt different survival strategies regarding safety and efficiency of water transport by wood anatomy ecological adaptation. The adaptive anatomical features to drought were mostly an decrease of vessel frequency and an increase of ray width and frequency.

  10. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the two layer fault system of Antalya (SW Turkey) area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Cangir, Bülent

    2017-09-01

    Southwest Turkey, along Mediterranean coast, is prone to large earthquakes resulting from subduction of the African plate under the Eurasian plate and shallow crustal faults. Maximum observed magnitude of subduction earthquakes is Mw = 6.5 whereas that of crustal earthquakes is Mw = 6.6. Crustal earthquakes are sourced from faults which are related with Isparta Angle and Cyprus Arc tectonic structures. The primary goal of this study is to assess seismic hazard for Antalya area (SW Turkey) using a probabilistic approach. A new earthquake catalog for Antalya area, with unified moment magnitude scale, was prepared in the scope of the study. Seismicity of the area has been evaluated by the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relationship. For hazard computation, CRISIS2007 software was used following the standard Cornell-McGuire methodology. Attenuation model developed by Youngs et al. Seismol Res Lett 68(1):58-73, (1997) was used for deep subduction earthquakes and Chiou and Youngs Earthq Spectra 24(1):173-215, (2008) model was used for shallow crustal earthquakes. A seismic hazard map was developed for peak ground acceleration and for rock ground with a hazard level of a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Results of the study show that peak ground acceleration values on bedrock change between 0.215 and 0.23 g in the center of Antalya.

  11. Landsat TM data processing for lithological discrimination in the Caraculo area (Namibe Province, SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Alessandro, V.; Pieruccini, U.; Pranzini, E.

    1993-10-01

    Landsat TM data were used for lithological discrimination and mapping in the little-known, semiarid 900 km 2 area around Caraculo station and the middle course of the Rio Giraul (Namibe Province, SW Angola) following two main procedures. The first of these was based on visual evaluation of three-band composites, band-ratio composites and Principal Component Analysis. The second method relied on the extraction of spectral signatures, and their use to obtain automatic classifications. Satisfactory results were reached with the first procedure, thus allowing - with limited support of ground information — the draft of a lithological map, while the second method was not systematically efficient, even for confirmation of data acquired with the first procedure. Image interpretation suggests that an extensive but hithertoun differentiated metasedimentary complex consisting of a heterogeneous supracrustal sequence should be subdivided into at least two units. Field observations proved that one of these is marked by a notable frequency of marbles and the other is characterized by a widespread occurrence of amphibolitic bodies. Moreover, a belt of undetermined (thermally metamorphosed ?) metamorphic rocks is interposed between them. The distinction of so far unidentified units, though restricted to interpretation of processed Landsat TM data, has significant geological implications also in the regional context and will be helpful in guiding future work with conventional geological methods.

  12. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Savaş; Özkul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. PMID:25152909

  13. Phototrophic microbes form endolithic biofilms in ikaite tufa columns (SW Greenland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Erik; Castenholz, Richard W; Larsen, Jens E N; Kühl, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Marine tufa-columns, formed by the hydrated carbonate mineral ikaite, present a unique alkaline microbial habitat only found in Ikka Fjord (SW-Greenland). The outermost parts of the ikaite columns exhibit a multitude of physico-chemical gradients, and the porous ikaite is colonized by endolithic phototrophic biofilms serving as a substrate for grazing epifauna, where scraping by sea urchins affects overall column-topography. We present a detailed study of the optical microenvironment, spatial organization, and photosynthetic activity of endolithic phototrophs within the porous ikaite crystal matrix. Cyanobacteria and diatoms formed distinctly coloured zones and were closely associated with ikaite-crystals via excretion of exopolymers. Scalar-irradiance measurements showed strong attenuation of visible light (400-700 nm), where only ∼1% of incident irradiance remained at 20 mm depth. Transmission spectra showed in vivo absorption signatures of diatom and cyanobacterial photopigments, which were confirmed by HPLC-analysis. Variable-chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging showed active photosynthesis with high-light acclimation in the outer diatom layer, and low-light acclimation in the underlying cyanobacterial part. Phototrophs in ikaite thus thrive in polymer-bound endolithic biofilms in a complex gradient microhabitat experiencing constant slow percolation of highly alkaline phosphate-enriched spring water mixing with cold seawater at the tufa-column-apex. We discuss the potential role of these biofilms in ikaite column formation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Geological Study of Active Cold Seeps in the Syn-collision Accretionary Prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogonophoran tube worms, elongated pyrite tubes and authigenic carbonate nodules are used to evaluate the occurrence of potential cold seeps in the syn-collision accretionary prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan. At least two species of pogonophoran tubeworms were found in surface and core sediments. Pyrites occur in three different forms: fillings inside foraminiferal chambers, cements between calcareous microfossils, and elongated tubes. The bottom water off SW Taiwan is aerobic, but authigenic pyrites are found in the surface sediments at several sites, suggesting the existence of local reducing environments enabling the formation of pyrites. These environments are most likely caused by the occurrence of active cold seeps where methane expulses. Authigenic carbonates with highly depleted carbon isotope values (-54 to -43‰ were found at more than 5 locations, in agreement with a methane-derived source for the carbon.

  15. Interaction of fructose with other medium components to affect bioproduction of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Kalil, Mohd. Sahaid; Shuib, Shuwahida; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Thraustochytrids are a group of marine fungus-like microheterotrophs of which some can accumulate considerable amounts of the high valued omega-3 oil, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, a local thraustochytrid isolate, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, was cultivated in a medium containing fructose as the major carbon source. The effects of this carbon source in interaction with yeast extract, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sea salt were studied using a software-based two level full factorial design. Results showed that fructose as a single factor, has significant positive effect on the volumetric DHA content of SW1. Similarly, its interaction with yeast extract has profound positive effect. However, interactions of fructose with MSG and sea salt were significant negative effects. These results indicate that manipulation of the concentration of fructose in the culture medium may serve as a simple and useful strategy to help achieve preferred amount of DHA.

  16. Correlation between catch data from bottom longlines and fish censures in the SW lagoon of New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbicki, Michel

    1988-01-01

    On a total of 363 bottoms longline sets in the SW lagoon of New Caledonia, 45 were surveyed using visual census. Abundance and biomass estimates were derived from these censuses. These estimates were highly correlated to catch per unit effort in numbers and weight. From these relationships were established contour maps of soft bottom fish abundance and biomass. The total biomass of longline catchable fish was estimated between 11800 and 25500 tons with an average of 17700 tons which represent...

  17. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ.SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitroplantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM we...

  18. ECONOMICAL VIABILITY OF PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. WOOD SUBMITTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Desmoulis Wanderley de Farias Sobrinho; Juarez Benigno Paes; Judernor Fernandes Filgueiras

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the economical viability of preservative treatment of Prosopis juliflora (Sw) D.C. roundpieces treated with Osmose CCB commercial preservative applied by sap displacement method in rural property and to comparetheir costs with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated pieces costs. The treatment of Prosopisjuliflora wood demonstrated to be economically viable when compared to alternatives using the Equivalent Annual Costs (EACs),...

  19. Mississippian lamprophyre dikes in western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: Evidence of transtensional tectonics along the SW margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Federico; Canelo, Horacio N.; Dávila, Federico M.; de Hollanda, María Helena M.; Teixeira, Wilson

    2018-04-01

    In the Famatina range, Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina (SW Gondwana), subvertical calc-alkaline lamprophyric dike swarms crop out through >300 km. The dikes cut Ordovician units with a prominent NW-SE trending and are covered by continental sedimentary successions of Pennsylvanian to Permian age. The dikes show a strong structural control associated with Riedel fault systems. Detailed field analysis suggested a ∼N-S opening direction oblique to the attitude of dike walls and a left-lateral transtensional tectonics during the emplacement. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of a lamprophyric sample defined a crystallization age (plateau; whole rock) of 357.1 ± 7.1 Ma (MSWD = 2.3). Coetaneous ductile zones with dominant strike-slip motion, documented along western Argentina for >600 km, suggest a regional event in SW Gondwana during the Mississippian. We propose that this deformation was the result of the counterclockwise fast rotation of Gondwana between 365 and 345 Ma, when the Famatina range and western Argentina occupied a sub-polar position. A transform margin along SW Gondwana better explains our (and others) data rather than a subduction margin. This scenario is also consistent with the occurrence of A-type granites and normal-fault basins within the foreland as well as bimodal volcanics.

  20. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara; Masuelli, Laura; Marchese, Rodolfo; Misiti, Silvia; De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-γ-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-γ-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-γ. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPKα and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-γ activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  1. Comparison of SW and TW non-synchronous accelerating cavities as used in electron beam storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari, A.; Demos, P.T.; Flanz, J.B.; Jacobs, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors relate the parameters of detuned standing wave (SW) and non-synchronous beam travelling wave (TW) accelerating cavities of equivalent equilibrium performance when used to compensate for radiation and parasitic energy losses by electrons circulating in a high energy electron storage ring. The relationship is expressed in terms of the coupling parameter β and cavity tuning angle ψ of the TW accelerator's equivalent SW system. A given TW cavity corresponds to a standing wave system possessing specific settings of β and ψ. This is shown for the constant impedance TW waveguide, for which β and ψ can be expressed as explicit functions of TW cavity length 1, attenuation factor I, RF electric field phase velocity V p , and shunt impedance r. Coupling parameter β depends additionally on SW cavity shunt impedance R. The basis they have used for formulating the equivalence of the two systems follows Travelling Wave Cavity Non-Synchronous Beam Loading theory developed by G.A. Loew and Standing Wave Circuit Analysis theory as described by P.B. Wilson

  2. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Masuelli, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Marchese, Rodolfo [Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); Misiti, Silvia [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy); De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Stigliano, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.stigliano@uniroma1.it [Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology ' Sapienza' University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa, 1035-00189 Rome (Italy); Research Center S. Pietro Hospital, Via Cassia, 600-00189 Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  3. Effect of LED irradiation on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in SW1353 cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Guo, Zhou-yi; Zhang, Feng-xue; Deng, Wen-di; Liu, Song-hao

    2007-05-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) plays an active role in remodeling cartilage in osteoarthritic cartilage. To find an effective method of prevention of osteoclasia, this in vitro study focuses on the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in the SW1353 cells by LED irradiation. The human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 were stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and were received the irradiation of LED (632nm, 4mW/cm2). The cell count was assessed over a 96-hour period by using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and the cell activity was evaluated with a Cell Counting Kit-8 Assays. The subsequent expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was quantified. Results of this experiment showed that the cultural cell activity was decreased, and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was increased by being stimulated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. After received LED irradiation, the death rate of cultural cell was increased and the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was decreased significantly. The present study concluded that particular LED irradiation stimulates SW1353 cell proliferation activity and inhibit the MMP-3 and MMP-13 enzymatic activity. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that the low power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  4. Geometric-kinematic characteristics of the main faults in the W-SW of the Lut Block (SE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Boshrabadi, Ahmad; Khatib, Mohamad Mahdi; Raeesi, Mohamad; Mousavi, Seyed Morteza; Djamour, Yahya

    2018-03-01

    The area to the W-SW of the Lut Block in Iran has experienced numerous historical and recent destructive earthquakes. We examined a number of faults in this area that have high potential for generating destructive earthquakes. In this study a number of faults are introduced and named for the first time. These new faults are Takdar, Dehno, Suru, Hojat Abad, North Faryab, North Kahnoj, Heydarabad, Khatun Abad and South Faryab. For a group of previously known faults, their mechanism and geological offsets are investigated for the first time. This group of faults include East Nayband, West Nayband, Sardueiyeh, Dalfard, Khordum, South Jabal-e-Barez, and North Jabal-e-Barez. The N-S fault systems of Sabzevaran, Gowk, and Nayband induce slip on the E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE fault systems. The faulting patterns appear to preserve different stages of fault development. We investigated the distribution of active faults and the role that they play in accommodating tectonic strain in the SW-Lut. In the study area, the fault systems with en-echelon arrangement create structures such as restraining and releasing stepover, fault bend and pullapart basin. The main mechanism for fault growth in the region seems to be 'segment linkage of preexisting weaknesses' and also for a limited area through 'process zone'. Estimations are made for the likely magnitudes of separate or combined failure of the fault segments. Such magnitudes are used in hazard analysis of the region.

  5. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from ALMIRANTE SALDANHA From SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) for 1967-01-01 (NODC Accession 9700076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton, chlorophyll, and other data were collected from bottle casts in the SW Atlantic Ocean (lim-20 W) from the Almirante Saldanha from 16 March 1967 to 30...

