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Sample records for hvac upgrade fort

  1. D0 HVAC System Controls Evaluation of Upgrade Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.; Simon, P.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering note documents three different options for upgrading the Dzero HVAC control system. All three options leave the current field hardware and field devices intact and upgrade the computer control hardware and software. Dzero will be heading into a physics run starting in 2000. This physics run could last several years. The Dzero HVAC system is an integral part of climate control and electronics cooling. The current HVAC control system is based upon a 1985 Johnson Controls System. In order to enter the next long-term physics run with a solid HVAC control system, the current control system needs to be upgraded. This proposal investigates three options: (1) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the Johnson Controls operator interface - FESS; (2) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the FIX32 Operator Interface - FESS/Dzero; and (3) Replacement with a commercially available Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) WITH THE FIX 32 Operator Interface - Dzero.

  2. Technical evaluation report of the Fort St. Vrain final draft upgraded technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a technical evaluation of the final draft of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Upgraded Technical Specifications (UT/S) as issued by Public Service of Colorado (PSC) on May 27, 1988 with subsequent supplemental updates issued on June 15, 1988 and August 5, 1988. It has been compared for consistency, and safety conservatism with the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Updated Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), the FSV Safety Evaluation Report (SER), the Facility Operating License, DPR-34, and all amendments to the Facility Operating License issued as of June 1, 1988, and Appendix A to the Operating License DPR-34, Technical Specifications. Because of the age of the plant, no supplements to the Fort St. Vrain SER have been issued since the original SER was not issued as a WASH or a NUREG report. This made it necessary to review all amendments to the Facility Operating License since they would contain the safety evaluations done to support changes to the Facility Operating License. The upgraded Fort St. Vrain Technical Specifications were also broadly compared with the latest Westinghouse Standard Technical Specifications (WSTS) to assure that what was proposed for Fort St. Vrain was consistent with the latest NRC staff practices for standard technical specifications

  3. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  4. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  5. Decision 99-8 : Shell Canada Limited application to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader in the Fort Saskatchewan area : Shell Canada Products Limited application to amend refinery approval in the Fort Saskatchewan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader on Shell's property adjoining the existing Scotford refinery in the County of Strathcona. The upgrader would process bitumen from Shell's proposed Muskeg River Mine, located 70 km north of Fort McMurray, and other feedstocks available in the area. The Board also considered an application for an amendment to the existing Scotford refinery approval, Industrial Development Permit 89-10, for the processing of 3.75 million cubic metres per year of sour conversion feedstock. Under a coordinated application process, Shell filed a joint Shell Scotford Upgrader application/Environmental Impact Assessment. Issues considered with respect to these applications were: technology selection, air/health, sulphur recovery, noise/traffic, and land use conflict. Shell stated that its Scotford refinery is the most energy efficient refinery in the Americas and that is has the highest liquid yield per unit volume of crude oil feedstock of any refinery in the world. The refinery's hydrocracking capacity would make it possible to use hydro-conversion technology for its upgrader which is environmentally advantageous. After examining all of the evidence pertaining to the applications, the Board found the projects to be in the public interest and is prepared to approve the Scotford Upgrader and Scotford Refinery modifications assuming that certain prescribed conditions are met

  6. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and D. Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme consists of four classes of projects: (a) Detector and Systems upgrades which are ongoing and largely (though not entirely) target LS1. (b) Full system upgrades for three projects that are preparing TDRs: Pixels, HCAL and L1 Trigger. The projects target completion by LS2. (c) Infrastructure consolidation and upgrades to improve operational robustness and to support the above projects. (d) Phase 2 replacement of the Tracker and major upgrades of the Trigger and Forward Detectors. For (a) and (c), detailed costing exists and is being integrated into a common reporting system. The schedule milestones for each project will be linked into the overall schedule planning for LS1. For the three TDR projects, the designs have progressed significantly since the Technical Proposal in 2010. Updated detailed cost estimates and schedules will be prepared with the TDRs to form the basis for tracking the projects through completion. To plan the upgrades and the supporting simulati...

  7. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Butler and J. Nash

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress on the CMS upgrades was summarised, in a workshop held at Fermilab between 7th and 10th November, attended by more than 150 people, many of whom came from Europe and Asia. Important goals of the workshop were to begin to formulate a schedule for the upgrades and to determine project interdependencies. Input was received from all the upgrade working groups and will be combined into a first-pass schedule over the next several weeks. In addition, technical progress on each of the major subtasks was presented and plans for the near-term future were established. Slides from the more than 100 talks are located at: https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=153564 In the opening plenary session, Frank Zimmermann, of the CERN Beams Department, gave his view of the LHC luminosity evolution. The luminosity will increase faster than we assumed in designing the upgrades. CMS will need to re-evaluate the current upgrade plans and revise them if necessary. CMS Upgrade Physics coordinator...

  8. UPGRADES

    CERN Document Server

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    There is very good progress in the execution of the LS1 projects and in launching construction of the Phase 1 upgrades. We focus here on two main achievements since the last CMS Week. The approval of the third Phase 1 TDR The preparation of the L1 Trigger Upgrade Technical Design Report has been a major effort of the collaboration at the beginning of this year, especially to develop supporting Trigger menu and physics performance studies. These studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the upgraded system to ensure low lepton and jet trigger thresholds, leading to a significant increase of the acceptance for the Higgs measurements, in the associated production mode and in the ττ decays, as well as for the stop searches involving multiple jets in the final state. The TDR was submitted to the LHCC in May and approved at the June committee meeting. It is now a public document, completing the series of the three TDRs describing the Phase 1 upgrades, with the new Pixel system and the HCAL rea...

  9. HVAC systems and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.T. (Linford Air and Refrigeration Company, Oakland, CA (US))

    1990-02-01

    The author discusses the section of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 which addresses HVAC systems and equipment. New features of HVAC systems mandatory general requirements are described. New prescriptive requirements are detailed.

  10. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2012-01-01

      Good progress is being made on the projects that will be installed during LS1. CSC chamber production for ME4/2 is progressing at a rate of four chambers per month, with 25 built so far, and the new electronics for ME1/1 is undergoing a pre-production integration testing. For the RPC chambers, gap production is underway with first deliveries to the chamber assembly sites at CERN and Ghent. The third site at Mumbai will begin production next month. For the PMT replacement in the forward hadron calorimeters (HF), the 1728 PMTs are all characterised and ready to be installed. Testing of the electronics boards is going well. Preparations to replace the HPDs in the outer calorimeter (HO) with SiPMs are also on-track. All components are at CERN and burn-in of the new front-end electronics is proceeding. There are three major upgrade projects targeting the period from LS1 through LS2: a new pixel detector, upgraded photo-detectors and electronics for HCAL, and development of a new L1 Trigger. The new ...

  11. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    Didier Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme is making good progress on the LS1 and Phase 1 projects, in the planning for Phase 2. The construction of the ME4/2 muon chambers to be installed during LS1 has started and the two first CSC production chambers have been fully qualified. The three muon groups have recently established a set of milestones towards the completion of their project, that will be integrated in the detailed planning and scheduling for the shutdown work established by Technical Coordination. The project to replace the photo-detectors in the HF and HO calorimeters is also well advanced and at the validation stage. The operation of an HF slice with new multi-anode PMTs and back-end electronics has already been demonstrated in 2012. For the Phase 1 data-taking, as discussed in the Chamonix workshop, it is likely that the LHC performance will exceed the nominal luminosity and pile-up before the second shutdown, still scheduled in 2018. The collaboration is therefore pursuing a strategy to upgrade ...

  12. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    The three post-LS1 Phase 1 Upgrade projects (the L1-Trigger, Pixel Tracker, and HCAL) are all making excellent progress and are transitioning from the prototype to the execution phase. Meanwhile plans are developing for Phase 2, a major Upgrade programme targeting the third long shutdown, LS3. News on Phase 1 is included under the respective projects; we only provide a brief summary here. Phase 1 The plan for the L1 Trigger relies on the installation during the present shutdown of optical splitting for the Trigger input signals. This will allow the new Trigger system to be brought online and fully commissioned during beam operation in 2015, while CMS relies on the existing legacy Trigger for physics. Once fully commissioned the experiment can switch over to the new Trigger, which will provide greatly improved performance at high event pile-up, by 2016. System tests of the splitter system, and of the new architecture of the calorimeter trigger were very successful, and the work in LS1 is on-track. Prototype ...

  13. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

      LS1 and Phase 1 The detector projects targeting LS1 are progressing well, and a fully integrated schedule developed by Technical Coordination includes installation milestones and a detailed work-plan. The first chambers of the RPC system were produced and are being qualified. Production will ramp up this year to a rate of 20 chambers per month. 32 chambers of the CSC system have been fabricated for the ME4/2 CSC stations, and production proceeds at a rate of 4 per month. The new ME1/1 Front-End Board is in production and the off-detector electronics integration tests are ongoing. The new Theta Trigger Boards for the DT readout production is started and the relocation of the Sector Collector boards with new Optical Links as been successfully tested. All the components for the upgrade of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter PMTs have been received at CERN and assemblies are being qualified. The situation is similar for the Hadron Outer Calorimeter new SiPMs and readout modules. Three projects are plan...

  14. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  15. EUB Decision 2006-112 : Suncor Energy Inc. application for expansion of an oil sands mine (North Steepbank mine extension) and a bitumen upgrading facility (Voyageur Upgrader) in the Fort McMurray area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Suncor Energy Inc. filed 2 applications to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for their proposed North Steepbank Mine Extension and Voyageur Upgrading Facility in the Fort McMurray area. This document provided an outline to the board of the location of the proposed projects, along with technical details concerning sulphur recovery, coke gasification, and by-product storage and use. The applications shared a common environmental impact assessment report, which presented details of tailings management programs; environmental effects to air, terrestrial resources, surface water, and groundwater; potential health effects to human populations; and traditional land use and ecological knowledge of the lands in the areas of the proposed upgrades. The social and economic effects of the projects were considered by the board, as well as the efforts of Suncor to engage with public consultation processes. It was noted that the projects are expected to provide $7.1 billion in federal taxes paid over the life of the project, in addition to $3.6 billion in provincial taxes and a further $23 million in municipal taxes. Details of several interventions filed by various First Nations groups were presented. It was noted that the Oil Sands Environmental Coalition (OSEC) has filed interventions stating concerns over consultation practices; cumulative effects; environmental monitoring; water usage; reclamation policies; and socio-economic issues. Various other groups have expressed concerns over the impacts of rapid development in the region and the subsequent strains on public infrastructure, housing and community resources. While the project is expected to provide employment, the current labour shortage in the region means that further development will be a disadvantage rather than a benefit to the communities in the region. Although a number of conditions were placed on Suncor before full acceptance of the project could be given, the board concluded that the Voyageur project was

  16. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was hosted by the IBACOS Building America research team to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting.

  17. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report outlines findings resulting from a U.S. Department of Energy Building America expert meeting to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. IBACOS has embarked upon a research effort under the Building America Program to understand business impacts and change management strategies for HVAC companies. HVAC companies can implement these strategies in order to quickly transition from a 'traditional' heating and cooling contractor to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. Due to HVAC service contracts, which allow repeat interaction with homeowners, HVAC companies are ideally positioned in the marketplace to resolve homeowner comfort issues through whole house energy upgrades. There are essentially two primary ways to define the routes of transition for an HVAC contractor taking on whole house performance contracting: (1) Sub-contracting out the shell repair/upgrade work; and (2) Integrating the shell repair/upgrade work into their existing business. IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the structure of traditional HVAC Companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Seek industry input on how to structure information so it is relevant and useful for traditional HVAC contractors who are transitioning to becoming whole house energy upgrade contractors Seven industry experts identified by IBACOS participated in the session along with one representative from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The objective of the meeting was to validate the general operational

  18. HVAC retrofitting and remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford Co., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the pitfalls and problems as well as the benefits of updating a HVAC system. Failures and successes, and the lessons learned working in this dominant portion of the construction market are included as the author describes retrofit projects. The projects have ranged from total replacements in unoccupied buildings to updating systems in occupied buildings.

  19. HVAC system operation manual of IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun.

    1997-06-01

    This manual is operation procedures of the IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) HVAC(Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) System. General operation procedures and test method of the IMEF HVAC system are described. The manual is as follows; 1. HVAC system operation manual 2. HVAC system management guide 3. HVAC system maintenance manual 4. HVAC system air velocity and flowrate measurement manual 5. HVAC system HEPA filter leak test manual 6. HVAC system charcoal filter leak test manual 7. HVAC system HEPA and charcoal filter exchange manual. (author). 8 tabs

  20. Efficient HVAC. New products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  1. HVAC retrofit evaluations: Persuading owners to do it right

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford (Robert G.), Oakland, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    HVAC system retrofit evaluations for commercial buildings are complex and, at best, imperfect. The number of variables even for a simple system is large. For a complex system, they can be nearly overwhelming. One of the most difficult questions owners of older buildings face is to decide when is it cost effective to replace or upgrade the HVAC system rather than to repair (or ignore) specific components. Similarly, two of the major questions a prospective buyer faces in evaluating a building during the due diligence process are: how well does the HVAC system work today, and how well will it work in the future and at what cost? These are addressed in this article.

  2. Overview of HVAC system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system modeling and simulation. The categorization of tools for HVAC system design and analysis with respect to which problems they are meant to deal with is introduced. Each categorization is explained and example tools

  3. HVAC retrofit for healthy schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Fisher, G.; Brennan, T.; Turner, W.A.; McKnight, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated the impacts of HVAC systems and building dynamics on radon concentrations in 26 schools across the United States. Diagnostic data indicated that radon was not the only indoor air pollutant in these schools. As a result, an essential step in the School Evaluation Program is determination of the feasibility of using HVAC technology for radon remediation in addition to general indoor air improvement. In 1990, the EPA sponsored the HVAC retrofit of two schools in Maine. This paper presents the information gained by these case studies. First, the extensive pre-retrofit diagnostics and characterizations of the two schools are reviewed. Then follows a discussion of why and how the HVAC systems, including unit ventilators, central air-handling units, and heat recovery ventilation, were retrofitted. Finally, an appraisal of the post-retrofit radon and CO 2 levels is made, along with presentation of related data such as retrofit costs and energy and comfort impacts

  4. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  5. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 14 - HVAC. A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, Theresa L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, Marye G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hand, James R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, Pat M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This guide, which is part of a series of Best Practices guides produced by DOE’s Building America program, describes ways homeowners can reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort, health, and safety of their homes by upgrading their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

  6. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems

  7. Study on HVAC system in nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeg, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Oh, Y. O.; Ju, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system in nuclear facility should be equipped and constructed more stable and allowable than that in common facility. The purpose of HVAC system is the maintenance of optimum working environment, the protection of worker against a contaminated air and the prevention of atmospheric contamination due to an outward ventilation, etc.. The basic scheme of a safety operation of nuclear facility is to prevent the atmospheric contamination even in low level. The adaptability of HVAC system which is in operation. In this study, the design requirements of HVAC system in nuclear facility and the HVAC systems in foreign countries are reviewed, and the results can be utilized in the design of HVAC system in nuclear facility

  8. Energy Renovations: Volume 14: HVAC - A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-29

    This report was prepared by PNNL for DOE's Building America program and is intended as a guide that energy performance contractors can share with homeowners to describe various energy-efficient options for heating, cooling, and ventilating existing homes. The report provides descriptions of many common and not-so-common HVAC systems, including their advantages and disadvantages, efficiency ranges and characteristics of high-performance models, typical costs, and climate considerations. The report also provides decision trees and tables of useful information for homeowners who are making decisions about adding, replacing, or upgrading existing HVAC equipment in their homes. Information regarding home energy performance assessments (audits) and combustion safety issues when replacing HVAC equipment are also provided.

  9. An integrated control-oriented modelling for HVAC performance benchmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, Harish; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment requires the development of accurate models for testing HVAC control strategies and corresponding energy consumption. In order to make the HVAC control synthesis computationally affordable, such

  10. Breathing Easier: HVAC Specifications for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, C. Curtis; Trent, Warren C.

    1996-01-01

    A major source of indoor air contamination in schools originates within the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems (HVAC), with draw-through systems being the worst offenders. Lists provisions for designing an HVAC system and a set of criteria to adhere to when planning new construction or renovations. (nine references) (MLF)

  11. Workplace Trends In HVAC/R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lynn; Todd, CeCe

    2013-01-01

    This article presents trends in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry, with an emphasis on the importance of technician training programs as exemplified at the East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) in Mesa, Arizona. The article states that HVAC workers are increasingly helping their consumers "go…

  12. Fortællingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlsted, Annemette

    Fortællingen - teori og analyse introducerer til teorier om fortællingen og præsenterer et sæt af analytiske tilgange til fortællinger af enhver art. Bogen lægger vægt på læsersynsvinklen og retter opmærksomheden mod de vilkår for menings- og betydningsdannelse, der kendetegner fortællingen. Begr....... Begreber om plot, fortællingens verden, karakterer, fortæller, modus og genre behandles, og deres anvendelse demonstreres på dansk og nordisk litteratur - med inddragelse af eksempler fra film og tv-reklamer....

  13. HVAC-DYNAMIC; A training simulator for dynamic analysis of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, M; Novakovic, V [SINTEF Division of Applied Thermodynamic, HVAC Group, Trondheim (Norway); Oegaard, O [SINTEF Division of Automatic Control, Trondheim (Norway); Brustad, G [Computer Aided Modelling, CAMO A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1989-01-01

    HVAC-DYNAMIC is a software tool for the dynamic simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) plants. The program is designed to be used by HVAC engineers during design or troubleshooting of plants and by plant operators in their training. The program is based on a set of the most-used HVAC plant configurations and requires only a minimum of knowledge in numeric methods and programming. A brief presentation of the program structure and examples showing some of the application of the program are given. 4 figs., 4 refs.

  14. HVAC-DYNAMIC: a training simulator for dynamic analysis of HVAC plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Heintz

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available HVAC-DYNAMIC is a software tool for the dynamic simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC plants. The program is designed to be used by HVAC engineers during design or troubleshooting of plants and by plant operators in their training. The program is based on a set of the most-used HVAC plant configurations and requires only a minimum of knowledge in numeric methods and programming. A brief presentation of the program structure and examples showing some of the application of the program are given.

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  16. HVAC design manual for hospitals and clinics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    "Provides in-depth design recommendations and proven, cost effective, and reliable solutions for health care HVAC design that provide low maintenance cost and high reliability based on best practices...

  17. Energy Performance and CO2 Emissions of HVAC Systems in Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Al-Waked

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy performance of buildings has attracted much attention among building physicists and engineers worldwide. The effects of building heating; ventilation; and air conditioning (HVAC systems’ design upgrade on the building energy performance are the focus of the current study. The adopted HVAC system consisted of chilled ceiling and chilled beam systems served by a centrifugal water chiller. An energy simulation study was undertaken in accordance with the national Australian built environment rating system-rules for collecting and using data. A three-dimensional simulation study was carried out utilizing the virtual environment-integrated environmental solutions software. Results from the current study have shown the importance of utilizing energy-efficient HVAC systems and HVAC strategies for achieving a high building energy star rating. Recommended strategies in order to achieve the nominated star rating; as predicted by the simulation analysis; were presented. Moreover; the effects of solar radiation inside the building atrium were significant; which cannot be overcome by simply installing a low shading coefficient glazing type at the atrium skylight. In addition to providing chilled ceiling technology; a high efficiency chiller and low energy lighting; it is recommended that the building be well tuned during the commissioning period. The current approach could be extended to accommodate higher energy ratings of commercial buildings at different locations worldwide.

  18. The map of energy flow in HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Ortiz, Jose; Maestre, Ismael R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Discussion of the four stages in the 'HVAC systems energy chain'. → Examination of HVAC systems as energy conversion devices. → Analysis of HVAC Sankey diagrams. → Discussion of HVAC loads and HVAC energy losses. -- Abstract: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the most energy consuming building services representing approximately half of the final energy use in the building sector and between one tenth and one fifth of the energy consumption in developed countries. Despite their significant energy use, there is a lack of a consistent and homogeneous framework to efficiently guide research and energy policies, mainly due to the complexity and variety of HVAC systems but also to insufficient rigour in their energy analysis. This paper reviews energy related aspects of HVAC systems with the aim of establishing a common ground for the analysis of their energy efficiency. The paper focuses on the map of energy flow to deliver thermal comfort: the HVAC energy chain. Our approach deals first with thermal comfort as the final service delivered to building occupants. Secondly, conditioned spaces are examined as the systems where useful heat (or coolth) is degraded to provide comfort. This is followed by the analysis of HVAC systems as complex energy conversion devices where energy carriers are transformed into useful heat and coolth, and finally, the impact of HVAC energy consumption on energy resources is discussed.

  19. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  20. HVAC systems and nuclear plant safety. Final report, May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide perspective on the overall risk impact of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system problems. Industry experience with HVAC system problems is documented and analyzed. In addition, the results of 10 plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) were reviewed to determine the contribution of HVAC systems to the risk of core damage. The PRAs included in this review cover a broad range of plant types and operating conditions. The review found that the impact of HVAC systems on risk is plant specific. These results exhibit a broad range of frequencies for HVAC contribution to risk, and the percentage of total core damage due to HVAC problems also had a wide variability. Plant-specific differences in design, environment, operation, and maintenance are the primary factors in determining the risk contribution of HVAC systems. (author)

  1. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.

    This module on introductory heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. The module contains four instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) HVAC materials; (2) HVAC tools; (3) HVAC layout; and (4) HVAC basic skills.…

  2. Upgrader alley : oil sands fever strikes Edmonton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.; Dyer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale industrial complexes called upgraders are similar to oil refineries. Several upgraders are planned for the area just northeast of Edmonton, known as Upgrader Alley. Concerns have been expressed over the potential congestion and environmental impacts of these upgraders. Upgraders will also attract other industry, and the cumulative effects of development will have major impacts on the region, its people and the natural environment. The report provided an overview of Upgrader Alley, with reference to what is driving development; upgrading issues; what Upgrader Alley will look like; and how much water Upgrader Alley needs. The report also discussed impacts on the land, air quality, and greenhouse gases. Water demand issues were discussed with reference to impacts on the North Saskatchewan River, water levels, water quality, a water management framework, and groundwater resources. Cumulative impacts were also presented. It was concluded that if all the projects for which applications had been submitted were approved, the rapid pace of growth in Upgrader Alley would mimic that of Fort McMurray. If the rate of development were somewhat slower, there would be more time to develop and implement plans to reduce the impacts. 189 refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs

  3. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella [Department of Engineering, University of Napoli “Parthenope” (Italy); Martini, Fabrizio [Green Energy Plus srl (Italy); Pirozzi, Salvatore [SIAT Installazioni spa (Italy); Ubertini, Stefano [School of Engineering (DEIM) University of Tuscia (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting.

  4. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella; Martini, Fabrizio; Pirozzi, Salvatore; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting

  5. Cutting the cost of hospital HVAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Steve Ruddell, head of global marketing, Motors & Generators, at ABB, emphasises the importance of a good motor management and maintenance policy in getting the best performance from, and reducing the energy consumption of, hospitals' HVAC systems, also explaining why investing in energy-efficient, low voltage drives, and high efficiency electric motors, to control such equipment, can pay major dividends for estates and facilities teams.

  6. System-Level Monitoring and Diagnosis of Building HVAC System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Siyu

    2013-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is an indoor environmental technology that is extensively instrumented for large-scale buildings. Among all subsystems of buildings, the HVAC system dominates the energy consumption and accounts for 57% of the energy used in U.S. commercial and residential buildings. Unfortunately, the HVAC system may fail to meet the performance expectations due to various faults, including not only complete hardware failures, but also non-optimal operations....

  7. Modeling and Control of AHUs in Building HVAC Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is a mechanical system that provides thermal comfort and accepted indoor air quality often instrumented for large-scale buildings. The HVAC system takes a dominant portion of overall building energy consumption and accounts for 50% of the energy used in the U.S. commercial and residential buildings in 2012. The performance and energy saving of building HVAC systems can be significantly improved by the implementation of better and smarter contro...

  8. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  9. Development of a computer design system for HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Yotsuya, M.; Hasegawa, M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a computer design system for HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system is presented in this paper. It supports the air conditioning design for a nuclear power plant and a reprocessing plant. This system integrates various computer design systems which were developed separately for the various design phases of HVAC. the purposes include centralizing the HVAC data, optimizing design, and reducing the designing time. The centralized HVAC data are managed by a DBMS (Data Base Management System). The DBMS separates the computer design system into a calculation module and the data. The design system can thus be expanded easily in the future. 2 figs

  10. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  11. Maintenance of HVAC-systems and components: How to prevent pollution from HVAC-systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Björkroth, M.; Plitt, U.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies, from seven

  12. Why, when and how do HVAC-systems pollute? Characterisation of HVAC-systems related pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Björkroth, M.; Müller, B.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Roulet, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies from seven

  13. Integrated dynamic modelling and multivariable control of HVAC components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, H.; Babuska, R.; Baldi, S.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rantzer, Anders; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The field of energy efficiency in buildings offers challenging opportunities from a control point of view. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units in buildings must be accurately controlled so as to ensure the occupants' comfort and reduced energy consumption. While the existing HVAC

  14. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  15. RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

  16. Applying power electronics to residential HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfstede, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines several of the market and application issues bearing on the economics residential variable speed air conditioners and heat pumps. Technical details of capacity modulized systems have been avoided, along with design issues and tradeoffs involving power semiconductors, motor torque and speed control strategies- and silicon integration for these applications. The intention is to provoke new creative technical solutions but perhaps more importantly, to involve new marketing strategies that will develop the mature potential of air conditioning products containing power electronics to enable them to generate the tough HVAC market, competing successfully against conventional systems

  17. Towards Autonomous Control of HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.

    autonomous control. Together with better tuned controllers and more dedicated control it would be possible to decrease the energy consumption, save money and increase the indoor air climate. A flexible HVAC test system was designed and implemented. Standard components and sensors were used in the design...... temperature controller, based on airflow control, was designed. Feedback linearisation is used together with an auto-tuning procedure, based on relay feedback. Design of a new CO2 controller was made to achieve a demand controlled ventilation system, in order to save energy. Feedback linearisation was used...

  18. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  19. Optimal Model-Based Control in HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komareji, Mohammad; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    is developed. Then the optimal control structure is designed and implemented. The HVAC system is splitted into two subsystems. By selecting the right set-points and appropriate cost functions for each subsystem controller the optimal control strategy is respected to gaurantee the minimum thermal and electrical......This paper presents optimal model-based control of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This HVAC system is made of two heat exchangers: an air-to-air heat exchanger (a rotary wheel heat recovery) and a water-to- air heat exchanger. First dynamic model of the HVAC system...... energy consumption. Finally, the controller is applied to control the mentioned HVAC system and the results show that the expected goals are fulfilled....

  20. Optimal Set-Point Synthesis in HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komareji, Mohammad; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimal set-point synthesis for a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This HVAC system is made of two heat exchangers: an air-to-air heat exchanger and a water-to-air heat exchanger. The objective function is composed of the electrical power for different...... components, encompassing fans, primary/secondary pump, tertiary pump, and air-to-air heat exchanger wheel; and a fraction of thermal power used by the HVAC system. The goals that have to be achieved by the HVAC system appear as constraints in the optimization problem. To solve the optimization problem......, a steady state model of the HVAC system is derived while different supplying hydronic circuits are studied for the water-to-air heat exchanger. Finally, the optimal set-points and the optimal supplying hydronic circuit are resulted....

  1. Fortæller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    Siden Gerard Genettes ”Discours du récit” (1972) er distinktionen mellem hvem, der taler, og hvem, der ser, blevet cementeret som et grundparadigme i narratologien og litteraturteorien. Genettes pointe var, at den etablerede narrative teori – som fx Wayne C. Booths The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961...... narratologi blevet forsøgt udfordret, enten fordi det hævdes, at en tekst ikke nødvendigvis er udstyret med en fortæller, eller fordi begrebet om fortæller antages at bero på en misvisende og reduktiv antropomorficering. Eller omvendt fordi der i Genettes begrebsdannelse ligger en forkastelse af...... forestillingen om en implicit forfatter (implied author) og dermed også en afvisning af en upålidelige fortæller. Kapitlet præsenterer begreberne fortæller og synsvinkel i narratologien med afsæt i Genettes bestemmelser og diskutere de problemer, der opstår i kølvandet herpå. Det være sig både de rent...

  2. Fortællerfiktionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan, Rolf

    Bogen er en kritisk nærlæsning af Gérard Genettes Discours du récit og viser, hvorden den franske teoretiker løser og forenkler en række centrale problemer i traditionel fortælleteori, idet han uudtalt forudsætter et fiktionsbegreb, som han eksplicit afviser som narratologisk relevant. Det...

  3. HVAC system optimisation-in-building section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L.; Cai, W.; Xie, L.; Li, S.; Soh, Y.C. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimise in-building section of centralised Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimisation method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  4. HVAC system optimization - in-building section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Lu; Wenjian Cai; Lihua Xie; Shujiang Li; Yeng Chai Soh [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimize in-building section of centralized Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimization method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  5. PSI: Upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The accelerator complex at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen near Zurich (PSI - formed in 1988 by combining the Federal Institute for Reactor Research and the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research) is in the throes of a major and lengthy upgrade

  6. PSI: Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-09-15

    The accelerator complex at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen near Zurich (PSI - formed in 1988 by combining the Federal Institute for Reactor Research and the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research) is in the throes of a major and lengthy upgrade.

