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Sample records for hvo concept validation

  1. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  2. Small Aircraft Transportation System Simulation Analysis of the HVO and ERO Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsaps, Gary D.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    investment and policy decisions related to further development and potential deployment of a small aircraft transportation system. This report primarily serves two purposes. First, it presents results attained from an initial evaluation and analysis of the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) and EnRoute Operations (ERO) concepts - both designated operational capabilities within the SATS Program s Concept of Operations (CONOPS) document. It further outlines areas of the concepts that would benefit from follow-on analyses and system engineering efforts. It is intended that these processes will aid continued maturation of the concepts and promote additional studies of their effects and influences in combination with other designated CONOPS currently under development. In essence, it establishes a baseline of data upon which subsequent analyses and studies can be built and identifies performance characteristics the concept must exhibit in order to provide, at minimum, levels of safety and usage equal to or better than the current system.

  3. Particle and NO{sub x} Emissions from a HVO-Fueled Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happonen, M.

    2012-10-15

    Concerns about oil price, the strengthening climate change and traffic related health effects are all reasons which have promoted the research of renewable fuels. One renewable fuel candidate is diesel consisting of hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO). The fuel is essentially paraffinic, has high cetane number (>80) and contains practically no oxygen, aromatics or sulphur. Furthermore, HVO fuel can be produced from various feedstocks including palm, soybean and rapeseed oils as well as animal fats. HVO has also been observed to reduce all regulated engine exhaust emissions compared to conventional diesel fuel. In this thesis, the effect of HVO fuel on engine exhaust emissions has been studied further. The thesis is roughly divided into two parts. The first part explores the emission reductions associated with the fuel and studies techniques which could be applied to achieve further emission reductions. One of the studied techniques was adjusting engine settings to better suit HVO fuel. The settings chosen for adjustments were injection pressure, injection timing, the amount of EGR and the timing of inlet valve closing (with constant inlet air mass flow, i.e. Miller timing). The engine adjustments were also successfully targeted to reduce either NO{sub x} or particulate emissions or both. The other applied emission reduction technique was the addition of oxygenate to HVO fuel. The chosen oxygenate was di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE), and tested fuel blend included 20 wt-% DNPE and 80 wt-% HVO. Thus, the oxygen content of the resulting blend was 2 wt-%. Reductions of over 25 % were observed in particulate emissions with the blend compared to pure HVO while NOx emissions altered under 5 %. On the second part of this thesis, the effect of the studied fuels on chosen surface properties of exhaust particles were studied using tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The studied surface properties were oxidizability and

  4. Reductions in particulate and NO(x) emissions by diesel engine parameter adjustments with HVO fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, Matti; Heikkilä, Juha; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-06-01

    Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel fuel is a promising biofuel candidate that can complement or substitute traditional diesel fuel in engines. It has been already reported that by changing the fuel from conventional EN590 diesel to HVO decreases exhaust emissions. However, as the fuels have certain chemical and physical differences, it is clear that the full advantage of HVO cannot be realized unless the engine is optimized for the new fuel. In this article, we studied how much exhaust emissions can be reduced by adjusting engine parameters for HVO. The results indicate that, with all the studied loads (50%, 75%, and 100%), particulate mass and NO(x) can both be reduced over 25% by engine parameter adjustments. Further, the emission reduction was even higher when the target for adjusting engine parameters was to exclusively reduce either particulates or NO(x). In addition to particulate mass, different indicators of particulate emissions were also compared. These indicators included filter smoke number (FSN), total particle number, total particle surface area, and geometric mean diameter of the emitted particle size distribution. As a result of this comparison, a linear correlation between FSN and total particulate surface area at low FSN region was found.

  5. Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-11-01

    The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits.

  6. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  7. Validation and structural analysis of the kinematics concept test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, A.; Wagner, C.; Hofer, S. I.; Stern, E.; Vaterlaus, A.

    2017-06-01

    The kinematics concept test (KCT) is a multiple-choice test designed to evaluate students' conceptual understanding of kinematics at the high school level. The test comprises 49 multiple-choice items about velocity and acceleration, which are based on seven kinematic concepts and which make use of three different representations. In the first part of this article we describe the development and the validation process of the KCT. We applied the KCT to 338 Swiss high school students who attended traditional teaching in kinematics. We analyzed the response data to provide the psychometric properties of the test. In the second part we present the results of a structural analysis of the test. An exploratory factor analysis of 664 student answers finally uncovered the seven kinematics concepts as factors. However, the analysis revealed a hierarchical structure of concepts. At the higher level, mathematical concepts group together, and then split up into physics concepts at the lower level. Furthermore, students who seem to understand a concept in one representation have difficulties transferring the concept to similar problems in another representation. Both results have implications for teaching kinematics. First, teaching mathematical concepts beforehand might be beneficial for learning kinematics. Second, instructions have to be designed to teach students the change between different representations.

  8. Development and Validation of the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardar, Erin M.; Prather, Edward E.; Brecher, Kenneth; Slater, Timothy F.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), a 26-item diagnostic test designed (1) to measure students' conceptual understanding of topics related to light and spectroscopy, and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional interventions in promoting meaningful learning gains…

  9. Development and validation of the conceptions of scientific theories test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotham, Joseph C.; Smith, Edward L.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for use with elementary and secondary teachers of science that would have the following characteristics: 1) sensitivity to alternative conceptions of particular philosophic aspects of scientific theories, and 2) applicability in inferring understanding of the tentative and revisionary conception of the nature of science. This conception, which has educational and social importance, may be a significant influence in the teaching of science as inquiry. Thus, concern with teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and their teaching served as justification for this study. The instrument, which was applied to samples of preservice elementary teachers, college philosophy of science students, and college chemistry students, consisted of items that were adapted to the contexts of particular scientific theories by prefacing them with a brief description of a theory and episodes drawn from its history. Items were written to discriminate between alternative conceptions of the following philosophic aspects of scientific theories: testing, generation, ontological implications, and choice. Evidence in support of the validity of the instrument constructs was obtained using two approaches: discrimination between contrasting groups and the multi-trait and multi-method matrix of Campbell and Fiske. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement were computed for the instrument and its subtests. Reliability data indicates that an adequate degree of accuracy may be attributed to instrument scores.

  10. Development and validation of the photoelectric effect concept inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Fatih

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to develop a multiple-choice instrument for determining students’ concepts about the photoelectric effect. To develop the instrument, 30 students taking the Modern Physics course were interviewed to determine their misconceptions about the photoelectric effect. These misconceptions were compared with the misconceptions set out in the literature so that a decision could be made to define the questions and distractors to be used in the instrument. The content validity of the inventory was achieved on the basis of the feedback received from ten experts. The inventory was administered to 295 students enrolled in the Physics Teaching and Science Teaching Departments and discrimination index, difficulty index, and point biserial coefficient values were determined for each item. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated for the whole of the test. The results of the analysis reveal that the inventory is both valid and reliable.

  11. A REVIEW ON CONCEPT OF CLEANING VALIDATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shashikant; Prashar Bharat; Kumar Satinder

    2012-01-01

    .... This article provide introduction on cleaning validation and the associated regulations, level/degree of cleaning, approaches to cleaning validation, elements of cleaning validation, validation...

  12. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend.

  13. Halal Literacy: A Concept Exploration and Measurement Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim consumers have strict commandments which guides their consumption behavior. However, Muslim individuals may have different compliance regarding the commandments. This difference in compliance may be explained by difference in halal literacy. Halal literacy is the ability to differentiate permissible (halal and forbidden (haram goods and services which came from better understanding of Islamic laws (shariah.Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of Halal Literacy as well as to develop and validate an instrument to measure Halal Literacy for Muslim consumers. Halal literacy was measured using two methods. One method using six items of five point Likert self evaluation scale and the other using fifteen true-false test questions with an option to choose doesn’t know. Proportion of correct and incorrect was used as weights in scoring to represent the difficulty of items. Scoring results were then analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA using Weighted Least Square method to test construct validity. Scores were then used to classify cases into high, moderate and low Literacy groups.Self evaluation halal literacy and switching Intentions are compared between groups using ANOVA to determine concurrent validity. Only ten out of fifteen items are considered valid using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. ANOVA showed that grouping of high, moderate and low literacy score can distinguish differences in perceived halal literacy and switching intentions between the groups. Post hoc tests and descriptive statistics revealed interesting non linear relationship between the halal literacy scores; self evaluated halal literacy and intentions to switch from products without halal labels.

  14. Cycloid psychosis: an examination of the validity of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J; Zandio, Maria

    2007-06-01

    The diagnosis of cycloid psychosis has a long tradition in European psychiatry. However, it has been poorly assimilated within the DSM IV and ICD-10 diagnostic systems. Leonhard set the basis for the current conceptualization of the disorder, and Perris and Brockington developed the first operational diagnostic criteria. However, the two conceptualizations of the disorder are not the same and differ across a number of meaningful variables. Cycloid psychosis is a useful concept in that it possesses both clinical and predictive validity. Despite the high prevalence of mood symptoms and syndromes, cycloid psychosis does not equal schizoaffective disorder. Although a substantial body of evidence suggests that cycloid psychosis differs meaningfully from typical schizophrenia, it is less clear whether it differs from major mood disorders or represents an independent nosological entity. The existence of putative subtypes is also likely, and the differentiation between affective and nonaffective subtypes has received some support.

  15. Experimental validation of the half-length Force Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Koenig, Kathleen; Cui, Lili; Fritchman, Joseph; Li, Dan; Sun, Wanyi; Fu, Zhao; Bao, Lei

    2016-12-01

    In a recent study, the 30-question Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was theoretically split into two 14-question "half-length" tests (HFCIs) covering the same set of concepts and producing mean scores that can be equated to those of the original FCI. The HFCIs require less administration time and reduce test-retest issues when different versions are used in pre-post testing. This study experimentally evaluates the practical validity and measurement uncertainty of the HFCIs with three different college student populations. Measured mean scores on each HFCI were within ˜3 % of each other at every university. Measured mean score differences between the HFCI and FCI were also within ˜3 % . These differences are less than the value of a single question on the 30-question FCI and are not statistically significant. The overall results suggest that, in conditions similar to this study, the HFCIs can be used as alternatives to the full-length FCI when total scores or score gains are the measurement goals.

  16. Validity and Responsiveness of Concept Map Assessment Scores in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Soo; Jang, Yongkyu; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Concept map assessment has been applied to many education areas to measure students' knowledge structure. However, the proper and valid use of concept map assessment has not been examined in physical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence of validity and responsiveness of the concept map assessment scores in physical…

  17. Validity and Responsiveness of Concept Map Assessment Scores in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Soo; Jang, Yongkyu; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Concept map assessment has been applied to many education areas to measure students' knowledge structure. However, the proper and valid use of concept map assessment has not been examined in physical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence of validity and responsiveness of the concept map assessment scores in physical…

  18. Development and Validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jenny L.; Price, Rebecca M.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Martinková, Patrícia; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; Modell, Harold; Wright, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We present the Homeostasis Concept Inventory (HCI), a 20-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses how well undergraduates understand this critical physiological concept. We used an iterative process to develop a set of questions based on elements in the Homeostasis Concept Framework. This process involved faculty experts and undergraduate…

  19. Use of multiple cluster analysis methods to explore the validity of a community outcomes concept map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    Concept mapping is now a commonly-used technique for articulating and evaluating programmatic outcomes. However, research regarding validity of knowledge and outcomes produced with concept mapping is sparse. The current study describes quantitative validity analyses using a concept mapping dataset. We sought to increase the validity of concept mapping evaluation results by running multiple cluster analysis methods and then using several metrics to choose from among solutions. We present four different clustering methods based on analyses using the R statistical software package: partitioning around medoids (PAM), fuzzy analysis (FANNY), agglomerative nesting (AGNES) and divisive analysis (DIANA). We then used the Dunn and Davies-Bouldin indices to assist in choosing a valid cluster solution for a concept mapping outcomes evaluation. We conclude that the validity of the outcomes map is high, based on the analyses described. Finally, we discuss areas for further concept mapping methods research.

  20. Recurrent miscarriage is a useful and valid clinical concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological, clinical and biochemical risk factors are known for recurrent miscarriage (RM), the etiology is mainly unknown. Two main hypotheses dominate: that RM is mainly caused by aneuploid conceptions and other conception errors and that the recurrence rate is explained by the co......Although epidemiological, clinical and biochemical risk factors are known for recurrent miscarriage (RM), the etiology is mainly unknown. Two main hypotheses dominate: that RM is mainly caused by aneuploid conceptions and other conception errors and that the recurrence rate is explained...

  1. [Authentic leadership. Concept and validation of the ALQ in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano, Juan A; Molero, Fernando; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the validation of the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) in a sample of more than 600 Spanish employees. This questionnaire measures four distinct but related substantive components of authentic leadership. These components are: self-awareness, relational transparency, balanced processing, and internalized moral perspective. Structural equation modeling confirmed that the Spanish version of ALQ has high reliability and predictive validity for important leadership outputs such as perceived effectiveness of leadership, followers' extra effort and satisfaction with the leader.

  2. A Historical Overview on the Concept of Validity in Language Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehraban Hamavandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview on language test validation theories, especially the Messickian view on construct validity and the way it’s been translated into practice. First, a brief historical synopsis will be set forth, followed by recent views on test validity as advanced by Messick and Kane. The review goes on to lay out the similarities and differences between various validity conceptions, and concludes with their critical evaluation.

  3. Individual differences in self-concept among smokers attempting to quit: Validation and predictive utility of measures of the smoker self-concept and abstainer self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, W G; Mermelstein, R

    1996-09-01

    We tested a theoretical model of individual differences in smoking cessation using a social-cognitive conception of the self-concept. We developed and validated measures of the smoker self-concept and the abstainer self-concept. Each scale was shown to have good internal reliability and construct validity and was distinct from other important predictive measures used in smoking research (e.g. Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, smoking rate, motivation, self-efficacy). Importantly, we demonstrated the predictive validity of the self-concept scales. The interaction of baseline measures of the smoker self-concept and abstainer self-concept predicted smoking status three months after treatment; subjects were most likely to be abstinent if they began treatment with a strong abstainer selfconcept and a weak smoker self-concept. This interaction held over and above baseline smoking rate, Fagerstrom Tolerance scores, and measures of motivation and self-efficacy to quit. The utility of social-cognitive individual difference models and potential patient-treatment matching interventions are discussed.

  4. Population Spotting Using Big Data: Validating the Human Performance Concept of Operations Analytic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0001 Population Spotting Using “ Big Data ”: Validating the Human Performance Concept of Operations Analytic Vision...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Population Spotting Using “ Big Data ”: Validating the Human Performance Concept of Operations Analytic Vision 5a. CONTRACT...STINFO COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this document for any

  5. Validation of the Psychological Research Inventory of Concepts: An Index of Research and Statistical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Chapman, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    The current set of three studies further evaluates the validity and application of the Psychological Research Inventory of Concepts (PRIC). In Study 1, we administered the PRIC to a sample of introductory psychology students and online (Mechanical Turk) participants along with measures assessing theoretically related concepts. We found evidence of…

  6. The Development and Validation of the Physical Self-Concept Scale for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

    2013-01-01

    Physical self-concept plays a central role in older adults' physical health, mental health and psychological well-being; however, little attention has been paid to the underlying dimensions of physical self-concept in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new measurement for older adults. First, a qualitative…

  7. Validating a Conceptual Framework for the Core Concept of "Cell-Cell Communication"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel; Martinkova, Patricia; McFarland, Jenny; Wright, Ann; Cliff, William; Modell, Harold; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2017-01-01

    We have created and validated a conceptual framework for the core physiology concept of "cell-cell communication." The conceptual framework is composed of 51 items arranged in a hierarchy that is, in some instances, four levels deep. We have validated it with input from faculty who teach at a wide variety of institutional types. All…

  8. A Validated Task Analysis of the Single Pilot Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Cynthia A.; Gore, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    The current day flight deck operational environment consists of a two-person Captain/First Officer crew. A concept of operations (ConOps) to reduce the commercial cockpit to a single pilot from the current two pilot crew is termed Single Pilot Operations (SPO). This concept has been under study by researchers in the Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory (FDDRL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ames (Johnson, Comerford, Lachter, Battiste, Feary, and Mogford, 2012) and researchers from Langley Research Centers (Schutte et al., 2007). Transitioning from a two pilot crew to a single pilot crew will undoubtedly require changes in operational procedures, crew coordination, use of automation, and in how the roles and responsibilities of the flight deck and ATC are conceptualized in order to maintain the high levels of safety expected of the US National Airspace System. These modifications will affect the roles and the subsequent tasks that are required of the various operators in the NextGen environment. The current report outlines the process taken to identify and document the tasks required by the crew according to a number of operational scenarios studied by the FDDRL between the years 2012-2014. A baseline task decomposition has been refined to represent the tasks consistent with a new set of entities, tasks, roles, and responsibilities being explored by the FDDRL as the move is made towards SPO. Information from Subject Matter Expert interviews, participation in FDDRL experimental design meetings, and study observation was used to populate and refine task sets that were developed as part of the SPO task analyses. The task analysis is based upon the proposed ConOps for the third FDDRL SPO study. This experiment possessed nine different entities operating in six scenarios using a variety of SPO-related automation and procedural activities required to guide safe and efficient aircraft operations. The task analysis presents the roles and

  9. Interpretation of Key Concepts in Language Testing:Validity, Validation and Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽娜

    2013-01-01

    Language testing is an important link in language teaching, in this paper, the two important criteria of language test the reliability and validity has carried on the detailed elaboration, in order to a language teacher proposition and evaluation test more scientific.

  10. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis--a valid method for developing knowledge in nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofthagen, Randi; Fagerstrøm, Lisbeth M

    2010-12-01

    In nursing science, concept development is a necessary prerequisite for meaningful basic research. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis is a method for developing knowledge in nursing science. The purpose of this article is to present Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis as a valid scientific method. A brief description of the evolutionary process, from data collection to data analysis, with the concepts' context, surrogate and related terms, antecedents, attributes, examples and consequences, is presented. The phases used in evolutionary concept analysis are illustrated with eight actual studies (1999-2009) from nursing research. The strength of the method is that it is systematic, with a focus on clear-cut phases during the analysis process, and that it can contribute to clarifying, describing and explaining concepts central to nursing science by analysing how a chosen concept has been used both within the discipline itself and other health sciences. While an interdisciplinary perspective which stresses the similarities and dissimilarities of how a concept is used in various disciplines can increase knowledge of a concept, it is important to clarify the specific with the discipline. Nursing research should focus on the unambiguous use of concepts, for which Rodgers' method constitutes a possible method. The importance of using quality criteria to determine the inclusion of material should, however, be emphasised in the continued development of the method. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Reliability and Validity of a Self-Concept Scale for Researchers in Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathus, Spencer A.; Siegel, Larry J.

    1976-01-01

    Self-concept questionnaire was shown to have high test-retest reliability, but only fair to moderate split-half (odd-even) reliability. Validity was adequate. The scale will serve as a heuristic device for family counselors who require a rapid assessment of a child's self-esteem. (Author)

  12. Validation Of The Airspace Concept Evaluation System Using Real World Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of performing a validation of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) using real world historical flight operational data. ACES inputs are generated from select real world data and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day of operations within the National Airspace System (NAS). ACES outputs are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. Preliminary results indicate that ACES produces delays and airport operational metrics similar to the real world with minor variations of delay by phase of flight. ACES is a nation-wide fast-time simulation tool developed at NASA Ames Research Center. ACES models and simulates the NAS using interacting agents representing center control, terminal flow management, airports, individual flights, and other NAS elements. These agents pass messages between one another similar to real world communications. This distributed agent based system is designed to emulate the highly unpredictable nature of the NAS, making it a suitable tool to evaluate current and envisioned airspace concepts. To ensure that ACES produces the most realistic results, the system must be validated. There is no way to validate future concepts scenarios using real world historical data, but current day scenario validations increase confidence in the validity of future scenario results. Each operational day has unique weather and traffic demand schedules. The more a simulation utilizes the unique characteristic of a specific day, the more realistic the results should be. ACES is able to simulate the full scale demand traffic necessary to perform a validation using real world data. Through direct comparison with the real world, models may continuee to be improved and unusual trends and biases may be filtered out of the system or used to normalize the results of future concept simulations.

  13. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  14. Discriminant and Incremental Validity of Self-Concept and Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined the discriminant and incremental validity of self-concept and academic self-efficacy. Study 1, which meta-analysed 64 studies comprising 74 independent samples (N = 24,773), found a strong mean correlation of 0.43 between self-concept and academic self-efficacy. The domains of self-concept and self-efficacy, and the domain…

  15. Discriminant and Incremental Validity of Self-Concept and Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined the discriminant and incremental validity of self-concept and academic self-efficacy. Study 1, which meta-analysed 64 studies comprising 74 independent samples (N = 24,773), found a strong mean correlation of 0.43 between self-concept and academic self-efficacy. The domains of self-concept and self-efficacy, and the domain…

  16. Validation of a unique concept for a low-cost, lightweight space-deployable antenna structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, R. E.; Bilyeu, G. D.; Veal, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment conducted in the framework of a NASA In-Space Technology Experiments Program based on a concept of inflatable deployable structures is described. The concept utilizes very low inflation pressure to maintain the required geometry on orbit and gravity-induced deflection of the structure precludes any meaningful ground-based demonstrations of functions performance. The experiment is aimed at validating and characterizing the mechanical functional performance of a 14-m-diameter inflatable deployable reflector antenna structure in the orbital operational environment. Results of the experiment are expected to significantly reduce the user risk associated with using large space-deployable antennas by demonstrating the functional performance of a concept that meets the criteria for low-cost, lightweight, and highly reliable space-deployable structures.

  17. Proof-of-Concept of a Networked Validation Environment for Distributed Air/Ground NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, James; Larson, Natalie; Nelson, Justin; Reed, Joshua; Suggs, Marvin; Underwood, Matthew; Papelis, Yiannis; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) must be improved to increase capacity, reduce flight delays, and minimize environmental impacts of air travel. NASA has been tasked with aiding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in NAS modernization. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology that is fundamental to realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Despite the 2020 FAA mandate requiring ADS-B Out equipage, airspace users are lacking incentives to equip with the requisite ADS-B avionics. A need exists to validate in flight tests advanced concepts of operation (ConOps) that rely on ADS-B and other data links without requiring costly equipage. A potential solution is presented in this paper. It is possible to emulate future data link capabilities using the existing in-flight Internet and reduced-cost test equipment. To establish proof-of-concept, a high-fidelity traffic operations simulation was modified to include a module that simulated Internet transmission of ADS-B messages. An advanced NASA ConOp, Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), was used to evaluate technical feasibility. A preliminary assessment of the effects of latency and dropout rate on FIM was performed. Flight hardware that would be used by proposed test environment was connected to the simulation so that data transfer from aircraft systems to test equipment could be verified. The results indicate that the FIM ConOp, and therefore, many other advanced ConOps with equal or lesser response characteristics and data requirements, can be evaluated in flight using the proposed concept.

  18. Conceptions of Learning: The Design and Validation of a Questionnaire for Trainee Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Vilanova

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers as well as trainee teachers have conceptions of teaching and learning that do not correspond to the learning theories studied within the university course programs. The predominating ideas in this paradigmatic context, which are based upon the fact that subjects understand an action scenario, posses an implicit character and differ from the notion that they are expressed explicitly most of times. The objective of this article is to introduce the adaption and validation of an instrument designed to research on the conceptions of trainee teachers of the School of Humanities as well as the School of Exact and Natural Sciences of the National University of Mar del Plata (Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata in Argentina about learning. Also, it intends to conduct a first analysis of the results obtained after it has been administered. The instrument is an adaption of a dilemma questionnaire designed by Martín, Mateos, Pérez-Echeverría, Pozo, Pecharromán, Martínez, and Villalón, which they administered to 120 students. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to determine factor analysis reliability, and consequently construct validity. The following data analysis shows the application of the interpretative theory of learning based on an epistemological conception related to critical realism.

  19. Introducing principles of validation into biochemistry and biotechnology courses: Practical concepts and a framework for active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembroke, J T

    2008-01-01

    Although undergraduate biochemistry and biotechnology courses teach the concept of accuracy and precision during practical laboratory sessions, the formal teaching of validation methodologies receives little attention. An increasing number of biochemistry and biotechnology graduates are finding work in industry in the area of industrial validation associated with biopharmaceutical, diagnostics, biomedical device, and pharmaceutical validation. We have introduced a structured introduction to validation into our undergraduate industrial biochemistry programme to illustrate the importance of validation within a framework of good manufacturing practice (GMP) and to show how validation is essential for regulatory compliance. Copyright © 2008 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - Concept Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, C. A.; Maclean, John R.; Winton, Chris; McCartney, Pat

    2011-01-01

    The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data-driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition by validating it in a broad spectrum of applications. These activities have allowed us to further refine our concepts and provide observations directed toward objectives of economy, scalability, versatility, performance, severability, maintainability, scriptability and others.

  1. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Clure, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Ralph A [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  2. Validating Proposed Learning Progressions on Force and Motion Using the Force Concept Inventory: Findings from Singapore Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the validity of 2 proposed learning progressions on the force concept when tested using items from the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This is the first study to compare students' performance with respect to learning progressions both for force and motion and for Newton's third law in parallel. It is also among the first studies…

  3. Content Validity and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Halliwick-Concept-Based Instrument "Swimming with Independent Measure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srsen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Pikl, Masa; Vrecar, Irena; Burja, Cirila; Krusec, Klavdija

    2012-01-01

    The Halliwick concept is widely used in different settings to promote joyful movement in water and swimming. To assess the swimming skills and progression of an individual swimmer, a valid and reliable measure should be used. The Halliwick-concept-based Swimming with Independent Measure (SWIM) was introduced for this purpose. We aimed to determine…

  4. Validating concepts of mental disorder: precedents from the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert

    2014-10-01

    A fundamental issue in any branch of the natural sciences is validating the basic concepts for use in that branch. In psychiatry, this issue has not yet been resolved, and indeed, the proper nature of the problem has scarcely been recognised. As a result, psychiatry (or at least those parts of the discipline which aspire to scientific status) still cannot claim to be a part of scientific medicine, or to be incorporated within the common language of the natural sciences. While this creates difficulties within the discipline, and its standing in relation to other branches of medicine, it makes it an exciting place for "frontiersmen" (and women). This is one of the key growing points in the natural science tradition. In this essay, which moves from the early history of that tradition to today's debates in scientific psychiatry, I give my views about how these fundamental issues can move towards resolution.

  5. The concept of borderline conditions: a critical comment on validity issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef

    1994-01-01

    It is pointed out that many published empirical studies on the issue of borderline conditions suffer from methodological shortcomings due to the prevailing empiricist simplification of research. Attention is drawn to the fact that the current psychiatric research in classification issues...... is dominated by an exaggerated quest for reliability at the expense of concern with validity issues. Concepts of operational criteria, polythetic-prototypic systems, and epistemic peculiarities of psychiatric, clinical typification are briefly exposed. It is suggested that future scientific progress...... in the area of personality research must take into account these general methodological considerations: repotentiate clinical-phenomenological observation, include prototypical approaches, extend studied samples with subjects drawn from the general population and import insights from personality trait...

  6. 3D dosimetric validation of motion compensation concepts in radiotherapy using an anthropomorphic dynamic lung phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P; Witte, M; Moser, T; Lang, C; Runz, A; Johnen, W; Berger, M; Biederer, J; Karger, C P

    2017-01-21

    In this study, we developed a new setup for the validation of clinical workflows in adaptive radiation therapy, which combines a dynamic ex vivo porcine lung phantom and three-dimensional (3D) polymer gel dosimetry. The phantom consists of an artificial PMMA-thorax and contains a post mortem explanted porcine lung to which arbitrary breathing patterns can be applied. A lung tumor was simulated using the PAGAT (polyacrylamide gelatin gel fabricated at atmospheric conditions) dosimetry gel, which was evaluated in three dimensions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To avoid bias by reaction with oxygen and other materials, the gel was collocated inside a BAREX(™) container. For calibration purposes, the same containers with eight gel samples were irradiated with doses from 0 to 7 Gy. To test the technical feasibility of the system, a small spherical dose distribution located completely within the gel volume was planned. Dose delivery was performed under static and dynamic conditions of the phantom with and without motion compensation by beam gating. To verify clinical target definition and motion compensation concepts, the entire gel volume was homogeneously irradiated applying adequate margins in case of the static phantom and an additional internal target volume in case of dynamically operated phantom without and with gated beam delivery. MR-evaluation of the gel samples and comparison of the resulting 3D dose distribution with the planned dose distribution revealed a good agreement for the static phantom. In case of the dynamically operated phantom without motion compensation, agreement was very poor while additional application of motion compensation techniques restored the good agreement between measured and planned dose. From these experiments it was concluded that the set up with the dynamic and anthropomorphic lung phantom together with 3D-gel dosimetry provides a valuable and versatile tool for geometrical and dosimetrical validation of motion compensated

  7. External validation of anti-Müllerian hormone based prediction of live birth in assisted conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Amani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronological age and oocyte yield are independent determinants of live birth in assisted conception. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after controlled ovarian stimulation. We have previously assessed the ability of AMH and age to independently predict live birth in an Italian assisted conception cohort. Herein we report the external validation of the nomogram in 822 UK first in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods Retrospective cohort consisting of 822 patients undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle at Glasgow Centre for Reproductive Medicine. Analyses were restricted to women aged between 25 and 42 years of age. All women had an AMH measured prior to commencing their first IVF cycle. The performance of the model was assessed; discrimination by the area under the receiver operator curve (ROCAUC and model calibration by the predicted probability versus observed probability. Results Live births occurred in 29.4% of the cohort. The observed and predicted outcomes showed no evidence of miscalibration (p = 0.188. The ROCAUC was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.68, suggesting moderate and similar discrimination to the original model. The ROCAUC for a continuous model of age and AMH was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61, 0.69, suggesting that the original categories of AMH were appropriate. Conclusions We confirm by external validation that AMH and age are independent predictors of live birth. Although the confidence intervals for each category are wide, our results support the assessment of AMH in larger cohorts with detailed baseline phenotyping for live birth prediction.

  8. 3D dosimetric validation of motion compensation concepts in radiotherapy using an anthropomorphic dynamic lung phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.; Witte, M.; Moser, T.; Lang, C.; Runz, A.; Johnen, W.; Berger, M.; Biederer, J.; Karger, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new setup for the validation of clinical workflows in adaptive radiation therapy, which combines a dynamic ex vivo porcine lung phantom and three-dimensional (3D) polymer gel dosimetry. The phantom consists of an artificial PMMA-thorax and contains a post mortem explanted porcine lung to which arbitrary breathing patterns can be applied. A lung tumor was simulated using the PAGAT (polyacrylamide gelatin gel fabricated at atmospheric conditions) dosimetry gel, which was evaluated in three dimensions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To avoid bias by reaction with oxygen and other materials, the gel was collocated inside a BAREX™ container. For calibration purposes, the same containers with eight gel samples were irradiated with doses from 0 to 7 Gy. To test the technical feasibility of the system, a small spherical dose distribution located completely within the gel volume was planned. Dose delivery was performed under static and dynamic conditions of the phantom with and without motion compensation by beam gating. To verify clinical target definition and motion compensation concepts, the entire gel volume was homogeneously irradiated applying adequate margins in case of the static phantom and an additional internal target volume in case of dynamically operated phantom without and with gated beam delivery. MR-evaluation of the gel samples and comparison of the resulting 3D dose distribution with the planned dose distribution revealed a good agreement for the static phantom. In case of the dynamically operated phantom without motion compensation, agreement was very poor while additional application of motion compensation techniques restored the good agreement between measured and planned dose. From these experiments it was concluded that the set up with the dynamic and anthropomorphic lung phantom together with 3D-gel dosimetry provides a valuable and versatile tool for geometrical and dosimetrical validation of motion compensated

  9. Modelling The Photooxidation of Toluene: New Concepts For Developing and Validating Detailed Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, V.; Jenkin, M. E.; Saunders, S.; Stanton, J.; Pilling, M. J.

    The photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons contributes significantly to the forma- tion of photochemical smog. The master chemical mechanism (MCM3) contains de- tailed mechanisms for a variety of aromatics, which represent the current understand- ing of the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of these compounds. The comparison of MCM3 simulations with smog chamber experiments have revealed large discrepan- cies, particular in the ozone concentration-time profiles, that suggests that these mech- anisms are not yet suitable for the application in atmospheric models. We will present a variety of tools that help to give a more quantitative understanding of the radical transformation and the breakdown of the carbon skeleton in the aromatic systems. The toluene mechanism is chosen as an example and the significant intermediates, which have most impact on ozone formation, are identified by sensitivity analysis. Further- more, with the aid of budget calculations, we investigate the effect of each of the major reaction channels on the global reactivity of the reaction system. The gathered infor- mation is then discussed in terms of validation concepts for detailed mechanisms with the aid of smog chamber experiments. In this way, we try to explore new concepts in which mechanism development becomes an interactive procedure between kinetic studies, chamber experiments and modelling.