  6. Benthic organisms collected using sediment sampler from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977 (NODC Accession 8100224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms were collected using sediment sampler casts from the SW RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico from 22 September 1977 to 16 December 1977. Data were...

  7. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yun Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPKα blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPKα in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPKα. Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPKα and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPKα in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPKα and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  8. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    The Cenozoic basanite from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) belongs to numerous lavas occurring in the NE part of the Central European Volcanic Province. Basanite contains clinopyroxene megacrysts up to 3 cm in size. The clinopyroxene has the composition of aluminian-sodian diopside (mg# 0.61-0.70, 0.08-0.12 atoms Na pfu and 0.88-0.93 atoms Ca pfu). Cr is absent. The REE contents are above the primitive mantle reaching up to 18 x PM at Nd. Primitive-mantle normalized REE patterns show enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=3.81-5.01). The REE patterns of all the megacrysts show deflection in La-Nd. The trace element patterns are characterized by positive Zr, Hf and in some cases also Ta anomalies, and negative U, La, Sr, Ti and Pb ones. In some samples strong depletion (down to 0.01 x PM) in Rb and Ba is observed.The Ostrzyca megacrysts formed cumulate, which crystallized from magma similar to the host basanite, but more fractionated and enriched in REE, particularly in LREE (Lipa et al., 2014). This happened at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km) and the new pulse of basanitic magma entrained the crystals forming the non-solidified cumulate and brought them to the surface (Lipa et al., 2014). Clinopyroxene megacrysts contain large, transparent, euhedral apatite crystals up to 7 mm. The major element composition indicates the fluor-apatite with F content ranging from 0.87 to 1.93 wt.%. Chlorine content is strongly variable between grains (0.05-1.75 wt.%). Apatite is strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=60.39-62.23, about 1000 x PM for LREE and about 10 x PM for HREE). The REE patterns are nearly linear, with slight positive Nd and Gd anomalies. The trace element patterns are characterized by very strong negative anomalies of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti) and Pb, and weaker negative Sr anomaly. Concentration of Yb and Lu is on the level 10 x PM, whereas Rb, Hf and Ti are depleted relative to PM. Apatite preceded clinopyroxene

  9. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  10. Woody debris transport modelling by a coupled DE-SW approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Elisabetta; Petaccia, Gabriella; Sibilla, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The presence of wood in rivers is gaining more and more attention: on one side, the inclusion of woody debris in streams is emphasized for its ecological benefits; on the other hand, particular attention must be paid to its management, not to affect hydraulic safety. Recent events have shown that wood can be mobilized during floodings (Comiti et al. 2008, Lange and Bezzola 2006), aggravating inundations, in particular near urban areas. For this reason, the inclusion of woody debris influence on the prediction of flooded areas is an important step toward the reduction of hydraulic risk. Numerical modelling plays an important role to this purpose. Ruiz-Villanueva et al. (2014) use a two-dimensional numerical model to calculate the kinetics of cylindrical woody debris transport, taking into account also the hydrodynamic effects of wood. The model here presented couples a Discrete Element approach (DE) for the calculation of motion of a cylindrical log with the solution of the Shallow Water Equations (SW), in order to simulate woody debris transport in a two-dimensional stream. In a first step, drag force, added mass force and side force are calculated from flow and log velocities, assuming a reference area and hydrodynamic coefficients taken from literature. Then, the equations of dynamics are solved to model the planar roto-translation of the wooden cylinder. Model results and its physical reliability are clearly affected by the values of the drag and side coefficients, which in turn depend upon log submergence and angle towards the flow direction. Experimental studies to evaluate drag and side coefficients can be found for a submerged cylinder, with various orientations (Gippel et al. 1996; Hoang et al. 2015). To extend such results to the case of a floating (non-totally submerged) cylinder, the authors performed a series of laboratory tests whose outcomes are implemented in the proposed DE-SW model, to assess the effects of these values on the dynamic of woody

  11. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  12. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Arlin

    2012-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  13. An airborne gamma ray survey of parts of SW Scotland in February 1993. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Tyler, A.N.; Ni Riain, S.; Murphy, S.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne gamma ray survey was conducted for the Scottish Office Environment Department of coastal and inland parts of SW Scotland to define existing background levels, to locate features worthy of further attention, and to demonstrate the emergency response capabilities of radiometric methods. Coastal areas were surveyed with 500 m line spacing. Inland areas were specified to 2 km line spacing, however it was possible to achieve 1 km line spacing in the majority of the inland zone. The radiometric maps show clearly the distributions of each individual nuclide and indicate the contribution which individual localised features make to the overall gamma ray dose rate. Naturally occurring nuclides reflect the underlying geological and geomorphological contexts of the landscapes. The main granite intrusions, most notably at Cairnsmore of Fleet, the Loch Doon Granodiorite, Glencairn of Carsphairn, the Dalbeattie granite, and Criffel Pluton are readily visible in 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 Tl maps, and control their local radiation environments. A number of areas of enhanced 214 Bi, which may reflect radon potential, were noted. A transient radon associated 214 Bi signal was observed on the west of the Wigtown peninsular during the survey. Examination of spectral data in the vicinity Dundrennan has confirmed that there is no evidence of widespread terrestrial contamination arising from the use of depleted uranium projectiles on the range. The 137 Cs map indicates the environmental distribution of this nuclide in considerable detail. Levels of 137 Cs range from approximately 2 kBq m -2 , a level consistent with global weapons' testing fallout, from 2-40 kBq m -2 on terrestrial sites affected by deposition from the Chernobyl accident, and from 40 kBq m -2 to over 200 kBq m -2 on tide washed pastures which have accumulated marine sediments from the Irish sea. (author)

  14. Assessment of Submarine Slope Stability on the Continental Margin off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Huai-Houh; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Cheng, Win-Bin; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2017-04-01

    The abundant gas hydrate reservoirs are distributed in the southwest (SW) off Taiwan. To explore this new energy, geological methods were systematically used and mainly emphasized on the storage potential evaluation. On the other hand, the correlation between gas hydrate dissociation and submarine slope stability is also an important issue. In this study, three submarine profiles on the active and passive continental margin were selected and assessed their slope stabilities by considering two influence factors (seismic forces and number of sedimentary layers). The gravity corers obtained from these three sites (Xiaoliuqiu, Yuan-An Ridge, and Pointer Ridge) to conduct soil laboratory tests. The physical property tests and isotropically consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests were carried out to establish reference properties and shear strength parameters. Before the stability analysis is performed, it is also necessary to construct the seabed profile. For each submarine profile, data from P-waves and from S-waves generated by P-S conversion on reflection from airgun shots recorded along one line of ocean bottom seismometers were used to construct 2-D velocity sections. The seabed strata could be simplified to be only one sedimentary layer or to be multilayer in accordance with the velocity structure profile. Results show the safety factors (FS) of stability analysis are obviously different in considering the number of sedimentary layers, especially for a very thin layer of sediments on a steep slope. The simplified strata condition which treated all seabed strata as only one sedimentary layer might result in the FS lower than 1 and the slope was in an unstable state. On the contrary, the FS could be higher than 10 in a multilayer condition.

  15. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Coto, I., E-mail: israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada I. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Sevilla, C/Virgen de Africa 7, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Vargas, A. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Instituto de Técnicas Energéticas, Campus Sud Edificio ETSEIB, Planta 0, Pabellón C, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bolívar, J.P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad CC. Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen s/n, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Variability of radon exhalation rates from PG piles has been studied using numerical simulation supported by experimental data. • Most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential and moisture saturation. • Piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. • A proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. - Abstract: Nearly 1.0 × 10{sup 8} tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by {sup 226}Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1}) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bq m{sup −2} s{sup −1})

  16. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha -1 . The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  17. Management Implications for the Most Attractive Scenic Sites along the Andalusia Coast (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mooser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coastal scenery assessment was carried out at 50 sites along the 910 km long Andalusia coast (SW Spain using a checklist of 26 natural and human parameters, parameter weighting matrices, and fuzzy logic. A scenic classification was utilised that can rate sites as Class I (natural areas of great scenic beauty to Class V (urbanised areas of poor scenic interest, but, for this study, only natural sites of great scenic value were investigated; 41 sites were included in Class I, 9 in Class II and, apart from four, all of the sites were under some feature of protection—managed by the Andalusia Environmental Agency (RENPA, in Spanish. Sites belong to the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Nijar (24% of sites, the Natural Park of Gibraltar Strait (18%, the Natural Place Acantilado de Maro-Cerro Gordo (12%, and the Natural and National parks of Doñana (8%. Results obtained by means of scenic evaluation constitute a sound scientific basis for any envisaged management plan for investigated coastal areas preservation/conservation and responsible future developments, especially for natural protected areas, which represent the most attractive coastal tourist destinations. With respect to natural parameters, excellent scenic values appeared to be linked to the geological setting and the presence of mountainous landscapes related to the Betic Chain. Human parameters usually show good scores because null or extremely reduced human impacts are recorded, but, at places, conflicts arose between conservation and recreational activities because visitors are often interested in beach activities more so than ecotourism. Low scores of human parameters were often related to litter presence or the unsuitable emplacement of utilities, such as informative panels, litter bins, etc.

  18. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  19. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  20. The Manila clam population in Arcachon Bay (SW France): Can it be kept sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Gam, Mériame; Paroissin, Christian; Bru, Noëlle; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2010-02-01

    The venerid clam Ruditapes philippinarum is the most prominent suspension-feeding bivalve inhabiting muddy intertidal seagrass beds in Arcachon Bay (SW France). It is exploited by fishermen, and Arcachon Bay ranks number one in France in terms of production and total biomass of this species. Previous studies revealed a decrease in the standing stock of R. philippinarum since 2003 and unbalanced length-frequency distributions with a lack of juveniles and of adults > 40 mm. Consequently, the population dynamics of this bivalve were studied at four intertidal sites and one oceanic site in Arcachon Bay. As clam size structure did not allow classical dynamics computations, field monitoring was coupled with field experiments (tagging-recapture) over two years. Monitoring of condition index and gonadal maturation stages highlighted a high variability in spawning number and intensity between sites. Recruitment events in the exploited area varied spatially but with uniformly low values. Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) parameters ( K, L∞) were determined using Appeldoorn and ELEFAN methods. In the exploited sites in the inner lagoon, K was relatively high (mean = 0.72 yr - 1 ) but L∞ was low (mean = 41.1 mm) resulting in a moderate growth performance index (Φ' = 2.99). Growth parameters were not correlated with immersion time and L∞ was different between sites. Comparison of mortality coefficients ( Z) between cage experiments and field monitoring suggested that fishing accounts for 65-75% of total adult mortality. Low recruitment, a low growth rate and a normal mortality rate led to low somatic production (4.1 and 8.7 g Shell-Free Dry Weight (SFDW) m - 2 yr - 1 ) and an annual P/ B ratio from 0.44 to 0.92 yr - 1 . Under current conditions, the possibility of a sustainable population in Arcachon Bay will strongly depend on recruitment success and fishing management.

