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Sample records for hvac equipment design

  1. HVAC systems and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.T. (Linford Air and Refrigeration Company, Oakland, CA (US))

    1990-02-01

    The author discusses the section of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 which addresses HVAC systems and equipment. New features of HVAC systems mandatory general requirements are described. New prescriptive requirements are detailed.

  2. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  3. HVAC design manual for hospitals and clinics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    "Provides in-depth design recommendations and proven, cost effective, and reliable solutions for health care HVAC design that provide low maintenance cost and high reliability based on best practices...

  4. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladykas, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  5. Design and Operation of 3-Pin FTL HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, S. K.; Park, K. N.; Lee, J. M.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, Y. J.

    2005-01-01

    According to the increasing demand for irradiation tests to develop new fuels, the 3-Pin FTL(Fuel Test Loop for 3 pin test fuel) facility has now been under design to conduct in-core fuel performance tests at the operating conditions, which will be installed at HANARO. The HVAC system of the FTL will be dependent on that of the HANARO. The FTL has three equipments rooms, which are the room 1, room 2 and the control room. The high pressure and high temperature equipments will be installed in the room 1. The atmosphere of the room 1 shall be maintained under the designed condition. This paper describes the design of the FTL HVAC system in the room 1

  6. Development of a computer design system for HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Yotsuya, M.; Hasegawa, M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a computer design system for HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system is presented in this paper. It supports the air conditioning design for a nuclear power plant and a reprocessing plant. This system integrates various computer design systems which were developed separately for the various design phases of HVAC. the purposes include centralizing the HVAC data, optimizing design, and reducing the designing time. The centralized HVAC data are managed by a DBMS (Data Base Management System). The DBMS separates the computer design system into a calculation module and the data. The design system can thus be expanded easily in the future. 2 figs

  7. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  8. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe; Ibarra, A.; Heidinger, R.; Knaster, J.; Sugimoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  9. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  10. The Design of HVAC System in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    The HVAC systems for conventional facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center consist of 3 systems : accelerator building HVAC system, beam application building HVAC system and miscellaneous HVAC system. We designed accelerator building HVAC system and beam application research area HVAC system in the conventional facilities of Proton Accelerator research center. Accelerator building HVAC system is divided into accelerator tunnel area, klystron area, klystron gallery area, accelerator assembly area. Also, Beam application research area HVAC system is divided into those of beam experimental hall, accelerator control area, beam application research area and Ion beam application building. In this paper, We described system design requirements and explained system configuration for each systems. We presented operation scenario of HVAC system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

  11. Airside HVAC BESTEST. Adaptation of ASHRAE RP 865 Airside HVAC Equipment Modeling Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140. Volume 1, Cases AE101-AE445

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J. [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States); Kennedy, M. [Mike D. Kennedy, Inc., Townsend, WA (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gall, J. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Knebel, D. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Henninger, R. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Witte, M. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hong, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDowell, T. [Thermal Energy System Specialists, Madison, WI (United States); Yan, D. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhou, X. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2016-03-01

    This report documents a set of diagnostic analytical verification cases for testing the ability of whole building simulation software to model the air distribution side of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These cases complement the unitary equipment cases included in American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs, which test the ability to model the heat-transfer fluid side of HVAC equipment.

  12. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  13. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems

  14. 10 CFR 434.517 - HVAC systems and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... >3 stories 6 Note 6. Restaurant 1 or 3 Note 1. Health: a. Nursing Home (any size) 2 or 7 Note 7. b... restaurants, assembly and retail which are part of a mixed use building which, according to Table 517.4.1... controlled so that it will not be operated during normal operations of the building. The designer shall...

  15. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 21 -- HVAC, air handling equipment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 21 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to HVAC-Air Handling Equipment. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  16. Weather data around the world for design of field hospital HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forejt, L.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Drkal, F.; Barankova, P.

    2006-01-01

    Field hospital (FH) is a military mobile complex to be deployed in almost any climate around the world. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the Czech Republic FH units is being redesigned. Computer simulation software will be used for the design of HVAC under variety of

  17. Study on HVAC system in nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeg, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Oh, Y. O.; Ju, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system in nuclear facility should be equipped and constructed more stable and allowable than that in common facility. The purpose of HVAC system is the maintenance of optimum working environment, the protection of worker against a contaminated air and the prevention of atmospheric contamination due to an outward ventilation, etc.. The basic scheme of a safety operation of nuclear facility is to prevent the atmospheric contamination even in low level. The adaptability of HVAC system which is in operation. In this study, the design requirements of HVAC system in nuclear facility and the HVAC systems in foreign countries are reviewed, and the results can be utilized in the design of HVAC system in nuclear facility

  18. Promoting high efficiency residential HVAC equipment: Lessons learned from leading utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neme, C.; Peters, J.; Rouleau, D.

    1998-07-01

    The Consortium for Energy Efficiency recently sponsored a study of leading electric utility efforts to promote high efficiency residential HVAC equipment. Given growing concerns from some utilities about the level of expenditures associated with rebate programs, special emphasis was placed on assessing the success of financing and other non-rebate options for promoting efficiency. Emphasis was also placed on review of efforts--rebate or otherwise--to push the market to very high levels of efficiency (i.e., SEER 13). This paper presents the results of the study. It includes discussion of key lessons from the utility programs analyzed. It also examines program participation rates and other potential indicators of market impacts. One notable conclusion is that several utility programs have pushed market shares for SEER 12 equipment to about 50% (the national average is less than 20%). At least one utility program has achieved a 50% market share for SEER 13 equipment (the national average is less than 3%). In general, financing does not appear to have as broad an appeal as consumer rebates. However, one unique utility program which combines the other of customer financing with modest incentives to contractors--in the form of frequent seller points that can be redeemed for advertising, technician training, travel and other merchandise--offers some promise that high participation rates can be achieved without customer rebates.

  19. Screening analysis for EPACT-covered commercial HVAC and water-heating equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Somasundaram; PR Armstrong; DB Belzer; SC Gaines; DL Hadley; S Katipumula; DL Smith; DW Winiarski

    2000-05-25

    EPCA requirements state that if the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) amends efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90.1-1989, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in amended Standard 90.1. However, DOE can establish higher efficiency levels if it can show through clear and convincing evidence that a higher efficiency level, that is technologically feasible and economically justified, would produce significant additional energy savings. On October 29, 1999, ASHRAE approved the amended Standard 90.1, which increases the minimum efficiency levels for some of the commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equipment covered by EPCA 92. DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential of the efficiency levels listed in Standard 90.1-1999. The analysis estimates the annual national energy consumption and the potential for energy savings that would result if the EPACT-covered products were required to meet these efficiency levels. The analysis also estimates additional energy-savings potential for the EPACT-covered products if they were to exceed the efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90-1-1999. In addition, a simple life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was performed for some alternative efficiency levels. This paper will describe the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis. The magnitude of HVAC and SWH loads imposed on equipment depends on the building's physical and operational characteristics and prevailing climatic conditions. To address this variation in energy use, coil loads for 7 representative building types at 11 climate locations were estimated based on a whole-building simulation.

  20. Economic Optimal HVAC Design for Hybrid GEOTABS Buildings and CO2 Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Picard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early design phase of a building, the task of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC engineer is to propose an appropriate HVAC system for a given building. This system should provide thermal comfort to the building occupants at all time, meet the building owner’s specific requirements, and have minimal investment, running, maintenance and replacement costs (i.e., the total cost and energy use or environmental impact. Calculating these different aspects is highly time-consuming and the HVAC engineer will therefore only be able to compare a (very limited number of alternatives leading to suboptimal designs. This study presents therefore a Python tool that automates the generation of all possible scenarios for given thermal power profiles and energy load and a given database of HVAC components. The tool sizes each scenario properly, computes its present total cost (PC and the total CO 2 emissions associated with the building energy use. Finally, the different scenarios can be searched and classified to pick the most appropriate scenario. The tool uses static calculations based on standards, manufacturer data and basic assumptions similar to those made by engineers in the early design phase. The current version of the tool is further focused on hybrid GEOTABS building, which combines a GEOthermal heat pump with a Thermally Activated System (TABS. It should further be noted that the tool optimizes the HVAC system but not the building envelope, while, ideally, both should be simultaneously optimized.

  1. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  2. Designing the controllability of a HVAC-plant by dynamic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Grindal, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper was presented at CLIMA 2000 - The international conference on energy and environmental matters in built environment, London, 1.-3. November 1993. Nowadays, HVAC engineers can use dynamic simulation programs in their everyday work. Such tools provide the ability to analyze different system configurations and to check the obtained states even before the building and plant are constructed. To encourage its wider use, the authors present in this paper the experiences obtained with the simulation program HVAC-DYNAMICS. The program was used to simulate the retrofitting of a heat recovery wheel to a conventional ventilation plant with a hot water heating coil. The effects of different design parameters on the controllability of the plant were investigated. Interestingly, some commonly recommended ``clever`` configurations can lead to unexpected control scenarios. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. An integrated control-oriented modelling for HVAC performance benchmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, Harish; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment requires the development of accurate models for testing HVAC control strategies and corresponding energy consumption. In order to make the HVAC control synthesis computationally affordable, such

  4. An evaluation of damping ratios for HVAC duct systems using vibration test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunyasu, K.; Horimizu, Y.; Kawakami, A.; Iokibe, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01

    The function of Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems must be maintained including HVAC duct systems to keep the operation of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants during earthquake excitations. Therefore, it is important to carry out seismic design for HVAC duct systems. In the previous aseismic design for HVAC duct systems, the 0.5% damping ratio has been used in Japan. In recent years, vibration tests, held on actual duct systems in nuclear power plants and mockup duct systems were performed in order to investigate damping ratios for HVAC duct systems. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the damping ratio for HVAC duct systems, evaluated from these tests, were much greater than the 0.5% damping ratio used in the previous aseismic design of Japan. The new damping ratio in aseismic design was proposed to be 2.5%. The present paper describes the results of the above mentioned investigation

  5. Preliminary CFD Analysis for HVAC System Design of a Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sung Man; Choi, Choengryul [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jae Ho; Hong, Moonpyo; Kim, Hyungseok [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) system has been mainly designed based on overall heat balance and averaging concepts, which is simple and useful for designing overall system. However, such a method has the disadvantage that cannot predict the local flow and temperature distributions in a containment building. In this study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) preliminary analysis is carried out to obtain detailed flow and temperature distributions in a containment building and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. This approach can be useful for hydrogen analysis in an accident related to hydrogen released into a containment building. In this study, CFD preliminary analysis has been performed to obtain the detailed information of the reactor containment building by using the CFD analysis techniques and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. We confirmed that CFD analysis can offer enough detailed information about flow patterns and temperature field and that CFD technique is a useful tool for HVAC design of nuclear power plants.

  6. Optimization of the structural design of HVAC ducts and their supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMatias, I.P.; Barrio, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the computerized process of qualification and design based on experience accumulated in structural designs of HVAC systems in nuclear power plants, using CAD/CAE systems. Such computerization has drastically reduced the number of manhours employed to generate the information necessary to issue duct and support fabrication drawings. During the analysis stage, the requirements for qualification of ducts and supports contained in CONAGT ANSI/ASME AG-1 have been considered. The data package applicable to the process consists of a set of computer programs which may be used independently or combined. A significant portion of such programs governs the graphic design. Moreover, analyses are performed on results of the different types of tests carried out to date, and on those necessary to determine the mechanisms of failures in ducts, and in order to be able to calibrate design criteria currently in use

  7. Screening Analysis for EPACT-Covered Commercial HVAC and Water-Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Armstrong, Peter R.; Belzer, David B.; Gaines, Suzanne C.; Hadley, Donald L.; Katipumula, S.; Smith, David L.; Winiarski, David W.

    2000-04-25

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) establishes that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulate efficiency levels of certain categories of commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equip-ment. EPACT establishes the initial minimum efficiency levels for products falling under these categories, based on ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 requirements. EPCA states that, if ASHRAE amends Standard 90.1-1989 efficiency levels, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in the amended Standard 90.1 and that it can establish higher efficiency levels if they would result in significant additional energy savings. Standard 90.1-1999 increases minimum efficiency levels for some of the equipment categories covered by EPCA 92. DOE conducted a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential for EPACT-covered products meet and exceeding these levels. This paper describes the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis.

  8. Design and Implementation of Energy Efficiency in HVAC Systems Based on Robust PID Control for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Imal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems is a primary concern in process projects, since the energy consumption has the highest percentage in HVAC for all processes. Without sacrifice of thermal comfort, to reset the suitable operating parameters, such as the humidity and air temperature, would have energy saving with immediate effect. In this paper, the simulation-optimization approach described the effective energy efficiency for HVAC systems which are used in industrial process. Due to the complex relationship of the HVAC system parameters, it is necessary to suggest optimum settings for different operations in response to the dynamic cooling loads and changing weather conditions during a year. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID programming was developed which can effectively handle the discrete, nonlinear and highly constrained optimization problems. Energy efficiency process has been made by controlling of alternative current (AC drivers for ventilation and exhaust fans, according to supplied air flow capacity and differential air pressure between supplied and exhaust air. Supervisory controller software was developed by using programmable controllers and human machine interface (HMI units. The new designed HVAC control system would have a saving potential of about 40% as compared to the existing operational settings, without any extra cost.

  9. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  10. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  11. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  12. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  13. Occupancy pattern in office buildings : consequences for HVAC system design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvarsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The main objectives with the work presented in this thesis have been: (a) to contribute to an increased understanding of the consequences that the occupancy pattern can have on the indoor climate and for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system design and operation; and (b) to investigate how typical occupancy patterns can look like in office buildings. The occupancy pattern in an office is a function of the floor layout of the building, and the user organisation(s) occupying it and their way of working. The combination of these two, will decide how the users occupy the building, which in turn is an important design prerequisite/constraint for the HVAC system design process. There are many assessments related to indoor climate and HVAC that involve considerations of the occupancy pattern, reaching from estimates of internal heat and pollution loads to deciding on an appropriate control strategy of HVAC systems, or estimating the energy saving potential with demand controlled ventilation. A few numerical measures have been used to describe different aspects of the occupancy pattern. The zone based occupancy factor (OFz) expresses the ratio between the number of occupied sub-zones/rooms in a zone and the total number of sub-zones/rooms in the zone. OFz does not take the number of people into account, only whether a sub-zone/room is occupied or unoccupied. OFz can be used both to express instantaneous occupancy levels and averages over time. Superscript is used to specify the time, or time period, that the measure refers to. For instance, 06 18,wd OFz means the average OFz between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. on working days, while the 95th percentile of OFz6{sub 1}8,wd , means the 95th percentile of all instantaneous values (one or five minute averages in the case studies) of OFz that have occurred during the same time period. The utilisation rate (UR) expresses the fraction of time that a room is occupied, within a specific time period. It is important to

  14. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions.

  15. Overview of HVAC system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system modeling and simulation. The categorization of tools for HVAC system design and analysis with respect to which problems they are meant to deal with is introduced. Each categorization is explained and example tools

  16. Analysis of the HVAC system's sound quality using the design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Gil; Sim, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae Eun; Choi, Byoung Jae; Oh, Jae Eung

    2009-01-01

    Human hearing is very sensitive to sound, so a subjective index of sound quality is required. Each situation of sound evaluation is composed of Sound Quality (SQ) metrics. When substituting the level of one frequency band, we could not see the tendency of substitution at the whole frequency band during SQ evaluation. In this study, the Design of Experiments (DOE) is used to analyze noise from an automotive Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. The frequency domain is divided into 12 equal parts, and each level of the domain is given an increase or decrease due to the change in frequency band based on the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound of the SQ analyzed. By using DOE, the number of tests is effectively reduced by the number of experiments, and the main result is a solution at each band. SQ in terms of the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound at each band, the change in band (increase or decrease in sound pressure) or no change in band will have the most effect on the identifiable characteristics of SQ. This will enable us to select the objective frequency band. Through the results obtained, the physical level changes in arbitrary frequency domain sensitivity can be determined

  17. The effects of HVAC system design and operation on radon entry into school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.A.; Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in schools vary considerably and tend to have a greater impact on pressure differentials--and consequently radon levels--than do heating and air-conditioning systems in houses. If the HVAC system induces a negative pressure relative to the subslab area, radon can be pulled into the building. If the HVAC system pressurizes the building, it can prevent radon entry as long as the fan is running. However, school HVAC systems are normally set back or turned off on evenings and weekends and, even if the HVAC system pressurizes the school during operation, indoor radon levels may build up during setback periods. In this paper many of the historical methods utilized to deliver ventilation air (outdoor air) over the past 40 years are summarized. In addition, for each type of system presented, the possible impact the ventilation system might be expected to have (positive or negative) on the pressure of the building envelope (and subsequent radon levels in the building) is discussed

  18. Project equipment HVAC chilled with R22 in the NPP Asco; Proyecto de sustitucion de equipos HVAC refrigerados con R22 en la C.N. Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimot Jimenez, J. J.; Imbert, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the project of changing units of air conditioning in the Asco NPP currently used R22 as coolant. The project has a powerful, affecting 37 units, of which more than half are Clase1E. The document describes the process of sizing, scope of change and solutions adopted for this change of design.

  19. Effects of Recent Climate Change on Hourly Weather Data for HVAC Design: A Case Study of Osaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current design weather data used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC design in Japan was created using an old data period. New design weather data should be created to reflect recent local climate change. Based on our previous proposal of creating design weather data with two weather indices (dry-bulb temperature and enthalpy for HVAC design, design weather data for Osaka was created using more recently-measured weather data (period: 2001~2015 from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA in this study. The effect of recent climate change on the design weather data created with eight proposed methods was found. It showed the change in weather elements for cooling design clearly trends to warmer and drier weather, with more solar radiation and lower enthalpy, while the trends in heating design are less clear, mainly showing higher enthalpy. Furthermore, the difference in the peak load for the heating and cooling designs using the new and old design weather data was compared. The comparison showed that the minimum difference in peak load for the heating design was found using the mean daily dry-bulb temperature as the first and second indices; for the cooling design, the minimum difference in peak load was found using mean daily enthalpy as both the first and second indices.

  20. 77 FR 72763 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and Water Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...; commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment; and commercial water heating equipment... refrigeration equipment; commercial HVAC equipment; commercial WH equipment; and walk-in coolers and freezers...

  1. Margins related to equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Safety margins related to design of reactor equipment are defined according to safety regulations. Advanced best estimate methods are proposed including some examples which were computed and compared to experimental results. Best estimate methods require greater computation effort and more material data but give better variable accuracy and need careful experimental validation. Simplified methods compared to the previous are less sensitive to material data, sometimes are more accurate but very long to elaborate

  2. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792.61...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be...

  3. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably located...

  4. 21 CFR 58.61 - Equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment design. 58.61 Section 58.61 Food and... PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be...

  5. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) HVAC System Component Index; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document identities the components, design media, procedures and defines the critical characteristics of Commercial Grade Items necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. This document lists safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) components for the Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI), as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item

  6. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.

    This module on introductory heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. The module contains four instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) HVAC materials; (2) HVAC tools; (3) HVAC layout; and (4) HVAC basic skills.…

  7. Using variable speed drives technology to reap rewards of efficient HVAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Electric motors are continuously running at full speed with vanes and throttles used to modulate the output, in most HVAC applications. This results in an excessive wastage of electrical energy, and the solution is the variable speed drive, which can save vast amounts of energy in fans, pumps and compressors across the HVAC system. Users of traditional control methods will not benefit from the energy savings that are possible through variable speed drives because the motor speed remains the same, with the result that some, and in some cases most, of the energy drawn will be wasted. Variable speed drives are more efficient because they control output by regulating the motor speed, rather than run the motor at full speed and use restrictions to reduce the flow. Recently, small so-called micro-drives have been launched, cutting the cost for most variable speed operation. Variable speed motors can also introduce new features to the HVAC system. An example of how drives can save money and improve the indoor climate is cited for Heathrow airport. There, the gateroom was earlier controlled by modulating valves in both heater and cooler coils, with two fans that operated continuously at rated speed. This system was very inefficient because the occupancy of the gateroom varied between zero and maximum several times daily. A new system was installed using two AC drives, in which one drive controls the supply air fan and the other the return air fan. The energy savings amounted to 89% during two tests and 77% in a third. A pump installation in the district heating system of Strasbourg, Germany, showed the savings that are possible in pump applications

  8. 77 FR 76825 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and Water... provisions for commercial refrigeration equipment; commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC...; commercial HVAC equipment; commercial WH equipment; and walk-in coolers and freezers (June 30 Final Rule). 76...

  9. Breathing Easier: HVAC Specifications for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, C. Curtis; Trent, Warren C.

    1996-01-01

    A major source of indoor air contamination in schools originates within the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems (HVAC), with draw-through systems being the worst offenders. Lists provisions for designing an HVAC system and a set of criteria to adhere to when planning new construction or renovations. (nine references) (MLF)

  10. Design Optimization of Heat Wheels for Energy Recovery in HVAC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Antonellis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Air to air heat exchangers play a crucial role in mechanical ventilation equipment, due to the potential primary energy savings both in case of refurbishment of existing buildings or in case of new ones. In particular, interest in heat wheels is increasing due to their low pressure drop and high effectiveness. In this paper a detailed optimization of design parameters of heat wheels is performed in order to maximize sensible effectiveness and to minimize pressure drop. The analysis is carried out through a one dimensional lumped parameters heat wheel model, which solves heat and mass transfer equations, and through appropriate correlations to estimate pressure drop. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data of a heat wheel tested in specific facilities, and good agreement is attained. The device optimization is performed through the variation of main design parameters, such as heat wheel length, channel base, height and thickness and for different operating conditions, namely the air face velocity and the revolution speed. It is shown that the best configurations are achieved with small channel thickness and, depending on the required sensible effectiveness, with appropriate values of wheel length and channel base and height.

  11. HVAC-DYNAMIC; A training simulator for dynamic analysis of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, M; Novakovic, V [SINTEF Division of Applied Thermodynamic, HVAC Group, Trondheim (Norway); Oegaard, O [SINTEF Division of Automatic Control, Trondheim (Norway); Brustad, G [Computer Aided Modelling, CAMO A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1989-01-01

    HVAC-DYNAMIC is a software tool for the dynamic simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) plants. The program is designed to be used by HVAC engineers during design or troubleshooting of plants and by plant operators in their training. The program is based on a set of the most-used HVAC plant configurations and requires only a minimum of knowledge in numeric methods and programming. A brief presentation of the program structure and examples showing some of the application of the program are given. 4 figs., 4 refs.

  12. HVAC-DYNAMIC: a training simulator for dynamic analysis of HVAC plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Heintz

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available HVAC-DYNAMIC is a software tool for the dynamic simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC plants. The program is designed to be used by HVAC engineers during design or troubleshooting of plants and by plant operators in their training. The program is based on a set of the most-used HVAC plant configurations and requires only a minimum of knowledge in numeric methods and programming. A brief presentation of the program structure and examples showing some of the application of the program are given.

  13. Development of the Aging Management Program for HVAC Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hong Seok; Lee, Dong Min; Lee, Jang Wook; Cho, Ki Hyun; Cho, Sang Bum; Choi, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The HVAC(heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems in nuclear power plants are consisted of fan, damper, duct, filter and cooling coil, which is equipped in the safety-related building such as main control room, auxiliary building and containment building. These systems are designed to maintain the required ambient air temperature in all plant areas for the comfort and safety of personnel and for environmental requirement of equipment and to ensure that the gaseous radioactivity emission to the environment is kept below permissible discharge limits. The purpose of this study is to establish the inspection plan to ensure that touch up parts of the duct are sound and to develop the aging management program for maintaining effectively HVAC systems

  14. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TO SELECTED PORTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR HVAC SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, N.

    2004-01-01

    A design requirement probability of 0.01 or less in a 4-hour period ensures that the nuclear heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in the primary confinement areas of the Dry Transfer Facilities (DTFs) and Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) is working during a Category 1 drop event involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) assemblies (BSC 2004a , Section 5.1.1.48). This corresponds to an hourly HVAC failure rate of 2.5E-3 per hour or less, which is contributed to by two dominant causes: equipment failure and loss of electrical power. Meeting this minimum threshold ensures that a Category 1 initiating event followed by the failure of HVAC is a Category 2 event sequence. The two causes for the loss of electrical power include the loss of offsite power and the loss of onsite power distribution. Thus, in order to meet the threshold requirement aforementioned, the failure rate of mechanical equipment, loss of offsite power, and loss of onsite power distribution must be less than or equal to 2.5E-3 per hour for the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF. The loss of offsite power occurs at a frequency of 1.1E-5 per hour (BSC 2004a, Section 5.1.1.48). The purpose of this analysis is to determine the probability of occurrence of the unavailability of the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF due to loss of electrical power. In addition, this analysis provides insights on the contribution to the unavailability of the HVAC system due to equipment failure. The scope of this analysis is limited to finding the frequency of loss of electrical power to the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF

  15. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  16. Monitoring-based HVAC commissioning of an existing office building for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Greenberg, Steve; Fiegel, John; Rubalcava, Alma; Earni, Shankar; Pang, Xiufeng; Yin, Rongxin; Woodworth, Spencer; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrated monitoring-based HVAC commissioning using an existing office building. ► Diagnosed various types of faulty operation in the HVAC system by trend data analyses. ► Identified a list of energy saving measures for the HVAC system. ► Quantified energy saving potential for each commissioning measure using calibrated energy simulation model. ► Achieved an actual energy saving of 10% after the implementations of cost-effective measures. -- Abstract: The performance of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems may fail to satisfy design expectations due to improper equipment installation, equipment degradation, sensor failures, or incorrect control sequences. Commissioning identifies and implements cost-effective operational and maintenance measures in buildings to bring them up to the design intent or optimum operation. An existing office building is used as a case study to demonstrate the process of commissioning. Building energy benchmarking tools are applied to evaluate the energy performance for screening opportunities at the whole building level. A large natural gas saving potential was indicated by the building benchmarking results. Faulty operations in the HVAC systems, such as improper operations of air-side economizers, simultaneous heating and cooling, and ineffective optimal start, were identified through trend data analyses and functional testing. The energy saving potential for each commissioning measure is quantified with a calibrated building simulation model. An actual energy saving of 10% was realized after the implementations of cost-effective measures.