  10. Construction concepts and validation of the 3D printed UST_2 modular stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queral, V.

    2015-03-01

    High accuracy, geometric complexity and thus high cost of stellarators tend to hinder the advance of stellarator research. Nowadays, new manufacturing methods might be developed for the production of small and middle-size stellarators. The methods should demonstrate advantages with respect common fabrication methods, like casting, cutting, forging and welding, for the construction of advanced highly convoluted modular stellarators. UST2 is a small modular three period quasi-isodynamic stellarator of major radius 0.26 m and plasma volume 10 litres being currently built to validate additive manufacturing (3D printing) for stellarator construction. The modular coils are wound in grooves defined on six 3D printed half period frames designed as light truss structures filled by a strong filler. A geometrically simple assembling configuration has been concocted for UST2 so as to try to lower the cost of the device while keeping the positioning accuracy of the different elements. The paper summarizes the construction and assembling concepts developed, the devised positioning methodology, the design of the coil frames and positioning elements and, an initial validation of the assembling of the components.

  11. A validated model of serum anti-mullerian hormone from conception to menopause.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Kelsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is a product of growing ovarian follicles. The concentration of AMH in blood may also reflect the non-growing follicle (NGF population, i.e. the ovarian reserve, and be of value in predicting reproductive lifespan. A full description of AMH production up to the menopause has not been previously reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By searching the published literature for AMH concentrations in healthy pre-menopausal females, and using our own data (combined n = 3,260 we have generated and robustly validated the first model of AMH concentration from conception to menopause. This model shows that 34% of the variation in AMH is due to age alone. We have shown that AMH peaks at age 24.5 years, followed by a decline to the menopause. We have also shown that there is a neonatal peak and a potential pre-pubertal peak. Our model allows us to generate normative data at all ages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data highlight key inflection points in ovarian follicle dynamics. This first validated model of circulating AMH in healthy females describes a transition period in early adulthood, after which AMH reflects the progressive loss of the NGF pool. The existence of a neonatal increase in gonadal activity is confirmed for females. An improved understanding of the relationship between circulating AMH and age will lead to more accurate assessment of ovarian reserve for the individual woman.

  12. Judgements without rules: towards a postmodern ironist concept of research validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Gary

    2006-03-01

    The past decade has seen the gradual emergence of what might be called a postmodern perspective on nursing research. However, the development of a coherent postmodern critique of the modernist position has been hampered by some misunderstandings and misrepresentations of postmodern epistemology by a number of writers, leading to a fractured and distorted view of postmodern nursing research. This paper seeks to distinguish between judgemental relativist and epistemic relativist or ironist positions, and regards the latter as offering the most coherent critique of modernist/(post)positivist nursing research. The writings of poststructuralist philosophers, including Barthes, Lyotard, Derrida, Foucault and Rorty are examined, and a number of criteria for a postmodern ironist concept of research validity or trustworthiness are suggested. Whilst these writers reject the idea of Method as a guarantee of valid research, they nevertheless believe that value judgements can and must be made, and turn to notions of ironism, différance, and the different. Ultimately, the postmodern ironist reader of the research report must make a judgement without criteria, based on her own practical wisdom or 'prudence'.

  13. Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Model - An Unified Concept for Earthquake Precursors Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, S.; Ouzounov, D.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a conception of complex multidisciplinary approach to the problem of clarification the nature of short-term earthquake precursors observed in atmosphere, atmospheric electricity and in ionosphere and magnetosphere. Our approach is based on the most fundamental principles of tectonics giving understanding that earthquake is an ultimate result of relative movement of tectonic plates and blocks of different sizes. Different kind of gases: methane, helium, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide leaking from the crust can serve as carrier gases for radon including underwater seismically active faults. Radon action on atmospheric gases is similar to the cosmic rays effects in upper layers of atmosphere: it is the air ionization and formation by ions the nucleus of water condensation. Condensation of water vapor is accompanied by the latent heat exhalation is the main cause for observing atmospheric thermal anomalies. Formation of large ion clusters changes the conductivity of boundary layer of atmosphere and parameters of the global electric circuit over the active tectonic faults. Variations of atmospheric electricity are the main source of ionospheric anomalies over seismically active areas. Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model can explain most of these events as a synergy between different ground surface, atmosphere and ionosphere processes and anomalous variations which are usually named as short-term earthquake precursors. A newly developed approach of Interdisciplinary Space-Terrestrial Framework (ISTF) can provide also a verification of these precursory processes in seismically active regions. The main outcome of this paper is the unified concept for systematic validation of different types of earthquake precursors united by physical basis in one common theory.

  14. Validating an Air Traffic Management Concept of Operation Using Statistical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuning; Davies, Misty Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Validating a concept of operation for a complex, safety-critical system (like the National Airspace System) is challenging because of the high dimensionality of the controllable parameters and the infinite number of states of the system. In this paper, we use statistical modeling techniques to explore the behavior of a conflict detection and resolution algorithm designed for the terminal airspace. These techniques predict the robustness of the system simulation to both nominal and off-nominal behaviors within the overall airspace. They also can be used to evaluate the output of the simulation against recorded airspace data. Additionally, the techniques carry with them a mathematical value of the worth of each prediction-a statistical uncertainty for any robustness estimate. Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is the process of quantitative characterization and ultimately a reduction of uncertainties in complex systems. UQ is important for understanding the influence of uncertainties on the behavior of a system and therefore is valuable for design, analysis, and verification and validation. In this paper, we apply advanced statistical modeling methodologies and techniques on an advanced air traffic management system, namely the Terminal Tactical Separation Assured Flight Environment (T-TSAFE). We show initial results for a parameter analysis and safety boundary (envelope) detection in the high-dimensional parameter space. For our boundary analysis, we developed a new sequential approach based upon the design of computer experiments, allowing us to incorporate knowledge from domain experts into our modeling and to determine the most likely boundary shapes and its parameters. We carried out the analysis on system parameters and describe an initial approach that will allow us to include time-series inputs, such as the radar track data, into the analysis

  15. Improving the Accuracy of Wind Turbine Power Curve Validation by the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, Frank; Enevoldsen, Peder B.; Paulsen, Henrik N.; Dickow, Kristoffer K.; Fiedel, Moritz; Loeven, Alex; Antoniou, Ioannis

    2016-09-01

    The measurement of the wind speed at hub height is part of the current IEC standard procedure for the power curve validation of wind turbines. The inherent assumption is thereby made that this measured hub height wind speed sufficiently represents the wind speed across the entire rotor area. It is very questionable, however, whether the hub height wind speed (HHWS) method is appropriate for rotor sizes of commercial state-of-the-art wind turbines. The rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS) concept, in which the wind velocities are measured at several different heights across the rotor area, is deemed to be better suited to represent the wind speed in power curve measurements and thus results in more accurate predictions of the annual energy production (AEP) of the turbine. The present paper compares the estimated AEP, based on HHWS power curves, of two different commercial wind turbines to the AEP that is based on REWS power curves. The REWS was determined by LiDAR measurements of the wind velocities at ten different heights across the rotor area. It is shown that a REWS power curve can, depending on the wind shear profile, result in higher, equal or lower AEP estimations compared to the AEP predicted by a HHWS power curve.

  16. Automated point-of-care testing for ABO agglutination test: proof of concept and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kenz, H; Corazza, F

    2015-07-01

    ABO-incompatible red blood cell transfusions still represent an important hazard in transfusion medicine. Therefore, some countries have introduced a systematic bedside ABO agglutination test checking that the right blood is given to the right patient. However, this strategy requires an extremely time-consuming learning programme and relies on a subjective interpretation of ABO test cards agglutination. We developed a prototype of a fully automated device performing the bedside agglutination test that could be completed by reading of a barcoded wristband. This POCT checks the ABO compatibility between the patient and the blood bag. Proof of concept and analytical validation of the prototype has been completed on 451 blood samples: 238 donor packed red blood cells, 137 consecutive unselected patients for whom a blood group determination had been ordered and on 76 patient samples selected with pathology that could possibly interfere with or impair performances of the assay. We observed 100% concordance for ABO blood groups between the POCT and the laboratory instrument. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of ABO determination with a simple POCT device eliminating manipulation and subjective interpretation responsible for transfusion errors. This device should be linked to the blood bank system allowing all cross-check of the results. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. Validity of Cyriax's concept capsular pattern for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, D.; Dekker, J.; Baar, M.E. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Lemmens, A.M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Voorn, TH.B.

    1998-01-01

    To analyse the validity of Cyriax's concept of the 'capsular pattern' in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and knee, data on 200 patients were analysed. The capsular pattern with limitations of medial rotation, flexion, and abduction, was not present in a distinct pattern in patients with

  18. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  19. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the impact of genetic testing on self-concept in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esplen, M J; Stuckless, N; Gallinger, S

    2011-01-01

    with two dimensions identified through factor analysis: stigma/vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. The scale showed excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.93), good convergent validity by a high correlation with impact of event scale (r(102) = 0.55, p self-esteem scale......Esplen MJ, Stuckless N, Gallinger S, Aronson M, Rothenmund H, Semotiuk K, Stokes J, Way C, Green J, Butler K, Petersen HV, Wong J. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the impact of genetic testing on self-concept in Lynch syndrome. A positive genetic test result may impact...... on a person's self-concept and affect quality of life. The purpose of the study was to develop a self-concept scale to measure such impact for individuals carrying mutations for a heritable colorectal cancer Lynch syndrome (LS). Two distinct phases were involved: Phase 1 generated specific colorectal self...

  20. Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2004-09-01

    The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.

  1. Development and validation of hydroacoustic monitoring concepts for the coastal German Bight (SE North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielck, Finn; Hass, H. Christian; Holler, Peter; Bartholomä, Alexander; Neumann, Andreas; Kröncke, Ingrid; Reimers, Hans-Christian; Capperucci, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    results of this project study form an important contribution to ongoing and future projects, in particular with regard to the technical configuration of the sonar systems, the workflows concerning post-processing and validation of the hydroacoustic data as well as the monitoring concepts that were worked out. However, a full automation of these workflows is not feasible. For the time being, measurements, post-processing and data evaluation still need supervision and expert knowledge.

  2. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  3. Validating the Concept of COPD Control: A Real-world Cohort Study from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibber, Anjan; Chisholm, Alison; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Alcazar, Bernardino; Price, David; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The concept of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) control has been developed to inform therapeutic decision-making. We explored the validity of a definition of COPD control in a representative population of patients with COPD in the United Kingdom. Electronic medical records and linked COPD questionnaire data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database were used to characterize control status. Patients were aged ≥40 years, with spirometry-confirmed COPD, current or ex-smokers, and continuous records throughout the study period. Control was evaluated based on COPD stability and patients' (i) clinical features or (ii) COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score over a three-month baseline period and linked to time to first exacerbation. Of 2788 eligible patients, 2511 (90%) had mild/moderate COPD and 277 (10%) had severe/very severe COPD based on Body Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exacerbations (BODEx) cut-off of 4. Within the mild/moderate cohort, 4.5% of patients were controlled at baseline according to clinical features and 21.5% according to CAT threshold of 10. Within the severe/very severe cohort, no patients were controlled at baseline according to the proposed clinical features and 8.3% were controlled according to CAT threshold of 20. Compared with uncontrolled patients, time to first exacerbation was longer for controlled patients with mild/moderate COPD but not for those with severe/very severe COPD. Lowering the BODEx threshold for severity classification to 2 increased the number of patients achieving control. CAT scores were not good predictors of the risk of future exacerbation. With the proposed definition, very few patients were defined as controlled.

  4. Whose consensus is it anyway? Scientific versus legalistic conceptions of validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.

    2012-01-01

    Paul E. Newton provides an insightful and scholarly overview of central issues in validity theory. As he notes, many of the conceptual problems in validity theory derive from the fact that the word validity has two meanings. First, it indicates whether a test measures what it purports to measure.

  5. A Historical Overview on the Concept of Validity in Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamavandy, Mehraban; Kiany, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview on language test validation theories, especially the Messickian view on construct validity and the way it's been translated into practice. First, a brief historical synopsis will be set forth, followed by recent views on test validity as advanced by Messick and Kane. The review goes on to lay out the similarities…

  6. Integration of multidimensional self-concept and core personality constructs: construct validation and relations to well-being and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Köller, Olaf; Baumert, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    Relations between multiple dimensions of self-concept, personality (Big Five), well-being, and academic outcomes (school grades, test scores, coursework selection) for a large (N=4,475) sample of German adolescents support the construct validity of a well-defined, multidimensional set of self-concept factors in relation to personality factors, and vice versa. Confirmatory factor analysis of a German adaptation of the Self Description Questionnaire III demonstrated 17 a priori, reasonably independent self-concept factors (M correlation=.14; SD=.17) that had a highly differentiated pattern of relations with the personality factors and academic outcomes. Consistent with theory and previous research, math and verbal self-concepts were negatively related to each other, and this extreme domain specificity was reflected in the systematic and substantial relations with academic criteria measures. Self-esteem, Big Five, and well-being factors explained only small amounts of variance in academic outcomes and support for their incremental validity after controlling for specific self-concept factors was weak.

  7. The Conceptions about Teamwork Questionnaire: Design, Reliability and Validity with Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…

  8. The Conceptions about Teamwork Questionnaire: Design, Reliability and Validity with Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…

  9. Validation of population-based disease simulation models: a review of concepts and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Behnam

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer simulation models are used increasingly to support public health research and policy, but questions about their quality persist. The purpose of this article is to review the principles and methods for validation of population-based disease simulation models. Methods We developed a comprehensive framework for validating population-based chronic disease simulation models and used this framework in a review of published model validation guidelines. Based on the review, we formulated a set of recommendations for gathering evidence of model credibility. Results Evidence of model credibility derives from examining: 1 the process of model development, 2 the performance of a model, and 3 the quality of decisions based on the model. Many important issues in model validation are insufficiently addressed by current guidelines. These issues include a detailed evaluation of different data sources, graphical representation of models, computer programming, model calibration, between-model comparisons, sensitivity analysis, and predictive validity. The role of external data in model validation depends on the purpose of the model (e.g., decision analysis versus prediction. More research is needed on the methods of comparing the quality of decisions based on different models. Conclusion As the role of simulation modeling in population health is increasing and models are becoming more complex, there is a need for further improvements in model validation methodology and common standards for evaluating model credibility.

  10. Conception and validation of the Behavioral Intentions Scale of Organizational Citizenship (BISOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Passos Gomes Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to construct and validate the Behavioral Intentions of Organizational Citizenship Scale (BISOC. Organizational citizenship consists of measures of voluntary behaviors, which are beneficial to organizations and are not explicit in employment contracts. To investigate the psychometric properties of BISOC, we selected 767 employees in different cities from the states of Bahia and Pernambuco (Brazil. The validation procedures adopted, which used techniques from both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory, showed that the BISOC has a unidimensional structure. From the initial set of 42 items, 35 items met the validation criteria. By presenting suitable psychometric parameters, BISOC is the first measure of organizational citizenship behaviors developed and validated to assess behavioral intentions.

  11. Fundamentals of critical analysis: the concept of validity and analysis essentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical analysis of literature is an assessment process that allows the reader to get an idea of potential error in the results of a study, errors arising either from bias or confusion. Critical analysis attempts to establish whether the study meets expected criteria or methodological conditions. There are many checklists available that are commonly used to guide this analysis, but filling out a checklist is not tantamount to critical appraisal. Internal validity is defined as the extent to which a research finding actually represents the true relationship between exposure and outcome, considering the unique conditions in which the study was carried out. Attention must be given to the inclusion and exclusion criteria that were used, on the sampling methods, on the baseline characteristics of the patients that were enrolled in the study. External validity refers to the possibility of generalizing conclusions beyond the study sample or the study population. External validity includes population validity and ecological validity. Lastly, the article covers potential threats to external validity that must be considered when analyzing a study.

  12. Predictive validity of Perceived Emotional Intelligence on nursing students' self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto Landa, José María; López-Zafra, Esther; Aguilar-Luzón, Maria del Carmen; de Ugarte, Maria Fe Salguero

    2009-10-01

    This study examines the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence, in nursing students' self-concept, controlling personality dimensions. Self-image is a cognitive component of the self that contains images of who we are, what we want to be and what we express and wish to express to others. Likewise, there is also an emotional and assessable component known as self-esteem. For a profession that requires not only technical expertise but also psychologically oriented care, knowledge about the self in nursing would be crucial to further development and growth of the profession. However, the role of emotions in the formation of nursing professionals has been scarcely studied. One hundred and thirty five undergraduates from nursing studies voluntarily participated in our study. They completed a questionnaire that comprises several scales. Our results show positive correlations between the Clarity and Emotional Repair components of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and all scales of the self-concept scale. Furthermore, we found positive relationships between the Extraversion and Accountability components of personality with almost all the scales of the self-concept and negative relationships with personality and neuroticism components of the self-concept.

  13. Perfectionism and Children's Self-Concept: Further Validation of the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Kubal, Anne E.; Preusser, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) for children measures different dimensions of perfectionism. In this study, subscales derived from the AMPS were compared with results of the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale (PHSCS) in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade students (9 to 11 years old). The AMPS dimensions accounted for significant…

  14. Perseverance time of informal carers. A new concept in dementia care. Validation and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraijo, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and aim Because of the expected increase of dementia patients in the next decades and the growing demand for formal care, an important question appears: how to predict and influence the caring possibilities of informal carers. We introduce the concept perseverance time, describedas

  15. Minuchin's psychosomatic family model revised: a concept-validation study using a multitrait-multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kog, E; Vertommen, H; Vandereycken, W

    1987-06-01

    The convergent and discriminant validity of three operationalizations of the psychosomatic family features--enmeshment, rigidity, overprotectiveness, and lack of conflict resolution, as described by Minuchin and colleagues--are tested in families that include patients with eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia. We redefined the family features as dimensions and measured them with two behavioral methods (direct observation and behavioral product) and a self-report method. The two behavioral methods showed convergent as well as discriminant validity for the intensity of intrafamilial boundaries, the degree of the family's adaptability, and the family's way of handling conflicts. The self-report method showed only convergent validity for the latter dimension and discriminant validity for none of them. Besides intrafamilial conflict, the self-report method seemed to measure other constructs. A factor analysis of the family questionnaire indeed yielded three more evaluative constructs: conflict, cohesion, and disorganization. We interpreted these findings according to two usually interwoven mechanisms: the different research context (insider/outsider evaluation) in self-report and behavioral observation, and the different level of specification (micro/global evaluation) of certain operationalizations. We draw some conclusions about the psychosomatic family model and discuss the clinical implications of our findings.

  16. Using Self-Concept Instruments with High-Ability College Students: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinn, Anne N.; Cunningham, Lindy G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the academic subscales of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire III and Neeman and Harter's Self-Perception Profile for College Students for use with high-ability college students. Participants included 100 high-ability college students and 196 average-ability college students enrolled in a…

  17. Concept, production and validation of a 3D-printed coil frame for the UST{sub 2} modular stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, V., E-mail: vicentemanuel.queral@ciemat.es

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •A construction method for stellarator modular coils is developed and validated. •3D printed truss structure filled and moulded with a material able to solidify. •The structure capability for forces in small stellarators has been estimated. •A light bare truss frame and a covered rigid double hull frame have been tested. -- Abstract: Geometric complexity of stellarators hampers a straightforward production of conceived optimised magnetic configurations. Integration of the engineering design with new fabrication methods may reduce the production cost and accelerate the production process. A fast cycle production of experimental fusion devices also might result in a faster advance in fusion plasma science. Several different stellarators could be used to test configurations for improved turbulent transport or to validate new divertor configurations. In this framework, and based on the results from the previously built UST{sub 1} stellarator, the present work try to study and validate the feasibility of 3D printing methods (additive manufacturing) for small experimental stellarators. The paper summarises the engineering development, fabrication and validation of a coil frame test sector for the UST{sub 2} stellarator. The definition of the Last Closed Flux Surface and winding surface for the test sector is based on an optimised quasi-isodynamic poloidal stellarator, modified for enhanced in-vessel remote handling manipulation and wide space for divertors. A Filled-sparse coil frame concept is developed to still keep low the cost in spite of the present expensive 3D printing materials and printers.

  18. Pratt & Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Larry A.; Hauser, Joseph E.; Mathews, Douglas C.; Topol, David A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Lan, Justin H.; Premo, John W.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed in Phase 2 of the Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) contract. The purpose of the program is to validate, through engine testing, advanced noise reduction concepts aimed at reducing engine noise up to 6 EPNdB and improving nacelle suppression by 50 percent relative to 1992 technology. Phase 1 of the program is completed and is summarized in NASA/CR-2014-218088.

  19. Validation and application of the sentinel lymph node concept in malignant vulvar tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Sicart, Sergi [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); CRC-MAR, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Puig-Tintore, Lluis M.; Lejarcegui, Jose A. [University of Barcelona, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Paredes, Pilar; Ortin, Jaime; Duch, Joan [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, Maria L. [CRC-MAR, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Munoz, Antonio [Cetir Unitat Sagrat Cor. Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Ordi, Jaume [University of Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Fuste, Pere [Hospital del Mar. Barcelona, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Barcelona (Spain); Martin, Francisco [Hospital Virgen de la Luz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cuenca (Spain); Pons, Francesca [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Inguinal lymphadenectomy, unilateral or bilateral, is widely used in cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma but has a high morbidity. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy may be used in the management of these patients. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the reliability of SLN biopsy in predicting regional lymph node status and secondly to apply this technique in the routine clinical setting. We prospectively studied 70 women with vulvar malignancies. The first 50 cases were of squamous vulvar cancer and were used to validate the SLN technique in this clinical setting (validation group). Once a satisfactory success rate had been achieved in the validation group, the SLN technique was applied to a further 20 patients with vulvar malignancies, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma (n=12) and melanomas (n=8) (application group). Dynamic and static images were acquired after the injection of 74-148 MBq of a colloidal albumin, and continued until SLN identification. Fifteen minutes before surgery, blue dye injection was administered in a similar manner to the radiocolloid. After incision, a hand-held gamma probe was used to find the SLN. In the validation group, dissection of the SLN was always followed by lymphadenectomy. In the application group, this procedure was only performed if the SLN was positive for metastases. For pathological staging, samples were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry. In the validation group, lymphoscintigraphy allowed SLN detection in 49/50 patients (98%). Blue dye detected the SLN in 40/50 patients (80%). In 16 patients (33%), the SLN showed metastases in the pathology study. All 33 patients with negative SLN had regional lymph nodes negative for metastases (negative predictive value 100%). In the application group, lymphoscintigraphy showed drainage to an SLN in 19 out of 20 patients (95%) and blue dye demonstrated a stained SLN in 17/20 patients (85%). Seven of the 19 SLN-identified nodes (37

  20. Is the Concept of Delirious Mania Valid in the Elderly? A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramudith M. Maldeniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirious mania has been well recognized in the published literature and in the clinic. Over the years there has been refinement of understanding of its clinical features, course, and treatment. The literature suggests that delirious mania should be considered in individuals who present with a constellation of sudden onset delirium, mania, and psychosis. However, delirious mania is not recognized under a formal classification system nor are there any formal guidelines for its treatment. We, as such, question if the concept of delirious mania in the elderly is valid. We present a case of an elderly man with marked features of delirium with minimal manic or psychotic features who had a previous diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. On thorough clinical assessments no identifiable cause of his delirium was found. We therefore considered his presentation to be more likely due to delirious mania. Electroconvulsive therapy was considered and offered to which he responded very well. We invite the reader to consider whether delirious mania is a valid concept in the elderly, where features of delirium may be more prominent than manic or psychotic features.

  1. The nature thickness pipe element testing method to validate the application of LBB conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilchenko, G.S.; Artemyev, V.I.; Merinov, G.N. [and others

    1997-04-01

    To validate the application of leak before break analysis to the VVER-1000 reactor, a procedure for testing a large-scale specimen on electrohydraulic machinery was developed. Steel pipe with a circular weld and stainless cladding inside was manufactured and large-scale longitudinal cross-sections were cut. The remaining parts of the weld after cut out were used to determination standard tensile mechanical properties, critical temperature of brittlness and for manufacture of compact specimens. Experimental mechanical properties of the weld are summarized.

  2. Validation of a Self-Concept Scale for Lynch Syndrome in Different Nationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Domanska, Katarina; Bendahl, Pär-Ola;

    2011-01-01

    syndrome. We compared the performance of this scale in 591 mutation carriers from Denmark, Sweden and Canada. Principal component analysis identified two sets of linked statements-the first related to feeling different, isolated and labeled, and the second to concern and worry about bowel changes....... The scale performed consistently in the three countries. Minor differences were identified, with guilt about passing on a defective gene and feelings of losing one's privacy being more pronounced among Canadians, whereas Danes more often expressed worries about cancer. Validation of the Lynch syndrome self...

  3. Modal test and analysis: Multiple tests concept for improved validation of large space structure mathematical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, B. K.; Kuo, C-P.; Glaser, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    For the structural dynamic analysis of large space structures, the technology in structural synthesis and the development of structural analysis software have increased the capability to predict the dynamic characteristics of the structural system. The various subsystems which comprise the system are represented by various displacement functions; the displacement functions are then combined to represent the total structure. Experience has indicated that even when subsystem mathematical models are verified by test, the mathematical representations of the total system are often in error because the mathematical model of the structural elements which are significant when loads are applied at the interconnection points are not adequately verified by test. A multiple test concept, based upon the Multiple Boundary Condition Test (MBCT), is presented which will increase the accuracy of the system mathematical model by improving the subsystem test and test/analysis correlation procedure.

  4. Experimental validation of concept for real-time wavelength monitoring and tracking in densely populated WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Alex; Savoie, Michel; Hua, Heng; Campbell, Scott; Nguyen, Thao

    2005-10-01

    As the telecom industry responds with technological innovations to requests for higher data rates, increased number of wavelengths at higher densities, longer transmission distances and more intelligence for next generation optical networks, new monitoring schemes based on monitoring and tracking of each wavelength need to be developed and deployed. An optical layer monitoring scheme, based on tracking key optical parameters per each wavelength, is considered to be one of enablers for the transformation of today's opaque networks to dynamic, agile future networks. Ever-tighter network monitoring and control will be required to fulfill customer Service Level Agreements (SLAs). A wavelength monitoring and tracking concept was developed as a three-step approach. It started with the identification of all critical parameters required to obtain sufficient information about each wavelength; followed by the deployment of a cost-efficient device to provide simultaneous, accurate measurements in real-time of all critical parameters; and finally, the formulation of a specification for wavelength monitoring and tracking devices for real-time, simultaneous measurements and processing the data. A prototype solution based on a commercially available integrated modular spectrometer within a testbed environment associated with the all-optical network (AON) demonstrator program was used to verify and validate the wavelength monitoring and tracking concept. The developed concept verified that it can manage tracking of 32 wavelengths within a wavelength division multiplexing network. The developed concept presented in this paper can be used inside the transparent domains of networks to detect, identify and locate signal degradations in real-time, even sometimes to recognize the cause of the failure. Aside from the reduction of operational expenses due to the elimination of the need for operators at every site and skilled field technicians to isolate and repair faults, the developed

  5. Inner Wellbeing: Concept and Validation of a New Approach to Subjective Perceptions of Wellbeing-India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah C; Gaines, Stanley O; Jha, Shreya

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual development of a multi-domain, psychosocial model of 'Inner Wellbeing' (IWB) and assesses the construct validity of the scale designed to measure it. IWB expresses what people think and feel they are able to be and do. Drawing together scholarship in wellbeing and international development it is grounded in field research in marginalised, rural communities in the global South. Results from research in India at two points in time (2011 and 2013) are reported. At Time 1 (n = 287), we were unable to confirm an eight-factor, correlated model as distinct yet interrelated domains. However, at Time 2 (n = 335), we were able to confirm a revised, seven-factor correlated model with economic confidence, agency and participation, social connections, close relationships, physical and mental health, competence and self-worth, and values and meaning (five items per domain) as distinct yet interrelated domains. In particular, at Time 2, a seven-factor, correlated model provided a significantly better fit to the data than did a one-factor model.

  6. Planetary landing-zone reconnaissance using ice-penetrating radar data: Concept validation in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Cyril; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Young, Duncan A.

    2014-11-01

    The potential for a nadir-looking radar sounder to retrieve significant surface roughness/permittivity information valuable for planetary landing site selection is demonstrated using data from an airborne survey of the Thwaites Glacier Catchment, West Antarctica using the High Capability Airborne Radar Sounder (HiCARS). The statistical method introduced by Grima et al. (2012. Icarus 220, 84-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11214-012-9916-y) for surface characterization is applied systematically along the survey flights. The coherent and incoherent components of the surface signal, along with an internally generated confidence factor, are extracted and mapped in order to show how a radar sounder can be used as both a reflectometer and a scatterometer to identify regions of low surface roughness compatible with a planetary lander. These signal components are used with a backscattering model to produce a landing risk assessment map by considering the following surface properties: Root mean square (RMS) heights, RMS slopes, roughness homogeneity/stationarity over the landing ellipse, and soil porosity. Comparing these radar-derived surface properties with simultaneously acquired nadir-looking imagery and laser-altimetry validates this method. The ability to assess all of these parameters with an ice penetrating radar expands the demonstrated capability of a principle instrument in icy planet satellite science to include statistical reconnaissance of the surface roughness to identify suitable sites for a follow-on lander mission.

  7. BEYOND INTEGRATED SYSTEM VALIDATION: USE OF A CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATOR FOR PROOF-OF-CONCEPT INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  8. Confidence scores as measures of metacognitive monitoring in primary students? (Limited) validity in predicting academic achievement and the mediating role of self-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzsche, Eva Susanne; Kröner, Stephan; Dresel, Markus; Kopp, Bärbel; Martschinke, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Stankov and Lee (2008) have shown confidence scores to have unique predictive effects on achievement criteria when the corresponding test scores are controlled. These findings suggest that confidence scores might provide valid indicators of metacognitive monitoring. However, as confidence is related to self-concept (Kröner u. Biermann, 2007), it is possible that the unique predictive effects disappear when self-concept is also controlled. This study examines whether average confidence regardi...

  9. Academic and Nonacademic Validating Agents on Latinas Mathematics and Science Self Concept A Quantitative Study Utilizing the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jennifer M.

    The purpose of this study is to inform and further the discussion of academic (i.e. teachers and school counselors) and non-academic (i.e. parents, family, friends, etc.) validating agents on Latina students' mathematics and science self-concepts. This study found a relationship between Latina students' interactions with academic and non-academic validating agents and their math and science self-concept at the K-12 level. Through the review of the literature the researcher addresses identifiable factors and strategies that inform the field of education in the areas of validation theory, family characteristics, and access to STEM fields for Latina students. The researcher used an established instrument designed, administered, and validated through the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). For purposes of this study, a categorical subset of participants who self-identified as being a Latina student was used. As a result, the total subset number in this study was N=1,882. To determine if academic and non-academic validating agents had an observable statistically significant relationship with Latina students' math and science self-concept, a series of one-way ANOVAs were calculated to compare differences in students' math and science self-concept based on academic and non-academic validating agents for the weighted sample of Latinas for the HLS:09 survey. A path analysis was also employed to assess the factors involved in Latina students' math and science self-concepts. The findings are consistent with previous research involving the influence that academic and non-academic validating agents have on the math and science self-concept of Latina students. The results indicated that students who had teachers that believed in the students, regardless of family background, social economic status or home environment influences had higher math and science self concepts than those who did not. Similarly, it was found that students who had counselors that set high

  10. FIRE, a novel concept of massive gas injection for disruption mitigation in ITER: Validation on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Laurent, F., E-mail: francois.saint-laurent@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martin, G.; Alarcon, T.; Le Luyer, A.; Pastor, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Putvinski, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vincent, B.; Bucalossi, J.; Bremond, S.; Moreau, Ph.; Nardon, E.; Reux, C. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Bursting Disc Cartridge Injector has been tested on Tore Supra. • Very high particle flux can be injected for disruption mitigation. • Direct (ballistic) penetration of gas jet into hot plasma is observed. • Radial penetration of gas jet stops at q = 2 surface and turns to poloidal propagation. • This prototype demonstrates the proof of principle of such a design. - Abstract: Disruptions in large size tokamak like ITER must be mitigated to reduce detrimental effects on the device. Massive impurity injection prior to disruption is a promising mitigation technique. Many injector designs have already been tested on nowadays tokamaks. A novel concept of injector has been designed and tested on Tore Supra. It is based on the use of high pressure cartridges sealed with a bursting disc. For firing, an electric arc is generated inside the cartridge close to the rupture disc. This initiates a shock wave which breaks the disc. Tests show that the opening is achieved in less than 400 μs. A detailed modeling of the fast injector operation is presented. One result is that the gas is expelled in about 2 ms and an outflow rate as large as 4.2 × 10{sup 25} atoms/s can be achieved at the nozzle exit (1 cm diameter). Massive neon gas injections have be performed on stable plasma to validate the concept. The gas penetration into the plasma prior to disruption is followed by a fast camera. Comparison with a ferromagnetic-valve based injector was also carried out. It is found that the velocity of the cold front penetration into the hot plasma is larger using this new injector.