  7. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  8. A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakiloroaya, Vahid; Samali, Bijan; Fakhar, Ahmad; Pishghadam, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various strategies for HVAC energy saving are described and reviewed. • The influence of each strategy on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. • Combination of existing air conditioning technologies appears to be effective for the energy conservation and comfort. • A comparison study between these approaches is carried out. • Changing the HVAC configuration has the potential to increase or reduce energy savings, depending on several factors. - Abstract: Decreasing the energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is becoming increasingly important due to rising cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Therefore, finding novel ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings without compromising comfort and indoor air quality is an ongoing research challenge. One proven way of achieving energy efficiency in HVAC systems is to design systems that use novel configurations of existing system components. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each presents opportunities for energy savings. Energy efficient HVAC systems can be created by re-configuring traditional systems to make more strategic use of existing system parts. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of existing air conditioning technologies can offer effective solutions for energy conservation and thermal comfort. This paper investigates and reviews the different technologies and approaches, and demonstrates their ability to improve the performance of HVAC systems in order to reduce energy consumption. For each strategy, a brief description is first presented and then by reviewing the previous studies, the influence of that method on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. Finally, a comparison study between these approaches is carried out

  9. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  10. D-Zero HVAC Heat Pump Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This engineering note documents the integration of Dzero Heat Pump 1 through Heat Pump 15 into the cryo/gas process control system commonly referred to as the cryo control system. Heat pumps 1 through 15 control the ambient air temperature on the 3rd, 5th, and 6th floor office areas at Dzero. The entire Johnson HVAC control system was replaced with a Siemens control system in 1999 leaving behind the 15 heat pumps with stand-alone Johnson controllers. Now, these 15 heat pump Johnson controllers are being replaced with small stand alone Beckhoff BC9000 controllers. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers are network able into the existing Intellution control system. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers use the cryo private Ethernet network and an OPC driver to get data into the Intellution SCADA node databases. The BC9000 is also programmed over this same Ethernet network.

  11. Transactive Control of Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    This document details the development and testing of market-based transactive controls for building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. These controls are intended to serve the purposes of reducing electricity use through conservation, reducing peak building electric demand, and providing demand flexibility to assist with power system operations. This report is the summary of the first year of work conducted under Phase 1 of the Clean Energy and Transactive Campus Project. The methods and techniques described here were first investigated in simulation, and then subsequently deployed to a physical testbed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus for validation. In this report, we describe the models and control algorithms we have developed, testing of the control algorithms in simulation, and deployment to a physical testbed. Results from physical experiments support previous simulation findings, and provide insights for further improvement.

  12. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thornton, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  13. Strategy Guideline: Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  14. Strategy Guideline. Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  15. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The Design of HVAC System in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    The HVAC systems for conventional facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center consist of 3 systems : accelerator building HVAC system, beam application building HVAC system and miscellaneous HVAC system. We designed accelerator building HVAC system and beam application research area HVAC system in the conventional facilities of Proton Accelerator research center. Accelerator building HVAC system is divided into accelerator tunnel area, klystron area, klystron gallery area, accelerator assembly area. Also, Beam application research area HVAC system is divided into those of beam experimental hall, accelerator control area, beam application research area and Ion beam application building. In this paper, We described system design requirements and explained system configuration for each systems. We presented operation scenario of HVAC system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

  17. [Analysis and research on cleaning points of HVAC systems in public places].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaolan; Han, Xu; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Dai, Zizhu

    2010-03-01

    To analyze cleaning points of HVAC systems, and to provides scientific base for regulating the cleaning of HVAC systems. Based on the survey results on the cleaning situation of HVAC systems around China for the past three years, we analyzes the cleaning points of HVAC systems from various aspects, such as the major health risk factors of HVAC systems, the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems, cleaning methods and acceptance points of the air ducts and the parts of HVAC systems, the onsite protection and individual protection, the waste treatment and the cleaning of the removed equipment, inspection of the cleaning results, video record, and the final acceptance of the cleaning. The analysis of the major health risk factors of HVAC systems and the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems is given. The specific methods for cleaning the air ducts, machine units, air ports, coil pipes and the water cooling towers of HVAC systems, the acceptance points of HVAC systems and the requirements of the report on the final acceptance of the cleaning of HVAC systems are proposed. By the analysis of the points of the cleaning of HVAC systems and proposal of corresponding measures, this study provides the base for the scientific and regular launch of the cleaning of HVAC systems, a novel technology service, and lays a foundation for the revision of the existing cleaning regulations, which may generate technical and social benefits to some extent.

  18. Hydrogen alternatives for a regional upgrader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.T.; Padamsey, R.

    1991-01-01

    For a proposed regional upgrader in Alberta, hydrogen will be needed to upgrade the bitumen and heavy oil to be processed by that facility. The upgrader will rely on high conversion hydrocracking which consumes 3.4 wt % hydrogen to produce a 106% volume yield of high quality synthetic crude. The costs of producing hydrogen via steam reforming of methane, partial oxidation of coal or upgrading residues, and electrolysis are compared, showing that steam reforming is the cheapest. However, an even cheaper source of hydrogen is available in the Edmonton and Fort Saskatchewan area as byproducts from petrochemical plants. An economic analysis is presented of a proposed scheme to capture, purify, compress, and transfer hydrogen from one or two such plants to a nearby regional upgrader. The two plants could supply a total of 126.6 million ft 3 /d of hydrogen at a total installed capital cost of about half of that of a steam reforming plant of equivalent size. When operating costs are added (including the cost of replacing the hydrogen, currently used as fuel at the two plants, with natural gas), the total cost of hydrogen is substantially less than the costs for a hydrogen plant within the upgrader. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. VARIABLE SPEED INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT HVAC BLOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shixiao Wang; Herman Wiegman; Wilson Wu; John Down; Luana Iorio; Asha Devarajan; Jing Wang; Ralph Carl; Charlie Stephens; Jeannine Jones; Paul Szczesny

    2001-11-14

    This comprehensive topical report discusses the key findings in the development of a intelligent integrated blower for HVAC applications. The benefits of rearward inclined blades over that of traditional forward inclined blades is well documented and a prototype blower design is presented. A comparison of the proposed blower to that of three typical units from the industry is presented. The design of the blower housing is also addressed and the impact of size limitations on static efficiency is discussed. Issues of air flow controllability in the rearward inclined blower is addressed and a solution to this problem is proposed. Several motor design options are discussed including inside-out radial flux designs and novel axial flux designs, all are focused on the various blower needs. The control of the motor-blower and airflow through the use of a high density inverter stage and modern digital signal processor is presented. The key technical challenges of the approach are discussed. The use of the motor as a sensor in the larger heating/ventilating system is also discussed. Diagnostic results for both the motor itself and the blower system are presented.

  20. Energization of Long HVAC Cables in Parallel - Analysis and Estimation Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    The installation of long HVAC cables has recently become more common and it tends to increase during the next years. Consequently, the energization of long HVAC cables in parallel is also a more common condition. The energization of HVAC cables in parallel resembles the en-ergization of capacitor...... has several simplifications and does not always provide accurate results. This paper proposes a new formula that can be used for the estimation of these two quantities for two HVAC cables in parallel....

  1. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  2. 77 FR 72763 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and Water Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...; commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment; and commercial water heating equipment... refrigeration equipment; commercial HVAC equipment; commercial WH equipment; and walk-in coolers and freezers...

  3. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. It contains three units: HVAC materials, HVAC tools, and applied skills. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the…

  4. 10 CFR 431.402 - Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH... regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products. Beginning on the effective date of such standard, an energy conservation standard set forth in this Part for a commercial HVAC & WH product supersedes any State or local...

  5. 77 FR 76825 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and Water... provisions for commercial refrigeration equipment; commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC...; commercial HVAC equipment; commercial WH equipment; and walk-in coolers and freezers (June 30 Final Rule). 76...

  6. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  7. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) HVAC System Component Index; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document identities the components, design media, procedures and defines the critical characteristics of Commercial Grade Items necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. This document lists safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) components for the Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI), as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item

  8. Low sound level source path contribution on a HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    For compliance test purposes, the noise level of a HVAC is usually measured with a pressure microphone positioned at a certain distance. This measurement is normally performed in an anechoic room. However, this method doesn't provide the engineer any insight on what noise sources do contribute to

  9. Towards an integral approach of building and HVAC system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic thermal interaction between a building and the HVAC systems which service it is still difficult to predict. As this thermal interaction becomes more critical in practice, related knowledge and evaluation tools become increasingly important. It is argued why these need to be based on an

  10. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: HVAC/R Technician Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry. Agency partners involved in this project include: the…

  11. Maximize Benefits, Minimize Risk: Selecting the Right HVAC Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, James T.

    1993-01-01

    An informal survey of 20 major urban school districts found that 40% were currently operating in a "break down" maintenance mode. A majority, 57.9%, also indicated they saw considerable benefits in contracting for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) maintenance services with outside firms. Offers guidelines in selecting…

  12. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  13. INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HVAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in homes during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study and the Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study. A temperature sensor/logger placed on an outlet...

  14. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  15. Application of modeling and simulation to HVAC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages and disadvantages of different modelling approaches for design and performance evaluation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for buildings. Merits and drawbacks of the various modelling methods are illustrated by case study

  16. Advanced HVAC modeling with FemLab/Simulink/MatLab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The combined MatLab toolboxes FemLab and Simulink are evaluated as solvers for HVAC problems based on partial differential equations (PDEs). The FemLab software is designed to simulate systems of coupled PDEs, 1-D, 2-D or 3-D, nonlinear and time dependent. In order to show how the program works, a

  17. HVAC system simulation: overview, issues and some solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings’ heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. Recognizing this fact, in the last forty years many tools have been developed to help achieving this goal. In this paper

  18. The HVAC Challenges of Upgrading an Old Lab for High-end Light Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, R.; Martone, P.; Callahan, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Rochester Medical Center forms the centerpiece of the University of Rochester's health research, teaching, patient care, and community outreach missions. Within this large facility of over 5 million square feet, demolition and remodeling of existing spaces is a constant activity. With more than $145 million in federal research funding, lab space is frequently repurposed and renovated to support this work. The URMC Medical Center Facilities Organization supporting small to medium space renovations is constantly challenged and constrained by the existing mechanical infrastructure and budgets to deliver a renovated space that functions within the equipment environmental parameters. One recent project, sponsored by the URMC Shared Resources Laboratory, demonstrates these points. The URMC Light Microscopy Shared Resource Laboratory requested renovation of a 121 sq. ft. room in a 40 year old building which would enable placement of a laser capture microdissection microscope and a Pascal 5 laser scanning confocal microscope with the instruments separated by a blackout curtain. This poster discusses the engineering approach implemented to bring an older lab into the environmental specifications needed for the proper operation of the high-end light microscopes.

  19. HVAC System Replacements for the Spanish Nuclear Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Gensollen, T.; Pérez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The European Union and its Member States have established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The chiller systems installed at the Spanish nuclear fleet contained zone depleting refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, and R-22), which are being phased out of service. Due to the different material and thermodynamic properties of the replacement refrigerant (e.g. R-134A), a complete chiller system replacement is needed to comply with the EU regulations for CFCs. Delivering state of the art HVAC and Chiller systems that comply with the Nuclear Plant design basis, licensing basis, system and component specifications as well as European Union (EU) and Spanish codes and standards can be challenging for products purchased from US based manufacturers. Procurement specifications and Request for Quotes (RFQs) issued today for the procurement of original Plant components and systems will contain references to numerous codes and standards that were not in effect at the time the original components were specified and procured. The reference to EU and Spanish codes and standards that are unfamiliar to the HVAC suppliers can lead to uncertainty and concern related to specification compliance. The unnecessary burden of ambiguous codes and standards complicates the proposal process and introduces pricing uncertainty and contract risk. A review of the EU and Spanish national codes and standards that are often referenced in HVAC system related RFQs need to be performed to determine what codes and standards are applicable to HVAC systems designed, manufactured and tested in the US for export to Spain for installation in Spanish NPPs. Lessons learned and best practices should be applied to help both the Supplier (HVAC OEM) and the Purchaser Plant Operator) to optimize the procurement process and improve the quality of offerings to comply with applicable codes and standards. (Author)

  20. Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A

    2008-06-01

    The rate at which airborne particulate matter deposits onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components is important from both indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy perspectives. This modeling study predicts size-resolved particle mass loading rates for residential and commercial filters, heat exchangers (i.e. coils), and supply and return ducts. A parametric analysis evaluated the impact of different outdoor particle distributions, indoor emission sources, HVAC airflows, filtration efficiencies, coils, and duct system complexities. The median predicted residential and commercial loading rates were 2.97 and 130 g/m(2) month for the filter loading rates, 0.756 and 4.35 g/m(2) month for the coil loading rates, 0.0051 and 1.00 g/month for the supply duct loading rates, and 0.262 g/month for the commercial return duct loading rates. Loading rates are more dependent on outdoor particle distributions, indoor sources, HVAC operation strategy, and filtration than other considered parameters. The results presented herein, once validated, can be used to estimate filter changing and coil cleaning schedules, energy implications of filter and coil loading, and IAQ impacts associated with deposited particles. The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components in residential and commercial buildings. This knowledge informs the development and comparison of control strategies to limit particle deposition. The predicted mass loading rates allow for the assessment of pressure drop and indoor air quality consequences that result from particle mass loading onto HVAC system components.

  1. NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale | Art Museum in Fort Lauderdale

    Science.gov (United States)

    NSU Art Museum Fort Lauderdale Visit Admissions Hours & Admission Policies & Accessibility Airports Shop & Dine About the Café & Store Store Café Menu Art Exhibitions Currently on View Thursday 2-for-1 specials on wine and craft beer in the Museum Café, and hands-on art projects for all

  2. Fort Saint Vrain operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain (FSV), on the system of the Public Service Company of Colorado, is the only high temperature gas-cooled (HTGR) power reactor in the United States. The plant features a helium-cooled reactor with a uranium-thorium fuel cycle. The paper describes the experience made during its operation. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Development of the Aging Management Program for HVAC Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hong Seok; Lee, Dong Min; Lee, Jang Wook; Cho, Ki Hyun; Cho, Sang Bum; Choi, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The HVAC(heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems in nuclear power plants are consisted of fan, damper, duct, filter and cooling coil, which is equipped in the safety-related building such as main control room, auxiliary building and containment building. These systems are designed to maintain the required ambient air temperature in all plant areas for the comfort and safety of personnel and for environmental requirement of equipment and to ensure that the gaseous radioactivity emission to the environment is kept below permissible discharge limits. The purpose of this study is to establish the inspection plan to ensure that touch up parts of the duct are sound and to develop the aging management program for maintaining effectively HVAC systems

  4. Decentralized Optimization for a Novel Control Structure of HVAC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A decentralized control structure is introduced into the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to solve the high maintenance and labor cost problem in actual engineering. Based on this new control system, a decentralized optimization method is presented for sensor fault repair and optimal group control of HVAC equipment. Convergence property of the novel method is theoretically analyzed considering both convex and nonconvex systems with constraints. In this decentralized control system, traditional device is fitted with a control chip such that it becomes a smart device. The smart device can communicate and operate collaboratively with the other devices to accomplish some designated tasks. The effectiveness of the presented method is verified by simulations and hardware tests.

  5. Design and Operation of 3-Pin FTL HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, S. K.; Park, K. N.; Lee, J. M.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, Y. J.

    2005-01-01

    According to the increasing demand for irradiation tests to develop new fuels, the 3-Pin FTL(Fuel Test Loop for 3 pin test fuel) facility has now been under design to conduct in-core fuel performance tests at the operating conditions, which will be installed at HANARO. The HVAC system of the FTL will be dependent on that of the HANARO. The FTL has three equipments rooms, which are the room 1, room 2 and the control room. The high pressure and high temperature equipments will be installed in the room 1. The atmosphere of the room 1 shall be maintained under the designed condition. This paper describes the design of the FTL HVAC system in the room 1

  6. ANFIS -Based Navigation for HVAC Service Robot with Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, Mohd Zoolfadli Md; Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md; Mustafah, Yasir Mohd

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an ongoing work on the autonomous navigation of a mobile service robot for Heat, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC) ducting. CCD camera mounted on the front-end of our robot is used to analyze the ducts openings (blob analysis) in order to differentiate them from other landmarks (blower fan, air outlets and etc). Distance between the robot and duct openings is measured using ultrasonic sensor. Controller chosen is ANFIS where its architecture accepts three inputs; recognition of duct openings, robot positions and distance while the outputs is maneuver direction (left or right).45 membership functions are created from which produces 46 training epochs. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the system, a working prototype is developed and tested inside HVAC ducting in ROBOCON Lab, IIUM

  7. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  8. An evaluation of damping ratios for HVAC duct systems using vibration test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunyasu, K.; Horimizu, Y.; Kawakami, A.; Iokibe, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01

    The function of Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems must be maintained including HVAC duct systems to keep the operation of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants during earthquake excitations. Therefore, it is important to carry out seismic design for HVAC duct systems. In the previous aseismic design for HVAC duct systems, the 0.5% damping ratio has been used in Japan. In recent years, vibration tests, held on actual duct systems in nuclear power plants and mockup duct systems were performed in order to investigate damping ratios for HVAC duct systems. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the damping ratio for HVAC duct systems, evaluated from these tests, were much greater than the 0.5% damping ratio used in the previous aseismic design of Japan. The new damping ratio in aseismic design was proposed to be 2.5%. The present paper describes the results of the above mentioned investigation

  9. HVAC; Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning - Aerosol Duct Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    material was applied. Annual energy and cost savings were predicted based on a typical weather year for each site. The installation of the duct...Balance reports; Visible dust streaks on duct work, ceilings near supply diffusers, or electrical boxes; Comfort complaints Specific Leakage...energy consumption , depending on the HVAC system type and the location of the ducts that were sealed. The cost effectiveness of the technology is

  10. Integrated high efficiency blower apparatus for HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Weigman, Herman; Wang, Shixiao

    2007-07-24

    An integrated centrifugal blower wheel for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) blower unit includes a first blade support, a second blade support, and a plurality of S-shaped blades disposed between the first and second blade supports, wherein each of the S-shaped blades has a trailing edge bent in a forward direction with respect to a defined direction of rotation of the wheel.

  11. HVAC fault tree analysis for WIPP integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.; Iacovino, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) due to potential radioactive releases, a probabilistic risk assessment of waste handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which comprise the final barrier between waste handling operations and the environment. 1 refs., 1 tab

  12. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladykas, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  13. Methodology for the evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.; White, D.L.; Huang, H.L.

    1998-03-01

    The US Army and a private energy service company are developing a comprehensive energy efficiency project to upgrade the family housing at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The project includes converting the space conditioning systems of more than 4,000 housing units to geothermal (or ground-source) heat pumps (GHPs). This interim report describes the methodology of the evaluation associated with this project, including the field monitoring that has been conducted at the base.

  14. A comfort-based, energy-aware HVAC agent and its applications in the smart grid

    OpenAIRE

    Auffenberg, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce a novel heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) agent that maintains a comfortable thermal environmant for its users while minimising energy consumption of the HVAC system and incorporating demand side management (DSM) signals to shift HVAC loads towards achieving more desirable overall load profiles. To do so, the agent needs to be able to accurately predict user comfort, for example by using a thermal comfort model. Existing thermal comfort models are u...

  15. Ecological Baseline, Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    cedar eTm (Uiimus crassifolia), Texas ash (Fraxinus texansis), and Texas persimmon ( Diospyros texana). Conversely, the two predominant tree species...Ilex decidua), Mex- ican buckeye (Ungnadia spjeciosa), and Texas persimmon ( Diospyros texana). Vines included greenbrier (Smilax bona-nox) and white...Hedgehey Cactus (Echinocereus sp.) has been observed on Fort Hood. Due to the brief period of flowering for this genus , the individual species were not

  16. The D0 Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we describe the approved DO Upgrade detector, and its physics capabilities. The DO Upgrade is under construction and will run during the next Fermilab collider running period in early 1999 (Run II). The upgrade is designed to work at the higher luminosities and shorter bunch spacings expected during this run. The major elements of t he upgrade are: a new tracking system with a silicon tracker, scintillating fiber tracker, a 2T solenoid, and a central preshower detector; new calorimeter electronics; new muon trigger and tracking detectors with new muon system electronics; a forward preshower detector; new trigger electronics and DAQ improvements to handle the higher rates.

  17. Inventory of Forts in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinandi, N.; Suryaningsih, F.

    2015-08-01

    The great archipelago in Indonesia with its wealthy and various nature, the products and commodities of tropic agriculture and the rich soil, was through the centuries a region of interest for other countries all over the world. For several reasons some of these countries came to Indonesia to establish their existence and tried to monopolize the trading. These countries such as the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch and the British built strengthened trade stations which later became forts all over Indonesia to defend their interest. The archipelago of Indonesia possesses a great number of fortification-works as legacies of native rulers and those which were built by European trading companies and later became colonial powers in the 16th to the 19th centuries. These legacies include those specific structures built as a defence system during pre and within the period of World War II. These fortresses are nowadaysvaluable subjects, because they might be considered as shared heritage among these countries and Indonesia. It's important to develop a vision to preserve these particular subjects of heritage, because they are an interesting part of the Indonesian history and its cultural treasures. The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has national program to compile a comprehensive documentation of the existing condition of these various types of forts as cultural heritage. The result of the 3 years project was a comprehensive 442 forts database in Indonesia, which will be very valuable to the implementation of legal protection, preservation matters and adaptive re-use in the future.

  18. Upgrading uncompetitive products economically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    for upgrading an uncompetitive product, and combine the solutions into a single solution. We also propose a spatial join-based solution that assumes P and T are indexed by an R-tree. Given a set of products in the same R-tree node, we derive three lower bounds on their upgrading costs. These bounds are employed...

  19. Maintenance procedure upgrade programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.J.; Zimmerman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach to upgrading nuclear power plant maintenance procedures. The approach consists of four phases: diagnosis, program planning, program implementation, and program evaluation. Each phase is explained as a series of steps to ensure that all factors in a procedure upgrade program are considered

  20. Weather data around the world for design of field hospital HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forejt, L.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Drkal, F.; Barankova, P.

    2006-01-01

    Field hospital (FH) is a military mobile complex to be deployed in almost any climate around the world. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the Czech Republic FH units is being redesigned. Computer simulation software will be used for the design of HVAC under variety of

  1. Considerations to Prevent Growth and Spread of Legionella in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the threat posed by the Legionnaire's Disease bacterium and the germ's ability to thrive in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, especially in standing water. Describes ways to minimize disease risk through HVAC system design (such as locating cooling towers away from air intakes) and ways to maintain a clean…

  2. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  3. Integrovany pristup k reseni systemu vytapeni,vetrani a klimatizace v budovach (HVAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Towards an integral approach of building and HVAC system The dynamic thermal interacion between a building and the HVAC systems which service it, is still difficult to predict. As this thermal interacition becomes more critical in practice, related knowledge and evaluation tools become increasingly

  4. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  5. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  6. HVAC SYSTEMS IN THE CURRENT STOCK OF US K-12 SCHOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on heating, ventilating, an air- conditioning (HVAC) systems commonly found in U. S. school buildings and the effect that operating these systems has on indoor radon levels. The report describes the ability of various HVAC systems to pressurize a...

  7. Critical control points for the management of microbial growth in HVAC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, S; Franchimon, F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Olesen, BW; Wargocki, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    Office buildings with HVAC systems consistently report Sick Building Symptoms that are derived from microbial growth. We used the HACCP methodology to find the main critical control points (CCPs) for microbial management of HVAC systems in temperate climates. Desk research revealed relative humidity

  8. Energy-Smart Choices for Schools. An HVAC Comparison Tool. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A CD ROM program provides comparison construction cost capabilities for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in educational facilities. The program combines multiple types of systems with square footage data on low and high construction cost and school size to automatically calculate HVAC comparative construction costs. (GR)

  9. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  10. Filtration effectiveness of HVAC systems at near-roadway schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M C; Ludwig, J F; Brown, S G; Vaughn, D L; Roberts, P T

    2013-06-01

    Concern for the exposure of children attending schools located near busy roadways to toxic, traffic-related air pollutants has raised questions regarding the environmental benefits of advanced heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) filtration systems for near-road pollution. Levels of black carbon and gaseous pollutants were measured at three indoor classroom sites and at seven outdoor monitoring sites at Las Vegas schools. Initial HVAC filtration systems effected a 31-66% reduction in black carbon particle concentrations inside three schools compared with ambient air concentrations. After improved filtration systems were installed, black carbon particle concentrations were reduced by 74-97% inside three classrooms relative to ambient air concentrations. Average black carbon particle concentrations inside the schools with improved filtration systems were lower than typical ambient Las Vegas concentrations by 49-96%. Gaseous pollutants were higher indoors than outdoors. The higher indoor concentrations most likely originated at least partially from indoor sources, which were not targeted as part of this intervention. Recent literature has demonstrated adverse health effects in subjects exposed to ambient air near major roadways. Current smart growth planning and infill development often require that buildings such as schools are built near major roadways. Improving the filtration systems of a school's HVAC system was shown to decrease children's exposure to near-roadway diesel particulate matter. However, reducing exposure to the gas-phase air toxics, which primarily originated from indoor sources, may require multiple filter passes on recirculated air. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, Susila; Tang, Y.N.

    1994-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans. ((orig.))

  12. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.

    1995-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans

  13. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...... with the controlled room temperature in the range from 10 to 35 °C and relative humidity in the range from 15 to 80 %. The field lab can be used to test the performance of each system included in the field lab as well as the combined performance of two or more systems....

  14. HVAC optimization as facility requirements change with corporate restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, R.R.; Sankey, M.S.

    1997-06-01

    The hyper-competitive, dynamic 1990`s forced many corporations to {open_quotes}Right-Size,{close_quotes} relocating resources and equipment -- even consolidating. These changes led to utility reduction if HVAC optimization was thoroughly addressed, and energy conservation opportunities were identified and properly designed. This is true particularly when the facility`s heating and cooling systems are matched to correspond with the load changes attributed to the reduction of staff and computers. Computers have been downsized and processing power per unit of energy input increased, thus, the need for large mainframe computer centers, and their associated high intensity energy usage, have been decreased or eliminated. Cooling, therefore, also has been reduced.

  15. 78 FR 15653 - Notice of Intent To Form the Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Certification Working Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 429 Notice of Intent To Form the Commercial HVAC, WH, and... Requirements for Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration equipment...

  16. To upgrade or not to upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Rose, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies the key indicators that owners need to take into account in order to choose the most affordable extent of upgrading of a typical post-1945 building. The exterior look of the building is not to be changed. Indicators include measures, risk assessment related to the changes in...

  17. Fort St. Vrain core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, D.W.; Brown, J.R.; Heller, R.A.; Franek, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor core performance has been evaluated during the startup testing phase of the reactor operation. The reactor is graphite moderated, helium cooled, and uses coated particle fuel and on-line flow control to each of the 37 refueling regions. Principal objectives of startup testing were to determine: core and control system reactivity, radial power distribution, flow control capability, and initial fission product release. Information from the core demonstrates that Technical Specifications are being met, performance of the core and fuel is as expected, flow and reactivity control are predictable and simple for the operator to carry out

  18. Upgrading during difficult times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiefenbach, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Co-op Upgrader is part of an integrated refinery and upgrader complex in Regina, Saskatchewan. The upgrader processes 50,000 bbl/d heavy sour crude oil, mostly Fosterton and dilute Lloydminster crude, via hydrogen addition and carbon rejection, desulfurization, demetallization, and denitrification to yield a synthetic crude blend. The synthetic crude is refined to produce gasoline and diesel fuel. Byproducts from the integrated operation include 100,000 tonnes/y of petroleum coke, 65,000 tonnes/y of sulfur, propane, butane, fuel oil, and metals (Ni and V) in the form of spent catalysts. Recent operational and economic challenges faced by the upgrader are reviewed. Technical challenges include operating the upgrader's high-temperature high-pressure heavy oil hydrotreating unit and distillate hydrogenation unit, removal and replacement of the desulfurization catalyst, waste management, and producing coke of sufficient quality. Economic challenges include the shrinking differential between light and heavy oil, higher prices for natural gas (the main raw material for hydrogen production for upgrading), seasonal changes in product specifications, and lower prices for sulfur and metal byproducts. The upgrader is also affected by interest rates since borrowing costs are the single largest expenditure after crude oil purchases. 4 figs

  19. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.

  20. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  1. Efficiency improvement of variable speed electrical drives for HVAC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Pedersen, J.K. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    A large part of the produced electrical energy is consumed by ventilators, pumps and compressors, the so-called HVAC applications. A lot of this energy can be saved by speed control, but even with the large saving obtained alone by introduction of variable speed, it is still essential to optimise the control of the variable speed drive and to optimise the electrical machine with respect to efficiency. Experiments are made with energy optimal induction motor control on a 2.2 kW variable speed pump system. It is demonstrated that 10% of the consumed energy can typically be saved by energy optimal motor control compared with constant V/Hz control. In a comparison of induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors for a variable speed pump application it is shown that for 2.2 kW motors an investment in high-efficiency or PM motors are typically paid back within 2.5 years and 7 years respectively. For a 90 kW PM motor the pay-back time would be 24 years. It is today not profitable to use PM motors for variable speed HVAC applications above 2 kW rated motor power. A further study is required to determine this limit in power rating more precisely. (orig.)

  2. Neural computing thermal comfort index for HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atthajariyakul, S.; Leephakpreeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system within a building is to make occupants comfortable. Without real time determination of human thermal comfort, it is not feasible for the HVAC system to yield controlled conditions of the air for human comfort all the time. This paper presents a practical approach to determine human thermal comfort quantitatively via neural computing. The neural network model allows real time determination of the thermal comfort index, where it is not practical to compute the conventional predicted mean vote (PMV) index itself in real time. The feed forward neural network model is proposed as an explicit function of the relation of the PMV index to accessible variables, i.e. the air temperature, wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, clothing insulation and human activity. An experiment in an air conditioned office room was done to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results show good agreement between the thermal comfort index calculated from the neural network model in real time and those calculated from the conventional PMV model

  3. Exergy optimization of cooling tower for HGSHP and HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Das, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of new correlations for outlet parameters with all inlet parameters. • Simultaneous achievement of required heat load and minimum exergy destruction. • Multiple combinations of parameters found for same heat load at minimized exergy. • Study useful for optimum control of cooling tower under varying ambient conditions. • Generalized optimization study can be implemented for any mechanical cooling tower. - Abstract: In the present work, a constrained inverse optimization method for building cooling applications is proposed to control the mechanical draft wet cooling tower by minimizing the exergy destruction and satisfying an imposed heat load under varying environmental conditions. The optimization problem is formulated considering the cooling dominated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSHP). As per the requirement, new second degree correlations for the tower outlet parameters (water temperature, air dry and wet-bulb temperatures) with five inlet parameters (dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, water inlet temperature, water and air mass flow rates) are developed. The Box–Behnken design response surface method is implemented for developing the correlations. Subsequently, the constrained optimization problem is solved using augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. This work further developed optimum inlet parameters operating curves for the HGSHP and the HVAC systems under varying environmental conditions aimed at minimizing the exergy destruction along with the fulfillment of the required heat load.