  17. Design of experimental equipment at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godden, B.

    1976-01-01

    The Plant Design Division provides a design service to the research and development effort at CRNL. Severe constraints, both environmentally and spatially, are placed on the design of special equipment. Several examples are given. Finally, the use of automated drafting systems is described. (author)

  18. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  19. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage

  20. Design by analysis of composite pressure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, S.; Mallard, H.

    2004-01-01

    Design by analysis has been particularly pointed out by the european pressure equipment directive. Advanced mechanical analysis like finite element method are used instead of classical design by formulas or graphs. Structural behaviour can be understood by the designer. Design by analysis of metallic pressure equipments is widely used. Material behaviour or limits analysis is based on sophisticated approach (elasto-plastic analysis,..). Design by analysis of composite pressure equipments is not systematically used for industrial products. The difficulty comes from the number of information to handle. The laws of mechanics are the same for composite materials than for steel. The authors want to show that in design by analysis, the composite material approach is only more complete than the metallic approach. Mechanics is more general but not more complicated. A multi-material approach is a natural evolution of design by analysis of composite equipments. The presentation is illustrated by several industrial cases - composite vessel: analogy with metallic calculations; - composite pipes and fittings; - welding and bounding of thermoplastic equipments. (authors)

  1. HVAC systems and nuclear plant safety. Final report, May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide perspective on the overall risk impact of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system problems. Industry experience with HVAC system problems is documented and analyzed. In addition, the results of 10 plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) were reviewed to determine the contribution of HVAC systems to the risk of core damage. The PRAs included in this review cover a broad range of plant types and operating conditions. The review found that the impact of HVAC systems on risk is plant specific. These results exhibit a broad range of frequencies for HVAC contribution to risk, and the percentage of total core damage due to HVAC problems also had a wide variability. Plant-specific differences in design, environment, operation, and maintenance are the primary factors in determining the risk contribution of HVAC systems. (author)

  2. Decentralized Optimization for a Novel Control Structure of HVAC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A decentralized control structure is introduced into the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to solve the high maintenance and labor cost problem in actual engineering. Based on this new control system, a decentralized optimization method is presented for sensor fault repair and optimal group control of HVAC equipment. Convergence property of the novel method is theoretically analyzed considering both convex and nonconvex systems with constraints. In this decentralized control system, traditional device is fitted with a control chip such that it becomes a smart device. The smart device can communicate and operate collaboratively with the other devices to accomplish some designated tasks. The effectiveness of the presented method is verified by simulations and hardware tests.

  3. HVAC Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Clifton W.; D'Angelo, David

    1999-01-01

    Explains how commissioning can help to ensure that all components in a new heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system will work together as designed. Bowdoin College's experience with commissioning is highlighted. (GR)

  4. Optimum Design and Operation of an HVAC Cooling Tower for Energy and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente García Cutillas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption increase in the last few years has contributed to developing energy efficiency policies in many countries, the main goal of which is decreasing CO 2 emissions. One of the reasons for this increment has been caused by the use of air conditioning systems due to new comfort standards. In that regard, cooling towers and evaporative condensers are presented as efficient devices that operate with low-level water temperature. Moreover, the energy consumption and the cost of the equipment are lower than other systems like air condensers at the same operation conditions. This work models an air conditioning system in TRNSYS software, the main elements if which are a cooling tower, a water-water chiller and a reference building. The cooling tower model is validated using experimental data in a pilot plant. The main objective is to implement an optimizing control strategy in order to reduce both energy and water consumption. Furthermore a comparison between three typical methods of capacity control is carried out. Additionally, different cooling tower configurations are assessed, involving six drift eliminators and two water distribution systems. Results show the influence of optimizing the control strategy and cooling tower configuration, with a maximum energy savings of 10.8% per story and a reduction of 4.8% in water consumption.

  5. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  6. [Analysis and research on cleaning points of HVAC systems in public places].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaolan; Han, Xu; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Dai, Zizhu

    2010-03-01

    To analyze cleaning points of HVAC systems, and to provides scientific base for regulating the cleaning of HVAC systems. Based on the survey results on the cleaning situation of HVAC systems around China for the past three years, we analyzes the cleaning points of HVAC systems from various aspects, such as the major health risk factors of HVAC systems, the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems, cleaning methods and acceptance points of the air ducts and the parts of HVAC systems, the onsite protection and individual protection, the waste treatment and the cleaning of the removed equipment, inspection of the cleaning results, video record, and the final acceptance of the cleaning. The analysis of the major health risk factors of HVAC systems and the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems is given. The specific methods for cleaning the air ducts, machine units, air ports, coil pipes and the water cooling towers of HVAC systems, the acceptance points of HVAC systems and the requirements of the report on the final acceptance of the cleaning of HVAC systems are proposed. By the analysis of the points of the cleaning of HVAC systems and proposal of corresponding measures, this study provides the base for the scientific and regular launch of the cleaning of HVAC systems, a novel technology service, and lays a foundation for the revision of the existing cleaning regulations, which may generate technical and social benefits to some extent.

  7. Simulation to support sustainable HVAC design for two historical buildings in Prague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartak, M.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Lain, M.; Matuska, J.; Schwarzer, J.; Sourek, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper attempts to outline the current state-of-the-art in the Czech Republic regarding the use of integrated building performance simulation as a design tool. Integrated modeling and simulation of buildings is illustrated by means of two recent studies for conversion of historical buildings (a

  8. 78 FR 15653 - Notice of Intent To Form the Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Certification Working Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 429 Notice of Intent To Form the Commercial HVAC, WH, and... Requirements for Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration equipment...

  9. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  10. HVAC optimization as facility requirements change with corporate restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, R.R.; Sankey, M.S.

    1997-06-01

    The hyper-competitive, dynamic 1990`s forced many corporations to {open_quotes}Right-Size,{close_quotes} relocating resources and equipment -- even consolidating. These changes led to utility reduction if HVAC optimization was thoroughly addressed, and energy conservation opportunities were identified and properly designed. This is true particularly when the facility`s heating and cooling systems are matched to correspond with the load changes attributed to the reduction of staff and computers. Computers have been downsized and processing power per unit of energy input increased, thus, the need for large mainframe computer centers, and their associated high intensity energy usage, have been decreased or eliminated. Cooling, therefore, also has been reduced.

  11. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST): Volume 2: Cases E300-E545.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark J.; Judkoff, R.

    2004-12-01

    This report documents an additional set of mechanical system test cases that are planned for inclusion in ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 140. The cases test a program's modeling capabilities on the working-fluid side of the coil, but in an hourly dynamic context over an expanded range of performance conditions. These cases help to scale the significance of disagreements that are less obvious in the steady-state cases. The report is Vol. 2 of HVAC BESTEST Volume 1. Volume 1 was limited to steady-state test cases that could be solved with analytical solutions. Volume 2 includes hourly dynamic effects, and other cases that cannot be solved analytically. NREL conducted this work in collaboration with the Tool Evaluation and Improvement Experts Group under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 22.

  12. Low activation diagnostic equipment design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.R.; Cheng, E.T.; Fisher, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The low activation fusion concept has been applied to the diagnostic equipment in a fusion reactor. The components where fabrication from low activation materials is feasible have been identified. Other systems where higher activation elements are required can have their activation reduced by design approaches which include shielding and operation only in low flux regions of the reactor. Some components will not operate in a high flux so activation is not a major concern. This low activation diagnostic equipment study completes a series of low activation studies where all the components in a fusion power reactor have now been evaluated. It is concluded that a completely low activation fusion reactor is feasible with all components meeting the functional requirements. This provides an environmentally benign energy source with a high confidence level in meeting safety criteria in operation, maintenance and waste disposal

  13. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  14. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance of proper hygiene in closed process equipment is in many ways a complex task. The interaction between the physical design and the nature of fluid flow is of main concern. During cleaning the main performance of the flow is to bring cleaning agents in the right doses to all parts of th...... computational fluid dynamics models to be able to predict the cleaning efficiency in especially complex parts of process plants has excellent potentials for desktop improvements and computer pre-validation of the hygienic performance of process plants....

  15. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  16. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almerico, F.; Machiels, A.J.; Ornberg, S.C.; Lahti, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  17. HVAC retrofitting and remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford Co., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the pitfalls and problems as well as the benefits of updating a HVAC system. Failures and successes, and the lessons learned working in this dominant portion of the construction market are included as the author describes retrofit projects. The projects have ranged from total replacements in unoccupied buildings to updating systems in occupied buildings.

  18. Optimal Model-Based Control in HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komareji, Mohammad; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    is developed. Then the optimal control structure is designed and implemented. The HVAC system is splitted into two subsystems. By selecting the right set-points and appropriate cost functions for each subsystem controller the optimal control strategy is respected to gaurantee the minimum thermal and electrical......This paper presents optimal model-based control of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This HVAC system is made of two heat exchangers: an air-to-air heat exchanger (a rotary wheel heat recovery) and a water-to- air heat exchanger. First dynamic model of the HVAC system...... energy consumption. Finally, the controller is applied to control the mentioned HVAC system and the results show that the expected goals are fulfilled....

  19. Cutting the cost of hospital HVAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Steve Ruddell, head of global marketing, Motors & Generators, at ABB, emphasises the importance of a good motor management and maintenance policy in getting the best performance from, and reducing the energy consumption of, hospitals' HVAC systems, also explaining why investing in energy-efficient, low voltage drives, and high efficiency electric motors, to control such equipment, can pay major dividends for estates and facilities teams.

  20. ITER L 7 duct remote handling equipment design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.

    1996-09-01

    The operation, design and interfaces of the 'Duct Vehicle' and it's associated remote handling equipment are briefly described in this document. This equipment is being designed by Spar Aerospace Ltd. for the Divertor Test Platform as part of ITER Research and Development Project L-7. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project funds this work as part of the Canadian Contribution to ITER. This document describes the equipment design status at the September 1996 design review. 23 figs

  1. HVAC system operation manual of IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun.

    1997-06-01

    This manual is operation procedures of the IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) HVAC(Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) System. General operation procedures and test method of the IMEF HVAC system are described. The manual is as follows; 1. HVAC system operation manual 2. HVAC system management guide 3. HVAC system maintenance manual 4. HVAC system air velocity and flowrate measurement manual 5. HVAC system HEPA filter leak test manual 6. HVAC system charcoal filter leak test manual 7. HVAC system HEPA and charcoal filter exchange manual. (author). 8 tabs

  2. Vitrification process equipment design for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.; Drosjack, W.P.

    1988-10-01

    The vitrification process and equipment design is nearing completion for the West Valley Project. This report provides the basis and current status for the design of the major vessels and equipment within the West Valley Vitrification Plant. A review of the function and key design features of the equipment is also provided. The major subsystems described include the feed preparation and delivery systems, the melter, the canister handling systems, and the process off-gas system. 11 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Nuclear power plant equipment design and construction rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiron, P.

    1983-03-01

    Presentation of the AFCEN (French association for nuclear power plant equipment design and construction rules) working, of its edition activity and of somes of its edited documents such as RCC-C (design and construction rules for PWR power plant fuel assemblies) and RCC-E (design and construction rules for nuclear facility electrical equipments) [fr

  4. Efficient HVAC. New products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  5. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  6. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor plant maintenance and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of maintenance equipment considerations and actual plant handling experiences from operation of a sodium-cooled reactor, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Equipment areas relating to design, repair techniques, in-cell handling, logistics and facility services are discussed. Plant design must make provisions for handling and replacement of components within containment or allow for transport to an ex-containment area for repair. The modular cask assemblies and transporter systems developed for FFTF can service major plant components as well as smaller units. The plant and equipment designs for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant have been patterned after successful FFTF equipment

  7. A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakiloroaya, Vahid; Samali, Bijan; Fakhar, Ahmad; Pishghadam, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various strategies for HVAC energy saving are described and reviewed. • The influence of each strategy on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. • Combination of existing air conditioning technologies appears to be effective for the energy conservation and comfort. • A comparison study between these approaches is carried out. • Changing the HVAC configuration has the potential to increase or reduce energy savings, depending on several factors. - Abstract: Decreasing the energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is becoming increasingly important due to rising cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Therefore, finding novel ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings without compromising comfort and indoor air quality is an ongoing research challenge. One proven way of achieving energy efficiency in HVAC systems is to design systems that use novel configurations of existing system components. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each presents opportunities for energy savings. Energy efficient HVAC systems can be created by re-configuring traditional systems to make more strategic use of existing system parts. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of existing air conditioning technologies can offer effective solutions for energy conservation and thermal comfort. This paper investigates and reviews the different technologies and approaches, and demonstrates their ability to improve the performance of HVAC systems in order to reduce energy consumption. For each strategy, a brief description is first presented and then by reviewing the previous studies, the influence of that method on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. Finally, a comparison study between these approaches is carried out

  8. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  9. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  10. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  11. Equipment and special tool design for remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northey, L.M.; Thomson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Maintenance tasks performed in locations with hostile environments and/or limited space accesses often require equipment that is operated remotely. This paper discusses considerations that should be addressed in the design of remote maintenance equipment. Some of the topics include proper material selection, interface identifications, operational feedback devices and cost limitations. These considerations add ''human engineering'' to the equipment design to assure protection of the tool and the operating personnel. Examples of remote maintenance and inspection systems that were developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company and that utilize many of these design considerations are included

  12. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas

  13. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Benz, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  14. REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN, EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION MODE OF TAXI VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norayr Oganesovich Bludyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of international experience in application of requirements for the taxi vehicles design and equipment. The approaches to improvement of cabbing have been defined by determination of requirements for taxi vehicles.

  15. Different types of superconductors: their effect on equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansart, A.; Manuel, P.; Fevrier, A.

    1989-01-01

    Development of superconductors for AC current and of higher critical temperature superconducting materials enlarged the field of research in cryoelectrotechnic. The paper discusses the materials characteristics in relation with the functional needs in the equipments. Are reviewed the main points governing conductor design for a given application, the characteristics and manufacturing technics for different superconducting materials. It is shown how lighter, smaller equipments can be designed as well as new ones for functions not covered with present apparatus. 17 refs [fr

  16. Equipment designs for the spent LWR fuel dry storage demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, R.J.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hardin, R.T.; Schmitten, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) equipment has been designed, fabricated and successfully utilized to demonstrate the packaging and interim dry storage of spent LWR fuel. Surface and near surface storage configurations containing PWR fuel assemblies are currently on test and generating baseline data. Specific areas of hardware design focused upon include storage cell components and the support related equipment associated with encapsulation, leak testing, lag storage, and emplacement operations

  17. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  18. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study: Summarized Data - Test Space HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues

  19. Conceptual design and equipment of visitor centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettinger, K.

    1993-01-01

    Discussing the needs to be met by a visitor centre, the author develops the strategies to be adopted and defines the items to be included in the information program. The procedure in preparing the layout and design are explained and the media available to provide various levels of information are listed. Principles of selecting and mixing the media are discussed and the functions of the various sections of the centre described. Also included are examples of the costs and time requirements for the establishment of a typical centre. The importance of regular maintenance and updating is emphasized. (author)

  20. HVAC&R Equipment Environmental Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:Large "Truck" ChamberThe large "truck" chamber provides controlled air conditions from -7 °C (20 °F) to 65 °C (150 °F).Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Test...

  1. Arctic pipeline planning design, construction, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Utilize the most recent developments to combat challenges such as ice mechanics. The perfect companion for engineers wishing to learn state-of-the-art methods or further develop their knowledge of best practice techniques, Arctic Pipeline Planning provides a working knowledge of the technology and techniques for laying pipelines in the coldest regions of the world. Arctic Pipeline Planning provides must-have elements that can be utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction. This includes information on how to: Solve challenges in designing arctic pipelines Protect pipelines from everyday threats such as ice gouging and permafrost Maintain safety and communication for construction workers while supporting typical codes and standards Covers such issues as land survey, trenching or above ground, environmental impact of construction Provides on-site problem-solving techniques utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction Is packed with easy-to-read and under...

  2. HVAC retrofit for healthy schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Fisher, G.; Brennan, T.; Turner, W.A.; McKnight, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated the impacts of HVAC systems and building dynamics on radon concentrations in 26 schools across the United States. Diagnostic data indicated that radon was not the only indoor air pollutant in these schools. As a result, an essential step in the School Evaluation Program is determination of the feasibility of using HVAC technology for radon remediation in addition to general indoor air improvement. In 1990, the EPA sponsored the HVAC retrofit of two schools in Maine. This paper presents the information gained by these case studies. First, the extensive pre-retrofit diagnostics and characterizations of the two schools are reviewed. Then follows a discussion of why and how the HVAC systems, including unit ventilators, central air-handling units, and heat recovery ventilation, were retrofitted. Finally, an appraisal of the post-retrofit radon and CO 2 levels is made, along with presentation of related data such as retrofit costs and energy and comfort impacts

  3. Towards Autonomous Control of HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.

    autonomous control. Together with better tuned controllers and more dedicated control it would be possible to decrease the energy consumption, save money and increase the indoor air climate. A flexible HVAC test system was designed and implemented. Standard components and sensors were used in the design...... temperature controller, based on airflow control, was designed. Feedback linearisation is used together with an auto-tuning procedure, based on relay feedback. Design of a new CO2 controller was made to achieve a demand controlled ventilation system, in order to save energy. Feedback linearisation was used...

  4. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming more complex systems with many elements, while BEMS provide many data about the building systems. There are, however, many faults and issues in building performance, but there are legislative and cost-benefit forces induced by energy savings. Therefore, both BEMS and the computer-based tools have to be utilized more efficiently to improve building performance. The thesis consists of four main parts that can be read separately. The first part explains the term commissioning and the commissioning tool work principal based on literature reviews. The second part presents practical experiences and issues introduced through the work on this study. The third part deals with the computer-based tools application in design and operation. This part is divided into two chapters. The first deals with improvement in the design, and the second deals with the improvement in the control strategies. The last part of the thesis gives several rules for fault diagnosis developed using simulation tools. In addition, this part aims at the practical explanation of the faults in the building HVAC systems. The practical background for the thesis was obtained though two surveys. The first survey was carried out with the aim to find the commissioning targets in Norwegian building facilities. In that way, an overview of the most typical buildings, HVAC equipment, and their related problems was obtained. An on-site survey was carried out on an example building, which was beneficial for introducing the

  5. Reliable design of electronic equipment an engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Dhanasekharan

    2014-01-01

    This book explains reliability techniques with examples from electronics design for the benefit of engineers. It presents the application of de-rating, FMEA, overstress analyses and reliability improvement tests for designing reliable electronic equipment. Adequate information is provided for designing computerized reliability database system to support the application of the techniques by designers. Pedantic terms and the associated mathematics of reliability engineering discipline are excluded for the benefit of comprehensiveness and practical applications. This book offers excellent support

  6. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable

  7. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-05-30

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable.

  8. UOE Pipe Manufacturing Process Simulation: Equipment Designing and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistoian, Dmitri; Chirchor, Mihael

    2017-12-01

    UOE pipe manufacturing process influence directly on pipeline resilience and operation capacity. At present most spreaded pipe manufacturing method is UOE. This method is based on cold forming. After each technological step appears a certain stress and strain level. For pipe stress strain study is designed and constructed special equipment that simulate entire technological process.UOE pipe equipment is dedicated for manufacturing of longitudinally submerged arc welded DN 400 (16 inch) steel pipe.

  9. A Perspective on Equipment Design for Fusion Remote Handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.; Haist, B.; Hamilton, D.

    2006-01-01

    For 8 years, JET remote operations have become more capable and confident. Many tasks have been successfully completed, even those never intended to be remote maintenance activities. The general approach to the provision of remote handling equipment at JET has been the preferred use of commercially-off-the-shelf equipment. In the areas of electrical, electronic, software and control this approach has been generally achievable. However, in the area of mechanical equipment it has been more difficult. In particular the RH tooling has been almost entirely bespoke as its requirements are highly sensitive to the design of the JET component being handled and there are many design variations. Hence, JET has required the design and manufacture of over 700 types of bespoke RH equipment. This paper will discuss the experience of introducing and developing remote handling mechanical equipment for JET. The paper will cover the relationship between the remote handling equipment and the JET component design and the potential for improving the design function. A major lesson from the introduction of remote handling to JET has been demonstration of the very close interdependency of the design of JET components with design of remote handling tooling. The JET remote handling manual was originally introduced as the vehicle to ensure remote handling compatibility by the introduction of standards. Experience has shown that in general the remote handling manual approach has been insufficient. Future fusion machines will be much more complex than JET and will demand even greater remote handling compatibility. This paper will discuss possible methods for improving this process. Equipment operating in a high radiation environment must be dependable It may spend part of its time in areas that would be extremely difficult to recover from in the case of failure. The equipment may also have a high duty cycle to minimise shutdown times and probably cannot be manually inspected on a frequent

  10. Design of equipment management information system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengyuan

    1996-01-01

    The author describes the ideas and practical method for need analysis, system function dividing, code design, program design and network disposition of equipment purchase management system of nuclear power plant during building, from the view of engineering investment control, schedule control and quality control

  11. System design description for master equipment list, phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    This System Design Description (SDD) is for the Master Equipment List Phase I (MEL). It has been prepared following the WI-IC-CM-3-10, ''Software Practices,'' (Ref. 6). This SDD describes the internal design for implementation of the MEL Phase I

  12. Verification of the thermal design of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hienonen, R.; Karjalainen, M.; Lankinen, R. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). ProTechno

    1997-12-31

    The project `Verification of the thermal design of electronic equipment` studied the methodology to be followed in the verification of thermal design of electronic equipment. This project forms part of the `Cool Electronics` research programme funded by TEKES, the Finnish Technology Development Centre. This project was carried out jointly by VTT Automation, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Nokia Research Center and ABB Industry Oy VSD-Technology. The thermal design of electronic equipment has a significant impact on the cost, reliability, tolerance to different environments, selection of components and materials, and ergonomics of the product. This report describes the method for verification of thermal design. It assesses the goals set for thermal design, environmental requirements, technical implementation of the design, thermal simulation and modelling, and design qualification testing and the measurements needed. The verification method covers all packaging levels of electronic equipment from the system level to the electronic component level. The method described in this report can be used as part of the quality system of a corporation. The report includes information about the measurement and test methods needed in the verification process. Some measurement methods for the temperature, flow and pressure of air are described. (orig.) Published in Finnish VTT Julkaisuja 824. 22 refs.

  13. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  14. Engineering electrodynamics electric machine, transformer, and power equipment design

    CERN Document Server

    Turowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Due to a huge concentration of electromagnetic fields and eddy currents, large power equipment and systems are prone to crushing forces, overheating, and overloading. Luckily, power failures due to disturbances like these can be predicted and/or prevented.Based on the success of internationally acclaimed computer programs, such as the authors' own RNM-3D, Engineering Electrodynamics: Electric Machine, Transformer, and Power Equipment Design explains how to implement industry-proven modeling and design techniques to solve complex electromagnetic phenomena. Considering recent progress in magneti

  15. Conceptual design of a telecommunications equipment container for humanitarian logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Parisi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparedness addresses the strategy in disaster management that allows the implementation of successful operational response immediately after a disaster. With speed as the main driver, product design for humanitarian aid purposes is a key factor of success in situations of high uncertainty and urgency. Within this context, a telecommunications container (TC has been designed that belongs to a group of containers that serve the purpose of immediate response to global disasters. The TC includes all the necessary equipment to establish a telecommunication centre in the destroyed area within the first 72 hours of humanitarian operations. The design focuses on defining the topology of the various parts of equipment by taking into consideration factors of serviceability, functionality, human-product interaction, universal design language, energy consumption, sustainability and the interrelationship with the other containers. The concept parametric design has been implemented with SolidWorks® CAD system.

  16. Considerations to Prevent Growth and Spread of Legionella in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the threat posed by the Legionnaire's Disease bacterium and the germ's ability to thrive in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, especially in standing water. Describes ways to minimize disease risk through HVAC system design (such as locating cooling towers away from air intakes) and ways to maintain a clean…

  17. Structural design of nuclear reactor machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    Since the machinery, equipment and piping which compose nuclear power station facilities are diverse, when those are designed, consideration is given sufficiently to the objective of use and the importance of the object machinery and equipment so that those can maintain the soundness over the design life. In this report, on the contents and the design standard in the design techniques for nuclear reactor machinery and equipment, the way of thinking is shown, taking an example of reactor pressure vessel which is stipulated as the vessel kind 1 in the 'Technical standard of structures and others regarding nuclear facilities for electric power generation', Notice No. 501 of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The reactor pressure vessel of 1350 MWe improved type BWR (ABWR) is used under the condition of 87.9 kg/cm 2 and 302 degC, and the inside diameter is about 7.2 m, the inside height is about 21 m, and the wall thickness is about 170 mm. The design standard for reactor pressure vessels and its way of thinking, breakdown prevention design and the design techniques for reactor pressure vessels are described. (K.I.)

  18. Remote handling equipment design for the HEDL fuel supply program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1984-09-01

    A process line is currently being developed for fabrication of high exposure mixed uranium-plutonium core assemblies. This paper describes the design philosophy, process flow, equipment, and the handling and radiation shielding techniques used for inspection of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins and assembly of Driver Fuel Assemblies (DFAs) 6 figures

  19. Equipment Specific Optimum Blast-Design Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Upadhyay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Design of blasting parameters plays an important role in the optimization of mining cost as well as cost of subsequent processing of ore. Drilling and handling costs are the major mining cost. This work presents an indirect optimization model for mining cost through optimization of blasting parameters for a particular set of drilling and loading equipment.

  20. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  1. Design guides for radioactive-material-handling facilities and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, D.R.; Barker, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen key areas relating to facilities and equipment for handling radioactive materials involved in examination, reprocessing, fusion fuel handling and remote maintenance have been defined and writing groups established to prepare design guides for each areas. The guides will give guidance applicable to design, construction, operation, maintenance and safety, together with examples and checklists. Each guide will be reviewed by an independent review group. The guides are expected to be compiled and published as a single document

  2. Evolution of design concepts for remotely maintainable equipment racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peishel, F.L.; Mouring, R.W.; Schrock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment racks have been used to support process equipment in radioactive facilities for many years. Improvements in the design of these racks have evolved relatively slowly primarily as a result of limitations in the capabilities of maintenance equipment; that is, tasks could only be approached from above using bridge cranes with viewing primarily through periscopes. In recent years, however, technological advances have been made by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in bridge-mounted servomanipulators with onboard auxiliary hoists and television viewing systems. These advances permit full cell coverage by the manipulator arms which, in turn, allow maintenance tasks to be approached horizontally as well as from above. Maintainable equipment items can be stacked vertically on a rack because total overhead access is less important and maintenance tasks that would not have been attempted in the past can now be performed. These advances permit greater flexibility in the design and cell layout of the racks and lead to concepts that could significantly increase the availability of a facility. The evolution of rack design and a description of the alternative concepts based on present maintenance systems capabilities are presented in this paper. 13 refs., 11 figs

  3. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session

  4. Applying power electronics to residential HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfstede, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines several of the market and application issues bearing on the economics residential variable speed air conditioners and heat pumps. Technical details of capacity modulized systems have been avoided, along with design issues and tradeoffs involving power semiconductors, motor torque and speed control strategies- and silicon integration for these applications. The intention is to provoke new creative technical solutions but perhaps more importantly, to involve new marketing strategies that will develop the mature potential of air conditioning products containing power electronics to enable them to generate the tough HVAC market, competing successfully against conventional systems

  5. The design and equipments of hospital pharmacies in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays pharmaceutical care departments located in hospitals are amongst the important pillars of the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to evaluate designing features and equipments of hospital drugstores affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-defined and validated questionnaire was used which included all the necessary and standard needed spaces and equipments of an ideal hospital pharmacy. The questionnaire was filled in by one of the researchers in all twelve hospital drugstores located in the teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 14. Results: Results showed that 56% of drugstore space allocations were unsuitable. Used pharmaceutical equipments in 75% of surveyed hospitals were not according to the standards. Almost all of these pharmacies had rather an enough space for storage, but cold storages were not designed in 58% of them. In 66% of perused hospitals, pharmaceutical services disposal level was admissible. The structural engineering parameters like size and dimensions, available spaces, availability of structural planes, existence of air conditioning systems and brightness controllers, adequate stores for drugs and safe places for narcotics were observed in 55% of pharmacies. Conclusions: There are apparent out of standard space allocations and shortages of needed equipments for offering drug services in studied drugstores that may probably lead to a waste of time and money. These issues may reduce the efficiency and safety of pharmaceutical services and drug administration in hospitals.