  1. Characterisation of the heterogeneity of karst using electrical geophysics - applications in SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, A. M.; Cheng, Q.; Tao, M.; Chen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The southwest China karst region is one of the largest globally continuous karst areas. The great (structural, hydrological and geochemical) complexity of karstic environments and their rapidly evolving nature make them extremely vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic processes/activities. Characterising the location and properties of structures within the karst critical zone, and understanding how the landform is evolving is essential for the mitigation and adaption to locally- and globally-driven changes. Because of the specific nature of karst geology and geomorphology in the humid tropics and subtropics, spatial heterogeneity is high, evidenced by specific landforms features. Such heterogeneity leads to a high dynamic variability of hydrological processes in space and time, along with a complex exchange of surface water and groundwater. Investigating karst hydrogeological features is extremely challenging because of the three-dimensional nature of the system. Observations from boreholes can vary significantly over several metres, making conventional aquifer investigative methods limited. Geophysical methods have emerged as potentially powerful tools for hydrogeological investigations. Geophysical surveys can help to obtain more insight into the complex conduit networks and depth of weathering, both of which can provide quantitative information about the hydrological and hydrochemical dynamics of the system, in addition to providing a better understanding of how critical zone structures have been established and how the landscape is evolving. We present here results from recent geophysical field campaigns in SW China. We illustrate the effectiveness of electrical methods for mapping soil infil in epikarst and report results from field-based investigations along hillslope and valley transects. Our results reveal distinct zones of relatively high electrical conductivity to depths of tens of metres, which we attribute to localised increased fracture density. We

  2. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  3. A Novel Halotolerant Thermoalkaliphilic Esterase from Marine Bacterium Erythrobacter seohaensis SW-135

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Huo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase gene, e69, was cloned from Erythrobacter seohaensis SW-135, which was isolated from a tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea in Korea. This gene is 825 bp in length and codes for a 29.54 kDa protein containing 274 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E69 is a new member of the bacterial lipolytic enzyme family IV. This enzyme exhibited the highest level of activity toward p-nitrophenyl (NP butyrate but little or no activity toward the other p-NP esters tested. The optimum temperature and pH of the catalytic activity of E69 were 60°C and pH 10.5, respectively. The enzyme exhibited stable activity over a wide range of alkaline pH values (7.5–9.5. In addition, E69 was found to be a halotolerant esterase as it exhibited the highest hydrolytic activity in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl and was still active in the presence of 3 M NaCl. Moreover, it possessed some degree of tolerance to Triton X-100 and several organic solvents. Through homology modeling and comparison with other esterases, it was suggested that the absence of the cap domain and its narrow substrate-binding pocket might be responsible for its narrow substrate specificity. Sequence and structural analysis results suggested that its high ratio of negatively to positively charged residues, large hydrophobic surface area, and negative electrostatic potential on the surface may be responsible for its alkaline adaptation. The results of this study provide insight into marine alkaliphilic esterases, and the unique properties of E69 make it a promising candidate as a biocatalyst for industrial applications.

  4. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  5. Hydrothermal alteration of plagioclase and growth of secondary feldspar in the Hengill Volcanic Centre, SW Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D.; Grönvold, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Gunnlaugsson, E.

    2002-05-01

    Dissolution of igneous feldspar and the formation and occurrence of secondary feldspar in tholeiitic basalts from the Hengill volcanic centre, in SW Iceland was studied by microprobe analysis of cuttings from two ca. 2000 m deep geothermal wells. Well NG-7 in Nesjavellir represents a geothermal system in a rift zone where the intensity of young, insignificantly altered intrusions increases with depth. Well KhG-1 in Kolviðarhóll represents the margin of a rift zone where the intensity of intrusives is lower and the intensity of alteration higher. This marginal well represents altered basaltic crust in an early retrograde state. The secondary plagioclase in both wells is mainly oligoclase, occurring in association with K-feldspar and chlorite±actinolite. The texture of this assemblage depends on the lithology and intensity of alteration. In Nesjavellir (NG-7) the composition of secondary albite-oligoclase is correlated with the host-rock composition. This connection is not apparent in more intensely altered samples from Kolviðarhóll (KhG-1). The influence of temperature on composition of secondary Na-feldspar is unclear in both wells although Ca is expected to increase with temperature. Any temperature dependence may be suppressed by the influence of rock composition in Nesjavellir and by retrograde conditions at Kolviðarhóll. The absence of clear compositional gradients between igneous plagioclase and secondary feldspar and between Na-feldspar and K-feldspar suggests that secondary feldspars formed by dissolution precipitation reactions.

  6. The significance of GW-SW interactions for biogeochemical processes in sandy streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shai; De Falco, Natalie; Fox, Aryeh; Laube, Gerrit; Schmidt, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jan; Boano, Fulvio

    2015-04-01

    Stream-groundwater interactions have a major impact on hyporheic exchange fluxes in sandy streambeds. However, the physical complexity of natural streams has limited our ability to study these types of interactions systematically, and to evaluate their importance to biogeochemical processes and nutrient cycling. In this work we were able to quantify the effect of losing and gaining fluxes on hyporheic exchange and nutrient cycling in homogeneous and heterogeneous streambeds by combining experiments in laboratory flumes and modeling. Tracer experiments for measuring hyporheic exchange were done using dyes and NaCl under various combinations of overlying water velocity and losing or gaining fluxes. Nutrient cycling experiments were conducted after growing a benthic biofilm by spiking with Sodium Benzoate (as a source of labile dissolved organic carbon, DOC) and measuring DOC and oxygen dynamics. The combination of experimental observations and modeling revealed that interfacial transport increases with the streambed hydraulic conductivity and proportional to the square of the overlying water velocity. Hyporheic exchange fluxes under losing and gaining flow conditions were similar, and became smaller when the losing or gaining flux increases. Increasing in streambed hydraulic conductivity led to higher hyporheic fluxes and reduction in the effects of losing and gaining flow conditions to constrain exchange. Despite the evident effect of flow conditions on hyporheic exchange, labile DOC uptake was positively linked to increasing overlying water velocity but was not affected by losing and gaining fluxes. This is because microbial aerobic activity was taking place at the upper few millimeters of the streambed as shown by local oxygen consumption rates, which was measured using microelectrodes. Based on modeling work, it is expected that GW-SW interaction will be more significant for less labile DOC and anaerobic processes. Our results enable us to study systematically

  7. Soil respiration in tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA; Liqing; ZHENG; Zheng; TANG; Jianwei; WANG; Yinghong

    2005-01-01

    With the static opaque chamber and gas chromatography technique, from January 2003 to January 2004 soil respiration was investigated in a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. In this study three treatments were applied, each with three replicates: A (bare soil), B (soil+litter), and C (soil+litter+seedling). The results showed that soil respiration varied seasonally, low from December 2003 to February 2004, and high from June to July 2004. The annual average values of CO2 efflux from soil respiration differed among the treatments at 1% level, with the rank of C (14642 mgCO2· m-2. h-1)>B (12807 mgCO2· m-2. h-1)>A (9532 mgCO2· m-2. h-1). Diurnal variation in soil respiration was not apparent due to little diurnal temperate change in Xishuangbanna. There was a parabola relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture at 1% level. Soil respiration rates were higher when soil moisture ranged from 35% to 45%. There was an exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature (at a depth of 5cm in mineral soil) at 1% level. The calculated Q1o values in this study,ranging from 2.03 to 2.36, were very near to those of tropical soil reported. The CO2 efflux in 2003was 5.34 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from soil plus litter plus seedling, of them 3.48 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from soil (accounting for 62.5%), 1.19 kgCO2· m-2. a-1 from litter (22.3%) and 0.67 kgCO2·m-2. a-1 from seedling (12.5%).

  8. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  9. Environmental isotope application to investigate the hydrogeological aquifers of Yarmouk basin SW of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental isotopic variations have been used to investigate the source of recharge and age in the basaltic and deep limestone aquifers system in the Yarmouk basin, SW of Syria. Isotopic results show that recharge of basaltic aquifer is directly related to infiltration of rainwater from high and transitional zones. However, the homogeneity noted of stable and radioactive isotopes values (δ 18 O= -5.58± 0.25%, 14 C=46.2± 4.45 % pmc) in Laja plateau and central zone, confirm the mechanism of common recharge and critical role of this plateau in absorbing great amount of precipitation. In addition these values indicate, to a high rate mixing taking place in this plateau and the central zone. In the Kahiel area, the groundwater is of recent age as shown from the high values of 14 C activity ( 14 C= 66.3 ± 5.3 % pcm) accompanied by enriched 18 O (δ 18 O=-4.7±0.22 %). The recharge of groundwater is related to the leakage of water from dams and drainage network. The tectonic setting in this area constitutes an additional factor in increasing this recharge. Netpath model was used to determine the age of groundwater. the age of groundwater in the basaltic aquifer is generally modern and reaches 2000 y BP in discharge area. Preliminary conclusion of deep limestone aquifer, indicate that its groundwater occur under high piezometric pressure. The salinity is less than 1g/L and the temperature water varied between 35 to 45 degreed centigrade. The low 14 C activities in deep groundwater suggest pleistocene and holocene recharge, although their stable isotopes values indicate recharge by modern meteoric precipitation. The corrected age of this groundwater determined by Netpath model indicate that this age fall between recent water in recharge area and 20 Ky BP. (author)

  10. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  11. Legacy effects of nitrogen and phosphorus in a eutrophic lake catchment: Slapton Ley, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Slapton Ley is a freshwater coastal lagoon in SW England. The Ley is part of a National Nature Reserve, which is divided into two basins: the Higher Ley (39 ha) is mainly reed swamp; the Lower Ley (77 ha) is a shallow lake (maximum depth 2.9 m). In the 1960s it became apparent that the Lower Ley was becoming increasingly eutrophic. In order to gauge water, sediment and nutrient inputs into the lake, measurements began on the main catchments in 1969. Continuous monitoring of discharge and a weekly water-sampling programme have been maintained by the Slapton Ley Field Centre ever since. The monitoring programme has been supplemented by a number of research projects which have sought to identify the salient hydrological processes operating within the Slapton catchments and to relate these to the delivery of sediment and solute to the stream system. Long-term monitoring data are also available for the catchment area including the lake from the Environment Agency.The nitrate issue has been of particular interest at Slapton; although many longer series exist for large river basins like the Thames, the long record of nitrate data for the Slapton catchments is unique in Britain for a small rural basin. Recent declines in nitrate concentration may reflect less intensive agricultural activity, lower fertiliser inputs in particular, but there may also be a legacy effect in the shallow groundwater system. Phosphorus concentrations in stream and lake water have also shown declining concentrations but a phosphorus legacy in the surficial lake sediments means that algal blooms continue to develop in most summers, as indicated by a continued rise in summer pH levels. Further field observation at the sediment-water interface is needed to better understand the biogeochemical drivers and the balance between N and P limitation in the lake. Successful management of the Nature Reserve requires better understanding of the links between hydrological and biogeochemical processes operating

  12. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW–SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW–NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area. (paper)

  13. TGF-β1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-κB/IL-6/MMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binker, Marcelo G.; Binker-Cosen, Andres A.; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Cosen, Rodica H. de; Cosen-Binker, Laura I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Rac1 mediates TGF-β1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. → NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-β1-challenged SW1990 cells. → TGF-β1-stimulated ROS activate NF-κB in SW1990 cells. → NFκB-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-β1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-β1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-β1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-β1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  14. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  15. Renal Insufficiency and Early Bystander CPR Predict In-Hospital Outcomes in Cardiac Arrest Patients Undergoing Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia and Cardiac Catheterization: Return of Spontaneous Circulation, Cooling, and Catheterization Registry (ROSCCC Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjala Chelvanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients are a critically ill patient population with high mortality. Combining mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH with early coronary intervention may improve outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of mortality in OHCA patients undergoing MTH with and without cardiac catheterization. Design. A retrospective cohort of OHCA patients who underwent MTH with catheterization (MTH + C and without catheterization (MTH + NC between 2006 and 2011 was analyzed at a single tertiary care centre. Predictors of in-hospital mortality and neurologic outcome were determined. Results. The study population included 176 patients who underwent MTH for OHCA. A total of 66 patients underwent cardiac catheterization (MTH + C and 110 patients did not undergo cardiac catheterization (MTH + NC. Immediate bystander CPR occurred in approximately half of the total population. In the MTH + C and MTH + NC groups, the in-hospital mortality was 48% and 78%, respectively. The only independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients with MTH + C, after multivariate analysis, was baseline renal insufficiency (OR = 8.2, 95% CI 1.8–47.1, and p = 0.009. Conclusion. Despite early cardiac catheterization, renal insufficiency and the absence of immediate CPR are potent predictors of death and poor neurologic outcome in patients with OHCA.