  4. 'Consolidation' of HVAC and cooling systems at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J; Pepinster, P; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A â€ワconsolidation” of installations after they have reached the end of their predetermined life-time is part of the life cycle of industrial installations, regardless how well maintained they are. The â€ワconsolidation” plan might cover the replacement of obsolete equipment, partial refurbishment, the work requested to comply with new standards and applicable rules (environmental aspects) until the complete replacement of the whole installation. This â€ワconsolidation” process is all the more critical since the installation dates of the existing cooling and HVAC equipment at CERN spans over a period of 50 years and â€ワconsolidation” in the past has been not been systematic, being most of the time associated with new projects. This paper describes the reasons behind the recent â€ワconsolidation” requests for cooling and HVAC equipment both for the accelerators backbone and in tertiary buildings. A criticality analysis is given, based on the criteria laid down in the p...

  5. System solution to improve energy efficiency of HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, L.; Becerra, R.; Salts, N. P.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    According to recent surveys, heating and air conditioning systems account for over 45% of the total energy usage in US households. Three main types of HVAC systems are available to homeowners: (1) fixed-speed systems, where the compressor cycles on and off to match the cooling load; (2) multi-speed (typically, two-speed) systems, where the compressor can operate at multiple cooling capacities, leading to reduced cycling; and (3) variable-speed systems, where the compressor speed is adjusted to match the cooling load of the household, thereby providing higher efficiency and comfort levels through better temperature and humidity control. While energy consumption could reduce significantly by adopting variable-speed compressor systems, the market penetration has been limited to less than 10% of the total HVAC units and a vast majority of systems installed in new construction remains single speed. A few reasons may explain this phenomenon such as the complexity of the electronic circuitry required to vary compressor speed as well as the associated system cost. This paper outlines a system solution to boost the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of a traditional single-speed unit through using a low power electronic converter that allows the compressor to operate at multiple low capacity settings and is disabled at high compressor speeds.

  6. The LHCb Muon Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardini, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently working on the upgrade of the experiment to allow, after 2018, an efficient data collection while running at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10$^{33}$/cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The upgrade will allow 40 MHz detector readout, and events will be selected by means of a very flexible software-based trigger. The muon system will be upgraded in two phases. In the first phase, the off-detector readout electronics will be redesigned to allow complete event readout at 40 MHz. Also, part of the channel logical-ORs, used to reduce the total readout channel count, will be removed to reduce dead-time in critical regions. In a second phase, higher-granularity detectors will replace the ones installed in highly irradiated regions, to guarantee efficient muon system performances in the upgrade data taking conditions.

  7. Bi-Provincial Upgrader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Husky Oil's Bi-Provincial Upgrader is located in the rural municipality of Wilton, east of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan. It is jointly owned by Husky Oil and the Saskatchewan government. The upgrader is designed to produce 7.300 m 3 /cd of synthetic crude from 8.440 m 3 /cd of diluted Lloyd blend and distillates from the existing Lloydminster refinery. The designed coke and sulphur production is 415 t/day and 240 t/day respectively. Chronology of the Bi-Provincial Upgrader project was presented, along with details of the heavy oil feedstock properties for Cold Lake, Lloydminster and Lloyd Blend. Upgrader production history since start-up, synthetic crude oil customers, and the evolution of prices for Edmonton light vs. Husky LLB at Hardisty were also reviewed. 3 tabs., 9 figs

  8. LEP is upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting radio-frequency cavity is installed on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. This upgrade, known as LEP-2, allowed the accelerator to reach new, higher energies and so investigate new areas of physics.

  9. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming more complex systems with many elements, while BEMS provide many data about the building systems. There are, however, many faults and issues in building performance, but there are legislative and cost-benefit forces induced by energy savings. Therefore, both BEMS and the computer-based tools have to be utilized more efficiently to improve building performance. The thesis consists of four main parts that can be read separately. The first part explains the term commissioning and the commissioning tool work principal based on literature reviews. The second part presents practical experiences and issues introduced through the work on this study. The third part deals with the computer-based tools application in design and operation. This part is divided into two chapters. The first deals with improvement in the design, and the second deals with the improvement in the control strategies. The last part of the thesis gives several rules for fault diagnosis developed using simulation tools. In addition, this part aims at the practical explanation of the faults in the building HVAC systems. The practical background for the thesis was obtained though two surveys. The first survey was carried out with the aim to find the commissioning targets in Norwegian building facilities. In that way, an overview of the most typical buildings, HVAC equipment, and their related problems was obtained. An on-site survey was carried out on an example building, which was beneficial for introducing the

  10. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe; Ibarra, A.; Heidinger, R.; Knaster, J.; Sugimoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  11. Modeling of HVAC operational faults in building performance simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongpeng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Discuss significance of capturing operational faults in existing buildings. •Develop a novel feature in EnergyPlus to model operational faults of HVAC systems. •Compare three approaches to faults modeling using EnergyPlus. •A case study demonstrates the use of the fault-modeling feature. •Future developments of new faults are discussed. -- Abstract: Operational faults are common in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems of existing buildings, leading to a decrease in energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Various fault detection and diagnostic methods have been developed to identify and analyze HVAC operational faults at the component or subsystem level. However, current methods lack a holistic approach to predicting the overall impacts of faults at the building level—an approach that adequately addresses the coupling between various operational components, the synchronized effect between simultaneous faults, and the dynamic nature of fault severity. This study introduces the novel development of a fault-modeling feature in EnergyPlus which fills in the knowledge gap left by previous studies. This paper presents the design and implementation of the new feature in EnergyPlus and discusses in detail the fault-modeling challenges faced. The new fault-modeling feature enables EnergyPlus to quantify the impacts of faults on building energy use and occupant comfort, thus supporting the decision making of timely fault corrections. Including actual building operational faults in energy models also improves the accuracy of the baseline model, which is critical in the measurement and verification of retrofit or commissioning projects. As an example, EnergyPlus version 8.6 was used to investigate the impacts of a number of typical operational faults in an office building across several U.S. climate zones. The results demonstrate that the faults have significant impacts on building energy performance as well as on occupant

  12. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  13. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Petritchenko, Oxana [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Ringo, Decker [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); McClive, Sam [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) commissioned this characterization and technology assessment of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for commercial buildings. The main objectives of this study: Identify a wide range of technology options in varying stages of development that could reduce commercial HVAC energy consumption; Characterize these technology options based on their technical energy-savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and the ability to compete with conventional HVAC technologies; Make specific recommendations to DOE and other stakeholders on potential research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities that would support further development of the most promising technology options.

  14. Recommended HVAC standard of the Florida Radon Research Program. Final report, Mar-Sep 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) section of the 'Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation.' It deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. Its primary intent is to prevent pressure differentials in houses that can increase the transport of radon into houses. Three pathways of compliance are available to meet the requirements of the HVAC portion of the standards. The first is purely prescriptive. The second is a performance and prescriptive approach. The third is a marketplace approach

  15. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.

    1998-01-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

  16. Co-simulation of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trcka, Marija; Hensena, Jan L.M.; Wetter, Michael

    2010-06-21

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings HVAC systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. However, no single building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to analyze integrated building systems and to enable rapid prototyping of innovative building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation, as an integrated approach to simulation. This article elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in the here described co-simulation prototype. The prototype is validated with the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a proof-of-concept case study to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling time step.

  17. Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Jennings, Wiley; Wylie, Dennis; Horner, Sharon D; Siegel, Jeffrey; Kinney, Kerry A

    2018-01-30

    Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated. The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated. Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a

  18. The ALICE TPC Upgrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Andrew; Alice-Usa Collaboration; Alice-Tpc Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) currently used for ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN) is a gaseous tracking detector used to study both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) In order to accommodate the higher luminosit collisions planned for the LHC Run-3 starting in 2021, the ALICE-TPC will undergo a major upgrade during the next LHC shut down. The TPC is limited to a read out of 1000 Hz in minimum bias events due to the intrinsic dead time associated with back ion flow in the multi wire proportional chambers (MWPC) in the TPC. The TPC upgrade will handle the increase in event readout to 50 kHz for heavy ion minimum bias triggered events expected with the Run-3 luminosity by switching the MWPCs to a stack of four Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. The GEM layers will combine different hole pitches to reduce the dead time while maintaining the current spatial and energy resolution of the existing TPC. Undertaking the upgrade of the TPC represents a massive endeavor in terms of design, production, construction, quality assurance, and installation, thus the upgrade is coordinated over a number of institutes worldwide. The talk will go over the physics motivation for the upgrade, the ALICE-USA contribution to the construction of Inner Read Out Chambers IROCs, and QA from the first chambers built in the U.S

  19. Evaluation of High-Performance Rooftop HVAC Unit Naval Air Station Key West, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howett, Daniel H. [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    This report documents performance of a high performance rooftop HVAC unit (RTU) at Naval Air Station Key West, FL. This report was sponsored by the Federal Energy Management Program as part of the "High Performance RTU Campaign".

  20. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study: Summarized Data - Test Space HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues

  1. Review of Control Techniques for HVAC Systems—Nonlinearity Approaches Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Behrooz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are the major energy-consuming devices in buildings. Nowadays, due to the high demand for HVAC system installation in buildings, designing an effective controller in order to decrease the energy consumption of the devices while meeting the thermal comfort demands in buildings are the most important goals of control designers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the different control methods for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC & R systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each control method are discussed and finally the Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM method is introduced as a new strategy for HVAC systems. The FCM method is an intelligent and advanced control technique to address the nonlinearity, Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO, complexity and coupling effect features of the systems. The significance of this method and improvements by this method are compared with other methods.

  2. Energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis army installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; RE Lundgren; EL Malone

    2000-02-23

    In FY1999, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis Army Installation near Tacoma, Washington. Preliminary weather-corrected calculations show energy savings of 10{percent} from FY98 for energy use in family housing. This exceeded the project's goal of 3{percent}. The work was funded by the U.S. DOEs Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The project adapted FEMP's national ``You Have the Power Campaign'' at the local level, tailoring it to the military culture. The applied research project was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of tailored, research-based strategies to promote energy conservation in military family housing. In contrast to many energy efficiency efforts, the campaign focused entirely on actions residents could take in their own homes, as opposed to technology or housing upgrades. Behavioral change was targeted because residents do not pay their own utility bills; thus other motivations must drive personal energy conservation. This campaign augments ongoing energy savings from housing upgrades carried out by Fort Lewis. The campaign ran from September 1998 through August 1999. The campaign strategy was developed based on findings from previous research and on input from residents and officials at Fort Lewis. Energy use, corrected to account for weather differences, was compared with the previous year's use. Survey responses from 377 of Fort Lewis residents of occupied housing showed that the campaign was moderately effective in promoting behavior change. Of those who were aware of the campaign, almost all said they were now doing one or more energy-efficient things that they had not done before. Most people were motivated by the desire to do the right thing and to set a good example for their children. They were less motivated by other factors.

  3. Small Business Voucher CRADA Report: Natural Gas Powered HVAC System for Commercial and Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, Daniel [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mudiraj, Shyam [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Tilghman, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Graham, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Be Power Tech is commercializing BeCool, the first integrated electricity-producing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system using a non-vapor compression cycle (VCC), packaged rooftop HVAC unit that also produces base-load electricity, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. BeCool is a distributed energy resource with energy storage that eliminates the tremendous peak electricity demand associated with commonly used electricity-powered vapor compression air conditioning systems.

  4. Expert Meeting Report: HVAC Fault Detection, DIagnosis, and Repair/Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The concept for the expert meeting described in this report was to bring together most of the stakeholders in the area of FDD, including academic researchers, manufacturers, educators, program managers and implementers, representatives of standards organizations, utilities, HVAC contractors, and home performance contractors to identify the major gaps and to develop ideas about what can be done to capitalize on the residential HVAC efficiency resource.

  5. Expert Meeting Report: HVAC Fault Detection, Diagnosis, and Repair/Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group

    2016-05-01

    The concept for the expert meeting described in this report was to bring together most of the stakeholders in the area of FDD, including academic researchers, manufacturers, educators, program managers and implementers, representatives of standards organizations, utilities, HVAC contractors, and home performance contractors to identify the major gaps and to develop ideas about what can be done to capitalize on the residential HVAC efficiency resource.

  6. Microwave-Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Baggiani, A. and Senesi, S. (2004). Effect of Microwave Radiation on Bacillus subtilis Spores . J. Appl. Microbiol. 97: 1220–1227. Damit, B., Lee, C.N...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0020 MICROWAVE-IRRADIATION-ASSISTED HVAC FILTRATION FOR INACTIVATION OF VIRAL AEROSOLS POSTPRINT Myung-Heui Woo and...12-APR-2011 -- 11-DEC-2011 Microwave Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (POSTPRINT) FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F

  7. Evaluation of sampling methods for Bacillus spore-contaminated HVAC filters

    OpenAIRE

    Calfee, M. Worth; Rose, Laura J.; Tufts, Jenia; Morse, Stephen; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an extraction-based sampling method to two vacuum-based sampling methods (vacuum sock and 37 mm cassette filter) with regards to their ability to recover Bacillus atrophaeus spores (surrogate for Bacillus anthracis) from pleated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters that are typically found in commercial and residential buildings. Electrostatic and mechanical HVAC filters were tested, both without and after loading with dust to 50...

  8. HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in Biotechnology & Drugs Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Broomes, Peter; Dornfeld, David A

    2003-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in the clean room environment of biotechnology and drug development and manufacturing, are extremely energy and water intensive and represent a significant operating cost for these facilities [1]. HVAC systems are also the primary source of environmental emissions for the majority of companies operating within the biotechnology and drugs sector. While the processes used in drug manufacture have negligible environmental impact...

  9. ATLAS Upgrade Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, S J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the already outstanding LHC luminosity performance, and planned LHC upgrades in the upcoming shutdowns, it is expected that within a short time-scale, the general purpose LHC experiments will have to cope with luminosities beyond their original design. In order to maintain detector performance and sensitivity to expected and new physics processes, ATLAS has defined a continuous upgrade programme which foresees staged enhancements during the next 10 years of operation, and then more widespread changes before the transition to the highest luminosities after 2022. This talk will describe several components of the ATLAS upgrade, focusing in particular on the Inner Detector and Trigger. The Inner Detector faces two challenges in the higher luminosity environment: high particle multiplicities and increased radiation dose. These will be addressed in the short term by a new layer of Pixel detectors, and in the long term by a complete replacement. The Trigger faces an increasingly difficult task of distinguishing...

  10. Upgradation of Apsara reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammen, S.; Mukherjee, P.; Bhatnagar, A.; Sasidharan, K.; Raina, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Apsara is a 1 MW swimming pool type research reactor using high enriched uranium as fuel with light water as coolant and moderator. The reactor is in operation for more than five decades and has been extensively used for basic research, radioisotope production, neutron radiography, detector testing, shielding experiments etc. In view of its long service period, it is planned to carry out refurbishment of the reactor to extend its useful life. During refurbishment, it is also planned to upgrade the reactor to a 2 MW reactor to improve its utilization and to upgrade the structure, system and components in line with the current safety standards. This paper gives a brief account of the design features and safety aspects of the upgraded Apsara reactor. (author)

  11. Fort Davis National Historic Site : acoustical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    During the summer of 2010 (September - October 2010), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Fort Davis National Historic Site (FODA)at two sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during this period ...

  12. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Manning, Anathea

    2011-11-14

    This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.

  13. The UKIRT Upgrades Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Andy; Davies, John; Robson, Ian

    Tim Hawarden presented this paper to the 30th anniversary workshop, just a month before his untimely death. The editors have done their best to convert his talk into this paper, and gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Nick Rees (a member of the Upgrades team, now at Diamond Light Source). Tim's discussion concerned the UKIRT Upgrades Project, which ran through the 1990s and transformed the telescope and made it truly competitive on the world stage for operation into the twenty-first century. The reference list at the end of the paper is comprehensive; some of these are referred to in the paper itself and some are included for completeness only.

  14. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  15. OMEGA upgrade staging options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.H.; Shoup, M.J.; Smith, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how they are designing an upgrade to its 24-beam OMEGA laser system, OMEGA is a frequency tripled, all-rod system capable of producing 2 kJ at 0.8 ns on target. Important direct-drive-target-ignition physics could be investigated with an upgraded system capable of producing a shaped pulse consisting of a long (5ns) low-intensity, foot, smoothly transitioning into a short (0.5 ns), intense, compression pulse. The total pulse energy is 30 kJ, which, from target-irradiation uniformity considerations, must be distributed over 60 beams

  16. Building occupancy diversity and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zheng; Ghahramani, Ali; Becerik-Gerber, Burcin

    2016-01-01

    Approximately forty percent of total building energy consumption is attributed to HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems that aim to maintain healthy and comfortable indoor environments. An HVAC system is a network with several subsystems, and there exist heat transfer and balance among the zones of a building, as well as heat gains and losses through a building's envelope. Diverse occupancy (diversity in terms of when and how occupants occupy a building) in spaces could result in increase of loads that are not actual demands for an HVAC system, leading into inefficiencies. This paper introduces a framework to quantitatively evaluate the energy implications of occupancy diversity at the building level, where building information modeling is integrated to provide building geometries, HVAC system layouts, and spatial information as inputs for computing potential energy implications if occupancy diversity were to be eliminated. An agglomerate hierarchical clustering-based iterative evaluation algorithm is designed for iteratively eliminating occupancy diversity. Whole building energy simulations for a real-world building, as well as virtual reference buildings demonstrate that the proposed framework could effectively quantify the HVAC system energy efficiency affected by occupancy diversity and the framework is generalizable to different building geometries, layouts, and occupancy diversities. - Highlights: • Analyze relationships between occupancy diversity and HVAC energy efficiency. • Integrate BIM for quantifying energy implications of occupancy diversity. • Demonstrate the effectiveness and generalizability of iterative evaluation algorithm. • Improve agglomerative hierarchical clustering process using heap data structure.

  17. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  18. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring of HVAC Components using Signal Unmixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimpour, Alireza [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Qi, Hairong [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning units (HVAC) are a major electrical energy consumer in buildings. Monitoring of the operation and energy consumption of HVAC would increase the awareness of building owners and maintenance service providers of the condition and quality of performance of these units, enabling conditioned-based maintenance which would help achieving higher energy efficiency. In this paper, a novel non-intrusive load monitoring method based on group constrained non-negative matrix factorization is proposed for monitoring the different components of HVAC unit by only measuring the whole building aggregated power signal. At the first level of this hierarchical approach, power consumption of the building is decomposed to energy consumption of the HVAC unit and all the other electrical devices operating in the building such as lighting and plug loads. Then, the estimated power signal of the HVAC is used for estimating the power consumption profile of the HVAC major electrical loads such as compressors, condenser fans and indoor blower. Experiments conducted on real data collected from a building testbed maintained at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) demonstrate high accuracy on the disaggregation task.

  19. Airside HVAC BESTEST. Adaptation of ASHRAE RP 865 Airside HVAC Equipment Modeling Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140. Volume 1, Cases AE101-AE445

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J. [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States); Kennedy, M. [Mike D. Kennedy, Inc., Townsend, WA (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gall, J. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Knebel, D. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Henninger, R. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Witte, M. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hong, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDowell, T. [Thermal Energy System Specialists, Madison, WI (United States); Yan, D. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhou, X. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2016-03-01

    This report documents a set of diagnostic analytical verification cases for testing the ability of whole building simulation software to model the air distribution side of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These cases complement the unitary equipment cases included in American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs, which test the ability to model the heat-transfer fluid side of HVAC equipment.

  20. Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    drainage areas are different, hydrological analysis will be conducted on the two basins individually. The results of the two analyses will be combined to...ER D C TR -1 5- 4 Environmental Quality and Installations Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri En gi ne er R es ea rc h...Environmental Quality and Installations ERDC TR-15-4 August 2015 Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri Michael L. Follum, Darla C. McVan

  1. Bent's Old Fort: Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.

    2008-01-01

    Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site sits along the Arkansas River in the semi-desert prairie of southeastern Colorado. The USGS provided assistance in designing surveys to assess the variety of herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles) resident at this site. This brochure is the results of those efforts and provides visitors with information on what frogs, toads, snakes and salamanders might be seen and heard at Bent's Old Fort.

  2. Upgrade of the CMS hardron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jake

    2012-01-01

    The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electron...

  3. Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs

  4. Third party testing : new pilot facility for mining processes opens in Fort McKay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2007-12-15

    Fort McKay lies 65 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Alberta and is the centre of operational oilsands mining activity. As such, it was chosen for a pilot testing facility created by the Geneva-based SGS Group. The reputable facility provides an opportunity for mining producers to advance their processes, including environmental performance, by allowing them to test different processes on their own oilsands. The Northern Lights partnership, led by Synenco Energy, was the first client at the facility. Due to outsourcing, clients are not obligated to make substantial capital investment into in-house research. The Northern Lights partnership will be using the facility to test extraction processes on bitumen from its leases. Although the Fort McKay facility is SGS's first venture into the oilsands industry, it operates in more than 140 companies globally, including the mineral industry, and specializes in inspection, verification, testing and certification. SGS took the experience from its minerals extraction business to identify what could be done to help the oilsands industry by using best practices developed from global operations. The facility lies on the Fort McKay industrial park owned by the Fort McKay First Nation. An existing testing facility called McMurray Resources Research and Testing was expanded by the SGS Group to include environmental analysis capabilities. The modular units that lie on 6 acres include refrigerated ore storage to maintain ore integrity; modular ore and materials handling systems; extraction equipment; and, zero discharge process water and waste disposal systems. Froth treatment will be added in the near future to cover the entire upstream side of the mining processing business. A micro-upgrader might be added in the future to manufacture synthetic crude. 3 figs.

  5. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  6. Treat upgrade fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, K.V.; Schell, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    An extrusion and thermal treatment process was developed to produce graphite fuel rods containing a dispersion of enriched UO 2 . These rods will be used in an upgraded version of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). The improved fuel provides a higher graphite matrix density, better fuel dispersion and higher thermal capabilities than the existing fuel

  7. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  8. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  9. Upgrade of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  10. Review of the Operability for the Components Under the Loss of the HVAC System of the Pump Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang Mee Jeong; Yoon, Churl; Yang, Joon Eon; Park, Joo Hwan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we estimated the temperature of the pump rooms and reviewed the operability of the components under the loss of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition) system. The issues relevant to the HVAC system in the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) FT (Fault Tree) model are as follows: does the loss of the HVAC system bring about a function failure of other components?. Can the operator take action to reduce the temperature of the room in case of a HVAC function failure?. At present we do not know whether a component will lose its function or not under the loss of the HVAC. ASME Standard describes that a recovery action can be credited if the related recovery action is included in the procedure or there are similar recovery experiences in the plant. However, there is no description about the recovery action of the HVAC in the EOP (Emergency Operation Procedure) of the UCN3, 4 under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. Even though we consider this assumption positively, it would be limited to the rooms such as the Switchgear Room, Inverter Room, and Main Control Room etc. where a real recovery action can be performed easily. However, if we consider the HVAC failure in the PSA FT model according to the above background, the problem is that the unavailability induced from the loss of a HVAC is highly unrealistically. From a viewpoint of the PSA, it is not true that the related system always fails even though the HVAC system fails. Therefore, we reviewed the necessity of the HVAC model through the identification of the operable temperature of the components' within the pump room and the change of the temperature of the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC system

  11. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document

  12. Performing instrumentation and controls upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, F. M.; Connell, T. J.; Ryan, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    I and C upgrades are comprised of a varying range of content, complexity, expansiveness, and criticality. There are common threads in all upgrades which can be simplified by the development of a long term I and C upgrade plan. The development of a such a plan can establish effective ground rules for upgrades, large and small. It can be the basis from which to begin an upgrade evaluation and the standard which is used to compare the degree of compliance of any upgrade regarding the plan or to define the differences from the plan and an individual upgrade. Primary motivation for I and C upgrades are obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts. Numerous other areas of consideration are also involved in an upgrade. Today's technology results in most upgrades largely or totally utilizing digital equipment. The use of digital equipment is fairly new in many I and C applications and requires an elaborate evaluation from functional, qualification, operational, and licensing perspectives as well as others. A well defined upgrade plan developed as a basis for I and C upgrades is a significant start to ensuring an effective upgrade process. Properly developed and implemented, the plan will support I and C upgrade efforts to ensure that the intricacies associated with such tasks eliminate the existing problems which require the upgrade to be performed. The upgrade plan also results in ensuring the maximum benefit from all perspectives of the plant enhancements being carried out and considered for future implementation. Instrumentation and controls aging and replacement are issues of growing importance due to the potential for significant impact on plant operation and efficiency. Obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts are major drivers towards evaluating the cost benefits of upgrading current equipment. In addition to these two primary factors, the advantages of utilizing digital equipment have also become of prime importance when evaluating instrumentation and

  13. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  14. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TO SELECTED PORTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR HVAC SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, N.

    2004-01-01

    A design requirement probability of 0.01 or less in a 4-hour period ensures that the nuclear heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in the primary confinement areas of the Dry Transfer Facilities (DTFs) and Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) is working during a Category 1 drop event involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) assemblies (BSC 2004a , Section 5.1.1.48). This corresponds to an hourly HVAC failure rate of 2.5E-3 per hour or less, which is contributed to by two dominant causes: equipment failure and loss of electrical power. Meeting this minimum threshold ensures that a Category 1 initiating event followed by the failure of HVAC is a Category 2 event sequence. The two causes for the loss of electrical power include the loss of offsite power and the loss of onsite power distribution. Thus, in order to meet the threshold requirement aforementioned, the failure rate of mechanical equipment, loss of offsite power, and loss of onsite power distribution must be less than or equal to 2.5E-3 per hour for the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF. The loss of offsite power occurs at a frequency of 1.1E-5 per hour (BSC 2004a, Section 5.1.1.48). The purpose of this analysis is to determine the probability of occurrence of the unavailability of the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF due to loss of electrical power. In addition, this analysis provides insights on the contribution to the unavailability of the HVAC system due to equipment failure. The scope of this analysis is limited to finding the frequency of loss of electrical power to the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF

  15. ISH. HVAC engineering yearbook 1999; ISH. Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The 1999 HVAC engineering yearbook contains contributions on energy conservation and optimization in the fields of ventilation and air conditioning: inter alia, solar cooling and air conditioning, optimum rating of ventilator units, and cooling ceilings with ventilation function. In the field of heating, the following topics are addressed, equally under the aspect of energy conservation: condensing boiler technology, hydraulic balancing of heating pipe systems and sequential boiler switching using fuzzy control. Further works deal with rational use of electricity in buildings, and building automation. 17 papers are individually listed in the Energy database. [Deutsch] Das Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999 enthaelt Beitraege zur Energieeinsparung und Optimierung auf den Gebieten Lueftung und Klimatisierung, u. a. solare Kuehlung und Klimatisierung, optimale Auslegung von Ventilator-Aggregaten und Kuehldecken mit Lueftungsfunktion. Auf dem Gebiet der Heizung werden ebenfalls unter dem Gesichtspunkt Energieeinsparung die Brennwerttechnologie, der hydraulische Abgleich von Heizungsrohrnetzen sowie Kesselfolgeschaltungen mit Fuzzy Control angesprochen. Weitere Arbeiten befassen sich mit der rationellen Elektrizitaetsverwendung in Geb auden sowie der Gebaeudeautomation. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden 17 Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  16. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7~TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  17. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00575876

    2011-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  18. The CDF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman-Holmes, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been used to study proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron since 1985. Over the years, the detector has evolved steadily to increase its physics capability and to keep pace with improvements to the Tevatron. Fermilab is currently building a new Main Injector accelerator which will lead to even larger luminosity values. This paper describes upgrades to CDF that will allow one to exploit the higher luminosity of the Main Injector

  19. LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Karol

    2017-02-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×10{sup 33} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 μm{sup 2} pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The foil will be manufactured through milling and possibly thinned further by chemical etching. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO{sub 2} coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates. The current status of the VELO upgrade is described and latest results from operation of irradiated sensor assemblies are presented.

  20. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosil Suárez, Álvaro, E-mail: alvaro.dosil@usc.es

    2016-07-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2019, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm. The upgraded detector will run at luminosities of 2×10{sup 33} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy flavour sector with unprecedented precision. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The detector comprises silicon pixel sensors with 55×55 μm{sup 2} pitch, read out by the VeloPix ASIC, based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The detector halves are retracted when the beams are injected and closed at stable beams, positioning the first sensitive pixel at 5.1 mm from the beams. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO{sub 2} coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates.

  1. The D0 upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuts, P.M.

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P T physics using precision measurements of e's, μ's, jets, and missing E T . This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10 31 cm -2 sec -1 , and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5μs (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P T physics menu, but also the low P T physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade

  2. ATLAS Upgrade Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000/fb by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new...

  3. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    LHCb is a forward spectrometer experiment dedicated to the study of new physics in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons produced in proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is the microstrip silicon detector surrounding the interaction point, providing tracking and vertexing measurements. The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will increase the luminosity up to 2×10 33 cm −2 s −1 and will perform the readout as a trigger-less system with an event rate of 40 MHz. Extremely non-uniform radiation doses will reach up to 5×10 15 1 MeV n eq /cm 2 in the innermost regions of the VELO sensors, and the output data bandwidth will be increased by a factor of 40. An upgraded detector is under development based in a pixel sensor of the Timepix/Medipix family, with 55×55μm 2 pixels. In addition a microstrip solution with finer pitch, higher granularity and thinner than the current detector is being developed in parallel. The current status of the VELO upgrade program will be described together with recent testbeam results

  4. The LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    de Capua, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-3, will transform the experiment to a triggerless system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm, enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm−2 s −1 . The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current strip detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will allow for fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction in the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 µm2 pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC. The VeloPix builds on the currently available Timepix3, modified to deliver a radiation hard design capable of an order of magnitude increase in output rate. The hottest regions will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s, yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO...

  5. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of $2\\times10^{33} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have $55\\times55 \\mu m^{2}$ pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separate...