  11. The FLECS expandable module concept for future space missions and an overall description on the material validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, Sandro; Guarrera, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Mario; Ferrari, Giorgio; Nebiolo, Marco; Augello, Gerlando; Bitetti, Grazia; Carnà, Emiliano; Marranzini, Andrea; Mazza, Fabio

    2006-07-01

    The future space exploration missions aim to reduce the costs associated with design, fabrication and launch for ISS, Moon and Mars modules, while simultaneously increasing the useful volume. Flexible and inflatable structures offer many advantages over conventional structures for space applications. Principal among the advantages is the ability to package these structures into small volumes for launch. Design maturation and the development of advanced materials and fabrication processes have made the concept of an inflatable module achievable in the near future. The Multipurpose Expandable Module (FLECS) Project sponsored by ASI (Italian Space Agency) whose prime contractor is Alcatel Alenia Space Italia, links the conventional and traditional technology of modules with the innovative solutions of inflatable technology. This project emphasizes on demonstrating the capability in using inflatable technology on space structures aiming to substitute the conventional modules in future manned missions. FLECS has been designed using advanced textiles and films in order to guarantee the structural reliability necessary for the deployment and packaging configurations. A non-linear structural analysis has been conducted using several numerical codes that simulate the deployed structural characteristics achieving also the damping resistance during the packaging. All the materials used for the flexible parts have been selected through a series of mechanical tests in order to validate the more appropriate ones for the mission. The multi-layer pneumatic retention bladder and the intermediate restraint layer are composed of polymer sheets, ortho-fabrics and elastomers like polyurethanes. The External protection shield is configured using several layers of impact absorption materials and also several layers of space environment (UV, IR, atomic oxygen) protection materials such as Kapton, Mylar and Nextel. The validation of the fabrics, the films and the final prototype assembly

  12. Validating a Modified Gagnean Concept-Acquisition Model: The Results of an Experimental Study Using Art-Related Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Robert J.

    This paper describes a study to determine whether students can, with appropriate instructional materials, develop and apply a knowledge of art concepts. An opening section reviews research on concept acquisition. This study utilized a concept acquisition model developed in 1970 by R. Gagne. Gagne's model proposed that concepts are learned through…

  13. Shape of the self-concept clarity change during group psychotherapy predicts the outcome: An empirical validation of the theoretical model of the self-concept change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał eStyła

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-concept clarity describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of self-concept clarity change (especially stable increase and V shape observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable self-concept clarity increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while self-concept clarity change characterized by a V shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Method: Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M=5.8 was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, Symptoms’ Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The Self-Concept Clarity Scale was also administered every two weeks during psychotherapy. Results: As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable self-concept clarity increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and V shape of self-concept clarity change. Conclusions: The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of self-concept clarity is a sign of a good treatment prognosis.

  14. TCM-1: a nonlinear dynamical computational model to simulate cellular changes in the T cell system; conceptional design and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Gerhard R F; Brandt, Michael E; Wang, Guanyu; Buja, L Maximilian

    2003-01-01

    Based upon a previously developed theory of dysregulative lymphoma pathogenesis, a computer model is designed in order to simulate cell changes occurring in disturbances of the T cell immune system and in lymphoproliferative diseases. The model is based upon the concept that factors identified as proliferation factors, differentiation factors and inhibition factors exert a network regulation upon development and function of the T cell system, and that selective disturbances of these factors may lead to hyperplastic, aplastic or neoplastic diseases. The resulting computer model (TCM-1) was validated by comparing it with data from human diseases such as acute HHV-6 (viral) infection, chronic persistent HHV-6 infection, progressive HIV1 infection and HTLV-1 infection, and comparing the simulation results with the actual cell data in the human patients. All these infections target the same T cell population (i.e. CD4 + T helper cells), yet cause different prototypical reactions (hyperplastic, aplastic, neoplastic). The described computer model, which was successfully used to simulate changes in the benign lymphoproliferative disease, Canale-Smith syndrome, will serve as the basis model for further supplementation to accommodate identified factorial influences such as by cytokines, chemokines and others.

  15. Traffic weigh-in-motion (WIM measurements and validation of the Texas perpetual pavement structural design concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F. Walubita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the State of Texas has used perpetual pavement (PP structures on its heavily trafficked highways, where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of 80 kN ESALs (equivalent single axle loads is in excess of 30 million. As a means to validate the Texas PP structural design concept and to make optimal future truck-traffic design recommendations, traffic Weigh In-Motion (WIM measurements were conducted and analyzed for two PP projects. The findings indicated that the initial 80 kN ESAL traffic design estimates for PP were comparable to the projections based on the actual measured WIM traffic data. However, underestimation of the hot mix asphalt layer dynamic moduli resulted in conservative designs for the PP structures. In addition, based on the successful use of the automated WIM data stations for traffic data collection, the paper highlights possible applications and advantages (as compared to conventional manual collection of traffic data of using detailed WIM traffic data information for future analyses of both highway operation and pavement structural design.

  16. Construction and commissioning of a hadronic test-beam calorimeter to validate the particle-flow concept at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, M.

    2007-06-15

    This thesis discusses research and development studies performed for a hadronic calorimeter concept for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The requirements for a detector for the ILC are de ned by the particle-ow concept in which the overall detector performance for jet reconstruction is optimised by reconstructing each particle individually. The calorimeter system has to have unprecedented granularity to ful l the task of shower separation. The validation of the shower models used to simulate the detector performance is mandatory for the design and optimisation of the ILC detector. The construction and operation of a highly granular test-beam system will serve as a tool for this validation. This motivates the urgent need of research and development on calorimeter prototypes. One possible realisation of the hadronic calorimeter is based on a sampling structure of steel and plastic scintillator with analogue readout, where the sensitive scintillator layers are divided into tiles. A newly developed silicon based photo-detector (SiPM) o ers the possibilities to design such a system. The SiPM is a multi-pixel avalanche photo-diode operated in Geiger mode. Due to its small dimensions it is possible to convert the light produced in the calorimeter to an electronic signal already inside the calorimeter volume. The basic developments on scintillator, tile and photo-detector studies provide the basis for prototype construction. The main part of this thesis will discuss the construction and rst commissioning of an analogue hadronic calorimeter prototype consisting of 8000 channels read out with SiPMs. The smallest calorimeter unit is the tile system including the SiPM. The production and characterisation chain of this unit is an essential step in the construction of a large scale prototype. These basic units are arranged on readout layers, which are already a multi-channel system of 200 channels. In addition, the new photo-detector requires dedicated readout

  17. The Development and Construct Validation of a Spanish Version of an Academic Self-Concept Scale for Middle School Hispanic Students from Families of Low Socioeconomic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjares, Pete C.; Michael, William B.; Rueda, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the reliability and construct validity of scores on a Spanish version of an academic self-concept measure for economically disadvantaged Hispanic middle school, English as a Second Language students. Results did not completely support five hypothesized constructs corresponding to five factor subscales on the English version. Students…

  18. The Development and Construct Validation of a Spanish Version of an Academic Self-Concept Scale for Middle School Hispanic Students from Families of Low Socioeconomic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjares, Pete C.; Michael, William B.; Rueda, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the reliability and construct validity of scores on a Spanish version of an academic self-concept measure for economically disadvantaged Hispanic middle school, English as a Second Language students. Results did not completely support five hypothesized constructs corresponding to five factor subscales on the English version. Students…

  19. [Cultural scale adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the BRCA Self-Concept Scale in women carriers at high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Vanessa; Rovira, Tatiana; Sumalla, Enric C; Darder, Esther; Iglesias, Silvia; Ochoa, Cristian; Blanco, Ignacio

    2016-02-19

    Having an inherited predisposition to cancer may have a psychological impact, and one goal of genetic counseling is to promote psychological adjustment to the new situation. Thus, in the genetic context, validated measures of adjustment are required. Given that self-concept is a good indicator of adjustment to the disease or to the risk for it, and a relevant variable in oncology, the goal of the study is to culturally adapt and validate the BRCA Self-Concept Scale. One hundred and sixty-five BRCA carriers' women answered to the questionnaire, previously adapted through a process of forward/back-translation, and to the Cancer Worry Scale (CWS) as a measure of convergent validity. Theoretical structure of BRCA Self-Concept Scale was assessed by expert judges, and submitted to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cronbach's α was calculated for each subscale (Stigma, Vulnerability and Control), and correlations with CWS were performed. Expert judges' structure and CFA do not support the original structure of the questionnaire. The respecificity model (with items 10 and 13 loading on Vulnerability factor) show a better fit: comparative fit index 0.973; Tucker-Lewis index 0.968; root mean square error of approximation 0.067. The Cronbach's α is 0.83 for Stigma, 0.84 for Vulnerability, and 0.61 for Control. Evidence of convergent validity with CWS has been obtained (Spearman's rho 0.631 for Stigma, 0.683 for Vulnerability, and -0.363 for Control; P<.001). Results support the validity of the modified Spanish BRCA Self-Concept Scale, which is a potentially useful measure for the study of psychological adjustment to high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Shape of the self-concept clarity change during group psychotherapy predicts the outcome: an empirical validation of the theoretical model of the self-concept change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styła, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of SCC change (especially stable increase and "V" shape) observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable SCC increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while SCC change characterized by a "V" shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M = 5.8) was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS), Symptoms' Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The SCCS was also administered every 2 weeks during psychotherapy. As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable SCC increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and "V" shape of SCC change. The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of SCC is a sign of a good treatment prognosis.

  1. Change in Self-Concept and Attributional Patterns of Gifted Adolescents as a Result of Consensual Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brounstein, Paul; Holahan, William

    The study attempted to chart the differences in self-concept between academically gifted and non-gifted competent seventh-graders, and also to investigate the attributional patterns associated with self-concept across four domains of activity--social and academic achievement oriented success and failure. The study attempted to measure changes in…

  2. Validation of multivariate classification methods using analytical fingerprints – concept and case study on organic feed for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, Martin; Voet, van der Hilko; Ruth, van Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate classification methods based on analytical fingerprints have found many applications in the food and feed area, but practical applications are still scarce due to a lack of a generally accepted validation procedure. This paper proposes a new approach for validation of this type of me

  3. Pratt and Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts: Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Douglas; Bock, Larry A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Dougherty, R. P.; Premo, John W.; Scharpf, Dan F.; Yu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Major airports in the world's air transportation systems face a serious problem in providing greater capacity to meet the ever increasing demands of air travel. This problem could be relieved if airports are allowed to increase their operating time, now restricted by curfews and by relaxing present limits on takeoffs and landings. The key operational issue in extending the present curfews is noise. In response to these increasing restrictive noise regulations, NASA has launched a program to validate through engine testing, noise reduction concepts and technologies that have evolved from the Advanced Subsonic Technologies (AST) Noise Reduction Program. The goal of this AST program was to develop and validate technology that reduces engine noise and improves nacelle suppression effectiveness relative to 1992 technology. Contract NAS3-97144 titled "Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts" (EVNRC) was awarded to P&W on August 12, 1997 to conduct full scale noise reduction tests in two Phases on a PW4098 engine. The following Section 1.2 provides a brief description of the overall program. The remainder of this report provides a detailed documentation of Phase I of the program.

  4. The development and construct validation of a Spanish version of an Academic Self-Concept scale for middle school Hispanic students from families of low socioeconomic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjares, P C; Michael, W B; Rueda, R

    2000-05-01

    For a sample of 305 6th, 7th and 8th grade students, of whom 95% was from economically disadvantaged Hispanic families and for whom English was their second language, evidence was sought regarding the reliability and construct validity of scores on a Spanish version of an academic self-concept measure entitled Dimensions of Self-Concept (DOSC), comprising five subscales bearing the same names as those of the five hypothesized constructs that they were intended to operationalize: Level of Aspiration, Anxiety, Academic Interest and Satisfaction, Leadership and Initiative, and Identification versus Alienation. Reliability estimates varying between .72 and .80 were judged to be reasonably satisfactory. Results from oblique factor analysis lent empirical support for the hypothesized constructs of Anxiety, Leadership and Initiative, and Identification versus Alienation. Scores associated with the subscales of Level of Aspiration and Academic Interest and Satisfaction generated a factor interpreted as a fusion of the two constructs of Level of Aspiration and Academic Interest and Satisfaction.

  5. [Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5 - concept, validity, and reliability, impact on clinical care and future research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2014-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in DSM-5 comprises the former DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and PDD-nos. The criteria for ASD in DSM-5 were considerably revised from those of ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. The present article compares the diagnostic criteria, presents studies on the validity and reliability of ASD, and discusses open questions. It ends with a clinical and research perspective.

  6. Particle Image Velocimetry Used to Qualitatively Validate Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations in an Oxygenator: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanstein, Peter C; Hesselmann, Felix; Jansen, Sebastian V; Gemsa, Jeannine; Kaufmann, Tim A; Klaas, Michael; Roggenkamp, Dorothee; Schröder, Wolfgang; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2015-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate blood flow inside the fiber bundles of oxygenators. The results are interpreted in terms of flow distribution, e.g., stagnation and shunt areas. However, experimental measurements that provide such information on the local flow between the fibers are missing. A transparent model of an oxygenator was built to perform particle image velocimetry (PIV), to perform the experimental validation. The similitude theory was used to adjust the size of the PIV model to the minimal resolution of the PIV system used (scale factor 3.3). A standard flow of 80 mL/min was simulated with CFD for the real oxygenator and the equivalent flow of 711 mL/min, according to the similitude theory, was investigated with PIV. CFD predicts the global size of stagnation and shunt areas well, but underestimates the streamline length and changes in velocities due to the meandering flow around the real fibers in the PIV model. Symmetrical CFD simulation cannot consider asymmetries in the flow, due to manufacturing-related asymmetries in the fiber bundle. PIV could be useful for validation of CFD simulations; measurement quality however must be improved for a quantitative validation of CFD results and the investigation of flow effects such as tortuosity and anisotropic flow behavior.

  7. Ferromagnetic resonance in thin films submitted to multiaxial stress state: application of the uniaxial equivalent stress concept and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, M.; Zighem, F.; Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M.; Tiusan, C.; Faurie, D.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a unique expression of the anisotropy field induced by any multiaxial stress state in a magnetic thin film and probed by ferromagnetic resonance is derived. This analytical development has been made using the uniaxial equivalent stress concept, for which correspondances between definitions given by different authors in the literature is found. The proposed model for the anisotropy field has been applied to \\text{C}{{\\text{o}}2}\\text{FeAl} thin films (25 nm) stressed both by piezoelectric actuation (non-equi-biaxial) or by bending tests (uniaxial) and measured with a broadband ferromagnetic resonance technique. The overall exprimental data can be easily plotted on a unique graph from which the magnetostriction coefficient has been estimated.

  8. From the Definition of the Consumers' Expectations to the Instrumental Validation:How to Objectivize Perceptions in Conception Products ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Crochemore; D. Nesa

    2004-01-01

    In answer to the important technological deployment, consumers express a need of physical reassuring and tangible contact. The perceived quality exceeds the role of brand image's vector by perceptions' differentiation to constitute an irrational link between objective characteristics (power engine, resistance) and subjective perceptions (facilitated hand grip, hardness of a steering wheel). The emotional expectations' controls turn out many fields. It supposed to know and understand the perceptions of its customers. Its feelings must be objectively identified and quantified to be reproduced. The touch is the most solicited sense after the sight during the exploration of a product but it still undertaken in account. After an explication of sensory data's integration to products' conception, we resume different techniques to objectivize perceptions and how to link them to consumers' preference. Then we present a new philosophy Touch design', which attest that the characterisation of the tactile feeling transmitted by a product is an important challenge. At least, we insist on the necessary coordination between design and technical engineering leading to the development of sensory communication tools and sensory-instrumental correlations.

  9. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to multiple sclerosis patients’ decisions on disease modifying therapy – questionnaire concept and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Jürgen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients making important medical decisions need to evaluate complex information in the light of their own beliefs, attitudes and priorities. The process can be considered in terms of the theory of planned behaviour. Decision support technologies aim at helping patients making informed treatment choices. Instruments assessing informed choices need to include risk knowledge, attitude (towards therapy and actual uptake. However, mechanisms by which decision support achieves its goals are poorly understood. Our aim was therefore to develop and validate an instrument modeling the process of multiple sclerosis (MS patients’ decision making about whether to undergo disease modifying (immuno-therapies (DMT. Methods We constructed a 30-item patient administered questionnaire to access the elaboration of decisions about DMT in MS according to the theory of planned behaviour. MS-patients’ belief composites regarding immunotherapy were classified according to the domains “attitude”, “subjective social norm” and “control beliefs” and within each domain to either “expectations” or “values” yielding 6 sub-domains. A randomized controlled trial (n = 192 evaluating an evidence based educational intervention tested the instrument’s predictive power regarding intention to use immunotherapy and its sensitivity to the intervention. Results The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were satisfactory (mean item difficulty 62, mean SD 0.9, range 0–3. Responses explain up to 68% of the variability in the intention to use DMT was explained by up to 68% in the total sample. Four weeks after an educational intervention, predictive power was higher in the intervention (IG compared to the control group (CG (intention estimate: CG 56% / IG 69%, p = .179; three domains CG 56% / IG 74%, p = .047; six sub-domains CG 64% / IG 78%, p = .073. The IG held more critical beliefs towards immunotherapy (p = .002

  10. A strategy for validating a concept model for radionuclide migration in the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Earth and Environmental Sciences Div., Los Alamos (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model for radionuclide migration in the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain is presented. The available hydrologic data from the site is compiled to present a qualitative picture of transport of radionuclides horizontally within the first 100-200 m of the saturated zone. The transport model consists of flow within fractures and interchange of dissolved species between the fractures and surrounding matrix blocks via molecular diffusion. A parametric study illustrates that at the groundwater conditions expected to exist in the saturated zone, radionuclide will have ample time to diffuse fully within the matrix blocks. The result is a predicted solute transport time several orders of magnitude greater than the groundwater travel time (GWTT). To validate this model, a suite of interwell tracer tests are proposed at various flow rates and with conservative and sorbing species. Numerical simulations show that these tests will allow us to discriminate between a matrix diffusion model and a more conventional continuum transport model. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 35 refs.

  11. A simulation framework for pre-clinical studies on dose and image quality: concept and first validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smans, Kristien; Pauwels, Herman; Rogge, Frank; Struelens, Lara; Dragusin, Octavian; Vanhavere, Filip; Bosmans, Hilde

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to set-up and validate a simulation framework for dose and image quality optimization studies. In a first phase we have evaluated whether CDRAD images as obtained with computed radiography plates could be simulated. Material and Methods: The Monte Carlo method is a numerical method that can be used to simulate radiation transport. It is in diagnostic radiology often used in dosimetry, but in present study it is used to simulate X-ray images. With the Monte Carlo software, MCNPX, the successive steps in the imaging chain were simulated: the X-ray beam, the attenuation and scatter process in a test object and image generation by an ideal detector. Those simulated images were further modified for specific properties of CR imaging systems. The signal-transfer-properties were used to convert the simulated images into the proper grey scale. To account for resolution properties the simulated images were convolved with the point spread function of the CR systems. In a last phase, noise, based on noise power spectrum (NPS) measurements, was added to the image. In this study, we simulated X-ray images of the CDRAD contrast-detail phantom. Those simulated images, modified for the CR-system, were compared with real X-ray images of the CDRAD phantom. All images were scored by computer readings. Results: First results confirm that realistic CDRAD images can be simulated and that reading results of series of simulated and real images have the same tendency. The simulations also show that white noise has a large influence on image quality and CDRAD analyses.

  12. SU-C-207-01: Four-Dimensional Inverse Geometry Computed Tomography: Concept and Its Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K; Kim, D; Kim, T; Kang, S; Cho, M; Shin, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In past few years, the inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) system has been developed to overcome shortcomings of a conventional computed tomography (CT) system such as scatter problem induced from large detector size and cone-beam artifact. In this study, we intend to present a concept of a four-dimensional (4D) IGCT system that has positive aspects above all with temporal resolution for dynamic studies and reduction of motion artifact. Methods: Contrary to conventional CT system, projection data at a certain angle in IGCT was a group of fractionated narrow cone-beam projection data, projection group (PG), acquired from multi-source array which have extremely short time gap of sequential operation between each of sources. At this, for 4D IGCT imaging, time-related data acquisition parameters were determined by combining multi-source scanning time for collecting one PG with conventional 4D CBCT data acquisition sequence. Over a gantry rotation, acquired PGs from multi-source array were tagged time and angle for 4D image reconstruction. Acquired PGs were sorted into 10 phase and image reconstructions were independently performed at each phase. Image reconstruction algorithm based upon filtered-backprojection was used in this study. Results: The 4D IGCT had uniform image without cone-beam artifact on the contrary to 4D CBCT image. In addition, the 4D IGCT images of each phase had no significant artifact induced from motion compared with 3D CT. Conclusion: The 4D IGCT image seems to give relatively accurate dynamic information of patient anatomy based on the results were more endurable than 3D CT about motion artifact. From this, it will be useful for dynamic study and respiratory-correlated radiation therapy. This work was supported by the Industrial R&D program of MOTIE/KEIT [10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI guided tumor tracking] and the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2A1A

  13. Measuring self-concept of one’s own ability with experiment-based behaviour assessment: towards the construct validity of three scoring variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Frebort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept of one’s ability is an important construct influencing academic performance (Elliot & Dweck, 2005. The present study deals with the self-concept of one’s domain-specific prior knowledge in Psychology. Here, it is measured indirectly through WITE-Psychology (Frebort, unpublished, a knowledge test that measures Psychology student applicants’ Psychology knowledge. To measure self-concept of one’s domain-specific prior knowledge in Psychology, Wagner-Menghin’s (2004 scoring variant was used. However, this scoring variant entailed certain problems such as disadvantaging able testees under some testing conditions and reducing to the overestimation aspect while neglecting underestimation. The present study suggests two new scoring variants (“alternative tendency” score; “sense of reality” score that overcome the one or the other problematic aspect, respectively. For the original scoring variant (“tendency” score, as well as for the two new scoring variants, unidimensionality is proven through the conditional Likelihood-Ratio test (Andersen, 1973 and graphical model checks. Furthermore, with the correlation coefficient indicating the relationship of each of the three scores to Psychology knowledge, another aspect of construct validity is tested.Results indicate that for one of the two new scoring variants (“sense of reality” score, items do not cover the latent continuum well; the other new scoring variant (“alternative tendency” score is one-dimensional and shows the expected independency of Psychology knowledge. For this reason, it is suggested as a promising alternative to the original scoring variant under certain testing conditions.

  14. The pursuit of understanding: A study of exemplary high school students' conceptions of knowledge validation in science and history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix Mansilla, Veronica Maria

    The study presented examined 16 award-winning high school students' beliefs about the criteria by which scientific theories and historical narratives are deemed trustworthy. It sought to (a) describe such beliefs as students reasoned within each discipline; (b) examine the degree to which such beliefs were organized as coherent systems of thought; and (c) explore the relationship between students' beliefs and their prior disciplinary research experience. Students were multiple-year award-winners at the Massachusetts Science Fair and the National History Day---two pre-collegiate State-level competitions. Two consecutive semi-structured interviews invited students to assess and enhance the trustworthiness of competing accounts of genetic inheritance and the Holocaust in science and history respectively. A combined qualitative and quantitative data analysis yielded the following results: (a) Students valued three standards of acceptability that were common across disciplines: e.g. empirical strength, explanatory power and formal and presentational strength. However, when reasoning within each discipline they tended to define each standard in disciplinary-specific ways. Students also valued standards of acceptability that were not shared across disciplines: i.e., external validity in science and human understanding in history. (b) In science, three distinct epistemological orientations were identified---i.e., "faith in method," "trusting the scientific community" and "working against error." In history students held two distinct epistemologies---i.e., "reproducing the past" and "organizing the past". Students' epistemological orientations tended to operate as collections of mutually supporting ideas about what renders a theory or a narrative acceptable. (c) Contrary to the standard position to date in the literature on epistemological beliefs, results revealed that students' research training in a particular discipline (e.g., science or history) was strongly related to

  15. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  16. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  17. Monte Carlo Analysis of Airport Throughput and Traffic Delays Using Self Separation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Sturdy, James L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of three simulation studies of throughput and delay times of arrival and departure operations performed at non-towered, non-radar airports using self-separation procedures. The studies were conducted as part of the validation process of the Small Aircraft Transportation Systems Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept and include an analysis of the predicted airport capacity using with different traffic conditions and system constraints under increasing levels of demand. Results show that SATS HVO procedures can dramatically increase capacity at non-towered, non-radar airports and that the concept offers the potential for increasing capacity of the overall air transportation system.

  18. The transferability of Western concepts to other cultures : Validation of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire in a Saudi Arabic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Syed Imran; Daim, Syed Abdul; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of medical education research in Saudi Arabia has been acknowledged increasingly and a lot of concepts used have been derived from the Western world. The question arises, however, whether Western concepts and questionnaires are transferable to societies with different cult

  19. The transferability of Western concepts to other cultures : Validation of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire in a Saudi Arabic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Syed Imran; Daim, Syed Abdul; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    Background: The importance of medical education research in Saudi Arabia has been acknowledged increasingly and a lot of concepts used have been derived from the Western world. The question arises, however, whether Western concepts and questionnaires are transferable to societies with different

  20. Mesurer la santé mentale positive au Canada : validation des concepts du Continuum de santé mentale – Questionnaire abrégé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Orpana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : La santé mentale positive est de plus en plus reconnue comme un élément central des politiques et des programmes en matière de santé publique. On a déterminé au Canada que le Continuum de santé mentale - Questionnaire abrégé (CSM-QA constituait un outil de mesure prometteur qu'il fallait intégrer aux enquêtes d'évaluation de la santé mentale positive de la population. Ce questionnaire vise à évaluer un modèle à trois facteurs de santé mentale positive : le bien-être émotionnel, le bien-être social et le bien-être psychologique. Cette étude a pour but de déterminer si le CSM-QA offre une mesure adéquate de la santé mentale positive des Canadiens adultes. Méthodologie : Nous avons réalisé une analyse factorielle confirmatoire (AFC à l'aide des données de l'Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes - Santé mentale de 2012 (ESCC-SM. Nous avons également effectué une validation croisée du modèle à l'aide des données de l'Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes - Composante annuelle (ESCC - Composante annuelle de 2011-2012. Nous avons examiné la validité reliée à un critère dans le cadre d'analyses de corrélation entre les scores des sous-échelles du CSM-QA et les concepts positifs (comme la satisfaction à l'égard de la vie et négatifs (comme la détresse psychologique associés. Résultats : Nous avons confirmé la validité du modèle à trois facteurs du bien-être émotionnel, social et psychologique dans le cadre d'une AFC de deux échantillons distincts, et ce, après avoir intégré les quatre erreurs corrélées entre les questions relatives à l'échelle du bien-être social. Nous avons observé, comme prévu, des corrélations significatives entre le bien-être émotionnel, psychologique et social et les concepts associés. Le coefficient alpha de Cronbach était de 0,82 pour les sous-échelles du bien-être émotionnel et du bien

  1. Is Parental Alienation Disorder a Valid Concept? Not According to Scientific Evidence. A Review of "Parental Alienation, DSM-5 and ICD-11" by William Bernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiton, M. Brianna; Alvis, Lindsey J.; Allen, Kenneth; Logid, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a recent book arguing how a concept known as parental alienation syndrome--now parental alienation disorder--should be included in official psychiatric/psychological and medical classification diagnostic manuals. Anecdotal cases and opinion are presented as research and scientific evidence, and stories are presented as…

  2. The validation of two novel separation technologies in a ZLE concept via in-mill research at recovered paper mill Niederauer Mühle (Germany)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubelt, G.; Lumpe, C.; Verstraeten, E.; Joore, L.

    2001-01-01

    As economic circumstances change and environmental legislation tightens, paper mills are forced to minimise their energy and water consumption to produce minimum emissions. A competitive product based water treatment concept to Zero Liquid Effluent (ZLE) is based on the 'five-fraction model'. To rem

  3. Advanced Jet Noise Exhaust Concepts in NASA's N+2 Supersonics Validation Study and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Upcoming Hybrid Wing Body Acoustics Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Doty, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts presented here utilized lobed-mixers and ejectors. A powered third-stream was implemented to improve ejector acoustic performance. One concept was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other produced discrete-frequency tones (due to flow separations within the model) that degraded the acoustic performance of the exhaust concept. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project has been investigating a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft as a possible configuration for meeting N+2 system level goals for noise, emissions, and fuel burn. A recently completed NRA led by Boeing Research and Technology resulted in a full-scale aircraft design and wind tunnel model. This model will be tested acoustically in NASA Langley's 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel and will include dual jet engine simulators and broadband engine noise simulators as part of the test campaign. The objectives of the test are to characterize the system level noise, quantify the effects of shielding, and generate a valuable database for prediction method development. Further details of the test and various component preparations are described.

  4. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging....... Charging is done bycirculating the water in the tank through the condenser of a heat pump several times and thereby graduallyheating the water. The charging is done with a higher mass flow rate than the discharging to reach severalcirculations of the water during the time frame of one discharging....... This result in a lower condensingtemperature than if the water was heated in one step. Two test setups were built, one to test the performanceof the heat pump gradually heating the water and one to investigate the stratification in the storage tanks.Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system was implemented...

  5. Development and Validation of an Infection Risk Model for Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit, Using a Multiplication and Dispersal Concept for Forecasting Bacterial Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, R M; Tyson, J L; Henshall, W R

    2017-02-01

    A weather-based disease prediction model for bacterial canker of kiwifruit (known worldwide as Psa; Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3) was developed using a new mechanistic scheme for bacterial disease forecasters, the multiplication and dispersal concept. Bacterial multiplication is estimated from a temperature function, the M index, accumulated from hourly air temperature over 3 days for hours when the leaf canopy is wet. Rainfall provides free water to move inoculum to infection sites, and the daily risk indicator, the R index, is the 3-day accumulation of the M index output on days with total rainfall >1 mm; otherwise, R is zero. The model was field-tested using potted kiwifruit trap plants exposed for discrete periods in infected kiwifruit orchards to identify when leaf infection occurred. In a 9-week study during spring, the R index predicted leaf-spot intensity with high accuracy (R(2) = 93%) and, in an 82-week seasonal accuracy study, prediction of infection incidence was most accurate from spring to late summer and lower during other times. To implement the risk model for the New Zealand kiwifruit industry, a modified risk index, R', used relative humidity (RH) >81% instead of wetness, so that 2- and 6-day weather forecasts of RH could be used. Risk index values were affected by the shape of the temperature function and an alternative 'low temperature' function for the M index was identified that could be used in climates in which high temperatures are known to limit Psa development during some parts of the year. This study has shown how infection risk for bacterial diseases can be conceptualized as separate processes for temperature-dependent bacterial multiplication and rain-dependent dispersal and infection. This concept has potentially wide application for bacterial disease prediction in the same way that the infection monocycle concept has had for fungal disease prediction.

  6. [Conception and Content Validation of a Questionnaire Relating to the Potential Need for Information of Visually Impaired Persons with Regard to Services and Contact Persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U; Hechler, T; Witt, U; Krummenauer, F

    2015-12-01

    A questionnaire was drafted to identify the needs of visually impaired persons and to optimize their access to non-medical support and services. Subjects had to rate a list of 15 everyday activities that are typically affected by visual impairment (for example, being able to orient themselves in the home environment), by indicating the degree to which they perceive each activity to be affected, using a four-stage scale. They had to evaluate these aspects by means of a relevance assessment. The needs profile derived from this is then correlated with individualized information for assistance and support. The questionnaire shall be made available for use by subjects through advisers in some ophthalmic practices and via the internet. The validity of the content of the proposed tool was evaluated on the basis of a survey of 59 experts in the fields of medical, optical and psychological care and of persons involved in training initiatives. The experts were asked to rate the activities by relevance and clarity of the wording and to propose methods to further develop and optimize the content. The validity of the content was quantified according to a process adopted in the literature, based on the parameters Interrater Agreement (IRA) and Content Validity Index (CVI). The results of all responses (n = 19) and the sub-group analysis suggest that the questionnaire adequately reflects the potential needs profile of visually impaired persons. Overall, there was at least 80% agreement among the 19 experts for 93% of the proposed parameterisation of the activities relating to the relevance and clarity of the wording. Individual proposals for optimization of the design of the questionnaire were adopted.