  16. Retraction RETRACTION of "Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene -308G>A polymorphism association with the risk of esophageal cancer in a Han Chinese population" by H. Zhao, H.W. Zhang, T. Zhang and X.M. Gu - Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15025866 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/gmr.15025866.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Zhang, H W; Zhang, T; Gu, X M

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Zhao H, Zhang HW, Zhang T and Gu XM (2016). Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene -308G>A polymorphism association with the risk of esophageal cancer in a Han Chinese population. Genet. Mol. Res. 15: gmr.15025866. Two major concerns were found in this article. Firstly, it was found to be substantially equal to the article "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene -308G > A polymorphism alters the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Han Chinese population" published in the Diagnostic Pathology Diagnostic Pathology (2014) 9: 199, by Feng et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2014 - DOI: 10.1186/s13000-014-0199-3. Secondly, the authors do not discuss limitations of their approaches in the discussion. The discussion is largely an elaboration of the literature in the introduction part. However, even in that context, the discussion does not appropriately review the literature and there are frequent references to conclusions that are not supported by the cited literature. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure. Also, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract this article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  17. Alkaline and carbonatite metasomatism of lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland- Pilchowice case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2014-05-01

    The Cenozoic basanites from Pilchowice (SW Poland) form volcanic plug located exactly at Intra- Sudetic Fault. These basanites belong to the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province and contain numerous, usually small (pfu and mg# from 0.915- 0.920 . One xenolith contains clinopyroxene with abundant spongy rims. Primary clinopyroxene is very rare and Al-enriched (mg# 0.92, 0.17 atoms of Al pfu). The spinel is Cr enriched (cr# 0.46-0.68) and is usually associated with clinopyroxene. Orthopyroxene is depleted in REE compared to primitive mantle. Orthopyroxene from majority of xenoliths are strongly LREE depleted ((La/Lu)N = 0.03-0.21). All studied peridotites contain clinopyroxene which is enriched (2 to 70 times) in REE compared to primitive mantle. Clinopyroxene patterns show relative low HREE concentration ((La/Lu)N = 4.75- 19.99), moreover patterns from three samples are convex- upward shaped with inflection point on Nd ((La/Nd)N = 0.36-0.96). Clinopyroxene- poor lithology, high cr# in spinel and LREE- depleted nature of orthopyroxene suggest that upper mantle sampled by Pilchowice basanite is a restite after partial melting. The LREE enriched composition of clinopyroxene suggest that peridotites were metasomatised. Clinopyroxene convex- upward shaped REE plots with inflection point on Nd is typical for metasomatism related with alkaline melt. On the other hand very low ratios of Ti/ Eu (24.8- 738.9) and high (La/ Yb)N (3.5- 17) ratio (Coltorti, 1999) suggest that the metasomatic agent was either a mixture of alkaline silicate melt with carbonatite or peridotite reaction with two independent agents is recorded. This study is a part of MSc thesis of the first author and was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. Coltorti, M., Bonadiman, C., Hinton, R. W., Siena, F. & Upton, B. G. J. (1999). Carbonatite metasomatism of the oceanic upper mantle: Evidence from clinopyroxenes and glasses in

  18. The reactivation of the SW Iberian passive margin: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joao; Rosas, Filipe; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter; Almeida, Pedro; Gutscher, Marc-André; Riel, Nicolas; Ribeiro, António

    2016-04-01

    On the morning of the 1st of November of 1755 a major earthquake struck offshore the Southwest Iberian margin. This was the strongest earthquake ever felt in Western Europe. The shake, fire and tsunami devastated Lisbon, was felt as far as Finland and had a profound impact on the thinkers of that time, in particular on the Enlightenment philosophers such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Kant. The Great Lisbon Earthquake is considered by many as the event that marks the birth of modern geosciences; and made of this region one of the most well studied areas in the world. After the 1755 earthquake, Kant and others authors wrote several treaties dealing with the causes and dynamics of earthquakes and tsunamis and were close to identify some key elements of what we now call plate tectonics. More than two hundred years later, in the year of 1969, the region was struck by another major earthquake. This was precisely during the period in which the theory of plate tectonics was being built. Geoscientists like Fukao (1973), Purdy (1975) and Mackenzie (1977) immediately focused their attention in the area. They suggested that these events were related with "transient" subduction of Africa below Iberia, along the East-West Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary. Several years later, Ribeiro (1989) suggested that instead of Africa being subducted below Iberia, it was the West Iberian passive margin that was being reactivated, a process that may, in time, lead to the formation of a new subduction zone. In the turning of the millennium, a subducting slab was imaged bellow the Gibraltar Straits, a remanent of the Western Mediterranean arc system that according to Gutscher et al. (2002) was related with ongoing subduction. Recently, it was proposed that a causal link between the Gibraltar subduction system and the reactivation of the SW Iberian margin might exist. In addition, the large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence is inducing compressive stresses along the West Iberian margin. The margin

  19. Structural inheritance and coastal geomorphology in SW Brittany, France: An onshore/offshore integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbault, Céline; Duperret, Anne; Le Gall, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine

    2018-04-01

    The Variscan crystalline basement exposed along the SW Brittany coast recorded extensive long-term planation processes during Mesozoic times. Detailed onshore-offshore mapping (600 km2) in the Penmarc'h-Concarneau granitic coastal area reveals a km-scale, deeply fractured submarine rocky shelf. High-resolution offshore imagery (bathymetry and seismic reflection dataset), combined to structural field investigations, on these surfaces allow us to identify a preserved network of both ductile and brittle structures. The inherited fault pattern is dominated by the N160°E-trending and long-lived Concarneau-Toulven fault zone (CTFS) that separates two distinct morphostructural blocks, and strongly influences the seaward limit of the Concarneau submarine rocky shelf, as well as the linear coastline of the Concarneau embayment. The structural imprint of the CTFS decreases progressively westwards with respect to a composite network of large-scale N50°E- and N140°E-oriented faults bounding the seaward edge of the Penmarc'h rocky shelf. The latter in turn splits into three large-scale blocks along N50°E- (La Torche Fault - LTF), N140°E- (Saint Guénolé Fault - SGF) and N160°E-trending normal faults. The morphostructural evolutionary model applied here to the Penmarc'h-Concarneau granitic coastal area resulted from the combined effects of structural Variscan inheritance and post-Variscan tectonics. Paleo-stress analysis of striated fault planes indicates three main Cenozoic tectonic events, inferred to have operated from Eocene to post-Oligocene times. The 3D-architecture of the Concarneau embayment, as a rocky shelf partially sealed with quaternary sediments, chiefly resulted from the reactivation of the CTFS during Eocene and Oligocene times. Further west, the surface of the Penmarc'h rocky shelf was tilted southeastward by the brittle reactivation of the LTF, and dissected by a horst-graben network post-Oligocene in age. The present-day morphology of the Penmarc'h and

  20. Lithofacies characteristics of diatreme deposits: Examples from a basaltic volcanic field of SW Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.; Leone, F.

    2013-04-01

    A deeply eroded diatreme field, consisting in several, decametric-sized, vertical, mainly clastic volcanic bodies of basaltic composition is described for the first time in the Variscan basement of SW Sardinia. The recognition and description of four different lithofacies in these diatremes allowed discussion of the role of the different processes which control magma eruption and conduit infilling, and making general inferences about diatremes. The studied diatremes have a cross-sectional shape from elliptical to sub-triangular, and are slightly elongated nearly parallel to the main foliation of the intruded meta-sedimentary rocks. Foliation of host rocks is locally reoriented or folded close to the contact with the diatremes, suggesting that magma possibly rose to the surface through fissures oriented nearly parallel to host rock foliation. Textural features of the volcanic bodies show many analogies with kimberlitic diatremes, despite the difference in petrography and composition. Juvenile lapilli are mainly made by ghosts of mafic phenocrysts (olivine and clinopyroxene) set in a groundmass formed by plagioclase microlites immersed in a cryptocrystalline, chlorite-rich matrix. The four lithofacies were described mainly based on the shape and physical features of the clasts and textural anisotropy: a globular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (GJLt); an angular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (AJLt); a lithic-rich, lapilli tuff facies LiRLt), and a coherent, lava-like facies (COH). All the clastic lithofacies are generally well sorted and typically lack a fine-grained matrix. Juvenile fragments are lapilli sized and from equant to oblate in axial ratio, and from rounded-globular to very angular in shape. Conversely, lithic clasts are largely variable in shape and size, and are mainly represented by basement-derived clasts. The absence of bedding, the scarcity of the coherent facies and the dominance of clast supported, structureless, volcaniclastic facies

  1. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the Capbreton canyon (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, M.; Umr 5805; Ifremer Team

    2003-04-01

    The Canyon of Capbreton extending in the Bay of Biscay (SW France) is the deepest canyon in the world. Its structure and morphology was studied using new multibeam bathymetry, acoustic imagery and high-resolution seismic data. The canyon head appears only 250 m away from the coast line and runs westward parallel to the north coast of Spain for 160 km due to structural control, then turns northward, widens and abruptly disappears in the continental rise by 3500 m water depth. Its northern margin is flat and progrades clearly westward. Conversely the southern margin is steep and progrades towards the north (i.e. towards the canyon). Down to 800 m water depth, the canyon deeply incises the continental shelf and the axial channel is meandering (sinuosity of 1.9). The canyon shows both major and minor stream beds, perched tributary valleys, nested terraces and abandoned meanders. The terraces have three morphologies: (1) flat, (2) with a raised side or (3) with a horseshoe structure. These morphologies have been interpreted as overbank deposits or nested levees (1 and 2) or as the result of meander abandon (3). Terraces of types (1) and (2) contain mainly fine deposits resulting from decantation of the top of turbulent surges that flow in the canyon. Westward (800 to 2000 m water depth) the main talweg remains sinuous (1.7). On the southern margin, several straight or slightly sinuous S-N tributary valleys are followed by alignments of pockmarks that also indicate a structural control. On the northern margin, a single large tributary valley with a sinuous central talweg, flowing from the upper Aquitaine continental slope, is interpreted as a giant slump scar due to sediment instability. This valley is bordered to the west by a topographic high with sediment waves on the external flank that might be interpreted as a sedimentary levee. The canyon recorded a recent turbidite activity. An 18 cm-thick turbidite was deposited at 650 m water depth by a turbidity current

  2. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.

    2018-01-01

    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/ r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  3. Development of soil quality along a chronosequence under natural succession in the Dragonja catchment, SW Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hall, Rutger; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural fields have been increasingly abandoned in several regions in Southern Europe. In many cases this leads to natural vegetation succession which may have a direct impact on soil quality,biodiversity and hydrological connectivity. This research aims at getting insight on the effects of natural vegetation succession on the development of soil quality in the Sub-Mediterranean Dragonja catchment in SW Slovenia. This site was chosen due to its uniform geology, geomorphology and soil types. Four different stages of vegetation succession (i.e. field, abandoned field, young forest, semi-mature forest) were selected and sampled on both north-, and south-facing slopes, resulting in 8 treatments for which 6 representative sites were sampled. Samples were analysed on OC and TN content, EC, pH, bulk density, aggregate stability and grain size distribution. To get insight on the changes in biodiversity vegetation records were made distinguishing five different plant functional groups (i.e. juveniles, grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees). Age group (i.e. stage of vegetation succession) significantly influenced the OC and TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Directly after abandonment, between age group 0 and 1, OC and TN content, aggregate stability and pH increased significantly and bulk density decreased significantly. OC content was most affected by age group and furthermore significantly correlated to TN content, aggregate stability, bulk density and pH. Regarding biodiversity, there was a significant increase in cover by trees between age group 1 and 2 and a significant decrease between age group 2 and 3. Cover by herbs decreased significantly between age group 1 and 2. The number of different trees and shrubs increased significantly between age group 0 and 1, and the number of different juveniles increased significantly between age group 2 and 3. Another factor significantly influencing the soil's quality is aspect. Although not found for each age

  4. Internal tides affect benthic community structure in an energetic submarine canyon off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Guan-Ming; Chiou, Ming-Da; Jan, Sen; Wei, Chih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Submarine canyons are major conduits of terrestrial and shelf organic matter, potentially benefiting the seafloor communities in the food-deprived deep sea; however, strong bottom currents driven by internal tides and the potentially frequent turbidity currents triggered by storm surges, river flooding, and earthquakes may negatively impact the benthos. In this study, we investigated the upper Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC), a high-sediment-yield canyon connected to a small mountain river (SMR) off southwest (SW) Taiwan. By contrasting the benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities within and outside the GPSC, we examined how food supplies and disturbance influenced the benthic community assemblages. The benthic communities in the upper GPSC were mainly a nested subset of the adjacent slope assemblages. Several meiofaunal (e.g. ostracods) and macrofaunal taxa (e.g. peracarid crustaceans and mollusks) that typically occurred on the slope were lost from the canyon. The polychaete families switched from diverse feeding guilds on the slope to motile subsurface deposit feeders dominant in the canyon. The diminishing of epibenthic peracarids and proliferation of deep burrowing polychaetes in the GPSC resulted in macrofauna occurring largely within deeper sediment horizons in the canyon than on the slope. The densities and numbers of taxa were depressed with distinct and more variable composition in the canyon than on the adjacent slope. Both the densities and numbers of taxa were negatively influenced by internal tide flushing and positively influenced by food availability; however, the internal tides also negatively influenced the food supplies. While the meiofauna and macrofauna densities were both depressed by the extreme physical conditions in the GPSC, only the macrofaunal densities increased with depth in the canyon, presumably related to increased frequency and intensity of disturbance toward the canyon head. The population densities of meiofauna, on the