  6. Monitoring-based HVAC commissioning of an existing office building for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Greenberg, Steve; Fiegel, John; Rubalcava, Alma; Earni, Shankar; Pang, Xiufeng; Yin, Rongxin; Woodworth, Spencer; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrated monitoring-based HVAC commissioning using an existing office building. ► Diagnosed various types of faulty operation in the HVAC system by trend data analyses. ► Identified a list of energy saving measures for the HVAC system. ► Quantified energy saving potential for each commissioning measure using calibrated energy simulation model. ► Achieved an actual energy saving of 10% after the implementations of cost-effective measures. -- Abstract: The performance of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems may fail to satisfy design expectations due to improper equipment installation, equipment degradation, sensor failures, or incorrect control sequences. Commissioning identifies and implements cost-effective operational and maintenance measures in buildings to bring them up to the design intent or optimum operation. An existing office building is used as a case study to demonstrate the process of commissioning. Building energy benchmarking tools are applied to evaluate the energy performance for screening opportunities at the whole building level. A large natural gas saving potential was indicated by the building benchmarking results. Faulty operations in the HVAC systems, such as improper operations of air-side economizers, simultaneous heating and cooling, and ineffective optimal start, were identified through trend data analyses and functional testing. The energy saving potential for each commissioning measure is quantified with a calibrated building simulation model. An actual energy saving of 10% was realized after the implementations of cost-effective measures.

  7. The effects of HVAC system design and operation on radon entry into school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.A.; Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in schools vary considerably and tend to have a greater impact on pressure differentials--and consequently radon levels--than do heating and air-conditioning systems in houses. If the HVAC system induces a negative pressure relative to the subslab area, radon can be pulled into the building. If the HVAC system pressurizes the building, it can prevent radon entry as long as the fan is running. However, school HVAC systems are normally set back or turned off on evenings and weekends and, even if the HVAC system pressurizes the school during operation, indoor radon levels may build up during setback periods. In this paper many of the historical methods utilized to deliver ventilation air (outdoor air) over the past 40 years are summarized. In addition, for each type of system presented, the possible impact the ventilation system might be expected to have (positive or negative) on the pressure of the building envelope (and subsequent radon levels in the building) is discussed

  8. Review on the HVAC System Modeling Types and the Shortcomings of Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Z. Homod

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system is a prominent topic because of its relationship with energy savings and environmental, economical, and technological issues. The modeling of the HVAC system is concerned with the indoor thermal sensation, which is related to the modeling of building, air handling unit (AHU equipments, and indoor thermal processes. Until now, many HVAC system modeling approaches are made available, and the techniques have become quite mature. But there are some shortcomings in application and integration methods for the different types of the HVAC model. The application and integration processes will act to accumulate the defective characteristics for both AHU equipments and building models such as nonlinear, pure lag time, high thermal inertia, uncertain disturbance factors, large-scale systems, and constraints. This paper shows types of the HVAC model and the advantages and disadvantages for each application of them, and it finds out that the gray-box type is the best one to represent the indoor thermal comfort. But its application fails at the integration method where its response deviated to unreal behavior.

  9. Economic Optimal HVAC Design for Hybrid GEOTABS Buildings and CO2 Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Picard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early design phase of a building, the task of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC engineer is to propose an appropriate HVAC system for a given building. This system should provide thermal comfort to the building occupants at all time, meet the building owner’s specific requirements, and have minimal investment, running, maintenance and replacement costs (i.e., the total cost and energy use or environmental impact. Calculating these different aspects is highly time-consuming and the HVAC engineer will therefore only be able to compare a (very limited number of alternatives leading to suboptimal designs. This study presents therefore a Python tool that automates the generation of all possible scenarios for given thermal power profiles and energy load and a given database of HVAC components. The tool sizes each scenario properly, computes its present total cost (PC and the total CO 2 emissions associated with the building energy use. Finally, the different scenarios can be searched and classified to pick the most appropriate scenario. The tool uses static calculations based on standards, manufacturer data and basic assumptions similar to those made by engineers in the early design phase. The current version of the tool is further focused on hybrid GEOTABS building, which combines a GEOthermal heat pump with a Thermally Activated System (TABS. It should further be noted that the tool optimizes the HVAC system but not the building envelope, while, ideally, both should be simultaneously optimized.

  10. FORTE spacecraft vibration mitigation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents work that was performed by CSA Engineering, Inc., for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to reduce vibrations of the FORTE spacecraft by retrofitting damped structural components into the spacecraft structure. The technical objective of the work was reduction of response at the location of payload components when the structure is subjected to the dynamic loading associated with launch and proto-qualification testing. FORTE is a small satellite that will be placed in orbit in 1996. The structure weighs approximately 425 lb, and is roughly 80 inches high and 40 inches in diameter. It was developed and built by LANL in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque for the United States Department of Energy. The FORTE primary structure was fabricated primarily with graphite epoxy, using aluminum honeycomb core material for equipment decks and solar panel substrates. Equipment decks were bonded and bolted through aluminum mounting blocks to adjoining structure

  11. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boyd, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hand, James R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russo, Bryan J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williamson, Jennifer L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-11-17

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Polk, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Polk took place on February 16, 2010.

  12. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Sill, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Hand, James R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-03-31

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Sill, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Sill took place on June 10, 2010.

  13. Williams propylene upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, D. [Williams Energy Canada Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Edmonton-based Williams Energy Canada Inc. extracts petrochemicals from oil sands and operates a straddle plant business and an olefins business. This presentation provided an update of both businesses and reviewed the advantage of polypropylene production in Alberta, with reference to premium markets and to comparative rail costs to Chicago via Texas, and rail costs to Chicago from Alberta. Williams' straddle plant business includes the Cochrane Straddle Plant, the Empress 2 Straddle Plant, and the Empress 5 Straddle Plant. The Fort McMurray Extraction Plant was also described along with the Redwater Olefins Fractionator and its potential for salt cavern storage and distribution. It was noted that Alberta is well positioned for polypropylene production because it already has a secure supply and an excellent distribution network. tabs., figs.

  14. Williams propylene upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappell, D.

    2004-01-01

    Edmonton-based Williams Energy Canada Inc. extracts petrochemicals from oil sands and operates a straddle plant business and an olefins business. This presentation provided an update of both businesses and reviewed the advantage of polypropylene production in Alberta, with reference to premium markets and to comparative rail costs to Chicago via Texas, and rail costs to Chicago from Alberta. Williams' straddle plant business includes the Cochrane Straddle Plant, the Empress 2 Straddle Plant, and the Empress 5 Straddle Plant. The Fort McMurray Extraction Plant was also described along with the Redwater Olefins Fractionator and its potential for salt cavern storage and distribution. It was noted that Alberta is well positioned for polypropylene production because it already has a secure supply and an excellent distribution network. tabs., figs

  15. Minimization of energy consumption in HVAC systems with data-driven models and an interior-point method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Xu, Guanglin; Zhang, Zijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the energy saving of HVAC systems with a data-driven approach. • We conduct an in-depth analysis of the topology of developed Neural Network based HVAC model. • We apply interior-point method to solving a Neural Network based HVAC optimization model. • The uncertain building occupancy is incorporated in the minimization of HVAC energy consumption. • A significant potential of saving HVAC energy is discovered. - Abstract: In this paper, a data-driven approach is applied to minimize energy consumption of a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system while maintaining the thermal comfort of a building with uncertain occupancy level. The uncertainty of arrival and departure rate of occupants is modeled by the Poisson and uniform distributions, respectively. The internal heating gain is calculated from the stochastic process of the building occupancy. Based on the observed and simulated data, a multilayer perceptron algorithm is employed to model and simulate the HVAC system. The data-driven models accurately predict future performance of the HVAC system based on the control settings and the observed historical information. An optimization model is formulated and solved with the interior-point method. The optimization results are compared with the results produced by the simulation models

  16. A complete geothermal energy cycle with heat pumps and hybrid HVAC systems for the city of Denizli, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Kilkis, I.B. [Heatway Radiant Floors and Snowmelting, Springfield, MO (United States)]|[Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses general aspects of maximizing geofluid effectiveness by employing hybrid cycle plants coupled to district HVAC systems. Alternative and new techniques in space heating and cooling are also discussed. A case study is presented for the district HVAC system for the city of Denizli in Turkey. Results are compared with an open-cycle, open-loop system.

  17. Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools To Balance the Needs for Indoor Air Quality, Energy Conservation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.; Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    Although poor air quality in a school can have multiple causes, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role. Suggestions that architects, facilities managers, school board members, and administrators can use in selecting HVAC systems are discussed. Focus is on the performance criteria for classroom systems, and…

  18. Application of optimization techniques on lumped HVAC models for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoff, A.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems comprise nearly one third of annual household energy consumption in the United States. HVAC energy use can be reduced by applying controls. This study applies a novel control method on a system with arbitrary steady-state and transient load distributions. The new method uses multi-dimensional interpolation between optimized control configurations for various steady-state load distributions. Demonstration of the new method on a two-room HVAC system predicts power savings for an arbitrary steady load that is nearly equivalent to that using a Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) with chiller modulation. However, the new method provides better energy savings for arbitrary transient loads: 19% energy savings over an uncontrolled system compared to energy savings of 6% for a VAV with chiller modulation. The average transient temperature deviation from setpoint using the new method is slightly better than that using VAV with chiller modulation. (author)

  19. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  20. Applications of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification at Walt Disney World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.J.; Dinh, K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and application of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification purposes. In HVAC applications, a heat pipe is used as a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the return air directly to the supply air. The air is pre-cooled entering the cooling coil and reheated using the same heat removed from the return air. While consuming no energy, the heat pipe lets the evaporator coil operate at a lower temperature, increasing the moisture removal capabilities of the HVAC system by 50% to 100%. WALT DISNEY WORLD is currently testing several heat pipe applications ranging from 1 to 240 tons. The applications include (1) water attractions (2) museums/artifacts areas (3) resort guest rooms and (4) locker rooms. Actual energy usage and relative humidity reductions are shown to determine the effectiveness of the heat pipe as an energy efficient method of humidity control

  1. HVAC in sustainable office buildings a bridge between owners and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hovorka, Frank; Kurnitski, Jarek; Litiu, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook aims to build a bridge between the real estate community and the engineering community. It explains the challenges of property valuation based on real data and how the sustainability and HVAC-technology can have an impact on value. It also gathers the latest HVAC- and other technologies used in sustainable buildings and gives some real case study examples. But maybe the most important part in terms of improved communication between the owners and engineers is the list of questions to be asked during the life time of a building. It is impossible to give all the right answers in this guidebook, but we will raise some pertinent questions. As climates and cultures are different, as well as existing building types and energy production, the same solutions do not solve problems universally. This guidebook is aimed for the owners and architects as well as engineers. It doesn’t require deep technical knowhow of HVAC-systems or real estate valuation.

  2. Transient pattern analysis for fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Yang, Hoon-Cheol; Zaheer-uddin, M.; Ahn, Byung-Cheon

    2005-01-01

    Modern building HVAC systems are complex and consist of a large number of interconnected sub-systems and components. In the event of a fault, it becomes very difficult for the operator to locate and isolate the faulty component in such large systems using conventional fault detection methods. In this study, transient pattern analysis is explored as a tool for fault detection and diagnosis of an HVAC system. Several tests involving different fault replications were conducted in an environmental chamber test facility. The results show that the evolution of fault residuals forms clear and distinct patterns that can be used to isolate faults. It was found that the time needed to reach steady state for a typical building HVAC system is at least 50-60 min. This means incorrect diagnosis of faults can happen during online monitoring if the transient pattern responses are not considered in the fault detection and diagnosis analysis

  3. Assessment of auditory impression of the coolness and warmness of automotive HVAC noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Hotehama, Takuya; Kamiya, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Noise induced by a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a vehicle is an important factor that affects the comfort of the interior of a car cabin. Much effort has been devoted to reduce noise levels, however, there is a need for a new sound design that addresses the noise problem from a different point of view. In this study, focusing on the auditory impression of automotive HVAC noise concerning coolness and warmness, psychoacoustical listening tests were performed using a paired comparison technique under various conditions of room temperature. Five stimuli were synthesized by stretching the spectral envelopes of recorded automotive HVAC noise to assess the effect of the spectral centroid, and were presented to normal-hearing subjects. Results show that the spectral centroid significantly affects the auditory impression concerning coolness and warmness; a higher spectral centroid induces a cooler auditory impression regardless of the room temperature.

  4. In-the-loop simulation of electronic automatic temperature control systems: HVAC modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domschke, R.; Matthes, M. [Visteon Deutschland GmbH, Kerpen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The Electronic Automatic Temperature Control (EATC) ensures the occupant comfort and provides safety features like rapid defrost and demist protection. Doing this, the EATC controller provides a direct interface to the end consumer and has a considerable impact on customer satisfaction. The In-the-loop (IL) simulation process is an integral part of Visteons model-based development process. It helps to design and calibrate the EATC controller. It consists of several IL simulation techniques like Model-in-the-loop (MIL), Software-in-the-loop (SIL) and Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). In this article, we will focus on MIL/SIL Simulations. MIL/SIL allows simulation of the EATC controller in a virtual vehicle environment from the early states of and throughout the development process. This ensures a rapid, high quality and robust development process. The MIL/SIL model contains a thermal vehicle model, a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) unit model and a model of the EATC controller itself. The thermal vehicle model simulates transient temperature and humidity conditions in the passenger compartment of a vehicle, settings from the controller, heat fluxes through the vehicle shell and windows, solar load and several further boundary conditions. Whereas the thermal vehicle model of a specific vehicle can be adapted from a default data base, one has to pay special attention to the HVAC unit model. Visteon has developed a special, physically based HVAC unit model to be adapted and implemented into the MIL/SIL simulation. This HVAC model enables a straightforward implementation of different HVAC architectures into the MIL/SIL simulation. Moreover, changes in the HVAC settings (i.e. different blower/scroll assemblies) can be assessed and the influence on passenger comfort can be quantified. Examples of the MIL/SIL simulation demonstrate the benefits of this approach. Results are discussed and a further outlook provided. (orig.)

  5. Novel activity classification and occupancy estimation methods for intelligent HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Rajib; Kusy, Brano; Wall, Josh; Hu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) energy consumption can be achieved by limiting heating in the winter or cooling in the summer. However, the resulting low thermal comfort of building occupants may lead to an override of the HVAC control, which revokes its original purpose. This has led to an increased interest in modeling and real-time tracking of location, activity, and thermal comfort of building occupants for HVAC energy management. While thermal comfort is well understood, it is difficult to measure in real-time environments where user context changes dynamically. Encouragingly, plethora of sensors available on smartphone unleashes the opportunity to measure user contexts in real-time. An important contextual information for measuring thermal comfort is Metabolism rate, which changes based on current physical activities. To measure physical activity, we develop an activity classifier, which achieves 10% higher accuracy compared to Support Vector Machine and k-Nearest Neighbor. Office occupancy is another contextual information for energy-efficient HVAC control. Most of the phone based occupancy estimation techniques will fail to determine occupancy when phones are left at desk while sitting or attending meetings. We propose a novel sensor fusion method to detect if a user is near the phone, which achieves more than 90% accuracy. Determining activity and occupancy our proposed algorithms can help maintaining thermal comfort while reducing HVAC energy consumptions. - Highlights: • We propose activity and occupancy detection for efficient HVAC control. • Activity classifier achieves 10% higher accuracy than SVM and kNN. • For occupancy detection we propose a novel sensor fusion method. • Using Weighted Majority Voting we fuse microphone and accelerometer data on phone. • We achieve more than 90% accuracy in detecting occupancy.

  6. Selecting HVAC Systems to Achieve Comfortable and Cost-effective Residential Net-Zero Energy Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Skye, Harrison M; Domanski, Piotr A

    2018-02-15

    HVAC is responsible for the largest share of energy use in residential buildings and plays an important role in broader implementation of net-zero energy building (NZEB). This study investigated the energy, comfort and economic performance of commercially-available HVAC technologies for a residential NZEB. An experimentally-validated model was used to evaluate ventilation, dehumidification, and heat pump options for the NZEB in the mixed-humid climate zone. Ventilation options were compared to mechanical ventilation without recovery; a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) and energy recovery ventilator (ERV) respectively reduced the HVAC energy by 13.5 % and 17.4 % and reduced the building energy by 7.5 % and 9.7 %. There was no significant difference in thermal comfort between the ventilation options. Dehumidification options were compared to an air-source heat pump (ASHP) with a separate dehumidifier; the ASHP with dedicated dehumidification reduced the HVAC energy by 7.3 % and the building energy by 3.9 %. The ASHP-only option (without dedicated dehumidification) reduced the initial investment but provided the worst comfort due to high humidity levels. Finally, ground-source heat pump (GSHP) alternatives were compared to the ASHP; the GSHP with two and three boreholes reduced the HVAC energy by 26.0 % and 29.2 % and the building energy by 13.1 % and 14.7 %. The economics of each HVAC configuration was analyzed using installation cost data and two electricity price structures. The GSHPs with the ERV and dedicated dehumidification provided the highest energy savings and good comfort, but were the most expensive. The ASHP with dedicated dehumidification and the ERV (or HRV) provided reasonable payback periods.

  7. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  8. Upgrading of TREAT experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.; Rose, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The TREAT facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is being upgraded to provide capabilities for fast-reactor-safety transient experiments not possible at any other experimental facility. Principal TREAT Upgrade (TU) goal is provision for 37-pin size experiments on energetics of core-disruptive accidents (CDA) in fast breeder reactor cores with moderate sodium void coefficients. this goal requires a significant enhancement of the capabilities of the TREAT facility, specifically including reactor control, hardened neutron spectrum incident on the test sample, and enlarged building. The upgraded facility will retain the capability for small-size experiments of the types currently being performed in TREAT. Reactor building and crane upgrading have been completed. TU schedules call for the components of the upgraded reactor system to be finished in 1984, including upgraded TREAT fuel and control system, and expanded coverage by the hodoscope fuel-motion diagnostics system

  9. Defense.gov Special Report: Fort Hood Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    identify possible insider threats, Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story Obama: Soldiers ," Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story President Praises Swift Response to Fort Hood Remarks on Fort Hood Shooting at White House McHugh, Odierno Address Fort Hood Shooting Before Congress

  10. Harmonic modelling, propagation and mitigation for large wind power plants connected via long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Hjerrild, Jesper; Kocewiak, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on grid connection of large offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) using extra-long high voltage AC (HVAC) cables. The paper describes research by DONG Energy Wind Power in close collaboration with Aalborg University addressing related challenges through...... an industrial PhD project. The overall goal is to gain a better understanding of extra-long HVAC cable connected OWPPs, in order to ensure reliability and availability of OWPPs. This will reduce the cost of energy, as the risk of costly delays and modifications after the project has been commissioned can...

  11. Global optimization for overall HVAC systems - Part I problem formulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lu; Cai Wenjian; Chai, Y.S.; Xie Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the global optimization technologies for overall heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The objective function of global optimization and constraints are formulated based on mathematical models of the major components. All these models are associated with power consumption components and heat exchangers for transferring cooling load. The characteristics of all the major components are briefly introduced by models, and the interactions between them are analyzed and discussed to show the complications of the problem. According to the characteristics of the operating components, the complicated original optimization problem for overall HVAC systems is transformed and simplified into a compact form ready for optimization

  12. Research and Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) works with researchers and industry partners to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. This opportunity assessment aims to advance BTO’s energy savings, GHG reduction, and other program goals by identifying research and development (R&D) initiatives for joining technologies in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems. Improving joining technologies for HVAC&R equipment has the potential to increase lifetime equipment operating efficiency, decrease equipment and project cost, and most importantly reduce hydroflourocarbon (HFC) refrigerant leakage to support HFC phasedown and GHG reduction goals.

  13. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  14. Simplified frequency-dependent formulae for series-impedance matrices of single-core HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies that are ......The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies...

  15. Power Flow Analysis of HVAC and HVDC Transmission Systems for Offshore WindParks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Castro, Rui

    2009-01-01

    As the onshore wind resource is running shorter, wind power promoters are paying attention to the offshore resources. As in most cases there is no load offshore, wind power must be transmitted to the main land. To do so, two options are available: HVAC and HVDC transmission systems. In this paper...... that HVAC solution is limited by the distance to shore and by the wind transmitted power. HVDC options do not show these limitations, but are more expensive and more delicate to deal with, because there is a lack of operational experience, so far....

  16. The Bevalac Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact

  17. Upgrade Software and Computing

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration, CERN

    2018-01-01

    This document reports the Research and Development activities that are carried out in the software and computing domains in view of the upgrade of the LHCb experiment. The implementation of a full software trigger implies major changes in the core software framework, in the event data model, and in the reconstruction algorithms. The increase of the data volumes for both real and simulated datasets requires a corresponding scaling of the distributed computing infrastructure. An implementation plan in both domains is presented, together with a risk assessment analysis.

  18. Upgrading Enterprise Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDunn, R

    2005-04-28

    This presentation will describe the process we went through this past year to upgrade our enterprise search tool from a very old version of Inktomi to the latest version of Verity Ultraseek. We started with requirements gathering and then compared requirements against several available products to determine which product to choose. After purchasing the product, we worked through several defined phases of implementation and customization, with initial rollout late January 2004. Finally, we will show you where we are today and describe future search plans.

  19. Upgrade, rebuild or replace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ageing reactor simulators present some tough decisions for utility managers. Although most utilities have chosen the cheaper, upgrading solution as the best compromise between costs and outage length, some US utilities have found that for them, replacement represents the best option. Simulators may be less than ten years old, but they have limited instructor systems, older low fidelity models that cannot reproduce important training scenarios, and out of date, difficult to maintain computers that do not permit much expansion of the models anyway. Perhaps worse than this is the possibility that the simulator may no longer be a faithful reproduction of the referenced plant, or have poor (or non-existent) documentation. (author)

  20. Smithsonian Marine Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce

    Science.gov (United States)

    share current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box Search Field: SMS Website Search Twitter SMS Home › Welcome to the Smithsonian Marine Station Homepage slideshow Who We Are... The

  1. FORT NAMUTONI: FROM MILITARY STRONGHOLD TO TOURIST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STRONGHOLD TO TOURIST CAMP. Col Dr Jan Ploeger*. "... this fortress was not just a white elephant, it was actually occupied and played a major role in the settlement of Germans in the far North." (own translation) - D.W. Krynauw Die Verhaal van. Namutoni, p 3. Introduction. Fort Namutoni, the last White outpost east of ...

  2. Den tabte fortælling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2008-01-01

    Ledelse er et af nøgleordene i fornyelsen af den offentlige sektor. Vi har imidlertid glemt et væsentligt aspekt af ledelse. Dette skyldes ikke mindst, at omgangsformen i dag er reguleret af information, mens den tidligere var reguleret af fortælleevnen. Evnen til dialog, indlevelse og nærvær er...

  3. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  4. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  5. ATLAS detector upgrade prospects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb $^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ...

  6. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    van Beuzekom, Martin; Ketel, Tjeerd; Gershon, Timothy; Parkes, Christopher; Reid, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a vital piece of apparatus for allowing precision measurements in hadronic physics. It provides not only superb impact parameter resolutions but also excellent momentum resolution, both important discriminating tools for precision high energy physics. This poster focuses on the R&D going into the future LHCb VELO detector. At present there are two proposed options for the upgrade; pixel chips or strip detectors. The LHCb upgrade is designed with higher luminosities and increased yields in mind. In order to get more out of the LHCb detector changes to the front end electronics will have to be made. At present, the first level hardware trigger is sets a limiting factor on the maximum efficiency for hadronic channels. As the VELO is positioned so close the proton-proton interaction region, whatever the choice of sensor, we will require efficient cooling and some proposed solutions are outlined. The LHCb TimePix telescope has had a very successful years running, with various devic...

  7. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, M

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb −1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. (paper)

  8. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  9. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  10. Study on the Operating Strategy of HVAC Systems for Nuclear Decommissioning Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-hwan; Han, Sung-heum; Lee, Jae-gon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    According as Kori nuclear power plant unit 1 was determined to be defueled in 2017, various studies on nuclear plant decommissioning have been performed. In nuclear decommissioning plant, HVAC systems with large fan and electric coil have to be operated for long periods of time to support various types of work from defueled phase to final dismantling phase. So, in view of safety and utility costs, their overall operating strategy need to be established prior to defueled phase. This study presents HVAC system operating strategy at each decommissioning phase, that is, defueled plant operating phase, SSCs(systems, structures, components) decontamination and dismantling phases. In defueled plant operating phase, all fuel assemblies in reactor vessel are transferred to spent fuel pool(SFP) permanently. In defueled plant operation phase, reduction of the operating system trains is more practicable than the introduction of new HVAC components with reduced capacity. And, based on the result of the accident analyses for this phase, HVAC design bases such as MCR habitability requirement can be mitigated. According to these results, associated SSCs also can be downgraded. In similar approach, at each phase of plant decommissioning, proper inside design conditions and operating strategies should be re-established.

  11. Integrated Simulation for HVAC Performance Prediction: State-of-the-Art Illustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Clarke, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the current state-of-the-art in integrated building simulation for performance prediction of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The ESP-r system is used as an example where integrated simulation is a core philosophy behind the development. The

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

  13. Multi-objective optimization of HVAC system with an evolutionary computation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Tang, Fan; Xu, Guanglin

    2011-01-01

    A data-mining approach for the optimization of a HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system is presented. A predictive model of the HVAC system is derived by data-mining algorithms, using a dataset collected from an experiment conducted at a research facility. To minimize the energy while maintaining the corresponding IAQ (indoor air quality) within a user-defined range, a multi-objective optimization model is developed. The solutions of this model are set points of the control system derived with an evolutionary computation algorithm. The controllable input variables - supply air temperature and supply air duct static pressure set points - are generated to reduce the energy use. The results produced by the evolutionary computation algorithm show that the control strategy saves energy by optimizing operations of an HVAC system. -- Highlights: → A data-mining approach for the optimization of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is presented. → The data used in the project has been collected from an experiment conducted at an energy research facility. → The approach presented in the paper leads to accomplishing significant energy savings without compromising the indoor air quality. → The energy savings are accomplished by computing set points for the supply air temperature and the supply air duct static pressure.

  14. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David

    This package contains teacher and student editions of a residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) course of study. The teacher edition contains information on the following: using the publication; national competencies; competency profile; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, equipment, and…

  15. Evaluation of the ultimate pressure capacity of rectangular HVAC ducts for nuclear pwoer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    Typical Category I HVAC ducts in a nuclear plant must be designed for loads and load combinations including positive and negative pressure loads which are generated due to the normal operation and postulated accident conditions. These pressure loads most often govern the design of the HVAC ducts. Structural design criteria are presently based on the AISI Code which limits the duct panel width-to-thickness ratio to a maximum of 500 and the maximum height-to-thickness ratio to 200, unless it can be shown by structural tests that larger ratios can be used. Test Programs performed on rectangular HVAC ducts subjected to vacumm loads have substantiated the use of ducts having panel width to thickness ratios of up to 1600. The results of the test programs were subsequently incorporated into the design through a more rational analytical design method which was developed from and correlates well with the test results. The purpose of this paper is to present the analytical design method and its correlation with the test results. Simple formulae for the design of rectangular HVAC ducts are presented. Lower bound values of duct sheet, and stiffener ultimate loads are derived, and correlated with recent test results. Analytically predicted ultimate pressures are also compared with other available duct test data

  16. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  17. Energy efficient HVAC control in historical buildings : a case study for the Amsterdam Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompatscher, K.; Seuren, S.; Kramer, R.P.; Van Schijndel, J.A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Museums are often located in historical buildings. To provide suitable housing in a historical building for a museum, these buildings are usually adapted to suit the need for object preservation through HVAC control. Maintaining a strict indoor climate and limiting short fluctuations in indoor

  18. Comparison of co-simulation approaches for building and HVAC/R system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Wetter, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Jiang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Appraisal of modern performance-based energy codes, as well as heating, ventilation, airconditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) system design require use of an integrated building and system performance simulation program. However, the required scope of the modeling library of such integrated tools

  19. Thermal analysis of an HVAC system with TRV controlled hydronic radiator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A model for an HVAC system is derived in this paper. The HVAC system consists of a room and a hydronic radiator with temperature regulating valve (TRV) which has a step motor to adjust the valve opening. The heating system and the room are simulated as a unit entity for thermal analysis and contr......A model for an HVAC system is derived in this paper. The HVAC system consists of a room and a hydronic radiator with temperature regulating valve (TRV) which has a step motor to adjust the valve opening. The heating system and the room are simulated as a unit entity for thermal analysis...... and controller design. A discrete-element model with interconnected small scaled elements is proposed for the radiator. This models the radiator more precisely than that of a lumped model in terms of transfer delay and radiator gain. This precise modeling gives us an intuition into a regular unwanted phenomenon...... which occurs in low demand situations. When flow is very low in radiator and the supply water temperature and the pressure drop across the valve is constant, oscillation in room temperature occurs. One reason could be the large gain of radiator in low demand conditions compared to the high demand...

  20. Upgrading the ATLAS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.H.; Ferraretto, M.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators are tools used in the research of nuclear and atomic physics. The ATLAS facility at the Argonne National Laboratory is one such tool. The ATLAS control system serves as the primary operator interface to the accelerator. A project to upgrade the control system is presently in progress. Since this is an upgrade project and not a new installation, it was imperative that the development work proceed without interference to normal operations. An additional criteria for the development work was that the writing of additional ''in-house'' software should be kept to a minimum. This paper briefly describes the control system being upgraded, and explains some of the reasons for the decision to upgrade the control system. Design considerations and goals for the new system are described, and the present status of the upgrade is discussed

  1. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  2. The Fermilab ACNET upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.; Johnson, G.; Winterowd, L.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network (ACNET) upgrade consists of a new physical medium (IEEE 802.5 token ring), additions to the calling sequence and added processor support. ACNET is the accelerator control backbone network for all data communication. A proprietary network was replaced by an IEEE standard enabling an open network with excellent characteristics for the control system. The calling sequence was enhanced for the added capabilities of the token-ring interface such as 'gather-read' and 'scatter-write'. In addition to prior support of DEC PDP11s under RS11M and VAXs under VMS, the ACNET calling sequence was implemented in the language C for the IBM PC with MS-DOS and Motorola 680x0 with MTOS using VME bus. Additional support is in progress for Intel 80x86 with MTOS using Multibus II. (orig.)