  6. Equipment design for reliability testing of protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny; Tjahjono, H.; Santosa, A. Z.; Tjahjani, S.DT.; Ismu, P.H; Haryanto, D.; Mulyanto, D.; Kusmono, S

    1999-01-01

    The equipment for reliability testing of cable of protection system has been designed as a a furnace with the electric heater have a 4 kW power, and need time 10 minute to reach the designed maximum temperature 3000C. The dimension of furnace is 800 mm diameter and 2000 mm length is isolated use rockwool isolator and coated by aluminium. For the designed maximum temperature the surface temperature is 78 0c. Assemble of specimens is arranged horizontally in the furnace. The failure criteria will be defined based on the behaviour of the load circuit in each line of cable specimens

  7. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  8. A Digital Power Quality Monitoring Equipment Designed for Digital Substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xin; Geng, Jiewen

    2018-01-01

    Taking into account both current status and development trend of digital substation, this paper proposed a design of a new multi-channelled digital power quality monitoring equipment with high compatibility. The overall functional structure, hardware architecture, software architecture, interface architecture and some key techniques such as IEC 61850 modelling of transient event and harmonic measurement method under the condition of non-synchronous sampling are described in this paper.

  9. Design for a Remote Monitoring Equipment of Krypton-85

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUXue-sheng; LIUGuo-rong; YEFeng; JINHui-min; TANGPei-jia

    2003-01-01

    A prototype equipment for monitoring Krypton-85 in situ is designed and set up. A series of relevant software is also developed for remote control, data acquirement and data analysis. Weight of the system is about 300 kg, which is composed of NaI(T1) detector, digi DART, Marillin measurement container and lead shield. The whole system is placed on a homemade go-cart.

  10. Design of EPON far-end equipment based on FTTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Yun, Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Now, most favors fiber access is mainly the EPON fiber access system. Inheriting from the low cost of Ethernet, usability and bandwidth of optical network, EPON technology is one of the best technologies in fiber access and is adopted by the carriers all over the world widely. According to the scheme analysis to FTTH fan-end equipment, hardware design of ONU is proposed in this paper. The FTTH far-end equipment software design deference modulation design concept, it divides the software designment into 5 function modules: the module of low-layer driver, the module of system management, the module of master/slave communication, and the module of main/Standby switch and the module of command line. The software flow of the host computer is also analyzed. Finally, test is made for Ethernet service performance of FTTH far-end equipment, E1 service performance and the optical path protection switching, and so on. The results of test indicates that all the items are accordance with technical request of far-end ONU equipment and possess good quality and fully reach the requirement of telecommunication level equipment. The far-end equipment of FTTH divides into several parts based on the function: the control module, the exchange module, the UNI interface module, the ONU module, the EPON interface module, the network management debugging module, the voice processing module, the circuit simulation module, the CATV module. In the downstream direction, under the protect condition, we design 2 optical modules. The system can set one group optical module working and another group optical module closure when it is initialized. When the optical fiber line is cut off, the LOS warning comes out. It will cause MUX to replace another group optical module, simultaneously will reset module 3701/3711 and will make it again test the distance, and will give the plug board MPC850 report through the GPIO port. During normal mode, the downstream optical signal is transformed into the

  11. Designing equipment for use in gamma radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergriff, K.U.

    1990-05-01

    High levels of gamma radiation are known to cause degradation in a variety of materials and components. When designing systems to operate in a high radiation environment, special precautions and procedures should be followed. This report (1) outlines steps that should be followed in designing equipment and (2) explains the general effects of radiation on various engineering materials and components. Much information exists in the literature on radiation effects upon materials. However, very little information is available to give the designer a step-by-step process for designing systems that will be subject to high levels of gamma radiation, such as those found in a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In this report, many radiation effect references are relied upon to aid in the design of components and systems. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Conference on Manned Systems Design : New Methods and Equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiss, K-F

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference held in Freiburg, West Germany, September 22-25, 1980, entitled "Manned Systems Design, New Methods and Equipment". The conference was sponsored by the Special Programme Panel on Human Factors of the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO, and supported by Panel VIII, AC/243, on "Human and Biomedical Sciences". Their sponsorship and support are gratefully acknowledged. The contributions in the book are grouped according to the main themes of the conference with special emphasis on analytical approaches, measurement of performance, and simulator design and evaluat ion. The design of manned systems covers many and highly diversified areas. Therefore, a conference under the general title of "Manned Systems Design" is rather ambitious in itself. However, scientists and engineers engaged in the design of manned systems very often are confronted with problems that can be solved only by having several disciplines working together. So it was felt that knowledge about ...

  13. Research and Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) works with researchers and industry partners to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. This opportunity assessment aims to advance BTO’s energy savings, GHG reduction, and other program goals by identifying research and development (R&D) initiatives for joining technologies in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems. Improving joining technologies for HVAC&R equipment has the potential to increase lifetime equipment operating efficiency, decrease equipment and project cost, and most importantly reduce hydroflourocarbon (HFC) refrigerant leakage to support HFC phasedown and GHG reduction goals.

  14. Application of modeling and simulation to HVAC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages and disadvantages of different modelling approaches for design and performance evaluation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for buildings. Merits and drawbacks of the various modelling methods are illustrated by case study

  15. Advanced HVAC modeling with FemLab/Simulink/MatLab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The combined MatLab toolboxes FemLab and Simulink are evaluated as solvers for HVAC problems based on partial differential equations (PDEs). The FemLab software is designed to simulate systems of coupled PDEs, 1-D, 2-D or 3-D, nonlinear and time dependent. In order to show how the program works, a

  16. Designing a power supply for Nim-bin formatted equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banuelos G, L. E.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-09-01

    From an old Nuclear Chicago power supply that was practically in the trash, was able to recover the 19 inches casing, rear connectors and the housing where the circuits were. From here all mechanical parts were cleaned and the electronic design was started to replace the original voltage and current functions of this equipment. The cards for the ±6, ±12 and ±24 voltages were designed, simulated and tested with circuitry that does not rely on specialized components or that is sold only by the equipment manufacturer. In the handling of the current by each voltage to operate, was possible to tie with the specifications of the manufacturers like Ortec or Canberra where a model of power supply gives a power of 160 Watts. Basic tests were performed to show that the behavior is very similar to commercial equipment; such as the full load regulation index and the noise level in the supply voltages. So our Nim-bin voltage source is viable for use in our institution laboratories. (Author)

  17. NATO ARI on Ergonomic Data for Equipment Design

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    For many years ergonomists and human engineering specialists have made significant contributions to the solution of problems faced in the area of human labour and to the introduction of their research results and field experience into the process of equipment design. However, the rapid increase in complexity of equipment in use as well as in development demonstrates the necessity of broaden­ ing the point of view continuously. The workshop held in Munich from March 22nd to March 26th, 1982, was an excellent opportunity for the participants to discuss their respective interests and their interpretation of needs for future research. The workshop was sponsored by the Human Factors Special Programme Panel of the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO. This sponsorship, together with the helpful assistance rendered by Drs. Bayraktar, Kroemer, and Sanders, is gratefully acknowledged. This volume contains the papers presented during the workshop. All these papers are directly related to the general aim: the ex­ chang...

  18. Studies for aseismatic design of atomic power equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuichi; Takayanagi, Masaaki; Moriyama, Takeo; Mizuno, Sadao

    1976-01-01

    The social requirements for the safety of nuclear power stations are very severe, and especially in Japan where earthquakes occur frequently, the safety against earthquakes is regarded as an important matter. The numerous machinery and equipments composing nuclear power plants have largely different roles in the safety, accordingly it is important to maintain effectively the safety as a whole. The design is carried out by classifying buildings, machinery and equipments, pipings and electric appliances according to the importance, and so that the aseismatic property corresponding to the importance is given to each. In most cases, the aseismatic design is carried out with computing codes, but it is necessary to forward the design by proving the propriety of analysis models and calculated results. Efforts are exerted in Hitachi Ltd. to improve the accuracy of the aseismatic analysis by carrying out basic experiment, the demonstration test in actual plants and the study on analytical method as many as possible. The measurement of the vibration of actual pipings in order to confirm the supporting conditions, the comparison of multi-input analysis and SRSS method for piping analysis, and the vibration tests of a model containment vessel and a fuel assembly were carried out, and the results are reported in this paper. It is important to improve the accuracy of earthquake response analysis further. (Kako, I.)

  19. The design and development of Project Warrior equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, V.R.; Jerram, K.

    1987-01-01

    The project Warrior standing for welding and repair robot in Oldbury reactors is the culmination of more than 7 years of conceptual thinking, research, development design and manufacture. The tile encompasses the whole project which includes a work performing manipulator, serving manipulator, the manipulators control system and consoles, a welding head and rangefinder with its associated control system and consoles and a large amount of auxiliary equipment. The system at the forefront of today's technology has been manufactured to carry out remote welding in nuclear reactors, on plate with an oxide covering of up to 200 microns

  20. Design Modification of Kori Unit 1 for the Equipment Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Han, K. T.; Park, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    There has not been a strict regulatory requirements for the Equipment Qualification(EQ) in 1970's when Kori Unit 1 had begun the construction and the commercial operation. The Korean regulatory body requested the EQ on the various safety-related components, as a result of Periodic Safety Review. However, the EQ itself is impossible in some areas, due to the high pressure/temperature and flooding environment conditions from the pipe breaks. Design modification is being considered in the Auxiliary Building, the Intermediate Building, the Component Cooling Water Heat Exchanger Building and the Turbine Building, in order to mitigate the environmental conditions for the EQ

  1. Design of remote handling equipment for the ITER NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-08-01

    The ITER machine has three Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) placed tangential to the plasma at a minimum radius of 6.25 m. During operation, neutrons produced by the D-T reactions will irradiate the NBI structure and it will become radioactive. Radiation levels will be such that all subsequent maintenance of the NBIs must be carried out remotely. The presence of tritium and possibly radioactive dust requires that precautions be taken during maintenance to prevent the escape of these contaminants beyond the prescribed boundaries. The scope of this task is both the development of remote maintenance procedures and the design of the remote handling equipment to handle the NBIs. This report describes the design of remote handling tools for the ion source and its filaments, transfer cask, maintenance time, manufacturing schedule and cost estimation. (author)

  2. Conceptual design of the alcohol waste treatment equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Nitta, Kazuhiko; Morita, Yasuhiro; Nakada, Eiju

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the result of Conceptual Design of the Alcohol Waste Treatment Equipment. The experimental fast Reactor, JOYO, saves the radioactive alcohol waste at storage tank. As this alcohol waste is not able to treat with existing equipment, it is stored about 5 m 3 . And the amount of this is increasing every year. So it is necessary to treat the alcohol waste by chemical resolution for example. On account of this, the investigative test about filtration and dialyzer, and conceptual design about catalyst oxidation process, which is composed from head end process to resolution, are done. The results of investigation show as follows. 1. Investigative Test about filtration and dialyzer. (1) The electric conduction is suitable for the judgement of alkyl sodium hydrolysis Alkyl sodium hydrolysis is completed below 39% alcohol concentration. (2) The microfiltration is likely to separate the solid in alcohol waste. (3) From laboratory test, the electrodialyzer is effective for sodium separation in alcohol waste. And sodium remove rate, 96-99%, is confirmed. 2. Conceptual Design. The candidate process is as follows. (1) The head end process is electrodialyzer, and chemical resolution process is catalyst oxidation. (2) The head end process is not installed, and chemical resolution process is catalyst oxidation. (3) The head end process is electrodialyzer, and alcohol extracted by pervaporation. In this Conceptual Design, as far these process, the components, treatment ability, properties of waste, chemical mass balance, safety for fire and explosion, and the plot plan are investigated. As a result, remodeling the existing facility into catalyst oxidation process is effective to treat the alcohol waste, and treatment ability is about 1.25 l/h. (author)

  3. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  4. HVAC System Replacements for the Spanish Nuclear Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Gensollen, T.; Pérez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The European Union and its Member States have established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The chiller systems installed at the Spanish nuclear fleet contained zone depleting refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, and R-22), which are being phased out of service. Due to the different material and thermodynamic properties of the replacement refrigerant (e.g. R-134A), a complete chiller system replacement is needed to comply with the EU regulations for CFCs. Delivering state of the art HVAC and Chiller systems that comply with the Nuclear Plant design basis, licensing basis, system and component specifications as well as European Union (EU) and Spanish codes and standards can be challenging for products purchased from US based manufacturers. Procurement specifications and Request for Quotes (RFQs) issued today for the procurement of original Plant components and systems will contain references to numerous codes and standards that were not in effect at the time the original components were specified and procured. The reference to EU and Spanish codes and standards that are unfamiliar to the HVAC suppliers can lead to uncertainty and concern related to specification compliance. The unnecessary burden of ambiguous codes and standards complicates the proposal process and introduces pricing uncertainty and contract risk. A review of the EU and Spanish national codes and standards that are often referenced in HVAC system related RFQs need to be performed to determine what codes and standards are applicable to HVAC systems designed, manufactured and tested in the US for export to Spain for installation in Spanish NPPs. Lessons learned and best practices should be applied to help both the Supplier (HVAC OEM) and the Purchaser Plant Operator) to optimize the procurement process and improve the quality of offerings to comply with applicable codes and standards. (Author)

  5. Design guide for heat transfer equipment in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Information pertaining to design methods, material selection, fabrication, quality assurance, and performance tests for heat transfer equipment in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems is given in this design guide. This information is intended to assist those concerned with the design, specification, and evaluation of heat transfer equipment for nuclear service and the systems in which this equipment is required. (U.S.)

  6. DNV launches new recommended practice for design of subsea equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toerstad, Elisabeth Heggelund

    2005-07-01

    The application of modern corrosion-resistant alloys to subsea pipelines and components has led to serious problems of hydrogen embrittlement from the corrosion protection system, resulting in cracks and leaks. The most commonly known incidents of this kind are the duplex hubs on Voinhaven, UK and Garn West and the 13% Cr pipelines on Tune and Aasgard, all at the Norwegian shelf. Understanding the nature of this problem has called for a broad multidisciplinary approach, involving expertise on corrosion and metallurgy as well as structural design and integrity. Competence in probabilistic analyses and risk assessments has also been necessary in order to set acceptance criteria and evaluate probability of failure for existing installations. (Det Norske Veritas (DNV) is now about to issues a Recommended Practise (RP) for design of subsea equipment in duplex steels under Cathodic Protection. The RP is based on knowledge gained through failure investigations, qualification pr grams and research work, and a broad industry consortium has contributed with experience and knowledge. Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking (HISC) due to hydrogen from the Cathodic Protection (CP) system has been one of the most frequent and costly failure modes for subsea equipment and pipelines in the North Sea over the recent years. Today, the international oil business is looking to Norway for assistance in establishing detailed knowledge about and preventive measures against this failure mode. A significant research work is currently being carried out jointly by DNV, SINTEF and TWI (The Welding Institute), supported by a broad industry consortium - aiming at a better understanding of the HISC (Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking) mechanism and establishment of test methods which reflect the sensitivity to cracking. DNV has also established a Recommended Practice, which will be issued late 2005. It reflects the experience gained from the failure examinations, fitness for purpose evaluations, research

  7. Review of Control Techniques for HVAC Systems—Nonlinearity Approaches Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Behrooz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are the major energy-consuming devices in buildings. Nowadays, due to the high demand for HVAC system installation in buildings, designing an effective controller in order to decrease the energy consumption of the devices while meeting the thermal comfort demands in buildings are the most important goals of control designers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the different control methods for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC & R systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each control method are discussed and finally the Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM method is introduced as a new strategy for HVAC systems. The FCM method is an intelligent and advanced control technique to address the nonlinearity, Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO, complexity and coupling effect features of the systems. The significance of this method and improvements by this method are compared with other methods.

  8. Workplace Trends In HVAC/R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lynn; Todd, CeCe

    2013-01-01

    This article presents trends in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry, with an emphasis on the importance of technician training programs as exemplified at the East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) in Mesa, Arizona. The article states that HVAC workers are increasingly helping their consumers "go…

  9. Process and equipment design optimising product properties and attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.M.; Thullie, J.

    2009-01-01

    Classically, when products have been developed at the bench, process engineers will search for equipment to manufacture the product at large scale. More than often, this search is constraint to the existing equipment base, or a catalog search for standard equipment. It is then not surprising, that

  10. Energy Renovations: Volume 14: HVAC - A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-29

    This report was prepared by PNNL for DOE's Building America program and is intended as a guide that energy performance contractors can share with homeowners to describe various energy-efficient options for heating, cooling, and ventilating existing homes. The report provides descriptions of many common and not-so-common HVAC systems, including their advantages and disadvantages, efficiency ranges and characteristics of high-performance models, typical costs, and climate considerations. The report also provides decision trees and tables of useful information for homeowners who are making decisions about adding, replacing, or upgrading existing HVAC equipment in their homes. Information regarding home energy performance assessments (audits) and combustion safety issues when replacing HVAC equipment are also provided.

  11. Designing of Roaming Protocol for Bluetooth Equipped Multi Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazli; Hasbullah, Halabi B.

    Bluetooth is an established standard for low cost, low power, wireless personal area network. Currently, Bluetooth does not support any roaming protocol in which handoff occurs dynamically when a Bluetooth device is moving out of the piconet. If a device is losing its connection to the master device, no provision is made to transfer it to another master. Handoff is not possible in a piconet, as in order to stay within the network, a slave would have to keep the same master. So, by definition intra-handoff is not possible within a piconet. This research mainly focuses on Bluetooth technology and designing a roaming protocol for Bluetooth equipped multi agent systems. A mathematical model is derived for an agent. The idea behind the mathematical model is to know when to initiate the roaming process for an agent. A desired trajectory for the agent is calculated using its x and y coordinates system, and is simulated in SIMULINK. Various roaming techniques are also studied and discussed. The advantage of designing a roaming protocol is to ensure the Bluetooth enabled roaming devices can freely move inside the network coverage without losing its connection or break of service in case of changing the base stations.

  12. Review on the HVAC System Modeling Types and the Shortcomings of Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Z. Homod

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system is a prominent topic because of its relationship with energy savings and environmental, economical, and technological issues. The modeling of the HVAC system is concerned with the indoor thermal sensation, which is related to the modeling of building, air handling unit (AHU equipments, and indoor thermal processes. Until now, many HVAC system modeling approaches are made available, and the techniques have become quite mature. But there are some shortcomings in application and integration methods for the different types of the HVAC model. The application and integration processes will act to accumulate the defective characteristics for both AHU equipments and building models such as nonlinear, pure lag time, high thermal inertia, uncertain disturbance factors, large-scale systems, and constraints. This paper shows types of the HVAC model and the advantages and disadvantages for each application of them, and it finds out that the gray-box type is the best one to represent the indoor thermal comfort. But its application fails at the integration method where its response deviated to unreal behavior.

  13. Design and construction of a air pollutant gases sampler equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez S, R.A.; Rodriguez, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is about the sketch and construction of an equipment which samples contaminated gases in the air. The topic of this work, is to propose a solution for imported and national equipment. The solution consist on lower prices of imported and national equipment without loosing the accuracy and the precision of those now available. The investigation shows all process to sample gases and theirs measurement for which all the mechanical, electric and electronic equipment, and the necessary software for giving the results in a computerized way were outlined. With this work it was able to succeed in measurements with a national low price, accurate, reliable, programmable, completely automatic and easy to use. This equipment exceed in accuracy the Japanese and the american equipment

  14. DESIGNING FEATURES OF POWER OPTICAL UNITS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Afanasiev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the question of an optical unit designing for transmitting power laser radiation through an optical fiber. The aim of this work is designing a simple construction unit with minimized reflection losses. The source of radiation in the optical unit described below is an ultraviolet laser with diode pumping. We present the general functioning scheme and designing features for the three main parts: laser beam deflecting system, laser beam dump and optical unit control system. The described laser beam deflection system is composed of a moving flat mirror and a spherical scattering mirror. Comparative analysis of the production technology for such mirrors was carried out, and, as a result, the decision was made to produce both mirrors of 99.99 % pure molybdenum without coating. A moving mirror deflects laser emission from a source through a fiber or deflects it on a spherical mirror and into the laser beam dump, moreover, switching from one position to another occurs almost immediately. It is shown that a scattering mirror is necessary, otherwise, the absorbing surface of the beam dump is being worn out irregularly. The laser beam dump is an open conical cavity, in which the conical element with its spire turned to the emission source is placed. Special microgeometry of the internal surface of the beam dump is suggested for the better absorption effect. An optical unit control system consists of a laser beam deflection system, laser temperature sensor, deflection system solenoid temperature sensor, and deflection mirror position sensor. The signal processing algorithm for signals coming from the sensors to the controller is described. The optical unit will be used in special technological equipment.

  15. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlan Burdick

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  16. Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program serves two purposes. The first is to track temperature trends during normal plant operation in areas where suspected deviations from established environmental profiles exist. This includes the use of Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots for evaluation of equipment qualified life for comparison with tested parameters and the established Environmental Design Profile. It also may be used to determine the location and duration of steam leaks for effect on equipment qualified life. The second purpose of this program is to aid HVAC design engineers in determining the source of heat outside anticipated design parameters. Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots are also used for this application but the results may include design changes to eliminate the excess heat or provide qualified equipment (cable) to withstand the elevated temperature, splitting of environmental zones to capture accurate temperature parameters, or continued environmental monitoring for evaluation of equipment located in hot spots

  17. A preliminary design of mechanical device on industrial digital radiography equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Khasan; Samuel Praptoyo

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary design of mechanical device on industrial digital radiography equipment has been done. this design is intended as a basis for the manufacture of complete facilities for the realization a prototype on industrial digital radiography equipment. the design and construction were carried out by paying attention to the general configuration of the basic design in which its mechanical design has several components with specific dimensions and heavy mass. this design consist of a main frame holder, flat panel detector support and hydraulic hand stacker for mounting the x-ray machine. this mechanical device design will then be fabricated to facilitate and assist work of digital radiographic retrieval. computer application programs sketch-up is used to draw this design and the analysis stress of autodesk inventor to analysis the strength construction design. the results of this design are the configuration drawing, sketch drawings of construction and the safety factor of construction design with a minimum value of 2.39 as well as a maximum value of 15 when to be simulated by the load 500 Kg which is 4 times of total workload. (author)

  18. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 14 - HVAC. A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, Theresa L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, Marye G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hand, James R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, Pat M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This guide, which is part of a series of Best Practices guides produced by DOE’s Building America program, describes ways homeowners can reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort, health, and safety of their homes by upgrading their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

  19. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David

    This package contains teacher and student editions of a residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) course of study. The teacher edition contains information on the following: using the publication; national competencies; competency profile; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, equipment, and…

  20. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of

  1. VARIABLE SPEED INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT HVAC BLOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shixiao Wang; Herman Wiegman; Wilson Wu; John Down; Luana Iorio; Asha Devarajan; Jing Wang; Ralph Carl; Charlie Stephens; Jeannine Jones; Paul Szczesny

    2001-11-14

    This comprehensive topical report discusses the key findings in the development of a intelligent integrated blower for HVAC applications. The benefits of rearward inclined blades over that of traditional forward inclined blades is well documented and a prototype blower design is presented. A comparison of the proposed blower to that of three typical units from the industry is presented. The design of the blower housing is also addressed and the impact of size limitations on static efficiency is discussed. Issues of air flow controllability in the rearward inclined blower is addressed and a solution to this problem is proposed. Several motor design options are discussed including inside-out radial flux designs and novel axial flux designs, all are focused on the various blower needs. The control of the motor-blower and airflow through the use of a high density inverter stage and modern digital signal processor is presented. The key technical challenges of the approach are discussed. The use of the motor as a sensor in the larger heating/ventilating system is also discussed. Diagnostic results for both the motor itself and the blower system are presented.

  2. 'Consolidation' of HVAC and cooling systems at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J; Pepinster, P; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A â€ワconsolidation” of installations after they have reached the end of their predetermined life-time is part of the life cycle of industrial installations, regardless how well maintained they are. The â€ワconsolidation” plan might cover the replacement of obsolete equipment, partial refurbishment, the work requested to comply with new standards and applicable rules (environmental aspects) until the complete replacement of the whole installation. This â€ワconsolidation” process is all the more critical since the installation dates of the existing cooling and HVAC equipment at CERN spans over a period of 50 years and â€ワconsolidation” in the past has been not been systematic, being most of the time associated with new projects. This paper describes the reasons behind the recent â€ワconsolidation” requests for cooling and HVAC equipment both for the accelerators backbone and in tertiary buildings. A criticality analysis is given, based on the criteria laid down in the p...

  3. Influence of different outdoor design conditions on design cooling load and design capacities of air conditioning equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktacir, Mehmet Azmi; Bueyuekalaca, Orhan; Bulut, Huesamettin; Yilmaz, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor design conditions are important parameters for energy efficiency of buildings. The result of incorrect selection of outdoor design conditions can be dramatic in view of comfort and energy consumption. In this study, the influence of different outdoor design conditions on air conditioning systems is investigated. For this purpose, cooling loads and capacities of air conditioning equipments for a sample building located in Adana, Turkey are calculated using different outdoor design conditions recommended by ASHRAE, the current design data used in Turkey and the daily maximum dry and wet bulb temperatures of July 21st, which is generally accepted as the design day. The cooling coil capacities obtained from the different outdoor design conditions considered in this study are compared with each other. The cost analysis of air conditioning systems is also performed. It is seen that the selection of outdoor design conditions is a very critical step in calculation of the building cooling loads and design capacities of air conditioning equipments

  4. Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendell, Derek Garth [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of prefabricated, portable classrooms (portables, relocatables, RCs) has increased due to class size reduction initiatives and limited resources. Classroom mechanical wall-mount heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may function improperly or not be maintained; lower ventilation rates may impact indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ). Materials in portables may off-gas volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, as a function of age, temperature, and humidity. For a pilot study, public K-12 schools located in or serving target areas within five Los Angeles County communities were identified. In two communities where school districts (SD) consented, 1-3 randomly selected portables, one newer and one older, and one main building control classroom from each participating school were included. Sampling was conducted over a five-day school week in the cooling and heating seasons, or repeated twice in the cooling season. Measurements included passive samplers for VOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and air exchange rate (AER) calculation; indoor air temperature and humidity; technician walk-through surveys; an interview questionnaire above HVAC system operation and maintenance (O and M). For an intervention study evaluating advanced HVAC technologies in comparison to the common conventional technology, and materials for source reduction of VOCs, four RC were manufactured and located in pairs at two schools in two recruited Northern California SD in different climate zones. RCs were built with the two HVAC systems, cabinetry and conduit for monitoring equipment, and standard or advanced interior finish materials. Each RC was its own control in a case-crossover design--HVAC systems alternately operated for 1-2 week intervals in the 2001-02 school year, with IEQ monitoring including aldehyde and indoor air temperature and humidity data. Measured classroom AER were low, formaldehyde concentrations were below the state

  5. Building occupancy diversity and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zheng; Ghahramani, Ali; Becerik-Gerber, Burcin

    2016-01-01

    Approximately forty percent of total building energy consumption is attributed to HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems that aim to maintain healthy and comfortable indoor environments. An HVAC system is a network with several subsystems, and there exist heat transfer and balance among the zones of a building, as well as heat gains and losses through a building's envelope. Diverse occupancy (diversity in terms of when and how occupants occupy a building) in spaces could result in increase of loads that are not actual demands for an HVAC system, leading into inefficiencies. This paper introduces a framework to quantitatively evaluate the energy implications of occupancy diversity at the building level, where building information modeling is integrated to provide building geometries, HVAC system layouts, and spatial information as inputs for computing potential energy implications if occupancy diversity were to be eliminated. An agglomerate hierarchical clustering-based iterative evaluation algorithm is designed for iteratively eliminating occupancy diversity. Whole building energy simulations for a real-world building, as well as virtual reference buildings demonstrate that the proposed framework could effectively quantify the HVAC system energy efficiency affected by occupancy diversity and the framework is generalizable to different building geometries, layouts, and occupancy diversities. - Highlights: • Analyze relationships between occupancy diversity and HVAC energy efficiency. • Integrate BIM for quantifying energy implications of occupancy diversity. • Demonstrate the effectiveness and generalizability of iterative evaluation algorithm. • Improve agglomerative hierarchical clustering process using heap data structure.