  7. Model Verification and Validation Concepts for a Probabilistic Fracture Assessment Model to Predict Cracking of Knife Edge Seals in the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Riha, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based models are routinely used to predict the performance of engineered systems to make decisions such as when to retire system components, how to extend the life of an aging system, or if a new design will be safe or available. Model verification and validation (V&V) is a process to establish credibility in model predictions. Ideally, carefully controlled validation experiments will be designed and performed to validate models or submodels. In reality, time and cost constraints limit experiments and even model development. This paper describes elements of model V&V during the development and application of a probabilistic fracture assessment model to predict cracking in space shuttle main engine high-pressure oxidizer turbopump knife-edge seals. The objective of this effort was to assess the probability of initiating and growing a crack to a specified failure length in specific flight units for different usage and inspection scenarios. The probabilistic fracture assessment model developed in this investigation combined a series of submodels describing the usage, temperature history, flutter tendencies, tooth stresses and numbers of cycles, fatigue cracking, nondestructive inspection, and finally the probability of failure. The analysis accounted for unit-to-unit variations in temperature, flutter limit state, flutter stress magnitude, and fatigue life properties. The investigation focused on the calculation of relative risk rather than absolute risk between the usage scenarios. Verification predictions were first performed for three units with known usage and cracking histories to establish credibility in the model predictions. Then, numerous predictions were performed for an assortment of operating units that had flown recently or that were projected for future flights. Calculations were performed using two NASA-developed software tools: NESSUS(Registered Trademark) for the probabilistic analysis, and NASGRO(Registered Trademark) for the fracture

  8. Updated concept of validity check when determining the customs value of goods carried in (imported) in the customs territory of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Федотов, О. П.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with a study of conceptual basics of validity check when determining the customs value of goods carried in (imported) in the customs territory of Ukraine. On the basis of the analysis of the effective legislation of Ukraine related to the state customs procedures the author revealed the issues of concern that arise when determining the «tentative indicators» of the customs value of goods that is used in the risk management system when clearing the goods carried in the custom...

  9. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  10. Validation of individual-based Markov-like stochastic process model of insect behaviour and a ‘virtual farm’ concept for enhancement of site-specific IPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Antoni Lux

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a ‘virtual farm’ concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a ‘bottom-up ethological’ approach and emulates behaviour of the ‘primary IPM actors’ - large cohorts of individual insects - within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behaviour and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany and Belgium. For each farm, a customised model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the ‘virtual farm’ approach - were discussed.

  11. Validation of Individual-Based Markov-Like Stochastic Process Model of Insect Behavior and a "Virtual Farm" Concept for Enhancement of Site-Specific IPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Slawomir A; Wnuk, Andrzej; Vogt, Heidrun; Belien, Tim; Spornberger, Andreas; Studnicki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a "virtual farm" concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a "bottom-up ethological" approach and emulates behavior of the "primary IPM actors"-large cohorts of individual insects-within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany, and Belgium. For each farm, a customized model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the "virtual farm" approach-were discussed.

  12. Statistical Analysis and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Horvatovich, P.; Bischoff, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter guidelines are given for the selection of a few biomarker candidates from a large number of compounds with a relative low number of samples. The main concepts concerning the statistical validation of the search for biomarkers are discussed. These complicated methods and concepts are

  13. A Novel Sensor Based on a Single-Pixel Microwave Radiometer for Warm Object Counting: Concept Validation and IoT Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alimenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled measurements by a low-cost single-pixel microwave radiometer operating at 12.65 GHz were carried out to assess the detection and counting capability for targets warmer than the surroundings. The adopted reference test targets were pre-warmed water and oil; and a hand, both naked and wearing a glove. The results showed the reliability of microwave radiometry for counting operations under controlled conditions, and its effectiveness at detecting even warm targets masked by unheated dielectric layers. An electromagnetic model describing the scenario sensed by the radiometer antenna is proposed, and comparison with the experimental observations shows a good agreement. The measurements prove that reliable counting is enabled by an antenna temperature increment, for each target sample added, of around 1 K. Starting from this value, an analysis of the antenna filling factor was performed to provide an instrument useful for evaluating real applicability in many practical situations. This study also allows the direct people counting problem to be addressed, providing preliminary operational indications, reference numbers and experimental validation.

  14. A Novel Sensor Based on a Single-Pixel Microwave Radiometer for Warm Object Counting: Concept Validation and IoT Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimenti, Federico; Bonafoni, Stefania; Roselli, Luca

    2017-06-14

    Controlled measurements by a low-cost single-pixel microwave radiometer operating at 12.65 GHz were carried out to assess the detection and counting capability for targets warmer than the surroundings. The adopted reference test targets were pre-warmed water and oil; and a hand, both naked and wearing a glove. The results showed the reliability of microwave radiometry for counting operations under controlled conditions, and its effectiveness at detecting even warm targets masked by unheated dielectric layers. An electromagnetic model describing the scenario sensed by the radiometer antenna is proposed, and comparison with the experimental observations shows a good agreement. The measurements prove that reliable counting is enabled by an antenna temperature increment, for each target sample added, of around 1 K. Starting from this value, an analysis of the antenna filling factor was performed to provide an instrument useful for evaluating real applicability in many practical situations. This study also allows the direct people counting problem to be addressed, providing preliminary operational indications, reference numbers and experimental validation.

  15. Apodization in high-contrast long-slit spectroscopy. II. Concept validation and first on-sky results with VLT/SPHERE

    CERN Document Server

    Vigan, A; Dohlen, K; Beuzit, J -L; Costille, A; Caillat, A; Baruffolo, A; Blanchard, P; Carle, M; Ferrari, M; Fusco, T; Gluck, L; Hugot, E; Jaquet, M; Langlois, M; Mignant, D Le; Llored, M; Madec, F; Mouillet, D; Origné, A; Puget, P; Salasnich, B; Sauvage, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Spectral characterization of young, giant exoplanets detected by direct imaging is one of the tasks of the new generation of high-contrast imagers. For this purpose, the VLT/SPHERE instrument includes a unique long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) mode coupled with Lyot coronagraphy in its infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS). The performance of this mode is intrinsically limited by the use of a non-optimal coronagraph, but in a previous work we demonstrated that it could be significantly improved at small inner-working angles using the stop-less Lyot coronagraph (SLLC). We now present the development, testing, and validation of the first SLLC prototype for VLT/SPHERE. Based on the transmission profile previously proposed, the prototype was manufactured using microdots technology and was installed inside the instrument in 2014. The transmission measurements agree well with the specifications, except in the very low transmissions (<5% in amplitude). The performance of the SLLC is tested in both imaging...

  16. Flue gas condensation in oxyfuel power plants. Heat- and mass transfer measurements and experimental validation of an efficient condensation concept; Rauchgaskondensation in Oxyfuel-Kraftwerken. Waerme- und Stoffuebergangsmessungen sowie experimentelle Validierung eines effizienten Kondensationskonzepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raindl, Markus

    2010-12-06

    Condensation of a steam-inert gas mixture in an Oxyfuel condenser differs significantly from condensation of pure steam: condenser pressure and rest gas content increase dramatically, heat- and mass transfer coefficients are lower and oversaturation of the steam-inert gas mixture yields to fog formation. In the context of this thesis, therefore, at first the optimal ranges of working parameters for Oxyfuel processes calculated. In the following some heat flux measurements were carried out on a horizontal, crossflow pipe to validate various heat- and mass transfer theories. Building on these results a new, efficient condensation concept was developed to reduce fog formation. The final results of the measurements with a laboratory model show great performance regarding fog reduction and condensation efficiency. (orig.)

  17. An SAT® Validity Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  18. Development, Optimization, and Validation of a Microplate Bioassay for Relative Potency Determination of Linezolid Using a Design Space Concept, and its Measurement Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviano, Alessandro Morais; Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Ostronoff, Celina Silva; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, optimize, and validate a microplate bioassay for relative potency determination of linezolid in pharmaceutical samples using quality-by-design and design space approaches. In addition, a procedure is described for estimating relative potency uncertainty based on microbiological response variability. The influence of culture media composition was studied using a factorial design and a central composite design was adopted to study the influence of inoculum proportion and triphenyltetrazolium chloride in microbial growth. The microplate bioassay was optimized regarding the responses of low, medium, and high doses of linezolid, negative and positive controls, and the slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient of dose-response curves. According to optimization results, design space ranges were established using: (a) low (1.0 μg/mL), medium (2.0 μg/mL), and high (4.0 μg/mL) doses of pharmaceutical samples and linezolid chemical reference substance; (b) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 653 in an inoculum proportion of 10%; (c) antibiotic No. 3 culture medium pH 7.0±0.1; (d) 6 h incubation at 37.0±0.1ºC; and (e) addition of 50 μL of 0.5% (w/v) triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution. The microplate bioassay was linear (r2=0.992), specific, precise (repeatability RSD=2.3% and intermediate precision RSD=4.3%), accurate (mean recovery=101.4%), and robust. The overall measurement uncertainty was reasonable considering the increased variability inherent in microbiological response. Final uncertainty was comparable with those obtained with other microbiological assays, as well as chemical methods.

  19. On the validity of modeling concepts for the simulation of groundwater flow in lowland peat areas – case study at the Zegveld experimental field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Trambauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater flow models currently used in the western part of The Netherlands and in other similar peaty areas are thought to be a too simplified representation of the hydrological reality. One of the reasons is that, due to the schematization of the subsoil, its heterogeneity cannot be represented adequately. Moreover, the applicability of Darcy's law in these types of soils has been questioned, but this law forms the basis of most groundwater flow models.

    With the purpose of assessing the typical heterogeneity of the subsoil and to verify the applicability of Darcy's law, geo-hydrological fieldwork was completed at an experimental field within a research area in the western part of The Netherlands. The assessments were carried out for the so-called Complex Confining Layer (CCL, which is the Holocene peaty to clayey layer overlying Pleistocene sandy deposits. Borehole drilling through the CCL with a hand auger was completed and revealed the typical heterogeneous character of this layer, showing a dominance of muddy, humified peat which is alternated with fresher peat and clay.

    Slug tests were carried out to study the applicability of Darcy's law, given that previous studies suggested its non-validity for humified peat soils due to a variable horizontal hydraulic conductivity Kh with head differences. For higher humification degrees, the experiments indeed suggested a variable Kh, but this appeared to be the result of the inappropriate use of steady-state formulae for transient experiments in peaty environments. The muddy peat sampled has a rather plastic nature, and the high compressibility of this material leads to transient behavior. However, using transient formulae, the slug tests conducted for different initial groundwater heads showed that there was hardly any evidence of a variation of the hydraulic conductivity with the applied head differences. Therefore, Darcy's law can be used

  20. On the validity of modeling concepts for (the simulation of groundwater flow in lowland peat areas – case study at the Zegveld experimental field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Trambauer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater flow models currently used in the western part of The Netherlands and in other similar peaty areas are thought to be a too simplified representation of the hydrological reality. One of the reasons is that due to the schematization of the subsoil, its heterogeneity cannot be represented adequately. Moreover, the applicability of Darcy's law in these types of soils has been questioned, but this law forms the basis of most groundwater flow models. With the purpose of assessing the typical heterogeneity of the subsoil and to verify the applicability of Darcy's law fieldwork was completed at a research site in the western part of The Netherlands. The assessments were carried for the so called Complex Confining Layer (CCL, which is the Holocene peaty to clayey layer overlying Pleistocene sandy deposits. Borehole drilling through the CCL with a hand auger was completed and revealed the typical heterogeneous character of this layer showing a dominance of muddy, humified peat which is alternated with fresher peat and clay. Slug tests were carried out to study the applicability of Darcy's law given that previous studies suggested the non validity for humified peat soils given by a variable hydraulic conductivity K with the hydraulic gradient. For higher humification degrees, the experiments indeed suggested a variable K, but this seems to be the result of the inappropriate use of steady-state formulae for transient experiments in peaty environments. The muddy peat sampled has a rather plastic nature, and the high compressibility of this material leads to transient behavior. However, using transient formulae, the slug tests conducted for different initial hydraulic heads showed that there was hardly any evidence of a variation of the hydraulic conductivity with the hydraulic gradient. Therefore, Darcy's law can be used for peat soils. The heterogeneity of the subsoil and the apparent applicability of Darcy's law were taking

  1. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  2. School Managerial Control: Validating a Social concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogotch, Ira E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    School managerial control is derived from perceptions of behavioral interactions between teachers and administrators along two dimensions: regular patterns of rules; and discretionary behaviors reflecting the quality of managerial performance. Analyzes interactive effects of these dimensions across four control processes within curriculum and…

  3. The Concept of Alexithymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miray Sasioglu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alexithymia, which means “no words for emotions”, emerged in order to explain the symptoms of psychosomatic patients and gained a quick recognition among psychiatrists. However, current studies indicate that alexithymia may be a personality trait seen both in different pathological groups and even in healthy population. At this point, many researches have been made in order to distinguish alexithymia from existing constructs and diagnosis, and to remove the questions on reliability and validity of the con-cept and its measurement. Ongoing discussions on alexithymia will be re-viewed in this study. The controversial concept of alexithymia will be exam-ined in terms of characteristics, theoretical background, relationship with the other disorders, measurement and the critique of the measurement and the concept.

  4. Validity Semantics in Educational and Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcoat, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The semantics, or meaning, of validity is a fluid concept in educational and psychological testing. Contemporary controversies surrounding this concept appear to stem from the proper location of validity. Under one view, validity is a property of score-based inferences and entailed uses of test scores. This view is challenged by the…

  5. Nuclear data covariances and sensitivity analysis, validation of a methodology based on the perturbation theory; application to an innovative concept: the molten thorium salt fueled reactor; Analyses de sensibilite et d'incertitude de donnees nucleaires. Contribution a la validation d'une methodologie utilisant la theorie des perturbations; application a un concept innovant: reacteur a sels fondus thorium a spectre epithermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidaud, A

    2005-10-15

    Neutron transport simulation of nuclear reactors is based on the knowledge of the neutron-nucleus interaction (cross-sections, fission neutron yields and spectra...) for the dozens of nuclei present in the core over a very large energy range (fractions of eV to several MeV). To obtain the goal of the sustainable development of nuclear power, future reactors must have new and more strict constraints to their design: optimization of ore materials will necessitate breeding (generation of fissile material from fertile material), and waste management will require transmutation. Innovative reactors that could achieve such objectives - generation IV or ADS (accelerator driven system) - are loaded with new fuels (thorium, heavy actinides) and function with neutron spectra for which nuclear data do not benefit from 50 years of industrial experience, and thus present particular challenges. After validation on an experimental reactor using an international benchmark, we take classical reactor physics tools along with available nuclear data uncertainties to calculate the sensitivities and uncertainties of the criticality and temperature coefficient of a thorium molten salt reactor. In addition, a study based on the important reaction rates for the calculation of cycle's equilibrium allows us to estimate the efficiency of different reprocessing strategies and the contribution of these reaction rates on the uncertainty of the breeding and then on the uncertainty of the size of the reprocessing plant. Finally, we use this work to propose an improvement of the high priority experimental request list. (author)

  6. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  7. Development of a Meiosis Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalas, Pamela; O'Neill, Angie; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2013-01-01

    We have designed, developed, and validated a 17-question Meiosis Concept Inventory (Meiosis CI) to diagnose student misconceptions on meiosis, which is a fundamental concept in genetics. We targeted large introductory biology and genetics courses and used published methodology for question development, which included the validation of questions by…

  8. Development of a Meiosis Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalas, Pamela; O'Neill, Angie; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2013-01-01

    We have designed, developed, and validated a 17-question Meiosis Concept Inventory (Meiosis CI) to diagnose student misconceptions on meiosis, which is a fundamental concept in genetics. We targeted large introductory biology and genetics courses and used published methodology for question development, which included the validation of questions by…

  9. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    The aim of this paper is to explore whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taken Gerring’s and Adcock and Collier’s work on concept formation and measurement validity as the starting point, the paper first discusses necessary...

  10. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  11. Lateral Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end with a brief illustration and discussion of how lateral conceptualization can re-orient STS modes of inquiry, and why this matters.

  12. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    The aim of this paper is to explore whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taken Gerring’s and Adcock and Collier’s work on concept formation and measurement validity as the starting point, the paper first discusses necessary...... conditions for concepts to be good in a strict sense. Afterwards, an empirical section explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption of most definitions of social capital. This assumption is rejected in four separate tests at both the micro and macro level. A final section therefore discusses...

  13. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  14. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  15. Computer Science Concept Inventories: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.; Zingaro, D.; Porter, L.; Webb, K. C.; Lee, C. B.; Clancy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Concept Inventories (CIs) are assessments designed to measure student learning of core concepts. CIs have become well known for their major impact on pedagogical techniques in other sciences, especially physics. Presently, there are no widely used, validated CIs for computer science. However, considerable groundwork has been performed in the form…

  16. Computer Science Concept Inventories: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.; Zingaro, D.; Porter, L.; Webb, K. C.; Lee, C. B.; Clancy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Concept Inventories (CIs) are assessments designed to measure student learning of core concepts. CIs have become well known for their major impact on pedagogical techniques in other sciences, especially physics. Presently, there are no widely used, validated CIs for computer science. However, considerable groundwork has been performed in the form…

  17. Critiques of the risk concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Halvorsen, Peder Andreas; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2007-01-01

    interests promote risk interventions, that patients may misunderstand risk information, and that risk information can cause unnecessary anxiety. The authors have found no empirical data on the amount of time primary healthcare providers spend on risk interventions, and have not identified any valid......The increasing use of the risk concept in healthcare has caused concern among medical doctors, especially general practitioners (GPs). Critics have claimed that risk identification and intervention create unfounded anxiety, that the concept of risk is not useful at the individual patient level......, that patients' risk concept is different from an epidemiological one, that resources are better spent elsewhere, or that commercial interests take advantage of risk information to promote sales. In this paper the authors discuss the concept of risk and address the critique. There is evidence that commercial...

  18. Validation of analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Rius, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall discuss the concept of method validation, describe the various elements and explain its close relationship with fitness for purpose. Method validation is based on the assumption that a series of requirements are fulfilled and we shall explain how these requirements are selected, the way in which evidence is supplied and what work has to be carried out in the laboratory. The basic principles of method validation and the different ways to validate a methodology, by inter-laboratory comparison or performing an in-house validation, are also described.En este artículo se discute el concepto de validación del método, se describen los elementos que la componen y se explica la fuerte relación entre la validación y las características de ajuste. El método de validación se basa en el cumplimiento de una serie de requerimientos, se explica como seleccionar esos requerimientos, la forma en que se suministran evidencias, y que trabajo se debe llevar a cabo en el laboratorio. También se describen, los principios básicos del método de validación y los diferentes caminos para validar una metodología, tanto en la comparación entre laboratorios o como cuando se lleva a cabo una validación dentro del laboratorio.

  19. Más allá de la cultura: validación de un modelo multidimensional de autoconcepto en adolescentes argentinos (Beyond culture: Validation of a multidimensional model of self-concept among Argentine adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Daniela Calero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that self-concept and self-esteem are key constructs to explain adolescent development. One of the most well-known models of this stage of development comprises eight specific self-concept domains and another domain, representing general self-esteem, with a higher level of abstraction. This theoretical model is operationalized by the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA. The aim of this study was to statistically test the theoretical structure of the SPPA in an adolescent population of the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina (CABA/AR. The SPPA was administered to 467 adolescents attending a middle school in CABA/AR. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to contrast the proposed theoretical structure; two alternative models of the self-concept domain and one model of the self-esteem domain were tested. The results confirmed the proposed theoretical structure of the SPPA in adolescent population attending the CABA/AR.

  20. DIFERENCIAS EN EL AUTOCONCEPTO POR SEXO EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: CONSTRUCCIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE UN INSTRUMENTO / DIFFERENCES IN SELF-CONCEPT BY GENDER IN THE ADOLESCENCE: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF AN INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Guido García*, Alejandro Mújica Sarmiento** y Rodolfo Gutiérrez Martínez***

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa presente investigación tuvo como objetivos construir una escala para medir y evaluar el autoconcepto de los(asadolescentes, así como determinar diferencias en la estructura de este constructo en relación al sexo de los(as participantes.La muestra estuvo conformada por 450 estudiantes de tres escuelas de nivel medio superior de la Ciudad de México (MEDAD=16.65 años. Se elaboraron reactivos tipo Likert para cuatro dimensiones del autoconcepto (social, físico, deportivo yacadémico. Los resultados evidenciaron que la Escala Tetradimensional de Autoconcepto para Adolescentes (ETAA es uninstrumento de medición con propiedades psicométricas aceptables. Se presentaron diferencias respecto al sexo de los(asparticipantes únicamente en la dimensión deportiva, así como en la ponderación de los factores en la estructura delautoconcepto. Derivado de los resultados, se propone el diseño de programas de intervención creados para la mejora yreforzamiento del autoconcepto, atendiendo las necesidades particulares de los(as adolescentes.ABSTRACTThe objective of this study were construct a scale to measure and evaluate the self-concept of adolescents and todetermine differences in the structure of this construct in relation to sex of participants. The sample consisted in 450students from three high schools in Mexico City (Mean= 16.65 years. Likert items were developed for four dimensions ofself-concept (social, physical, athletic and academic. The results showed Four-dimensional Self-concept Scale forAdolescents (ETAA, by its Spanish acronym is a measuring instrument with acceptable psychometric properties. Therewere differences regarding gender the participants only in sports dimension and the weighting of the factors in the structureof the self-concept. Derived from the results we propose the design of intervention programs created for the improvementand strengthening of self-concept, addressing the special needs of adolescents.

  1. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  2. Ideological systems and its validation: a neutrosophic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Nescolarde-Selva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideologies face two critical problems in the reality, the problem of commitment and the problem of validation. Commitment and validation are two separate phenomena, in spite of the near universal myth that the human is committed because his beliefs are valid. Ideologies not only seem external and valid but also worth whatever discomforts believing entails. In this paper the authors develop a theory of social commitment and social validation using concepts of validation of neutrosophic logic.

  3. [The concept of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, M; Ferraz, F C

    1997-10-01

    Objections to the present WHO (World Health Organization) definition of HEALTH, as "the state of perfect physical, mental and social well-being", are expressed. It is considered to be anachronistic, first because it aims at perfection which is unaltainelle because of district personality characteristics. As the main support for this idea, the necessary renunciation of part of man's drive to liberty in exchange for the lesser insecurity provided by social life (Freud, Castoriadis and McDougall), is groted. The validity of distinguishing between "soma", "psyche" and "society" is questioned and the concept of the "integrated man", alluding to Pierre Marty and to Freud himself is adapted, and situations are recalled in which the interaction of the three aspects mentioned above is actually evident. Finally, the notion of the quality of life, in accordance with an antipositivistic taken from Bion, point of view, is discussed, and the concept that reality is that of each human being, is adapted. This priority and the proposal to rescue subjectivism which was also observed by Foucault when he studied mental disease, leads to a last criticism of the present definition of health, based exclusively on external, objective evaluations.

  4. PROCESS VALIDATION AS AN INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality is the primordial intention to any industry and its products manufactured. Recently validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industries’ most recognized and discussed subjects. Validation is the means of catering enormous benefits to even more than the acceptable quality level which in the global standard scale lending importance to validation is increasingly profound in recent years. The word validation simply means “Assessment of validation or action of proving effectiveness”. The process is developed in such a way that the required parameters are achieved and it ensures that the output of the process will consistently meet the required parameters during routine production, the process is validated. Validation and quality assurance will go hand in hand, ensuring the through quality for the products. Hence, an emphasis is made in this review that gives a detailed, overview of validation concept of designing, organizing and conducting validation trials.

  5. Convergent validity test, construct validity test and external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maldavsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The author first exposes a complement of a previous test about convergent validity, then a construct validity test and finally an external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm.  The first part of the paper focused on a complementary aspect, the differential sensitivity of the DLA 1 in an external comparison (to other methods, and 2 in an internal comparison (between two ways of using the same method, the DLA.  The construct validity test exposes the concepts underlined to DLA, their operationalization and some corrections emerging from several empirical studies we carried out.  The external validity test examines the possibility of using the investigation of a single case and its relation with the investigation of a more extended sample.

  6. Alignment validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  7. SANSMIC Validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2014-08-01

    SANSMIC is solution mining software that was developed and utilized by SNL in its role as geotechnical advisor to the US DOE SPR for planning purposes. Three SANSMIC leach modes - withdrawal, direct, and reverse leach - have been revalidated with multiple test cases for each mode. The withdrawal mode was validated using high quality data from recent leach activity while the direct and reverse modes utilized data from historical cavern completion reports. Withdrawal results compared very well with observed data, including the location and size of shelves due to string breaks with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 10% and relative radius differences from 1.5 - 3%. Profile comparisons for the direct mode were very good with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 12% and relative radius differences from 5 - 7%. First, second, and third reverse configurations were simulated in order to validate SANSMIC over a range of relative hanging string and OBI locations. The first-reverse was simulated reasonably well with relative leached volume differences ranging from 1 - 9% and relative radius differences from 5 - 12%. The second-reverse mode showed the largest discrepancies in leach profile. Leached volume differences ranged from 8 - 12% and relative radius differences from 1 - 10%. In the third-reverse, relative leached volume differences ranged from 10 - 13% and relative radius differences were %7E4 %. Comparisons to historical reports were quite good, indicating that SANSMIC is essentially the same as documented and validated in the early 1980's.

  8. Is Social Capital a Good Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether the concept of social capital as popularized by Robert Putnam is a good social science concept. Taking Gerring’s work on concept evaluation as the starting point, the paper first presents a set of criteria for conceptual ‘goodness’ and discusses how social capital...... performs on these criteria. It is argued that social capital eventually may be a good concept if it can be shown empirically to be a unidimensional concept. An empirical section therefore explores the validity of the unidimensionality assumption and rejects it in four separate tests at both the individual...... and aggregate level. We conclude that even if social capital has been a remarkably productive idea, it is not a good concept as most popular conceptualizations define social capital as several distinct phenomena or as phenomena that already have been conceptualized under other labels....

  9. Reliability and validity in medical research

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Scientists commonly refer to study instruments duringmedical research. In fact, the reliability and validity issuesgo beyond psychometric studies and can be linked withany kind measurements. In this study we aimed to explainthe reliability and validity concepts by giving examples.It is possible to evaluate the reliability and validity of aninstrument by scientific methods. If we speak of reliability,we have to mention stability (having the same results inrepeated measurements from the same sa...

  10. Validity of Management Control Topoi? Towards Constructivist Pragmatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Lennart; Nørreklit, Hanne Sloth-Odgaard; Israelsen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    of reality, which is rooted in the management accounting paradigms. The paper establishes a concept of reality as an integrated set of conditions for actions and argues that, without such a concept, the issue of validity cannot be addressed: management accounting and control only provide valid results...

  11. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  12. Conception et validation d'un modele d'analyse et de suivi pour une politique energetique durable et acceptable de l'energie eolienne: Une etude comparative France-Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurtey, Evariste

    In this research, we built a conceptual model of a sustainable and acceptable wind power policy that we tried to validate through the case study of France and Quebec in the wind energy sector. Our qualitative and comparative approach helps us to illustrate the interaction of institutional variables studied, including the national context of emergence, the balance of power between pressure groups, the supranational and exogenous influences, level of political commitment, policy and regulatory instruments, social acceptance and energy policy mechanisms. The research confirms that the neo-corporatism is present in France as in Quebec. With the unfavorable energy context (low cost of electricity tariff, lack of electricity demand, and an already low zero carbon electric mix), it is an important factor explaining : 1) the 20 years delay accumulated by France and Quebec in the development of wind projects or industrial sector; 2) the 10% limited penetration scale given to wind energy. We also demonstrate that the political commitment to develop wind energy fluctuates with the government majority, the energy context or the influence of pressure groups. This manifests itself in a lack of continuity of policies and tariff instruments used. In both national case studies, the results also show that balanced policies and regulations ensure sustainable development of wind energy only if they allow a sufficient market size. The search results also illustrates that the conceptual division made between acceptance of wind sector, acceptance of ownership, local acceptance is very instructive. Social controversies, though multifactorial, are connected to both a critique of the development model too industrial and private, territorial dilemmas (closed environment), energy context (electric surplus in Quebec), or related to strategic planning system and centralized decision. An important issue for a more acceptable wind policy in the future will come to a greater plurality of ownership

  13. The Concept of Paraphrenia and Its Actuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper initially reviews the historical development of the concept of paraphrenia, stressing Kraepelin’s important contribution, as well as the progressive fading out of this diagnosis during the XXth century. Then, a recent study supportting the validity of the diagnosis of paraphrenia is pointed out. Concepts, such as “late paraphrenia” and “affective paraphrenia”, are mentioned. In the conclusions, the relevance of paraphrenia diagnosis is discussed.

  14. Serial concept maps: tools for concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    All, Anita C; Huycke, LaRae I

    2007-05-01

    Nursing theory challenges students to think abstractly and is often a difficult introduction to graduate study. Traditionally, concept analysis is useful in facilitating this abstract thinking. Concept maps are a way to visualize an individual's knowledge about a specific topic. Serial concept maps express the sequential evolution of a student's perceptions of a selected concept. Maps reveal individual differences in learning and perceptions, as well as progress in understanding the concept. Relationships are assessed and suggestions are made during serial mapping, which actively engages the students and faculty in dialogue that leads to increased understanding of the link between nursing theory and practice. Serial concept mapping lends itself well to both online and traditional classroom environments.

  15. University Students Alternative Conceptions On Circular Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Phil Canlas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six 26 students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity acceleration and force. Moreover results showed the inconsistencies in the students understanding of circular motion concepts.

  16. Is codependency a meaningful concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, L L

    2001-01-01

    The concept of condependency has achieved a prominent place in the psychiatric, psychological, and addiction literature in a remarkably short period of time. Although the term was first developed in the substance abuse treatment arena, specifically referring to the wives of men who abuse alcohol, codependency has more recently been used almost generically to describe a dysfunctional style of relating to others (Irwin, 1995). The manner in which definitions of codependency have become increasingly inclusive are probably related to continuing input from the both the fashionable self-help movement and from some psychiatric perspectives. The purpose of this article is to review proposed definitions of codependency, discuss issues related to the validity of the codependency construct, and summarize efforts aimed at producing instruments to measure codependency. Additionally, I will address implications of this concept as related to psychiatric nursing education, practice, and research.

  17. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  18. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  19. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  20. The Limitations of Concepts in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Many concepts in developmental psychology are inferred or confirmed from very particular experimental or naturalistic observations but investigators often generalize their validity to a broad domain of situations. This permissiveness is affecting progress. This paper provides examples of this error and criticizes the tendency to award essences to…

  1. Using Concept Maps with Trainee Physics Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Peter; Willson, Mike

    1996-01-01

    Describes how the technique of concept mapping can be useful for identifying gaps in preservice teachers' knowledge. Validity of the technique was tested using blind interviews with a representative sample of eight trainees. Has potential as a valuable self-diagnostic tool for teachers teaching outside their area of specialization. (DDR)

  2. Magnet Trade Books: Attracting and Repelling Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    A series of magnet trade books were analyzed against a validated list of magnet concepts (Barrow, 1990a) and their Flesch (1974) Readability was determined. These trade books were used to supplement a second grade unit on magnetism locally constructed from AIM's "Mostly Magnets" (1991). All trade books accurately described how like and unlike…

  3. The Limitations of Concepts in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Many concepts in developmental psychology are inferred or confirmed from very particular experimental or naturalistic observations but investigators often generalize their validity to a broad domain of situations. This permissiveness is affecting progress. This paper provides examples of this error and criticizes the tendency to award essences to…

  4. Laboratory information management systems: concepts, integration, and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowall, R.D. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This 26-chapter book is divided into five sections: concepts, essentials of computing, implementation and choices, validation, and the future. References include material from 1987. A 12-page glossary and a seven-page index are included.