  3. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  4. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel ® Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators

  5. Warming impact on energy use of HVAC system in buildings of different thermal qualities and in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Al-Khawaj, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving TQBE reduces heating load, while it might increase cooling load. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC varies from one climate to another. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC depends on building’s thermal quality. • In mild climate, warming does not have a significant impact on energy use of HVAC. - Abstract: In order to combat climate change, energy use in the building must be further reduced. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings account for considerable fraction of global energy consumption. The potential contribution the domestic sector can make in reducing energy consumption is recognized worldwide. The driving energy of HVACs depends on the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outside temperature. Definitely, building regulations are changing with the time toward reduce the thermal loads of buildings. However, most of the existing residential buildings were built to lower TQBE. For instant, 72% of residential dwellings in the 15-EU were built before 1972. To investigate the impact of warming on driving energy of HVACs of a residential building a computer model was developed. Three climate categories/cities were considered, i.e. Stockholm (cold), Istanbul (mild), and Doha (hot). In each city, two buildings were modeled: one was assumed to be built according to the current local buildings regulations (standard TQBE), while the anther was built to lower TQBE. The simulations were run for present and future (in 2050) outdoor designing conditions. The calculations show that the impact of the warming on annual driving energy of HVACs (reduction or increase) depends very much on the climate category and on the TQBE. Based on the climate and TQBE, the change in annual HVACs energy varies from −7.4% (in cold climate) to 12.7% (in hot climate). In mild climate, it was shown that the warming does not have significant impact on annual HVACs energy. Improving the TQBE can

  6. A Study on the Determination of Power Supply Class for HVAC System in KJRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Minjin; Suh, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate electrical class, power supply class, and operation logic for the major equipment of the HVAC system such as a Confinement Isolation Damper (CID), Fission Molybdenum Isolation Damper (FID), Air Handling Unit (AHU), Air Cleaning Unit (ACU), and Contaminated Air Purification System (CAPS) in light of their functional requirements and importance. The classification for the overall HVAC system of the KJRR is a safety class NNS, Non-Seismic category, quality class S, and electrical class Non-1E. Exceptionally, the CID and FID are safety class 3, seismic category I, and quality class Q. The electrical class for the major equipment of the HVAC system should be determined considering the operation concept during Loss of Normal Electric Power (LOEP) regardless of the safety class. In this paper, the electrical and power supply class is determined and the operation logic is proposed for the major equipment of the HVAC system for the KJRR such as the CID, FID, CAPS, ACU, and AHU. The electrical class Non-1E is determined to implement a fail closed for the enhancement of safety. The power supply class is based on the functional requirements of each equipment. The CID, FID, CAPS, and ACU are Class III, but the AHU is Class IV by reflecting the importance and electrical load. After the recovery of the power supply, there is a difference in the operation concept for the HVAC system between the reactor building and fission molybdenum production building depending on the operator's residence time. The CID and CAPS are operated manually through procedures for checking the accident status, and the FID and ACU are operated automatically without special procedures

  7. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almerico, F.; Machiels, A.J.; Ornberg, S.C.; Lahti, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  8. A Study on the Determination of Power Supply Class for HVAC System in KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Minjin; Suh, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate electrical class, power supply class, and operation logic for the major equipment of the HVAC system such as a Confinement Isolation Damper (CID), Fission Molybdenum Isolation Damper (FID), Air Handling Unit (AHU), Air Cleaning Unit (ACU), and Contaminated Air Purification System (CAPS) in light of their functional requirements and importance. The classification for the overall HVAC system of the KJRR is a safety class NNS, Non-Seismic category, quality class S, and electrical class Non-1E. Exceptionally, the CID and FID are safety class 3, seismic category I, and quality class Q. The electrical class for the major equipment of the HVAC system should be determined considering the operation concept during Loss of Normal Electric Power (LOEP) regardless of the safety class. In this paper, the electrical and power supply class is determined and the operation logic is proposed for the major equipment of the HVAC system for the KJRR such as the CID, FID, CAPS, ACU, and AHU. The electrical class Non-1E is determined to implement a fail closed for the enhancement of safety. The power supply class is based on the functional requirements of each equipment. The CID, FID, CAPS, and ACU are Class III, but the AHU is Class IV by reflecting the importance and electrical load. After the recovery of the power supply, there is a difference in the operation concept for the HVAC system between the reactor building and fission molybdenum production building depending on the operator's residence time. The CID and CAPS are operated manually through procedures for checking the accident status, and the FID and ACU are operated automatically without special procedures.

  9. Fortælleværksteder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjer, Jo; Hutters, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Unges valg af videregående uddannelse er omgærdet af forventninger. Forventninger til hvad man skal vælge. Forventninger til hvor lang tid, man skal være om at tage en uddannelse. Og forventninger til, hvad uddannelsen skal føre til. Artiklen præsenterer fortælleværkstedet, en metode til kollekti...... refleksioner over egne og adres forventninger til og tanker om uddannelsesvalg....

  10. Fort St. Vrain circulator operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brey, H. L.

    1988-08-15

    Fort St. Vrain, on the system of Public Service Company of Colorado, is the only high-temperature gas-cooled power reactor in the United States. Four helium circulators are utilized in this plant to transfer heat from the reactor to the steam generators. These unique machines have a single stage axial flow helium compressor driven by a single stage steam turbine. A single stage water driven (pelton wheel) turbine is the back-up drive utilizing either feed water, condensate, or fire water as the driving fluid. Developmental testing of the circulators was accomplished prior to installation into Fort St. Vrain. A combined machine operating history of approximately 250,000 hours has shown these machines to be of conservative design and proven mechanical integrity. However, many problems have been encountered in operating the complex auxiliaries which are necessary for successful circulator and plant operation. It has been 15 years since initial installation of the circulators occurred at Fort St. Vrain. During this time, a number of significant issues had to be resolved dealing specifically with machine performance. These events include cavitation damage of the pelton wheels during the initial plant hot functional testing, cracks in the water turbine buckets and cervic coupling, static shutdown seal bellows failure, and, most recently, degradation of components within the steam drive assembly. Unreliable operation particularly with the circulator auxiliaries has been a focus of attention by Public Service Company of Colorado. Actions to replace or significantly modify the existing circulators and their auxiliaries are currently awaiting decisions concerning the long-term future of the Fort St. Vrain plant. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs.

  11. Rail Outloading Capability Study, Fort Polk, Louisiana,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    regardless of experience, to avoid wasted man -hours. The main problem at Fort Polk is that no blocking and bracing material stockpile exists and no...ti1 hottul only thtrough the 0111crinost hole; to defect within 20 days after it is determined to -tuit Owt ttrtk in tuse. III thle caste of classes 3...wheels, slipping, or similar trak (meh causes. 1 -------------------- (12) " Shelly spots" means a condition 2 ------------------------ % where a thin

  12. Fort St. Vrain circulator operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brey, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain, on the system of Public Service Company of Colorado, is the only high-temperature gas-cooled power reactor in the United States. Four helium circulators are utilized in this plant to transfer heat from the reactor to the steam generators. These unique machines have a single stage axial flow helium compressor driven by a single stage steam turbine. A single stage water driven (pelton wheel) turbine is the back-up drive utilizing either feed water, condensate, or fire water as the driving fluid. Developmental testing of the circulators was accomplished prior to installation into Fort St. Vrain. A combined machine operating history of approximately 250,000 hours has shown these machines to be of conservative design and proven mechanical integrity. However, many problems have been encountered in operating the complex auxiliaries which are necessary for successful circulator and plant operation. It has been 15 years since initial installation of the circulators occurred at Fort St. Vrain. During this time, a number of significant issues had to be resolved dealing specifically with machine performance. These events include cavitation damage of the pelton wheels during the initial plant hot functional testing, cracks in the water turbine buckets and cervic coupling, static shutdown seal bellows failure, and, most recently, degradation of components within the steam drive assembly. Unreliable operation particularly with the circulator auxiliaries has been a focus of attention by Public Service Company of Colorado. Actions to replace or significantly modify the existing circulators and their auxiliaries are currently awaiting decisions concerning the long-term future of the Fort St. Vrain plant. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  14. FIND: Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.H.

    1976-07-01

    This index is presented for the microfiche material of Docket 50548 which concerns the application of Omaha Public Power District to build and operate Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 2. The information includes both application and review material dated from September 1975 through March 1976. There are five amendments to the PSAR and one supplement to the ER which have been incorporated by reference into the respective reports. Docket RESAR-3 is used as a reference for portions of the PSAR

  15. Upgrade to the Tritium Remote Control and Monitoring System for TFTR D and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Oliaro, G.; Sengupta, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1988, the Tritium Remote Control and Monitoring System (TRECAMS) has performed crucial functions in support of D-T [deuterium-tritium] operations of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Although plasma operations on TFTR were completed in 1997, the need for TRECAMS continued. During this period TRECAMS supported the TFTR tritium systems, the TFTR's Shutdown and Safing phase, and the TFTR Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) project. The most critical function of the TRECAMS in the post-TFTR era has been to provide a real-time indication of the airborne tritium levels in the tritium areas and the (HVAC) stacks. TRECAMS is a critical tool in conducting safe TFTR D and D tritium-line breaks and other tritium-related work activities. Beginning in 1998, the failure rate of the system's hardware sharply increased. Furthermore, the specialized knowledge required to maintain the original software and hardware was diminishing. It soon became apparent that a failure of the TRECAMS could significantly impact the TFTR D and D project's cost and schedule. To preclude this, the TRECAMS hardware and software was upgraded in the year 2000 to use modern components. This paper will describe that successful upgrade, including a review of the engineering processes and our operating experiences with the upgraded system

  16. H-1 Upgrades (4BW/4BN) (H-1 Upgrades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    automatic blade fold of the new composite rotor blades, new performance matched transmissions, a new four-bladed tail rotor and drive system, upgraded...Upgrades December 2015 SAR March 18, 2016 10:59:17 UNCLASSIFIED 4 Col Steven Girard PMA-276 USMC Light/Attack Helicopter Program Executive Officer...attack helicopter is to provide rotary wing close air support, anti-armor, armed escort, armed/visual reconnaissance and fire support coordination

  17. HVAC-DYNAMICS - a tool for quality assurance in relation to delivery of air-conditioning systems. [Heating, ventilating and air conditioning]. HVAC-DYNAMICS - et redskap for kvalitetsikring av sluttleveransen i klima-anlegg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V [SINTEF Varmeteknikk, Seksjon VVS (NO)

    1990-07-01

    HVAC-DYNAMICS is a computerized tool for quality assurance of the functioning of an air-conditioning system at the time of delivery. The system's efficiency in the case of fluctuating and critical operation is evaluated. The HVAC-DYNAMICS gives an optimal choice for air-conditioning systems regarding indoor climate, efficiency demands and energy consumption. The program can also be use for calibration of regulators, fault-finding, and training purposes. (CLS).

  18. The Atlas upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    ATLAS is a heavy-ion accelerator system consisting of a 9-MV tandem electrostatic injector coupled to a superconducting linac. A project now well advanced will upgrade the capabilities of ATLAS immensely by replacing the tandem and its negative-ion source with a positive-ion injector that consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source and a 12-MV superconducting injector linac of novel design. This project will increase the beam intensity 100 fold and will extend the projectile-mass range up to uranium. Phase 1 of the work, which is nearing completion in late 1988, will provide an injector comprising the ECR source and its 350-kV voltage platform, beam analysis and bunching systems, beam lines, and a prototype 3-MV linac. The ECR source and its voltage platform are operational, development of the new class of low-frequency interdigital superconducting resonators required for the injector linac has been completed, and assembly of the whole system is in progress. Test runs and then routine use of the Phase 1 injector systems are planned for early 1989, and the final 12-MV injector linac will be commissioned in 1990. 12 refs., 6 figs

  19. Superhilac upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

    1985-05-01

    This project will increase the uranium output of the Bevalac heavy-ion facility from the currently available 10 7 to 5 x 10 7 ions/pulse, allowing accurate Lamb shift measurements to be made in U 90+ and U 91+ with important applications to the testing of quantum electrodynamics and the development of an x-ray laser. The injected beam intensity will be increased to make better use of the 10emA output space-charge limit of the Wideroe linac. Components will include a new high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source along with an improved high current, high voltage Cockcroft-Walton power supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line will be upgraded with additional focusing to manage the increased space-charge forces and with an improved vacuum to reduce charge exchange losses. Finally, the phase matching between the 23MHz Wideroe linac and the 70MHz Alvarez linac will be improved by the addition of the appropriate buncher cavities. Physics design is underway and detailed engineering is scheduled to begin in October 1985, with installation slated for the 1986 summer shutdown

  20. Altair performance and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; White, John; Ball, Jesse; Trujillo, Chad

    2014-07-01

    Altair is the facility single conjugate AO system for Gemini North. Although it has been in operation for more than 10 years (and upgraded to LGS in 2007), Altair's performance is degraded by three main issues: vibrations of the telescope and instrument support structure, spatial aliasing on centroid offsets from the M2 support structure print-through on the optical surface and static non-common path aberrations. Monte-Carlo simulations can reproduce the behavior of Altair when including these three effects and they are roughly of the same order of magnitude. Solutions or mitigations are being investigated to overcome these nefarious effects and restore Altair's performance to its nominal level. A simplex algorithm as well as a phase diversity approach are being investigated to measure and correct for static aberrations. A high accuracy phase map of the M2 print-through has been obtained and is being used to calibrate and/or filter centroids affected by aliasing. A new real time computer is under consideration, to be able to handle more advanced controllers, especially notch filters to combat vibrations. In this paper we will report on the various simulations and on-sky results of this rejuvenation of one of Gemini's workhorse instruments.

  1. Alberta propylene upgrading prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    A very significant byproduct recovery and purification scheme is at present being prepared by TransCanada Midstream (TCMS). Alberta Economic Development commissioned an independent study to identify propylene supply options while proceeding with the evaluation of various propylene derivatives with regard to their fit with the Alberta context. Identification of chemical companies with derivative interests was also accomplished. By 2005, it is estimated that 280 kilo-tonnes of propylene will be available on an annual basis from byproduct sources. Those sources are oil sands upgraders, ethylene plants and refineries. The ranges of impurities and supply costs vary between the different sources. An option being considered involves pipeline and rail receipt with a major central treating and distillation facility for the production of polymer grade (PG) propylene with propane and other smaller byproducts. Special consideration was given to three chemicals in this study, namely: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and acrylic acid (AA). Above average growth rates were identified for these chemicals: demand is growing at 6 to 7 per cent a year for both PP and ACN, while demand for AA grows at 8 per cent annually. Two other possibilities were identified, propylene oxide (PO) and phenol. The study led to the conclusion that low capital and operating costs and shipping costs to the Pacific Rim represent advantages to the development of propylene derivatives in the future in Alberta. 4 refs., 87 tabs., 7 figs

  2. 78 FR 17087 - Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard... on the New River in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft... States during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race. On March 23, 2013, Fort Lauderdale...

  3. Draft PRN 2006-A: Use of Antimicrobial Pesticide Products in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems (HVAC&R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft notice provides guidance to registrants of EPA-registered antimicrobial products whose labels bear general directions related to hard, non-porous or porous surfaces, but which are not but which are not specifically registered for HVAC uses.

  4. Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC/R), AFSC 3E1X1. OSSN 2368

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    Survey Coverage: The Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC/R) career ladder, AFSC 3E1X1, was surveyed to gather data needed to guide the development and evaluation of training...

  5. Wavelet based artificial neural network applied for energy efficiency enhancement of decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In HVAC systems, temperature and relative humidity are coupled and dynamic mathematical models are non-linear. ► A wavelet-based ANN is used in series with an infinite impulse response filter for self tuning of PD controller. ► Energy consumption is evaluated for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow. ► Substantial enhancement in energy efficiency is realized, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned adaptively. - Abstract: Control methodologies could lower energy demand and consumption of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and, simultaneously, achieve better comfort conditions. However, the application of classical controllers is unsatisfactory as HVAC systems are non-linear and the control variables such as temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside the thermal zone are coupled. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate a wavelet-based artificial neural network (WNN) for self tuning of a proportional-derivative (PD) controller for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow responsible for controlling temperature and RH of a thermal zone, where thermal comfort and energy consumption of the system are evaluated. To achieve the objective, a WNN is used in series with an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter for faster and more accurate identification of system dynamics, as needed for on-line use and off-line batch mode training. The WNN-IIR algorithm is used for self-tuning of two PD controllers for temperature and RH. The simulation results show that the WNN-IIR controller performance is superior, as compared with classical PD controller. The enhancement in efficiency of the HVAC system is accomplished due to substantially lower consumption of energy during the transient operation, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned in an adaptive manner, as the steady state setpoints for temperature and

  6. Mongolia - Vocational Education - Equipment Upgrades

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Evaluation design The impact evaluation sought to identify the causal impact of exposure to equipment upgrades on subsequent outcomes. Insofar as we were not able to...

  7. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  8. The WIMS-E module W-FORTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.J.

    1983-09-01

    There are three distinct versions of the WIMS lattice cell program. WIMS-E is the most general, WIMSD4 is restricted to clusters or to one dimensional slab or annular geometry, and LWRWIMS is designed principally for light water reactor geometries. W-FORTE is used to transfer data from WIMSD4 or LWRWIMS to WIMS-E. A description of the W-FORTE module is given, and includes the relevant data for WIMSD4, LWRWIMS and W-FORTE. (UK)

  9. Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking

  10. WNP-2 core model upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, C.E.; Ravindranath, T.K.; Belblidia, L.A.; O'Farrell, D.; Andersen, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the core model upgrade of the WNP-2 training simulator and the reasons for the upgrade. The core model as well as the interface with the rest of the simulator are briefly described . The paper also describes the procedure that will be used by WNP-2 to update the simulator core data after future core reloads. Results from the fully integrated simulator are presented. (author)

  11. Archtechtual Envilomental and Eequipment Laboratory Issues on HVAC System in a Commercial Kitchen(Educational Practice through Research)

    OpenAIRE

    吉野, 一; Hajime, Yoshino

    2017-01-01

    Generally, large amount of heat, oil fume including chemical substances and exhaust gases were generated during cooking in commercial kitchens. Therefore, it is important to keep highly safe and good hygienic condition by HVAC System. In this paper, health effect of oil fume and fire spread were surveyed based on investigation of previous studies. Lastly, current issues and future prospects of commercial kitchens HVAC system in Japan were described.

  12. Setting priorities for safeguards upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an analytic approach and a computer program for setting priorities among safeguards upgrades. The approach provides safeguards decision makers with a systematic method for allocating their limited upgrade resources. The priorities are set based on the upgrades cost and their contribution to safeguards effectiveness. Safeguards effectiveness is measured by the probability of defeat for a spectrum of potential insider and outsider adversaries. The computer program, MI$ER, can be used alone or as a companion to ET and SAVI, programs designed to evaluate safeguards effectiveness against insider and outsider threats, respectively. Setting the priority required judgments about the relative importance (threat likelihoods and consequences) of insider and outsider threats. Although these judgments are inherently subjective, MI$ER can analyze the sensitivity of the upgrade priorities to these weights and determine whether or not they are critical to the priority ranking. MI$ER produces tabular and graphical results for comparing benefits and identifying the most cost-effective upgrades for a given expenditure. This framework provides decision makers with an explicit and consistent analysis to support their upgrades decisions and to allocate the safeguards resources in a cost-effective manner

  13. Upgrading inflatable door seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, T.M.; Metcalfe, R.; Welch, L.A.; Josefowich, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Inflatable door seals are used for airlocks in CANDU stations. They have been a significant source of unreliability and maintenance cost. A program is underway to improve their performance and reliability, backed by environmental qualification testing. Only commercial products and suppliers existed in 1993. For historical reasons, these 'existing products' did not use the most durable material then available. In hindsight, neither had they been adapted nor optimized to combat conditions often experienced in the plants-sagging doors, damaged sealing surfaces, and many thousands of openings and closings per year. Initial attempts to involve the two existing suppliers in efforts to upgrade these seals were unsuccessful. Another suitable supplier had therefore to be found, and a 'new,' COG-owned seal developed; this was completed in 1997. This paper summarizes its testing, along with that of the two existing products. Resistance to aging has been improved significantly. Testing has shown that an accident can be safely withstood after 10 years of service or 40,000 openings-closings, whichever comes first. AECL's Fluid Sealing Technology Unit (FSTU) has invested in the special moulds, test fixtures and other necessary tooling and documentation required to begin commercial manufacture of this new quality product. Accordingly, as with FSTU's other nuclear products such as pump seals, the long-term supply of door seals to CANDU plants is now protected from many external uncertainties-e.g., commercial products being discontinued, materials being changed, companies going out of business. Manufacturing to AECL's detailed specifications is being subcontracted to the new supplier. FSTU is performing the quality surveillance, inspection, testing, and customer service activities concomitant with direct responsibility for supply to the plants. (author)

  14. State of the Art of HVAC Technology in Europe and America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2015-01-01

    of energy sources and energy generators are very much similar. This paper will present state-of the art-off energy efficient systems that will provide a good indoor environmental quality at a decreased energy use. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling systems are an important requirement...... mechanisms and media to emit and remove heat or moisture from indoor spaces (e.g. hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, fan-coil units, and active beams). The main differences between HVAC systems in Europe, North America and other parts of the world are often the indoor terminal units. Type...... for increasing the energy efficiency of HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) systems and for increasing the amount of renewable energy used. Especially these types of systems are getting increasing attention in Europe and North-America. In the present study, operation characteristics, possibilities...

  15. Designing the controllability of a HVAC-plant by dynamic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Grindal, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper was presented at CLIMA 2000 - The international conference on energy and environmental matters in built environment, London, 1.-3. November 1993. Nowadays, HVAC engineers can use dynamic simulation programs in their everyday work. Such tools provide the ability to analyze different system configurations and to check the obtained states even before the building and plant are constructed. To encourage its wider use, the authors present in this paper the experiences obtained with the simulation program HVAC-DYNAMICS. The program was used to simulate the retrofitting of a heat recovery wheel to a conventional ventilation plant with a hot water heating coil. The effects of different design parameters on the controllability of the plant were investigated. Interestingly, some commonly recommended ``clever`` configurations can lead to unexpected control scenarios. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra

    2014-01-01

    of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user’s preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user’s device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  17. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 19 -- HVAC -- chillers and compressors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to HVAC -- Chillers and Compressors. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program

  18. A Statistical Approach for Selecting Buildings for Experimental Measurement of HVAC Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a statistical methodology for selecting representative buildings for experimentally evaluating the performance of HVAC systems, especially in terms of energy consumption. The proposed approach is based on the k-means method. The algorithm for this method is conceptually simple, allowing it to be easily implemented. The method can be applied to large quantities of data with unknown distributions. The method was tested using numerical experiments to determine the hourly, daily, and yearly heat values and the domestic hot water demands of residential buildings in Poland. Due to its simplicity, the proposed approach is very promising for use in engineering applications and is applicable to testing the performance of many HVAC systems.

  19. Efficient HVAC. New products; Climatización eficiente. Nuevos productos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  20. System optimization for HVAC energy management using the robust evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Hanby, V.I.; Chow, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    For an installed centralized heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system, appropriate energy management measures would achieve energy conservation targets through the optimal control and operation. The performance optimization of conventional HVAC systems may be handled by operation experience, but it may not cover different optimization scenarios and parameters in response to a variety of load and weather conditions. In this regard, it is common to apply the suitable simulation-optimization technique to model the system then determine the required operation parameters. The particular plant simulation models can be built up by either using the available simulation programs or a system of mathematical expressions. To handle the simulation models, iterations would be involved in the numerical solution methods. Since the gradient information is not easily available due to the complex nature of equations, the traditional gradient-based optimization methods are not applicable for this kind of system models. For the heuristic optimization methods, the continual search is commonly necessary, and the system function call is required for each search. The frequency of simulation function calls would then be a time-determining step, and an efficient optimization method is crucial, in order to find the solution through a number of function calls in a reasonable computational period. In this paper, the robust evolutionary algorithm (REA) is presented to tackle this nature of the HVAC simulation models. REA is based on one of the paradigms of evolutionary algorithm, evolution strategy, which is a stochastic population-based searching technique emphasized on mutation. The REA, which incorporates the Cauchy deterministic mutation, tournament selection and arithmetic recombination, would provide a synergetic effect for optimal search. The REA is effective to cope with the complex simulation models, as well as those represented by explicit mathematical expressions of

  1. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  2. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  3. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool

  4. Potential of HVAC and solar technologies for hospital retrofit to reduce heating energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Octavian G.; Abrudan, Ancuta C.; Adace, Dan S.; Pocola, Adrian G.; Balan, Mugur C.

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a combination of several energy efficient technologies together with their potential to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the comfort through the retrofit of a hospital building. The existing situation is characterized by an old and inefficient heating system, by the complete missing of any ventilation and by no cooling. The retrofit proposal includes thermal insulation and a distributed HVAC system consisting of several units that includes air to air heat exchangers and air to air heat pumps. A condensing boiler was also considered for heating. A solar thermal system for preparing domestic hot water and a solar photovoltaic system to assist the HVAC units are also proposed. Heat transfer principles are used for modelling the thermal response of the building to the environmental parameters and thermodynamic principles are used for modelling the behaviour of HVAC, solar thermal system and photovoltaic system. All the components of the heating loads were determined for one year period. The study reveals the capacity of the proposed systems to provide ventilation and thermal comfort with a global reduction of energy consumption of 71.6 %.

  5. Analysis on energy saving potential of integrated supermarket HVAC and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The paper presents a model-based analysis on the energy saving potential of supermarket HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers among the high-temperature HVAC system, the medium-temperature refrigeration system, and the low-temperature refrigeration system. The principle of energy reduction is to have the higher COP (coefficient of performance) system generate more cooling capacity to increase the cooling capacity or reduce the power consumption of the lower COP system. The subcooler could be placed between the medium-temperature and low-temperature systems, between the high-temperature and medium-temperature systems, and between the high-temperature and low-temperature systems. All integration scenarios of adding one, two and three subcoolers have been investigated. The energy saving potential varies with the load ratio between high-, medium- and low-temperature systems, COP of three systems, and the ''on-off'' duty time of HVAC system. The optimal sequence of adding subcoolers is also proposed. (author)

  6. Evaluation of sampling methods for Bacillus spore-contaminated HVAC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, M Worth; Rose, Laura J; Tufts, Jenia; Morse, Stephen; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an extraction-based sampling method to two vacuum-based sampling methods (vacuum sock and 37mm cassette filter) with regards to their ability to recover Bacillus atrophaeus spores (surrogate for Bacillus anthracis) from pleated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters that are typically found in commercial and residential buildings. Electrostatic and mechanical HVAC filters were tested, both without and after loading with dust to 50% of their total holding capacity. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA across material types, presence or absence of dust, and sampling device. The extraction method gave higher relative recoveries than the two vacuum methods evaluated (p≤0.001). On average, recoveries obtained by the vacuum methods were about 30% of those achieved by the extraction method. Relative recoveries between the two vacuum methods were not significantly different (p>0.05). Although extraction methods yielded higher recoveries than vacuum methods, either HVAC filter sampling approach may provide a rapid and inexpensive mechanism for understanding the extent of contamination following a wide-area biological release incident. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Determining Off-Cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moniot, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jehlik, Forrest [Argonne National Laboratory; Chevers, Netsanet [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Hirabayshi, Hidekazu [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Song, Yuanpei [DENSO International America Inc.

    2018-04-03

    This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state. These vehicle models were integrated into a database of measured on road testing and coupled with U.S. typical meteorological data to simulate vehicle efficiency across seasonal thermal and operational conditions for hundreds of thousands of drive cycles. Fuel economy benefits utilizing the 2-Layer HVAC technology are presented in addition to goodness of fit statistics of the modeling approach relative to the experimental test data.

  8. ORNL's NRC-sponsored HTGR safety and licensing analysis activities for Fort St. Vrain and advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The ORNL safety analysis program for the HTGR was established in 1974 to provide technical assistance to the USNRC on licensing questions for both Fort St. Vrain and advanced plant concepts. The emphasis has been on development of major component and system dynamic simulation codes, and use of these codes to analyze specific licensing-related scenarios. The program has also emphasized code verification, using Fort St. Vrain data where applicable, and comparing results with industry-generated codes. By the use of model and parameter adjustment routines, safety-significant uncertainties have been identified. A major part of the analysis work has been done for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR, and has included analyses of FSAR accident scenario re-evaluations, the core block oscillation problem, core support thermal stress questions, technical specification upgrade review, and TMI action plan applicability studies. The large, 2240-MW(t) cogeneration lead plant design was analyzed in a multi-laboratory cooperative effort to estimate fission product source terms from postulated severe accidents

  9. Status of the Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain is a high temperature gas cooled reactor. It has been shut down as a result of financial and technical difficulties. Fort St. Vrain has been planning for defueling and decommissioning for at least three years. The preliminary decommissioning plan, in accordance with the NRC's final rule, has been submitted and is being reviewed by the NRC. The basis of the preliminary decommissioning plan has been SAFSTOR. Public Service Company, who is the owner and operator of FSV, is scheduled to submit a proposed decommissioning plan to the NRC in the fourth quarter of 1990. PSC has gone out for bid on the decontamination and dismantlement of FSV. This paper includes the defueling schedule, the independent spent fuel storage installation status, the probability of shipping fuel to DOE, the status of the preliminary decommissioning plan submittal, the issuance of a possession only license and what are the results of obtaining this license amendment, preliminary decommissioning activities allowed prior to the approval of a proposed decommissioning plan, the preparation of a proposed decommissioning plan and the status of our decision to proceed with SAFSTOR or DECON as identified in the NRC's final decommissioning rule

  10. Fort Mason Center: Pier 2 Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nester, Patrick [Fort Mason Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-08-30

    The rooftop Photovoltaic (PV) panels and radiant piping project was constructed by Fort Mason Center as part of its $21 million comprehensive rehabilitation of the Pier 2 shed which include the shed’s electrical, natural gas and water systems. Fort Mason Center improved performance while reducing energy and water usage and costs to demonstrate the efficiencies and opportunities available to large multi-function facilities. The scalable demand of these facilities required a layered approach to conservation, control and production. The project employed a comprehensive retrofit of electrical natural gas, and plumbing systems to maximize efficiency and lower carbon footprint specifically to demonstrate the effectiveness of these strategies in a public setting with varied and diverse use. The project was completed in July 2014 and met the expected outcomes regarding increased comfort and operational efficiency throughout the Pier 2 shed as well as on site electrical generation of current consumption. The entire Pier 2 shed project won a 2015 California Preservation Foundation design award for historic rehabilitation.

  11. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Harji, A.