  5. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  6. Modeling stem increment in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, S.; Bevilacqua, E.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common and important tree characteristics used in forest management decision-making is tree diameter-at-breast height (DBH). This paper presents results on an evaluation of two growth functions developed to model stem diameter increases in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic. The first model was developed in order to predict future DBH (FDM) at different intervals of time and the other for predicting growth, that is, periodic annual diameter increment (PADIM). Each model employed two statistical techniques for fitting model parameters: stepwise ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and mixed models. The two statistical approaches varied in how they accounted for the repeated measurements on individual trees over time, affecting standard error estimates and statistical inference of model parameters. Each approach was evaluated based on six goodness of- fit statistics, using both calibration and validation data sets. The objectives were 1) to determine the best model for predicting future tree DBH; 2) to determine the best model for predicting periodic annual diameter increment, both models using tree size, age, site index and different indices of competitive status; and 3) compare which of these two modeling approaches predicts better the future DBH. OLS provided a better fit for both of the growth functions, especially in regards to bias. Both models showed advantages and disadvantages when they were used to predict growth and future diameter. For the prediction of future diameter with FDM, accuracy of predictions were within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval. The PADIM presented negligible bias in estimating future diameter, although there was a small increase in bias as time of prediction increased. As expected, each model was the best in estimating the response variable it was developed for.. However, a closer examination of the distribution of errors showed a slight advantage of the FDM

  7. Licoricidin inhibits the growth of SW480 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Shuai [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, 209 Tongshan Road, Xuzhou 221004 (China); Tang, Shunan; Li, Kai; Li, Ziwei; Liang, Wenfei; Qiao, Xue; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Yu, Siwang, E-mail: swang_yu@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) possesses significant anti-cancer activities, but the active ingredients and underlying mechanisms have not been revealed. By screening the cytotoxic activities of 122 licorice compounds against SW480 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, we found that licoricidin (LCD) inhibited SW480 cell viability with an IC{sub 50} value of 7.2 μM. Further studies indicated that LCD significantly induced G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SW480 cells, accompanied by inhibition of cyclins/CDK1 expression and activation of caspase-dependent pro-apoptotic signaling. Meanwhile, LCD promoted autophagy in SW480 cells, and activated AMPK signaling and inhibited Akt/mTOR pathway. Overexpression of a dominant-negative AMPKα2 abolished LCD-induced inhibition of Akt/mTOR, autophagic and pro-apoptotic signaling pathways, and significantly reversed loss of cell viability, suggesting activation of AMPK is essential for the anti-cancer activity of LCD. In vivo anti-tumor experiments indicated that LCD (20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited the growth of SW480 xenografts in nude mice with an inhibitory rate of 43.5%. In addition, we obtained the glycosylated product LCDG by microbial transformation, and found that glycosylation slightly enhanced the in vivo anti-cancer activities of LCD. This study indicates that LCD could inhibit SW480 cells by inducing cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy, and is a potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent against colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Molecular mechanisms for cytotoxic activity of licoricidin (LCD) were investigated. • LCD promoted autophagy of SW480 cells through AMPK and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. • Both LCD and its glucoside showed in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activities.

  8. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM): A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Van Wert, Michael J.; Ewing, Whitney F.; Holland, Claire E.; Katterl, Rachel; Rosman, Lori; Baral, Stefan D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men. Methods and findings This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%), were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma. Conclusions With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations. PMID:29190642

  9. Hsa-miR-11181 regulates Wnt signaling pathway through targeting of APC2 transcripts in SW480 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokanehiifard, Sadat; Soltani, Bahram M

    2018-01-30

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in differentiation, morphogenesis and development. This signaling pathway is highly regulated at all levels and microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs regulating Wnt signaling. Here, we intended to investigate hsa-miR-11181 (a novel miRNA located in TrkC gene) effect on Wnt signaling pathway in SW480 cell line. TOP/FOP flash assay indicated up-regulation of Wnt signaling, following the overexpression of hsa-miR-11181, verified through RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics analysis predicted APC1, APC2 and Axin1 might be targeted by hsa-miR-11181. Then, RT-qPCR analysis indicated that APC2 and Axin1 have been significantly down-regulated following the hsa-miR-11181 overexpression. However dual luciferase assay analysis supported only APC2 3'-UTR is directly targeted by this miRNA. Then, treatment of SW480 cells with Wnt-inhibitory small molecules supported the effect of hsa-miR-11181 at the inhibitory complex level containing APC2 protein. Consistently, viability of SW480 cells overexpressing hsa-miR-11181 was significantly elevated, measured through MTT assay. Overall, these results suggest that hsa-miR-11181 may play a crucial role in Wnt signaling regulation and confirmed that APC2 3'-UTR is targeted by hsa-miR-11181 and propose the presence of its recognition sites in the promoter or coding regions of Axin1 gene. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek

    Full Text Available Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men.This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%, were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma.With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  11. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using Acinetobacter sp. SW30: optimization, characterization and its anticancer activity in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwani SA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweety A Wadhwani,1 Mahadeo Gorain,2 Pinaki Banerjee,2 Utkarsha U Shedbalkar,3 Richa Singh,1 Gopal C Kundu,2 Balu A Chopade1,4 1Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, 2Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research, National Center for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Pune, 3Department of Biochemistry, The Institute of Science, Mumbai, 4Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India Abstract: The aim of this study was to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs using cell suspension and total cell protein of Acinetobacter sp. SW30 and optimize its synthesis by studying the influence of physiological and physicochemical parameters. Also, we aimed to compare its anticancer activity with that of chemically synthesized SeNPs in breast cancer cells. Cell suspension of Acinetobacter sp. SW30 was exposed to various physiological and physicochemical conditions in the presence of sodium selenite to study their effects on the synthesis and morphology of SeNPs. Breast cancer cells (4T1, MCF-7 and noncancer cells (NIH/3T3, HEK293 were exposed to different concentrations of SeNPs. The 18 h grown culture with 2.7×109 cfu/mL could synthesize amorphous nanospheres of size 78 nm at 1.5 mM and crystalline nanorods at above 2.0 mM Na2SeO3 concentration. Polygonal-shaped SeNPs of average size 79 nm were obtained in the supernatant of 4 mg/mL of total cell protein of Acinetobacter sp. SW30. Chemical SeNPs showed more anticancer activity than SeNPs synthesized by Acinetobacter sp. SW30 (BSeNPs, but they were found to be toxic to noncancer cells also. However, BSeNPs were selective against breast cancer cells than chemical ones. Results suggest that BSeNPs are a good choice of selection as anticancer agents. Keywords: comparison, selective, 4T1, MCF7

  12. Distributions and seasonal abundances of krill eggs and larvae in the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Frederik Wolff; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Akther, Hasna

    2015-01-01

    The larval krill community (Thysanoessa spp.) was investigated along the sub-Arctic Godthåbsfjord, SW Greenland, in June 2010. In addition, the progress of krill development from egg to furcilia was studied from March to August 2010 in a fjord branching off the Godthåbsfjord. Krill spawned from...... and furcilia stages lasted 22 and 63 d, respectively. The growth rate from metanauplius to calyptopis was 0.12 d−1, while the growth rate across all developmental stages was 0.05 d−1. Mortality rates were calculated as 25% from eggs to nauplii, 48% from eggs to calyptopes and 83% from eggs to furcilia. During...

  13. Variations of soil radon and thoron concentrations in a fault zone and prospective earthquakes in SW Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Walia, V.; Chyi, L.L.; Fu, C.C.; Chen, C.-H.; Liu, T.K.; Song, S.R.; Lee, C.Y.; Lee, M.

    2005-01-01

    An automatic station for soil gas monitoring was set up on an active fault zone of SW Taiwan. After more than one year of continuous measurements, some spike-like anomalous high radon and thoron concentrations could be observed. A similar soil radon spectrum was also obtained from an independent monitoring station, which was only 100m away. These anomalous peaks usually occurred a few days or weeks before the earthquakes (M L >=4.5). This indicates that variations of both soil radon and thoron can serve as useful tools for earthquake surveillance, esp. at fault zones

  14. Checklist of recent brachiopod species collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Maria Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Twenty species belonging to 16 genera, i.e. Neoancistrocrania, Novocrania, Basiliola, Basiliolella, Ebiscothyris, Stenosarina, Kanakythyris, Xenobrochus, Terebratulina, Eucalathis, Fallax, Frenulina, Septicollarina, Campages, Annuloplatidia, and Thecidellina have been identified in the material collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific. The species Basiliolella grayi (Woodward, 1855) and Fallax neocaledonensis Laurin, 1997 are the most common in the studied collection, while Eucalathis murrayi (Davidson, 1878) is reported for the first time from the New Caledonian region. PMID:26798235

  15. Financement agricole par l’échange grains / intrants : l’impact de la NPR à Sapezal–MT entre 2004 et 2009 Financiamento agrícola através da troca de grãos por insumos: o impacto da CPR em Sapezal-MT no período de 2004–2009 Agricultural financing through grain exchange for raw materials: the impact of CPR in Sapezal-MT in the 2004-2009 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylmor Constantino Tives Dalfovo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La NPR (Note de Produit Rural apparaît comme un instrument régulé par le Gouvernement Fédéral, grâce à laquelle le producteur anticipe sa recette de production en ayant comme contrepartie la remise aux entreprises privées d’une certaine quantité venue de sa production de soja. Ce système a pris de l'ampleur pendant la spirale inflationnaire et la crise fiscale brésilienne, durant les années 1980, qui a restreint le crédit. On a cherché dans cet article, ayant comme réference des entreprises de la commune de Sapezal – MT, à décrire les coûts d’acquisition des intrants à travers deux mécanismes distincts. Le premier, le mécanisme d’achat au comptant avec les prix des intrants obtenu en Reais, et le deuxième, le mécanisme à longue échéance connu comme NPR, où les prix ont été analysés sous le système d’échange contre des paquets d’intrants. Parmi les résultats, on a eu que la principale variable responsable du succès de la NPR est la variation du prix de la denrée à la période de réalisation du contrat et de son échéance. Autre résultat important, le fait que la majorité des producteurs que cherchent la NPR à Sapezal – MT ce sont les moyens producteurs. Enfin, quant aux agents financiers, les plus grandes entreprises occupent un pourcentage élevé de participation dans l’émission de ce type de négociation rurale.A CPR (Cédula de Produto Rural surge como um instrumento regulamentado pelo Governo Federal, em que o produtor antecipa sua receita de produção tendo como contrapartida a entrega para as empresas privadas de uma quantidade estipulada da sua produção de soja. Esse sistema ganhou força através da espiral inflacionária e da crise fiscal brasileira da década de 1980, que restringiu o crédito. Buscou-se nesse artigo, através de uma abordagem nas empresas do município de Sapezal-MT, descrever os custos de aquisição dos insumos através de dois mecanismos distintos. O

  16. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  17. Gravity Field Interpretation for Major Fault Depth Detection in a Region Located SW- Qa’im / Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhah Mahmood Shakir Al-Khafaji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of Bouguer gravity anomaly data for a region located to the SW of Qa’im City within Anbar province by using 2D- mapping methods. The gravity residual field obtained graphically by subtracting the Regional Gravity values from the values of the total Bouguer anomaly. The residual gravity field processed in order to reduce noise by applying the gradient operator and 1st directional derivatives filtering. This was helpful in assigning the locations of sudden variation in Gravity values. Such variations may be produced by subsurface faults, fractures, cavities or subsurface facies lateral variations limits. A major fault was predicted to extend with the direction NE-SW. This fault is mentioned by previous studies as undefined subsurface fault depth within the sedimentary cover rocks. The results of this research that were obtained by gravity quantitative interpretation find that the depth to this major fault plane center is about 2.4 Km.

  18. Influence of salinity on prevalence of the parasite Loxothylacus panopaei in the xanthid Panopeus obesus in SW Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, S Gregory; Winstead, James T; Haynes, Lesli; Volety, Aswani K

    2006-06-23

    This study was conducted to examine the potential influence of salinity, a proxy for freshwater inflow, on the prevalence of the castrator parasite Loxothylacus panopaei on saltmarsh mud crabs Panopeus obesus on SW Florida oyster reefs. Spatial and seasonal patterns of the presence of potential host crabs and the prevalence of the parasite were assessed in the Caloosahatchee, Estero, and Faka Union estuaries. Lift nets (1 m2) containing 5 1 of oyster clusters were deployed on intertidal reefs at 3 sites along the salinity gradient of each estuary. Nets were deployed during 3 seasonally dry and 3 seasonally wet months for a period of 30 d. P. obesus densities tended to increase downstream in higher salinity waters, with crabs being absent from the upper station in the Caloosahatchee during both seasons and absent from the upper station of the Faka Union during wet months. Parasite prevalence was reduced upstream in each estuary during wet months compared to dry months, and for those estuaries that experienced higher relative levels of freshwater inflow. Furthermore, parasite prevalence was positively correlated with the mean salinity of capture of host crabs. Based on the distribution of P. obesus and the above patterns related to salinity, it appears that freshwater inflow and seasonal rains might regulate the prevalence of this parasite in SW Florida by creating spatiotemporal, low salinity refuges for its host.