  5. Key concepts in energy

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights how key energy concepts surfaced, tracing their evolution throughout history to encompasses four economic concepts and four technological-engineering concepts developed through their history to conclude with current economic and environmental sciences Considers the process of energy-substitutions through complementary usages, hybridization and technological mixes Combines a conceptual approach with key theoretical concepts from engineering, geological and economic sciences providing cross disciplinary overview of energy fundamentals in a short and focused reading

  6. Concept Image Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John

    2008-01-01

    Concept image and concept definition is an important construct in mathematics education. Its use, however, has been limited to cognitive studies. This article revisits concept image in the context of research on undergraduate students' understanding of the derivative which regards the context of learning as paramount. The literature, mainly on…

  7. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  8. Conceptions of Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  9. Handheld Theodolite Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Handheld Theodolite Concept by Alan E. Wetmore ARL-TN-0430 April 2011 Approved...to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TN-0430 April 2011 Handheld Theodolite Concept Alan E...2011 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2009 to 30 September 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Handheld Theodolite Concept

  10. Natural resource validation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. The authors provide an objective overview of resource valuation techniques and describe their potential role in environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities at federal facilities. This handbook considers five general classes of valuation techniques: (1) market-based techniques, which rely on historical information on market prices and transactions to determine resource values; (2) nonmarket techniques that rely on indirect estimates of resource values; (3) nonmarket techniques that are based on direct estimates of resource values; (4) cross-cutting valuation techniques, which combine elements of one or more of these methods; and (5) ecological valuation techniques used in the emerging field of ecological economics. The various valuation techniques under consideration are described by highlighting their applicability in environmental management and regulation. The handbook also addresses key unresolved issues in the application of valuation techniques generally, including discounting future values, incorporating environmental equity concerns, and concerns over the uncertainties in the measurement of natural resource values and environmental risk.

  11. [Intrauterine programming of reproductive function--a valid concept?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Ekkehard

    2009-01-01

    Early intrauterine fetal (mis)programming determines not only cardiovascular and metabolic regulation in later life, but also reproductive function. Intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with precocious maturation of gonadal function and an earlier onset of puberty and menarche. Especially prenatal androgen excess has negative effects on the development of the ovaries and female genital phenotype itself as well as on the neuroendocrine feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis followed by a polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenism and anovulation in later life. These associations, which can be clearly demonstrated in animal experiments, need further confirmation by epidemiological and clinical trials in humans.

  12. Concept study and validation of Antartic telescope tower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanford, E.; Swain, M.; Meyers, C.; Muramatsu, T.; Nielson, G.; Olson, V.; Ronsse, S.; Vinding Nyden, E.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Little, P.

    2006-01-01

    Studies by Mark Swain and a colleague at the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, coupled with results from past and ongoing projects at Harvey Mudd College, strongly suggest that it may be possible to achieve imaging performance comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope at relatively low cost using a

  13. Conception of a prototype to validate a maintenance expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo De Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is crucial for the life of many production plants. Good decision need the right information at the right time, and a deep knowledge of the system. This is especially true for older plants that are more prone to failures. Unfortunately, these systems are less rich of monitoring and diagnostics instrumentation, because of their seniority. When the maintenance service is carried out by a group of external companies, they suffer the consequences of backwardness of the equipment, having to deal with problems of poor coordination, delays in interventions and so on. Small and medium enterprises are often in trouble facing these issues so they need dedicated resources in order to offer a maintenance service compliant to the costumer requirements. In this context a research project was funded, aiming at aiding the birth of a virtual enterprise network of maintainers, which should provide a maintenance service of the highest level in the field of legacy industrial plants. One of the most difficult steps of the project, was to design a prototype capable of testing the architecture of the virtual network, the expert system and the overall goodness of the proposal for potential customers. In this paper we describe how it was possible to design, produce and operate a prototype which could fit a virtual enterprise network of maintainers. The method requires, among other things, to fulfil a preliminary selective Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA to be properly used to implement the diagnostic system.

  14. Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Julius J. Persensky; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2012-05-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.

  15. Application and Validation of Concept Maturity Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    need ( PMBOK Guide, 2008). A Capability-Based Assessment (CBA) is also done in parallel to determine if the need can be satisfied by a non-materiel...operational deficiency, as well as an opportunity to provide a new capability ( PMBOK Guide, 2008). In an effort to produce the ICD, needed capabilities...OAS/A9. Patton, M.R. (2002). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications. PMBOK Guide, D. E. (June 2003). US

  16. Quantum Mechanics Concept Assessment: Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum…

  17. Quantum Mechanics Concept Assessment: Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum…

  18. Everyday Concept Detection in Visual Lifelogs: Validation, Relationships and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrne, D.; Doherty, A.R.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Jones, G.J.F.; Smeaton, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The Microsoft SenseCam is a small lightweight wearable camera used to passively capture photos and other sensor readings from a user’s day-to-day activities. It captures on average 3,000 images in a typical day, equating to almost 1 million images per year. It can be used to aid memory by creating a

  19. Validating the detection of everyday concepts in visual lifelogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrne, D.; Doherty, A.R.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Jones, G.G.F.; Smeaton, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    The Microsoft SenseCam is a small lightweight wearable camera used to passively capture photos and other sensor readings from a user’s day-to-day activities. It can capture up to 3,000 images per day, equating to almost 1 million images per year. It is used to aid memory by creating a personal multi

  20. KALIMER design concept report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sim Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeon Sik; Wim Myung Whan; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs.

  1. Researching from the inside - does it Compromise Validity? - A Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The concept of validity in social research is the subject of much debate. It is a complex and problematic issue, especially because it is difficult to define validity. In traditional studies, validity usually referred to the degree to which the study accurately reflected the issue or topic that the research was attempting to measure (Feldman 2003). More specifically, this type of validity also referred to the role of research instruments and their appropriateness for collecting data that answ...

  2. Validity and reliability in qualitative researches

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract   Today science world changes sharply in a high speed. In a way that in all areas such as research methods these changes are obvious. Although concepts such as validity and reliability in Positivist methodology have been used with distinct and general rules, in post positivist period in which they have paid much more attention to qualitative research, these principles have lost their general form. In one hand some thinkers stress on applying common validity and reliability quantitati...

  3. Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [Yokohama University; Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stull, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Univesity; Cornwell, Phil [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology; Figueiredo, Eloi [Universidade Lusófona; Luscher, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worden, Keith [University of Sheffield

    2016-01-13

    As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.

  4. [Concept maps of the graduate programme in nursing: experience report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia Torres; Furtado, Luciana Gomes

    2013-06-01

    The conceptual map is considered a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this article was to evaluate concept maps produced by students to obtain an understanding of research projects. This is an experience report based on the Special Topic: concept map of the Graduate Program in Nursing/Federal University of Paraiba in February/2012. Methodology comprised interactive reading of concept maps, installation and use of Cmap Tools software and construction of concept maps. Concept evaluation included coherence, propositions, clarity of ideas and logical relation between concepts. This evaluation of maps revealed consistency among concepts, significant relationships, clarity of ideas and logical relationship between the stages of a research project. Results showed that the concept map is a valid strategy to evaluate the learning-teaching process and can be used for education, research and reflection in the nursing practice.

  5. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the…

  6. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive…

  7. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  8. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    same construct. If resil- iency of a system equates to the health of a person , then maybe there should be resiliency indices similar to health ... Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience—A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...as biomedical indices provide an indication, a concept of a person’s health . This process or concept of assessing one’s health can be equated to

  9. Making Wave Concept Tangible

    OpenAIRE

    Bülbül, Mustafa Şahin

    2012-01-01

    This study includes efficiency of some designed materials and activities for the students with special needs (blind students) about wave concept. In 9th grade Turkish High School Physics Curriculum, all the students have to learn wave concept because physics course is compulsory and wave concept was prepared as a unit. Generally, blind students only memorize some definitions about period, frequency and amplitude in that unit. This seems the easiest way for both teacher and students. Observing...

  10. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  11. Literature Review of Concepts: Psychological Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    or U) in parenthesis at the end of the title) Literature Review of Concepts: Psychological Resiliency (U) Analyse documentaire de concepts : la... analyse ). Le rôle de la résilience dans la protection de ces individus contre les réactions au stress lié au travail et l’apparition d’une...et leur validation. L’analyse documentaire fournit un résumé détaillé de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la résilience et de leur application

  12. Electrolysis Performance Improvement and Validation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Franz H.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electrolysis performance improvement and validation experiment are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis: an ever increasing need/role for space missions; static feed electrolysis (SFE) technology: a concept developed for space applications; experiment objectives: why test in microgravity environment; and experiment description: approach, hardware description, test sequence and schedule.

  13. Four concepts of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-12

    May 12, 2015 ... concepts of Africa is shown to be based on a particular logic with both strengths and weaknesses. ... Introduction .... In this section I argue that it is indeed possible to conceive of .... early history does one find evidence of a conception of Africa .... the King ceded all his land to the French in return for their.

  14. Modeling concept drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.

    2015-01-01

    An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...

  15. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  16. Tools and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, Margaret, Ed.; And Others

    This guide provides enrichment for students to develop tools and concepts used in various areas of mathematics. The first part presents arithmetic progressions, geometric progressions, and harmonic progression. In the second section, the concept of mathematic induction is developed from intuitive induction, using concrete activities, to the…

  17. Hedging structured concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, W.M.; Warmuth, M.K.; Kivinen, J.; Kalai, A.T.; Mohri, M.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an online algorithm called Component Hedge for learning structured concept classes when the loss of a structured concept sums over its components. Example classes include paths through a graph (composed of edges) and partial permutations (composed of assignments). The algorithm maintains

  18. Kierkegaard's concepts: Hypocrisy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauth Hansen, Thomas Martin

    2014-01-01

    Kierkegaard’s Concepts is a comprehensive, multi-volume survey of the key concepts and categories that inform Kierkegaard’s writings. Each article is a substantial, original piece of scholarship, which discusses the etymology and lexical meaning of the relevant Danish term, traces the development...

  19. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  20. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ties Behnke; LDC Concept Group

    2007-11-01

    In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force behind the LDC is the particle flow concept.

  1. The concept possession hypothesis of self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanah, Stephane

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that concept possession is sufficient and necessary for self-consciousness. If this is true it provides a yardstick for gauging the validity of different research paradigms in which claims for self-consciousness in animals or human infants are made: a convincing demonstration of concept possession in a research subject, such as a display of inferential reasoning, may be taken as conclusive evidence of self-consciousness. Intuitively, there appears to be a correlation between intelligence in animals (which presupposes concept possession) and the existence of self-consciousness. I present three discussions to support the hypothesis: an analogy between perception and conception, where both are self-specifying; an argument that any web of concepts will always include the self-concept; and a fresh interpretation of Bermũdez (1998) showing how his theory of non-conceptual content provides strong support for the concept possession hypothesis.

  2. Health coaching: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeanette M

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the use of health coaching documented in the literature indicate a lack of conceptual clarity. The purpose of this article was to clarify the meaning of health coaching and propose an operational definition. Seven attributes were identified and used to propose an operational definition of health coaching as a goal-oriented, client-centered partnership that is health-focused and occurs through a process of client enlightenment and empowerment. This operational definition and the proposed empirical measures of each attribute can be used to validate the presence of health coaching, develop theory-based applications, and consistently test the effectiveness of interventions using this concept. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of the Light Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E.; Brecher, K.; Prather, E. E.; Slater, T. F.

    2004-12-01

    In this era of burgeoning astronomy education research, there is growing need for standardized assessment of both student comprehension of fundamental concepts and new and innovative teaching methods and interventions. The nature of light and the electromagnetic spectrum is the most-taught topic in introductory astronomy, yet students continue to struggle in mastering associated concepts such as Kirchhoff's laws of spectral analysis, blackbody radiation, Wien's law, the Steffan-Boltzmann law, and the nature and causes of emission and absorption lines. We are developing a Light Concept Inventory (LCI) that aims to assess individual students' conceptual understanding of light and spectroscopy within the context of introductory astronomy, to identify and classify misconceptions, as well as to gauge the effectiveness of instructional strategies and materials in modifying these specific initial misconceptions. The development of the LCI is motivated by predecessor instruments such as the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT), and the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI), which have been successful in quantifying student conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics, basic astronomy concepts, and lunar phases respectively. Like the LPCI, the LCI focuses on a specific subset of astronomy concepts. Supplemental instruments such as these will provide depth to complement the breadth of the ADT. The development process of the LCI follows the techniques of classical and modern test theory to ensure the production of a reliable and valid test. The concept domain addressed by this test is shaped by the concepts that are most commonly taught within the astronomical community and are therefore deemed most important. Preliminary field-testing has taken place and will be followed up by additional testing with a revised version of the LCI in the coming months ahead. B.U. funding is provided in part by NSF Grant # DUE-0125992 and NASA GSRP Grant # NGT5-60482.

  4. Intuitive Direction Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klippel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in this article test the hypothesis that formal direction models used in artificial intelligence correspond to intuitive direction concepts of humans. Cognitively adequate formal models of spatial relations are important for information retrieval tasks, cognitive robotics, and multiple spatial reasoning applications. We detail two experiments using two objects (airplanes systematically located in relation to each other. Participants performed a grouping task to make their intuitive direction concepts explicit. The results reveal an important, so far insufficiently discussed aspect of cognitive direction concepts: Intuitive (natural direction concepts do not follow a one-size-fits-all strategy. The behavioral data only forms a clear picture after participants' competing strategies are identified and separated into categories (groups themselves. The results are important for researchers and designers of spatial formalisms as they demonstrate that modeling cognitive direction concepts formally requires a flexible approach to capture group differences.

  5. Concept Modeling with Superwords

    CERN Document Server

    El-Arini, Khalid; Guestrin, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In information retrieval, a fundamental goal is to transform a document into concepts that are representative of its content. The term "representative" is in itself challenging to define, and various tasks require different granularities of concepts. In this paper, we aim to model concepts that are sparse over the vocabulary, and that flexibly adapt their content based on other relevant semantic information such as textual structure or associated image features. We explore a Bayesian nonparametric model based on nested beta processes that allows for inferring an unknown number of strictly sparse concepts. The resulting model provides an inherently different representation of concepts than a standard LDA (or HDP) based topic model, and allows for direct incorporation of semantic features. We demonstrate the utility of this representation on multilingual blog data and the Congressional Record.

  6. A Structural Equation Modelling of the Academic Self-Concept Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Musa

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…

  7. 论语言测试的信度与放度%On Reliability and Validity in Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雪梅; 宋静

    2007-01-01

    This paper dwells on the two important factors--reliability and validity in language testing: explain the concepts of reliability and validity; factors influencing reliability and validity; possible ways to achieve high reliability and validity; comments on the modern language testing tendency on reliability and validity and authors' own ideas.

  8. Damage Theory Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures.......This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures....

  9. Gender Fairness within the Force Concept Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Traxler, Adrienne; Henderson, Rachel; Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay; Papak, Alexis; Lindell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Research on the test structure of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has largely ignored gender, and research on FCI gender effects (often reported as "gender gaps") has seldom interrogated the structure of the test. These rarely-crossed streams of research leave open the possibility that the FCI may not be structurally valid across genders, particularly since many reported results come from calculus-based courses where 75% or more of the students are men. We examine the FCI considering both p...

  10. A Careful Consideration of the Calibration Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S. D.; Estler, W. T.; Doiron, T.; Eberhardt, K. R.; Levenson, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed discussion of the technical aspects of the calibration process with emphasis on the definition of the measurand, the conditions under which the calibration results are valid, and the subsequent use of the calibration results in measurement uncertainty statements. The concepts of measurement uncertainty, error, systematic error, and reproducibility are also addressed as they pertain to the calibration process. PMID:27500027

  11. IVVS probe mechanical concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; De Collibus, Mario Ferri; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pollastrone, Fabio; Crescenzi, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA designed, developed and tested a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS). • IVVS mechanical design has been revised from 2011 to 2013 to meet ITER requirements. • Main improvements are piezoceramic actuators and a step focus system. • Successful qualification activities validated the concept design for ITER environment. - Abstract: ENEA has been deeply involved in the design, development and testing of a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) required for the inspection of ITER plasma-facing components. The IVVS probe shall be deployed into the vacuum vessel, providing high resolution images and metrology measurements to detect damages and possible erosion. ENEA already designed and manufactured an IVVS probe prototype based on a rad-hard concept and driven by commercial micro-step motors, which demonstrated satisfying viewing and metrology performances at room conditions. The probe sends a laser beam through a reflective rotating prism. By rotating the axes of the prism, the probe can scan all the environment points except those present in a shadow cone and the backscattered light signal is then processed to measure the intensity level (viewing) and the distance from the probe (metrology). During the last years, in order to meet all the ITER environmental conditions, such as high vacuum, gamma radiation lifetime dose up to 5 MGy, cumulative neutron fluence of about 2.3 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, temperature of 120 °C and magnetic field of 8 T, the probe mechanical design was significantly revised introducing a new actuating system based on piezo-ceramic actuators and improved with a new step focus system. The optical and mechanical schemes have been then modified and refined to meet also the geometrical constraints. The paper describes the mechanical concept design solutions adopted in order to fulfill IVVS probe functional performance requirements considering ITER working environment and geometrical constraints.

  12. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  13. TIME-SPACE CONCEPT FOR PRECISION MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaokang; PENG Donglin; ZHU Ge; WANG Xianquan

    2008-01-01

    The transformation between time and space is discussed. To improve real-time response speed of intelligent measuring system, the concept of exchanging program execution time with more circuitry is presented working in cycle mode. Displacement measuring by magnification is achieved with period measurement by magnification. To change the condition that traditional precision measurement depends on machining precision greatly, the concept of measuring space with time and theory of time-space coordinate transformation are proposed. Guided by the idea of measuring space with time, differential frequency measurement system and time grating displacement sensor are developed based on the proposed novel methods. And high-precision measurement is achieved without high-precision manufacture, which embeds the remarkable characteristics of low cost but high precision to the devices. Experiment and test results conform the validity of the proposed time-space concept.

  14. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  15. A Structural Equation Modelling of the Academic Self-Concept Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Musa MATOVU

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and females from different levels of study and faculties. In this study the influence of academic self-concept on academic achievement was assessed, tested w...

  16. Intellect and Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Rattan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The connections between theories of concepts and issues of knowledge and epistemic normativity are complex and controversial. According to the general, broadly Fregean, view that stands in the background of this paper, these connections are taken not only to exist, but also to be fundamental to issues about the individuation of concepts. This kind of view fleshed out should clarify the nature and role of epistemic norms, and of different kinds of epistemic norms, in concept individuation. This paper takes up an aspect of this general task and tries to make explicit the nature and role of intellectual norms, and to argue that extant paradigms for theorizing concepts fail because they fail to recognize the nature and individuative relevance of intellectual norms.

  17. Some Fundamental Cybersecurity Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Kelce S; Kiy, Muge Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The results of successful hacking attacks against commercially available cybersecurity protection tools that had been touted as secure are distilled into a set of concepts that are applicable to many...

  18. Concepts in Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2013-06-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is unwarranted. Hence, the strong analogy between scientific theory change and individual learning should be approached with caution. In addition, we argue that (2) research in psychology and cognitive science provides a promising theoretical basis for developing explanatory mechanistic models of conceptual change. Moreover, we argue that (3) arguments against deeper integration between the fields of psychology and conceptual change are not convincing, and that recent theoretical developments in the cognitive sciences might prove indispensable in filling in the details in mechanisms of conceptual change.

  19. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  20. Decoding Astronomical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Two astronomy professors, using the Decoding the Disciplines process, help their students use abstract theories to analyze light and to visualize the enormous scale of astronomical concepts. (Contains 5 figures.)

  1. Model validation in soft systems practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checkland, P. [Univ. of Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    The concept of `a model` usually evokes the connotation `model of part of the real world`. That is an almost automatic response. It makes sense especially in relation to the way the concept has been developed and used in natural science. Classical operational research (OR), with its scientific aspirations, and systems engineering, use the concept in the same way and in addition use models as surrogates for the real world, on which experimentation is cheap. In these fields the key feature of a model is representativeness. In soft systems methodology (SSM) models are not of part of the world; they are only relevant to debate about the real world and are used in a cyclic learning process. The paper shows how the different concepts of validation in classical OR and SSM lead to a way of sharply defining the nature of `soft OR`. 21 refs.

  2. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  3. The AERA Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-24

    electrgnic tabular displays ( ETABS ). - , This concept document was prepared by a team of ATC experts to review prior work, the on-going AERA program, and to...Address Beacon System (DABS), trajectory modeling and planning algorithms, and electronic tabular displays ( ETABS ). This concept document was...capability, and a Flight Management System. The development of AERA requires major efforts in system design and software and man-machine interface

  4. Data governance implementation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  5. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    2004-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  6. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  7. Understanding on concepts of force of Thai freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usawinchai, Chokchai

    The central concept of Newtonian mechanics is force. Without this concept, the students would find the rest of mechanics very difficult to master. Based on this hypothesis, the understandings and misconceptions of Newtonian mechanics were investigated. Three hundred eighteen Thai freshmen participated in this study. The freshmen were divided into two groups according to their high school locations, Bangkok and other cities of Thailand. The Force Concept Inventory was used to probe the freshmen's understandings and misconceptions. The SPSS and EXCEL programs were used to analyze the data. The translation of the FCI into Thai and its subsequent validation is considered to be a significant contribution to physics education research. The analyses indicated freshmen had the best understanding on concepts of Newton's first and third laws and the least on Newton's second law. Several Misconceptions on Newtonian force concepts were found, similar to their USA counterparts. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of freshmen on understanding of Newtonian force concepts.

  8. Performance support system in higher engineering education – introduction and empirical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Piet; Bastiaens, Theo; Martinez Mediano, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    The paper defines and empirically validates the concept of performance support system in higher engineering education. The validation of the concept is based upon two studies: a pilot and an experiment, on the effect of performance support system on achievements and attitudes of students. The experi

  9. Psychological Test Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.; Sheronov E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psycholo...

  10. Psychological Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psychological test.

  11. An exploration of the concept of connect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Susan H; Serafica, Reimund

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to explore the concept of connect in multiple disciplines for further development of knowledge and theories in nursing and to establish a clear understanding of this construct. Connect has meanings rooted in the discipline of business, technology, and transportation which influence how the term is defined in nursing. Several definitions have been established that demonstrate the concepts of connect in other disciplines. A concept exploration design was used for the identification and explication of the term connect to describe, explain, and predict this interprofessional phenomenon. The databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PRO-Quest, and EBSCO were searched for articles through title and abstract screening using connect, connectedness, and connectivity. Three specific components were identified in the exploration: (a) respect, (b) trust, and (c) mutuality. Current literature validated the need for an empirical concept analysis. This concept exploration provides the first step in understanding the context and meaning of connect in nursing profession. By determining if connections exist and quantifying the level of connections, a level of congruency between the nurse and the patient can be established to determine the best plan of care and goals. An empirical measure of connect will benefit nursing and other disciplines. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Validation in chemometrics is presented using the exemplar context of multivariate calibration/prediction. A phenomenological analysis of common validation practices in data analysis and chemometrics leads to formulation of a set of generic Principles of Proper Validation (PPV), which is based...

  13. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  14. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  15. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  16. The CLIC Detector Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Pitters, Florian Michael

    2016-01-01

    CLIC is a concept for a future linear collider that would provide e+e- collisions at up to 3 TeV. The physics aims require a detector system with excellent jet energy and track momentum resolution, highly efficient flavour-tagging and lepton identification capabilities, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles and timing information in the order of nanoseconds to reject beam-induced background. To deal with those requirements, an extensive R&D programme is in place to overcome current technological limits. The CLIC detector concept includes a low-mass all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system and fine-grained calorimeters designed for particle flow analysis techniques, surrounded by a 4 T solenoid magnet. An overview of the requirements and design optimisations for the CLIC detector concept is presented.

  17. Teaching power concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, J; McCloskey, J C

    1985-01-01

    Concepts and strategies presented here provide nurses with a new perspective from which to analyze and interact with power dynamics. Understanding fundamental concepts of power will help nurses enjoy a more equal status and bargaining position within the community of health professionals and in health care delivery systems. As nurses integrate and utilize this content for enhancing professional practices and client services, our public image will also continue to be strengthened. In so doing, our power base and sphere of influence will also be broadened.

  18. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization.

  19. Loneliness: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Nakhla, Wagdy E

    2008-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal human experience recognized since the dawn of time, yet it is unique for every individual. Loneliness can lead to both depression and low self-esteem. This article explicates the concept of loneliness through the examination of its conceptual definition and uses, defining attributes, related concepts, and empirical referents. Literature review using hand search and database were used as sources of information. Because loneliness is commonly encountered in nursing situations, the information provided will serve as a framework for assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation of clients.

  20. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  1. Concepts of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, P L

    1983-01-01

    Concepts of Quantum Optics is a coherent and sequential coverage of some real insight into quantum physics. This book is divided into six chapters, and begins with an overview of the principles and concepts of radiation and quanta, with an emphasis on the significance of the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. The next chapter describes first the properties of the radiation field in a bounded cavity, showing how each cavity field mode has the characteristics of a simple harmonic oscillator and how each can be quantized using known results for the quantum harmonic oscillator. This chapte

  2. Actuator Characterization of Man Portable Precision Maneuver Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    brushless DC motors, along with a model of the rotating wing concept and a prototype 40-mm projectile, which was fired through the spark range (14), is... Model Characterization of Brushless DC Motors. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 1992, 28 (1), 172–180. 17. Rigatos, G.G. Particle and Kalman...concepts is addressed. Actuator experiments conducted over a variety of conditions validate dynamic models of the actuator and supply the data

  3. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the p...

  4. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  5. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  6. Hierarchical and Multidimensional Academic Self-Concept of Commercial Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung; Chui; Lau

    1999-10-01

    Adapting the Marsh (1990) Academic Self-Description Questionnaire (ASDQ), this study examined the academic self-concept of students in a school of commerce in Hong Kong (N = 212). Confirmatory factor analysis found that students clearly distinguished among self-concept constructs in English, Chinese, Math and Statistics, Economics, and Principles of Accounting, and each of these constructs was highly associated with a global Academic self-concept construct, reflecting the validity of each construct in measuring an academic component of self-concept. Domain-specific self-concepts were more highly related with students' intention of course selection in corresponding areas than in nonmatching areas, further supporting the multidimensionality of the students' academic self-concept. Students' self-concepts in the five curriculum domains can be represented by the global Academic self-concept, supporting the hierarchical structure of students' academic self-concept in an educational institution with a specific focus, such as commercial studies. The academic self-concepts of the commercial students are both multidimensional and hierarchical. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  8. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bashir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged. Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself. This ensures the attainment of rigor using strategies inherent within each qualitative design, and moves the responsibility for incorporating and maintaining reliability and validity from external reviewers’ judgments to the investigators themselves. There have different opinions on validity with some suggesting that the concepts of validity is incompatible with qualitative research and should be abandoned while others argue efforts should be made to ensure validity so as to lend credibility to the results. This paper is an attempt to clarify the meaning and use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm.

  9. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  10. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  11. Concept medium program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...

  12. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  13. Entropy, a Protean Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balian, Roger

    We review at a tutorial level the many aspects of the concept of entropy and their interrelations, in thermodynamics, information theory, probability theory and statistical physics. The consideration of relevant entropies and the identification of entropy with missing information enlighten the paradoxes of irreversibility and of Maxwell's demon.

  14. The Concept of "Teachability."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  15. Higgs Factory Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Designs for future high-energy circular electron-positron colliders are based on both established and novel concepts. An appropriate design will enable these facilities to serve not only as “Higgs factories”, but also as Z, W and top factories, and, in addition, to become a possible first step to a higher-energy hadron collider.

  16. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  17. Understanding the Agribusiness Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S.

    Designed to aid in learning the main ideas of the agribusiness concept, this document answers the following questions, treating each answer in a separate explanatory section: (1) What is the meaning of the terms "agriculture" and "agribusiness"? (2) What is the relationship of agriculture and agribusiness? (3) What is involved in tracing an…

  18. Advanced tokamak concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    1998-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  19. SMRF architecture concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Wit, J.J.M. de; Otten, M.P.G.; Huizing, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This presents three valuable applications of scalable multifunction RF (SMRF) systems. These systems allow radar, ESM, and communication functionality using a single front-end architecture. With the use of a novel system design tool, concepts for SMRF architectures for airborne, ground-based and nav

  20. Advanced tokamak concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    1996-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  1. The Concept of "Teachability."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  2. [Current concepts on gastroschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón García, J M; Vivar Ferrer, I; Bautista, M L

    1979-01-01

    Present day concepts about history, etiology, embriology, and management of gastroschisis are reviewed and a case is reported; it was treated in two surgical steps. A silastic net was applied and the intestinal loops were gradually introduced until the abdominal defect closed completely. Parenteral feeding was also given.

  3. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    there is a great need for full-service packages including consulting, contract work, follow-up, financing and operation and maintenance. There are few Nordic examples of such service models for renovation of single-family houses which entered the market recently. The success of these concepts is yet...

  4. Ares I concept illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is an illustration of the Ares I concept. The first stage will be a single, five-segment solid rocket booster derived from the space shuttle programs reusable solid rocket motor. The first stage is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama for NASA's Constellation program.

  5. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour con

  6. Photoelectrochemistry: Introductory Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finklea, Harry O.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is based on the semiconductor electrode. It is the semiconductor's ability to absorb light and convert it to electrical and/or chemical energy that forms the basis for the semiconductor liquid-junction solar cell. To understand how this occurs, solid-state physics concepts are discussed. (Author/JN)

  7. Parsimonious concept modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Trieschnigg, D.; Rijke, M.de; Kraaij, W.

    2008-01-01

    In many collections, documents are annotated using concepts from a structured knowledge source such as an ontology or thesaurus. Examples include the news domain [7], where each news item is categorized according to the nature of the event that took place, and Wikipedia, with its per-article categor

  8. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  9. The Concept of "Bildung"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkoy, Oivind

    2010-01-01

    In this article I will discuss the originally German term and concept of Bildung. The reason why I, as a Scandinavian, find such a discussion both interesting and important is that the trend of instrumentalism in modern educational politics and pedagogical thinking (at least in Scandinavian countries) is problematic; that is, looking on knowledge…

  10. [Freud's narcissism concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmowski, B

    1989-01-01

    The conception of narcissism according to Freud involves a number of different issues and hypotheses. Historically, the numerous contradictions and obscurities in the various psychoanalytical theories of narcissism were clear from the beginning. In this study it was attempted to define four central concepts and critically revise their clinical and theoretical relevance. Following a historical survey on the development of the term by Freud, the problems of defining narcissism by means of the theory of drive and libido are described. The corresponding hypothesis concerning developmental psychology will then be examined with regard to the results of recent infant research. Then the first (and for Freud most important) narcissism concept is represented, narcissism as a mode of object relation and a type of object choice. In conclusion, the new theories, which emphasize narcissism in terms of sense of one's self and self-esteem will be dealt with. Thus this study contributes to the differentiation of the various concepts in the clinical theory of narcissism, especially concerning the unravelling of the object relation- and self-theories from energetic-economical models and developmental speculation of primary narcissism.

  11. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  12. From Concept to Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jiang; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    that has the potential for further economic upgrading. In this paper, we investigate the initiation and growth process of the cloud computing industry in China, based on an in-depth case study. We discover that the development of China׳s cloud computing industry that emerged from an initial concept...

  13. Innovative transparent armour concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since WWII transparent armour consists of a multi-layer of glass panels bonded by thin polymer bond-films using an autoclave process. TNO has worked on the development of innovative transparent armour concepts that are lighter and a have better multi-hit capacity. Two new transparent armour

  14. The Concept of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores the concept of culture as a factor in the well-being of children. Holding students accountable for their behavior, holding schools accountable for activities and achievements of students, and inducing parents to support their children in school require a cultural change in how we look at schooling. (SLD)

  15. Learning Design: Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Bennett, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Koper, E. J. R., & Bennet, S. (2008). Learning Design: Concepts. In H. H. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. M. Pawlowski & D. Sampson, Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training (2th ed., pp. 135-154). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 2008: International Handbook on Information Systems Series

  16. Concept of Operations: Essence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  17. Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Graham

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the author developed a model to describe academic self-concept (ASC) in science and validated an instrument for its measurement. Unlike previous models of science ASC, which envisage science as a homogenous single global construct, this model took a multidimensional view by conceiving science self-concept as possessing distinctive facets including conceptual and procedural elements. In the first part of the study, data were collected from 1,483 students attending eight secondary schools in England, through the use of a newly devised Secondary Self-Concept Science Instrument, and structural equation modeling was employed to test and validate a model. In the second part of the study, the data were analysed within the new self-concept framework to examine learners' ASC profiles across the domains of science, with particular attention paid to age- and gender-related differences. The study found that the proposed science self-concept model exhibited robust measures of fit and construct validity, which were shown to be invariant across gender and age subgroups. The self-concept profiles were heterogeneous in nature with the component relating to self-concept in physics, being surprisingly positive in comparison to other aspects of science. This outcome is in stark contrast to data reported elsewhere and raises important issues about the nature of young learners' self-conceptions about science. The paper concludes with an analysis of the potential utility of the self-concept measurement instrument as a pedagogical device for science educators and learners of science.