    2002-01-01

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  12. Processing options for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harji, A.N.; Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Meysami, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that 178 billion barrels of oil can be recovered from Alberta's vast heavy oil reserves. The challenge lies in the logistics of recovering, upgrading and transporting the oil to market. The Canadian Energy Research Institute conducted a recent study to determine market potential by 2007 for diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil produced from upgraded bitumen. The viability for a wide range of bitumen feedstocks was assessed along with the sensitivity of refinery demand to their prices. The 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen include PADD 2 in the United States, western Canada, and Ontario. Bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline and cannot be processed by most of the existing refineries. Therefore, in order to develop a mass market for the product, bitumen must undergo the energy intensive upgrading process at existing refineries. The factors impacting which method of upgrading is most suitable were discussed with particular attention to the impact that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may have on Alberta's bitumen resource in terms of costs of complying with greenhouse gas reduction initiatives. The authors emphasized that it is crucial to customize an upgrading project to meet site and market specific factors. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. 76 FR 68625 - Establishment of the Fort Monroe National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... period of slavery in the colonies and, later, this Nation. Two hundred and forty-two years later, Fort... 1863. Thus, Old Point Comfort marks both the beginning and end of slavery in our Nation. The Fort... North Beach area lies the only undeveloped shoreline remaining on Old Point Comfort, providing modern...

  14. Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) Fort Bliss Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    FINAL REPORT Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) Fort Bliss Military Reservation ESTCP Project EW-201140 FEBRUARY...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-11-C-0082 Fort Bliss, Texas...Lockheed Martin’s Intelligent Microgrid Solution can provide more energy security while also lowering electric utility costs and greenhouse gas emissions

  15. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona, asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  16. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  17. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions.

  18. Physical protection upgrades in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djakov, A.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control and accountability and in physical protection to several facilities in Ukraine. This paper summarizes the types of physical protection upgrades that have been or are presently being implemented at these facilities. These facilities include the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, and the South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant. Typical upgrades include: hardening of storage areas; improvements in access control, intrusion detection, and CCTV assessment; central alarm station improvements; and implementation of new voice communication systems. Methods used to implement these upgrades and problems encountered are discussed. Training issues are also discussed

  19. The D0 detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, A.D.

    1995-02-01

    The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector

  20. Environmental upgrading of a landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetto, V.; Vendrame, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article refers to an experimental study concerning the vegetative upgrading of a closed-down landfill (once used for industrial waste disposal). The aim was to check the possibility of reconstructing or aiding the natural growth of a vegetation in keeping with the surrounding area, in a tried environment such as that of landfills. The original idea contained in the approved project - which meant to generically upgrade the territory by planting species belonging to the grassy layer, shrubs and trees - has, with time, undergone some changes. On the basis of both the knowledge acquired during management and of a more accurate analysis of the territory, the experiment was preferred to aim at finding out which were the species, both continental and Mediterranean, able to gradually adjust to the surrounding landscape, leaving to natural selection the task to decide which species were more suitable to the upgrading of closed-down landfills, and which planting technique was more effective [it

  1. Hydrogen assisted biological biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria

    Wind and biomass are promoted worldwide as sustainable forms of energy. Anaerobic digestion of biomass produces biogas with ∼50−70% CH4 and 30−50% CO2. However, biogas with >90% CH4 content has higher heating value, can be injected into the natural gas grid or used as alternative to natural gas...... as vehicle fuel. Methods currently available for biogas upgrading mainly consists of physicochemical CO2 removal, requiring the use of chemical substances and energy input and, thus, increasing process costs. This PhD project proposes an alternative to existing biogas upgrading technologies, where H2......, produced by water electrolysis, using excess of electricity from wind mills, is coupled with the CO2 contained in the biogas to convert them to CH4. This process is defined as biological biogas upgrading and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea that couples CO2 with H2 to produce...

  2. Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan

  3. Upgrade of reactor operation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; O-kawa, Toshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    To improve operational reliability and availability, the operation technology for a fast reactor was developed in the ''JOYO''. This report describes the upgrading of the simulator, plant operation management tools and fuel handling system for the MK-III core operation. The simulator was modified to the MK-III version to verify operation manuals, and to train operators in MK-III operation. The plant operation management tool was replaced on the operation experience to increase the reliability and efficiency of plant management works relating to plant operation and maintenance. To shorten the refueling period, the fuel handling system was upgraded to full automatic remote control. (author)

  4. Upgrading the BEPC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liping; Wang Lizheng; Liu Shiyao

    1992-01-01

    The BEPC control system has been put into operation and operated normally since the end of 1987. Three years's experience shows this system can satisfy basically the operation requirements, also exhibits some disadvantages araised from the original centralized system architecture based on the VAX-VCC-CAMAC, such as slow response, bottle neck of VCC, less CPU power for control etc.. This paper describes the method and procedure for upgrading the BEPC control system which will be based on DEC net and DEC-WS, and thus intend to upgrade the control system architecture from the centralized to the distributed and improve the integral system performance. (author)

  5. Argonne's atlas control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.; Quock, D.; Chapin, B.; Figueroa, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research, which focuses primarily on heavy-ion physics. The accelerator as well as its control system are evolutionary in nature, and consequently, continue to advance. In 1998 the most recent project to upgrade the ATLAS control system was completed. This paper briefly reviews the upgrade, and summarizes the configuration and features of the resulting control system

  6. Reflections on a digital upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjalli, M.

    2013-07-01

    Upon receiving US NRC's approval in 2010, the first RPS/ESPS digital upgrade using TELEPERM® XS technology was successfully installed in Spring of 2011 at the first Unit of a three-unit station, followed by the 2nd Unit installation in spring of 2012. Both Units' systems have been operating flawlessly since installation. After about two years of operation, a reflection on digital upgrades and lessons learned, from a vendor perspective, provides valuable insight for the commercial nuclear power industry.

  7. LHCb DAQ network upgrade tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pisani, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    My project concerned the evaluation of new technologies for the DAQ network upgrade of LHCb. The first part consisted in developing and Open Flow-based Clos network. This new technology is very interesting and powerful but, as shown by the results, it still needs further improvements. The second part consisted in testing and benchmarking 40GbE network equipment: Mellanox MT27500, Chelsio T580 and Huawei Cloud Engine 12804. An event-building simulation is currently been performed in order to check the feasibility of the DAQ network upgrade in LS2. The first results are promising.

  8. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  9. Gynecologic Malignancies Post-LeFort Colpocleisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Elkattah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. LeFort colpocleisis (LFC is a safe and effective obliterative surgical option for older women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse who no longer desire coital activity. A major disadvantage is the limited ability to evaluate for post-LFC gynecologic malignancies. Methods. We present the first case of endometrioid ovarian cancer diagnosed after LFC and review all reported gynecologic malignancies post-LFC in the English medical literature. Results. This is the second reported ovarian cancer post-LFC and the first of the endometrioid subtype. A total of nine other gynecologic malignancies post-LFC have been reported in the English medical literature. Conclusions. Gynecologic malignancies post-LFC are rare. We propose a simple 3-step strategy in evaluating post-LFC malignancies.

  10. Master environmental plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Peters, R.W.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1991-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a master environmental plan (MEP) for Fort Devens, Massachusetts, for the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. The MEP is an assessment based on environmental laws and regulations of both the federal government and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The MEP assess the physical and environmental status of 58 potential hazardous waste sites, including 54 study areas (SAs) that pose a potential for releasing contamination into the environment and 4 areas of concern (AOCs) that are known to have substantial contamination. For each SA or AOC, this MEP describes the known history and environment, identifies additional data needs, and proposes possible response actions. Most recommended response actions consist of environmental sampling and monitoring and other characterization studies. 74 refs., 63 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Fort St. Vrain defueling ampersand decommissioning considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station (FSV) is one of the first commercial reactors to be decommissioned under NRC's decommissioning rule. The defueling and decommissioning of this 330 MWe High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has involved many challenges for Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) including defueling to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI), establishing decommissioning funding, obtaining regulatory approvals, arranging for waste disposal, and managing a large fixed price decommissioning contract. In 1990, a team comprised of the Westinghouse Corporation and Morrison Knudsen Corporation, with the Scientific Ecology Group as a major subcontractor, was contracted by PSC to perform the decommissioning under a fixed price contract. Physical work activities began in August 1992. Currently, physical dismantlement activities are about 45% complete, the project is on schedule, and is within budget

  12. Reflector dowel strength test, Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    The strength of the 44.45 mm (1.75 in.) diameter Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reflector dowel for loads directed radially inward toward the center of the element was measured. For a statically applied load, the strength exceeded 5783 N (1300 lb) in direct shear. This strength remained after load cycling 100 times to 4448 N (1000 lb), 10 times to 4893 N (1100 lb), 10 times to 5338 N (1200 lb), and two times to 5783 N (1300 lb). Typically, the deflection to ultimate failure was approximately 1.0 mm (0.04 in.). At about 3316 N (750 lb) and 0.20 mm (0.008 in.) deflection, one of the webs between the dowel and a coolant hole cracked, apparently redistributing the load. No further failure occurred up to the ultimate load of 5783+ N (1300+ lb)

  13. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  14. Operational testing highlights of Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, J.J.; McEachern, D.W.; Read, J.W.; Simon, W.A.; Walker, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain program has progressed through construction, preoperational testing, fuel loading, initial criticality, and operational testing at power levels up to 2 percent related power. To date, all tests necessary before the rise to full power have been completed, and the rise-to-power program is expected to be resumed again in late 1975. Major plant systems, including the prestressed concrete reactor vessel and circulators, have demonstrated adequate performance. Extensive tests on the reactor core at zero power and up to 2 percent power have demonstrated the accuracy in the design predictions of such core characteristics as critical rod position, control system worths, neutron flux distributions, and temperature coefficients. Gaseous fission product release measurements to date have confirmed the extensive analytical estimates. 6 references

  15. Evaluation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC System Performance in an Administrative Building in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mari Oriyad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the factors influencing on indoor air quality of the buildings is performance of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. These systems supply clean and odorless air, with temperature, humidity, and air velocity within comfort ranges for the residents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance HVAC system in an administrative building in Tehran. .Material and Method: A questionnaire, developed in their research was used to assess the building occupants’ perception about the performance of HVAC system. To evaluate the performance of HVAC systems, air velocities were measured in the diffusers using a thermal anemometer. Moreover, CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured in the whole floors of the building. Air distribution inside the building was evaluated using smoke test. .Results: Most of the studied people complained about the direction of airflow, thermal conditions and cigarette odor. The highest level of carbon dioxide was measured at 930 ppm inside the restaurant. The maximum and minimum air temperatures and relative humidity were measured 28.3-13.8° C and 28.4-23% respectively. Smoke test showed that the air distribution/direction wasn’t suitable in one third of air diffusers. .Conclusion: Improper air distribution / direction was the main problem with the studied HVAC system which could be corrected by adjusting and balancing of the system.

  16. Design and Implementation of Energy Efficiency in HVAC Systems Based on Robust PID Control for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Imal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems is a primary concern in process projects, since the energy consumption has the highest percentage in HVAC for all processes. Without sacrifice of thermal comfort, to reset the suitable operating parameters, such as the humidity and air temperature, would have energy saving with immediate effect. In this paper, the simulation-optimization approach described the effective energy efficiency for HVAC systems which are used in industrial process. Due to the complex relationship of the HVAC system parameters, it is necessary to suggest optimum settings for different operations in response to the dynamic cooling loads and changing weather conditions during a year. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID programming was developed which can effectively handle the discrete, nonlinear and highly constrained optimization problems. Energy efficiency process has been made by controlling of alternative current (AC drivers for ventilation and exhaust fans, according to supplied air flow capacity and differential air pressure between supplied and exhaust air. Supervisory controller software was developed by using programmable controllers and human machine interface (HMI units. The new designed HVAC control system would have a saving potential of about 40% as compared to the existing operational settings, without any extra cost.

  17. Operational experience at Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramblett, G.C.; Fisher, C.R.; Swart, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain (FSV) station, a 330-MW(e) single reheat steam cycle powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is the first HTGR to enter commercial operation. Designed and built by General Atomic Company (GA), the plant is owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). Many unique design features have been incorporated into this reactor system, including high-pressure helium as the primary system coolant, a graphite-moderated prismatic block core design, fission-product-containing carbide coatings on both fissile and fertile fuel particles, steam-driven helium circulators turning on water bearings, and once-through steam generators. All of these systems are contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Extensive testing has been conducted during the rise to power following first criticality early in 1974 to verify system design performance. During this period, the plant has operated at power levels up to 70% and produced over one billion kilowatt hours of electricity. In 1979, the first refueling was conducted in conjunction with an extensive in-core inspection, the addition of in-core instrumentation, and a planned removal of a circulator for inspection. Later in the year, a scheduled shutdown was undertaken for surveillance tests, insertion of core region constraint devices (RCDs), and other maintenance. Fort St. Vrain has encountered problems of the type that would be expected in a first-of-a-kind system. The plant is currently restricted to 70% of design power by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pending resolution of the core region gas outlet temperature fluctuation problem. Even so, the basic performance of the HTGR concept and all of the unique design features have been successfully demonstrated. The system has been characterized by low personnel radiation exposures, operational flexibility, and long time afforded for status evaluation and response. (author)

  18. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J.-M.

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  19. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J -M

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  20. Old PCs: Upgrade or Abandon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    Examines the practical realities of upgrading Intel personal computers in libraries, considering budgets and technical personnel availability. Highlights include adding RAM; putting in faster processor chips, including clock multipliers; new hard disks; CD-ROM speed; motherboards and interface cards; cost limits and economic factors; and…

  1. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akaslompolo, S.; Amdor, C.; Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bardin, S.; L. Barrera Orte,; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottereau, C.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Brochard, T.; M. Brüdgam,; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Casson, F. J.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I.G.J.; Coenen, J. W.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Curran, D.; da Silva, F.; P. de Marné,; D' Inca, R.; Douai, D.; Drube, R.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; H. Fünfgelder,; Fuchs, J. C.; K. Gál,; M. García Muñoz,; Geiger, B.; Giannone, L.; T. Görler,; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; S. Günter,; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; T. Härtl,; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; H. Höhnle,; M. Hölzl,; Hopf, C.; Houben, A.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kantor, M.; C.-P. Käsemann,; Kallenbach, A.; S. Kálvin,; Kantor, M.; Kappatou, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kasparek, W.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; H.-J. Klingshirn,; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kubic, M.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Lazaros, A.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lindig, S.; Lisgo, S.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Mank, K.; M.-E. Manso,; Maraschek, M.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; H.W. Müller,; M. Münich,; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuwirth, D.; Nocente, M.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; B. Plöckl,; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polozhiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Puschel, M. J.; Putterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reimold, F.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; van Rooij, G. J.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Santos, J.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sommer, F.; A. Stäbler,; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Tala, T.; Tardini, G.; Teschke, M.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Tsalas, M.; VanZeeland, M. A.; Varela, P.; Veres, G.; Vicente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Viola, B.; Vorpahl, C.; Wachowski, M.; Wagner, D.; Wauters, T.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; E. Würsching,; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron

  2. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, A.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2011-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the re-availa...

  3. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron r...

  4. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenbach, A.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akaslompolo, S.; Angioni, C.; Atanasiu, C. V.; Balden, M.; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brudgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Chankin, A.; Classen, I.G.J.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; de Marne, P.; D' Inca, R.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fahrbach, H. U.; Fattorini, L.; Fischer, R.; Flaws, A.; Funfgelder, H.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gal, K.; Munoz, M. G.; Geiger, B.; Adamov, M. G.; Giannone, L.; Giroud, C.; Gorler, T.; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Gunter, S.; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hicks, N.; Hobirk, J.; Hohnle, H.; Holzl, M.; Hopf, C.; Horton, L.; Huart, M.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kasemann, C. P.; Kalvin, S.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H. J.; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Kollotzek, H.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lohs, A.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Lunt, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maier, H.; Maggi, C.; Mank, K.; Manso, M. E.; Maraschek, M.; Martin, P.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Muller, H. W.; Munich, M.; Murmann, H.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Park, H. K.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polochiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Prechtl, M.; Puschel, M. J.; Putterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reiter, B.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Sandmann, W.; Santos, J.; Sassenberg, K.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Serra, F.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sips, A.C.C.; Sommer, F.; Stabler, A.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Szepesi, T.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Urso, L.; Varela, P.; Vincente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Vorpahl, C.; Wagner, D.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Wigger, C.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Wursching, E.; Yadikin, D.; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

    2011-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the

  5. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zohm, H.; Adamek, J.; Angioni, C.

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with a fully W-covered wall in 2007 and 2008. Stationary H-modes at the ITER target values and improved H-modes with H up to 1.2 were run without any boronization. The boundary conditions set by the full W wall (high enough ELM frequency, high enough central heating and...

  6. Upgrading of the Budapest reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosta, L.

    1986-10-01

    The increasing importance of neutron sources, high demand for irradiation and experimental facilities as well as improved safety requirements in the 'eighties, necessitate not only a technical modernization of the Reactor but an overall upgrade including instrumentation. Such a reconstruction was decided by the Hungarian governement in 1983

  7. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  8. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruning, O [CERN AB/ABP, Y03600, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Oliver.Bruning@cern.ch

    2008-05-15

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex.

  9. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruning, O

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex

  10. Five-Megajoule Homopolar Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    near the bearing lands to monitor temperature rise during motoring. AISI 4140 steel sleeves were shrunk onto the beryllium copper shaft of the new...MJ HPG in this upgrade. Rotor and Shaft A 0.75-m diameter, 0.28-m thick AISI 4340 air- craft quality steel rotor is shrunk on to a 0. 14-m diameter

  11. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, A.; Aguiam, D.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2017-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. Since 2015, AUG is equipped with a new pair of 3-strap ICRF antennas, which were design...

  12. Using variable speed drives technology to reap rewards of efficient HVAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Electric motors are continuously running at full speed with vanes and throttles used to modulate the output, in most HVAC applications. This results in an excessive wastage of electrical energy, and the solution is the variable speed drive, which can save vast amounts of energy in fans, pumps and compressors across the HVAC system. Users of traditional control methods will not benefit from the energy savings that are possible through variable speed drives because the motor speed remains the same, with the result that some, and in some cases most, of the energy drawn will be wasted. Variable speed drives are more efficient because they control output by regulating the motor speed, rather than run the motor at full speed and use restrictions to reduce the flow. Recently, small so-called micro-drives have been launched, cutting the cost for most variable speed operation. Variable speed motors can also introduce new features to the HVAC system. An example of how drives can save money and improve the indoor climate is cited for Heathrow airport. There, the gateroom was earlier controlled by modulating valves in both heater and cooler coils, with two fans that operated continuously at rated speed. This system was very inefficient because the occupancy of the gateroom varied between zero and maximum several times daily. A new system was installed using two AC drives, in which one drive controls the supply air fan and the other the return air fan. The energy savings amounted to 89% during two tests and 77% in a third. A pump installation in the district heating system of Strasbourg, Germany, showed the savings that are possible in pump applications

  13. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  14. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers’ fatigue and passengers’ thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction and outlet (each vent, and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  15. Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D H; Fisk, W; Apte, M G; Wu, X; Trout, A; Faulkner, D; Sullivan, D

    2012-08-01

    This field study of 37 small and medium commercial buildings throughout California obtained information on ventilation rate, temperature, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics. The study included seven retail establishments; five restaurants; eight offices; two each of gas stations, hair salons, healthcare facilities, grocery stores, dental offices, and fitness centers; and five other buildings. Fourteen (38%) of the buildings either could not or did not provide outdoor air through the HVAC system. The air exchange rate averaged 1.6 (s.d. = 1.7) exchanges per hour and was similar between buildings with and without outdoor air supplied through the HVAC system, indicating that some buildings have significant leakage or ventilation through open windows and doors. Not all buildings had sufficient air exchange to meet ASHRAE 62.1 Standards, including buildings used for fitness centers, hair salons, offices, and retail establishments. The majority of the time, buildings were within the ASHRAE temperature comfort range. Offices were frequently overcooled in the summer. All of the buildings had filters, but over half the buildings had a filter with a minimum efficiency reporting value rating of 4 or lower, which are not very effective for removing fine particles. Most U.S. commercial buildings (96%) are small- to medium-sized, using nearly 18% of the country's energy, and sheltering a large population daily. Little is known about the ventilation systems in these buildings. This study found a wide variety of ventilation conditions, with many buildings failing to meet relevant ventilation standards. Regulators may want to consider implementing more complete building inspections at commissioning and point of sale. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Tansel, B; Mitrani, J D

    2001-12-01

    Indoor air quality has become one of the most serious environmental concerns as an average person spends about 22 hr indoors on a daily basis. The study reported in this article, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three commercial HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) duct cleaning processes in reducing the level of airborne particulate matter and viable bioaerosols. The three HVAC sanitation processes were: (1) Contact method (use of conventional vacuum cleaning of interior duct surfaces); (2) Air sweep method (use of compressed air to dislodging dirt and debris); (3) Rotary brush method (insertion of a rotary brush into the ductwork to agitate and dislodge the debris). Effectiveness of these sanitation processes was evaluated in terms of airborne particulate and viable bioaerosol concentrations in residential homes. Eight identical homes were selected in the same neighborhood. Two homes were cleaned using each procedure and two were used as controls. It was found that both particle count readings and bioaerosol concentrations were higher when cleaning was being performed than before or after cleaning, which suggests that dirt, debris and other pollutants may become airborne as a result of disturbances caused by the cleaning processes. Particle count readings at 0.3 micron size were found to have increased due to cigarette smoking. Particle counts at 1.0 micron size were reduced due to HVAC duct cleaning. Post-level bioaerosol concentrations, taken two days after cleaning, were found to be lower than the pre-level concentrations suggesting that the cleaning procedures were effective to some extent. Homes cleaned with the Air Sweep procedure showed the highest degree of reduction in bioaerosol concentration among the three procedures investigated.

  17. Predicting the Room Air Temperature of the Containment Spray Pump Room for the Loss of HVAC Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    In PSA Models, the HVAC system is essential for the various vital mitigation safety systems operating during a mission time. So far, the unavailability of the safety system when the HVAC system is unavailable, has been applied conservatively or optimistically based on operating experience and expert judgment, so the total core damage frequency could be unrealistic. In this paper, we performed a heat up calculation for the Containment Spray Pump Room at Kori 3 and 4 Units using a CFD code to estimate the operability of the CS pump and its support systems in the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. The result of this calculation could be applied the PSA Model for Risk Informed Regulation for Kori Units 3 and 4

  18. Non-linear HVAC computations using least square support vector machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mahendra; Kar, I.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate application of least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) to model two complex heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) relationships. The two applications considered are the estimation of the predicted mean vote (PMV) for thermal comfort and the generation of psychrometric chart. LS-SVM has the potential for quick, exact representations and also possesses a structure that facilitates hardware implementation. The results show very good agreement between function values computed from conventional model and LS-SVM model in real time. The robustness of LS-SVM models against input noises has also been analyzed.

  19. Control of space HVAC systems. Proceedings. Regelung von raumlufttechnischen Anlagen. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This GMA report presents automation concepts for the control of space HVAC systems using new support methods and means like computer technology and digital simulation methods while considering control problems associated with the application of such methods and means. Both technical and economic aspects are discussed. New findings also concern the structurization and design of control systems, modelling of component and system behaviour for scale-up and simulation of plants. Each of the 10 papers was abstracted for entry into the data base. (HW).

  20. A Comfort-Aware Energy Efficient HVAC System Based on the Subspace Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tsakiridis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A proactive heating method is presented aiming at reducing the energy consumption in a HVAC system while maintaining the thermal comfort of the occupants. The proposed technique fuses time predictions for the zones’ temperatures, based on a deterministic subspace identification method, and zones’ occupancy predictions, based on a mobility model, in a decision scheme that is capable of regulating the balance between the total energy consumed and the total discomfort cost. Simulation results for various occupation-mobility models demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  1. Control of Variable-Speed Pressurization Fan for an Offshore HVAC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    all the way above the ambient pressure according to safety regulations. Meanwhile, the indoor air needs to be regularly changed in order to guarantee the indoor air quality. Both requirements could be possibly achieved by automatically manipulating either the throttle valve located at the terminal....... This paper proposes a set of control solutions to regulate the variablespeed pressurization fan system such that the energy efficiency of the considered HVAC system can be explicitly considered. A combined feed-forward with a PI-based feedback control solution, and a MPC solution are proposed based...

  2. DISAIN SISTEM KENDALI MESIN AIR LEAK TEST MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM KENDALI PLC OMRON CJ2M DI HVAC (HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING LINE 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses produksi pembuatan komponen HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning dari perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia, memerlukan proses pengecekan kebocoran pada bagian HVAC. Proses pengecekan ini dilakukan untuk memastikan tidak ada komponen HVAC yang bocor sebelum dikirim ke pihak pelanggan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuat system dan alat air leak test. Mesin air leak test ini menggunakan prinsip kerja differential pressure air leak test, yaitu metode yang membandingkan antara tekanan udara yang diberikan ke produk dan master produk. Pada penelitian ini, kami membuat disain mesin air leak test menggunakan sistem kendali berupa air leak tester, PLC, dan HMI. Berdasarkan kondisi dengan kapasitas produksi yang meningkat karena bertambahnya permintaan dari customer, dapat ditanggulangi dengan adanya share loading produksi dari HVAC line 4 ke line baru, yaitu HVAC line 6. Hasil yang didapat dari pengujian deteksi kebocoran produk,didapat nilai parameter kebocoran produk sebesar 2.23 ml/min.

  3. Modernisation of space HVAC systems with high energy consumption; Sanierung von RLT-Anlagen mit hohen Energieverbraeuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willan, U. [ROM (Rud. Otto Meyer) - Technik fuer Mensch und Umwelt, Hamburg (Germany). Zentralbereich Ingenieurtechnik

    1997-12-31

    For office buildings and similarly used buildings, concepts are developed for the modernization of space hvac systems. The state of work in the following sectors is discussed: optimum comparison processes for space HVAC systems, measurements to assess the performance of alternative dehumidification and cooling systems, heat-physiological space model. (MSK) [Deutsch] Fuer Buerobauten und Gebaeude aehnlicher Nutzung werden Sanierungskonzepte fuer RLT-Anlagen erarbeitet. Im Folgenden wird der Stand der Arbeiten in den Bereichen: optimale Vergleichsprozesse fuer RLT-Anlagen, messtechnische Beurteilung alternativer Entfeuchtungs- und Kuehlsysteme sowie ein waermetechnisches Raummodell erlaeutert.

  4. HVAC system operational strategies for reduced energy consumption in buildings with intermittent occupancy: The case of mosques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaiwi, I.; Abdou, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper operational zoning in the early design phase of mosques can lead to up to 30% reduction in the annual cooling energy. • Energy performance index of 71.0 kW h/m 2 yr for an insulated mosque can be realized with A/C proper intermitted operation. • 23% energy saving can be achieved when a properly oversized A/C is operated intermittently for 1 h during each prayer. • 13% reduction in cooling energy use can be achieved when A/C operation precedes worshippers’ occupancy in mosques. • Envelope insulation and A/C intermittent operation with proper operational zoning leads to more than 46% savings in energy. - Abstract: Mosques are places of worship for Muslims with unique functional requirements and operational characteristics. They are partially or fully occupied for about an hour for five intermittent periods during the day. In hot climates, maintaining indoor thermal comfort requires a considerable amount of energy that can be reduced by proper operational zoning and effective HVAC operation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of operational zoning and HVAC system intermittent operation strategies on the energy performance of mosques while thermal comfort is maintained. Energy simulation modeling is used for evaluating alternative zoning and HVAC operation strategies. Results indicate that up to 23% reduction in annual cooling energy is achieved by employing suitable HVAC operation strategy and system over-sizing, and 30% reduction is achieved by appropriate operational zoning. Comparing the cooling energy consumption of HVAC summer continuous operation of an un-insulated mosque with the consumption of the insulated mosque with properly oversized HVAC system operated for 1 h during each prayer, indicated that as much as 46% of cooling energy reduction can be achieved. Furthermore, utilizing proper operational zoning and HVAC operation strategies is expected to bring about an additional significant energy

  5. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Sen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, which is unparallel in the history of ancient and mediaeval forts and fortifications in India. Several other structures like the Jay-Chandi Temple Complex, a huge well, numerous tanks and remains of an ancient bridge add to the uniqueness of the Fort in the entire eastern region.

  6. Fortælling og fortolkning i Jyske Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Charlotte

    Afhandlingen præsenterer en undersøgelse af et konkret eksempel på storytelling brugt som strategisk ledelses- og kommunikationsredskab i en organisations interne kommunikation. Eksemplet er fortællingen "Slaget ved Vejle", som stammer fra Jyske Bank og udgør under afhandlingens case. De overordn......Afhandlingen præsenterer en undersøgelse af et konkret eksempel på storytelling brugt som strategisk ledelses- og kommunikationsredskab i en organisations interne kommunikation. Eksemplet er fortællingen "Slaget ved Vejle", som stammer fra Jyske Bank og udgør under afhandlingens case. De......, at medarbejderne forholder sig reflekteret, nuanceret og kritisk til den strategiske fortælling, og at der er stor diversitet i deres oplevelser, fortolkninger og vurderinger af fortællingen. Desuden ser afhandlingen nærmere på hvad begrebet "storytelling" dækker over, og hvordan der hidtil er forsket i...

  7. Strategic Analysis and Plan for Implementing Telemedicine at Fort Greely

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolton, Karl

    2003-01-01

    .... To best accomplish this, a strategic analysis and business case analysis was conducted. Introspective strategic analysis tools revealed an organization that is capable of supporting a telemedicine program at Fort Greely...

  8. RadNet Air Data From Fort Smith, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fort Smith, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. Wood-Fired Boiler System Evaluation at Fort Stewart, GA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Noel

    2002-01-01

    Part of the plan to modernize the central energy plant (CEP) at Fort Stewart, GA is focused on the installations wood-fired boiler, which provides steam for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water. The U.S...

  10. Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement Using Distraction Osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, Patrick D.; Harshbarger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of maxillary hypoplasia has traditionally involved conventional Le Fort I osteotomies and advancement. Advancements of greater than 10 mm risk significant relapse. This risk is greater in the cleft lip and palate population, whose anatomy and soft tissue scarring from prior procedures contributes to instability of conventional maxillary advancement. Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis has emerged as viable, stable treatment modality correction of severe maxillary hyp...

  11. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bratati

    2013-01-01

    The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, w...

  12. Undervisning mellem fortælling og feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Feedback gør det muligt for den enkelte at forstå, hvordan jeg kan blive bedre til det, jeg er ved at lære. Fortællinger gør det muligt for den enkelte at udvide horisonten og derved komme til en forståelse af, hvilke mulige perspektiver der er for at forholde sig til den verden, som fortællingen...