  19. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on plant regeneration from callus of sea dallisgrass (paspalum vaginatum Sw.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiaoqing; She Jianming; Wang Songfeng; Zhang Xu; Liang Liufang; Dong Mingqiang; Wu Yingying

    2010-01-01

    The pellet embryonic calli of Paspalum vagiantum Sw. cv. Adalay were used for 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. In the callus subculture medium with 2, 4-D 2.0 mg /L and BAP 0.05 mg /L, calli were irradiated at the dose rate 1 Gy /min of 60 Co γ-rays. Results showed that the rate of shoot regeneration was from 94% to 85% when calli irradiated with 20 ∼ 50 Gy; the rate of shoot regeneration was from 76% to 30%, and the rate of plant regeneration was from 44.5% to 8.7% between 60 ∼ 80 Gy. By 60 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation, the rate of shoot regeneration was about 76% in the differentiation medium with BAP 2.0 mg /L, and the relative rate of plant regeneration was 44.5% in the rooting medium with NAA 0.5 mg /L. The result of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers analysis showed that the specific SRAP markers were associated with the somatic mutants. The mutation technique of 60 Co γ-rays has been established in the somatic cell of Paspalum vaginatum Sw. (authors)

  20. Induction of apoptosis by tomato using space mutation breeding in human colon cancer SW480 and HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiahui; Yang, Bin; Feng, Pan; Li, Duo; Zhu, Jiajin

    2010-03-15

    As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning the functional characteristics of tomatoes using space mutation breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-colon cancer effect of tomatoes M1 and M2 using space mutation breeding. In the present study, obvious anti-cancer activity was shown with tomato juice of M1 and M2 and their parent CK treatment in colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HT-29 in cell growth inhibition. In addition, SW480 cells were more sensitive to M1 and M2 than HT-29 cells in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, M1 and M2 induced cell cycle arrest both in G0-G1 and G2/M phases. These data suggest that consumption of tomato using space mutation breeding may provide benefits to inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, tomato production using space mutation breeding may be a good candidate for development as a dietary supplement in drug therapy for colon cancer.

  1. The significance of fructose and MSG in affecting lipid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production of Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shariffah Nurhidayah Syed Abdul; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Optimization of fermentation medium for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 was carried out. In this study, levels of fructose, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production using response surface methodology (RSM). The design contains a total of 20 runs with 6 central points replication. Cultivation was carried out in 500 mL flasks containing 100 mL nitrogen limited medium at 30°C for 96h. Sequential model sum of squares (SS) revealed that the system was adequately represented by a quadratic model (p<0.0001). ANOVA results showed that fructose and MSG as a single factor has significant positive effect on the DHA content of SW1. The estimated optimal levels of the factors were 100 g/L fructose, 8 g/L MSG and 47% sea salt. Subsequent cultivation employing the suggested values confirmed that the predicted response values were experimentally achievable and reproducible, where 8.82 g/L DHA (51.34% g/g lipid) was achieved.

  2. Determination of c{sub sw} in N{sub f}=3+1 lattice QCD with massive Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollenwerk, Felix

    2017-02-07

    In order to obtain sensible results from Lattice QCD that may be compared with experiment, extrapolation to the continuum is crucial. The well-established Symanzik improvement program systematically reduces the order of cutoff effects, allowing for better control of the aforementioned errors, as well as larger and thus more affordable lattice spacings. Applied to the Wilson fermion action, it entails the addition of the Sheikholeslami-Wohlert term with the O(a) improvement coefficient c{sub sw}. In this work, a strategy is developed for the non-perturbative determination of c{sub sw} in the theory with N{sub f}=3+1 massive sea quarks. It is embedded in a general, mass-dependent renormalization and improvement scheme, for which we lay the foundations. The improvement condition, formulated by means of the PCAC relation in the Schroedinger Functional, is imposed along a line of constant physics that is designed to be close to the physical mass of the charm quark. The aim of this rather elaborate approach is to avoid large, mass-dependent O(a{sup 2}) effects in future large volume simulations with four dynamical quark species. The numerical results are worked out using the tree-level improved Luescher-Weisz gauge action. Since the gradient flow coupling is employed in the definition of the line of constant physics, its interdependence with the topological charge in regard to critical slowing down and topology freezing is investigated in a supplemental study.

  3. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  4. Impact of sea-level rise on earthquake and landslide triggering offshore the Alentejo margin (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M. C.; Roque, C.; Luttrell, K. M.; Vázquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes and submarine landslides are recurrent and widespread manifestations of fault activity offshore SW Iberia. The present work tests the effects of sea-level rise on offshore fault systems using Coulomb stress change calculations across the Alentejo margin. Large-scale faults capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis in the region, especially NE-SW trending thrusts and WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip faults imaged at basement depths, are either blocked or unaffected by flexural effects related to sea-level changes. Large-magnitude earthquakes occurring along these structures may, therefore, be less frequent during periods of sea-level rise. In contrast, sea-level rise promotes shallow fault ruptures within the sedimentary sequence along the continental slope and upper rise within distances of failures may either increase (if triggered by shallow fault ruptures) or decrease (if triggered by deep fault ruptures) as a result of sea-level rise. Moreover, observations of slope failures affecting the area of the Sines contourite drift highlight the role of sediment properties as preconditioning factors in this region.

  5. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK19 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroma, E.; Nordbaeck, N.; Engstroem, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    In October 2012, the geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK19 was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site. The SE-NW trending, ca. 85 m long trench is located in the central part of the Olkiluoto Island next to investigation trenches OL-TK18 and OL-TK4. The lithology in investigation trench OL-TK19 is of heterogeneous character, with rock type varying from veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss to pegmatitic granite, along with portions of mica gneiss and K-feldspar porphyritic gneiss. In addition, inclusions of mica gneiss, quartz gneiss and skarn are encountered. The rocks have been subjected to a multiphase ductile deformation and the trench is situated in an area where the latest ductile deformation phase, D4 prevails. The investigation trench can be divided into three domains according to its dominant deformation phase and foliation; the eastern part of the trench is dominated by the D3 deformation phase whereas the middle and western parts are dominated by the D4 deformation phase. The S3 foliation has a more ENE-WSW oriented direction whereas the S4 is trending NE-SW. In addition to this difference in orientation, the different structural signature of these two deformation types is observed, the S3 foliation is defined by smaller scaled granitic leucosome veining whereas the S4 foliation is intensely sheared and have a schistose character. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 132 fractures were recorded. The average fracture frequency 1.53 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations, three fracture sets can be defined. The first set is vertical and NW-SE trending, second set strikes NE-SW with a moderate dip towards the SE and the third set is vertical and NE-SW trending. The median fracture length is 1.38 m and most fractures do not exceed 0.5 m in length, the longest measured fracture being 5.30 m in length. Fracture fillings are mostly

  6. Hands-Off Time for Endotracheal Intubation during CPR Is Not Altered by the Use of the C-MAC Video-Laryngoscope Compared to Conventional Direct Laryngoscopy. A Randomized Crossover Manikin Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schuerner

    Full Text Available Sufficient ventilation and oxygenation through proper airway management is essential in patients undergoing cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Although widely discussed, securing the airway using an endotracheal tube is considered the standard of care. Endotracheal intubation may be challenging and causes prolonged interruption of chest compressions. Videolaryngoscopes have been introduced to better visualize the vocal cords and accelerate intubation, which makes endotracheal intubation much safer and may contribute to intubation success. Therefore, we aimed to compare hands-off time and intubation success of direct laryngoscopy with videolaryngoscopy (C-MAC, Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany in a randomized, cross-over manikin study.Twenty-six anesthesia residents and twelve anesthesia consultants of the University Hospital Zurich were recruited through a voluntary enrolment. All participants performed endotracheal intubation using direct laryngoscopy and C-MAC in a random order during ongoing chest compressions. Participants were strictly advised to stop chest compression only if necessary.The median hands-off time was 1.9 seconds in direct laryngoscopy, compared to 3 seconds in the C-MAC group. In direct laryngoscopy 39 intubation attempts were recorded, resulting in an overall first intubation attempt success rate of 97%, compared to 38 intubation attempts and 100% overall first intubation attempt success rate in the C-MAC group.As a conclusion, the results of our manikin-study demonstrate that video laryngoscopes might not be beneficial compared to conventional, direct laryngoscopy in easily accessible airways under CPR conditions and in experienced hands. The benefits of video laryngoscopes are of course more distinct in overcoming difficult airways, as it converts a potential "blind intubation" into an intubation under visual control.

  7. Hands-Off Time for Endotracheal Intubation during CPR Is Not Altered by the Use of the C-MAC Video-Laryngoscope Compared to Conventional Direct Laryngoscopy. A Randomized Crossover Manikin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerner, Philipp; Grande, Bastian; Piegeler, Tobias; Schlaepfer, Martin; Saager, Leif; Hutcherson, Matthew T; Spahn, Donat R; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient ventilation and oxygenation through proper airway management is essential in patients undergoing cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although widely discussed, securing the airway using an endotracheal tube is considered the standard of care. Endotracheal intubation may be challenging and causes prolonged interruption of chest compressions. Videolaryngoscopes have been introduced to better visualize the vocal cords and accelerate intubation, which makes endotracheal intubation much safer and may contribute to intubation success. Therefore, we aimed to compare hands-off time and intubation success of direct laryngoscopy with videolaryngoscopy (C-MAC, Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) in a randomized, cross-over manikin study. Twenty-six anesthesia residents and twelve anesthesia consultants of the University Hospital Zurich were recruited through a voluntary enrolment. All participants performed endotracheal intubation using direct laryngoscopy and C-MAC in a random order during ongoing chest compressions. Participants were strictly advised to stop chest compression only if necessary. The median hands-off time was 1.9 seconds in direct laryngoscopy, compared to 3 seconds in the C-MAC group. In direct laryngoscopy 39 intubation attempts were recorded, resulting in an overall first intubation attempt success rate of 97%, compared to 38 intubation attempts and 100% overall first intubation attempt success rate in the C-MAC group. As a conclusion, the results of our manikin-study demonstrate that video laryngoscopes might not be beneficial compared to conventional, direct laryngoscopy in easily accessible airways under CPR conditions and in experienced hands. The benefits of video laryngoscopes are of course more distinct in overcoming difficult airways, as it converts a potential "blind intubation" into an intubation under visual control.

  8. Capillary pressure and saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in sand: High-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter measurements and capillary scaling predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Jung, Jong-Won; Kim, Tae Wook; Kim, Yongman; Dong, Wenming

    2013-08-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration, reliable predictions of CO2 storage require understanding the capillary behavior of supercritical (sc) CO2. Given the limited availability of measurements of the capillary pressure (Pc) dependence on water saturation (Sw) with scCO2 as the displacing fluid, simulations of CO2 sequestration commonly rely on modifying more familiar air/H2O and oil/H2O Pc(Sw) relations, adjusted to account for differences in interfacial tensions. In order to test such capillary scaling-based predictions, we developed a high-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter, allowing accurate Pc and Sw measurements. Drainage and imbibition processes were measured on quartz sand with scCO2-brine at pressures of 8.5 and 12.0 MPa (45°C), and air-brine at 21°C and 0.1 MPa. Drainage and rewetting at intermediate Sw levels shifted to Pc values that were from 30% to 90% lower than predicted based on interfacial tension changes. Augmenting interfacial tension-based predictions with differences in independently measured contact angles from different sources led to more similar scaled Pc(Sw) relations but still did not converge onto universal drainage and imbibition curves. Equilibrium capillary trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined for Pc = 0 during rewetting. The capillary-trapped volumes for scCO2 were significantly greater than for air. Given that the experiments were all conducted on a system with well-defined pore geometry (homogeneous sand), and that scCO2-brine interfacial tensions are fairly well constrained, we conclude that the observed deviations from scaling predictions resulted from scCO2-induced decreased wettability. Wettability alteration by scCO2 makes predicting hydraulic behavior more challenging than for less reactive fluids.