  18. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  19. Proof-of-concept and advancement of the CellFlux concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Christian; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The CellFlux storage system is a new concept for reducing the costs of medium to high temperature thermal energy storage. Initially designed for solar thermal power plants, the concept is suitable for industrial processes and power to heat applications as well. This paper gives first results of a new pilot scale plant set up at DLR in Stuttgart as a proof of concept. Experimental results are used for the validation of a simplified model. The model is apllied to calculate pareto optimal storage configurations in terms of necessary storage mass and exergetic efficiency, suitable for two types of solar thermal power plants. Particularly for applications having larger temperature differences, high exergetic efficiencies at low costs for the storage material can be achieved.

  20. Validation, Uncertainty, and Quantitative Reliability at Confidence (QRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R W; Nitta, C K

    2002-12-06

    This paper represents a summary of our methodology for Verification and Validation and Uncertainty Quantification. A graded scale methodology is presented and related to other concepts in the literature. We describe the critical nature of quantified Verification and Validation with Uncertainty Quantification at specified Confidence levels in evaluating system certification status. Only after Verification and Validation has contributed to Uncertainty Quantification at specified confidence can rational tradeoffs of various scenarios be made. Verification and Validation methods for various scenarios and issues are applied in assessments of Quantified Reliability at Confidence and we summarize briefly how this can lead to a Value Engineering methodology for investment strategy.

  1. Validation of simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Muniza; Pedersen, Stig Andur

    2012-01-01

    In philosophy of science, the interest for computational models and simulations has increased heavily during the past decades. Different positions regarding the validity of models have emerged but the views have not succeeded in capturing the diversity of validation methods. The wide variety...... of models has been somewhat narrow-minded reducing the notion of validation to establishment of truth. This article puts forward the diversity in applications of simulation models that demands a corresponding diversity in the notion of validation....... of models with regards to their purpose, character, field of application and time dimension inherently calls for a similar diversity in validation approaches. A classification of models in terms of the mentioned elements is presented and used to shed light on possible types of validation leading...

  2. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco Lub

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate), the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of con...

  3. Validation Measures in CMMI

    OpenAIRE

    Khraiwesh, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Validation is one of the software engineering disciplines that help build quality into software. The major objective of software validation process is to determine that the software performs its intended functions correctly and provide information about its quality and reliability. This paper identifies general measures for the specific goals and its specific practices of Validation Process Area (PA) in Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). CMMI is developed by Software Engineering In...

  4. Exoplanet Yield Estimation for Decadal Study Concepts using EXOSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Lowrance, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Garrett, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The anticipated upcoming large mission study concepts for the direct imaging of exo-earths present an exciting opportunity for exoplanet discovery and characterization. While these telescope concepts would also be capable of conducting a broad range of astrophysical investigations, the most difficult technology challenges are driven by the requirements for imaging exo-earths. The exoplanet science yield for these mission concepts will drive design trades and mission concept comparisons.To assist in these trade studies, the Exoplanet Exploration Program Office (ExEP) is developing a yield estimation tool that emphasizes transparency and consistent comparison of various design concepts. The tool will provide a parametric estimate of science yield of various mission concepts using contrast curves from physics-based model codes and Monte Carlo simulations of design reference missions using realistic constraints, such as solar avoidance angles, the observatory orbit, propulsion limitations of star shades, the accessibility of candidate targets, local and background zodiacal light levels, and background confusion by stars and galaxies. The python tool utilizes Dmitry Savransky's EXOSIMS (Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator) design reference mission simulator that is being developed for the WFIRST Preliminary Science program. ExEP is extending and validating the tool for future mission concepts under consideration for the upcoming 2020 decadal review. We present a validation plan and preliminary yield results for a point design.

  5. INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG NONCOOPERATIVE AND COALITION STABILITY CONCEPTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takehiro INOHARA; Keith W.HIPEL

    2008-01-01

    Insightful theorems are established on interrelationships among coalition and noncooperative stability concepts defined within the paradigm of the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution.More specifically,the newly defined coalition stability definitions that are considered are coalition Nash stability(CNash),coalition general metarationality(CGMR),coalition symmetric metarationality (CSMR)and coalition sequential stability(CSEQ),along with their earlier-defined noncooperative versions.A range of interesting new theorems ale derived to establish connections among these coalition stability concepts as well as between noncooperative and coalition stability definitions.Applications with respect to the games of Prisoner's Dilemma and Chicken.as well as a groundwater contamination dispute,demonstrate how the various stability definitions Can be applied in practice and confirm the validity of some of the theorems as well as point out,by example,certain types of relationships which cannot hold.

  6. Novel antenna concepts via coordinate transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Tichit

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate transformation is an emerging field which offers a powerful and unprecedented ability to manipulate and control electromagnetic waves. Using this tool, we demonstrate the design of novel antenna concepts by tailoring their radiation properties. The wave manipulation is enabled through the use of engineered dispersive composite metamaterials that realize the space coordinate transformation. Three types of antennas are considered for design: a directive, a beam steerable and a quasi-isotropic one. Numerical simulations together with experimental measurements are performed in order to validate the coordinate transformation concept. Near-field cartography and far-field pattern measurements performed on a fabricated prototype agree qualitatively with Finite Element Method (FEM simulations. It is shown that a particular radiation pattern can be tailored at ease into a desired one by modifying the electromagnetic properties of the space around radiator. This idea opens the way to novel antenna design techniques for various application domains such as the aeronautical and transport fields.

  7. Transformational leadership in nursing: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Shelly A

    2016-11-01

    To analyse the concept of transformational leadership in the nursing context. Tasked with improving patient outcomes while decreasing the cost of care provision, nurses need strategies for implementing reform in health care and one promising strategy is transformational leadership. Exploration and greater understanding of transformational leadership and the potential it holds is integral to performance improvement and patient safety. Concept analysis using Walker and Avant's (2005) concept analysis method. PubMed, CINAHL and PsychINFO. This report draws on extant literature on transformational leadership, management, and nursing to effectively analyze the concept of transformational leadership in the nursing context. This report proposes a new operational definition for transformational leadership and identifies model cases and defining attributes that are specific to the nursing context. The influence of transformational leadership on organizational culture and patient outcomes is evident. Of particular interest is the finding that transformational leadership can be defined as a set of teachable competencies. However, the mechanism by which transformational leadership influences patient outcomes remains unclear. Transformational leadership in nursing has been associated with high-performing teams and improved patient care, but rarely has it been considered as a set of competencies that can be taught. Also, further research is warranted to strengthen empirical referents; this can be done by improving the operational definition, reducing ambiguity in key constructs and exploring the specific mechanisms by which transformational leadership influences healthcare outcomes to validate subscale measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Progressive Concept Evaluation Method for Automatically Generated Concept Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woldemichael Dereje Engida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is one of the most critical and important phases of design process with least computer support system. Conceptual design support tool (CDST is a conceptual design support system developed to automatically generate concepts for each subfunction in functional structure. The automated concept generation process results in large number of concept variants which require a thorough evaluation process to select the best design. To address this, a progressive concept evaluation technique consisting of absolute comparison, concept screening and weighted decision matrix using analytical hierarchy process (AHP is proposed to eliminate infeasible concepts at each stage. The software implementation of the proposed method is demonstrated.

  9. Proof of Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    it is needed. In the following paragraphs, the desk study on the WEBAP concept is presented in terms of overtopping flow rates for different configurations. Investigations on different drafts, slope angles and crest levels have been completed. Calculations on the pipe discharge have been made in order......The Wave Energized Baltic Aeration Pump (WEBAP) is a concept that proposes to find a solution to the low level of oxygenation of the Baltic Sea by bringing the surface sea water to the depth where the oxygen is needed. It proposes to do so by using the rich in oxygen overtopping water collected...... in a reservoir floating on the sea. The stored water, after overtopping the ramp leading to the reservoir, will be at a higher level than mean water level and therefore will have a potential energy. This potential energy is indeed used to pump down to the sea bed the oxygenated water right there where...

  10. TQM: the essential concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.

  11. Concept of Suzerainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the concept of suzerainty, which, in time, has generated several disputes and disagreements, being also subject of conventions, treaties and international mediations. I have approached this sensitive and especially current since in contemporary international law, the political and legal ground of international personality of state is represented by its suzerainty; also, the integration of states in over-national bodies and structures is possible only for the states having the suzerainty acknowledged. Considering that suzerainty, as essential element characterizing the state, gives expression both to the authority exercised over the community organized in the state and to some directed towards the exterior of community, I have analyzed both the internal and external suzerainty. This articles focuses on determining – as accurate as possible – the characteristics of the concept of suzerainty and of the limits of exercising the suzerainty.

  12. Trimble Vrs Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttenberger, C.

    Presenting the Trimble Virtual Reference Station (VRS) concept. High accuracy Real-Time Kinematic Positioning with GPS is one of todaySs most widely used surveying techniques. But, its use is restricted by the effects of the iono- sphere and troposphere which create systematic errors in the raw data. In practice, these mean that the distance between a rover (mobile) receiver and its reference sta- tion has to be quite short in order to work efficiently. The concept of Virtual Reference Stations offers a new opportunity. When used, the systematic errors in the reference station data are either reduced, or eliminated. This not only allows a user to increase the distance at which the rover receiver is located from the reference, it also increases the reliability of the system and reduces the OTF initialization time. The presentation describes the setup of a VRS system, as well the used model to reduce the error influence in such a permanente reference station network.

  13. Designing concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In urban transformation some of the most interesting and complex design challenges are related to redevelopment of city centres and waterfronts. Here the conflicts between ‘the old’ and ‘the new’ are the largest, and here the potentials for mistakes are at a critical level. One of the problems is......, that new developments often employ very modest research on the subject and often very little has been done in order to challenge traditional concepts and to invent new sustainable concepts for redevelopment. In order to avoid mistakes in urban redevelopment we need to learn from research and evaluation...... and strategies are briefly described in the article, and the adaption by city planners and developers has been critical reviewed....

  14. The Crowd Energy Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie Teufel; Bernd Teufel

    2014-01-01

    ⎯After the Fukushima disaster, European politicians began to reassess the energy strategy for their countries. The focus is now on renewable energy sources and as a result on decentralization. The decentralized generation, storage, and of course the consumption of energy is the central point. Now with the new develop-ments under the roof of energy turnaround the way back from the centralized architecture of our energy system to a more decentralized one is predetermined. Decentralization implies the change in the role of today’s consumers. They become energy prosumers. This is the basis for the crowd energy concept. In this position paper the crowd energy concept is introduced and necessary research fields are identified.

  15. Concepts in Thermal Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    This modern introduction to thermal physics contains a step-by-step presentation of the key concepts. The text is copiously illustrated and each chapter contains several worked examples. - ;An understanding of thermal physics is crucial to much of modern physics, chemistry and engineering. This book provides a modern introduction to the main principles that are foundational to thermal physics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics. The key concepts are carefully presented in a clear way, and new ideas are illustrated with copious worked examples as well as a description of the historical background to their discovery. Applications are presented to subjects as. diverse as stellar astrophysics, information and communication theory, condensed matter physics, and climate change. Each chapter concludes with detailed exercises. -

  16. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires

  17. Some core contested concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  18. Designing concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    of the best planning practice. But what might be just as important is to learn from concept development practice, which can give us a comprehensive understanding of our complex cities and make us develop a way of experiencing the unique qualities of the architectural typologies at the site. Finally...... and strategies are briefly described in the article, and the adaption by city planners and developers has been critical reviewed....

  19. Concepts of force

    CERN Document Server

    Jammer, Max

    2011-01-01

    Both historical treatment and critical analysis, this work by a noted physicist takes a fascinating look at a fundamental of physics, tracing its development from ancient to modern times. Kepler's initiation of scientific conceptualization, Newton's definition, post-Newtonian reinterpretation - contrasting concepts of Leibniz, Boscovich, Kant with those of Mach, Kirchhoff, Hertz. In-depth analysis of contemporary trend toward eliminating force from conceptual scheme of physics. ""An excellent presentation."" - Science. 1962 edition.

  20. Moral Concepts and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Mark

    2009-01-01

    I first argue that standard versions of moral internalism are untenable in light of a type of example that has not previously been considered in metaethical discussions. As a consequence of having unusual views, a good-willed thinker could make moral judgments and recognize moral facts without having a disposition to be motivated to act accordingly (and without believing himself to have reasons for action). Moreover, on a familiar conception of irrationality as incoherence, the thinker in q...

  1. Concept and Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerholm, Fabian; MÃŒnch, JÃŒrgen

    2012-01-01

    New ways of working such as globally distributed development or the integration of self-motivated external developers into software ecosystems will require a better and more comprehensive understanding of developers' feelings, perceptions, motivations and identification with their tasks in their respective project environments. User experience is a concept that captures how persons feel about products, systems and services. It evolved from disciplines such as interaction design and usability ...

  2. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  3. New Concept of Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Komissarov Gennadiy Germanovich

    2014-01-01

    The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen) source is not water, but exo- and endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases) is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel)...

  4. Pedodiversity: a controversial concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concept of pedodiversity and its measurement methodology proposed and developed by Ibá?ez research term is introduced. An attempt to apply pedodiversity to analyze spatial soil variation and distribution patterns on the global scale is briefly demonstrated. Furthermore, constructive comments and criticisms on pedodiversity and its measurement from the noted pedologists and ecologists are outlined. Finally, potential applications of pedodiversity in soil science and other relevant disciplines are discussed.

  5. Estimating uncertainty of inference for validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2010-09-30

    We present a validation process based upon the concept that validation is an inference-making activity. This has always been true, but the association has not been as important before as it is now. Previously, theory had been confirmed by more data, and predictions were possible based on data. The process today is to infer from theory to code and from code to prediction, making the role of prediction somewhat automatic, and a machine function. Validation is defined as determining the degree to which a model and code is an accurate representation of experimental test data. Imbedded in validation is the intention to use the computer code to predict. To predict is to accept the conclusion that an observable final state will manifest; therefore, prediction is an inference whose goodness relies on the validity of the code. Quantifying the uncertainty of a prediction amounts to quantifying the uncertainty of validation, and this involves the characterization of uncertainties inherent in theory/models/codes and the corresponding data. An introduction to inference making and its associated uncertainty is provided as a foundation for the validation problem. A mathematical construction for estimating the uncertainty in the validation inference is then presented, including a possibility distribution constructed to represent the inference uncertainty for validation under uncertainty. The estimation of inference uncertainty for validation is illustrated using data and calculations from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The ICF measurements of neutron yield and ion temperature were obtained for direct-drive inertial fusion capsules at the Omega laser facility. The glass capsules, containing the fusion gas, were systematically selected with the intent of establishing a reproducible baseline of high-yield 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} neutron output. The deuterium-tritium ratio in these experiments was varied to study its influence upon yield. This paper on validation inference is the

  6. Sociological concept of generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociological concept of generation should be distinguished from biological and statistical, and they discussed all three of its meaning. In a sociological sense, it is characterized by a common historical experience that has its own internal and external, subjective and objective dimension. In sociology it was introduced by Dilthey, one of the main representatives of historicism, and which is characterized by discontinuous conception of history and emphasizing specificity of cultural epochs. In contemporary sociology, this concept was reaffirmed under the strong influence of Mannheim who argued that the generation is in the range of analytical categories of class and nation. The major historical generations in our society are pointed. Four generations are considered as the main age groups but also as social constructs children, youth, middle aged and old people. Their status in the traditional and contemporary, especially in our society is pointed. In the research of generation and its main forms have formed a special sociological disciplines, except for the middle-aged who are, as a generation, at least sociologically studied.

  7. Strolling Toward New Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koreaki

    2016-09-08

    For more than four decades now, I have been studying how genetic information is transformed into protein-based cellular functions. This has included investigations into the mechanisms supporting cellular localization of proteins, disulfide bond formation, quality control of membranes, and translation. I tried to extract new principles and concepts that are universal among living organisms from our observations of Escherichia coli. While I wanted to distill complex phenomena into basic principles, I also tried not to overlook any serendipitous observations. In the first part of this article, I describe personal experiences during my studies of the Sec pathway, which have centered on the SecY translocon. In the second part, I summarize my views of the recent revival of translation studies, which has given rise to the concept that nonuniform polypeptide chain elongation is relevant for the subsequent fates of newly synthesized proteins. Our studies of a class of regulatory nascent polypeptides advance this concept by showing that the dynamic behaviors of the extraribosomal part of the nascent chain affect the ongoing translation process. Vibrant and regulated molecular interactions involving the ribosome, mRNA, and nascent polypeptidyl-tRNA are based, at least partly, on their autonomously interacting properties.

  8. Entropy Evaluation Based on Value Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald O. Kvålseth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in statistical physics and information theory, the Boltzmann-Shannon entropy S has become one of the most widely used and misused summary measures of various attributes (characteristics in diverse fields of study. It has also been the subject of extensive and perhaps excessive generalizations. This paper introduces the concept and criteria for value validity as a means of determining if an entropy takes on values that reasonably reflect the attribute being measured and that permit different types of comparisons to be made for different probability distributions. While neither S nor its relative entropy equivalent S* meet the value-validity conditions, certain power functions of S and S* do to a considerable extent. No parametric generalization offers any advantage over S in this regard. A measure based on Euclidean distances between probability distributions is introduced as a potential entropy that does comply fully with the value-validity requirements and its statistical inference procedure is discussed.

  9. A Large-Scale Empirical Evaluation of Cross-Validation and External Test Set Validation in (Q)SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gütlein, Martin; Helma, Christoph; Karwath, Andreas; Kramer, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    (Q)SAR model validation is essential to ensure the quality of inferred models and to indicate future model predictivity on unseen compounds. Proper validation is also one of the requirements of regulatory authorities in order to accept the (Q)SAR model, and to approve its use in real world scenarios as alternative testing method. However, at the same time, the question of how to validate a (Q)SAR model, in particular whether to employ variants of cross-validation or external test set validation, is still under discussion. In this paper, we empirically compare a k-fold cross-validation with external test set validation. To this end we introduce a workflow allowing to realistically simulate the common problem setting of building predictive models for relatively small datasets. The workflow allows to apply the built and validated models on large amounts of unseen data, and to compare the performance of the different validation approaches. The experimental results indicate that cross-validation produces higher performant (Q)SAR models than external test set validation, reduces the variance of the results, while at the same time underestimates the performance on unseen compounds. The experimental results reported in this paper suggest that, contrary to current conception in the community, cross-validation may play a significant role in evaluating the predictivity of (Q)SAR models.

  10. The Standardization of the Concepts about Print into Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafa, Eufimia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and standardize Concepts About Print (C.A.P.) into Greek, and to assess its psychometric properties. Particularly, this study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Greek version of C.A.P., and item difficulty and discrimination index and examined whether there were differences between boys and…

  11. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  12. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, T.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  13. Conceptions of Creativity among Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This research had two objectives. The first was to determine the reliability and validity of the multifaceted assessment of creativity (MAC) for evaluating Hong Kong university students' conceptions of creativity. The second was to establish if the theory-practice and gender gaps discovered among mainland Chinese university students would be…

  14. Fuzzy Logic: Toward Measuring Gottfredson's Concept of Occupational Social Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated the application of fuzzy graphic rating scale to measurement of preferences for occupational sex type, prestige, and interests using Gottfredson's concept of occupational social space. Reported reliability and validity data with illustrative examples of respondents' interpretations of their own fuzzy ratings. Outlined counseling and…

  15. Fuzzy Logic: Toward Measuring Gottfredson's Concept of Occupational Social Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated the application of fuzzy graphic rating scale to measurement of preferences for occupational sex type, prestige, and interests using Gottfredson's concept of occupational social space. Reported reliability and validity data with illustrative examples of respondents' interpretations of their own fuzzy ratings. Outlined counseling and…

  16. Fundamental Concepts for Environmental Management Education (K-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert Earl

    This study was undertaken to develop a taxonomy of conceptual objectives for use in planning programs of instruction related to environmental management education (K-16) and to determine whether or not biases exist among persons representative of selected disciplines. Survey techniques to obtain and validate concepts appropriate for environmental…

  17. Bibliometrics for Social Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a bibliometric, citation network-based method for assessing the social validation of novel research, and applies this method to the development of high-throughput toxicology research at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Social validation refers to the acceptance of novel research methods by a relevant scientific community; it is formally independent of the technical validation of methods, and is frequently studied in history, philosophy, and social studies of science using qualitative methods. The quantitative methods introduced here find that high-throughput toxicology methods are spread throughout a large and well-connected research community, which suggests high social validation. Further assessment of social validation involving mixed qualitative and quantitative methods are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:28005974

  18. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  19. Bibliometrics for Social Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a bibliometric, citation network-based method for assessing the social validation of novel research, and applies this method to the development of high-throughput toxicology research at the US Environmental Protection Agency. Social validation refers to the acceptance of novel research methods by a relevant scientific community; it is formally independent of the technical validation of methods, and is frequently studied in history, philosophy, and social studies of science using qualitative methods. The quantitative methods introduced here find that high-throughput toxicology methods are spread throughout a large and well-connected research community, which suggests high social validation. Further assessment of social validation involving mixed qualitative and quantitative methods are discussed in the conclusion.

  20. Undergraduate students’ conceptions of enthalpy, enthalpy change and related concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Tor; Niedderer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that students have problems understanding thermodynamic concepts and that a gap exists at the tertiary level related to more specific chemistry concepts such as enthalpy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to construct undergraduate students’ conceptions of enthalpy, its change and related concepts. Three explorative small-scale studies were conducted at two Swedish universities. Questionnaires, exam questions, hand-ins and interviews covered a range of issues from chemical th...

  1. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  2. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  3. "Non-Concept" of "No-Threshold": Chemicals in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinman, Bertram D.

    1972-01-01

    Examines the validity of the concept that the interaction of a single pollutant molecule with a cellular substance is necessarily associated with a deleterious result. Argues that such a no threshold" position is untenable. (AL)

  4. Open standard building in South Africa: new concepts, strategies and technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ” of the structures prohibited adaptation over time. This paper constructs a framework for developing, validating, and applying Open Standard Building in South Africa. The paper finds that Open Standard Building concepts, strategies and technologies can deliver...

  5. Concept caring in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Drahošová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this literature review was to search for qualitative studies focusing on the concept of caring in nursing, to analyse them and to synthesize knowledge that concerns the definition of the concept of caring in nursing from the point of view of nurses and patients. Design: Review. Methods: Qualitative studies were searched for systematically in the electronic databases Academic Search Complete (EBSCO, CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct, and the Wiley Library Online, according to set criteria and defined key words for the period 1970-2015. Seven selected articles were analysed after selection of documents with the aid of a sorting chart. Results: Nurses understand caring in nursing as a relationship with patients which is characterised on the nurses' part by an individual and empathetic approach, attentiveness, experience and sensitivity. Through caring, active communication takes place, providing information which reduces anxiety and leads to the breaking down of barriers. This relationship helps protect patients' autonomy, dignity and comfort. It requires experience on the part of nurses, and it is influenced by the environment. The nurses' personal qualities (what professional knowledge, attitudes and skills they have and their availability, reliability, and emotional and physical support are important to patients. Conclusion: The concept of caring is a content specific interpersonal process which is characterized by the professional knowledge, skills, personal maturity, and interpersonal sensitivity of nurses, which result in the protection, emotional support, and the meeting of bio-psycho-social needs of patients. The results of the overview study could contribute to an explanation and understanding of the nature of caring as a fundamental feature of the discipline of nursing.

  6. Concepts of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management.  The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aim to cover a wide range  of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization.Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts:- On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, presenting basics about worst-case and randomi

  7. Current concepts in osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivere, B; Wimhurst, J A; Clark, I M; Donell, S T

    2012-01-01

    The most frequent cause of failure after total hip replacement in all reported arthroplasty registries is peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Osteolysis is an active biological process initiated in response to wear debris. The eventual response to this process is the activation of macrophages and loss of bone. Activation of macrophages initiates a complex biological cascade resulting in the final common pathway of an increase in osteolytic activity. The biological initiators, mechanisms for and regulation of this process are beginning to be understood. This article explores current concepts in the causes of, and underlying biological mechanism resulting in peri-prosthetic osteolysis, reviewing the current basic science and clinical literature surrounding the topic.

  8. Proceedings of Concept House

    OpenAIRE

    Eekhout, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the TU Delft, faculty of Architecture, a new research group is active since January 2004, with the first PhD student starting at September 1 st 2004 onwards. The group is regularly growing and will exist for 5 years: up to 2010. The aim of the research group is to do a preliminary marketing first, to design, develop and research new Concept Houses, to build and test them as prototypes, to do a final marketing for use in the Netherlands and in Western Europe and to prepare the actual produc...

  9. Concepts of modern mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    1995-01-01

    Some years ago, ""new math"" took the country's classrooms by storm. Based on the abstract, general style of mathematical exposition favored by research mathematicians, its goal was to teach students not just to manipulate numbers and formulas, but to grasp the underlying mathematical concepts. The result, at least at first, was a great deal of confusion among teachers, students, and parents. Since then, the negative aspects of ""new math"" have been eliminated and its positive elements assimilated into classroom instruction.In this charming volume, a noted English mathematician uses humor an

  10. Actuator concepts and mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Horner, Garnett C.

    1998-06-01

    Mechatronic design implies the consideration of integrated mechanical, electrical, and local control characteristics in electromechanical device design. In this paper, mechatronic development of actuation device concepts for active aircraft aerodynamic flow control are presented and discussed. The devices are intended to be embedded in aircraft aerodynamic surfaces to provide zero-net-momentum jets or additional flow-vorticity to control boundary layers and flow- separation. Two synthetic jet device prototypes and one vorticity-on-demand prototype currently in development are described in the paper. The aspects of actuation materials, design approaches to generating jets and vorticity, and the integration of miniaturized electronics are stressed.

  11. On the gestalt concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, Olaf; Jost, Jürgen

    2006-08-01

    We define a gestalt as the invariants of a collection of patterns that can mutually be transformed into each other through a class of transformations encoded by, or conversely, determining that gestalt. The class of these transformations needs to satisfy structural regularities like the ones of the mathematical structure of a group. This makes an analysis of a gestalt possible in terms of relations between its representing patterns. While the gestalt concept has its origins in cognitive psychology, it has also important implications for morphology.

  12. Concepts of electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    The present book entitled Concepts of Electrodynamics meets the demand of students of all engineering, graduate, honours and postgraduate courses in a single volume. This book covers all the topics on electrodynamics as per the new syllabus prescribed by UGC and AICTE and we do hope that this book will revive interest in the study of various topics on electrodynamics which will carries the reader to a high level of understanding. The text is enriched with a large number of solved examples apart from appropriate illustrations and examples in each chapter.

  13. [Conception of Ashi points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong-dong; Li, Heng

    2005-04-01

    In the light of obscure conception of Ashi points in the circle of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, this article tries to clarify the origin and definition of Ashi points by textual research of literatures. It is put forward that Ashi points are not the same with "tender spot" and "Buding point, Tianying point", but are some special responding points, including regular points and extra points, when the organism is ill. When these points are pressed the organism will be comfortable or painful. And the definition, location and clinical location method of Ashi points are proposed.

  14. The Seismographic Design Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salamon, Karen Lisa; Engholm, Ida

    2015-01-01

    or seismograph, teetering back and forth between Romanticist and Scientist ideological positions. The gradual marginalization of certain understandings of design, and the inclusion of other understandings formerly external to the design concept’s application range are also addressed. The article conclusively......This article gives an overview of the theoretical development of the design concept through two centuries in Europe and North America. Drawing on the academic disciplines of design history and anthropology, the authors present seminal moments in the theorization of “design”. Historically formative...

  15. Indian concepts on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  16. Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric

    How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).

  17. The Sentinel Lymph Node Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node concept is meeting with steadily growing interest and is being extended to the different sites of the primaries. In addition, the concept is being applied in an increasingly sophisticated manner. In this book the practical

  18. Global specification and validation of embedded systems integrating heterogeneous components

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, G

    2007-01-01

    Offers a deep understanding of concepts and practices behind the composition of heterogeneous componentsIntroduces a systematic approach to build an execution model for systems composed of heterogeneous componentsMixed continuous/discrete and hardware/software systems will be used to illustrate these concepts.Gives a clear vision on the theory and practice of specification and validation of complex modern systemsExamples give the designers solutions applicable in their daily practice.

  19. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. (ed.)

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  20. Criteria of validity for animal models of psychiatric disorders: focus on anxiety disorders and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belzung Catherine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models of psychiatric disorders are usually discussed with regard to three criteria first elaborated by Willner; face, predictive and construct validity. Here, we draw the history of these concepts and then try to redraw and refine these criteria, using the framework of the diathesis model of depression that has been proposed by several authors. We thus propose a set of five major criteria (with sub-categories for some of them; homological validity (including species validity and strain validity, pathogenic validity (including ontopathogenic validity and triggering validity, mechanistic validity, face validity (including ethological and biomarker validity and predictive validity (including induction and remission validity. Homological validity requires that an adequate species and strain be chosen: considering species validity, primates will be considered to have a higher score than drosophila, and considering strains, a high stress reactivity in a strain scores higher than a low stress reactivity in another strain. Pathological validity corresponds to the fact that, in order to shape pathological characteristics, the organism has been manipulated both during the developmental period (for example, maternal separation: ontopathogenic validity and during adulthood (for example, stress: triggering validity. Mechanistic validity corresponds to the fact that the cognitive (for example, cognitive bias or biological mechanisms (such as dysfunction of the hormonal stress axis regulation underlying the disorder are identical in both humans and animals. Face validity corresponds to the observable behavioral (ethological validity or biological (biomarker validity outcomes: for example anhedonic behavior (ethological validity or elevated corticosterone (biomarker validity. Finally, predictive validity corresponds to the identity of the relationship between the triggering factor and the outcome (induction validity and between the effects of

  1. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  2. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  3. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  4. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  5. Can We Feel Physics Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…

  6. The Lexicography of Scholarly Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Raymond G.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the function of concepts in scholarly discourse. Topics include the genesis of Greenwood Press's concept dictionaries; the origins of modern rhetoric; the prescriptive nature of meaning in scholarly discourse; conceptual change, including logical positivism, introspection, and historicism; and interdisciplinary application of concepts.…

  7. The Lexicography of Scholarly Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Raymond G.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the function of concepts in scholarly discourse. Topics include the genesis of Greenwood Press's concept dictionaries; the origins of modern rhetoric; the prescriptive nature of meaning in scholarly discourse; conceptual change, including logical positivism, introspection, and historicism; and interdisciplinary application of concepts.…

  8. The Concept of Philosophical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyum, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Strangely, the concept of philosophical education is not much in use, at least not as a "philosophical" concept. In this essay, Steinar Boyum attempts to outline such a philosophical concept of philosophical education. Boyum uses Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Rene Descartes's life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant's criticism of metaphysics as paradigms…

  9. Analyzing video concept detectors visually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van Balen, R.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Worring, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this demonstration we showcase an interactive analysis tool for researchers working on concept-based video retrieval. By visualizing intermediate concept detection analysis stages, the tool aids in understanding the success and failure of video concept detection methods. We demonstrate the tool o

  10. Concept Learning through Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Lauren; Yi-Chuan, Jane Hsieh

    This study explored computer-based image processing as a study strategy for middle school students' science concept learning. Specifically, the research examined the effects of computer graphics generation on science concept learning and the impact of using computer graphics to show interrelationships among concepts during study time. The 87…

  11. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  12. Analyzing video concept detectors visually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van Balen, R.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Worring, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this demonstration we showcase an interactive analysis tool for researchers working on concept-based video retrieval. By visualizing intermediate concept detection analysis stages, the tool aids in understanding the success and failure of video concept detection methods. We demonstrate the tool o

  13. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  14. Nonstandard Student Conceptions about Infinitesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study of an undergraduate calculus student's nonstandard conceptions of the real number line. Interviews with the student reveal robust conceptions of the real number line that include infinitesimal and infinite quantities and distances. Similarities between these conceptions and those of G. W. Leibniz are discussed and illuminated…

  15. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  16. PRSEUS Structural Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Alex; Jegley, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    A lighter, more robust airframe is one of the key technological advancements necessary for the successful launch of any large next-generation transport aircraft. Such a premise dictates that considerable improvements beyond current state-of-the-art aluminum structures is needed, and that improvements of this magnitude will require an extensive use of composite materials that are not only lightweight, but also economical to produce. To address this challenge, researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are developing a novel structural concept called the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. It is an integrally stiffened panel concept that is stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. In addition to improved structural performance, an important facet of this unique arrangement of stitched carbon fibers is its innovative manufacturing method that has the potential to lower fabrication costs by eliminating fasteners and autoclave cures. The rationale and development status for this new approach forms the basis of the work described in this paper. The test specimens described herein were fabricated, or are currently being fabricated, by The Boeing Company, while the structural analyses and testing tasks are being performed by NASA and Boeing personnel.