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  7. Design and Implementation of Closed-loop PI Control Strategies in Real-time MATLAB Simulation Environment for Nonlinear and Linear ARMAX Models of HVAC Centrifugal Chiller Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tudoroiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate three different approaches of modeling, design and discrete-time implementation of PI closed-loop control strategies in SIMULINK simulation environment, applied to a centrifugal chiller system. Centrifugal chillers are widely used in large building HVAC systems. The system consists of an evaporator, a condenser, a centrifugal compressor and an expansion valve. The overall system is an interconnection of two main control loops, namely the chilled water temperature inside the evaporator, and the refrigerant liquid level control in condenser. The centrifugal chiller dynamics model in a discrete-time state-space representation is of high complexity in terms of dimension and encountered nonlinearities. For simulation purpose the centrifugal chiller model is simplified by using different approaches, especially the development of linear polynomials ARMAX and ARX models. The aim to build linear ARMAX models for centrifugal chiller is to simplify considerable the control design strategies that are investigated in this research paper. The novelty of this research is a new controller design approach, more precisely an improved version of proportional – integral control, the so called Proportional-Integral-Plus control for systems with time delay, based on linear ARMAX models. It is conceived within the context of non-minimum state space control system that “seems to be the natural description of a discrete-time transfer function, since its dimension is dictated by the complete structure of the model”. The effectiveness of this new controller design, its implementation simplicity, convergence speed and robustness are proved in the last section of the paper.

  8. Inelastic design of nuclear reactor structures and its implications on design of critical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    In considering the response of a nuclear reactor structure to seismic motions, one must take account of the implications of various levels of damage, short of impairment of safety, and definitely short of collapse, of the structure. Some structural elements of nuclear power plants must perforce remain elastic or nearly elastic in order to perform their allocated safety function. However, in many instances, a purely linear elastic analysis may be unreasonably conservative when one considers that even up to the near yield point range, there are nonlinearities of sufficient amount to reduce required design levels considerably. Moreover, limited yielding of a structure may reduce the response of equipment located in the structure below those levels of response that would be excited were the structure to remain elastic. Energy absorption in the inelastic range is most conveniently treated by use of the so-called 'ductility factor' introduced by the author for design of structures and equipment to resist explosion and blast forces. In general, for small excursions into the inelastic range, especially when the latter can be approximated by an elasto-plastic resistance curve, the design response spectrum is decreased by a simply determined factor that is related to the ductility factor. Many important parts of equipment of a nuclear power plant facility are attached to the principal parts of the structure and respond in a manner determined by the structural response as well as by the general ground motion to which the structure is subjected. This matter involves some difficulty in analysis, but appropriate calculational techniques and design methods are available. A suitable design simplification is one in which the response of the attachment is related to the modal responses of the structure. This equipment response is affected by the relative mass of the attachment and the structure

  9. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  10. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented

  11. Guideline for design and construction radiation monitoring equipments for Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Ninomiya, Kazushige; Jin, Kazumi; Morifuji, Masayuki; Nemoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Akira; Kawai, Keiichi

    1999-12-01

    Various kind of radiation monitoring equipment are used in radiation controlled area at each facility of Tokai reprocessing plant. These equipments have been designed and constructed based on the users requirements, and permitted by governmental regulation office. And, design has been carried out in consideration of the adoption of the new technology and our operational experience. Then, it has been used effectively for the radiation control of the facilities. This report summarizes the technical requirements that should be taken into consideration in the design and installation of radiation monitoring equipments. These requirements are fundamentally applicable when the equipments of the new facilities will be designed or the present instruments will be replaced. (author)

  12. The design and qualification of radiation tolerant equipment for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.; Pater, L.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has many demands for equipment tolerant to the damaging effects of radiation. The wide variety of applications, including components handling, tooling, monitoring and communications, means that a systematic evaluation of the effects of radiation on materials and components used for equipment in radioactive facilities is often required. This paper describes the various effects of radiation on equipment, and discusses how to manage them when using and designing equipment. (Author)

  13. IEEE standard for design qualification of safety systems equipment used in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This standard is written to serve as a general standard for qualification of all types of safety systems equipment, mechanical and instrumentation as well as electrical. It also establishes principles and procedures to be followed in preparing specific safety systems equipment standards. Guidance for qualifying specific safety systems equipment may be found in various specific equipment qualification standards that are now available or are being prepared. It is required that safety systems equipment in nuclear power generating stations meet or exceed its performance requirements throughout its installed life. This is accomplished by a disciplined program of design qualification and quality assurance of design, production, installation, maintenance and surveillance. This standard is for the design qualification section of the program only. Design qualification is intended to demonstrate the capability of the equipment design to perform its safety function(s) over the expected range of normal, abnormal, design basis event, post design basis event, and in-service test conditions. Inherent to design qualification is the requirement for demonstration, within limitations afforded by established technical state-of-the-art, that in-service aging throughout the qualified life established for the equipment will not degrade safety systems equipment from its original design condition to the point where it cannot perform its required safety function(s), upon demand. The above requirement reflects the primary role of design qualification to provide reasonable assurance that design- and age-related common failure modes will not occur during performance of safety function(s) under postulated service conditions

  14. Design of special purpose equipment - remote control dozer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprameyan, K.

    1990-01-01

    Operation environment in handling hot slag, radio active material, clearing/dismantling buildings and loose rocky zones pose hazards with the operation of heavy duty vehicles. Under such hazardous environment conditions, elimination of operator becomes the prime criteria. Remote control of heavy vehicles is resorted to operate the equipment in various working conditions. Radio control systems coupled with penumatic/hydraulic actuators and proportional control logics aim total control of the equipment from a distance using hand pendants. Bharat Earth Moovers Limited has successfully developed remote control system for dozers of 200hp and 300hp. (author). 3 figs

  15. A Study on the Determination of Power Supply Class for HVAC System in KJRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Minjin; Suh, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate electrical class, power supply class, and operation logic for the major equipment of the HVAC system such as a Confinement Isolation Damper (CID), Fission Molybdenum Isolation Damper (FID), Air Handling Unit (AHU), Air Cleaning Unit (ACU), and Contaminated Air Purification System (CAPS) in light of their functional requirements and importance. The classification for the overall HVAC system of the KJRR is a safety class NNS, Non-Seismic category, quality class S, and electrical class Non-1E. Exceptionally, the CID and FID are safety class 3, seismic category I, and quality class Q. The electrical class for the major equipment of the HVAC system should be determined considering the operation concept during Loss of Normal Electric Power (LOEP) regardless of the safety class. In this paper, the electrical and power supply class is determined and the operation logic is proposed for the major equipment of the HVAC system for the KJRR such as the CID, FID, CAPS, ACU, and AHU. The electrical class Non-1E is determined to implement a fail closed for the enhancement of safety. The power supply class is based on the functional requirements of each equipment. The CID, FID, CAPS, and ACU are Class III, but the AHU is Class IV by reflecting the importance and electrical load. After the recovery of the power supply, there is a difference in the operation concept for the HVAC system between the reactor building and fission molybdenum production building depending on the operator's residence time. The CID and CAPS are operated manually through procedures for checking the accident status, and the FID and ACU are operated automatically without special procedures

  16. A Study on the Determination of Power Supply Class for HVAC System in KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Minjin; Suh, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate electrical class, power supply class, and operation logic for the major equipment of the HVAC system such as a Confinement Isolation Damper (CID), Fission Molybdenum Isolation Damper (FID), Air Handling Unit (AHU), Air Cleaning Unit (ACU), and Contaminated Air Purification System (CAPS) in light of their functional requirements and importance. The classification for the overall HVAC system of the KJRR is a safety class NNS, Non-Seismic category, quality class S, and electrical class Non-1E. Exceptionally, the CID and FID are safety class 3, seismic category I, and quality class Q. The electrical class for the major equipment of the HVAC system should be determined considering the operation concept during Loss of Normal Electric Power (LOEP) regardless of the safety class. In this paper, the electrical and power supply class is determined and the operation logic is proposed for the major equipment of the HVAC system for the KJRR such as the CID, FID, CAPS, ACU, and AHU. The electrical class Non-1E is determined to implement a fail closed for the enhancement of safety. The power supply class is based on the functional requirements of each equipment. The CID, FID, CAPS, and ACU are Class III, but the AHU is Class IV by reflecting the importance and electrical load. After the recovery of the power supply, there is a difference in the operation concept for the HVAC system between the reactor building and fission molybdenum production building depending on the operator's residence time. The CID and CAPS are operated manually through procedures for checking the accident status, and the FID and ACU are operated automatically without special procedures.

  17. Design and construction rules for electrical equipments of nuclear islands. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The French design and construction for electrical equipments of nuclear islands (RCC-E) deals with equipments of which the failure may have consequences on the safety of persons or appreciable effects on the availability of the power plant. This book presents the rules concerning (1) qualification procedure, (2) the design of functional units, (3) the installation (environmental conditions, protection rules), (4) the constituent elements of equipments, (5) the control and testing methods

  18. [Equipment design for magnetic therapy and "Polus" devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorov, V A; Malkov, Iu V

    1994-01-01

    Low-frequency magnetotherapy is among the most original therapeutical techniques since it is effective in treating most diseases and has practically no contraindications. Due to atraumaticity of a low-frequency electromagnetic field, the application of magnetotherapy is indicated in geriatric care, in particular. The VNIIMP-VITA Joint-Stock Company has developed a family of the Polyus system equipment for magnetotherapy, whereby all the well-known therapeutical procedures of low-frequency magnetotherapy can be performed. The magnetotherapeutic room equipped with Polyus-2D, Polyus-3, and Polyus-4 ensures a complete set of magneto-therapeutical exposure. The rooms are supplied by the VNIIMP-VITA Joint-Stock Company.

  19. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with heavy-duty hinges and locking-devices to prevent accidental opening in heavy weather. (b) Each cooking...

  20. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  1. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...... with the controlled room temperature in the range from 10 to 35 °C and relative humidity in the range from 15 to 80 %. The field lab can be used to test the performance of each system included in the field lab as well as the combined performance of two or more systems....

  2. The basic discussion on nuclear power safety improvement based on nuclear equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Feiyun; Yao Yangui; Yu Hao; He Yinbiao; Gao Lei; Yao Weida

    2013-01-01

    The safety of strengthening nuclear power design was described based on nuclear equipment design after Fukushima nuclear accident. From these aspects, such as advanced standard system, advanced design method, suitable test means, consideration of beyond design basis event, and nuclear safety culture construction, the importance of nuclear safety improvement was emphatically presented. The enlightenment was given to nuclear power designer. (authors)

  3. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  4. Military electronic equipment shelter electrical wiring design of electromagnetic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility is the military electronics shelter design is an important indicator of the shelter's electrical wiring is the key to the design of electromagnetic compatibility. Introduces the basic concepts of electromagnetic compatibility, and focusing on the shelter layout design problems that need attention, and to solve these problems. (authors)

  5. Warming impact on energy use of HVAC system in buildings of different thermal qualities and in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Al-Khawaj, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving TQBE reduces heating load, while it might increase cooling load. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC varies from one climate to another. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC depends on building’s thermal quality. • In mild climate, warming does not have a significant impact on energy use of HVAC. - Abstract: In order to combat climate change, energy use in the building must be further reduced. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings account for considerable fraction of global energy consumption. The potential contribution the domestic sector can make in reducing energy consumption is recognized worldwide. The driving energy of HVACs depends on the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outside temperature. Definitely, building regulations are changing with the time toward reduce the thermal loads of buildings. However, most of the existing residential buildings were built to lower TQBE. For instant, 72% of residential dwellings in the 15-EU were built before 1972. To investigate the impact of warming on driving energy of HVACs of a residential building a computer model was developed. Three climate categories/cities were considered, i.e. Stockholm (cold), Istanbul (mild), and Doha (hot). In each city, two buildings were modeled: one was assumed to be built according to the current local buildings regulations (standard TQBE), while the anther was built to lower TQBE. The simulations were run for present and future (in 2050) outdoor designing conditions. The calculations show that the impact of the warming on annual driving energy of HVACs (reduction or increase) depends very much on the climate category and on the TQBE. Based on the climate and TQBE, the change in annual HVACs energy varies from −7.4% (in cold climate) to 12.7% (in hot climate). In mild climate, it was shown that the warming does not have significant impact on annual HVACs energy. Improving the TQBE can

  6. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  7. Prototypical spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment: Phase 2, Final design report: Volume 1, Detailed design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blissell, W.H.; Ciez, A.P.; Goedicke, F.E.; Bessko, C.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Final Design for the Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project. This design represents a fully qualified, licensable, cost effective spent fuel rod consolidation system. As a result of significant concerns raised by DOE and its Technical Review Committee during the 30% Design Review, significant changes were made to the original Preliminary Design resulting from Phase I activities. These changes focused on increased automation, end fitting removal, the rod pulling process and the need to maintain the consolidation canisters as clean as possible. As a result of these changes, the new system is greatly enhanced with a much greater probability of meeting or exceeding the project functional requirements. As a result of delays in resolving cost and contractual differences, additional bench testing was not conducted during Phase II. It is however our belief that the current design exceeds the 90% confidence level required by DOE because of the confidence gained from the Phase I tests, the additional engineering detail completed and the fact that our rod pulling tool has been demonstrated in a similar application at Oconee while our ID tube cutter is a modified (mounting method only) off-the-shelf design. 7 refs., 49 figs., 36 tabs

  8. Applying technology to operator requirements in medical equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, P L

    1986-01-01

    The methodology used by the author consists of the following elements: Expose the design team to the user environment, followed by question and answer periods with users while still in the use environment. Place biomedical engineers in the leading teaching institutions where they will have day-to-day exposure to the use of products similar to the one being designed. Bring biomedical engineers back into the company as part of the design team. Expose concepts to focus groups while the product is in the definition stage. Bring a select group of users into the design review process. Evaluate the ease of use of the device as part of clinical trials. Establish a means of monitoring product performance after the product has been released. How well such a methodology will work in any particular environment is a function of management's recognition of the concept that ease of operator use is a vital element to the overall success of the product.

  9. Manual on Safety Aspects of the Design and Equipment of Hot Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    With the development of atomic energy application and research, hot laboratories are now being constructed in a number of countries. The present publication describes and discusses experience in several countries in designing equipment for these laboratories. The safe handling of highly radioactive substances is the main purpose of hot laboratory design and equipment. The manual aims at helping those persons, particularly in the developing countries, who plan to design and construct a new hot laboratory or modify an existing one. It does not deal in great detail with the engineering design of protective and handling equipment; these matters can be found in the comprehensive list of references. The manual itself covers only basic ideas and different approaches in the design of laboratory building, hot cells, shielded and glove boxes, fume cupboards, and handling and viewing equipment. Systems for transferring materials and main services are also discussed.

  10. How to Design and Equip a Mentalization-Based Play Therapy Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüth, Ulrich; Holch, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    Designing and equipping a play therapy room as a differentiated tool in a psychodynamic approach to child psychotherapy is seldom discussed. This article sketches out the equipment and furnishing of a play therapy room to be used for mentalization-based psychodynamic psychotherapy and gives examples of the use of such a room in practice.

  11. Designing efficient logging systems for northern hardwoods using equipment production capabilities and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.B. Gardner

    1966-01-01

    Describes a typical logging system used in the Lake and Northeastern States, discusses each step in the operation, and presents a simple method for designing and efficient logging system for such an operation. Points out that a system should always be built around the key piece of equipment, which is usually the skidder. Specific equipment types and their production...

  12. System design and equipment reliability for wide web working at Hem Heath Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L

    1982-02-01

    This paper outlines the challenge to mining engineers on system design and reliability of equipment and how Hem Heath Colliery in the UK, is meeting this challenge, by describing current systems of work and equipment on the faces, summarising experience gained with succeeding faces, the results achieved, and posing considerations for the future.

  13. Design of mobile receiving and treatment equipment for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun; Lu Jingbin

    2012-01-01

    The advantage and disadvantage of radioactive liquid waste treatment technology are analyzed in this paper. The experimental disposal equipment for radioactive liquid waste with complicated sources is designed by combining the far infrared calcification technology with evaporation technology. It has advantages of low energy consuming and high decontamination efficiency. The frothy and dirt appear rarely in this equipment. (authors)

  14. Stiffness Parameter Design of Suspension Element of Under-Chassis-Equipment for A Rail Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Menglin; Wang, Chengqiang; Deng, Hai

    2017-06-01

    According to the frequency configuration requirements of the vibration of railway under-chassis-equipment, the three- dimension stiffness of the suspension elements of under-chassis-equipment is designed based on the static principle and dynamics principle. The design results of the concrete engineering case show that, compared with the design method based on the static principle, the three- dimension stiffness of the suspension elements designed by the dynamic principle design method is more uniform. The frequency and decoupling degree analysis show that the calculation frequency of under-chassis-equipment under the two design methods is basically the same as the predetermined frequency. Compared with the design method based on the static principle, the design method based on the dynamic principle is adopted. The decoupling degree can be kept high, and the coupling vibration of the corresponding vibration mode can be reduced effectively, which can effectively reduce the fatigue damage of the key parts of the hanging element.

  15. Evaluation of the ultimate pressure capacity of rectangular HVAC ducts for nuclear pwoer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    Typical Category I HVAC ducts in a nuclear plant must be designed for loads and load combinations including positive and negative pressure loads which are generated due to the normal operation and postulated accident conditions. These pressure loads most often govern the design of the HVAC ducts. Structural design criteria are presently based on the AISI Code which limits the duct panel width-to-thickness ratio to a maximum of 500 and the maximum height-to-thickness ratio to 200, unless it can be shown by structural tests that larger ratios can be used. Test Programs performed on rectangular HVAC ducts subjected to vacumm loads have substantiated the use of ducts having panel width to thickness ratios of up to 1600. The results of the test programs were subsequently incorporated into the design through a more rational analytical design method which was developed from and correlates well with the test results. The purpose of this paper is to present the analytical design method and its correlation with the test results. Simple formulae for the design of rectangular HVAC ducts are presented. Lower bound values of duct sheet, and stiffener ultimate loads are derived, and correlated with recent test results. Analytically predicted ultimate pressures are also compared with other available duct test data

  16. Comparison between design and actual energy performance of a HVAC-ground coupled heat pump system in cooling and heating operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, S. [Energesis Ingenieria S.L., Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work compares the experimental results obtained for the energy performance study of a ground coupled heat pump system with the design values predicted by means of standard methodology. The system energy performance of a monitored ground coupled heat pump system is calculated using the instantaneous measurements of temperature, flow and power consumption and these values are compared with the numerical predictions. These predictions are performed with the TRNSYS software tool following standard procedures taking the experimental thermal loads as input values. The main result of this work is that simulation results solely based on nominal heat pump capacities and performances overestimate the measured overall energy performance by a percentage between 15% and 20%. A sensitivity analysis of the simulation results to changes in percentage of its input parameters showed that the heat pump nominal coefficient of performance is the parameter that mostly affects the energy performance predictions. This analysis supports the idea that the discrepancies between experimental results and simulation outputs for this ground coupled system are mainly due to heat pump performance degradation for being used at partial load. An estimation of the impact of this effect in energy performance predictions reduces the discrepancies to values around 5%. (author)

  17. The optimization design of nuclear measurement teaching equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Rulong; Qiu Xiaoping

    2008-01-01

    So far domestic student-oriented experimental nuclear measuring instruments are used only to measure object density, thickness or material level, and in the choice of sources activity is mostly about 10 mCi. this design will proposed a optimization program dealing with domestic situation. It discussed the radioactive sources activity, the structural design of sealed sources, such as the choice of the tested material in order to get a program optimization. The program used 1 mCi activity radioactive sources 137 Cs to reduce the radiation dose, and the measurement function was improved. So that the apparatus can measure density, thickness nad material level. (authors)

  18. Assessment of auditory impression of the coolness and warmness of automotive HVAC noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Hotehama, Takuya; Kamiya, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Noise induced by a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a vehicle is an important factor that affects the comfort of the interior of a car cabin. Much effort has been devoted to reduce noise levels, however, there is a need for a new sound design that addresses the noise problem from a different point of view. In this study, focusing on the auditory impression of automotive HVAC noise concerning coolness and warmness, psychoacoustical listening tests were performed using a paired comparison technique under various conditions of room temperature. Five stimuli were synthesized by stretching the spectral envelopes of recorded automotive HVAC noise to assess the effect of the spectral centroid, and were presented to normal-hearing subjects. Results show that the spectral centroid significantly affects the auditory impression concerning coolness and warmness; a higher spectral centroid induces a cooler auditory impression regardless of the room temperature.

  19. Computer methods in designing tourist equipment for people with disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzda, Jolanta GraŻyna; Borkowski, Piotr; Popławska, Justyna; Latosiewicz, Robert; Moska, Eleonora

    2017-11-01

    Modern technologies enable disabled people to enjoy physical activity every day. Many new structures are matched individually and created for people who fancy active tourism, giving them wider opportunities for active pastime. The process of creating this type of devices in every stage, from initial design through assessment to validation, is assisted by various types of computer support software.

  20. The map of energy flow in HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Ortiz, Jose; Maestre, Ismael R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Discussion of the four stages in the 'HVAC systems energy chain'. → Examination of HVAC systems as energy conversion devices. → Analysis of HVAC Sankey diagrams. → Discussion of HVAC loads and HVAC energy losses. -- Abstract: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the most energy consuming building services representing approximately half of the final energy use in the building sector and between one tenth and one fifth of the energy consumption in developed countries. Despite their significant energy use, there is a lack of a consistent and homogeneous framework to efficiently guide research and energy policies, mainly due to the complexity and variety of HVAC systems but also to insufficient rigour in their energy analysis. This paper reviews energy related aspects of HVAC systems with the aim of establishing a common ground for the analysis of their energy efficiency. The paper focuses on the map of energy flow to deliver thermal comfort: the HVAC energy chain. Our approach deals first with thermal comfort as the final service delivered to building occupants. Secondly, conditioned spaces are examined as the systems where useful heat (or coolth) is degraded to provide comfort. This is followed by the analysis of HVAC systems as complex energy conversion devices where energy carriers are transformed into useful heat and coolth, and finally, the impact of HVAC energy consumption on energy resources is discussed.

  1. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  2. On fundamental concept of anti-earthquake design of equipment and pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, H.; Kato, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with a new concept of anti-earthquake design of equipment and pipings in nuclear power plants. Usual anti-earthquake design of such items starts from the design basis ground motions, via floor responses and ends at the stress analysis of each structural element. However, the same type of equipment are used for plants under various site conditions. The ordinarily used method obliges the repetition of such design procedure on each plant. This new design method has been developed to avoid such time-consuming repetitions. (orig.)

  3. Design of a synthesizer for magnetic resonance equipment using FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonora A

    2006-01-01

    This paper exposes the design of a direct digital synthesizer in FPGA. This desing can generate a sine wave output up to 4MHZ with 3,33 mHz of precision. The frequency is set by 32bit word of phase increment in 350ns. The desing was made for Magnetic Resonance scanners and uses a 97% of logic resources of device. Functions for the synthesizer control are implemented in the same chip

  4. Rules and procedures for the design and operation of hazardous research equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The manual has been prepared for use by research personnel involved in experiments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. It contains rules and procedures for the design, test, installation, and operation of hazardous research equipment. Sect. I contains such information as responsibility of experimenters for safety, descriptions of the various Laboratory safety organizations, and enumeration of various services available to experimenters at the Laboratory. Sect. II describes specific rules for the setup and operation of experimental equipment at the Laboratory. Sect. III gives detailed design criteria and procedures for equipment frequently encountered in the high energy physics laboratory

  5. Sustainable hydrogen - A challenge for materials science and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, Anca; Enesca, Alexandru Ioan; Perniu, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen is the ideal fuel, considering its fully non-polluting by-products. Still, in discussions on 'sustainable hydrogen', there must be considered all the steps implied in hydrogen production, storage and use and the overall energy balance represents the real starting point of evaluating the sustainability. So far, hydrogen production is related to rather energy-consuming processes; extended research is devoted to develop high efficiency processes, but the industrial hydrogen production makes use of either large electrical or thermal energy amounts. Hydrogen production via water photolysis represents, consequently a viable alternative although many steps have to be elaborated to reached the industrial scale of these processes. Hydrogen storing represents another problem that affects its application; a safe storage way, in metal hydrides, is still under intensive research all over the world. The group of the Centre of Product Design for Sustainable Development is engaged in research for developing a laboratory photolyser, able to produce hydrogen and to offer an efficient storage alternative. The photolyser is a photo-electrochemical cell, and the efficiency of the photolysis process depends on several factors: - the photo-electrodes: thin films of wide band gap semiconductors with tailored properties; - the aqueous environment, with effect on the electrode materials properties and stability; - the external bias; - the cell design. The paper focuses mainly on the photo-electrode materials that were tested. The influence of the composition, crystalline and defect structure, of the morphology and of the interfaces on the photolysis process are reviewed. The effect of the pH in the aqueous media is discussed along with the stability of the materials and the reversibility of the adsorption/desorption processes. The design criteria that must be fulfilled in developing the photolyser are also discussed. (authors)

  6. Designing an object-oriented scheme for accelerator equipment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, N.N.

    1994-01-01

    The object-oriented analysis (OOA) and design (OOD) formalisms developed by Project Technology Inc. is presented in this report. The method was originated in 1979 with the analysis phase of a large real-time project at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and since that time has been used in several large-scale industrial projects. It is supported by the Teamwork CASE package from Cadre Technologies Inc. For introducing basic concepts and definitions of the OOA/OOD, a typical accelerator device example: remotely controllable power supply which is used to power magnets in an accelerator beam transfer line is used through out this report. 18 refs., 18 figs

  7. Analog design of wireless control for home equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyong; Li, Zhao; Li, Biqing; Jiang, Suping

    2018-04-01

    This design consists of a STC89C52 microcontroller, a serial Bluetooth module and the Android system. Production of STC89C52 controlled by single-chip computer telephone systems. The system is composed of mobile phone Android system as a master in the family centre,via serial Bluetooth module pass instructions and information to implement wireless transceiver using STC89C52 MCU wireless Bluetooth transmission to control homedevices. System high reliability, low cost easy to use, stong applicability and other characerristics, can be used in single-user family, has great significance.