  9. C. Huang , G. Zhao , HW Zhang & YQ Chen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the host stars' birth cloud with higher abundance of Si will make the cloud ... with the metallicity distribution of nearby field F, G, or K stars which are known to .... In the early stage of planetesimal accumulation, the rate of growth of planetesimal.

  10. Novel virus influenza A (H1N1sw in South-Eastern France, April-August 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nougairède

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, the first cases of pandemic (H1N1-2009 influenza [H1N1sw] virus were detected in France. Virological surveillance was undertaken in reference laboratories of the seven French Defence Zones. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results of virological analyses performed in the Public Hospitals of Marseille during the first months of the outbreak. (i Nasal swabs were tested using rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and two RT-PCR assays. Epidemiological characteristics of the 99 first suspected cases were analyzed, including detection of influenza virus and 18 other respiratory viruses. During three months, a total of 1,815 patients were tested (including 236 patients infected H1N1sw virus and distribution in age groups and results of RIDT were analyzed. (ii 600 sera received before April 2009 and randomly selected from in-patients were tested by a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay for antibody to the novel H1N1sw virus. (iii One early (May 2009 and one late (July 2009 viral isolates were characterized by sequencing the complete hemagglutinine and neuraminidase genes. (iiii Epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of cases that occurred in July 2009 in a summer camp were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents new virological and epidemiological data regarding infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in Europe. Distribution in age groups was found to be similar to that previously reported for seasonal H1N1. The first seroprevalence data made available for a European population suggest a previous exposure of individuals over 40 years old to influenza viruses antigenically related to the pandemic (H1N1-2009 virus. Genomic analysis indicates that strains harbouring a new amino-acid pattern in the neuraminidase gene appeared secondarily and tended to supplant the first strains. Finally, in contrast with previous reports, our data support the use of RIDT for the detection of infection in

  11. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    , approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such

  12. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S.

    2002-02-01

    , approaches to within 5 km of the Olkiluoto site. The results of gravimetric surveys have indicated that the margin of the Eurajoki stock slopes westward underneath the site, but to depths in excess of 3000 m. Plate tectonic reconstructions of the Precambrian of Finland, partly based on the results of major deep seismic sounding experiments, such as the international GGT/SVEKA project (along a NE-SW transect through the Satakunta area), indicate the pelitic and psammitic migmatite belts in Satakunta represent parts of the early Proterozoic Southern Finland and Central Finland continental arcs, respectively. Collision of these arc complexes took place 1890 - 1880 Ma ago, when the rocks were deformed and metamorphosed for the first time. The highT/lowP metamorphism was caused by mafic underplating, which led to a strong increase in temperature, and recrystallisation and partial remelting of the rocks in the upper crust. The collision of the arc complexes is characterised by an intense magmatic activity, which appears as synorogenic granitoids. In the next stage, 1860 - 1810 Ma ago, mafic underplating caused a second high-temperature metamorphic event and partial melting of the sedimentary rocks in southern Finland, producing the late-orogenic potassium. granites, dated at 1840 - 1830 Ma. The Subjotnian rapakivi granites associated with mafic rocks, the Jotnian Satakunta sandstone formation and the Postjotnian diabase dykes and sills represent the cratonisation stages of the Svecofennides. Rapakivi granites and related mafic rocks were generated in an anorogenic extensional regime by partial melting of the upper mantle and lower crust. The Jotnian Satakunta sandstone is a fluvial sediment formation deposited in a deltaic environment. The development of the graben or rift valley, where the sandstone was deposited, may have begun already during the Subjotnian, ca. 1650 Ma ago. The olivine diabase dykes represent the feeding channels of Postjotnian flood basalts. However, no such

  13. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a

  14. ECONOMICAL VIABILITY OF PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. WOOD SUBMITTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmoulis Wanderley de Farias Sobrinho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the economical viability of preservative treatment of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. roundpieces treated with Osmose CCB commercial preservative applied by sap displacement method in rural property and to comparetheir costs with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated pieces costs. The treatment of Prosopisjuliflora wood demonstrated to be economically viable when compared to alternatives using the Equivalent Annual Costs (EACs, fordiscount rates of 12; 15; and 18% and expected useful life varying from 16 to 30 years, in these situations treated Prosopis juliflorawood presented smaller EAC than Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated woods for theanalyzed situations, that justifies the employment of the Prosopis juliflora treated logs as fence posts and other similar uses.

  15. Ostracoda and foraminifera as short-term tracers of environmental changes in very polluted areas: the Odiel Estuary (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, F.; Gonzalez-Regalado, M.L.; Borrego, J.; Abad, M.; Pendon, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of 17 cores collected in the Odiel Estuary (SW Spain) permits delimiting the recent evolution of this zone during the past decades and the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ostracoda and Foraminifera. In the upper estuary, the coincidence of acid waters, prolonged subaerial exposure, and coarse sediments may explain the absence or the disappearance of these microorganisms during the industrial period (1966-1985) in the major part of this area. In the lower estuary, sedimentary evolution and industrial wastes are the main factors influencing both the distribution and trends of the populations of these two groups. Finally, the main changes observed in the marine estuary are due to the sedimentary effects of the construction of two banks and the dredging of the main estuarine channel. - In a polluted estuary, the meiofaunal assemblages experience different changes even in adjacent sedimentary environments, closely related to anthropogenic and natural causes

  16. Long-term persistence of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil in the colon cancer cell line SW620

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentes, I.K., E-mail: itentes@med.duth.gr [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 6th km Alexandroupolis-Komotini (Dragana), 68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece); Schmidt, W.M. [Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Waehringer Strasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Krupitza, G. [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Steger, G.G.; Mikulits, W. [Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kortsaris, A. [Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 6th km Alexandroupolis-Komotini (Dragana), 68100 Alexandroupolis (Greece); Mader, R.M. [Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-11-15

    Treatment resistance to antineoplastic drugs represents a major clinical problem. Here, we investigated the long-term stability of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil (FU) in an in vitro colon cancer model, using four sub-clones characterised by increasing FU-resistance derived from the cell line SW620. The resistance phenotype was preserved after FU withdrawal for 15 weeks ({approx} 100 cell divisions) independent of the established level of drug resistance and of epigenetic silencing. Remarkably, resistant clones tolerated serum deprivation, adopted a CD133{sup +} CD44{sup -} phenotype, and further exhibited loss of membrane-bound E-cadherin together with predominant nuclear {beta}-catenin localisation. Thus, we provide evidence for a long-term memory of acquired drug resistance, driven by multiple cellular strategies (epithelial-mesenchymal transition and selective propagation of CD133{sup +} cells). These resistance phenomena, in turn, accentuate the malignant phenotype.

  17. Effects of taxol and ionizing radiation on cytotoxicity and prostaglandin production in KB, RPMI-2650, SW-13 and L929

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keon Il; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    The author evaluated the effects of taxol, a microtubular inhibitor, as a possible radiation sensitizer and the production of prostaglandins on three human cancer cell lines (KB, RPMI-2650 and SW-13) and one murine cell line (L929). Each cell line was divided into four groups (control, taxol only, radiation only and combination of taxol and radiation). The treatment consisted of a single irradiation of 10 Gy and graded doses (5, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 nM) of taxol for a 24-h period. The cytotoxicity of taxol alone was measured at 1 day after (1-day group) and 4 days after (4-day group) the treatment. The survival ratio of cell was analyzed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dimethyl tetrazolium bromide) test. Prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGI2) were measured in the culture medium by a radioimmunoassay. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. There was a significantly in creased cytotoxicity of KB cells in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. There was a high correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.82741, 4-day group R=0.84655). 2. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of RPMI-2650 cells treated with high concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. Also there was a high correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in 4-day group (R=0.93917). 3. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of SW-13 cell treated with high concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. However no high correlation was observed between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.46362, 4-day group R=0.65425). 4. There was a significantly increased cytotoxicity of L929 cells treated with low concentration of taxol in 4-day group than those in 1-day group. At the same time, there was a low correlation between doses of taxol and cell viability in both groups (1-day group R=0.34237, 4-day group R=0.23381). 5. In 1-day group of L929 cells, higher

  18. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK18 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, as part of Posiva Oy's site investigation programme for the development of an underground repository for nuclear waste. The E-W striking, ca. 55 m long trench is located in the central part of the Olkiluoto Island adjacent to investigation trenches OL-TK12 and OL-TK4. The trench was cleaned with a pressure washer and pressurized air. The rock types were determined macroscopically. The rock types in investigation trench OL-TK18 is of heterogeneous character, with a large variation in their composition. The rocks vary from tonalitic-granodioritic gneiss to diatexitic gneiss, with portions of K-feldspar porphyritic gneiss. Inclusions of mica gneiss and a well-preserved schollen migmatite is encountered. The trench ends in a feldspar-rich pegmatoid. The most dominant tectonic feature is D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain and associated S{sub 4} foliation. This domain and hence the S{sub 4} foliation is striking NE-SW with a moderate dip towards SE. Both ends of the trench are dominated by the earlier deformation phase, showing S{sub 3} foliation striking ENE-WSW and roughly dipping towards the S. The S{sub 3} foliation is associated with small-scaled granitic leucosome veining, while the S{sub 4} foliation have a schistose character and it is more sheared. D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain is also characterised by a sheared blastomylonitic rock having growth of roundish feldspar porphyroblasts and BTschlierens indicating high alteration of the protolith. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 117 fractures were recorded. The average fracture frequency of the trench is 2.11 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations one main set can be distinguished striking NE-SW (foliation parallel) with a moderate dip towards the SE. The median fracture trace length is 1.6 m and over half of the fractures exceed 1.5 m trace length, the longest

  19. Search for near-infrared counterparts of IRAS embedded sources in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.; Phillips, J.; Beck, K.; Thomas, H.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Wide-field near-infrared and blue band plates of the region containing the M17 giant molecular cloud complex have been blinked to locate bright near-infrared stars that may be embedded in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud. Twenty such stars coincided with the positions of IRAS point sources that appeared embedded based on color-color diagrams. Some of these stars may be the sources of the infrared luminosities. Of the 20 stars, seven were too faint to appear on the B band plate. The optical magnitudes and colors determined from the plate image diameters were measured for the other 13 coincident stars; they are most likely upper main-sequence or pre-main-sequence stars with extinctions of 7 mag. The IRAS luminosity-temperature diagram indicates that the embedded sources in M17 are more massive than those in the Orion cloud. 35 references

  20. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  1. Far-ultraviolet Bidirectional Photometry of Apollo Soil 10084: New Results from The Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, U.

    2017-12-01

    We report new measurements of the far-ultraviolet (115-180 nm) bidirectional reflectance of Apollo soil 10084 in the Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC). We find the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) to be featureless in this wavelength region, though with a small blue slope. The angular distribution of the BRDF at Ly-α and 160 nm shows that this mature mare soil, containing nanophase Fe and enriched in Ti, anisotropically scatters light in the forward direction. The phase angle dependence of the BRDF is fitted with Hapke's photometric model with an additional diffuse-directional term. Future plans include measurements of mare and highland soils of differing maturity index (Is/FeO), water ice frost and lunar soil-ice aggregates. Such measurements will help constrain the abundance and distribution of the water ice on the illuminated lunar surface and dark permanently shadowed regions of the moon, as reported by LRO-LAMP.

  2. Microseismic Monitoring of Stimulating Shale Gas Reservoir in SW China: 2. Spatial Clustering Controlled by the Preexisting Faults and Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Meng, Xiaobo; Niu, Fenglin; Tang, Youcai; Yin, Chen; Wu, Furong

    2018-02-01

    Microseismic monitoring is crucial to improving stimulation efficiency of hydraulic fracturing treatment, as well as to mitigating potential induced seismic hazard. We applied an improved matching and locating technique to the downhole microseismic data set during one treatment stage along a horizontal well within the Weiyuan shale gas play inside Sichuan Basin in SW China, resulting in 3,052 well-located microseismic events. We employed this expanded catalog to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of the microseismicity in order to constrain migration of the injected fluids and the associated dynamic processes. The microseismicity is generally characterized by two distinctly different clusters, both of which are highly correlated with the injection activity spatially and temporarily. The distant and well-confined cluster (cluster A) is featured by relatively large-magnitude events, with 40 events of M -1 or greater, whereas the cluster in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore (cluster B) includes two apparent lineations of seismicity with a NE-SW trending, consistent with the predominant orientation of natural fractures. We calculated the b-value and D-value, an index of fracture complexity, and found significant differences between the two seismicity clusters. Particularly, the distant cluster showed an extremely low b-value ( 0.47) and D-value ( 1.35). We speculate that the distant cluster is triggered by reactivation of a preexisting critically stressed fault, whereas the two lineations are induced by shear failures of optimally oriented natural fractures associated with fluid diffusion. In both cases, the spatially clustered microseismicity related to hydraulic stimulation is strongly controlled by the preexisting faults and fractures.