  17. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  18. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  19. Concepts in surface physics

    CERN Document Server

    Desjonquères, M -C

    1993-01-01

    This textbook is intended as an introduction to surface science for graduate students. It began as a course of lectures that we gave at the University of Paris (Orsay). Its main objectives are twofold: to provide the reader with a compre­ hensive presentation of the basic principles and concepts of surface physics and to show the usefulness of these concepts in the real world by referring to experiments. It starts at a rather elementary level since it only requires a knowledge of solid state physics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical physics which does not exceed the background usually taught to students early in their university courses. However, since it finally reaches an advanced level, we have tried to render it as self-contained as possible so that it remains accessible even to an unexperienced reader. Furthermore, the emphasis has been put on a pedagogical level rather than on a technical level. In this spirit, whenever possible, models which are simplified, but which contain the featu...

  20. ATR performance modeling concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Baker, Hyatt B.; Nolan, Adam R.; McGinnis, Ryan E.; Paulson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models are needed for automatic target recognition (ATR) development and use. ATRs consume sensor data and produce decisions about the scene observed. ATR performance models (APMs) on the other hand consume operating conditions (OCs) and produce probabilities about what the ATR will produce. APMs are needed for many modeling roles of many kinds of ATRs (each with different sensing modality and exploitation functionality combinations); moreover, there are different approaches to constructing the APMs. Therefore, although many APMs have been developed, there is rarely one that fits a particular need. Clarified APM concepts may allow us to recognize new uses of existing APMs and identify new APM technologies and components that better support coverage of the needed APMs. The concepts begin with thinking of ATRs as mapping OCs of the real scene (including the sensor data) to reports. An APM is then a mapping from explicit quantized OCs (represented with less resolution than the real OCs) and latent OC distributions to report distributions. The roles of APMs can be distinguished by the explicit OCs they consume. APMs used in simulations consume the true state that the ATR is attempting to report. APMs used online with the exploitation consume the sensor signal and derivatives, such as match scores. APMs used in sensor management consume neither of those, but estimate performance from other OCs. This paper will summarize the major building blocks for APMs, including knowledge sources, OC models, look-up tables, analytical and learned mappings, and tools for signal synthesis and exploitation.

  1. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  2. Introducing The Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn; Willoughby, S.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice Concept Inventories (CIs) have become important tools in the Astronomy Education Research community for assessing student learning and the effects of instructional interventions. We introduce for the first time the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI), a 26-item research validated instrument to quickly and effectively assess introductory college astronomy students’ understanding of gravity. The conceptual focus of the NGCI covers four conceptual domains: (1) Independence of gravity from other factors (such as air pressure, magnetism, and rotation), (2) Application of the force law (including mass and distance proportionality relationships), (3) Behavior at certain thresholds (such as low mass and high distance limits, as well as atmospheric boundaries), and (4) Directionality (for objects on Earth or orbiting, and including superposition. After three iterations of testing and refining, the NGCI has proven to be both a reliable and valid instrument. As evidence, we present a full statistical analysis of overall instrument reliability, item difficulty and item discriminatory power, supplemented with qualitative information from think-aloud student interviews and expert review

  3. Emotional intelligence: new ability or renowned traits? An investigation of the convergent, discriminant and incremental validity

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Husin, Wan Nurul Izza

    2017-01-01

    Despite the recent popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence, several researchers question current emotional intelligence tests on several grounds including their lack of construct validity and unstable factor structure. This thesis aims to investigate the construct validity of emotional intelligence. In particular, the present study seeks to (1) confirm the factorial validity of emotional intelligence, (2) examine the convergent validity between a performance-based test and self-re...

  4. The Fundamental Framework of Remote Sensing Validation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.-G.; Xi, X.-H.; Wu, M.-J.; Li, Z.-L.

    2009-04-01

    Remote sensing is a very complicated course. It is influenced by many factors, such as speciality of remote sensing sensor, radiant transmission characteristic of atmosphere, work environment of remote sensing platform, data transmission, data reception, data processing, and property of observed object etc. Whether the received data is consistent with the design specifications? Can the data meet the demands of remote sensing applications? How about the accuracy of the data products, retrieval products and application products of remote sensing? It is essential to carry out the validation to assess the data quality and application potential. Validation is effective approach to valuate remote sensing products. It is the significant link between remote sensing data and information. Research on remote sensing validation is very important for sensor development, data quality analysis and control. This paper focuses on the study of remote sensing validation and validation system. Different from the previous work done by other researchers, we study the validation from the viewpoint of systematic engineering considering that validation is involved with many aspects as talked about. Validation is not just a single and simple course. It is complicated system. Validation system is the important part of whole earth observation system. First of all, in this paper the category of remote sensing validation is defined. Remote sensing validation includes not only the data products validation, but also the retrieval products validation and application products validation. Second, the new concept, remote sensing validation system, is proposed. Then, the general framework, software structure and functions of validation system are studied and put forward. The validation system is composed of validation field module, data acquirement module, data processing module, data storage and management module, data scaling module, and remote sensing products validation module. And finally the

  5. On Validating Boolean Optimizers

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Boolean optimization finds a wide range of application domains, that motivated a number of different organizations of Boolean optimizers since the mid 90s. Some of the most successful approaches are based on iterative calls to an NP oracle, using either linear search, binary search or the identification of unsatisfiable sub-formulas. The increasing use of Boolean optimizers in practical settings raises the question of confidence in computed results. For example, the issue of confidence is paramount in safety critical settings. One way of increasing the confidence of the results computed by Boolean optimizers is to develop techniques for validating the results. Recent work studied the validation of Boolean optimizers based on branch-and-bound search. This paper complements existing work, and develops methods for validating Boolean optimizers that are based on iterative calls to an NP oracle. This entails implementing solutions for validating both satisfiable and unsatisfiable answers from the NP oracle. The wo...

  6. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  7. Validation Measures in CMMI

    CERN Document Server

    Khraiwesh, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Validation is one of the software engineering disciplines that help build quality into software. The major objective of software validation process is to determine that the software performs its intended functions correctly and provide information about its quality and reliability. This paper identifies general measures for the specific goals and its specific practices of Validation Process Area (PA) in Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). CMMI is developed by Software Engineering Institute (SEI). CMMI is a framework for improvement and assessment of a software development process. CMMI needs a measurement program that is practical. The method we used to define the measures is to apply the Goal Question Metrics (GQM) paradigm to the specific goals and its specific practices of Validation Process Area in CMMI.

  8. Introduction to Validity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    The designing of a test paper strictly follows the specification of the relevant Testing Syllabus, which covers various skills and abilities needed for real communicative situation. A test with high content validity is likely to have a positive impact upon the teaching. Therefore, a test with a high content validity will undoubtedly promote the college English education and it will certainly facilitate the implementation of the Syllabus.

  9. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  10. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  11. Affect, Emotion and Similar Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Pio Abreu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author begins by commenting on the difficulty of the semantic delimitation between concepts of affect, emotion, sentiment, feeling, mood, and passion. This difficulty becomes greater when the terms are translated into different languages. He then foccuses on the concept of emotion, which has benefited from recent research, and its distinction from mood, a concept which is at the base of the psychopathology of bipolar disorders. Much more complex is the Portuguese concept of affect (different from the English concept, which has an interpersonal dimension and can be developed from recent discoveries of “mirror neurons” and “theory of mind”.

  12. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  13. Validation suite for MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteller, R. D. (Russell D.)

    2002-01-01

    Two validation suites, one for criticality and another for radiation shielding, have been defined and tested for the MCNP Monte Carlo code. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on experiments so that calculated and measured results can be compared in a meaningful way. The cases in the validation suites are described, and results from those cases are discussed. For several years, the distribution package for the MCNP Monte Carlo code1 has included an installation test suite to verify that MCNP has been installed correctly. However, the cases in that suite have been constructed primarily to test options within the code and to execute quickly. Consequently, they do not produce well-converged answers, and many of them are physically unrealistic. To remedy these deficiencies, sets of validation suites are being defined and tested for specific types of applications. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on benchmark experiments. Consequently, the results from the measurements are reliable and quantifiable, and calculated results can be compared with them in a meaningful way. Currently, validation suites exist for criticality and radiation-shielding applications.

  14. NATO'S new strategic concept: a critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Calduch Cervera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes that followed the adoption of the previous NATO's strategic concept in 1999 forced a review of its goals, threats and risks, as well as a new look at the capabilities of the organization at a time dominated by the economic crisis and cuts in its members’ defence budgets.On this occasion, the development of a strategic concept begun with a proposal made by a commission of experts, and a public debate which transformed the final text into a diplomatic document, not into a true useful document capable of guiding strategic planning over the next decade.These differences between the goals established by the document and the actual resources available to NATO were noted immediately with regard to the crisis management system, for which the organization does not possess the structures and civil means. It is not clear either that this limitation can be solved through cooperation with the EU. The involvement of NATO in the international mission in Libya will be the first test to ascertain the validity and effectiveness of this new strategic concept.

  15. Introducing the CTA concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hakansson, N.; Hallgren, A.; Hamer Heras, N.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Harris, J.; Hassan, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Haubold, T.; Haupt, A.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henault, F.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hermel, R.; Herrero, A.; Hidaka, N.; Hinton, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holder, J.; Horns, D.; Horville, D.; Houles, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Huovelin, J.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Impiombato, D.; Incorvaia, S.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ioka, K.; Ismailova, E.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jeanney, C.; Jimenez, J. J.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, T.; Journet, L.; Juffroy, C.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kagaya, M.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Karastergiou, A.; Kärcher, K.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Kasperek, J.; Kastana, D.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kawanaka, N.; Kellner-Leidel, B.; Kelly, H.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D. B.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Kitamoto, K.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapic, C.; Knapp, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kocot, J.; Kodani, K.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, N.; Kominis, I.; Konno, Y.; Köppel, H.; Korohoda, P.; Kosack, K.; Koss, G.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Koul, R.; Kowal, G.; Koyama, S.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawzcynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Krepps, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Krobot, R.; Krueger, P.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; Kuznetsov, A.; La Barbera, A.; La Palombara, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; Lacombe, K.; Lamanna, G.; Lande, J.; Languignon, D.; Lapington, J.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, W. H.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lelas, D.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leopold, D. J.; Lerch, T.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lipniacka, A.; Lockart, H.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lopez, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorca, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubinski, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Lüdecke, H.; Ludwin, J.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Lustermann, W.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Madejski, G. M.; Madhavan, A.; Mahabir, M.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Malaguti, G.; Maltezos, S.; Manalaysay, A.; Mancilla, A.; Mandat, D.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Mannheim, K.; Manthos, I.; Maragos, N.; Marcowith, A.; Mariotti, M.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S.; Marszałek, A.; Martens, C.; Martí, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Martin, P.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, F.; Martínez, M.; Masserot, A.; Mastichiadis, A.; Mathieu, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattana, F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Maurin, G.; Maxfield, S.; Maya, J.; Mazin, D.; Mc Comb, L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; McKay, R.; Medina, C.; Melioli, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mihailidis, A.; Mineo, T.; Minuti, M.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Mognet, I.; Molinari, E.; Molinaro, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteiro, I.; Moore, P.; Moralejo Olaizola, A.; Mordalska, M.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Mottez, F.; Moudden, Y.; Moulin, E.; Mrusek, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakajima, D.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Neise, D.; Nellen, L.; Neustroev, V.; Neyroud, N.; Nicastro, L.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nieto, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S.; Northrop, R.; Nosek, D.; Nowak, N.; Nozato, A.; O'Brien, P.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohm, S.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Okumura, A.; Olive, J.-F.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L. A.; Otte, N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Ozieblo, A.; Padilla, L.; Paiano, S.; Paillot, D.; Paizis, A.; Palanque, S.; Palatka, M.; Pallota, J.; Panagiotidis, K.; Panazol, J.-L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papayannis, A.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parks, G.; Parraud, J.-M.; Parsons, D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pech, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelassa, V.; Pelat, D.; Perez, M. d. C.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pichel, A.; Pita, S.; Pizzolato, F.; Platos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Poutanen, J.; Prandini, E.; Prast, J.; Preece, R.; Profeti, F.; Prokoph, H.; Prouza, M.; Proyetti, M.; Puerto-Gimenez, I.; Pühlhofer, G.; Puljak, I.; Punch, M.; Pyzioł, R.; Quel, E. J.; Quinn, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Racero, E.; Rajda, P. J.; Ramon, P.; Rando, R.; Rannot, R. C.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reardon, P.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reitberger, K.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reville, B.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Richer, M. G.; Rico, J.; Ridky, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P. R.; Riviére, A.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Roeser, U.; Rohlfs, R.; Rojas, G.; Romano, P.; Romaszkan, W.; Romero, G. E.; Rosen, S.; Rosier Lees, S.; Ross, D.; Rouaix, G.; Rousselle, J.; Rousselle, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C.; Rupiński, M.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saemann, E. O.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakonaka, R.; Salini, A.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sandoval, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartore, N.; Sasaki, H.; Satalecka, K.; Sawada, M.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schafer, J.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schure, K.; Schwab, T.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, J.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Schwemmer, S.; Segreto, A.; Seiradakis, J.-H.; Sembroski, G. H.; Seweryn, K.; Sharma, M.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shi, J.; Shibata, T.; Shibuya, A.; Shum, E.; Sidoli, L.; Sidz, M.; Sieiro, J.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Singh, B. B.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smareglia, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, J.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sol, H.; Sottile, G.; Sowiński, M.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Sterzel, M.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Strazzeri, E.; Stringhetti, L.; Suarez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Suric, T.; Sutcliffe, P.; Sykes, J.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, G.; Tammi, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tasan, J.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tezier, D.; Thuermann, D.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tiengo, A.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torii, K.; Tornikoski, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres, M.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Tovmassian, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Troyano, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Ueno, H.; Umehara, K.; Upadhya, S. S.; Usher, T.; Uslenghi, M.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van Driel, W.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbrouke, J.; Vanderwalt, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V.; Veberic, D.; Vegas, I.; Vercellone, S.; Vergani, S.; Veyssiére, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vincent, S.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; von Gunten, H.-P.; Vorobiov, S.; Vuerli, C.; Waegebaert, V.; Wagner, R.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, R.; Walther, T.; Warda, K.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Werner, M.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wiesand, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, D. A.; Willingale, R.; Winiarski, K.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wood, M.; Wörnlein, A.; Xiong, Q.; Yadav, K. K.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yebras, J. M.; Yelos, D.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhao, A.; Zhou, X.; Ziętara, K.; Ziolkowski, J.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zurbach, C.; Żychowski, P.; CTA Consortium

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  16. New Concept of Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarov Gennadiy Germanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen source is not water, but exo- and endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel effect in films of chlorophyll and its synthetic analogue - phthalocyanine are briefly touched upon in the article. The article presents the works on artificial photosynthesis performed in the laboratory of Photobionics of N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS.

  17. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  18. Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.

  19. Longing: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehler, Shelley-Rae; Sjostrom, Stephanie; Markwardt, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    This paper uses Rodgers' evolutionary view of concept analysis to define the human response of longing. The purpose is to develop a definition of longing as the first step in diagnosis development. A literature review was conducted by searching the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, American Theological Library Association Religion, JSTOR Philosophy, JSTOR Religion, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases to yield an across-discipline sample of articles. Three researchers identified the attributes, antecedents, consequences, situational context, and surrogate terms of longing. An operational definition was developed. Longing is clearly a human response to loss, crossing illness and situations in which nurses encounter patients in multiple settings. This supports the need to further develop longing into a nursing diagnosis. © 2014 NANDA International.

  20. Osteoimmunology - Unleashing the concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bhanu Murthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoimmunology is an emerging field of research dedicated to the relationship between the immune processes and the bone metabolism of various inflammatory bone diseases. The regulatory mechanisms governing the osteoclast and osteoblast are critical for understanding the health and disease of the skeletal system. These interactions are either by cell to cell contact or by the secretion of immune regulatory mediators like cytokines and chemokines by immune cells that are governed by the RANKL (TRANCE-RANK- OPG axis. TRANCE-RANK signaling has served as a cornerstone of osteoimmunology research. There is increased recognition of the importance of the inflammatory and immune responses in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Thus, this field has provided a framework for studying the mechanisms underlying periodontal destruction. As bone homeostasis is mainly regulated by both the immune and endocrine systems, there emerged osteoimmunoendocrinology where adipokines take the lead. This review focuses on the underlying concepts of osteoimmunology, its relation to Periodontics.

  1. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  2. The Saturn management concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilstein, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Management of the Saturn launch vehicles was an evolutionary process, requiring constant interaction between NASA Headquarters, the Marshall Space Flight Center (particularly the Saturn 5 Program Office), and the various prime contractors. Successful Saturn management was a blend of the decades of experience of the von Braun team, management concepts from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Government, and private industry. The Saturn 5 Program Office shared a unique relationship with the Apollo Program Office at NASA Headquarters. Much of the success of the Saturn 5 Program Office was based on its painstaking attention to detail, emphasis on individual responsibilities (backed up by comprehensive program element plans and management matrices), and a high degree of visibility as embodied in the Program Control Center.

  3. CONCEPT OF BHASMIKARANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanathan R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bhasmas are unique preparations of Ayurveda. They are commonly used in the treatment of diseases. They have great therapeutic value because they get absorbed easily in the body even in very small doses. This is due to their micro fineness.Preparation of Bhasmas, is an elaborate process involving Sodhana and Bhasmikaran. The classical texts of Ayurveda prescribe in detail the way the above processes need to be performed. Bhasmas are prepared by Puta method. There are different methods of Putas explained for different metals and minerals according to their physical and chemical nature.Bhasmas are prepared by the process of Marana by Putapaka method, the metals and minerals are converted in to micro fine form. The present study aims to study in detail the Concept of Bhamikarana as explained in classical Rasa Shastra texts.

  4. Concept Overview & Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is an opportunity for wide-scale use of hydrogen as an intermediate that carries energy from various production options to multiple uses. It is based on identifying and developing opportunities for low-cost hydrogen production and investigating opportunities for using that hydrogen across the electricity, industrial, and transportation sectors. One of the key production opportunities is use of low-cost electricity that may be generated under high penetrations of variable renewable generators such as wind and solar photovoltaics. The technical potential demand for hydrogen across the sectors is 60 million metric tons per year. The U.S. has sufficient domestic renewable resources so that each could meet that demand and could readily meet the demand using a portfolio of generation options. This presentation provides an overview of the concept and the technical potential demand and resources. It also motivates analysis and research on H2@Scale.

  5. Avicenna's concept of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashani, Osama A; Johnson, Mark I

    2010-09-08

    Ibn Sina (Latin name - Avicenna, 980-1037) is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity) were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change) of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  6. Avicenna's concept of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Tashani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Sina (Latin name – Avicenna, 980–1037 is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  7. The Moon Village Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  8. A Psychometric Investigation of the Academic Self-Concept of Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Patel, Nima

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties of scores from the Academic Self-Concept Scale are examined in a group of 198 Asian American college students. Using parallel analysis, a four-factor solution accounting for 46% of the variance was found. In a test of construct validity, academic self-concept was found to be negatively related to adherence to Asian…

  9. Customer Preference-Based Information Retrieval to Build Module Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxing Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference is viewed as an outer feeling of a product, also as a reflection of human's inner thought. It dominates the designers' decisions and affects our purchase intention. In the paper, a model of preference elicitation from customers is proposed to build module concepts. Firstly, the attributes of customer preference are classified in a hierarchy and make the surveys to build customer preference concepts. Secondly, the documents or catalogs of design requirements, perhaps containing some textual description and geometric data, are normalized by using semantic expressions. Some semantic rules are developed to describe low-level features of customer preference to construct a knowledge base of customer preference. Thirdly, designers' needs are used to map customer preference for generating module concepts. Finally, an empirical study of the stapler is surveyed to illustrate the validity of module concept generation.

  10. Psychometrics of the Laffrey Health Conception Scale for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.

  11. Validation of Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka van der Kooij

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of games for behavioral change has seen a surge in popularity but evidence on the efficacy of these games is contradictory. Anecdotal findings seem to confirm their motivational value whereas most quantitative findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT are negative or difficult to interpret. One cause for the contradictory evidence could be that the standard RCT validation methods are not sensitive to serious games’ effects. To be able to adapt validation methods to the properties of serious games we need a framework that can connect properties of serious game design to the factors that influence the quality of quantitative research outcomes. The Persuasive Game Design model [1] is particularly suitable for this aim as it encompasses the full circle from game design to behavioral change effects on the user. We therefore use this model to connect game design features, such as the gamification method and the intended transfer effect, to factors that determine the conclusion validity of an RCT. In this paper we will apply this model to develop guidelines for setting up validation methods for serious games. This way, we offer game designers and researchers handles on how to develop tailor-made validation methods.

  12. Powerful Concepts in Global Health Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Engebretsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to ‘quality’ and ‘empowerment’ as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health.

  13. Alien Sunset (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Our solitary sunsets here on Earth might not be all that common in the grand scheme of things. New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed that mature planetary systems -- dusty disks of asteroids, comets and possibly planets -- are more frequent around close-knit twin, or binary, stars than single stars like our sun. That means sunsets like the one portrayed in this artist's photo concept, and more famously in the movie 'Star Wars,' might be quite commonplace in the universe. Binary and multiple-star systems are about twice as abundant as single-star systems in our galaxy, and, in theory, other galaxies. In a typical binary system, two stars of roughly similar masses twirl around each other like pair-figure skaters. In some systems, the two stars are very far apart and barely interact with each other. In other cases, the stellar twins are intricately linked, whipping around each other quickly due to the force of gravity. Astronomers have discovered dozens of planets that orbit around a single member of a very wide stellar duo. Sunsets from these worlds would look like our own, and the second sun would just look like a bright star in the night sky. But do planets exist in the tighter systems, where two suns would dip below a planet's horizon one by one? Unveiling planets in these systems is tricky, so astronomers used Spitzer to look for disks of swirling planetary debris instead. These disks are made of asteroids, comets and possibly planets. The rocky material in them bangs together and kicks up dust that Spitzer's infrared eyes can see. Our own solar system is swaddled in a similar type of disk. Surprisingly, Spitzer found more debris disks around the tightest binaries it studied (about 20 stars) than in a comparable sample of single stars. About 60 percent of the tight binaries had disks, while the single stars only had about 20 percent. These snug binary systems are as close or closer than just three times the distance between Earth and

  14. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  15. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  16. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  17. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  18. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LightWater Reactors (CASL). Fivemain types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  19. Concept Approximation between Fuzzy Ontologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy ontologies are efficient tools to handle fuzzy and uncertain knowledge on the semantic web; but there are heterogeneity problems when gaining interoperability among different fuzzy ontologies. This paper uses concept approximation between fuzzy ontologies based on instances to solve the heterogeneity problems. It firstly proposes an instance selection technology based on instance clustering and weighting to unify the fuzzy interpretation of different ontologies and reduce the number of instances to increase the efficiency. Then the paper resolves the problem of computing the approximations of concepts into the problem of computing the least upper approximations of atom concepts. It optimizes the search strategies by extending atom concept sets and defining the least upper bounds of concepts to reduce the searching space of the problem. An efficient algorithm for searching the least upper bounds of concept is given.

  20. Deep First Formal Concept Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of formal concepts is a very important part in the theory of formal concept analysis (FCA; however, within the framework of FCA, computing all formal concepts is the main challenge because of its exponential complexity and difficulty in visualizing the calculating process. With the basic idea of Depth First Search, this paper presents a visualization algorithm by the attribute topology of formal context. Limited by the constraints and calculation rules, all concepts are achieved by the visualization global formal concepts searching, based on the topology degenerated with the fixed start and end points, without repetition and omission. This method makes the calculation of formal concepts precise and easy to operate and reflects the integrity of the algorithm, which enables it to be suitable for visualization analysis.

  1. LINGUISTIC PRESUMPTION AS THE BASIS OF THE VALIDITY OF THE HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalina, N.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the concept of a linguistic presumption – linguistic category of evaluation and measurement language skills of a person and validity of human capital in the system of modern economic and cultural communication.

  2. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR, and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug. Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.

  3. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  4. RF Measurement Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2014-01-01

    For the characterization of components, systems and signals in the radiofrequency (RF) and microwave ranges, several dedicated instruments are in use. In this article the fundamentals of the RF signal techniques are discussed. The key element in these front ends is the Schottky diode which can be used either as a RF mixer or as a single sampler. The spectrum analyser has become an absolutely indispensable tool for RF signal analysis. Here the front end is the RF mixer as the RF section of modern spectrum analyses has a ra ther complex architecture. The reasons for this complexity and certain working principles as well as limitations are discussed. In addition, an overview of the development of scalar and vector signal analysers is given. For the determination of the noise temperature of a one-port and the noise figure of a two-port, basic concepts and relations are shown as well as a brief discussion of commonly used noise-measurement techniques. In a further part of this article the operating principles of n...

  5. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  6. THE MASTER PROTOCOL CONCEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Carmen J.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution---from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars---to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demand the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study). PMID:26433553

  7. Modular Nuclear Testing Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, L. F.

    1964-07-01

    The continuing concern with efficient utilization of manpower at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the seemingly high cost of individual nuclear shots, together with the recent evolution of the L-12 scope, generated some fresh thoughts concerning more efficient procedures for the `average` test. Every time anyone looks at the problem., they tend to analyze the existing conventional approach and try to find the one or two most expensive and `lossy` factors in the can of worms. Usually this turns out to be a problem within the realm of specialization of the particular analyst! People not so directly concerned with the program tend to look for, or wish for, or even `invent` miracles`. Our present techniques appear to be the sum (and possibly even the product) of many small contributions which have all been beaten down to the same level of importance. Such a situation in any systemic problem is usually symptomatic of the need for fairly violent departures in the aver-all system approach, at least in thinking. This report proposes and details a modular nuclear testing concept.

  8. Validity in Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.

    Emerging criteria are reported for judging the trustworthiness of action research studies as compared to the criteria established for judging the trustworthiness of other forms of naturalistic inquiry set forth by Y. S. Lincoln and E. Guba (1985). Differing conceptions of the nature of action research are delineated, and their accompanying…

  9. Online data validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Nygaard; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss methods for identifying, rejecting, making allowances for, or minimizing the influence of, outlyer observations.The literature provides a variety of vague definitions of the concept of an outlying observation, see (Barnett and Lewis, 1994), yet consensus...

  10. Validation in Fusion Research: Towards Guidelines and Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Terry, P W; Leboeuf, J -N; McKee, G R; Mikkelsen, D R; Nevins, W M; Newman, D E; Stotler, D P

    2008-01-01

    Because experiment/model comparisons in magnetic confinement fusion have not yet satisfied the requirements for validation as understood broadly, a set of approaches to validating mathematical models and numerical algorithms are recommended as good practices. Previously identified procedures, such as verification, qualification, and analysis of error and uncertainty, remain important. However, particular challenges intrinsic to fusion plasmas and physical measurement therein lead to identification of new or less familiar concepts that are also critical in validation. These include the primacy hierarchy, which tracks the integration of measurable quantities, and sensitivity analysis, which assesses how model output is apportioned to different sources of variation. The use of validation metrics for individual measurements is extended to multiple measurements, with provisions for the primacy hierarchy and sensitivity. This composite validation metric is essential for quantitatively evaluating comparisons with ex...

  11. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  12. Transnet regenerative braking concept definition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giesler, Achmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available have the added advantage that they can be housed in temperature and controlled buildings in a relatively clean environment. Technologies being used and researched Energy regenerated during braking can either be fed back into the grid or stored... Body of Knowledge: http://sebokwiki.org/wiki/Concept_Definition Halligan, R. J. (2011, October 6). Operational Concept Description. Operational Concept Description. Melbourne: Project Performance International. Jaafar, A., Akli, C. S., Roboam, X...

  13. Validating Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of experimental protocols and strengthening their reliability are well justified and they foster rather than preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. Thus, their presence indicates thriving rather than crisis of experimental neurobiology.

  14. The dialogic validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper is inspired by dialogism and the title is a paraphrase on Bakhtin's (1981) "The Dialogic Imagination". The paper investigates how dialogism can inform the process of validating inquiry-based qualitative research. The paper stems from a case study on the role of recognition in apprentic......This paper is inspired by dialogism and the title is a paraphrase on Bakhtin's (1981) "The Dialogic Imagination". The paper investigates how dialogism can inform the process of validating inquiry-based qualitative research. The paper stems from a case study on the role of recognition...

  15. Negative Improvements, Relative Validity and Elusive Goodness

    CERN Document Server

    Batic, Matej; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Pia, Maria Grazia; Saracco, Paolo; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Various issues related to the complexity of apprais- ing the capabilities of physics models implemented in Monte Carlo simulation codes and the evolution of the functional quality the associated software are considered, such as the dependence on the experimental environment where the software operates and its sensitivity to detector characteristics. The concept of software validity as relative to the environment is illustrated by means of a real-life experimental test case. Methods and techniques to mitigate the risk of deteriorating the quality of the software are critically discussed: they concern various disciplines of the software development process. Quantitative validation of physics models is advocated as a method to appraise their capabilities objectively and to monitor the evolution of their associated software behavior.

  16. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  17. Visualizing statistical models and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Farebrother, RW

    2002-01-01

    Examines classic algorithms, geometric diagrams, and mechanical principles for enhancing visualization of statistical estimation procedures and mathematical concepts in physics, engineering, and computer programming.

  18. Pedagogic conceptions of Physical Education: concepts of difference and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Adriana Pacifico Martinel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the pedagogical theories of Physical Education and, from its presuppositions, understand their conceptions of man, concepts of difference and inclusion relating to these conceptions. This is a theoretical study that uses reference works of the area and classical works that substantiate these conceptions. We understand that difference and inclusion, implicit in those concepts, are conceived from biology, culture, communication and work, and that teaching practice is oriented for distinct purposes and perspectives. We conclude that it is necessary to move beyond the explanations of difference and inclusion in order to recover the work as a central category, of which the explanation is based on social inequality and the need for new and transformative educational practices beyond the ones disseminated in contemporary social and educational policies.

  19. Strategic Management: General Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Tofighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era after substitution of long term planning by strategic planning, it was wished that the managers could act more successful in implementing their plans. The outcomes were far from the expected, there were minor improvements. In the organizations, a plenty of namely strategic plans has been developed during strategic planning processes, but most of these plans have been kept in the shelves, a few of them played their roles as guiding documents for the entire organization. What are the factors inducing such outcomes? Different scientists have offered a variety of justifications, according to their expe-riences."nThe first examined issue was misunderstanding stra-tegic planning by the managers and staff; it means the strategic planning process may be executed erroneously, and what they had expected from this process was not accurate. Substantially, strategic planning looks at the future and coming situations, and is designed to answer the questions which emerge in the future. Unfortunately, this critical and fundamental characteristic of strategic planning is obscured."nStrategic planning conveys the concept of drawing the future and developing a set of different probable scenarios along with defining a set of solutions in order to combat undesirable coming conditions for positioning the system or business. It helps organizations save themselves safe and maintain them successful. In other words, in strategic planning efforts we are seeking solutions fit for problems which will appear in the future for the conditions that will emerge in the future. Unfortunately, most of strategic plans which have been developed in the organizations lack this important and critical characteristic; I mean in most of them the developers had offered solutions in order to solve today's problems in the future! "nThe second issue which was considered by the scientists, was the task of ensuring the continuity of effectiveness of the planning, there was a

  20. A conceptual framework for homeostasis: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Michael, Joel; Cliff, William; Wright, Ann; Modell, Harold

    2016-06-01

    We have developed and validated a conceptual framework for understanding and teaching organismal homeostasis at the undergraduate level. The resulting homeostasis conceptual framework details critical components and constituent ideas underlying the concept of homeostasis. It has been validated by a broad range of physiology faculty members from community colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, research universities, and medical schools. In online surveys, faculty members confirmed the relevance of each item in the framework for undergraduate physiology and rated the importance and difficulty of each. The homeostasis conceptual framework was constructed as a guide for teaching and learning of this critical core concept in physiology, and it also paves the way for the development of a concept inventory for homeostasis.

  1. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  2. The concept of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kiparisi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the literature review it derives that the concept of care is multidimensional. Every individual forms a specific attitude towards care depending on the particular social framework he/she has been raised in as well as his/her religious beliefs and cultural background. The theoretical framework of the research is based on both selected terms of meaning of “care” as well as on selected principles of intercultural Nursing care as they have been described by Leininger (1997. According to Leininger, Nursing care as a phenomenon is met in all civilizations while there are particular cultural care standards. The aim of this research is semantic determination of care and therefore, how the Greeks perceive the meaning of Care.Methodology: To answer the above research questions, we chose the approach of phenomenological research method. The collection of data has been accomplished with the method of interviews with open questions. Then, the analysis of the interview data followed in accordance to the technique of content analysis with the Mayring method (summary.Result: From the content analysis the following categories derived:1. Care means love2. Care means understanding3. Care means prevention4. Care means touchConclusions: The semantic approach of care as it is perceived from the individuals, accentuates in fact the thesis that the philosophy of nursing science is based on ideals and universal values, whose respect from the professional ensures high quality in provided care and promotes the nursing work for the benefit of the individual and the society, too.