  8. Development of floor design response spectra for seismic design of floor-supported equipment or components, Revision 1, February 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This guide presents an acceptable method for developing two horizontal and one vertical floor design response spectra at various floor or other equipment-support locations from the time-history motions resulting from the dynamic analysis of the supporting structure. These floor design response spectra are used in the dynamic analysis of systems or equipment supported at various locations of the supporting structure. Consulation has been provided by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

  9. Supporting industrial equipment development through a set of design-for-maintenance guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Blok, Jeroen; Hoekstra, Sipke; Kokkeler, Frans; Marjanovic, Dorian; Storga, Mario; Pavkovic, Neven; Bojcetic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a leaflet with design-for-maintenance guidelines. It aims at supporting developers of industrial equipment in their design-for-maintenance practices. The use of this leaflet should lead to increased attention for design-for-maintenance aspects and to improve idea generation. The

  10. Modular VSC converter based HVDC power transmission from offshore wind power plant: Compared to the conventional HVAC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    power transmission options with HVDC systems are under consideration. In this paper, a comparison between a conventional HVAC transmission system and a HVDC system equipped with modular voltage source converters is provided. The comparison is based on the total energy transmission capability...

  11. Improvements of seismic design of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kohei; Takayama, Yoshihiro.

    1997-01-01

    A brief survey and overview of the current research and development in Japan was presented. Particularly, several kinds of new dampers and isolators were developed and those effectiveness were examined by caring out the large-scale vibration test and so on. The evaluation of the energy absorption of these damping devices at the earthquake appeared to be significant. In addition, it must be necessary to investigate the design margin and the failure mode and limit problem to these devices and the nuclear structures and piping supported by those. Mutual exchange of the information related to these technology and research has to be put forward and cooperative works including the international conference on those issues should be promoted. (J.P.N.)

  12. Improvements of seismic design of nuclear power plant equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kohei [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Takayama, Yoshihiro

    1997-03-01

    A brief survey and overview of the current research and development in Japan was presented. Particularly, several kinds of new dampers and isolators were developed and those effectiveness were examined by caring out the large-scale vibration test and so on. The evaluation of the energy absorption of these damping devices at the earthquake appeared to be significant. In addition, it must be necessary to investigate the design margin and the failure mode and limit problem to these devices and the nuclear structures and piping supported by those. Mutual exchange of the information related to these technology and research has to be put forward and cooperative works including the international conference on those issues should be promoted. (J.P.N.)

  13. Evaluation of Design Models of Process Equipment for Use in PRIDE: Remote Operability and Maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Seung Nam; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Han, Jong Hui; Cho, Il Je; Lee, Han Soo

    2012-01-01

    Process equipment for pyroprocessing are being developed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Those equipment should be operated and maintained in a fully remote manner in the argon gas filled cell of PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) at KAERI because direct human access to the in-cell is not possible during an operation due to the high toxicity of the argon gas. To make such process equipment remotely operable and maintainable, their design developments have been tested and evaluated in a simulator before they are constructed. A simulator as a means of evaluating the remote operability and maintainability of the design models of process equipment for pyroprocessing is described, and results of the design models tested and evaluated in a simulator are presented

  14. Comparison of co-simulation approaches for building and HVAC/R system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Wetter, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Jiang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Appraisal of modern performance-based energy codes, as well as heating, ventilation, airconditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) system design require use of an integrated building and system performance simulation program. However, the required scope of the modeling library of such integrated tools

  15. In-the-loop simulation of electronic automatic temperature control systems: HVAC modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domschke, R.; Matthes, M. [Visteon Deutschland GmbH, Kerpen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The Electronic Automatic Temperature Control (EATC) ensures the occupant comfort and provides safety features like rapid defrost and demist protection. Doing this, the EATC controller provides a direct interface to the end consumer and has a considerable impact on customer satisfaction. The In-the-loop (IL) simulation process is an integral part of Visteons model-based development process. It helps to design and calibrate the EATC controller. It consists of several IL simulation techniques like Model-in-the-loop (MIL), Software-in-the-loop (SIL) and Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). In this article, we will focus on MIL/SIL Simulations. MIL/SIL allows simulation of the EATC controller in a virtual vehicle environment from the early states of and throughout the development process. This ensures a rapid, high quality and robust development process. The MIL/SIL model contains a thermal vehicle model, a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) unit model and a model of the EATC controller itself. The thermal vehicle model simulates transient temperature and humidity conditions in the passenger compartment of a vehicle, settings from the controller, heat fluxes through the vehicle shell and windows, solar load and several further boundary conditions. Whereas the thermal vehicle model of a specific vehicle can be adapted from a default data base, one has to pay special attention to the HVAC unit model. Visteon has developed a special, physically based HVAC unit model to be adapted and implemented into the MIL/SIL simulation. This HVAC model enables a straightforward implementation of different HVAC architectures into the MIL/SIL simulation. Moreover, changes in the HVAC settings (i.e. different blower/scroll assemblies) can be assessed and the influence on passenger comfort can be quantified. Examples of the MIL/SIL simulation demonstrate the benefits of this approach. Results are discussed and a further outlook provided. (orig.)

  16. Overview of Mobile Equipment Used in Case of Beyond Design Basis Accident at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacevic, H.; Kopinc, D.; Ivanjko, M.

    2016-01-01

    Terrorist attack in USA in the September 11, 2001 and accident at the Fukushima - Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in the March 11, 2011 highlight the importance of mitigating strategies in responding to Beyond Design Basis Accident (BDBA), while ensuring cooling of reactor core, containment and spent fuel pool. Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NEK) has acquired additional mobile equipment and made necessary modifications on existing systems for the connection of this equipment (fast couplers). Usage of mobile equipment is not only limited to design basis accident (DBA), but, also to prevent and mitigate the consequences in case of BDBA, when other plant systems are not available. NEK also decided to take steps for upgrade of safety measures and prepared Safety Upgrade Program (SUP), which is consistent with the nuclear industry response to the Fukushima accident and is implementing main projects and modifications related to SUP. NEK mobile equipment is not required to operate under normal reactor plant operation except for periodic surveillance testing and is incorporated into the normal training process. Equipment is dislocated from the reactor building and most of the equipment is located in the new building, able to withstand extreme natural events, including earthquakes and tornadoes. The usage of all mobile equipment is prescribed as an additional option in NEK operating procedures in following cases and enables following options: filling various tanks, filling the steam generators, filling the containment, additional compressed air source, spent fuel pool refilling and spraying, alternative power supply. This document provides an overview of NEK mobile equipment, which consists of various mobile fire protection pumps, air compressors, protective equipment, fire trucks, diesel generators. Sufficient fuel supply for the equipment is provided on site for a minimum three days of operation. (author).

  17. Human-centered design of the human-system interfaces of medical equipment: thyroid uptake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Jonathan K.R.; Farias, Marcos S.; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Monteiro, Beany G.

    2013-01-01

    Technology plays an important role in modern medical centers, making healthcare increasingly complex, relying on complex technical equipment. This technical complexity is particularly noticeable in the nuclear medicine. Poorly design human-system interfaces can increase the risks for human error. The human-centered approach emphasizes the development of the equipment with a deep understanding of the users activities, current work practices, needs and abilities of the users. An important concept of human-centered design is that the ease-of-use of the equipment can be ensured only if users are actively incorporated in all phases of the life cycle of design process. Representative groups of users are exposed to the equipment at various stages in development, in a variety of testing, evaluation and interviewing situations. The users feedback obtained is then used to refine the design, with the result serving as input to the next interaction of design process. The limits of the approach are that the users cannot address any particular future needs without prior experience or knowledge about the equipment operation. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework that contributes to the design of the human-system interfaces, through an approach related to the users and their activities. A case study is described in which the methodological framework is being applied in development of new human-system interfaces of the thyroid uptake system. (author)

  18. Underwater fuel handling equipment maintenance. Verification of design assumptions, specific problems and tools, case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The majority of CANDU Fuel Transfer System equipment at Pickering is located under fourteen feet of water, as dictated by the containment and shielding requirements. Such arrangement, however, creates specific problems with equipment maintenance. Each single piece of equipment serves two generating units, which means in case of defect- double losses on production, or two units shut down simultaneously for planned maintenance. The requirement for underwater maintenance was not anticipated at the design stage, which multiples the level of difficulty, and creates requirement for developing special tools for each work. Removal of the damaged fuel from the receiving bays and decontamination of submerged equipment is also part of the problem. The purpose of this presentation is to share our experience with the designers, operators, maintenance mechanics and technical personnel of the other CANDU generating stations

  19. Emplacement and retrieval equipment design considerations for a repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, B.R.; Bahorich, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current design concept for the disposal of nuclear high level waste packages in a repository in salt is based on the emplacement of individual packages in vertical boreholes in the underground mine floor. A key requirement is that the waste packages be capable of being retrieved during the last 26 years of the 76-year repository operating period. The unique design considerations relating to the retrieval of waste packages emplaced in bedded salt are presented in this paper. The information is based on the experience developed during the design of vertical emplacement and retrieval equipment in support of the Sandia Defense High Level Waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Also included are the impact of retrievability on the design of the equipment, the special salt cutting technology that was developed for this application, and a description of the equipment

  20. Design scheme of automatic feeding equipment of domestic uranium chemical concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jinming; Wang Chao; Peng Jinhui; Zhang Libo

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve problems by artificial feeding mode with low work efficiency, large intensity manual labor and environmental pollution in domestic uranium concentrate purification process, the design scheme of automatic feeding device was set up, including work flow sheet, composition of automatic equipment and operation. By application of automatic feeding equipment, the feeding speed can be greatly increased, labor force can be reduced, and harm to workman health can be decreased. (authors)

  1. Tolerance-based Structural Design of Tubular-Structure Loading Equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Lu

    2011-05-01

    is worked out under different ball screws, trapezoidal screw threads, worm and worm gears. To meet the requirement of tolerance in tubular-structure assembly, mechanisms for all motions are defined. The design of loading equipment is tested and assessed by experiments, and the result shows the design is highly qualified for its assembly.

  2. Design/Operations review of core sampling trucks and associated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic review of the design and operations of the core sampling trucks was commissioned by Characterization Equipment Engineering of the Westinghouse Hanford Company in October 1995. The review team reviewed the design documents, specifications, operating procedure, training manuals and safety analysis reports. The review process, findings and corrective actions are summarized in this supporting document

  3. Seismic design of equipment and piping systems for nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minematsu, Akiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    The philosophy of seismic design for nuclear power plant facilities in Japan is based on 'Examination Guide for Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities: Nuclear Power Safety Committee, July 20, 1981' (referred to as 'Examination Guide' hereinafter) and the present design criteria have been established based on the survey of governmental improvement and standardization program. The detailed design implementation procedure is further described in 'Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants, JEAG4601-1987: Japan Electric Association'. This report describes the principles and design procedure of the seismic design of equipment/piping systems for nuclear power plant in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  4. Seismic design of equipment and piping systems for nuclear power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minematsu, Akiyoshi [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The philosophy of seismic design for nuclear power plant facilities in Japan is based on `Examination Guide for Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities: Nuclear Power Safety Committee, July 20, 1981` (referred to as `Examination Guide` hereinafter) and the present design criteria have been established based on the survey of governmental improvement and standardization program. The detailed design implementation procedure is further described in `Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants, JEAG4601-1987: Japan Electric Association`. This report describes the principles and design procedure of the seismic design of equipment/piping systems for nuclear power plant in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  5. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  6. Exergy optimization of cooling tower for HGSHP and HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Das, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of new correlations for outlet parameters with all inlet parameters. • Simultaneous achievement of required heat load and minimum exergy destruction. • Multiple combinations of parameters found for same heat load at minimized exergy. • Study useful for optimum control of cooling tower under varying ambient conditions. • Generalized optimization study can be implemented for any mechanical cooling tower. - Abstract: In the present work, a constrained inverse optimization method for building cooling applications is proposed to control the mechanical draft wet cooling tower by minimizing the exergy destruction and satisfying an imposed heat load under varying environmental conditions. The optimization problem is formulated considering the cooling dominated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSHP). As per the requirement, new second degree correlations for the tower outlet parameters (water temperature, air dry and wet-bulb temperatures) with five inlet parameters (dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, water inlet temperature, water and air mass flow rates) are developed. The Box–Behnken design response surface method is implemented for developing the correlations. Subsequently, the constrained optimization problem is solved using augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. This work further developed optimum inlet parameters operating curves for the HGSHP and the HVAC systems under varying environmental conditions aimed at minimizing the exergy destruction along with the fulfillment of the required heat load.

  7. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella [Department of Engineering, University of Napoli “Parthenope” (Italy); Martini, Fabrizio [Green Energy Plus srl (Italy); Pirozzi, Salvatore [SIAT Installazioni spa (Italy); Ubertini, Stefano [School of Engineering (DEIM) University of Tuscia (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting.

  8. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella; Martini, Fabrizio; Pirozzi, Salvatore; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting

  9. Study on the Operating Strategy of HVAC Systems for Nuclear Decommissioning Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-hwan; Han, Sung-heum; Lee, Jae-gon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    According as Kori nuclear power plant unit 1 was determined to be defueled in 2017, various studies on nuclear plant decommissioning have been performed. In nuclear decommissioning plant, HVAC systems with large fan and electric coil have to be operated for long periods of time to support various types of work from defueled phase to final dismantling phase. So, in view of safety and utility costs, their overall operating strategy need to be established prior to defueled phase. This study presents HVAC system operating strategy at each decommissioning phase, that is, defueled plant operating phase, SSCs(systems, structures, components) decontamination and dismantling phases. In defueled plant operating phase, all fuel assemblies in reactor vessel are transferred to spent fuel pool(SFP) permanently. In defueled plant operation phase, reduction of the operating system trains is more practicable than the introduction of new HVAC components with reduced capacity. And, based on the result of the accident analyses for this phase, HVAC design bases such as MCR habitability requirement can be mitigated. According to these results, associated SSCs also can be downgraded. In similar approach, at each phase of plant decommissioning, proper inside design conditions and operating strategies should be re-established.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying facility heating, ventilation, and Air Conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD

  11. System-Level Monitoring and Diagnosis of Building HVAC System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Siyu

    2013-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is an indoor environmental technology that is extensively instrumented for large-scale buildings. Among all subsystems of buildings, the HVAC system dominates the energy consumption and accounts for 57% of the energy used in U.S. commercial and residential buildings. Unfortunately, the HVAC system may fail to meet the performance expectations due to various faults, including not only complete hardware failures, but also non-optimal operations....

  12. Modeling and Control of AHUs in Building HVAC Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is a mechanical system that provides thermal comfort and accepted indoor air quality often instrumented for large-scale buildings. The HVAC system takes a dominant portion of overall building energy consumption and accounts for 50% of the energy used in the U.S. commercial and residential buildings in 2012. The performance and energy saving of building HVAC systems can be significantly improved by the implementation of better and smarter contro...

  13. A Method of Numerical Control Equipment Appearance Design Based on Product Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhijuan; Zhou, Qi; Li, Bin; Visser, Steve

    Research on numerical control (NC) equipment has been more and more abundant; however, there are few existing studies in the field of appearance design for NC equipments. This paper provided a method to generate new appearance design of NC equipments based on product identity (PI). For the purpose of providing guidelines to generate new concept of NC equipment design, this paper, therefore, took the DMG Company (a Germen NC equipment company) as a case, examined the total products of this company from two aspects: Product Image and Product Family. Task 1 was an evaluate task about the Product Image by using the semantic differential (SD) evaluation method; Task 2 was a study task about Product Family to find out features of the products and classify these features. During the Task 2, several features have been found out and summarized, and these features were classified into 3 different levels according to their frequency and importance. In the end, two appearance design samples have been generated based on the analysis above to prove the application of the research.

  14. Preliminary design report for prototypical spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, B.F.; Maillet, J.; O'Neill, G.L.; Tsitsichvili, J.; Tucoulat, D.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of the Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project (PCDP) is to develop and demonstrate the equipment system that will be used to consolidate the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel generated in the United States prior to its placement in a geological repository. The equipment must thus be capable of operating on a routine production basis over a long period of time with stringent requirements for safety, reliability, productivity and cost-effectiveness. Four phases are planned for the PCDP. Phase 1 is the Preliminary Design of generic consolidation equipment that could be installed at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility or in the Receiving ampersand Handling Facility at a geologic repository site. Phase 2 will be the Final Design and preparation of procurement packages for the equipment in a configuration capable of being installed and tested in a special enclosure within the TAN Hot Shop at DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In Phase 3 the equipment will be fabricated and then tested with mock fuel elements in a contractor's facility. Finally, in Phase 4 the equipment will be moved to the TAN facility for demonstration operation with irradiated spent fuel elements. 55 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Design and construction of the Portable Industrial X-Ray Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Phuc; Nguyen Van Si; Le Tien Quan; Trinh Anh Tuan; Nguyen Manh Hung; Trinh Dinh Tuong

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of the project are the supporting to design and construction of the Portable Industrial X-Ray Equipment; with the accuracy ±2% of Output High Voltage 200 kV and Tube current 5 mA. The Equipment is composed of control unit, X-ray generator, and power cable, connection cable. X-ray generator is assembling construction X-ray tube, H.V transformer together with gas insulation (SF6) are sealed up in aluminum bucked cabinet, fan and heat-sink are mounted in the end of X-ray generator as cooling, SF6 is a gas electrical performance to H.V. Alarm lamp is used to warn, flashing, show generating X-ray. Control unit is box construction. Four printed circuit boards (PCB) and electronic device are mounted in it. All operating buttons switches and displays are equipped on the panel. We have completed to design and construct the Portable Industrial X-Ray Equipment; and have tested the electronic parameters of all test points and the main parameters of equipment (the accuracy ±2% of Output High Voltage 200 kV and Tube current 5 mA). We also have successful used the Portable Industrial X-Ray Equipment to evaluate the welds in industry. (author)

  16. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  17. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 19 -- HVAC -- chillers and compressors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to HVAC -- Chillers and Compressors. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program

  18. Design, manufacture and installation of measuring and control equipments for the advanced thermal prototype reactor 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Shigeo; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    1979-01-01

    The advanced thermal prototype reactor ''Fugen'' attained the criticality on March 20, 1978, and 100% output operation on November 13, 1978. On March 20, 1979, it passed the final inspection, and since then, it has continued the smooth operation up to now. The measuring and control equipments are provided for grasping the operational conditions of the plant and operating it safely and efficiently. At the time of designing, manufacturing and installing the measuring and control equipments for Fugen, it was required to clarify the requirements of the plant design, to secure the sufficient functions, and to improve the operational process, maintainability and the reliability and accuracy of the equipments. Many design guidelines and criteria were decided in order to coordinate the conditions among five manufacturers and give the unified state as one plant. The outline of the instrumentations for neutrons, radiation monitoring and process data, the control systems for reactivity, reactor output, pressure and water supply, the safety protection system, and the process computer are described. Finally, the installations and tests of the measuring and control equipments are explained. The aseismatic capability of the equipments was confirmed. (Kako, I.)

  19. Injury survey of a non-traditional 'soft-edged' trampoline designed to lower equipment hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, David B; Scarrott, Carl; Nixon, Jim; Alexander, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In Australia trampolines contribute one quarter of all childhood play equipment injuries. The objective of this study was to gather and evaluate injury data from a non-traditional, 'soft-edged', consumer trampoline, where the design aimed to minimise injuries from the equipment and from falling off. The manufacturer of the non-traditional trampoline provided the University of Technology Sydney with their Australian customer database. The study involved surveys in Queensland and New South Wales, between May 2007 and March 2010. Initially injury data was gathered by a phone interview pilot study, then in the full study, through an email survey. The 3817 respondents were the carers of child users of the 'soft-edge' trampolines. Responses were compared with Australian and US emergency department data. In both countries the proportion of injuries caused by the equipment and falling off was compared with the proportion caused by the jumpers to themselves or each other. The comparisons showed a significantly lower proportion resulted from falling-off or hitting the equipment for this design when compared to traditional trampolines, both in Australia and the US. This research concludes that equipment-induced and falling-off injuries, the more severe injuries on traditional trampolines, can be significantly reduced with appropriate trampoline design.

  20. Energy Performance and CO2 Emissions of HVAC Systems in Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Al-Waked

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy performance of buildings has attracted much attention among building physicists and engineers worldwide. The effects of building heating; ventilation; and air conditioning (HVAC systems’ design upgrade on the building energy performance are the focus of the current study. The adopted HVAC system consisted of chilled ceiling and chilled beam systems served by a centrifugal water chiller. An energy simulation study was undertaken in accordance with the national Australian built environment rating system-rules for collecting and using data. A three-dimensional simulation study was carried out utilizing the virtual environment-integrated environmental solutions software. Results from the current study have shown the importance of utilizing energy-efficient HVAC systems and HVAC strategies for achieving a high building energy star rating. Recommended strategies in order to achieve the nominated star rating; as predicted by the simulation analysis; were presented. Moreover; the effects of solar radiation inside the building atrium were significant; which cannot be overcome by simply installing a low shading coefficient glazing type at the atrium skylight. In addition to providing chilled ceiling technology; a high efficiency chiller and low energy lighting; it is recommended that the building be well tuned during the commissioning period. The current approach could be extended to accommodate higher energy ratings of commercial buildings at different locations worldwide.

  1. Thermal analysis of an HVAC system with TRV controlled hydronic radiator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A model for an HVAC system is derived in this paper. The HVAC system consists of a room and a hydronic radiator with temperature regulating valve (TRV) which has a step motor to adjust the valve opening. The heating system and the room are simulated as a unit entity for thermal analysis and contr......A model for an HVAC system is derived in this paper. The HVAC system consists of a room and a hydronic radiator with temperature regulating valve (TRV) which has a step motor to adjust the valve opening. The heating system and the room are simulated as a unit entity for thermal analysis...... and controller design. A discrete-element model with interconnected small scaled elements is proposed for the radiator. This models the radiator more precisely than that of a lumped model in terms of transfer delay and radiator gain. This precise modeling gives us an intuition into a regular unwanted phenomenon...... which occurs in low demand situations. When flow is very low in radiator and the supply water temperature and the pressure drop across the valve is constant, oscillation in room temperature occurs. One reason could be the large gain of radiator in low demand conditions compared to the high demand...

  2. Design and Manufacturing of Composite Tower Structure for Wind Turbine Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunbum

    2018-02-01

    This study proposes the composite tower design process for large wind turbine equipment. In this work, structural design of tower and analysis using finite element method was performed. After structural design, prototype blade manufacturing and test was performed. The used material is a glass fiber and epoxy resin composite. And also, sand was used in the middle part. The optimized structural design and analysis was performed. The parameter for optimized structural design is weight reduction and safety of structure. Finally, structure of tower will be confirmed by structural test.

  3. Power system engineering planning, design, and operation of power systems and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Schlabbach, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    With its focus on the requirements and procedures of tendering and project contracting, this book enables the reader to adapt the basics of power systems and equipment design to special tasks and engineering projects, e.g. the integration of renewable energy sources.

  4. Prototypical spent fuel rod consolidation equipment preliminary design report: Volume 2, Drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume consists of 65 E size drawings and 4 sketches of the NUS spent fuel rod consolidation equipment. The drawings have been grouped into categories; a detailed list of the drawings is included. The sketches prepared during the preliminary design process have been included

  5. Housing, Equipment, and Design Research and Scholarship: A Family and Consumer Sciences Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, Julia O.; Ahn, Mira; Seiling, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of research on housing, equipment, and design (n=333) in the Journal of Home Economics/Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences (1985-2000), Home Economics Research Journal/Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal (1985- 2000), and Housing and Society (1985-1999) found that articles declined by more than 50% and behavior theories were…

  6. Design and fabrication of equipment and devices for a Radiotherapy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picon, C.L.; Zaharia B, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the possibility to design and construct utilizing local technology, a series of equipment and devices necessaries for a routine in a Radiotherapy Department with typical budget in the Latin-American hospitals. (Author)

  7. Review of the application of ergonomics design of trackless mining equipment (TME) - lessons and challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, JP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available the design of trackless mining equipment (TME) is poor, with improvised seating, poor cabin layouts and sub-standard display instrumentation. This paper will present the key findings of two studies assessing ergonomics risk factors associated with automated...

  8. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  9. Design of channel experiment equipment for measuring coolant velocity of innovative research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Subekti; Endiah Puji Hastuti; Dedi Heriyanto

    2014-01-01

    The design of innovative high flux research reactor (RRI) requires high power so that the capability core cooling requires to be improved by designing the faster core coolant velocity near to the critical velocity limit. Hence, the critical coolant velocity as the one of the important parameter of the reactor safety shall be measured by special equipment to the velocity limit that may induce fuel element degradation. The research aims is to calculate theoretically the critical coolant velocity and to design the special experiment equipment namely EXNal for measuring the critical coolant velocity in fuel element subchannel of the RRI. EXNal design considers the critical velocity calculation result of 20.52 m/s to determine the variation of flow rate of 4.5-29.2 m 3 /h, in which the experiment could simulate the 1-4X standard coolant velocity of RSG-GAS as well as destructive test of RRI's fuel plate. (author)

  10. Maintenance of HVAC-systems and components: How to prevent pollution from HVAC-systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Björkroth, M.; Plitt, U.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies, from seven

  11. Why, when and how do HVAC-systems pollute? Characterisation of HVAC-systems related pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Björkroth, M.; Müller, B.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Roulet, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies from seven

  12. Analysis and design recommendation on rabbeted capping plate of equipment cell in nuclear chemical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyu; Yin Xiaozhan

    2013-01-01

    Rabbeted capping plates are widely used in the roof of equipment cells in order to meet the requirements of nuclear radiation protection. The key considerations in the design include vertical load, seismic load and repair load. This article establishes T shaped and Z-shaped plate model via FEM software (ANSYS), analyzes the bearing capacity and displacement distribution in different load cases, and provides recommendations to the design and construction accordingly. (authors)

  13. Absolute air filtering equipment in the nuclear industrie. Design - Safety - Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered in the design of absolute filters (HEPA FILTERS) are presented: glass-fibre filter papers; standards and characteristics: efficiency, fire-resistance, humidity-resistance, radiation-resistance, etc; various types of paper folding: deep folds and small folds, dihedrally mounted; filtering elements; designs; characteristics and quality control; The design of filtration equipment is also analysed: mounting in metal or concrete casings. French and American designs (Regulatory Guide 1-52); and gas-tight casings allowing contaminated filters to be renewed without breaking the gas-tight seal

  14. Design Methodology of Process Layout considering Various Equipment Types for Large scale Pyro processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Seung Nam; Lee, Jong Kwang; Lee, Hyo Jik

    2016-01-01

    At present, each item of process equipment required for integrated processing is being examined, based on experience acquired during the Pyropocess Integrated Inactive Demonstration Facility (PRIDE) project, and considering the requirements and desired performance enhancement of KAPF as a new facility beyond PRIDE. Essentially, KAPF will be required to handle hazardous materials such as spent nuclear fuel, which must be processed in an isolated and shielded area separate from the operator location. Moreover, an inert-gas atmosphere must be maintained, because of the radiation and deliquescence of the materials. KAPF must also achieve the goal of significantly increased yearly production beyond that of the previous facility; therefore, several parts of the production line must be automated. This article presents the method considered for the conceptual design of both the production line and the overall layout of the KAPF process equipment. This study has proposed a design methodology that can be utilized as a preliminary step for the design of a hot-cell-type, large-scale facility, in which the various types of processing equipment operated by the remote handling system are integrated. The proposed methodology applies to part of the overall design procedure and contains various weaknesses. However, if the designer is required to maximize the efficiency of the installed material-handling system while considering operation restrictions and maintenance conditions, this kind of design process can accommodate the essential components that must be employed simultaneously in a general hot-cell system

  15. Integrated dynamic modelling and multivariable control of HVAC components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, H.; Babuska, R.; Baldi, S.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rantzer, Anders; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The field of energy efficiency in buildings offers challenging opportunities from a control point of view. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units in buildings must be accurately controlled so as to ensure the occupants' comfort and reduced energy consumption. While the existing HVAC

  16. RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

  17. Aseismatic design of electrical equipments and instruments for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Miura, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    The aseismatic design of electrical instruments is carried out according to IEEE Standard 344-1971 in the USA. In Japan also, the method of aseismatic design of electrical instruments has been investigated by the representatives of electric power companies and electric machine makers since 1972. In Hitachi Ltd., the statical method of confirming aseismatic property was established on the basis of the rigid design for electrical instruments. It is convenient to examine the aseismatic property of electrical equipments by classifying them into control and switch boards, electrical appliances, equipments and circuits. It is possible to use the static method treating earthquake force as static load by avoiding resonance with the electrical equipments which have the higher natural frequency than that of buildings. The purposes of the vibration test are to prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, to clarify the vibration characteristics, and to confirm the maintenance of functions and the strength of the equipments. The vibration tests of control boards, the switch boards of enclosed type, motor control centers, the racks for instrumentation, storage batteries and electrical appliances are explained. Moreover, the vibration analysis with a computer according to finite element method is described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  19. Designing electronic equipment on the basis of standard mechanical structures using internet re­sour­ces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlangach A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a method to design electronic equipment based on functional-node design method that involves the use of 2D- and 3D- models mechanical structures for electronic equipment as a way to reduce development time and errors when creating design documentation for electronic equipment. At present, most areas of science and technology are computerized, more problems in designing electronic equipment are dealt with using computer-aided design (CAD and Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM to reduce the time required for development and manufacturing of electronic equipment. Development of design documentation also requires a more effective approach, because the less the time for development of the design documentation is, the faster the developed device will go into production. The aim of the study is to develop a method of designing electronic equipment using 2D and 3D models of standard mechanical structures for electronic equipment using Internet resources. Based on the presented methods is an example of designing a device from standard bearing structures. Compared with traditional technology, the method of designing electronic equipment using standard parts has the following advantages: - reduces time and improves quality of development through the use of existing design documentation; - accelerates the implementation and introducing into production processes; - increases unification of design solutions.