  13. BRAND EQUITY OF LAHORE FORT AS A TOURISM DESTINATION BRAND

    OpenAIRE

    KASHIF, MUHAMMAD; SAMSI, SITI ZAKIAH MELATU; SARIFUDDIN, SYAMSULANG

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTStudies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire deve...

  14. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  15. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  16. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  17. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  18. Upgrading Temelin to international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.J.; Gisoni, G.A.; Stormer, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The digital technology being installed to upgrade the Instrumentation and Control system at the Temelin twin VVER-1000 station in the Czech Republic will allow the plant to operate more safely because it allows key information to be organised and presented to the operators, enabling them to make better informed decisions about the status of the plant. The new system is based on proven technology previously applied at Beznau in Switzerland and Sizewell B in the UK. (author)

  19. FOUR YEARS OF OPERATIONS AND RESULTS WITH FORTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. ROUSSEL-DUPRE; P. KLINGNER; L. CARLSON; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The FORTE (Fast Onboard Recording of Transient Events) satellite was launched on 29 August 1997 and has been in continuous operation since that time. FORTE was placed in a nearly circular, 825-km-altitude, 70 degrees inclination orbit by a Pegasus rocket funded by Air Force Space Test Program. The Department of Energy funded the FORTE satellite, which was designed and built at Los Alamos. FORTE's successful launch and engineered robustness were a result of several years of dedicated work by the joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Sandia National Laboratory project team, led through mission definition, payload and satellite development, and launch by Dr. Stephen Knox. The project is now led by Dr. Abram Jacobson. FORTE carries a suite of instruments, an optical system and a rf system, for the study of lightning and anthropogenic signals. As a result of this effort, new understandings of lightning events have emerged as well as a more complete understanding of the relationship between optical and rf lightning events. This paper will provide an overview of the FORTE satellite and will discuss the on orbit performance of the subsystems

  20. Cancer incidence in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta : 1995-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [Alberta Cancer Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Division of Population Health and Information Surveillance

    2009-02-15

    A high number of cases of cholangiocarcinoma, a rare form of bile duct cancer, as well as high rates of other cancers were reported by a physician working in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta in 2006. Concerns were raised by local residents, attributing cancers in their community to environmental contamination from a range of industrial development including the oil sands development, uranium mining and pulp mills. However, an initial review of the Alberta Cancer Registry did not confirm an increased incidence of cancer in Fort Chipewyan. In the summer/fall of 2007, a working group was formed to support the Alberta Cancer Board in doing a cluster investigation based on the guidelines of the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. This report presented an investigation to determine if there was an elevated rate of cholangiocarcinoma in Fort Chipewyan and whether there was an elevated rate of cancers overall in Fort Chipewyan. The report provided background information on the Athabasca oil sands, uranium mining, and Fort Chipewyan as well as previous investigations of cancer incidence in Fort Chipewyan. Study methods were also presented with particular reference to study and comparison populations; cancer classification and inclusion criteria; active case ascertainment and verification; methods of analysis; and ethical approval. Results were also presented. The specific cancers that were discussed were cholangiocarcinoma, leukemia, colon cancer, and cancer in First Nations in Alberta. It was concluded that the observed number of cases of cholangiocarcinoma was within the expected range. 121 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs., 5 appendices.

  1. Fort Collins Science Center fiscal year 2010 science accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Juliette T.

    2011-01-01

    The scientists and technical professionals at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), apply their diverse ecological, socioeconomic, and technological expertise to investigate complicated ecological problems confronting managers of the Nation's biological resources. FORT works closely with U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) agency scientists, the academic community, other USGS science centers, and many other partners to provide critical information needed to help answer complex natural-resource management questions. In Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10), FORT's scientific and technical professionals conducted ongoing, expanded, and new research vital to the science needs and management goals of DOI, other Federal and State agencies, and nongovernmental organizations in the areas of aquatic systems and fisheries, climate change, data and information integration and management, invasive species, science support, security and technology, status and trends of biological resources (including the socioeconomic aspects), terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, and wildlife resources, including threatened and endangered species. This report presents selected FORT science accomplishments for FY10 by the specific USGS mission area or science program with which each task is most closely associated, though there is considerable overlap. The report also includes all FORT publications and other products published in FY10, as well as staff accomplishments, appointments, committee assignments, and invited presentations.

  2. Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Lantirn Village & Camera I Site Upgrades Fort Wainwright Yukon Training Area Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    overlying stratified sands, silts, and gravel. Depressions in the alluvial plains are often interbedded with thick peat layers and usually underlain...layers of peat typical of both north slopes and drainage bottoms/ depressions are underlain by permafrost, while south slopes are generally free of...aspen, and balsam poplar. Willows, alder, wild rose, blueberry, and highbush cranberry are common shrubs. o Upland Mixed Forest: Mixed forests

  3. Scenarios for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The projected lifetime of the LHC low-beta quadrupoles, the evolution of the statistical error halving time, and the physics potential all call for an LHC luminosity upgrade by the middle of the coming decade. In the framework of the CARE-HHH network three principal scenarios have been developed for increasing the LHC peak luminosity by more than a factor of 10, to values above 1035 cm−2s−1. All scenarios imply a rebuilding of the high-luminosity interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. However, their respective features, bunch structures, IR layouts, merits and challenges, and luminosity variation with β∗ differ substantially. In all scenarios luminosity leveling during a store would be advantageous for the physics experiments. An injector upgrade must complement the upgrade measures in the LHC proper in order to provide the beam intensity and brightness needed as well as to reduce the LHC turnaround time for higher integrated luminosity.

  4. MAST Upgrade – Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Joe, E-mail: Joe.Milnes@ccfe.ac.uk; Ayed, Nizar Ben; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O’Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Outlines unique capability of MAST-U, including divertor and diagnostic capability. • Describes progress made in the manufacture and assembly of key MAST-U components. • Highlights the design challenges that have been overcome. • Lists the key lessons learned thus far in the project. - Abstract: The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: (1) testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); (2) adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and (3) exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progress in delivering the upgraded diagnostic capability, the modification and upgrading of the NBI heating systems and the complete overhaul of the machine control infrastructure, including a new control room with full remote participation facilities.

  5. New-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization for radon reduction in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Witter, K.A.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Construction of a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, is being carefully monitored since elevated indoor radon levels have been identified in many existing houses near the site. Soil gas radon concentrations measured prior to pouring of the slabs were also indicative of a potential radon problem should the soil gas enter the school; however, subslab radon measurements collected thus far are lower than anticipated. Radon-resistant features have been incorporated into construction of the school and include the placing of at least 100 mm of clean coarse aggregate under the slab and a plastic film barrier between the aggregate and the slab, the sealing of all expansion joints, the sealing or plugging of all utility penetrations where possible, and the painting of interior block walls. In addition, the school's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system has been designed to operate continuously in overpressurization to help reduce pressure-driven entry of radon-containing soil gas into the building. Following completion, indoor radon levels in the school will be monitored to determine the effectiveness of these radon-resistant new-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization in limiting radon entry into the school

  6. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  7. Development and analysis of sustainable energy systems for building HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, F.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main HVAC applications considered in this paper are heating and cooling. Three newly developed systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings are proposed and assessed. Energy and exergy analyses are performed to assess the performance of heating, cooling and overall systems for each case, and the effects of various parameters on the energy and exergy efficiencies are examined. Also, the effect of changing the energy input for each system is also found in terms of overall efficiency. The overall system energy efficiency is found to be highest for the natural gas operated system with a vapour absorption chiller (system 1) at 27.5% and lowest for the photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal operated system with vapour compression chiller (system 3) at 19.9%. The overall system exergy efficiency is found to be highest for the PV and solar thermal operated system with vapour compression chiller (system 3) at 3.9% and lowest for the PV and solar thermal operated system with heat pump (system 2) at 1.2%, respectively. - Highlights: • Three HVAC systems for buildings using renewable energy sources are proposed and assessed. • A performance improvement study is undertaken. • Parametric studies are carried out to determine the effects of various parameters on energy and exergy efficiencies

  8. D0 HVAC System Heat Pump Controller Programming, Networking, and Operating Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering note is to provide the necessary information to setup, program, and network the Electronic Systems USA Heat Pump Controller with the LON network card and Intellution Fix32 to operate properly within the HVAC system at D-Zero. The heat pump controllers are used for local temperature control of the office environments on the fifth and six floors of D-Zero. Heat pump units 1-6 are located in the ceiling of the sixth floor. Heat pump units 7-12 are found in the fifth floor ceiling. Heat pump unit 13 is in the Southeast corner of the fifth floor. Prior to installation the heat pump controller must be properly prepared to operate correctly in the HVAC system. Each heat pump unit must contain firmware (software) version 1.31 to operate properly on the network. Controllers with version 1.30 will not be able to communicate over the LON network. The manufacturer can only update the firmware version. Before installation a series of heat pump setpoints must be manually set using the Intelligent Stat. Connect the Intelligent Stat via the serial cable or wired connection.

  9. Membrane heat exchanger in HVAC energy recovery systems, systems energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, M. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Opus International Consultants (New Zealand); AL-Waked, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU), P.O. Box 1614, AlKhobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Morrison, G. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Behnia, M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The thermal performance of an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. The heat exchanger utilizes a 60gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface for HVAC energy recovery. The heat exchanger sensible, latent and total effectiveness have been determined through temperature and moisture content measurements. The annual energy consumption of an air conditioner coupled with an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is also studied and compared with a conventional air conditioning cycle using in-house modified HPRate software. The heat exchanger effectiveness are used as thermal performance indicators and incorporated in the modified software. Energy analysis showed that an air conditioning system coupled with a membrane heat exchanger consumes less energy than a conventional air conditioning system in hot and humid climates where the latent load is high. It has been shown that in humid climate a saving of up to 8% in annual energy consumption can be achieved when membrane heat exchanger is used instead of a conventional HVAC system. (author)

  10. The necessity of HVAC system for the registered architectural cultural heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Cătălin George; Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    This study is intended to highlight the role of the ventilation and air conditioning system for a theatre. It was chosen as a case study the "Vasile Alecsandri" National Theatre of Jassy. The paper also sought to make a comparison in three distinct scenarios for HVAC Main Hall system - ventilation and air conditioning system of the Main Hall doesn't work; only the ventilation system of the Main Hall works and ventilation and air conditioning system of the Main Hall works. For analysing the comfort parameters, the ANSYS-Fluent software was used to build a 2D model of the building and simulation of HVAC system functionality during winter season, in all three scenarios. For the studied scenarios, the external conditions of Jassy and the indoor conditions of the theatre, when the entire spectacle hall is occupied were considered. The main aspects evaluated for each case were the air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity. The results are presented comparatively as plots and spectra of the interest parameters.

  11. Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  12. Preliminary CFD Analysis for HVAC System Design of a Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sung Man; Choi, Choengryul [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jae Ho; Hong, Moonpyo; Kim, Hyungseok [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) system has been mainly designed based on overall heat balance and averaging concepts, which is simple and useful for designing overall system. However, such a method has the disadvantage that cannot predict the local flow and temperature distributions in a containment building. In this study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) preliminary analysis is carried out to obtain detailed flow and temperature distributions in a containment building and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. This approach can be useful for hydrogen analysis in an accident related to hydrogen released into a containment building. In this study, CFD preliminary analysis has been performed to obtain the detailed information of the reactor containment building by using the CFD analysis techniques and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. We confirmed that CFD analysis can offer enough detailed information about flow patterns and temperature field and that CFD technique is a useful tool for HVAC design of nuclear power plants.

  13. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 21 -- HVAC, air handling equipment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 21 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to HVAC-Air Handling Equipment. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  14. An innovative HVAC control system: Implementation and testing in a vehicular cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan; Povalač, Aleš; Urbanec, Tomáš; Jícha, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    Personal vehicles undergo rapid development in every imaginable way. However, a concept of managing a cabin thermal environment remains unchanged for decades. The only major improvement has been an automatic HVAC controller with one user's input - temperature. In this case, the temperature is often deceiving because of thermally asymmetric and dynamic nature of the cabins. As a result, the effects of convection and radiation on passengers are not captured in detail what also reduces the potential to meet thermal comfort expectations. Advanced methodologies are available to assess the cabin environment in a fine resolution (e.g. ISO 14505:2006), but these are used mostly in laboratory conditions. The novel idea of this work is to integrate equivalent temperature sensors into a vehicular cabin in proximity of an occupant. Spatial distribution of the sensors is expected to provide detailed information about the local environment that can be used for personalised, comfort driven HVAC control. The focus of the work is to compare results given by the implemented system and a Newton type thermal manikin. Three different ambient settings were examined in a climate chamber. Finally, the results were compared and a good match of equivalent temperatures was found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Monitoring of Chilled-Water Distribution Systems Using HVAC-Cx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Natascha Milesi; Galler, Michael A; Bushby, Steven T

    2017-01-01

    In this research we develop, test, and demonstrate the newest extension of the software HVAC-Cx (NIST and CSTB 2014), an automated commissioning tool for detecting common mechanical faults and control errors in chilled-water distribution systems (loops). The commissioning process can improve occupant comfort, ensure the persistence of correct system operation, and reduce energy consumption. Automated tools support the process by decreasing the time and the skill level required to carry out necessary quality assurance measures, and as a result they enable more thorough testing of building heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. This paper describes the algorithm, developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to analyze chilled-water loops and presents the results of a passive monitoring investigation using field data obtained from BACnet ® (ASHRAE 2016) controllers and presents field validation of the findings. The tool was successful in detecting faults in system operation in its first field implementation supporting the investigation phase through performance monitoring. Its findings led to a full energy retrocommissioning of the field site.

  16. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  17. Energy efficient model based algorithm for control of building HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, V; Sahu, Chinmay; Radhakrishnan, T K; Sivakumaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuro-optimal operation of a variable air volume HVAC and R system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Min; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are some reasons for high energy consumption of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC and R) systems. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC and R systems should be efficiently operated to maintain a desired indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions. This study proposes a neural network based optimal supervisory operation strategy to find the optimal set points for chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and VAV system fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. Simulation results show that compared to the conventional night reset operation scheme, the optimal operation scheme saves around 10% energy under full load condition and 19% energy under partial load conditions.

  19. Operational experience at Fort St. Vrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramblett, G. C.; Fisher, C. R.; Swart, F. E. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1981-01-15

    The Fort St. Vrain (FSV) station, a 330-MW(e) single reheat steam cycle powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is the first HTGR to enter commercial operation. Designed and built by General Atomic Company (GA), the plant is owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). Many unique design features have been incorporated into this reactor system, including high-pressure helium as the primary system coolant, a graphite-moderated prismatic block core design, fission-product-containing carbide coatings on both fissile and fertile fuel particles, steam-driven helium circulators turning on water bearings, and once-through steam generators. All of these systems are contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Extensive testing has been conducted during the rise to power following first criticality early in 1974 to verify system design performance. During this period, the plant has operated at power levels up to 70% and produced over one billion kilowatt hours of electricity. In 1979, the first refueling was conducted in conjunction with an extensive in-core inspection, the addition of in-core instrumentation, and a planned removal of a circulator for inspection.

  20. Miniplate fixation of Le Fort I osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H M

    1986-12-01

    The use of rigid, internal, three-dimensional fixation using vitallium bone plates in 28 consecutive Le Fort I osteotomies is presented. A minimum follow-up period of 6 months was required for inclusion in this patient group. Maxillary movements included advancements (17), intrusions (9), lengthenings (5), and retrusions (2). The majority of maxillae were moved in more than one plane of space. Technical details, complications, and relapse potential are discussed. Advantages of rigid plate fixation include marked reductions in the length of intermaxillary fixation with light training elastics only. Immediate postoperative airway problems are thereby eliminated. Six months of follow-up would appear to indicate a low potential for osseous relapse when compared to wire osteosynthesis, regardless of the direction of maxillary movement. The major disadvantage is the decreased ability of postoperative orthodontics to move dento-osseous segments if skeletal occlusal disharmony persists postoperatively. For this reason, close attention to preoperative planning and operative technique is critical for the success of this fixation method.

  1. Fort St. Vrain hot functional test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.D.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of Fort St. Vrain hot functional tests performed to evaluate the initial nonnuclear performance of the primary coolant system and the associated effects on the various internal components of the reactor vessel and primary coolant system. The components included the twelve steam generator modules, the four helium circulators, the PCRV thermal barrier and liner coolant system, the helium purification system, and the primary and secondary closures at each of the PCRV penetrations. Additional objectives included analysis of the parallel operation of the four helium circulators and the performance of several circulator start/stop transients under various conditions of primary coolant temperature and pressure. Vibration and acoustical phenomena within the vessel were measured, recorded, and compared to theoretical analyses; a verification of reverse flow in the shutdown loop steam generator during one loop operation was performed; the PCRV was again observed for its structural response to internal pressure; and comparisons were made relative to data recorded during the initial pressure test completed in July 1971. (U.S.)

  2. Towards novel biogas upgrading processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalova, E.

    2013-06-01

    Biogas production has considerable development possibilities not only in Finland but all over the world since it it the easiest way of creating value out of various waste fractions and represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Development of efficient biogas upgrading technology has become an important issue since it improves the quality of biogas and for example facilitating its injection into the natural gas pipelines. Moreover, such upgrading contributes to resolving the issue of increasing CO{sub 2} emissions and addresses the increasing climate change concerns. Together with traditional CO{sub 2} capturing technologies a new class of recently emerged sorbents such as ionic liquids is claimed as promising media for gas separations. In this thesis, an extensive comparison of the performance of different solvents in terms of CO{sub 2} capture has been performed. The focus of the present study was on aqueous amine solutions and their mixtures, traditional ionic liquids, 'switchable' ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s in order to reveal the best option for biogas upgrading. The CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency for the most promising solvents achieved values around 50-60 L CO{sub 2}/L absorbent. These values are superior to currently widely applied water wash biogas upgrading system. Regeneration of the solvent mixtures appeared to be challenging since the loss of initial efficiency upon CO{sub 2} release was in excess of 20-40 vol %, especially in the case of aqueous amine solutions. In contrast, some of the ionic liquids displayed reversible behavior. Thus, for selected 'switchable' ionic and poly(ionic liquid)s the CO{sub 2} absorption/regeneration cycles were performed 3-4 times without any notable efficiency decrease. The viscosity issue, typical for ionic liquids upon CO{sub 2} saturation, was addressed and the information obtained was evaluated and related to the ionic interactions. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds

  3. Recent Upgrades and Extensions of the ASDEX Upgrade ECRH System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dietmar; Stober, Jörg; Leuterer, Fritz; Monaco, Francesco; Münich, Max; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Schütz, Harald; Zohm, Hartmut; Thumm, Manfred; Scherer, Theo; Meier, Andreas; Gantenbein, Gerd; Flamm, Jens; Kasparek, Walter; Höhnle, Hendrik; Lechte, Carsten; Litvak, Alexander G.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Chirkov, Alexey; Popov, Leonid G.; Nichiporenko, Vadim O.; Myasnikov, Vadim E.; Tai, Evgeny M.; Solyanova, Elena A.; Malygin, Sergey A.

    2011-03-01

    The multi-frequency Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECRH) system at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak employs depressed collector gyrotrons, step-tunable in the range 105-140 GHz. The system is equipped with a fast steerable launcher allowing for remote steering of the ECRH RF beam during the plasma discharge. The gyrotrons and the mirrors are fully integrated in the discharge control system. The polarization can be controlled in a feed-forward mode. 3 Sniffer probes for millimeter wave stray radiation detection have been installed.

  4. 75 FR 41922 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Fort Smith Regional Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... To Release Airport Property at Fort Smith Regional Airport, Fort Smith, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... rule and invites public comment on the release of land at Fort Smith Regional Airport under the.... John Parker, Airport Director, Fort Smith Regional Airport, at the following address: Fort Smith...

  5. A novel optimization algorithm based on epsilon constraint-RBF neural network for tuning PID controller in decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaran, Seyed Mohammad; Yusof, Rubiyah; Selamat, Hazlina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Decoupling of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system is presented. • RBF models were identified by Epsilon constraint method for temperature and humidity. • Control settings derived from optimization of the decoupled model. • Epsilon constraint-RBF based on PID controller was implemented to keep thermal comfort and minimize energy. • Enhancements of controller parameters of the HVAC system are desired. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system optimized using a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) combined with the epsilon constraint (EC) method is reported. The new method adopts the advanced algorithm of RBFNN for the HVAC system to estimate the residual errors, increase the control signal and reduce the error results. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate the EC-RBFNN for a self tuning PID controller for a decoupled bilinear HVAC system to control the temperature and relative humidity (RH) produced by the system. A case study indicates that the EC-RBFNN algorithm has a much better accuracy than optimization PID itself and PID-RBFNN, respectively.

  6. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  7. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  8. Comparison of Energy Performance of Different HVAC Systems for a Typical Office Room and a Typical Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons. In this way, the building system can operate at a very low energy use all the year round. The main purpose of this task is to investigate the energy performance of different HVAC systems used in the office room and the classroom...

  9. Comparison of methods to evaluate the fungal biomass in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyeyeme Bi Mve, Marie-Jeanne; Cloutier, Yves; Lacombe, Nancy; Lavoie, Jacques; Debia, Maximilien; Marchand, Geneviève

    2016-12-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber. Sixty samples were analyzed using four methods: culture, direct microscopic spore count (DMSC), β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) dosing and qPCR. For each method, the limit of detection, replicability, and repeatability were assessed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the methods were also evaluated. Depending on the analytical method, mean spore concentrations per 100 cm 2 of dust ranged from 10,000 to 682,000. Limits of detection varied from 120 to 217,000 spores/100 cm 2 . Replicability and repeatability were between 1 and 15%. Pearson correlation coefficients varied from -0.217 to 0.83. The 18S qPCR showed the best sensitivity and precision, as well as the best correlation with the culture method. PCR targets only molds, and a total count of fungal DNA is obtained. Among the methods, mold DNA amplification by qPCR is the method suggested for estimating the fungal content found in dust of HVAC systems.

  10. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  11. Modular VSC converter based HVDC power transmission from offshore wind power plant: Compared to the conventional HVAC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    power transmission options with HVDC systems are under consideration. In this paper, a comparison between a conventional HVAC transmission system and a HVDC system equipped with modular voltage source converters is provided. The comparison is based on the total energy transmission capability...

  12. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  13. HVAC Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Clifton W.; D'Angelo, David

    1999-01-01

    Explains how commissioning can help to ensure that all components in a new heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system will work together as designed. Bowdoin College's experience with commissioning is highlighted. (GR)

  14. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Finger, Gert; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lagadec, Eric; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Moerchen, Margaret; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Silber, Armin; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli; Yegorova, Irina

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As Aquarius detector array (Raytheon) which has demonstrated very good performance (sensitivity, stability) in the laboratory IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a userdefined constraint on water vapour. Improved pipelines based on the ESO Reflex concept will provide better support to astronomers. The upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing background limited performance for diffraction-limited observations at an 8-m telescope. It will offer synergy with facilities such as ALMA, JWST, VLTI and SOFIA, while a wealth of targets is available from survey work (e.g. VISTA, WISE). In addition it will bring confirmation of the technical readiness and scientific value of several aspects of potential mid-IR instrumentation at Extremely Large Telescopes. The intervention on VISIR and installation of hardware has been completed in July and commissioning will take place during July and August. VISIR is scheduled to be available to the users starting Oct 2012.

  15. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  16. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document

  17. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  18. Upgrades and their training impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geise, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    In January, 1990, implementation of thermal hydraulic and core model upgrades to the Brunswick Simulator was completed. Static and dynamic NRC examination preparation, Licensed Operator Requalification training and training material development had to be completed to support an April, 1990's NRC exam date. Dramatic simulator improvements resulted in expanded performance. Unfortunately, insufficient time was available to fully retrain operators before their examinations. Because of this and other factors, the examinations resulted in 14 of 20 operators failing the dynamic simulator examination. The following paper describes the BSEP simulator impact on Licensed Training in 1990

  19. LHC Status and Upgrade Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has had a trying start-up and a challenging operational future lays ahead. Critical to the machine's performance is controlling a beam of particles whose stored energy is equivalent to 80 kg of TNT. Unavoidable beam losses result in energy deposition throughout the machine and without adequate protection this power would result in quenching of the superconducting magnets. A brief overview of the machine layout and principles of operation will be reviewed including a summary of the September 2008 accident. The current status of the LHC, startup schedule and upgrade options to achieve the target luminosity will be presented.

  20. ECRH experiments in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuterer, F.; Guenter, S.; Hobirk, J.; Kirov, K.; Ryter, F.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.; Gantenbein, G.

    2001-01-01

    In ASDEX Upgrade ECRH and ECCD with a power of up to 2 MW has been used. With counter ECCD in discharges with an internal transport barrier we achieved an electron temperature of ≅13 keV. In low density ohmic plasmas we obtained an rf driven current of ≅80% both in co- and counter directions. Neoclassical tearing modes have been completly stabilised by driving a current on the resonant q-surface. Electron heat transport has been studied in standard L- and H-mode plasmas and can be described by a dependence on a critical electron temperature gradient

  1. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhning, R.W.; Anand, A.; Blackmore, T.; Lawson, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  2. Upgrade of the AGS H- linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Buxton, W.; Kponou, A.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.J.; Raparia, D.

    1994-01-01

    The AGS linac presently accelerates 25 mA of H - to 200 MeV at a 5 Hz rep-rate and 500 μs pulse width. The Booster takes 4 pulses every 3.8 seconds, and the remaining pulses are used for isotope production. The authors are in the process of upgrading the linac to increase the average current delivered for isotope production by more than a factor of two, while at the same time expecting to decrease linac downtime. Various aspects of this upgrade are discussed, including the upgrade of the control system, new high power transmission line, transport line vacuum, and rf power supply system upgrades

  3. ALICE Upgrades: Plans and Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tieulent, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration consolidated and completed the installation of current detectors during LS1 with the aim to accumulate 1 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb-Pb collisions during Run 2 corresponding to about 10 times the Run 1 integrated luminosity. In parallel, the ALICE experiment has a rich detector upgrade programme scheduled during the second LHC long shutdown (LS2, 2018-2019) in order to fully exploit the LHC Runs 3 and 4. The main objectives of this programme are: improving the tracking precision and enabling the read-out of all Pb-Pb interactions at a rate of up to 50 kHz, with the goal to record an integrated luminosity of 10 nb$^{-1}$ after LS2 in minimum-bias trigger mode. This sample would represent an increase by a factor of one hundred with respect to the minimum-bias sample expected during Run 2. The implementation of this upgrade programme, foreseen in LS2, includes: a new low-material Inner Tracking System at central rapidity with a forward rapidity extension to add vertexing capabilities to the current M...

  4. Upgrade and modernization of NBSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    The NBSR, a 20-MW research reactor operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has become the leading US laboratory in neutron research. About 1000 scientists from 200 industries, government and foreign laboratories, and universities conducted experiments at the NBSR in 19931. Since 1990, when the first instruments in the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) became available, the number of research participants has doubled. A major program of modernization and facility upgrade was initiated in order to meet this growing demand, and to assure safe and reliable reactor operations for 30 additional years. A scheduled shutdown, begun in late May 1994, is nearing completion at this writing (May 1995). To upgrade the CNRF, the D 2 0 cold neutron source has been replaced with a liquid hydrogen cold source, and the remaining four neutron guides are being installed. In addition, the primary and secondary cooling systems have been modernized with the installation of plate heat exchangers, and the refueling system has been completely refurbished. Periodic maintenance is also being done. The entire D20 primary coolant inventory is about to be replaced, and new shim arms have been installed

  5. Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

    2013-05-01

    Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

  6. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  7. BNFL Magnox - Upgrades and enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udbinac, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, generic models, restrictive budgets,and general shortages of resources have limited the scope of the UK's older Magnox simulators. Nevertheless, the simulators evolved slowly over time, becoming more like their reference plants, as resources became available. Three years ago, the Training and Development Branch of Magnox Electric plc took a giant leap, investing significant resources into the modernization of their training simulators. New hardware was built, including a new simulator room. The simulator software was ported from Unix running on outdated servers to new servers running Microsoft Windows NT. Perhaps most significantly, major model enhancements were made to key plant systems to significantly increase the likeness of each simulator to its reference plant. The upgrade to NT, the addition of state-of-the-art instructor stations, and some of the model enhancements were achieved with SimPort, an all-inclusive simulation package provided by DS and S. This paper will provide a more detailed view of the Magnox modular simulators, including how they are used and how they have benefited from the enhancements and upgrades implemented during the project. (author)

  8. Heavy water upgrader of 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Sasaki, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear power station of the advanced thermal prototype reactor ''Fugen'' has continued the smooth operation since it started the fullscale operation in March, 1979. Fugen is the first heavy water-moderated, boiling light water-cooled reactor in Japan, and its outstanding feature is the use of heavy water as the moderator. The quantity of heavy water retained in Fugen is about 140 m 3 , and the concentration is 99.8 wt.%. This heavy water had been made is USA, and was imported from F.R. of Germany where it had been used. Heavy water is an internationally regulated material, and it is very expensive and hard to purchase. Therefore in order to prevent the deterioration of heavy water and to avoid its loss as far as possible, the management of the quantity and the control of the water quality have been carried out carefully and strictly. The generation of deteriorated heavy water occurs from the exchange of ion exchange resin for poison removal and purification. The heavy water upgrader reconcentrates the deteriorated heavy water of high concentration and returns to the heavy water system, and it was installed for the purpose of reducing the purchase of supplementary heavy water. The outline of the heavy water upgrader, its construction, the performance test and the operation are described. (Kako, I.)

  9. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  10. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J.

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV

  11. The integrated engineering system for the HVAC branch. Annex; Das integrierte Ingenieursystem fuer die Haustechnikbranche; Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenspach, J.; Duppenthaler, A.; Helbling, R.; Kohler, T.; Mantel, R.; Meineke, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-01-01

    In 1987, the intention of the former Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research was to initiate a transfer of know-how into practice by launching this project. The increasing need for software engineering tools by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) companies demanded a new tool; to realise it, a joint venture project with private industry should concentrate the individual capabilities of each partner toward this goal. The present report describes the concept of the integrated engineering system, its user interface, the models, graphics, tools, multiuser operation and the system boundary. Results of field tests are presented together with information of the availability of the system. The annex contains the agreement for the usage of the public-domain-version of the system, experience reports of pilot clients and the end user`s and developer`s documentation. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  12. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  13. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  14. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV.

  15. Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jeremie; Zhang, Jianshun Jensen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.