  3. SiRNA-mediated IGF-1R inhibition sensitizes human colon cancer SW480 cells to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, Kamal; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed A.; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Babaei, Mohammad Hosein; Arfaee, Ali Jabbary; Madani, Hossein; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Insulin like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) is well-documented to play a key role in radiation response and tumor radiosensitivity, thus offering an attractive clinic drug target to enhance tumor sensitivity to anti-cancer radiotherapy. Material and methods. Human colon carcinoma SW480 cells were transfected with the specific small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) designed to target IGF-1R mRNA. The expression of IGF-1R mRNA and its protein among the transfected and untransfected cells were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assay. The changes in cell radiosensitivity were examined by MTT assay. Results. Transfection of mammalian expression vector pkD containing IGF-1R siRNA was shown to reduce IGF-1R mRNA levels by up to 95%. ELISA assay detected a similar inhibition of IGF-1R protein levels in cells transfected with IGF-1R siRNA. SW480 cells transfected with the expression vector for siRNA significantly rendered cells more sensitive to radiation and the highest radiation enhancement ratio was 2.02 ± 0.08. Conclusion. These data provide the first evidence that specific siRNA fragment (pkD-shRNA-IGF-1R-V2) targeting human IGF-1R mRNA is able to enhance colon cancer radiosensitivity. Also results indicated that, combining IGF-1R siRNA and radiation significantly enhances antitumor efficacy compared with either modality alone

  4. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE NOVA-LIKE VARIABLE KQ MONOCEROTIS: A NEW SW SEXTANTIS STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Aaron; Sion, Edward M.; Bond, Howard E.

    2013-01-01

    New optical spectra obtained with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope and archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of the nova-like variable KQ Mon are discussed. The optical spectra reveal Balmer lines in absorption as well as He I absorption superposed on a blue continuum. The 2011 optical spectrum is similar to the KPNO 2.1 m IIDS spectrum we obtained 33 years earlier except that the Balmer and He I absorption is stronger in 2011. Far-ultraviolet IUE spectra reveal deep absorption lines due to C II, Si III, Si IV, C IV, and He II, but no P Cygni profiles indicative of wind outflow. We present the results of the first synthetic spectral analysis of the IUE archival spectra of KQ Mon with realistic optically thick, steady-state, viscous accretion-disk models with vertical structure and high-gravity photosphere models. We find that the photosphere of the white dwarf (WD) contributes very little FUV flux to the spectrum and is overwhelmed by the accretion light of a steady disk. Disk models corresponding to a WD mass of ∼0.6 M ☉ , with an accretion rate of order 10 –9 M ☉ yr –1 and disk inclinations between 60° and 75°, yield distances from the normalization in the range of 144-165 pc. KQ Mon is discussed with respect to other nova-like variables. Its spectroscopic similarity to the FUV spectra of three definite SW Sex stars suggests that it is likely a member of the SW Sex class and lends support to the possibility that the WD is magnetic.

  5. Study of influences of the first bunching cavity and injection conditions of rf SW linacs on particle transverse motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuzheng; Tong Dechun; Sun Xiang; Xu Guanghua; Zhao Zhentang

    1990-01-01

    For both medical and radiographic standing wave linear accelerators, a small beam spot diameter is always pursued. In order to minimize the size and weight of the machine and reduce the power dissipation, rf focusing is preferred to the focusing solenoid coil. Therefore, it is important to study behaviours of beam transverse motions in the rf fields for the design of SW linacs. The research shows that the transverse motion behaviours of the electron beam in the compact linac is mainly determined by the rf field distribution on the first bunching cavity and injection conditions of the beam. In this paper, a beam envelope equation is presented,the proprties of the E z , E r , H θ field distributions of various first bunching cavities of both symmetric and asymmetric are studied, and then the rf electric force and rf magnetic force exerting on the beam with a different injection time are analysed. It is demonstrated that the asymmetric first bunching cavity with a small gradient of E z (z) field will provide a larger transverse emittance. And an asymmetric cavity with a larger front aperture and a small back aperture is favourable to make a smaller gradient of E z (z) field. For both symmetric and asymmetric first bunching cavity, by adopting an appropriate negative injection angle the envelopes of the beam are all decreased obviously, the optimum injection angle being always around -3 deg. The measured result of the beam spot of a 4 MeV SW linac shows that the mentioned simulation calculation of the radial dynamics above is in good agreement with the measured result

  6. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Avşar, Ö zgü r; Schmidt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ca. 20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations (SSD

  7. B-cell translocation gene 3 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer SW480 cells via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D; Qiao, L; Lu, H; Feng, Y

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences have shown that B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3) inhibits metastasis of multiple cancer cells. However, the role of BTG3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its possible mechanism have not yet been reported. In our study, we evaluated BTG3 expression in several CRC cell lines. Then, pcDNA3.1-BTG3 was transfected into SW480 cells. We found that BTG3 was upregulated in SW480 cells after overexpression plasmid transfection. BTG3 overexpression significantly inhibited cell growth and decreased PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and Ki67 levels. BTG3 overexpression markedly downregulated Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1 levels, whereas elevated p27. Overexpression of BTG3 arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase, which was abrogated by p27 silencing. Furthermore, migration, invasion and EMT of SW480 cells were significantly suppressed by BTG3 overexpression. Further investigations showed the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We then used GSK3β specific inhibitor SB-216763 to activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation reversed the effect of BTG3 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, invasion and EMT. In conclusion, BTG3 overexpression inhibited cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest and suppressed the metastasis of SW480 cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. BTG3 may be considered as a therapeutic target in CRC treatment.

  8. A paraptosis-like cell death induced by δ-tocotrienol in human colon carcinoma SW620 cells is associated with the suppression of the Wnt signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing-Shu; Li, Da-Ming; He, Ning; Liu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Chun-Hua; Jiang, Shu-Qing; Chen, Bing-Qing; Liu, Jia-Ren

    2011-01-01

    Tocotrienol is considered a beneficial effect agent on inhibition of tumor development. In this study, we focused on the effects of δ-tocotrienol and its possible mechanism on induction of death in human colon cancer SW620 cells. δ-Tocotrienol inhibited proliferation of SW620 cell in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings showed that δ-tocotrienol effectively induced paraptosis-like death in SW620 cells, correlated with the vacuolation that may be from welling and fusion of mitochondria and/or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as caspase-3 nonactivated. However, there were no changes in apoptosis based on flow cytometry analysis. Of being noted, δ-tocotrienol reduced the expression of β-catenin and wnt-1 proteins by about 50% at the highest dose (20 μmol/L). δ-Tocotrienol also decreased cyclin D1, c-jun and MMP-7 protein levels in SW620 cells. Altogether, these data indicate that δ-tocotrienol induces paraptosis-like cell death, which is associated with the suppression of the Wnt signaling pathway. Thus, our findings may provide a novel application in treatment of human colon carcinoma.

  9. Description of the early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a defoliator of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC (Fabaceae) in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biology and early stages of Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry are described and illustrated for the first time; details of the adults also are provided. Under outbreak conditions, the species has become a serious pest of algarrobo tree (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Fabaceae) in Colombia. Al...

  10. TESTING TREE-CLASSIFIER VARIANTS AND ALTERNATE MODELING METHODOLOGIES IN THE EAST GREAT BASIN MAPPING UNIT OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT (SW REGAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested two methods for dataset generation and model construction, and three tree-classifier variants to identify the most parsimonious and thematically accurate mapping methodology for the SW ReGAP project. Competing methodologies were tested in the East Great Basin mapping un...

  11. The influence of survivin shRNA on the cell cycle and the invasion of SW480 cells of colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to understand the influence of Survivin plasmid with short hairpin RNA (shRNA on the cell cycle, invasion, and the silencing effect of Survivin gene in the SW480 cell of colorectal carcinoma. Methods A eukaryotic expression vector, PGCH1/Survivin shRNA, a segment sequence of Survivin as target, was created and transfected into colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480 by the non-lipid method. The influence on the Survivin protein was analyzed by Western blotting, while the cell cycle, cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, and invasion of the cell was analyzed by Transwell's chamber method. Results After the transfection of PGCH1/Survivin shRNA, the expression of Survivin protein in SW480 cells was dramatically decreased by 60.68%, in which the cells were stopped at G2/M phase, even though no apoptosis was detected. The number of transmembranous cells of the experimental group, negative control group, and blank control group were 14.46 ± 2.11, 25.12 ± 8.37, and 25.86 ± 7.45, respectively (P 0.05. Conclusion Survivin shRNA could significantly reduce the expression of Survivin protein and invasion of SW480 cells. Changes in cell cycle were observed, but no apoptosis was induced.

  12. Cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells induced by a plant lignan, arctigenin: evaluation of cellular DNA content using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Hee Ju; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Jho, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Minkyun; Nho, Chu Won

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin is a natural plant lignan previously shown to induce G(2)/M arrest in SW480 human colon cancer cells as well as AGS human gastric cancer cells, suggesting its use as a possible cancer chemopreventive agent. Changes in cell and nuclear size often correlate with the functionality of cancer-treating agents. Here, we report that arctigenin induces cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells. Arctigenin clearly induced the formation of giant nuclear shapes in SW480, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopic observation and quantitative determination of nuclear size. Cell and nuclear size were further assessed by flow cytometric analysis of light scattering and fluorescence pulse width after propidium iodide staining. FSC-H and FL2-W values (parameters referring to cell and nuclear size, respectively) significantly increased after arctigenin treatment; the mean values of FSC-H and FL2-W in arctigenin-treated SW480 cells were 572.6 and 275.1, respectively, whereas those of control cells were 482.0 and 220.7, respectively. Our approach may provide insights into the mechanism behind phytochemical-induced cell and nuclear enlargement as well as functional studies on cancer-treating agents.

  13. Long term rise of a free aquifer in Sahel: hydrodynamic and radioisotopic estimations (3H, 14C) of the recharge in SW Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes an hydrodynamic and geochemical survey carried out in SW Niger in order to estimate the impact of rainfall changes and deforestation on the recharge of the uppermost Cretaceous aquifer. 14 C and 3 H activities of the total dissolved inorganic carbon have been used to quantify the long-term recharge of the aquifer. (J.S.)

  14. Coupling between SW monsoon-related surface and deep ocean processes as discerned from continuous particle flux measurements and correlated satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Nair, R.R.; Schlussel, P.

    . The particle flux in the eastern Arabian Sea is as high as in the central Arabian Sea but is influenced by a weaker upwelling system along the Indian Coast. The observed interannual variability in the pattern of particle fluxes during the SW monsoons is most...

  15. The search for reliable aqueous solubility (Sw) and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) data for hydrophobic organic compounds; DDT and DDE as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontolillo, James; Eganhouse, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    The accurate determination of an organic contaminant?s physico-chemical properties is essential for predicting its environmental impact and fate. Approximately 700 publications (1944?2001) were reviewed and all known aqueous solubilities (Sw) and octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for the organochlorine pesticide, DDT, and its persistent metabolite, DDE were compiled and examined. Two problems are evident with the available database: 1) egregious errors in reporting data and references, and 2) poor data quality and/or inadequate documentation of procedures. The published literature (particularly the collative literature such as compilation articles and handbooks) is characterized by a preponderance of unnecessary data duplication. Numerous data and citation errors are also present in the literature. The percentage of original Sw and Kow data in compilations has decreased with time, and in the most recent publications (1994?97) it composes only 6?26 percent of the reported data. The variability of original DDT/DDE Sw and Kow data spans 2?4 orders of magnitude, and there is little indication that the uncertainty in these properties has declined over the last 5 decades. A criteria-based evaluation of DDT/DDE Sw and Kow data sources shows that 95?100 percent of the database literature is of poor or unevaluatable quality. The accuracy and reliability of the vast majority of the data are unknown due to inadequate documentation of the methods of determination used by the authors. [For example, estimates of precision have been reported for only 20 percent of experimental Sw data and 10 percent of experimental Kow data.] Computational methods for estimating these parameters have been increasingly substituted for direct or indirect experimental determination despite the fact that the data used for model development and validation may be of unknown reliability. Because of the prevalence of errors, the lack of methodological documentation, and unsatisfactory data

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kin