  20. Optimal Set-Point Synthesis in HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komareji, Mohammad; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimal set-point synthesis for a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This HVAC system is made of two heat exchangers: an air-to-air heat exchanger and a water-to-air heat exchanger. The objective function is composed of the electrical power for different...... components, encompassing fans, primary/secondary pump, tertiary pump, and air-to-air heat exchanger wheel; and a fraction of thermal power used by the HVAC system. The goals that have to be achieved by the HVAC system appear as constraints in the optimization problem. To solve the optimization problem......, a steady state model of the HVAC system is derived while different supplying hydronic circuits are studied for the water-to-air heat exchanger. Finally, the optimal set-points and the optimal supplying hydronic circuit are resulted....

  1. Improvement of Productivity in TIG Welding Plant by Equipment Design in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanavel, C.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Jayakanth, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements and improvements are very indispensable task at all levels of management. Here some samples are, at operator level: Measuring operating parameters to ensure OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) and measuring Q components performance to ensure quality, at supervisory level: measuring operator’s performance to ensure labour utility at managerial level: production and productivity measurements and at top level capital and capacity utilization. An often accepted statement is “Improvement is impossible without measurement”. Measurements often referred as observation. The case study was conducted at Government Boiler factory in India. The scientific approach followed for indentifying non value added activities. Personalised new equipment designed and installed to achieve productivity improvement of 85% for a day. The new equipment can serve 360o around its axis hence it simplified loading and unloading procedures as well as reduce their times and ensured effective space and time.

  2. Modeling of HVAC operational faults in building performance simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongpeng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Discuss significance of capturing operational faults in existing buildings. •Develop a novel feature in EnergyPlus to model operational faults of HVAC systems. •Compare three approaches to faults modeling using EnergyPlus. •A case study demonstrates the use of the fault-modeling feature. •Future developments of new faults are discussed. -- Abstract: Operational faults are common in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems of existing buildings, leading to a decrease in energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Various fault detection and diagnostic methods have been developed to identify and analyze HVAC operational faults at the component or subsystem level. However, current methods lack a holistic approach to predicting the overall impacts of faults at the building level—an approach that adequately addresses the coupling between various operational components, the synchronized effect between simultaneous faults, and the dynamic nature of fault severity. This study introduces the novel development of a fault-modeling feature in EnergyPlus which fills in the knowledge gap left by previous studies. This paper presents the design and implementation of the new feature in EnergyPlus and discusses in detail the fault-modeling challenges faced. The new fault-modeling feature enables EnergyPlus to quantify the impacts of faults on building energy use and occupant comfort, thus supporting the decision making of timely fault corrections. Including actual building operational faults in energy models also improves the accuracy of the baseline model, which is critical in the measurement and verification of retrofit or commissioning projects. As an example, EnergyPlus version 8.6 was used to investigate the impacts of a number of typical operational faults in an office building across several U.S. climate zones. The results demonstrate that the faults have significant impacts on building energy performance as well as on occupant

  3. Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 4. Use of fragility in seismic design of nuclear plant equipment. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which have covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 4 presents study of the use of fragility concepts in the design of nuclear plant equipment and compares the results of state-of-the-art proof testing with fragility testing

  4. 77 FR 75400 - Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...-intensity discharge lamps, distribution transformers, and small electric motors as covered equipment. (42 U... following: Electric motors and pumps; commercial HVAC and water heating equipment (small, large, and very... prescribed for certain types of covered equipment. Specific requirements are established for electric motors...

  5. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  6. Modelling and design of undercarriage components of large-scale earthmoving equipment in tar sand operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J.; Frimpong, S.; Sobieski, R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Centre for Advanced Energy and Minerals Research

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described the fundamental and applied research work which has been carried out at the University of Alberta's Centre for Advanced Energy and Minerals Research to improve the undercarriage elements of large scale earthmoving equipment used in oil sands mining operations. A new method has been developed to predict the optimum curvature and blade geometry of earth moving equipment such as bulldozers and motor graders. A mathematical relationship has been found to approximate the optimum blade shape for reducing cutting resistance and fill resistance. The equation is a function of blade geometry and soil properties. It is the first model that can mathematically optimize the shape of a blade on earth moving equipment. A significant saving in undercarriage components can be achieved from reducing the amount of cutting and filling resistance for this type of equipment working on different soils. A Sprocket Carrier Roller for a Tracked Vehicle was also invented to replace the conventional cylindrical carrier roller. The new sprocket type carrier roller offers greater support for the drive track and other components of the undercarriage assembly. A unique retaining pin assembly has also been designed to detach connecting disposable wear parts from earthmoving equipment. The retaining pin assembly is easy to assemble and disassemble and includes reusable parts. 13 figs.

  7. Design and operation of equipment used to develop remote coating capability for HTGR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, R.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Preston, M.K.; Heck, J.L.; Bolfing, B.J.; Lackey, W.J.

    1978-12-01

    Refabrication of HTGR fuels is a manufacturing process that consists of preparation of fuel kernels, application of multiple layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide, preparation of fuel rods, and assembly of fuel rods into fuel elements. All the equipment for refabrication of 233 U-containing fuel must be designed for completely remote operation and maintenance in hot-cell facilities. Equipment to remotely coated HTGR fuel particles has been designed and operated. Although not all of the equipment development needed for a fully remote coating system has been completed, significant progress has been made. The most important component of the coating furnace is the gas distributor, which must be simple, reliable, and easily maintainable. Techniques for loading and unloading the coater and handling microspheres have been developed. An engineering-scale system, currently in operation, is being used to verify the workability of these concepts. Coating crucible handling components are used to remove the crucible from the furnace, remove coated particles, and exchange the crucible, if necessary. After the batch of particles has been unloaded, it is transferred, weighed, and sampled. The components used in these processes have been tested to ensure that no particle breakage or holdup occurs. Tests of the particle handling system have been very encouraging because no major problems have been encountered. Instrumentation that controls the equipment performed very smoothly and reliably and can be operated remotely

  8. A mechanical design for positioning of gm detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat; Budi Santoso; Krismawan; Abdul Jalil

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  9. Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat; Budi Santoso; Krismawan; Abdul Jalil

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  10. HVAC system optimisation-in-building section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L.; Cai, W.; Xie, L.; Li, S.; Soh, Y.C. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimise in-building section of centralised Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimisation method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  11. HVAC system optimization - in-building section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Lu; Wenjian Cai; Lihua Xie; Shujiang Li; Yeng Chai Soh [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimize in-building section of centralized Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimization method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  12. Prototypical spent fuel rod consolidation equipment preliminary design report: Volume 1, Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This design report describes the NUS Preliminary Design of the Prototype Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation Equipment for the Department of Energy. The sections of the report elaborate on each facet of the preliminary design. A concept summary is provided to assist the reader in rapidly understanding the complete design. The NUS Prototype Spent Fuel Rod Consolidation System is an automatically controlled system to consolidate a minimum of 750 MT (heavy metal)/year of US commercial nuclear reactor fuel, at 75% availability. The system is designed with replaceable components utilizing the latest state-of-the-art technology. This approach gives the system the flexibility to be developed without costly development programs, yet accept new technology as it evolves over the next ten years. Capability is also provided in the system design to accommodate a wide variety of fuel conditions and to recover from any situation which may arise

  13. Design and implementation of equipment for monitoring the salinity in the subsoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Norzagaray Campos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical exploration equipments to explore the contaminants and structures geological in the subsoil come from abroad are expensive and sometimes parts for replacement are not available in the market. So it is necessary design apparatus that meet cover these needs. To the monitoring of variations in salinity there is semi-automatic equipment, but it always has difficult to manage. However, is not equipment for the indirect study of salinity in the subsoil. In this work was design equipment for measurement the apparent resistivity in the subsoil, at same time allow know the salinity, as well as the detection of any pollutant in groundwater. For make it, was selected a design of earthing systems, with electronic hardware which were jointed for apply to subsoil a direct current (DC through an array dipole-dipole and vertical electric sounding, with brass and stainless steel electrodes. In the earthing systems the electrodes were collocated in the equidistant line between the detectors of potential and current. A geometric factor (K, that depend on theelectrodes distance and direct current (I injected in the electrodes A and B, was used for measure the potential difference between the electrodes M and N; after was calculate the resistivity point to point for obtain a subsoil tomography geoelectrical. The equipment was calibrated with minimum error (rms < 2% whit respect to curves obtained in similar commercial equipment. On this situation, in this work was modernized and automated an equipment to determine thesalinity of the subsoil. The instrument was tasted in the micro basin Texcoco, State of Mexico, to define the environment geometry formed by alluvial or lake sediments from igneous rocks (andesites, rhyolites and tuffs vitreous or “tepetates” which by its mineralogical composition allowed to the lateral resistivity be associate with free components trace from the aquifer: Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb or Zn and others. This method constitutes

  14. Design considerations, tooling, and equipment for remote in-service inspection of radioactive piping and pressure-vessel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, D.L.; Schmoker, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained in use of remotely-operated nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment for inspection of reactor-system components. Experience obtained in operating the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has provided a basis for field verification of remote NDT equipment designs and has suggested development improvements. Remote Viewing and data gathering systems used include periscopes, borescopes, fiberscopes, hybrid borescopes/fiberscopes, and closed circuit television. A summary of design consideration for inspection equipment and power plant design is presented to achieve improved equipment operation and reduction of plant maintenance downtime

  15. Design of free-space optical transmission system in computer tomography equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Fu, Weiwei; Zhang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Traditional computer tomography (CT) based on capacitive coupling cannot satisfy the high data rate transmission requirement. We design and experimentally demonstrate a free-space optical transmission system for CT equipment at a data rate of 10 Gb / s. Two interchangeable sections of 12 pieces of fiber with equal length is fabricated and tested by our designed laser phase distance measurement system. By locating the 12 collimators in the edge of the circle wheel evenly, the optical propagation characteristics for the 12 wired and wireless paths are similar, which can satisfy the requirement of high-speed CT transmission system. After bit error rate (BER) measurement in several conditions, the BER performances are below the value of 10 - 11, which has the potential in the future application scenario of CT equipment.

  16. Design of inspection equipment vehicle of mobile cobalt-60 container scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanmin; An Jigang; Zhou Liye; Liu Yisi; Wu Zhifang; Xiang Xincheng; Huang Songling

    2000-01-01

    The author introduced the design principle of Inspection Equipment Vehicle of TCM-SCAN Mobile 60 Co container inspection system. Three schemes had been compared. The scheme of scan gate in form of pucker-able rails standing on the vehicle was determined. Prototype was prepared in September 1999. Mobile 60 Co container inspection system had the same inspection performance of fixed 60 Co container inspection system

  17. Cyber and physical equipment digital control system in Industry 4.0 item designing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjanov, A. V.; Zakoldaev, D. A.; Shukalov, A. V.; Zharinov, I. O.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of organization of digital control of the item designing company equipped with cyber and physical systems is being studied. A scheme of cyber and physical systems and personnel interaction in the Industry 4.0 smart factory company is presented. A scheme of assembly units transportation in the Industry 4.0 smart factory company is provided. A scheme of digital control system in the Industry 4.0 smart factory company is given.

  18. Design and construction of stepper motor controller for brachy-therapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Rifai; Usep Setia Gunawan; Indarzah Masbatin Putra

    2011-01-01

    Based on a microcontroller, a stepper motor controller for brachy-therapy equipment has been designed and prototyped. The embedded control program routine and its other associated routines enable the microcontroller to generate required pulses via external commands for stepper motor based position control. The controller receives ASCII text command via a serial port. The constructed algorithm implements the widely used method that allows motor to rotate in three phases, i.e: acceleration, constant speed, and deceleration. (author)

  19. Survey of injury sources for a trampoline with equipment hazards designed out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, David; Scarrott, Carl; Nixon, Jim; Alexander, Keith

    2012-07-01

    In Australia, trampolines contribute approximately one-quarter of all childhood play-equipment injuries. The purpose of this study was to gather and evaluate injury data from a nontraditional, 'soft-edged', consumer trampoline in which the equipment injury sources have been designed out. A survey was undertaken in Queensland and New South Wales. The manufacturer of the nontraditional trampoline provided the University of Technology, Sydney, with their Australian customer database. Injury data were gathered in a pilot study by phone interview, then in a full study through an email survey. Results from 3817 respondents were compared with earlier Australian and US data from traditional trampolines gathered from emergency departments.   A significantly lower proportion of the injuries caused by falling off or striking the equipment was found for this new design when compared with traditional trampolines both in Australia and in the USA. The age of children being injured on trampolines in Australia was found to be markedly lower than in North America. This research indicates that with appropriate design the more severe injuries on traditional trampolines can be significantly reduced. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  1. The Design and Experiment of the Track-Type Equipment for Feeding Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the effective ways of reducing the cost and increase the revenue, feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity could further develop the production potential of high- yield dairy cows and improve the milk yield of every dairy cow. Therefore, based on three kinds of technologies of radio frequency identification technology, wireless transmission technology and infrared technology and grounded on the foundation of previous studies, this thesis has completed the track- type equipment for feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity. The equipment takes the computer as the information management platform, adopts the singly chip microcomputer as the control platform, uses the wireless module and U disk to conduct the transmission of individual feeding data of dairy cows and guides the whole process with the track. This kind of equipment could advance automatically, identify and feed dairy cows precisely during the feeding process. This thesis also designs the matching feeding technology of the equipment, and accomplishes the test of feeding outside the cowshed, which takes “TMR + precise feeding with concentrated feed” as the feeding model, so that the feeding process could be more effective and further steady.

  2. Radio frequency sputtering equipment: design considerations for the disc and annulus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.M.; Cox, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basic equations important in the design of rf sputtering equipment are presented. Attention is restricted to the 'disc and annulus' system and simple techniques in lead-through fabrication and electrode shielding are described. Also rf power oscillator theory is used to derive the important parameters of power generation. Load coupling and power matching techniques are discussed. Problems of the magnetic field coil design are analysed and a value for the thermal conductivity of coils wound from polyurethane coated wire is given, namely k = 0.64 W m -1 / 0 C -1 , permitting the steady state temperature distribution inside such coils to be predicted. (author)

  3. HVAC system operational strategies for reduced energy consumption in buildings with intermittent occupancy: The case of mosques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaiwi, I.; Abdou, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper operational zoning in the early design phase of mosques can lead to up to 30% reduction in the annual cooling energy. • Energy performance index of 71.0 kW h/m 2 yr for an insulated mosque can be realized with A/C proper intermitted operation. • 23% energy saving can be achieved when a properly oversized A/C is operated intermittently for 1 h during each prayer. • 13% reduction in cooling energy use can be achieved when A/C operation precedes worshippers’ occupancy in mosques. • Envelope insulation and A/C intermittent operation with proper operational zoning leads to more than 46% savings in energy. - Abstract: Mosques are places of worship for Muslims with unique functional requirements and operational characteristics. They are partially or fully occupied for about an hour for five intermittent periods during the day. In hot climates, maintaining indoor thermal comfort requires a considerable amount of energy that can be reduced by proper operational zoning and effective HVAC operation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of operational zoning and HVAC system intermittent operation strategies on the energy performance of mosques while thermal comfort is maintained. Energy simulation modeling is used for evaluating alternative zoning and HVAC operation strategies. Results indicate that up to 23% reduction in annual cooling energy is achieved by employing suitable HVAC operation strategy and system over-sizing, and 30% reduction is achieved by appropriate operational zoning. Comparing the cooling energy consumption of HVAC summer continuous operation of an un-insulated mosque with the consumption of the insulated mosque with properly oversized HVAC system operated for 1 h during each prayer, indicated that as much as 46% of cooling energy reduction can be achieved. Furthermore, utilizing proper operational zoning and HVAC operation strategies is expected to bring about an additional significant energy

  4. Design and Implementation of Equipment for Enhanced Safeguards of a Plutonium Storage in a Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richir, P.; Dechamp, L.; Buchet, P.; Dransart, P.; Dzbikowicz, Z.; Peerani, P.; ); Pierssens, L.; Persson, L.; Ancius, D.; Synetos, S.; ); Edmonds, N.; Homer, A.; Benn, K.-A.; Polkey, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Security unit (NUSEC) of the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU, JRC) was entrusted by DG ENER to design and implement equipment in order to achieve enhanced safeguards of a plutonium dioxide storage located on the MAGNOX reprocessing plant in Sellafield (UK). Enhanced safeguards must lead to a win-win situation for all parties involved. In this case the DG ENER inspectorate will save inspection time, manpower and future financial resources and the operator will have the right to access its storage without the need for inspector presence. To reach this goal, while at the same time taking into account current budget constraints, NUSEC developed applications that use equipment commonly used in the safety and security fields but so far have not been used in safeguards. For instance, two laser scanners are used to detect entry/exit events into and out of the store and to provide the necessary information to an algorithm in order to categorize objects/people passing the scanners, e.g., a Fork Lift Truck, a trolley used to bring in PuO 2 containers, a system used for the dispatch of cans, people, etc. An RFID reader is used to identify equipment duly authorized to access the store. All PuO 2 containers arriving from the production line must be weighed, identified and measured using gamma and neutron detectors before they can be transferred to the store. For this purpose an Unattended Combined Measurement System (UCMS) was designed and manufactured by the JRC in order to do all verification activities using a single instrument. This paper describes the design features of the equipment and its implementation with the support of the Sellafield Ltd. in the framework of the MAGNOX store project. (author)

  5. Study for process and equipment design of wet gelation stages in vibropacking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ryoji; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Amino, Masaki; Yanai, Minoru

    2004-02-01

    Process and layout design of external wet gelation stages in vibropacking process was examined for the feasibility study of commercialized FBR cycle system. In this study, following process stages for the oxide core fuel production line were covered, that is, solidification, washing, drying, calcination, reduction, sintering stages including interim storage of sintering particles and reagent recovery stage. The main results obtained by this study are as follows: (1) Based on the process examination results conducted previously, process-flow, mass-balance and number of production line/equipment were clarified. The process is covered from the receive tank of feed solution to the interim storage equipment. Reagent recovery process-flow, mass-balance were also clarified. And preliminary design of the main equipment was reexamined. (2) Normal operation procedure and the procedure after process failure were summarized along with a remote automated operation procedure. Operation sequence of each production line was mapped out by using a time-chart. (3) Design outline of reagent recovery equipments, installed to recover waste liquid from the wet gelation stages in the view of environmental impact were examined. Effective techniques such as collection of solvent, residue waste treatment method were examined its applicability and selected. Schematic block diagram was presented. (4) Analytical items and analyzing apparatus were extracted taking into account of quality control and process management. Analytical sample taking position and frequency of sampling were also examined. (5) A schematic layout drawing of main manufacturing process and reagent recovery process was presented taking into account of material handling. (6) A feature of the operating rate at each process stage was examined by analyzing failure rate reliability of each component. applying the reliability-centred method. (RCM), the operating rate was evaluated and annual maintenance period was estimated using

  6. Thermal room modelling adapted to the test of HVAC control systems; Modele de zone adapte aux essais de regulateurs de systemes de chauffage et de climatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riederer, P.

    2002-01-15

    Room models, currently used for controller tests, assume the room air to be perfectly mixed. A new room model is developed, assuming non-homogeneous room conditions and distinguishing between different sensor positions. From measurement in real test rooms and detailed CFD simulations, a list of convective phenomena is obtained that has to be considered in the development of a model for a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The zonal modelling approach that divides the room air into several sub-volumes is chosen, since it is able to represent the important convective phenomena imposed on the HVAC system. The convective room model is divided into two parts: a zonal model, representing the air at the occupant zone and a second model, providing the conditions at typical sensor positions. Using this approach, the comfort conditions at the occupant zone can be evaluated as well as the impact of different sensor positions. The model is validated for a test room equipped with different HVAC systems. Sensitivity analysis is carried out on the main parameters of the model. Performance assessment and energy consumption are then compared for different sensor positions in a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The results are also compared with those obtained when a well-mixed model is used. A main conclusion of these tests is, that the differences obtained, when changing the position of the controller's sensor, is a function of the HVAC system and controller type. The differences are generally small in terms of thermal comfort but significant in terms of overall energy consumption. For different HVAC systems the cases are listed, in which the use of a simplified model is not recommended. (author)

  7. Preliminary design report: Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blissell, W.H.; Ciez, A.P.; Mitchell, J.L.; Winkler, C.J.

    1986-12-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Preliminary Design for the Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project per Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC07-86ID12649 and under direction of the DOE Idaho Operations Office. The preliminary design is the first step to providing the Department of Energy with a fully qualified, licensable, cost-effective spent fuel rod consolidation system. The design was developed using proven technologies and equipment to create an innovative approach to previous rod consolidation concepts. These innovations will better enable the Westinghouse system to: consolidate fuel rods in a precise, fully-controlled, accountable manner; package all rods from two PWR fuel assemblies or from four BWR fuel assemblies in one 8.5 inch square consolidated rods canister; meet all functional requirements; operate with all fuel types common to the US commercial nuclear industry with minimal tooling changeouts; and meet consolidation production process rates, while maintaining operator and public health and safety. This Preliminary Design Report provides both detailed descriptions of the equipment required to perform the rod consolidation process and the supporting analyses to validate the design

  8. Methodological framework for the ergonomic design of children's playground equipment: a Serbian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanovic, Miroljub; Jekic, Savko; Stojiljkovic, Evica

    2014-01-01

    Adequate application of the static and dynamic anthropometric measures of pre-school children in ergonometric design of children's playground equipment should eliminate all dangers and difficulties in their use. Possibilities of injuries, insecure movements, discomfort able positions and some other dangerous actions may be minimized; and safety and health protection of pre-school children will be increased. Children's playground represents a significant space of activity for pre-school children. Therefore, it is necessary to apply ergonomic principles which contribute to the adjustment of the playground elements to children's anatomic features. Based on the results presented in this paper, new constructions were designed and new playgrounds were installed in Serbia. Participants were children from three pre-school age groups: Junior age group (3-4 years of age, 17 children), Medium age group (4-5 years of age, 22 children), and Senior age group (5-6 years of age, 26 children). Thirty-one static anthropometric measures (12 in standing position, 11 in sitting position, 7 related to dimensions of hand, foot an head, with body weight and shoe size) and 15 dynamic anthropometric measures (7 in standing position, 6 in sitting position and 2 dimension of foot and hand) were defined for the study. Measurements were taken using an anthrop-meter, a flexible measuring tape. Equations for ergonomic design of children's playground elements were also defined. Basic statistical data of static and dynamic anthropometric measurements of the pre-school children are presented in this paper, as well as the statistical calculation of the corrective anthropometric measurements. Measurements were performed in "Poletarac" kindergarten, part of the pre-school institution "Radost" in Cacak. Elements of playground equipment in "Bambi" kindergarten in Kragujevac (the Indian tent "wigwam", gate-house, swing and carousel) were designed and built using these parameters. Based on the obtained

  9. On anti-earthquake design procedure of equipment and pipings in near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, H.

    1981-01-01

    The requirement of anti-earthquake design of nuclear power plants is getting severe year by year. The author will try to discuss how to control its severity and how to find a proper design procedure for licensing of new plants under such severe requirements. On the other hand we suffered from the enormous volumes of documents. To decrease such volumes, the format of documents should be standardized as well as the design procedure standardization. Starting from this point, we need the research and development on the following subjects: i) Standardization of design procedure. ii) Standardization of document. iii) Establishment of standard review procedure using computer. iv) Standardization of earthquake-resistant designed equipment. v) Standardization of anti-earthquake design procedure of piping systems. vi) Introducing margin evaluation procedure to design procedure. vii) Introducing proving test procedure of active component to design procedure. viii) Establishment of evaluation of human reliability in design, fabrication, inspection procedures. ix) Establishment of the proper relation of seismic trigger level and post-earthquake design procedures. (orig./HP)

  10. D-Zero HVAC Heat Pump Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This engineering note documents the integration of Dzero Heat Pump 1 through Heat Pump 15 into the cryo/gas process control system commonly referred to as the cryo control system. Heat pumps 1 through 15 control the ambient air temperature on the 3rd, 5th, and 6th floor office areas at Dzero. The entire Johnson HVAC control system was replaced with a Siemens control system in 1999 leaving behind the 15 heat pumps with stand-alone Johnson controllers. Now, these 15 heat pump Johnson controllers are being replaced with small stand alone Beckhoff BC9000 controllers. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers are network able into the existing Intellution control system. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers use the cryo private Ethernet network and an OPC driver to get data into the Intellution SCADA node databases. The BC9000 is also programmed over this same Ethernet network.

  11. Transactive Control of Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    This document details the development and testing of market-based transactive controls for building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. These controls are intended to serve the purposes of reducing electricity use through conservation, reducing peak building electric demand, and providing demand flexibility to assist with power system operations. This report is the summary of the first year of work conducted under Phase 1 of the Clean Energy and Transactive Campus Project. The methods and techniques described here were first investigated in simulation, and then subsequently deployed to a physical testbed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus for validation. In this report, we describe the models and control algorithms we have developed, testing of the control algorithms in simulation, and deployment to a physical testbed. Results from physical experiments support previous simulation findings, and provide insights for further improvement.