  16. Optimization of the structural design of HVAC ducts and their supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMatias, I.P.; Barrio, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the computerized process of qualification and design based on experience accumulated in structural designs of HVAC systems in nuclear power plants, using CAD/CAE systems. Such computerization has drastically reduced the number of manhours employed to generate the information necessary to issue duct and support fabrication drawings. During the analysis stage, the requirements for qualification of ducts and supports contained in CONAGT ANSI/ASME AG-1 have been considered. The data package applicable to the process consists of a set of computer programs which may be used independently or combined. A significant portion of such programs governs the graphic design. Moreover, analyses are performed on results of the different types of tests carried out to date, and on those necessary to determine the mechanisms of failures in ducts, and in order to be able to calibrate design criteria currently in use

  17. Impact of HVAC filter on indoor air quality in terms of ozone removal and carbonyls generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Chen, Hsuan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at detecting ozone removal rates and corresponding carbonyls generated by ozone reaction with HVAC filters from various building, i.e., shopping mall, school, and office building. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental chamber. By examining dust properties including organic carbon proportion and specific surface area of dusts adsorbed on filters along with ozone removal rates and carbonyls generation rate, the relationship among dust properties, ozone removal rates, and carbonyls generation was identified. The results indicate a well-defined positive correlation between ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generation on filters, as well as a positive correlation among the mass of organic carbon on filters, ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generations.

  18. Thunderstorm and Lightning Studies using the FORTE Optical Lightning System (FORTE/OLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, P.; Franz, R.; Green, J.; Guillen, J.L.; Jacobson, A.R.; Kirkland, M.; Knox, S.; Spalding, R.; Suszcynsky, D.M.

    1999-02-01

    Preliminary observations of simultaneous RF and optical emissions from lightning as seen by the FORTE spacecraft are presented. RF/optical pairs of waveforms are routinely collected both as individual lightning events and as sequences of events associated with cloud-to-ground (CG) and intra-cloud (IC) flashes. CG pulses can be distinguished from IC pulses based on the properties of the RF and optical waveforms, but mostly based on the associated RF spectrograms. The RF spectrograms are very similar to previous ground-based VHF observations of lightning and show signatures associated with return strokes, stepped and dart leaders, and attachment processes,. RF emissions are observed to precede the arrival of optical emissions at the satellite by a mean value of 280 microseconds. The dual phenomenology nature of these observations are discussed in terms of their ability to contribute to a satellite-based lightning monitoring mission.

  19. Thunderstorm and Lightning Studies using the FORTE Optical Lightning System (FORTE/OLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, P.; Franz, R.; Green, J.; Guillen, J.L.; Jacobson, A.R.; Kirkland, M.; Knox, S.; Spalding, R.; Suszcynsky, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary observations of simultaneous RF and optical emissions from lightning as seen by the FORTE spacecraft are presented. RF/optical pairs of waveforms are routinely collected both as individual lightning events and as sequences of events associated with cloud-to-ground (CG) and intra-cloud (IC) flashes. CG pulses can be distinguished from IC pulses based on the properties of the RF and optical waveforms, but mostly based on the associated RF spectrograms. The RF spectrograms are very similar to previous ground-based VHF observations of lightning and show signatures associated with return strokes, stepped and dart leaders, and attachment processes,. RF emissions are observed to precede the arrival of optical emissions at the satellite by a mean value of 280 microseconds. The dual phenomenology nature of these observations are discussed in terms of their ability to contribute to a satellite-based lightning monitoring mission

  20. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  1. Le Fort I Maxillary Advancement Using Distraction Osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Patrick D.; Harshbarger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of maxillary hypoplasia has traditionally involved conventional Le Fort I osteotomies and advancement. Advancements of greater than 10 mm risk significant relapse. This risk is greater in the cleft lip and palate population, whose anatomy and soft tissue scarring from prior procedures contributes to instability of conventional maxillary advancement. Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis has emerged as viable, stable treatment modality correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia in cleft, syndromic, and noncleft patients. In this article, the authors provide a review of current data and recommendations concerning Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis. In addition, they outline their technique for treating severe maxillary hypoplasia with distraction osteogenesis using internal devices. PMID:25383054

  2. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  3. Cranial nerve injury after Le Fort I osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-W; Chin, B-R; Park, H-S; Lee, S-H; Kwon, T-G

    2011-03-01

    A Le Fort I osteotomy is widely used to correct dentofacial deformity because it is a safe and reliable surgical method. Although rare, various complications have been reported in relation to pterygomaxillary separation. Cranial nerve damage is one of the serious complications that can occur after Le Fort I osteotomy. In this report, a 19-year-old man with unilateral cleft lip and palate underwent surgery to correct maxillary hypoplasia, asymmetry and mandibular prognathism. After the Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, the patient showed multiple cranial nerve damage; an impairment of outward movement of the eye (abducens nerve), decreased vision (optic nerve), and paraesthesia of the frontal and upper cheek area (ophthalmic and maxillary nerve). The damage to the cranial nerve was related to an unexpected sphenoid bone fracture and subsequent trauma in the cavernous sinus during the pterygomaxillary osteotomy. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fort Collins Science Center-Fiscal year 2009 science accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Juliette T.

    2010-01-01

    Public land and natural resource managers in the United States are confronted with increasingly complex decisions that have important ramifications for both ecological and human systems. The scientists and technical professionals at the U.S. Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center?many of whom are at the forefront of their fields?possess a unique blend of ecological, socioeconomic, and technological expertise. Because of this diverse talent, Fort Collins Science Center staff are able to apply a systems approach to investigating complicated ecological problems in a way that helps answer critical management questions. In addition, the Fort Collins Science Center has a long record of working closely with the academic community through cooperative agreements and other collaborations. The Fort Collins Science Center is deeply engaged with other U.S. Geological Survey science centers and partners throughout the Department of the Interior. As a regular practice, we incorporate the expertise of these partners in providing a full complement of ?the right people? to effectively tackle the multifaceted research problems of today's resource-management world. In Fiscal Year 2009, the Fort Collins Science Center's scientific and technical professionals continued research vital to Department of the Interior's science and management needs. Fort Collins Science Center work also supported the science needs of other Federal and State agencies as well as non-government organizations. Specifically, Fort Collins Science Center research and technical assistance focused on client and partner needs and goals in the areas of biological information management and delivery, enterprise information, fisheries and aquatic systems, invasive species, status and trends of biological resources (including human dimensions), terrestrial ecosystems, and wildlife resources. In the process, Fort Collins Science Center science addressed natural-science information needs identified in the U

  5. Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ER D C/ CE RL S R- 16 -1 Net Zero Planning for Fort Leonard Wood Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri Co ns...search for other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Net Zero Planning for...1.8 degrees Celsius knots 0.5144444 meters per second miles (US statute) 1,609.347 meters miles per hour 0.44704 meters per second ERDC/CERL SR

  6. Sundhedsprofessionelles begejstring for fortællinger fra levet erfaring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Larsen, Christine; Lange, Mads

    2018-01-01

    I 2013 etablerede psykiatrien i Region Hovedstaden, Danmark, et undervisningsprogram om recovery for sundhedsprofessionelle. Evalueringer af programmet viste et udtalt engagement i fortællingen fra underviseren med levet erfaring. Artiklen diskuterer hvordan dette kan forstås. Evalueringsmaterialet...... analyseres ud fra et læringsteoretisk perspektiv og fokuserer på: 1) Betydningen af fortællingens emotionelle indhold, 2) Rolle-bytningen mellem personen med levet erfaring og sundhedsprofessionelle, og 3) Workshoppene som et læringsrum, der aktiverer refleksioner over strukturer og organisering af...

  7. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Campbell, Tennessee/Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, James R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Kora, Angela R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-03-31

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Campbell, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Campbell took place on June 10, 2010.

  8. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  9. Construction experience on PCRV liners at Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, J.O.; Wunderlich, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of the steel liners for the Fort St. Vrain prestressed concrete reactor vessel presented many unique problems for which techniques were developed to satisfy the rigid specification requirements. The PCRV cavity liner was fabricated from 1.9cm carbon steel plate. The liners were partially fabricated by Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company at their Pittsburgh manufacturing facility. The liners were then shipped by rail to within approximately five miles of the jobsite and then trucked the remaining distance. The construction techniques, dimensional control, concrete support and testing utilized on the Fort St. Vrain project are presented in detail and demonstrate the flexibility of the PCRV for field construction. (author)

  10. En fascinerende fortælling om det 20. århundredes musik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Karl Aage Rasmussen: Musik i det tyvende århundrede: En fortælling. Gyldendal 2011.......Anmeldelse af Karl Aage Rasmussen: Musik i det tyvende århundrede: En fortælling. Gyldendal 2011....

  11. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  12. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  13. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  14. Bohunice V1 NPP upgrading programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes whole process of Bohunice V1 NPP nuclear safety and operational reliability level increase which has been performed since units commissioning (1. unit in 1978, 2. unit in 1980), continued Small Reconstruction (1991 -1993) and finished Gradual Upgrading(1994 -2000). The main purpose is to last stage -Gradual upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. (author)

  15. FTU bolometer electronic system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Neri, Carlo; Florean, Marco; Ciccone, Giovanni [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Design and realization of a new bolometer electronic system. ► Many improvements over the actual commercial system. ► Architecture based on digital electronic hardware with minimal analog front end. ► Auto off-set correction, real time visualization features and small system size. ► Test results for the electronic system. -- Abstract: The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) requires a bolometer diagnostic in order to measure the total plasma radiation. The current diagnostic architecture is based on a full analog multichannel AC bolometer system, which uses a carrier frequency amplifier with a synchronous demodulation. Taking into account the technological upgrades in the field of electronics, it was decided to realize an upgrade for the bolometric electronic system by using a hybrid analog/digital implementation. The new system developed at the ENEA Frascati laboratories has many improvements, and mainly a massive system volume reduction, a good measurement linearity and a simplified use. The new hardware system consists of two subsystems: the Bolometer Digital Control and the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control can control 16 bolometer bridges through the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control, based on the FPGA architecture, is connected via Ethernet with a PC; therefore, it can receive commands settings from the PC and send the stream of bolometric measurements in real time to the PC. In order to solve the cross-talk between the bridges and the cables, each of the four bridges in the bolometer head receives a different synthesized excitation frequency. Since the system is fully controlled by a PC GUI (Graphic User Interface), it is very user friendly. Moreover, some useful features have been developed, such as: auto off-set correction, bridge amplitude regulation, software gain setting, real time visualization, frequency excitation selection and noise spectrum analyzer embedded function. In this paper, the

  16. Superconducting magnet development for the LHC upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    LHC is now delivering proton and heavy ion collisions at the highest energy. Upgrading the LHC beyond its design performance is a long term program that started during the LHC construction, with some fundamental R and D programs. The upgrade program is based on a vigorous superconductor and magnet R and D, aimed at increasing the field in accelerator magnets from 8 T to 12 T for the luminosity upgrade, with the scope of increasing the collider luminosity by a factor 5 to 10 from 2022. The upgrade program might continue with the LHC energy upgrade, which would require magnets producing field in the range of 16-20 T. The results obtained so far and the future challenges are discussed together with the possible plan to reach the goals. (author)

  17. TCV divertor upgrade for alternative magnetic configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Reimerdes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Swiss Plasma Center (SPC is planning a divertor upgrade for the TCV tokamak. The upgrade aims at extending the research of conventional and alternative divertor configurations to operational scenarios and divertor regimes of greater relevance for a fusion reactor. The main elements of the upgrade are the installation of an in-vessel structure to form a divertor chamber of variable closure and enhanced diagnostic capabilities, an increase of the pumping capability of the divertor chamber and the addition of new divertor poloidal field coils. The project follows a staged approach and is carried out in parallel with an upgrade of the TCV heating system. First calculations using the EMC3-Eirene code indicate that realistic baffles together with the planned heating upgrade will allow for a significantly higher compression of neutral particles in the divertor, which is a prerequisite to test the power dissipation potential of various divertor configurations.

  18. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  19. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  20. ATR Technical Specification Upgrade Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications which were initially developed with content and format specified in ANSI/ANS--15.1, ''The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors.'' The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  1. Five-megajoule homopolar upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullion, T.M.; Zowarka, R.C.; Aanstoos, T.A.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The five-megajoule homopolar generator (5-MJ HPG) designed and built in 1974 by the Center for Eelctromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) was the result of an engineering feasibility study that examined alternate means of pulsed energy storage for controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments. The machine proved very reliable and useful in a variety of applications, notably pulsed resistance welding, and was modified in 1978 to improve its flexibility and ease of maintenance. CEM-UT is now completing a major upgrading of this HPG to a hydraulically motored, 10-MJ, 47-V, 1.02-MA device capable of welding large-section, high-carbon railroad rail. This report considers the design and fabrication of the new rotor, shaft, brush mechanisms, field coil, making switch, busbar system, and control system, as well as the addition of the 31-MPa (4500 psi) hydraulic motoring system. Future applications of the 10-MJ HPG are also discussed

  2. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  3. Fort Independence: An Eighteenth-Century Frontier Homesite and Militia Post in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    included in this instance as a condiment , but it could also indicate that the Fort Independence garrison was familiar with the strategy employed by the Fort...archeological investigation of Fort Charlotte, McCormick County, South Carolina. Notebook, Institute of Archeology and Anthropology, University of South

  4. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to consist...

  5. Case Study: Fort Mill High School--A Culture of Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of case studies highlighting best practices High Schools That Work (HSTW) network schools and districts are implementing to prepare students better for further studies and careers. Fort Mill High School is in Fort Mill, South Carolina, an outlying suburb of Charlotte, North Carolina. Fort Mill links high quality…

  6. Occupancy pattern in office buildings : consequences for HVAC system design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvarsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The main objectives with the work presented in this thesis have been: (a) to contribute to an increased understanding of the consequences that the occupancy pattern can have on the indoor climate and for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system design and operation; and (b) to investigate how typical occupancy patterns can look like in office buildings. The occupancy pattern in an office is a function of the floor layout of the building, and the user organisation(s) occupying it and their way of working. The combination of these two, will decide how the users occupy the building, which in turn is an important design prerequisite/constraint for the HVAC system design process. There are many assessments related to indoor climate and HVAC that involve considerations of the occupancy pattern, reaching from estimates of internal heat and pollution loads to deciding on an appropriate control strategy of HVAC systems, or estimating the energy saving potential with demand controlled ventilation. A few numerical measures have been used to describe different aspects of the occupancy pattern. The zone based occupancy factor (OFz) expresses the ratio between the number of occupied sub-zones/rooms in a zone and the total number of sub-zones/rooms in the zone. OFz does not take the number of people into account, only whether a sub-zone/room is occupied or unoccupied. OFz can be used both to express instantaneous occupancy levels and averages over time. Superscript is used to specify the time, or time period, that the measure refers to. For instance, 06 18,wd OFz means the average OFz between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. on working days, while the 95th percentile of OFz6{sub 1}8,wd , means the 95th percentile of all instantaneous values (one or five minute averages in the case studies) of OFz that have occurred during the same time period. The utilisation rate (UR) expresses the fraction of time that a room is occupied, within a specific time period. It is important to

  7. Fort Peck-Wolf Point transmission line project, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the project is to replace the existing 36-mile Fort Peck-Wolf Point transmission line which has reached the end of its useful service life. Presently, the overall condition of this existing section of the 47-year-old line is poor. Frequent repairs have been required because of the absence of overhead ground wires. The continued maintenance of the line will become more expensive and customer interruptions will persist because of the damage due to lightning. The expense of replacing shell rotted poles, and the concern for the safety of the maintenance personnel because of hazards caused by severe shell rot are also of primary importance. The operational and maintenance problems coupled with power system simulation studies, demonstrate the need for improvements to the Wolf Point area to serve area loads. Western's Wolf Point Substation is an important point of interconnection for the power output from the Fort Peck Dam to area loads as far away as Williston, North Dakota. The proposed transmission line replacement would assure that there will continue to be reliable transmission capacity available to serve area electrical loads, as well as provide a reliable second high-voltage transmission path from the Fort Peck generation to back-up a loss of the Fort Peck-Wolf Point 115-kV Line No. 1

  8. Safety and licensing analyses for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, S.J.; Conklin, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.; Cleveland, J.C.; Clapp, N.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) safety analysis program for the HTGR includes development and verification of system response simulation codes, and applications of these codes to specific Fort St. Vrain reactor licensing problems. Licensing studies addressed the oscillation problems and the concerns about large thermal stresses in the core support blocks during a postulated accident

  9. Site-Based Budgeting in Fort Worth, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternick, Lauri; Sherman, Joel

    1998-01-01

    Examines the Fort Worth Independent School District's decentralized decision-making system through three lenses: a review of site-based decision-making procedures at several schools; an examination of who participates; and stakeholders' perceptions. Some schools operated democratically, significantly including teachers, parents, and community…

  10. 22nd Spring Research Festival Showcases Fort Detrick Science | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainy weather couldn’t dampen the spirits of visitors to the 2018 Spring Research Festival, which brought together scientists from the Frederick National Laboratory (FNL), NCI at Frederick, and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) and showcased the important research that takes place every day at Fort Detrick.

  11. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  12. Forest pathology and entomology at Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Forest pathology and entomology have been researched at Fort Valley Experimental Forest throughout its history. The pathogens and insects of particular interest are mistletoes, decay and canker fungi, rusts, bark beetles, and various defoliators. Studies on life history, biotic interactions, impacts, and control have been published and incorporated into silvicultural...

  13. Tile forts of the Liesbeeck Frontier | Sleigh | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Tile forts of the Liesbeeck Frontier.

  14. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  15. Opening remarks for the Fort Valley Centennial Celebration (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station recognizes and values the contributions of our scientists and collaborators for their work over the past century at Fort Valley Experimental Forest. With the help of our partners and collaborators, Rocky Mountain Research Station is working to improve coordination across its research Program Areas and Experimental Forests and Ranges...

  16. Informal report on measurements of slant TEC by FORTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Space and Atmospheric Sciences group is now operating the FORTE satellite, which has two sets of instruments: optical detectors and radio detectors. In this report the author describes work with one set of radio detectors that allow measurements of the total electron content (TEC) traversed by VHF radiation originating at an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generator located at Los Alamos

  17. Assessment of DoD Wounded Warrior Matters -- Fort Riley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    acceptable excuses included At Remote Care, Regular Leave, Maternity and Paternity Leave, Terminal Leave, Permanent Change of Station, and Transferred to...risk of negative medication interactions and reactions for Soldiers assigned to the Fort Riley WTB. B.2. Background The Joint Commission, an...reconciliation is to minimize medication errors such as omissions, duplications, dosing errors, and drug interactions . Medical reconciliation should

  18. The Forte Kreis : an Attempt to Spiritual Leadership over Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Just before the outbreak of World War 1, a group of writers, artists and philosophers decided to establish a spiritual rule over Europe, the Forte Kreis. The group aimed at a reconciliation in Europe, by establishing pacifism, but also between East and West by creating a new language. Their thoughts

  19. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  20. 77 FR 24579 - Establishment of the Fort Ord National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... 1775-1776, Anza established the first overland route from ``New Spain,'' as Mexico was then known, to..., approximately 6 miles of which pass through the Fort Ord area. Although much of the historic route currently... tourists and recreationalists from near and far, and enhance its unique natural resources, for the...

  1. Fort Valley studies: A natural laboratory for research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Drought, wildfire, extinction, and invasive species are considered serious threats to the health of our forests. Although these issues have global connections, we most readily see their consequences locally and attempt to respond with management based on science. For 100 years, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) has provided educational and experimental support...

  2. Calculation of Void in the Fort Saint Vrain Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, David Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Taylor, Craig Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coons, James Elmer [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    The percent void of the Fort Saint Vrain (FSV) material is estimated to be 21.1% based on the volume of the gap at the top of the drums, the volume of the coolant channels in the FSV fuel element, and the volume of the fuel handling channel in the FSV fuel element.

  3. Keys to the House: Unlocking Residential Savings With Program Models for Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevatt, Jim [Energy Futures Group (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmeyer, Dale [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-05

    After more than 40 years of effort, energy efficiency program administrators and associated contractors still find it challenging to penetrate the home retrofit market, especially at levels commensurate with state and federal goals for energy savings and emissions reductions. Residential retrofit programs further have not coalesced around a reliably successful model. They still vary in design, implementation and performance, and they remain among the more difficult and costly options for acquiring savings in the residential sector. If programs are to contribute fully to meeting resource and policy objectives, administrators need to understand what program elements are key to acquiring residential savings as cost effectively as possible. To that end, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive review and analysis of home energy upgrade programs with proven track records, focusing on those with robustly verified savings and constituting good examples for replication. The study team reviewed evaluations for the period 2010 to 2014 for 134 programs that are funded by customers of investor-owned utilities. All are programs that promote multi-measure retrofits or major system upgrades. We paid particular attention to useful design and implementation features, costs, and savings for nearly 30 programs with rigorous evaluations of performance. This meta-analysis describes program models and implementation strategies for (1) direct install retrofits; (2) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) replacement and early retirement; and (3) comprehensive, whole-home retrofits. We analyze costs and impacts of these program models, in terms of both energy savings and emissions avoided. These program models can be useful guides as states consider expanding their strategies for acquiring energy savings as a resource and for emissions reductions. We also discuss the challenges of using evaluations to create program models that can be confidently applied in

  4. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  5. Remote Monitoring of Cathodic Protection and Cathodic Protection System Upgrades for Tanks and Pipelines at Fort Carson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    4 Flush T/S PROPOSED RMU SITE 17 IN Front of Golf Clubhouse x FH -Yl TL -477 13516677 4285195 Glen 4 Flush T/S - Anode Not Connected...Every investigation should include an action plan. Focus on causes and hazards. Develop an analysis of what happened, how it happened and how it...could have been prevented. Determine what caused the accident itself, not just the injury. If a third party or defective product contributed to

  6. Environmental Assessment: Target Upgrades on Leach Lake Tactical Range at the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    base of the San Bernardino Moun- tains; in the southern San Joaquin Valley; and discontinuously in southern Nevada. Populations recorded in the...and migratory bird species. Approximately 120 species of birds pass through the study area during migration. Costa’s hummingbirds (Calypte costae

  7. Real-time performance assessment and adaptive control for a water chiller unit in an HVAC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianbo; Li, Yang; Chen, Jianhao

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an adaptive control method for a water chiller unit in a HVAC system. Based on the minimum variance evaluation, the adaptive control method was used to realize better control of the water chiller unit. To verify the performance of the adaptive control method, the proposed method was compared with an a conventional PID controller, the simulation results showed that adaptive control method had superior control performance to that of the conventional PID controller.

  8. Upgrading nuclear safeguards in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Maribeth; Murakami, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    When the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, Kazakhstan inherited 1,410 nuclear warheads. Within three years, by 1994, Kazakhstan had formally acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and transferred its last nuclear warhead to Russia in April 1995. Its NPT safeguards agreement with the IAEA came into force in 1994 and all facilities are under safeguards. In February 2004 Kazakhstan signed the Additional Protocol to its IAEA safeguards agreement, though this not yet in force. Kazakhstan played a key role during the Soviet era as a supplier and processor of uranium. The BN-350 fast reactor at Aktau (formerly Shevchenko), on the shore of the Caspian Sea, successfully produced up to 135 MWe of electricity and 80,000 m3/day of potable water over some 27 years until it was closed down in mid-1999. The IAEA being involved in upgrading the nuclear material accountancy and control systems of all Member States requested, Japan and Sweden to conduct independent evaluations at the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC), and specifically at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP) and identified areas that could be improved with respect to nuclear material accountancy and control. In June 2003 the Agency, with four Member States and the European Union, undertook a programme to upgrade the nuclear accountancy and control systems within Kazakhstan with special emphasis on the UMP in Ust-Kamenogorsk in northeast Kazakhstan. The current IAEA programme is focused on upgrading hardware and software systems and the training of personnel in Kazakhstan. Due to the complexity of the facility, special emphasis is on training personnel and upgrading systems at the UMP. At the UMP the focus is on reducing the uncertainty in the hold-up (material which cannot be cleaned out) in the process lines, better determining the amount of nuclear material that is released from the facility as waste or retained at the facility as waste, increasing the ability of the facility to more

  9. Coupling fast fluid dynamics and multizone airflow models in Modelica Buildings library to simulate the dynamics of HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wei [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Sevilla, Thomas Alonso [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Zuo, Wangda [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-06-08

    Historically, multizone models are widely used in building airflow and energy performance simulations due to their fast computing speed. However, multizone models assume that the air in a room is well mixed, consequently limiting their application. In specific rooms where this assumption fails, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models may be an alternative option. Previous research has mainly focused on coupling CFD models and multizone models to study airflow in large spaces. While significant, most of these analyses did not consider the coupled simulation of the building airflow with the building's Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. This paper tries to fill the gap by integrating the models for HVAC systems with coupled multizone and CFD simulations for airflows, using the Modelica simul ation platform. To improve the computational efficiency, we incorporated a simplified CFD model named fast fluid dynamics (FFD). We first introduce the data synchronization strategy and implementation in Modelica. Then, we verify the implementation using two case studies involving an isothermal and a non-isothermal flow by comparing model simulations to experiment data. Afterward, we study another three cases that are deemed more realistic. This is done by attaching a variable air volume (VAV) terminal box and a VAV system to previous flows to assess the capability of the models in studying the dynamic control of HVAC systems. Finally, we discuss further research needs on the coupled simulation using the models.

  10. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, {open_quotes}Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.{close_quotes} This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions.

  11. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, open-quotes Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.close quotes This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop open-quotes genericclose quotes insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions

  12. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry ( 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  13. Simulative Study into the Development of a Hybrid HVDC System Through a Comparative Research with HVAC: a Futuristic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Narayan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC is considered a better solution for bulk long distance transmissions. The increased use of HVDC is a result of its advantages over the HVAC systems and especially of its fault stability nature. A better solution is proposed by using a Voltage Source Controlled–HVDC as one of the infeed for the Multi-Infeed HVDC (MIDC or MI-HVDC systems. The main advantage with the VSC converter is its flexible power control which enhances the stability of the MIDC systems. In this paper, the behavior of an HVDC system is compared with that of an HVAC during faults. A Hybrid HVDC system that includes a LCC as a rectifier unit and a VSC converter as the inverter is being proposed. It is considered suitable for MIDC systems and particularly for supplying a weak AC system. The performance of the system during steady state and transient conditions for all the proposed topologies including HVDC, HVAC and Hybrid HVDC are studied in MATLAB/SIMULINK. All of the proposed control strategies are evaluated via a series of simulation case studies.

  14. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform......, and proactive approach, are found to be essential for a formerly government-sponsored TBI’s upgrading. The result of this study also provides new insights and several implications for incubator managers and policy makers in emerging economies. In addition, whether the key factors can be used in upgrade of other...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  15. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  16. LHCb PID Upgrade Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    LHCb Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade will take place in the second long shutdown of the LHC, currently scheduled to begin in 2018. The upgrade will enable the experiment to run at luminosities of $2 \\times 10^{33}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ and will read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a exible software-based trigger. All sub-detectors of LHCb will be re-designed to comply with these new operating conditions. This Technical Design Report presents the upgrade plans of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system, the calorimeter system and the muon system, which together provide the particle identication capabilities of the experiment.

  17. Morphological anomalies in two Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) specimens collected from Fort Rucker, Alabama, and Fort Campbell, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, David A; Lawyer, Phillip; Rowton, Edgar; Schultz, George; Wilkerson, Richard; Davies, Stephen J; Lipnick, Robert; Keep, Lisa

    2010-09-01

    This report describes two male specimens of the sand fly species Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) collected at Fort Rucker, AL, and Fort Campbell, KY, in dry ice-baited light traps during September 2005. The specimens were observed to have anomalies to the number of spines on the gonostyli. The taxonomic keys of Young and Perkins (Mosq. News 44: 263-285; 1984) use the number of spines on the gonostylus in the first couplet to differentiate two major groupings of North American sand flies. The two anomalous specimens were identified as L. shannoni based on the following criteria: (1) both specimens possess antennal ascoids with long, distinct proximal spurs (a near diagnostic character of L. shannoni in North America), (2) the sequences of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from both specimens indicated L. shannoni, and (3) the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 molecular marker from both specimens indicated L. shannoni. The anomalous features are fundamentally different from each other as the Fort Rucker specimen possesses a fifth spine (basally located) on just one gonostylus, whereas the Fort Campbell specimen possesses five spines (extra spines subterminally located) on both gonostyli. Because the gonostyli are part of the external male genitalia, anomalies in the number of spines on the gonostyli may have serious biological consequences, such as reduced reproductive success, for the possessors. These anomalies are of taxonomic interest as the specimens could easily have been misidentified using available morphological keys.

  18. The MAST data acquisition upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArdle, G.J.; Shibaev, Sergei; Storrs, John; Thomas-Davies, Nigel; Stephen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A programme has begun on MAST to replace its ageing CAMAC and VME based data acquisition systems with new modern hardware which, together with several improvements in the supporting infrastructure, will provide support for faster data acquisition rates, longer-pulse operation, faster data access and higher reliability. The main principle of the upgrade was to use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and well-established standards wherever possible. CompactPCI or PXI was chosen as the digitiser form factor to replace CAMAC/VME, and Ethernet would be used as the means to access all devices. The modular architecture of the MAST data acquisition software framework has helped to minimise the integration effort required to phase in new subsystems and/or new technologies whilst continuing to use the old hardware in other systems. The software framework was updated to allow more versatile use of the network-attached data acquisition devices. The new data acquisition devices had multiple connector types, which created difficulties with the cable interfacing. To resolve this and provide support for easy substitution, a standard connector interface was chosen, based on the most common connector type and pin-out already in use, and several cable assemblies were produced to connect the proprietary interface of the digitiser to the standard interface block. The in-house IDA-3 data storage format is unable to accommodate the larger file sizes and is increasingly difficult to maintain, so it is to be gradually phased out. The NetCDF-4/HDF5 data standard is being adopted as its replacement, thus reducing in-house maintenance whilst providing a data format that is more accessible to the Fusion community. Several other infrastructure upgrades were necessitated by the anticipated increase in data traffic and volume including the Central Timing System, the MAST Ethernet infrastructure and servers for front-end data processing, data storage and data access management. These

  19. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF sound and low-frequency (LF sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant′s probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave

  20. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouharmajd, Farhad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad R; Yazdchi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans) uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC) method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF) sound and low-frequency (LF) sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI) of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant's probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave bands exceed 65