  3. [The concept of happiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampey, N

    1980-12-01

    both concepts, i.e., happiness and health are correlated.

  4. Criminal policy: Basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary literature on law, politicology and security, there have been various attempts in both scientific and applied disciplines to define the notion and content of the crime suppression policy. The differences underlying these diverse views are based on the different starting points, i.e. whether the criminal policy is perceived as: 1] a scientific (academic] discipline; b] a practical daily activity of competent state authorities and other relevant bodies; 3] an activity of combating crime as a set of most dangerous human behaviors which imperil the most important personal assets and social values; and 4] an activity aimed at suppressing all types of illegal behavior (felonies, misdemeanors, delinquency, economic crimes, etc]. Some authors view the policy of crime suppression as a scientific discipline which provides for the appropriate use of existing tools in combating crime. Concurrently, on the basis of defined body of knowledge and analysis, the science (including some sciences outside the field of law] suggests relevant measures for efficient suppression of crime. Another conception is based on the idea that criminal policy has a dual meaning, i.e. that it may be understood as: 1] a practical social activity aimed at accomplishing the envisaged goals (also known as a practical dimension of crime policy], and 2] a scientific discipline which explores, analyses and proposes measures of social reaction towards criminal behavior. In practice, criminal policy encompasses a system of purposeful, consciously planned and coordinated social activities aimed at preventing crime and protecting the society at large. When perceived in this way, criminal policy is the basic element of the general public policy in a specific society. Just like the criminal law of an individual state, criminal policy is based on specific principles (governing rules].

  5. Validation of the Social Inclusion Scale with Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interventions (such as participatory arts projects aimed at increasing social inclusion are increasingly in operation, as social inclusion is proving to play a key role in recovery from mental ill health and the promotion of mental wellbeing. These interventions require evaluation with a systematically developed and validated measure of social inclusion; however, a “gold-standard” measure does not yet exist. The Social Inclusion Scale (SIS has three subscales measuring social isolation, relations and acceptance. This scale has been partially validated with arts and mental health project users, demonstrating good internal consistency. However, test-retest reliability and construct validity require assessment, along with validation in the general population. The present study aimed to validate the SIS in a sample of university students. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent validity (one aspect of construct validity were assessed by comparing SIS scores with scores on other measures of social inclusion and related concepts. Participants completed the measures at two time-points seven-to-14 days apart. The SIS demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, although convergent validity was less well-established and possible reasons for this are discussed. This systematic validation of the SIS represents a further step towards the establishment of a “gold-standard” measure of social inclusion.

  6. Validation of the Social Inclusion Scale with Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interventions (such as participatory arts projects aimed at increasing social inclusion are increasingly in operation, as social inclusion is proving to play a key role in recovery from mental ill health and the promotion of mental wellbeing. These interventions require evaluation with a systematically developed and validated measure of social inclusion; however, a “gold-standard” measure does not yet exist. The Social Inclusion Scale (SIS has three subscales measuring social isolation, relations and acceptance. This scale has been partially validated with arts and mental health project users, demonstrating good internal consistency. However, test-retest reliability and construct validity require assessment, along with validation in the general population. The present study aimed to validate the SIS in a sample of university students. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent validity (one aspect of construct validity were assessed by comparing SIS scores with scores on other measures of social inclusion and related concepts. Participants completed the measures at two time-points seven-to-14 days apart. The SIS demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, although convergent validity was less well-established and possible reasons for this are discussed. This systematic validation of the SIS represents a further step towards the establishment of a “gold-standard” measure of social inclusion.

  7. Neurofilament ELISA validation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petzold, A.; Altintas, A.; Andreoni, L.; Bartos, A.; Berthele, A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Buee, L.; Castellazzi, M.; Cepok, S.; Comabella, M.; Constantinescu, C.S.; Deisenhammer, F.; Deniz, G.; Erten, G.; Espino, M.; Fainardi, E.; Franciotta, D.; Freedman, M.S.; Giedraitis, V.; Gilhus, N.E.; Giovannoni, G.; Glabinski, A.; Grieb, P.; Hartung, H.P.; Hemmer, B.; Herukka, S.K.; Hintzen, R.; Ingelsson, M.; Jackson, S.; Jacobsen, S.; Jafari, N.; Jalosinski, M.; Jarius, S.; Kapaki, E.; Kieseier, B.C.; Koel-Simmelink, M.J.; Kornhuber, J.; Kuhle, J.; Kurzepa, J.; Lalive, P.H.; Lannfelt, L.; Lehmensiek, V.; Lewczuk, P.; Livrea, P.; Marnetto, F.; Martino, D.; Menge, T.; Norgren, N.; Papuc, E.; Paraskevas, G.P.; Pirttila, T.; Rajda, C.; Rejdak, K.; Ricny, J.; Ripova, D.; Rosengren, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Schraen, S.; Shaw, G.; Sindic, C.; Siva, A.; Stigbrand, T.; Stonebridge, I.; Topcular, B.; Trojano, M.; Tumani, H.; Twaalfhoven, H.A.; Vecsei, L.; Pesch, V. Van; Stichele, H. van der; Vedeler, C.; Verbeek, M.M.; Villar, L.M.; Weissert, R.; Wildemann, B.; Yang, C.; Yao, K.; Teunissen, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurofilament proteins (Nf) are highly specific biomarkers for neuronal death and axonal degeneration. As these markers become more widely used, an inter-laboratory validation study is required to identify assay criteria for high quality performance. METHODS: The UmanDiagnostics NF-light

  8. The validation of metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, F.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we introduce models as metaphors for the description of reality We consider a number of case studies of contemporary research pollution of the NorthSea the ow eld of theWadden Sea drillstring dynamics the use of metaphors in psychoanalysis In all these cases validation of the resu

  9. A valid licence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    A valid licence Tuesday, April 20, 2010 Dr Hans Spoolder and Dr Paul Ingenbleek, of Wageningen University and Research Centres, share their thoughts on improving farm animal welfare in Europe At the presentation of the European Strategy 2020 on 3rd March, President Barroso emphasised the need for

  10. Neurofilament ELISA validation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petzold, A.; Altintas, A.; Andreoni, L.; Bartos, A.; Berthele, A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Buee, L.; Castellazzi, M.; Cepok, S.; Comabella, M.; Constantinescu, C.S.; Deisenhammer, F.; Deniz, G.; Erten, G.; Espino, M.; Fainardi, E.; Franciotta, D.; Freedman, M.S.; Giedraitis, V.; Gilhus, N.E.; Giovannoni, G.; Glabinski, A.; Grieb, P.; Hartung, H.P.; Hemmer, B.; Herukka, S.K.; Hintzen, R.; Ingelsson, M.; Jackson, S.; Jacobsen, S.; Jafari, N.; Jalosinski, M.; Jarius, S.; Kapaki, E.; Kieseier, B.C.; Koel-Simmelink, M.J.; Kornhuber, J.; Kuhle, J.; Kurzepa, J.; Lalive, P.H.; Lannfelt, L.; Lehmensiek, V.; Lewczuk, P.; Livrea, P.; Marnetto, F.; Martino, D.; Menge, T.; Norgren, N.; Papuc, E.; Paraskevas, G.P.; Pirttila, T.; Rajda, C.; Rejdak, K.; Ricny, J.; Ripova, D.; Rosengren, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Schraen, S.; Shaw, G.; Sindic, C.; Siva, A.; Stigbrand, T.; Stonebridge, I.; Topcular, B.; Trojano, M.; Tumani, H.; Twaalfhoven, H.A.; Vecsei, L.; Pesch, V. Van; Stichele, H. van der; Vedeler, C.; Verbeek, M.M.; Villar, L.M.; Weissert, R.; Wildemann, B.; Yang, C.; Yao, K.; Teunissen, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurofilament proteins (Nf) are highly specific biomarkers for neuronal death and axonal degeneration. As these markers become more widely used, an inter-laboratory validation study is required to identify assay criteria for high quality performance. METHODS: The UmanDiagnostics NF-light

  11. A valid licence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    A valid licence Tuesday, April 20, 2010 Dr Hans Spoolder and Dr Paul Ingenbleek, of Wageningen University and Research Centres, share their thoughts on improving farm animal welfare in Europe At the presentation of the European Strategy 2020 on 3rd March, President Barroso emphasised the need for Eu

  12. Validity and Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's critique on Xiaoming Xi's article, "How do we go about investigating test fairness?," which lays out a broad framework for studying fairness as comparable validity across groups within the population of interest. Xi proposes to develop a fairness argument that would identify and evaluate potential fairness-based…

  13. Validation and test report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, T. Bull

    2012-01-01

    . As a consequence of extensive movement artefacts seen during dynamic contractions, the following validation and test report consists of a report that investigates the physiological responses to a static contraction in a standing and a supine position. Eight subjects performed static contractions of the ankle...

  14. Validation and test report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, T. Bull

    2012-01-01

    . As a consequence of extensive movement artefacts seen during dynamic contractions, the following validation and test report consists of a report that investigates the physiological responses to a static contraction in a standing and a supine position. Eight subjects performed static contractions of the ankle...

  15. Geant-Validation

    CERN Document Server

    De La Cruz Fernandez, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this document is to demonstrate the work performed in Geant-Validation application by Summer Student Gonzalo de la Cruz Fernández. In the following pages the architecture of Geant-Val and the main improvements and design decisions taken are described, as well as the main security challenges faced and what measures we have adopted against them.

  16. What Can You Tell from an N of 1?: Issues of Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    1995-01-01

    Deals with issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research in education. Discusses philosophical assumptions underlying the concepts of internal validity, reliability, and external validity or generalizability. Presents strategies congruent with a qualitative research perspective for ensuring the rigor and trustworthiness of findings.…

  17. Development of an Introductory Oceanography Concept Inventory Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, L.; Marchitto, T.

    2008-12-01

    Concept inventories are one type of assessment that can be used to evaluate whether a student has an accurate and working knowledge of a specific set of concepts. Although such assessment tools have been developed in astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, fluid mechanics, geology, and physics, none has been available. Our development of an Introductory Oceanography Concept Inventory Survey (IO-CIS) serves to fill this gap. Much of the development of the IO-CIS utilized students enrolled in the Spring 2008 Introduction to Oceanography course taught at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The first step in the development of IO-CIS involved the identification and selection of the critical concepts to be addressed in the course and the survey. Next, learning goals were defined for each critical concept. These learning goals then provided the basis for framing open-ended questions that were administered to students in pre-module in-class Concept Inventory Exercises (CIEs). These open-ended questions each underwent validation and revision with expert and novice input prior to being administered in a CIE. Each CIE comprised 4-5 open-ended questions, which each contained 1-4 parts. During the semester, 4 different CIEs were administered, with the number of respondents for each CIE ranging from 57-134. Student responses were then binned according to misconceptions and alternate conceptions, tallied, and "distractors" were written based on the most popular bins using the same language employed by students in their responses. Student responses were also used as part of the validation process to ensure that the questions were interpreted by students in the manner intended. Student responses were also used as a basis to discard particular questions from inclusion in the overall IO-CIS. After the initial IO-CIS questions and distractors had been designed as described above, 23 one-on-one student interviews were conducted as part of the validation process. As a result of

  18. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  19. Mental Models of Boolean Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    Negation, conjunction, and disjunction are major building blocks in the formation of concepts. This article presents a new model-based theory of these Boolean components. It predicts that individuals simplify the models of instances of concepts. Evidence corroborates the theory and challenges alternative accounts, such as those based on minimal…

  20. Abstract concepts in grounded cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, D.

    2010-01-01

    When people think about highly abstract concepts, they draw upon concrete experiences to structure their thoughts. For example, black knights in fairytales are evil, and knights in shining armor are good. The sensory experiences black and white are used to represent the abstract concepts of good and

  1. Concept Maps in Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.

  2. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  3. Science Club--A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Claas; Issak, Nicole; Tesch, Katharina; Zehne, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a concept of a science club which was developed by two master's students as a part of their thesis and which has been developed and improved ever since. The extra-curricular concept emphasises pupils' individuality through focusing on problem based leaning, station learning, and mixed age groups. Having joined the…

  4. Concept-based video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review 300 references on video retrieval, indicating when text-only solutions are unsatisfactory and showing the promising alternatives which are in majority concept-based. Therefore, central to our discussion is the notion of a semantic concept: an objective linguistic description

  5. Doctoral Students' Conceptions of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Rod

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I report a study of the conceptions of research held by a sample of doctoral students at an Australian research-intensive university. I take a unique approach by using metaphor analysis to study the students' conceptions. The students in this study were recruited for an on-line survey in which they answered questions relating to…

  6. Finnish Teachers' Conceptions of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…

  7. Concept-based video retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review 300 references on video retrieval, indicating when text-only solutions are unsatisfactory and showing the promising alternatives which are in majority concept-based. Therefore, central to our discussion is the notion of a semantic concept: an objective linguistic description

  8. The concept of "Mobile sky"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Остроумов

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  The navigation and control for light aviation based on mobile communication service in the bottom airspace have been proposed. The main principles of “Mobile sky” conception have been formulated and grounded. In the paper have been represented the main advantages for use this conception in Ukraine.

  9. MARKETING CONCEPT - DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Davchev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the connection between the historical development of the marketing concept and the impact this development has on the precise definition of the marketing concept. The author proposes his own version of the definition based on the current state of socio-economic reality.

  10. Concept Empiricism: A Methodological Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machery, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to Barsalou's, Damasio's, Glenberg's, Prinz' and others' work, neo-empiricism is gaining a deserved recognition in the psychology and philosophy of concepts. I argue, however, that neo-empiricists have underestimated the difficulty of providing evidence against the amodal approach to concepts and higher cognition. I highlight three key…

  11. Concept Empiricism: A Methodological Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machery, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to Barsalou's, Damasio's, Glenberg's, Prinz' and others' work, neo-empiricism is gaining a deserved recognition in the psychology and philosophy of concepts. I argue, however, that neo-empiricists have underestimated the difficulty of providing evidence against the amodal approach to concepts and higher cognition. I highlight three key…

  12. New Concepts in Industrial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    The 30th annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Minneapolis in 1968. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "A Fresh Look at Industrial Arts," (2) "New Curricular Concepts," (3) "Making Education Relevant," (4) "Industrial Arts in an Educational System for the Seventies," (5) "New Concepts in…

  13. MARKETING CONCEPT - DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Krasimir Davchev

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the connection between the historical development of the marketing concept and the impact this development has on the precise definition of the marketing concept. The author proposes his own version of the definition based on the current state of socio-economic reality.

  14. Mental Models of Boolean Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P.; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    Negation, conjunction, and disjunction are major building blocks in the formation of concepts. This article presents a new model-based theory of these Boolean components. It predicts that individuals simplify the models of instances of concepts. Evidence corroborates the theory and challenges alternative accounts, such as those based on minimal…

  15. Cold Crystal Reflector Filter Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Muhrer, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical concept of a cold crystal reflector filter will be presented. The aim of this concept is to balance the shortcoming of the traditional cold polycrystalline reflector filter, which lies in the significant reduction of the neutron flux right above (in energy space) or right below (wavelength space) the first Bragg edge.

  16. A critique of the 'novel ecosystem' concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Carolina; Aronson, James; Kattan, Gustavo H; Moreno-Mateos, David; Dixon, Kingsley; Simberloff, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The 'novel ecosystem' concept has captured the attention of scientists, managers, and science journalists, and more recently of policymakers, before it has been subjected to the scrutiny and empirical validation inherent to science. Lack of rigorous scrutiny can lead to undesirable outcomes in ecosystem management, environmental law, and policy. Contrary to the contentions of its proponents, no explicit, irreversible ecological thresholds allow distinctions between 'novel ecosystems' and 'hybrid' or 'historic' ones. Further, there is no clear message as to what practitioners should do with a 'novel ecosystem'. In addition, ecosystems of many types are being conserved, or restored to trajectories within historical ranges of variation, despite severe degradation that could have led to their being pronounced 'novel'.

  17. Health Habit: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra S; Weglicki, Linda S; Gropper, Sareen S

    2017-05-25

    The aim of this article is to provide clarity of the concept of health habit. Using Walker and Avant's (1983; 2010) method for conducting a concept analysis, the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of health habit, its theoretical and practical application to nursing, and sample cases to further illustrate the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature was used to inform this concept analysis. Articles and one book from 1977 to 2014 were reviewed from PsycINFO, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Direct, EBSCOhost and Web of Science. Offering a clear definition and conceptual model of health habit provide the foundation to identify/develop appropriate measures of the concept and guide further investigation of understanding the development and sustainability of healthy habits. Additional research is needed to test the conceptual relationships between health habits and outcome variables as they apply to different groups across the age continuum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  19. PHONOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND CONCEPT FORMATION: METATHEORY, THEORY AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of Phenomenological Phonology (PP, including its metatheory, theory and application, for comparison with Cognitive Phonology (CP. While PP and CP are in close agreement at the theory level, there are some significant differences at the level of metatheory. PP considers phonological terms (such as phoneme and word to be words like any others, and gives detailed consideration to the concepts behind such terms. It also considers pronunciation to be a form of behaviour, driven by concepts created through general concept formation processes. This has important consequences for practical application in the areas of pronunciation and literacy teaching.

  20. The coexistence of alternative and scientific conceptions in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Omer F.

    The purpose of this study was to inquire about the simultaneous coexistence of alternative and scientific conceptions in the domain of physics. This study was particularly motivated by several arguments put forward in opposition to the Conceptual Change Model. In the simplest form, these arguments state that people construct different domains of knowledge and different modes of perception in different situations. Therefore, holding different conceptualizations is unavoidable and expecting a replacement in an individual's conceptual structure is not plausible in terms of instructional practices. The following research questions were generated to inquire about this argument: (1) Do individuals keep their alternative conceptions after they have acquired scientific conceptions? (2) Assuming that individuals who acquired scientific conceptions also have alternative conceptions, how are these different conceptions nested in their conceptual structure? (3) What kind of knowledge, skills, and reasoning are necessary to transfer scientific principles instead of alternative ones in the construction of a valid model? Analysis of the data collected from the non-physics group indicated that the nature of alternative conceptions is framed by two types of reasoning: reasoning by mental simulation and semiformal reasoning. Analysis of the data collected from the physics group revealed that mental images or scenes feeding reasoning by mental simulation had not disappeared after the acquisition of scientific conceptions. The analysis of data also provided enough evidence to conclude that alternative principles feeding semiformal reasoning have not necessarily disappeared after the acquisition of scientific conceptions. However, in regard to semiformal reasoning, compartmentalization was not as clear as the case demonstrated in reasoning by mental simulation; instead semiformal and scientific reasoning are intertwined in a way that the components of semiformal reasoning can easily

  1. Innovative Flow Control Concepts for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Whalen, Edward A.; Eppink, Jenna L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Alexander, Michael G.; Andino, Marlyn Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the technology development of two flow control concepts for aircraft drag reduction. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project worked with Boeing to demonstrate these two concepts on a specially outfitted Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator during the spring of 2015. The first flow control concept used Active Flow Control (AFC) to delay flow separation on a highly deflected rudder and increase the side force that it generates. This may enable a smaller vertical tail to provide the control authority needed in the event of an engine failure during takeoff and landing, while still operating in a conventional manner over the rest of the flight envelope. Thirty-one sweeping jet AFC actuators were installed and successfully flight-tested on the vertical tail of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. Pilot feedback, flow cone visualization, and analysis of the flight test data confirmed that the AFC is effective, as a smoother flight and enhanced rudder control authority were reported. The second flow control concept is the Insect Accretion Mitigation (IAM) innovation where surfaces were engineered to mitigate insect residue adhesion on a wing's leading edge. This is necessary because something as small as an insect residue on the leading edge of a laminar flow wing design can cause turbulent wedges that interrupt laminar flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel use. Several non-stick coatings were developed by NASA and applied to panels that were mounted on the leading edge of the wing of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. The performance of the coated surfaces was measured and validated by the reduction in the number of bug adhesions relative to uncoated control panels flown simultaneously. Both flow control concepts (i.e., sweeping jet actuators and non-stick coatings) for drag reduction were the culmination of several years of development, from wind tunnel tests to flight tests, and produced valuable data for the advancement of modern aircraft designs

  2. Concept of coherence of learning physical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Elisa M.; Jaen, Mirta; de Cudmani, Leonor C.

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the actual paper is to enhance achievements of the text 'Optica Fisica Basica: estructurada alrededor del concepto de coherencia luminosa' (in English 'Basic Physical Optics centered in the concept of coherence'). We consider that this book is a very worth tool when one has to learn or to teach some fundamental concepts of physical optics. It is well known that the topics of physical optics present not easy understanding for students. Even more they also present some difficulties for the teachers when they have to introduce them to the class. First, we think that different phenomena like diffraction and polarization could be well understood if the starting point is a deep comprehension of the concept of interference of light and, associated with this, the fundamental and nothing intuitive concept of coherence of the light. In the reference text the authors propose the use of expression 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' instead of 'pattern of interference' and 'average pattern of uniform untested' instead of 'lack of interference' to make reference that light always interfere but just under restrictive conditions it can be got temporal and spatial stability of the pattern. Another idea we want to stand out is that the ability to observe a 'stable interference pattern of no uniform intensity' is associated not only with the coherence of the source but also with the dimensions of the experimental system and with the temporal and spatial characteristics of the detector used - human eye, photographic film, etc. The proposal is well support by quantitative relations. With an alternate model: a train of waves with a finite length of coherence, it is possible to get range of validity of models, to decide when a source could be considered a 'point' or 'monochromatic' or 'remote', an 'infinite' wave or a train of waves, etc. Using this concept it is possible to achieve a better understanding of phenomena like the polarization of light. Here, it

  3. The Facebook Influence Model: A Concept Mapping Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Megan A.; Kota, Rajitha; Schoohs, Shari; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Facebook is a popular social media Web site that has been hypothesized to exert potential influence over users' attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework to explain influential aspects of Facebook. This mixed methods study applied concept mapping methodology, a validated five-step method to visually represent complex topics. The five steps comprise preparation, brainstorming, sort and rank, analysis, and interpretation. College studen...

  4. Structural Optimization of Machine Gun Based on Dynamic Stability Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-jian; WANG Rui-lin; ZHANG Ben-jun

    2008-01-01

    Improving the firing accuracy is a final goal of structural optimization of machine guns. The main factors which affect the dispersion accuracy of machine gun are analyzed. Based on the concept of dynamic stability, a structural optimization model is built up, and the sensitivity of dispersion accuracy to design variables is analyzed. The optimization results of a type of machine gun show that the method is valid, feasible, and can be used as a guide to the structural optimization of other automatic weapons.

  5. Self-Validating Thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Santiago, Josephine B. (Inventor); Vokrot, Peter (Inventor); Zavala, Carlos E. (Inventor); Burns, Bradley M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Self-Validating Thermocouple (SVT) Systems capable of detecting sensor probe open circuits, short circuits, and unnoticeable faults such as a probe debonding and probe degradation are useful in the measurement of temperatures. SVT Systems provide such capabilities by incorporating a heating or excitation element into the measuring junction of the thermocouple. By heating the measuring junction and observing the decay time for the detected DC voltage signal, it is possible to indicate whether the thermocouple is bonded or debonded. A change in the thermal transfer function of the thermocouple system causes a change in the rise and decay times of the thermocouple output. Incorporation of the excitation element does not interfere with normal thermocouple operation, thus further allowing traditional validation procedures as well.

  6. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  7. UTSim2 validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Robert; Gray, Tim

    2017-02-01

    The Center for NDE (CNDE) at Iowa State University has a long history of developing physics models for NDE and packaging these models into simulation tools which make the modeling capabilities accessible to CNDEs industrial sponsors. Recent work at CNDE has led to the development of a new ultrasonic simulation package, UTSim2, which aims to continue this tradition of supporting industrial application of CNDE models. In order to meet this goal, UTSim2 has been designed as an extensible software package which can support previously-developed physics models as well as future models yet to be developed. Initial work has focused on the implementation of a Gauss-Hermite beam model, a paraxial approximation, which is implemented as part of the Thompson-Gray measurement model. This paper will present recent validation results and include comparisons against both previously-validated model output and newly-performed experiments.

  8. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  9. Adolescent self-concept among Han, Mongolian, and Korean Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpes, D K; Wang, X

    1997-01-01

    Studies of self-concept have suffered from a lack of both a solid theoretical base and a clear definition of the term. It is not clear whether self-concept is a construct from the cognitive sciences, an active part of personality or of the ego and unconscious, or a physiological process as indicated from neurological research. Nor is it clear whether the psychological construct of self is related to other concepts, such as personal identity, self-esteem, and the ego, as sometimes these refer to the whole person or a structure or element within a person. What is evident is that the majority of researchers continue to assume that self-concept, however defined in theory, is primarily governed by environmental determinants despite abundant evidence from the neurosciences of the strong influence of its genetic heritability. This study assumed a genetic hypothesis, that self-concept is developmental and that adolescent perception of personal, relational, and academic self-identity occurs uniformly across cultures and environmental circumstances. Data were collected using a validated survey instrument, translated into Chinese, from majority and minority adolescents in the People's Republic of China. High similarity was found between the majority and minority adolescents, suggesting developmental propensities in the formation of self-concept.

  10. Implementing concept-based learning in a large undergraduate classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David; Jutras, France

    2008-01-01

    An experiment explicitly introducing learning strategies to a large, first-year undergraduate cell biology course was undertaken to see whether awareness and use of strategies had a measurable impact on student performance. The construction of concept maps was selected as the strategy to be introduced because of an inherent coherence with a course structured by concepts. Data were collected over three different semesters of an introductory cell biology course, all teaching similar course material with the same professor and all evaluated using similar examinations. The first group, used as a control, did not construct concept maps, the second group constructed individual concept maps, and the third group first constructed individual maps then validated their maps in small teams to provide peer feedback about the individual maps. Assessment of the experiment involved student performance on the final exam, anonymous polls of student perceptions, failure rate, and retention of information at the start of the following year. The main conclusion drawn is that concept maps without feedback have no significant effect on student performance, whereas concept maps with feedback produced a measurable increase in student problem-solving performance and a decrease in failure rates.

  11. Indian Ocean Validation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    block number) 20. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILTY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION UNCLASSIFIEDIJNLIMITE0 (-1 SAME AS RPT. E3 DTIC USERS \\ .1...characteristics as received. A priori guidance on usage is a major reason for undertaking validation in general and developing coverage guidance in...particular method for predicting estimated SNRs is reasonably accurate. Actual signal usage was highly supportive of the theoretical model. One would also

  12. Demonstrating Experimenter "Ineptitude" as a Means of Teaching Internal and External Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Kimberli R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Internal and external validity are key concepts in understanding the scientific method and fostering critical thinking. This article describes a class demonstration of a "botched" experiment to teach validity to undergraduates. Psychology students (N = 75) completed assessments at the beginning of the semester, prior to and immediately following…

  13. Dragons and Dinosaurs: Directing Inquiry in Biology Using the Notions of "Milieu" and "Validation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiam, Marianne; Solberg, Jan; Evans, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how inquiry teaching can be directed towards specific content learning goals while allowing for student exploration and validation of hypotheses. Drawing from the Theory of Didactical Situations, the concepts of "milieu" and "validation" are illustrated through two sample biology lessons designed to engage and challenge…

  14. Dragons and Dinosaurs: Directing Inquiry in Biology Using the Notions of "Milieu" and "Validation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiam, Marianne; Solberg, Jan; Evans, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how inquiry teaching can be directed towards specific content learning goals while allowing for student exploration and validation of hypotheses. Drawing from the Theory of Didactical Situations, the concepts of "milieu" and "validation" are illustrated through two sample biology lessons designed to engage and challenge…

  15. Assessment of student conceptions of evolutionary trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Luke

    Biologists use evolutionary trees to depict hypotheses about the relationships among taxa. Trees possess lines that represent lineages, internal nodes that represent where lineages become evolutionarily isolated from one another and terminal nodes that represent the taxa under consideration. Interpreting a tree (i.e., "tree-thinking") is an important skill for biologists yet many students struggle when reading evolutionary trees. Common documented misconceptions include using morphological similarity, internal node counting or terminal node proximity, instead of identifying the internal node that represents a most recent common ancestor (MRCA), to determine relationships among taxa. I developed an instrument to assess whether students were using common ancestry or another, non-scientific, strategy to determine relationships among taxa. The study is the first to explicitly test hypotheses about how students approach reading evolutionary trees. To test the hypotheses an instrument was developed. The instrument is the first reliable and valid assessment testing student understanding of how to use most recent common ancestor to interpret evolutionary relationships in tree diagrams. Instructors can use the instrument as a diagnostic tool enabling them to help students learn this challenging concept. This study shows that, contrary to the assertion that students hold misconceptions about evolutionary trees made in the literature, students do not consistently use erroneous strategies when interpreting trees. This study suggests that a constructivist perspective of cognitive structure describes students' conception of evolutionary trees more closely than a misconception perspective.

  16. Occupational Functionality: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Bryan; Heaton, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Occupational health nursing has evolved since the late 19th century and, with the inclusion of advanced practice nursing, has become essential to the health and safety of workers. A key component of the knowledge required of advanced practice occupational health nurses is an understanding of what it means for workers to be fit for duty The definition or concept of being fit for duty varies depending on the point-of-view of the health care provider. Health care providers across all professions must have a consistent understanding of what it means to be fit for duty Literature shows that professions and specialties that often collaborate have varying ideas about what it means to be fit for duty These differences highlight the need for a consistent concept that can be used across professions, is holistic, and incorporates other concepts critical to all points of view. To better understand fit for duty, a concept analysis, using the Walker and Avant framework, focused on the concept of occupational functionality (OF). Occupational functionality is best defined as the qualities of being suited to serve an occupational purpose efficiently and effectively within the physical, occupational, environmental, and psychological demands of a unique work setting. This concept analysis offers an initial step in understanding fit for duty and gives health care providers a concept that can be used across disciplines.

  17. Resilient ageing: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Maxine M; Conner, Norma E

    2014-04-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept resilient ageing. Unique in comparison with other healthy ageing concepts, resilient ageing can be applied to all older people, regardless of age or affliction. The state of global population expansion in older people over the next 50 years calls for increased health promotion research efforts to ensure the maintenance of health and optimal quality of life for all older people. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, CINAHL, PubMed PsycINFO, for the years 1990-2012. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. An integrative research review methodology was applied to peer-reviewed journal articles (n = 46) for an inductive analysis of the concept of resilient ageing. The antecedents, defining attributes, and consequence of resilient ageing were identified. Antecedents to resilient ageing were found to be adversity and protective factors, while the core attributes include coping, hardiness and self-concept. The consequence of the process of resilient ageing was optimal quality of life. Sense of coherence was found to be the surrogate term. The results obtained were further substantiated using Antonovsky's (1979) theory of salutogenesis. A theoretical definition and a model of resilient ageing were developed. In addition, a discussion was provided on the practice, policy and research implications for promoting the development of protective factors and resilient ageing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. ETHICAL FASHION CONCEPT AND DESIGNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar GOKLUBERK OZLU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some problems like rapidly developing industrialization, irregular population growth, environmental pollution and to feel the impact of global warming as seriously, has been giving significant damage to the earth. People has realized that, after polluting to clean is harder than polluting of the measures to be taken before. And again people showed the sensitivity to the environment through different reactions and sanctions, took measures and created the new concepts about the enviroment. "Ethical Fashion" concept was created by the conscious and responsible individuals in the last two decades. However, that are being implemented as a concept is noticeable. Textile and fashion industry cover "Ethical Fashion"; ecological product, working conditions, fair trade and sustainable product are all in that concept. "Ethical Fashion" appeared and developed especially in United Kingdom, the USA and the other European countries. Nowadays, we may see a lot of textile and fashion designers, fabric and clothing collections, fairs and some specific courses at the universities about "Ethical Fashion". In this research contains "Ethical Fashion" concept, it's development processes and fashion designers who is working for this concept at the present time, also the main target is in this research, semtinizing "Ethical Fashion" concept.

  19. Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cimiano, P; Staab, S; 10.1613/jair.1648

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector representing syntactic dependencies which are automatically acquired from the text corpus with a linguistic parser. On the basis of this context information, FCA produces a lattice that we convert into a special kind of partial order constituting a concept hierarchy. The approach is evaluated by comparing the resulting concept hierarchies with hand-crafted taxonomies for two domains: tourism and finance. We also directly compare our approach with hierarchical agglomerative clustering as well as with Bi-Section-KMeans as an instance of a divisive clustering algorithm. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of using different measures wei...

  20. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.