  12. Study on compact design of remote handling equipment for ITER blanket maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2006-03-01

    In the ITER, the neutrons created by D-T reactions activate structural materials, and thereby, the circumstance in the vacuum vessel is under intense gamma radiation field. Thus, the in-vessel components such as blanket are handled and replaced by remote handling equipment. The objective of this report is to study the compactness of the remote handling equipment (a vehicle/manipulator) for the ITER blanket maintenance. In order to avoid the interferences between the blanket and the equipment during blanket replacement in the restricted vacuum vessel, a compact design of the equipment is required. Therefore, the compact design is performed, including kinematic analyses aiming at the reduction of the sizes of the vehicle equipped with a manipulator handling the blanket and the rail for the vehicle traveling in the vacuum vessel. Major results are as follows: 1. The compact vehicle/manipulator is designed concentration on the reduction of the rail size and simplification of the guide roller mechanism as well as the reduction of the gear diameter for vehicle rotation around the rail. Height of the rail is reduced from 500 mm to 400 mm by a parameter survey for weight, stiffness and stress of the rail. The roller mechanism is divided into two simple functional mechanisms composed of rollers and a pad, that is, the rollers support relatively light loads during rail deployment and vehicle traveling while a pad supports heavy loads during blanket replacement. Regarding the rotation mechanism, the double helical gear is adopted, because it has higher contact ratio than the normal spur gear and consequently can transfer higher force. The smaller double helical gear, 996 mm in diameter, can achieve 26% higher output torque, 123.5 kN·m, than that of the original spur gear of 1,460 mm in diameter, 98 kN·m. As a result, the manipulator becomes about 30% lighter, 8 tons, than the original weight, 11.2 tons. 2. Based on the compact design of the vehicle/manipulator, the

  13. The Architecture Design of Detection and Calibration System for High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Lin, Y.; Yang, Y.; Gu, Ch; Yang, F.; Zou, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    With the construction of Material Quality Inspection Center of Shandong electric power company, Electric Power Research Institute takes on more jobs on quality analysis and laboratory calibration for high-voltage electrical equipment, and informationization construction becomes urgent. In the paper we design a consolidated system, which implements the electronic management and online automation process for material sampling, test apparatus detection and field test. In the three jobs we use QR code scanning, online Word editing and electronic signature. These techniques simplify the complex process of warehouse management and testing report transferring, and largely reduce the manual procedure. The construction of the standardized detection information platform realizes the integrated management of high-voltage electrical equipment from their networking, running to periodic detection. According to system operation evaluation, the speed of transferring report is doubled, and querying data is also easier and faster.

  14. Height, fun and safety in the design of children's playground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakes, Sarah; Beukes, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this paper adopted a holistic design approach to investigate issues associated with height related playground injuries from a users' perspective. The main objective was to gain an understanding of the relationship between height and fun so as to establish practical guidelines for addressing the causes of height related injuries whilst maintaining the attributes of playground equipment that children find fun and challenging. Results show that, on the one hand, the risk of injury increases when height is coupled with the use of upper body strength and, on the other hand, that coordination is a greater source of fun and challenge than height for children. Accordingly, it is suggested that the level of risk of injury attached to children's playground equipment can be reduced when the use of lower body strength and coordination are combined with lower free fall heights.

  15. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  16. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  17. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thornton, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  19. Strategy Guideline. Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  20. Design and Construction of Equipment for Applying the Geophysical Prospecting Method Electric Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Héctor Giraldo Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outlines the procedure for the design and construction of electric equipment for geophysical prospecting through electrical tomography method. The team is of average power, ensuring exploration depths quite suitable for applications and commercial and geotechnical studies. The device is essentially a DC voltage source of 500 volts that is able to provide a maximum current of 1 amp. It also contains a small charge current source of electrical currents counteract naturally found in the subsoil and are manifested as a difference in the surface potential. A general explanation of the geophysical method in question, helps to understand the basic principles of operation of the equipment and functions to be fulfilled. After building the team, we conducted a field data acquisition, in area near the town of Gachancipa Cundinamarca. The data from this equipment are processed with specialized software. The images obtained with the software presents the distributions of subsurface resistivity can be associated with the possible structures and geology of the study area.

  1. Development of processing procedure preparing for digital computer controlled equipment on modular design base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosel'tsev, O.P.; Khrundin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    In order to reduce labour consumption of technological preparation of production for digital computer controlled machines during the treatment of steam turbines articles created is a system of modular design of technological processes and controlling programs. A set of typical modulas-transitions, being a number of surfaces of an articles treated with one cutting tool in optimum sequence, and a library of cutting tools are the base of the system. Introduction of such a system sharply enhaneces the efficiency of the equipment utilization [ru

  2. An Expert System for Supporting the Design and Selection of Mechanical Equipment for Recreational Crafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gonciarz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expert Systems can be defined as computer programs, whose main task is to simulate a human expert, usually in a narrow field of expertise. Expert Systems have experienced tremendous growth and popularity since their commercial introduction in the early 1970’s. Today, Expert Systems are used in business, science, engineering, manufacturing and other engineering applications such as planning, scheduling, diagnosing equipment failures and are used in almost every stage of the manufacturing process and also in medicine and many other fields. Expert Systems belong to the field of artificial intelligence. An intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems that are difficult enough to require significant human expertise for the solution. The purpose of this paper is to present an Expert System which assists with the design of yachts and supports the selection of mechanical equipment for yachts and includes knowledge in the field of yachting engineering. Using the presented Expert System reduces the time during the design and production preparation process.

  3. Different types of superconductors: their effect on equipment design. Les differents types de supraconducteurs: influence sur la conception des materiels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, A; Manuel, P [Electricite de France (EDF); Fevrier, A [Compagnie Generale d' Electricite (CGE), 91 - Marcoussis (FR)

    1989-01-01

    Development of superconductors for AC current and of higher critical temperature superconducting materials enlarged the field of research in cryoelectrotechnic. The paper discusses the materials characteristics in relation with the functional needs in the equipments. Are reviewed the main points governing conductor design for a given application, the characteristics and manufacturing technics for different superconducting materials. It is shown how lighter, smaller equipments can be designed as well as new ones for functions not covered with present apparatus. 17 refs.

  4. Typical design/qualification acceptance criteria for newly installed pipelines and equipment components of VVER-type NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes in general the typical design/qualification acceptance criteria and seismic acceptance criteria in particular that are applicable for important to safety newly installed pipelines and equipment components of VVER-type already existing NPPs, specifically during the design verification phase of this newly installed equipment. These criteria are currently used for VVER 440-213 and VVER 1000 NPPs in Czech Republic and in Slovakia. The similar criteria are also used in Hungary. (author)

  5. The Factors of Design on Playing Equipment in Young Children Schools by Viewpoint of Young Children Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chuen-tzay

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the care-givers of preschool education institutions whose cognition on playing equipment functions, conditions of both setting and using, and the main factors which should beware of design. Besides, not only constructed the factors of design, but also provided suggestions about setting and designing of…

  6. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design objectives for equipment to control releases of... out in appendix I to this part provide numerical guidance on design objectives for light-water-cooled... unrestricted areas be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. These numerical guides for design objectives and...

  7. Transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT) system design status and operational support equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, N.W.; Meyer, R.J.; Romesberg, L.E.; Pope, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A program was initiated in the late 1970's at Sandia National Laboratories to develop an efficient, safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation packaging system for the carriage of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. It is anticipated that eventually a family of TRUPACT (TRansUranic PACKage Transporter) systems having varied dimensions and weight/volume capacities will be needed by the DOE to transport different CH-TRU waste forms. Each TRUPACT system will be a Type B packaging. Large quantities of CH-TRU wastes having many different forms, isotopic contents, and contained in a variety of waste containers have been, are being, and will continue to be produced and stored for ultimate disposal. Packaging design is being closely coordinated with facility designs to ensure the rapid and economic integration of the TRUPACT system. The first packaging developed for transport by truck or rail (bimodal) is designated TRUPACT-I and will become operational in 1984. This paper provides an overview of progress on the TRUPACT-I design and details of equipment to be used for interfacing with users

  8. Design considerations, tooling and equipment for remote in-service inspection of radioactive piping and pressure vessel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoker, D.S.; Swannack, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    In-Service Inspection programs are performed to monitor and verify the integrity of a nuclear power plant's primary pressure boundaries. Early detection of abnormal structural or material degradation could preclude serious damage to plant systems. This paper summarizes results obtained in use of remotely-operated nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment for inspection of reactor system components. Experience obtained in operating the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has provided a basis for field verification of remote NDT equipment designs and has suggested development improvements. Remote Viewing and data gathering systems used include periscopes, borescopes, fiberscopes, hybrid borescopes/fiberscopes, and closed circuit television. A summary of design consideration for inspection equipment and power plant design is presented to achieve improved equipment operation and reduction of plant maintenance downtime

  9. Design of the Nonlinear Pin Rubber Forming Equipment Integrating the Functions of Extruding, Dewatering, Drying & Expanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefeng Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The top priority of car-tire suppliers is to improve wetland grip force of the using tires, reduce the rolling resistance and the rolling noise of tires. It is urgent for the tire industry to research and develop high-performance tires to solve the above problems. They must use the high- performance synthetic rubber and auxiliary rubber to develop the most advanced manufacturing technologies and equipment. Silica, a kind of important tire auxiliary rubber, can significantly reduce the rolling resistance of tires, improve the grip force and properties resistant to ice, wetness or slippery of tires. In this paper, based on the conventional tire rubber forming technologies of extrusion, dewatering, drying and expanding, a study is made on the conical screw, the dewatering barrel, the drying barrel, the pin layout scheme, the expanding die head, cutter and the control system. The nonlinear pin rubber forming equipment integrating the functions of extrusion, dewatering, drying and expanding is designed and applied to tire auxiliary rubber forming. The experiment shows that the forming device can realize the one-step forming, with high forming efficiency, low cost and less labor.

  10. Design principles and clinical possibilities with a new generation of radiation therapy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruden, B P [Department of Hospital physics Karolinska institute, (Sudan)

    1997-12-31

    The main steps in the development of isocentric megavoltage external beam radiation therapy machines are briefly reviewed identifying three principal types or generations of equipment to date. The new fourth generation of equipment presented here is characterized by considerably increased flexibility in dose delivery through the use of scanned elementary electron and photon beams of very high quality. Furthermore, the wide energy range and the possibility of using high resolution multi leaf collimation with all beam modalities makes it possible to simplify irradiation techniques and increase the accuracy in dose delivery. The main design features are described including a dual magnet scanning system, a photon beam purging magnet, a helium atmosphere in the treatment head, a beam`s eye view video read-out system of the collimator setting and a radiotherapeutic computed tomography facility. Some of the clinical applications of this new type of radiation therapy machine are finally reviewed, such as the ease of performance, became flattening, beam filtering and compensation, and the simplification of many treatment techniques using the wide spectrum of high quality electron and photon beams. Finally, the interesting possibility of doing conformation and more general isocentric treatments with non-uniform beams using the multi leaf collimator and the scanning systems are demonstrated. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  12. Design of data acquisition system ZOH production process equipment of ZBS (zircon based sulfate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch Rosyid; Tunjung Indrati Y

    2013-01-01

    Design of data acquisition system of ZOH maker unit from ZBS has performed. Design is done as a follow-up of The Design Flow stirred tank reactor (RATB) ZOH Making of ZBS is equipped with a data acquisition system. The design of the system is going to work based on constants or parameters that have been previously calculated. Design method begins with understanding the process description of ZBS ZOH continuous basis, identify the parameters to be observed. Description of the process need to know to determine the actuator is used, as for these parameters are used to determine the sensor to be used. The parameter are the detection of NH 4 OH and ZBS reserves the feeder tank, flow rate ZBS and NH 4 OH, the temperature inside RATB, RATB and pH , the produced flow rate of ZOH. Based on the calculation, in order to get the results needed ZOH ZBS will flow into the reactor at the rate of 10 ml/min simultaneously with NH 4 OH with discharge flow 6.1 ml/min into the RATB 3 liters volume. When the volume reaches half tank RATB then start heating is turned on while the constant feed flow. Conditions of pH and temperature on the RATB always monitored by setting point pH at 10 while setting point temperature of 90°C. Monitoring parameters require gauge/transducer or a particular sensor. The study on the obtained results in the form of a flow chart design controller when controlling the process, when read and transmit data, and display the resulting data acquisition process parameters on the screen according to the parameters that was planned. (author)

  13. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the two tools 1)"Product families - short cuts to environmental knowledge" and 2)"Eco-conscious design of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)". Tool 1) comes in form of a handbook. The purpose of this handbook is to ease the work with developing more environmentally sound...... products, thus giving guidelines for development of new products without the companies themselves having to perform an LCA. The handbook describes 5 productfamilies: mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting, ventilation. Tool 2) comes in form of a software tool...... with built in training, guidance, references, calculator and database. The tool provides the basic understanding of how EEE-products in general interact with the environment. The tool gives an overview of the tasks and responsibilities involved in Eco-Desing, and examples of how to choose and quantify...

  14. Application of PSA in Designing New Third-Generation NPPs Equipped with VVE Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchumov, A. Yu.; Morozov, V.B., E-mail: morozov-sloboda@mail.ru [JSC Atomenergoproekt, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    The projects of new third-generation NPPs shall meet more stringent safety requirements. A proper balance between a high level of safety and modern requirements for power unit availability indicators cannot be achieved without applying a probabilistic approach in the course of designing, central to which is probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The report presents the main results from application of PSA in working out new projects of NPPs equipped with VVER reactors, as well as the obtained quantitative results reflecting the entire spectrum of operational states and initiating events. It is shown that by using an efficient combination of active and passive safety systems it is possible to achieve a safety level in the projects complying with the latest requirements, including those following from the lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident. (author)

  15. Development of the graphic design and control system based on a graphic simulator for the spent fuel dismantling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Yoon, J. S

    2000-06-01

    In this study, the graphic design system is developed for designing the spent fuel rod consolidation and the dismantling processes. This system is used throughout the design stages from the conceptual design to the motion analysis. Also, the real-time control system of the rod extracting equipment is developed. This system utilizes the graphic simulator which simulates the motion of the equipment in real time by synchronously connecting the control PC with the graphic server through the TCP/IP network. The developed system is expected to be used as an effective tool in designing the process equipment for the spent fuel management. And the real-time graphic control system can be effectively used to enhance the reliability and safety of the spent fuel handling process by providing the remote monitoring function of the process.

  16. Development of the graphic design and control system based on a graphic simulator for the spent fuel dismantling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Yoon, J. S.

    2000-06-01

    In this study, the graphic design system is developed for designing the spent fuel rod consolidation and the dismantling processes. This system is used throughout the design stages from the conceptual design to the motion analysis. Also, the real-time control system of the rod extracting equipment is developed. This system utilizes the graphic simulator which simulates the motion of the equipment in real time by synchronously connecting the control PC with the graphic server through the TCP/IP network. The developed system is expected to be used as an effective tool in designing the process equipment for the spent fuel management. And the real-time graphic control system can be effectively used to enhance the reliability and safety of the spent fuel handling process by providing the remote monitoring function of the process

  17. The Design and Implementation of the Remote Centralized-Monitoring System of Well-Control Equipment Based on RFID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, in domestic for the management of well control equipment continue to the traditional way of nameplates identifies and paper-based registration, there are many issues like the separation of data information of device, easy lose, difficult query, confused management and many other problems, which will make the problem device into the well field, and then resulting in well control runaway drilling accident. To solve the above problems, this paper put forward to the integrated remote centralized-monitoring management mode of the well-control equipment. Taking the advantages of IOT technology, adopting the RFID technology, and combining with the remote transmission, this paper designs the remote centralized-monitoring system of well-control equipment based on RFID, which realizes the intelligent management of well-control equipment and meets the actual demand of the well-control equipment safe use and timely scheduling, and it has the ability of field application.

  18. Bionic design methodology for wear reduction of bulk solids handling equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale handling of particulate solids can cause severe wear on bulk solids handling equipment surfaces. Wear reduces equipment life span and increases maintenance cost. Examples of traditional methods to reduce wear of bulk solids handling equipment include optimizing transport operations

  19. The integrated design of building services by an equipped and eco-efficient module (MOTE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giordano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The targets set out by European Directives concerning the energy savings in the construction sector refer both to building envelope and to its services. With regard to building services it is mandatory meeting requirements related to heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation. Building services take up a variable space in the buildings that cannot be considered anymore negligible and they would always be fully integrated into buildings. Equipped and Eco-efficient Technological Module (MOTE2 is a research project aimed at implementing the integration in a unique services cupboard of some building services: heating and cooling; domestic hot water; mechanical ventilation. The project was organized according to four main phases. In phase 1 a set of rules was defined matching requirements related to the energy efficiency to environmental building design standards. During the phase 2 six building models were studied in order to size the corresponding building services according to scenario analysis set down for existing buildings. In phase 3 the project was focused on designing the assembly among services. The cupboard design is like a Tetris® game through the planning of the best combination among services shape. Based on the drawings developed a first mock-up was built up and monitored. Finally, in phase 4 the paper deals with the MOTE2’s expected performances. Outlook and some conclusions point out the future steps of the research activities.

  20. An approach to human-centered design of nuclear medical equipment: the system of caption of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Silva, Carlos Borges da; Santana, Marcos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Mol, Antonio Carlos Mol; Grecco, Claudio Henrique; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro

    2005-01-01

    Technology plays an important role in modern medical centers, making health care increasingly complex, relying on complex technical equipment. This technical complexity is particularly noticeable in the nuclear medicine and can increase the risks for human error. Human error has many causes such as performance shaping factors, organizational factors and user interface design. Poorly design human system interfaces of nuclear medical equipment can increase the risks for human error. If all nuclear medical equipment had been designed with good user interfaces, incidents and accidents could be reduced as well as he time required to learn how to use the equipment. Although some manufacturers of nuclear medical equipment have already integrate human factors principles in their products, there is still a need to steer the development of nuclear medical technology toward more human-centered approach. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology that contributes to the design, development and evaluation of nuclear medical equipment and human system interface, towards a human-centered approach. This methodology includes the ergonomic approach, based on the operator activity analysis, together with human factors standards and guidelines, questionnaires and user based testing. We describe a case study in which this methodology is being applied in evaluation of the thyroid uptake system, getting essential information and data, that ill be used in development of a new system. (author)

  1. Energization of Long HVAC Cables in Parallel - Analysis and Estimation Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    The installation of long HVAC cables has recently become more common and it tends to increase during the next years. Consequently, the energization of long HVAC cables in parallel is also a more common condition. The energization of HVAC cables in parallel resembles the en-ergization of capacitor...... has several simplifications and does not always provide accurate results. This paper proposes a new formula that can be used for the estimation of these two quantities for two HVAC cables in parallel....

  2. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The

  3. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  4. HVAC retrofit evaluations: Persuading owners to do it right

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford (Robert G.), Oakland, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    HVAC system retrofit evaluations for commercial buildings are complex and, at best, imperfect. The number of variables even for a simple system is large. For a complex system, they can be nearly overwhelming. One of the most difficult questions owners of older buildings face is to decide when is it cost effective to replace or upgrade the HVAC system rather than to repair (or ignore) specific components. Similarly, two of the major questions a prospective buyer faces in evaluating a building during the due diligence process are: how well does the HVAC system work today, and how well will it work in the future and at what cost? These are addressed in this article.

  5. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. It contains three units: HVAC materials, HVAC tools, and applied skills. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the…

  6. 10 CFR 431.402 - Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH... regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products. Beginning on the effective date of such standard, an energy conservation standard set forth in this Part for a commercial HVAC & WH product supersedes any State or local...

  7. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  8. Design and system developments of pulping and paper making equipment for reduction of energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, A.

    1980-03-15

    Due to unprecedented price rise of energy, acute shortages and uncertainties in securing new and reliable energy sources, continuous technological developments have been taking place in equipment and system design in the field of pulp and paper industry. The possibility of energy reduction in areas of pulping, bleaching and cleaning of pulp, black liquor evaporation, approach flow system and drying of paper are analyzed. Specific energy consumption in terms of both heat and electricity can be considerably reduced by adopting continuous pulping methods, incorporating new concepts of counter-current impregnation, cooking high heat diffusion washing and displacement bleaching. Use of cleaners based on improved design can reduce electric energy use considerably by cleaning pulp at higher consistency and at reduced reject rates without impairing cleaning efficiency. Pre-evaporation of spent liquor in vapor recompression evaporators and use of falling film evaporation for scale forming black liquors can reduce steam demand in evaporation. Specific steam demand in paper drying can be reduced by 6 to 10% using thermo-rings or by modifications of dryer inner surface. Effects of energy consumption by integration of pulp and paper mills and by implementation of effluent treatment program are indicated.

  9. Design, construction and testing of replacement nuclear coolant pump stators to meet today's equipment reliability expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fostier, L.; Howell, D.

    2005-01-01

    The reliability expectations of equipment and components in today's nuclear power plant are much greater than three or more decades ago when nuclear plants were first constructed due to economic impact of a failure. Very few components in a pressurized water reactor plant can have as much impact of the plants capacity factor as a catastrophic failure of a reactor coolant pump winding. This paper describes the maintenance approach taken by one North American utility in attempt to preclude such failures. The paper will discuss the challenges of the reactor coolant pump application and the enhancements made in the winding design and construction by the supplier to address failure mechanisms so as to better meet present reliability expectations in accordance with dedicated specifications. The paper will also present the in-process and final testing requirements and limits imposed in an attempt to ensure quality of the machine windings, along with selected test results from the stators that have been designed and constructed to these specifications to date. (author)

  10. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry ( 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  11. Control of space HVAC systems. Proceedings. Regelung von raumlufttechnischen Anlagen. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This GMA report presents automation concepts for the control of space HVAC systems using new support methods and means like computer technology and digital simulation methods while considering control problems associated with the application of such methods and means. Both technical and economic aspects are discussed. New findings also concern the structurization and design of control systems, modelling of component and system behaviour for scale-up and simulation of plants. Each of the 10 papers was abstracted for entry into the data base. (HW).

  12. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  13. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  14. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum J. Support equipment in the high level waste facility of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieb, M.J.; Foley, R.S.

    1977-04-01

    The Aerojet Manufacturing Company (AMCO) received a contract in November 1976 to provide consulting services in assisting Holmes and Narver, Incorporated with the conceptual designs, cost estimates, and schedules of equipment used to handle waste casks, to decontaminate waste canisters and to overpack damaged or highly contaminated waste canisters for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Also, the layout of the hot cell in which canister handling, overpack and decontamination takes place was to be reviewed along with the time and motion study of the cell operations. This report has been prepared to present the results of the efforts and contains all technical and planning data developed during the program. The contents of this report are presented in three sections: (1) comments on the existing design criteria, equipment conceptual designs, hot cell design and time and motion studies of projected hot cell activities; (2) design descriptions of the equipment concepts and justification for varying from the existing concept (if a variation occurred). Drawings of each concept are provided in Appendix A. These design descriptions and drawings were used as the basis for the cost estimates; and (3) schedule projections and cost estimates for the equipment described in Section 2. Detail cost estimate backup data is provided in Appendix B

  15. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  16. Manual on safety aspects of the design and equipment of hot laboratories. 1981 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This manual covers the general principles of planning and design of areas inside laboratories according to the varying potential radiation and contamination hazards; enclosures for radioactive material containment; viewing and lighting systems and various types of manipulators; transfer and transport of radioactive materials within the laboratories; air cleaning and ventilation systems, with particular reference to IAEA Safety Series No.17; techniques for controlling air pollution from the operation of nuclear facilities; various radioactive waste disposal systems; criticality control; fire protection; personnel monitoring, including changing-room monitoring and protective clothing; standardization and automation; and administrative controls. Although alpha, beta, gamma technologies have developed separately, equipment used in radioactive work is common to many operations. There is a step change in technology between work with uranium and plutonium and between work with plutonium and other transuranics; with plutonium one enters the field of alpha, beta, gamma technology. This manual reports the basic requirements and gives reference to more sophisticated techniques available. It is not concerned with work on a commercial scale. Other publications of interest in this context, for instance IAEA Safety Series No.39, are referenced for more detailed information.

  17. ENGINEERING DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HEEL TESTING EQUIPMENT IN THE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF SAFE WALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental test methods for the evaluation of the resistance of heels of ladies' shoes in the case of impact loads are fully defined by International Organization for Standardization (ISO procedures that indicate all the conditions of experiment. A first Standard (ISO 19553 specifies the test method for determining the strength of the heels in the case of single impact. The result offers a valuation of the liability to fail under the sporadic heavy blows. A second Standard (ISO 19556 details a method for testing the capability of heels of women' shoes to survive to the repetition of small impacts provoked by normal walking. These Standards strictly define the features for two different testing devices (with specific materials, geometries, weights, etc. and all the experimental procedures to be followed during tests. On the contrary, this paper describes the technical solutions adopted to design one single experimental device able to perform impact testing of heels in both conditions. Joining the accuracy of mechanic movements with the speed of an electronic control system, a new and flexible equipment for the complete characterization of heels respect to (single or fatigue impacts was developed. Moreover a new level of performances in experimental validation of heel resistance was introduced by the versatility of the user-defined software control programs, able to encode every complex time-depending cycle of impact loads. Dynamic simulations permitted to investigate the impacts on heel in different conditions of testing, optimizing the machine design. The complexity of real stresses on shoes during an ordinary walk and in other common situations (as going up and downstairs was considered for a proper dimensioning.

  18. Low sound level source path contribution on a HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    For compliance test purposes, the noise level of a HVAC is usually measured with a pressure microphone positioned at a certain distance. This measurement is normally performed in an anechoic room. However, this method doesn't provide the engineer any insight on what noise sources do contribute to

  19. D0 HVAC System Controls Evaluation of Upgrade Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.; Simon, P.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering note documents three different options for upgrading the Dzero HVAC control system. All three options leave the current field hardware and field devices intact and upgrade the computer control hardware and software. Dzero will be heading into a physics run starting in 2000. This physics run could last several years. The Dzero HVAC system is an integral part of climate control and electronics cooling. The current HVAC control system is based upon a 1985 Johnson Controls System. In order to enter the next long-term physics run with a solid HVAC control system, the current control system needs to be upgraded. This proposal investigates three options: (1) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the Johnson Controls operator interface - FESS; (2) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the FIX32 Operator Interface - FESS/Dzero; and (3) Replacement with a commercially available Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) WITH THE FIX 32 Operator Interface - Dzero.

  20. Towards an integral approach of building and HVAC system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic thermal interaction between a building and the HVAC systems which service it is still difficult to predict. As this thermal interaction becomes more critical in practice, related knowledge and evaluation tools become increasingly important. It is argued why these need to be based on an

  1. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: HVAC/R Technician Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry. Agency partners involved in this project include: the…

  2. Maximize Benefits, Minimize Risk: Selecting the Right HVAC Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, James T.

    1993-01-01

    An informal survey of 20 major urban school districts found that 40% were currently operating in a "break down" maintenance mode. A majority, 57.9%, also indicated they saw considerable benefits in contracting for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) maintenance services with outside firms. Offers guidelines in selecting…

  3. INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HVAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in homes during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study and the Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study. A temperature sensor/logger placed on an outlet...

  4. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  5. HVAC system simulation: overview, issues and some solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings’ heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. Recognizing this fact, in the last forty years many tools have been developed to help achieving this goal. In this paper

  6. Energy efficient model based algorithm for control of building HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, V; Sahu, Chinmay; Radhakrishnan, T K; Sivakumaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A

    2008-06-01

    The rate at which airborne particulate matter deposits onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components is important from both indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy perspectives. This modeling study predicts size-resolved particle mass loading rates for residential and commercial filters, heat exchangers (i.e. coils), and supply and return ducts. A parametric analysis evaluated the impact of different outdoor particle distributions, indoor emission sources, HVAC airflows, filtration efficiencies, coils, and duct system complexities. The median predicted residential and commercial loading rates were 2.97 and 130 g/m(2) month for the filter loading rates, 0.756 and 4.35 g/m(2) month for the coil loading rates, 0.0051 and 1.00 g/month for the supply duct loading rates, and 0.262 g/month for the commercial return duct loading rates. Loading rates are more dependent on outdoor particle distributions, indoor sources, HVAC operation strategy, and filtration than other considered parameters. The results presented herein, once validated, can be used to estimate filter changing and coil cleaning schedules, energy implications of filter and coil loading, and IAQ impacts associated with deposited particles. The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components in residential and commercial buildings. This knowledge informs the development and comparison of control strategies to limit particle deposition. The predicted mass loading rates allow for the assessment of pressure drop and indoor air quality consequences that result from particle mass loading onto HVAC system components.

  8. Research on Modularized Design and Allocation of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yun-Dou; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Shu-Tian; Guo, Li-Jun; Sun, Li-Na

    2017-06-01

    For the prevention and control of newly emergent or sudden infectious diseases, we built an on-site, modularized prevention and control system and tested the equipment by using the clustering analysis method. On the basis of this system, we propose a modular equipment allocation method and 4 applications of this method for different types of infectious disease prevention and control. This will help to improve the efficiency and productivity of anti-epidemic emergency forces and will provide strong technical support for implementing more universal and serialized equipment in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:375-382).

  9. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  10. 42 CFR 421.210 - Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Arizona, Washington, Oregon, Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas... based on sections 1834(a)(12) and 1834(h) of the Act, which authorize the Secretary to designate one... equipment (and related supplies) as defined in section 1861(n) of the Act; (2) Prosthetic devices (and...

  11. The Design of Transportation Equipment in Terms of Human Capabilities. The Role of Engineering Psychology in Transport Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ross A.

    Human factors engineering is considered with regard to the design of safety factors for aviation and highway transportation equipment. Current trends and problem areas are identified for jet air transportation and for highway transportation. Suggested solutions to transportation safety problems are developed by applying the techniques of human…

  12. Concept, design and equipment of a center for the treatment of radiation accidents at the Staedtisches Krankenhaus Muenchen-Schwabing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, L.; Muehle, P.; Czempiel, H.; Henftling, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of the treatment center for radiation accidents at the Staedtisches Krankenhaus Muenchen-Schwabing is presented by means of a flow scheme for the treatment of different possible accidents. The resulting design and equipment are discussed in detail. (orig.) [de

  13. Development of in-structure design spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julyk, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    In-structure response spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site are developed on the basis of recent soil-structure-interaction analyses. Recommended design spectra are provided for various locations on the tank dome

  14. RCC-E: Design and construction rules for electrical equipment of PWR nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    RCC-E describes the rules for designing, building and installing electrical and I and C systems and equipment for pressurized water reactors. The code was drafted in partnership with industry, engineering firms, manufacturers, building control firms and operators, and represents a collection of best practices in accordance with IAEA requirements and IEC standards. The code's scope covers: architecture and the associated systems, materials engineering and the qualification procedure for normal and accidental environmental conditions, facility engineering and management of common cause failures (electrical and I and C) and electromagnetic interference, testing and inspecting electrical characteristics, quality assurance requirements supplementing ISO 9001 and activity monitoring. Use: RCC-E has been used to build the following power plants: France's last 12 nuclear units (1,300 MWe (8) and 1,450 MWe (4)), 2 M310 reactors in Korea (2), 44 M310 (4), CPR-1000 (28), CPR-600 (6), HPR-1000 (4) and EPR (2) reactors in service or undergoing construction in China, 1 EPR reactor in France. RCC-E is used for maintenance operations in French power plants (58 units) and Chinese M310 and CPR-1000 power plants. RCC-E has been chosen for the construction of the EPR plants in Hinkley Point, UK. Contents of the 2016 edition of the RCC-E code: Volume 1 - General requirements and quality assurance; Volume 2 - Specification of requirements; Volume 3 - I and C systems; Volume 4 - Electrical systems; Volume 5 - Materials engineering; Volume 6 - Installation of electrical and I and C systems; Volume 7 - Inspection and test methods

  15. Proceedings of the 7th cogeneration and independent power congress, natural gas purchasing '92, HVAC controls and energy conservation '92, 1992 indoor air quality congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Cogeneration and IPP Market Developments; Natural Gas Marketing and Deliverability Strategies; Identifying the Sources of IAQ Problems; User-Owner Cogeneration Systems; Strategies for International Power Development; Strategic Fuel Purchasing; Cogeneration and utility Power Plant Compliance Issues; New HVAC Design Trends; IAQ Practical solutions: Case Studies

  16. Specific features of organizng the computer-aided design of radio-electronic equipment for electrophysical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozin, I.V.; Vasil'ev, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    Problems of developing systems for computer-aided design (CAD) of radioelectronic equipment for large electrophysical facilities such as charged particle accelerators of new generation are discussed. The PLATA subsystem representing a part of CAD and used for printed circuit design is described. The subsystem PLATA is utilized to design, on the average, up to 150 types of circuits a year, 100-120 of which belong to circuits of increased complexity. In this case labour productivity of a designer at documentation increases almost two times

  17. Seismic resistance of equipment and building service systems: review of earthquake damage design requirements, and research applications in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjei, R.E.; Chakravartula, B.C.; Yanev, P.I.

    1979-01-01

    The history of earthquake damage and the resulting code design requirements for earthquake hazard mitigation for equipment in the USA is reviewed. Earthquake damage to essential service systems is summarized; observations for the 1964 Alaska and the 1971 San Fernando, California, earthquakes are stressed, and information from other events is included. USA building codes that reflect lessons learned from these earthquakes are discussed; brief summaries of widely used codes are presented. In conclusion there is a discussion of the desirability of adapting advanced technological concepts from the nuclear industry to equipment in conventional structures. (author)

  18. The Design and Realization of Multimedia Textbook The Equipment of Ship’s Command and Control(C2) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Based on the powerful multimedia interactive integration platform of Director, the paper designs to make a multimedia textbook The Equipment of Ship’s Command and Control(C2) System with reference to the characteristics of the equipment, while making use of various image and sound editing software like Photoshop and Video Studio who are rich in functions. It attempts to solve problems in the teaching of the course, such as unitary teaching mode, outmoded course content, unsatisfactory teaching result, the lack of fitted textbook, etc.

  19. Lower HVAC Costs | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Design and Implementation of a Portal for the Medical Equipment Market: MEDICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Dimitris; Panou-Diamandi, Ourania; Zeelenberg, Cees; van Nimwegen, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Background The MEDICOM (Medical Products Electronic Commerce) Portal provides the electronic means for medical-equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers while supporting the Purchasing Process and Post Market Surveillance. The Portal offers a powerful Internet-based search tool for finding medical products and manufacturers. Its main advantage is the fast, reliable and up-to-date retrieval of information while eliminating all unrelated content that a general-purpose search engine would retrieve. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) registers all products. The Portal accepts end-user requests and generates a list of results containing text descriptions of devices, UMDNS attribute values, and links to manufacturer Web pages and online catalogues for access to more-detailed information. Device short descriptions are provided by the corresponding manufacturer. The Portal offers technical support for integration of the manufacturers' Web sites with itself. The network of the Portal and the connected manufacturers' sites is called the MEDICOM system. Objective To establish an environment hosting all the interactions of consumers (health care organizations and professionals) and providers (manufacturers, distributors, and resellers of medical devices). Methods The Portal provides the end-user interface, implements system management, and supports database compatibility. The Portal hosts information about the whole MEDICOM system (Common Database) and summarized descriptions of medical devices (Short Description Database); the manufacturers' servers present extended descriptions. The Portal provides end-user profiling and registration, an efficient product-searching mechanism, bulletin boards, links to on-line libraries and standards, on-line information for the MEDICOM system, and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Platform independence and interoperability characterize the system design. Relational Database

  1. Design and implementation of a portal for the medical equipment market: MEDICOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamas, S; Kalivas, D; Panou-Diamandi, O; Zeelenberg, C; van Nimwegen, C

    2001-01-01

    The MEDICOM (Medical Products Electronic Commerce) Portal provides the electronic means for medical-equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers while supporting the Purchasing Process and Post Market Surveillance. The Portal offers a powerful Internet-based search tool for finding medical products and manufacturers. Its main advantage is the fast, reliable and up-to-date retrieval of information while eliminating all unrelated content that a general-purpose search engine would retrieve. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) registers all products. The Portal accepts end-user requests and generates a list of results containing text descriptions of devices, UMDNS attribute values, and links to manufacturer Web pages and online catalogues for access to more-detailed information. Device short descriptions are provided by the corresponding manufacturer. The Portal offers technical support for integration of the manufacturers Web sites with itself. The network of the Portal and the connected manufacturers sites is called the MEDICOM system. To establish an environment hosting all the interactions of consumers (health care organizations and professionals) and providers (manufacturers, distributors, and resellers of medical devices). The Portal provides the end-user interface, implements system management, and supports database compatibility. The Portal hosts information about the whole MEDICOM system (Common Database) and summarized descriptions of medical devices (Short Description Database); the manufacturers servers present extended descriptions. The Portal provides end-user profiling and registration, an efficient product-searching mechanism, bulletin boards, links to on-line libraries and standards, on-line information for the MEDICOM system, and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Platform independence and interoperability characterize the system design. Relational Database Management Systems are used for

  2. Design of online monitoring and forecasting system for electrical equipment temperature of prefabricated substation based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiran; Miao, Hongxia; Miao, Xuejiao; Xiao, Xuanxuan; Yan, Kuo

    2016-10-01

    In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of the prefabricated substations, temperature sensing subsystem, temperature remote monitoring and management subsystem, forecast subsystem are designed in the paper. Wireless temperature sensing subsystem which consists of temperature sensor and MCU sends the electrical equipment temperature to the remote monitoring center by wireless sensor network. Remote monitoring center can realize the remote monitoring and prediction by monitoring and management subsystem and forecast subsystem. Real-time monitoring of power equipment temperature, history inquiry database, user management, password settings, etc., were achieved by monitoring and management subsystem. In temperature forecast subsystem, firstly, the chaos of the temperature data was verified and phase space is reconstructed. Then Support Vector Machine - Particle Swarm Optimization (SVM-PSO) was used to predict the temperature of the power equipment in prefabricated substations. The simulation results found that compared with the traditional methods SVM-PSO has higher prediction accuracy.

  3. Remote maintenance systems requirements are being developed to provide design guidelines for machine components, to define maintenance interfaces, and to quantify maintenance equipment and procedures needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Tabor, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Remote maintenance systems requirements are being developed to provide design guidelines for machine components, to define maintenance interfaces, and to quantify maintenance equipment and procedures needed

  4. Designing for Optimal Energy Use in Production Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    These briefing charts accompany a presentation on how Albert Kahn Associate saves its clients energy costs through building structure, design of HVAC systems, lighting systems, process related systems...

  5. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation. Deliverable test equipment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronde, R. G.

    1980-07-01

    The Ku-band test equipment, known as the Deliverable System Test equipment (DSTE), is reviewed and evaluated. The DSTE is semiautomated and computer programs were generated for 14 communication mode tests and 17 radar mode tests. The 31 test modules provide a good cross section of tests with which to exercise the Ku-band system; however, it is very limited when being used to verify Ku-band system performance. More detailed test descriptions are needed, and a major area of concern is the DSTE sell-off procedure which is inadequate.

  6. New-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization for radon reduction in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Witter, K.A.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Construction of a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, is being carefully monitored since elevated indoor radon levels have been identified in many existing houses near the site. Soil gas radon concentrations measured prior to pouring of the slabs were also indicative of a potential radon problem should the soil gas enter the school; however, subslab radon measurements collected thus far are lower than anticipated. Radon-resistant features have been incorporated into construction of the school and include the placing of at least 100 mm of clean coarse aggregate under the slab and a plastic film barrier between the aggregate and the slab, the sealing of all expansion joints, the sealing or plugging of all utility penetrations where possible, and the painting of interior block walls. In addition, the school's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system has been designed to operate continuously in overpressurization to help reduce pressure-driven entry of radon-containing soil gas into the building. Following completion, indoor radon levels in the school will be monitored to determine the effectiveness of these radon-resistant new-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization in limiting radon entry into the school

  7. ANFIS -Based Navigation for HVAC Service Robot with Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, Mohd Zoolfadli Md; Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md; Mustafah, Yasir Mohd

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an ongoing work on the autonomous navigation of a mobile service robot for Heat, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC) ducting. CCD camera mounted on the front-end of our robot is used to analyze the ducts openings (blob analysis) in order to differentiate them from other landmarks (blower fan, air outlets and etc). Distance between the robot and duct openings is measured using ultrasonic sensor. Controller chosen is ANFIS where its architecture accepts three inputs; recognition of duct openings, robot positions and distance while the outputs is maneuver direction (left or right).45 membership functions are created from which produces 46 training epochs. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the system, a working prototype is developed and tested inside HVAC ducting in ROBOCON Lab, IIUM

  8. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  9. Design and implement of mobile equipment management system based on QRcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Runze; Duan, Xiaohui; Jiao, Bingli

    2017-08-01

    A mobile equipment management system based on QRcode is proposed for remote and convenient device management. Unlike conventional systems, the system here makes managers accessible to real-time information with smart phones. Compared with the conventional method, which can only be operated with specific devices, this lightweight and efficient tele management mode is conducive to the asset management in multiple scenarios.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1909 - Nonpermissible diesel-powered equipment; design and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... energy, or leakage; (4) Releases only by a manual control that does not operate any other equipment...; and (xi) A water separator and fuel filter(s) must be provided. (4) A sensor to monitor the..., and accelerator pedals, controls which are of automobile orientation; (4) An audible warning device...

  11. Gas Atomization Equipment Statement of Work and Specification for Engineering design, Fabrication, Testing, and Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutaleb, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pluschkell, T. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-30

    The Gas Atomization Equipment will be used to fabricate metallic powder suitable for Powder Bed Fusion additive Manufacturing material to support Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) research and development. The project will modernize our capabilities to develop spherical reactive, refractory, and radioactive powders in the 10-75 μm diameter size range at LLNL.

  12. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, {open_quotes}Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.{close_quotes} This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions.

  13. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, open-quotes Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.close quotes This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop open-quotes genericclose quotes insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions

  14. HVAC; Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning - Aerosol Duct Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    material was applied. Annual energy and cost savings were predicted based on a typical weather year for each site. The installation of the duct...Balance reports; Visible dust streaks on duct work, ceilings near supply diffusers, or electrical boxes; Comfort complaints Specific Leakage...energy consumption , depending on the HVAC system type and the location of the ducts that were sealed. The cost effectiveness of the technology is

  15. Integrated high efficiency blower apparatus for HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Weigman, Herman; Wang, Shixiao

    2007-07-24

    An integrated centrifugal blower wheel for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) blower unit includes a first blade support, a second blade support, and a plurality of S-shaped blades disposed between the first and second blade supports, wherein each of the S-shaped blades has a trailing edge bent in a forward direction with respect to a defined direction of rotation of the wheel.

  16. HVAC fault tree analysis for WIPP integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.; Iacovino, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) due to potential radioactive releases, a probabilistic risk assessment of waste handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which comprise the final barrier between waste handling operations and the environment. 1 refs., 1 tab

  17. Development of an Improved Process for Installation Projects of High Technology Manufacturing Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Sarah V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-30

    High technology manufacturing equipment is utilized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support nuclear missions. This is undertaken from concept initiation where equipment is designed and then taken through several review phases, working closely with system engineers (SEs) responsible for each of the affected systems or involved disciplines (from gasses to HVAC to structural, etc.). After the design is finalized it moves to procurement and custom fabrication of the equipment and equipment installation, including all of the paperwork involved. Not only are the engineering and manufacturing aspects important, but also the scheduling, financial forecasting, and planning portions that take place initially and are sometimes modified as the project progresses should requirements, changes or additions become necessary. The process required to complete a project of this type, including equipment installation, is unique and involves numerous steps to complete. These processes can be improved and recent work on the Direct Current Arc (DC Arc) Glovebox Design, Fabrication and Installation Project provides an opportunity to identify some important lessons learned (LL) that can be implemented in the future for continued project improvement and success.

  18. Multiuser remote access to distributed heterogeneous system of programmable logic based laboratory equipment for remote digital circuits design labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Yokhin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of perspective structures of software and hardware equipment of universal digital design laboratories with the purpose of enabling laboratory classes of digital circuit design to be taken remotely. Implementation characteristics and usage experience of some of those structures applied to labs on several hardware related courses of « Computer science and computer engineering» program in NRNU MEPhI are presented. The paper also considers different aspects of usage of remote access enabled laboratory which should be taken into account to substantiate laboratory configuration from technical and economical standpoints. To increase equipment usage efficiency an approach to group several distinct projects to place them on a single FPGA chip is proposed. The paper shows advisability and gives an example of parametrizable virtual stand for remote debugging of FPGA projects.

  19. PCDP [Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project] design basis accident report 9315-P-103, Rev. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has identified a requirement to integrate the spent fuel rod consolidation design activities of each of several proposed geological repository facilities and the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and to develop efficient and cost-effective equipment for the consolidation process. The equipment to be developed for the rod consolidation system will be required to operate in a dry environment at rates which can be appropriately scaled to approximate the waste management system acceptance rates, irrespective of repository geologic characteristics or the existence of an MRS facility in the waste management system. The purpose of this report is to identify and analyze the range of facility credible events and accident occurrences (from minor to the design basis accidents) and their causes and consequences. For each situation, the considerations to prevent or mitigate the event or accident is addressed

  20. A comfort-based, energy-aware HVAC agent and its applications in the smart grid

    OpenAIRE

    Auffenberg, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce a novel heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) agent that maintains a comfortable thermal environmant for its users while minimising energy consumption of the HVAC system and incorporating demand side management (DSM) signals to shift HVAC loads towards achieving more desirable overall load profiles. To do so, the agent needs to be able to accurately predict user comfort, for example by using a thermal comfort model. Existing thermal comfort models are u...

  1. Impact of Mars sand on dust on the design of space suits and life support equipment: A technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    Space suits and life support equipment will come in intimate contact with Martian soil as aerosols, wind blown particles and material thrown up by men and equipment on the Martian surface. For purposes of this discussion the soil is assumed to consist of a mixture of cominuted feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz, titanomagnetite and other anhydrous and hydrous iron bearing oxides, clay minerals, scapolite and water soluble chlorides and sulfates. The soil may have photoactivated surfaces that acts as a strong oxidizer with behavior similar to hydrogen peroxide. The existing data about the Mars soil suggests that the dust and sand will require designs analogous to those uses on equipment exposed to salty air and blowing sand and dust. The major design challenges are in developing high performance radiators which can be cleaned after each EVA without degradation, designing seals that are readily cleaned and possibly in selecting materials which will not be degraded by any strong oxidants in the soil. The magnitude of the dust filtration challenge needs careful evaluation in terms of the trade off between fine-particle dust filters with low pressure drop that are either physically large and heavy, like filter baghouses require frequent replacement of filter elements, of low volume high pressure thus power consumption approaches, or washable filters. In the latter, filter elements are cleaned with water, as could the outsides of the space suits in the airlock.

  2. Impact of Mars sand on dust on the design of space suits and life support equipment: A technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Charles H.

    1991-05-01

    Space suits and life support equipment will come in intimate contact with Martian soil as aerosols, wind blown particles and material thrown up by men and equipment on the Martian surface. For purposes of this discussion the soil is assumed to consist of a mixture of cominuted feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz, titanomagnetite and other anhydrous and hydrous iron bearing oxides, clay minerals, scapolite and water soluble chlorides and sulfates. The soil may have photoactivated surfaces that acts as a strong oxidizer with behavior similar to hydrogen peroxide. The existing data about the Mars soil suggests that the dust and sand will require designs analogous to those uses on equipment exposed to salty air and blowing sand and dust. The major design challenges are in developing high performance radiators which can be cleaned after each EVA without degradation, designing seals that are readily cleaned and possibly in selecting materials which will not be degraded by any strong oxidants in the soil. The magnitude of the dust filtration challenge needs careful evaluation in terms of the trade off between fine-particle dust filters with low pressure drop that are either physically large and heavy, like filter baghouses require frequent replacement of filter elements, of low volume high pressure thus power consumption approaches, or washable filters. In the latter, filter elements are cleaned with water, as could the outsides of the space suits in the airlock.

  3. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  4. Interaction and educational design of mobile equipment for crisis management training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    As researchers and designers of crisis management training in mobile learning settings, we need to consider ways in which principles of educational design and interaction design can co-exist, in order to reach a higher quality of the analysis and design process. The paper is an input...

  5. Erosion of wind turbine blade coatings - Design and analysis of jet-based laboratory equipment for performance evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Nørkjær, Sten

    2015-01-01

    of the blades in such equipment. To reduce expensive blade maintenance repairs and to avoid out-of-service periods, energy-absorbing blade coatings are required to protect rotor blades from rain erosion. In this work we describe the design, construction and evaluation of a laboratory setup for fast screening...... experimental blade coatings were investigated using the proposed experimental design. The evaluation of the coatings under conditions where impact frequency and water hammer pressure were "matched" could not be directly correlated with the results obtained with the whirling arm rig. This result may...

  6. Aspects of the design of the automated system for code generation of electrical items of technological equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the aspects of designing an automated system for generating codes for electrical elements of process equipment using CASE-means. We propose our own technology of iterative development of such systems. The proposed methodology uses the tool to develop the ERwin Data Modeler databases of Computer Associates and the author's tool for the automatic generation of ERwin Class Builder code. The implemented design tool is a superstructure over the ERwin Data Modeler from Computer Associates, which extends its functionality. ERwin Data Modeler works with logical and physical data models and allows you to generate a description of the database and ddl-scripts.

  7. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document

  8. Design considerations in the use of stainless steel for vacuum and cryogenic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Geyari, C

    1976-01-01

    The properties making austenitic stainless steel a preferred material for the construction of high vacuum equipment are reviewed. Best results are obtained if attention is paid to the improvement of welding properties, particularly with a view to prevent intercrystalline disintegration. A review of mechanical properties, the effect of cold working and cryogenic temperatures on the strength and magnetic characteristics of stainless steel is given. During material selection for very high vacuum, attention must be paid to the porosity problem. A practical example shows the application of these considerations to the choice of materials for the CERN-ISR intersecting storage rings. (19 refs).

  9. Design considerations in the use of stainless steel for vacuum and cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyari, C.

    1976-01-01

    The properties making austenitic stainless steel a preferred material for the construction of high vacuum equipment are reviewed. Best results are obtained if attention is paid to the improvement of welding properties, particularly with a view to preventing intercrystalline disintegration. A review of mechanical properties, the effect of cold working and cryogenic temperatures on the strength and magnetic characteristics of stainless steel is given. During material selection for very high vacuum, attention must be paid to the porosity problem. A practical example shows the application of these considerations to the choice of materials for the CERN-ISR Intersecting Storage Rings. (author)

  10. Contribution of custom-designed integrated circuits to the electronic equipment of multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, J.

    1977-01-01

    The first generations of circuits intended to equip the multiwire proportional chambers provided the user with logical type indications (absence or presence of a signal at a given place). This logical indication was soon associated with a semi-analog data (presence or absence of a signal above an analog threshold, i.e. the discrimination function) as with FILAS, RBA and RBB circuits. The evolution continued with the appearance of analog data capture (time, amplitude, charge) and the corresponding circuits: IFT circuits, analog-to-digital converters [fr

  11. Performance analysis of supply and return fans for HVAC systems under different operating strategies of economizer dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, Nabil [Florida Solar Energy Center, A Research Institute of the University of Center Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    HVAC systems and associated equipment consume a relatively large fraction of total building energy consumption, a significant portion of which is attributed to fan operation. The operation of economizer dampers when installed can cause high energy consumption in fans if they are not functioning in proper and optimal manner. This will mainly be due to the potential high pressure drops through those dampers and associated high total pressures that should be developed by supply and/or return fans. It is then necessary to ensure that a proper strategy to operate optimally the economizer dampers is implemented with minimum fan energy use. The paper examines several operation strategies of the economizer dampers and investigates their effects on the performance of both the supply and return fans in HVAC system. It also discusses a new operating strategy for economizer dampers that can lead to lower fan energy use. The strategies are evaluated by simulations for a typically existing HVAC system. Several factors such as the building locations, system characteristics, resistance in the duct where the dampers are installed, supply air temperature and economizer control, and minimum ventilation requirements are also considered during the evaluations. The results show that the way of the economizer dampers been controlled has a significant effect on fan performance and its energy use. The proposed strategy if properly implemented can provide fan energy saving in the range of 5-30%, depending mainly on the number of hours when the system operates in the free cooling mode, damper characteristics, and minimum outdoor air. (author)

  12. The design of an energy harvesting device for prolonging the working time of DC equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yayuan; Deng, Huaxia; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesting (EH) derives from the idea of converting the ambient energy into electric energy, which can solve the problem of DC supply for some electronic equipment. PZT is a typical piezoelectric material of inorganic, which has been developed as EH devices to transfer ambient vibration energy into electric energy. However, these PZT devices require relatively violent excitation, and easy to be fatigue fracture under the resonance condition. In this paper, PVDF, which is a kind of soft piezoelectric polymer, is adopted for developing transducer. The PVDF devices are flexible and have longer life time than PZT devices under the harmonic environment. The EH researches are mainly focused on the development of energy transfer efficiency either by the mechanical structure of transducer or the improvement of circuit. However, the practicality and stability of the EH devices are important in the practical engineering applications. In this paper, a charge amplifier is introduced in the circuit in order to guarantee the stability of the battery charging under small ambient vibration conditions. The model of the mechanical structure of PVDF and the electric performance of circuit are developed. The experimental results and simulation show that the stability of battery charging is improved and the working time of DC equipment is prolonged.

  13. Thermal Components Boost Performance of HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) travels 17,500 miles per hour, normal is having a constant sensation of free-falling. Normal is no rain, but an extreme amount of shine.with temperatures reaching 250 F when facing the Sun. Thanks to a number of advanced control systems onboard the ISS, however, the interior of the station remains a cool, comfortable, normal environment where astronauts can live and work for extended periods of time. There are two main control systems on the ISS that make it possible for humans to survive in space: the Thermal Control System (TCS) and the Environmental Control and Life Support system. These intricate assemblies work together to supply water and oxygen, regulate temperature and pressure, maintain air quality, and manage waste. Through artificial means, these systems create a habitable environment for the space station s crew. The TCS constantly works to regulate the temperature not only for astronauts, but for the critical instruments and machines inside the spacecraft as well. To do its job, the TCS encompasses several components and systems both inside and outside of the ISS. Inside the spacecraft, a liquid heat-exchange process mechanically pumps fluids in closed-loop circuits to collect, transport, and reject heat. Outside the ISS, an external system circulates anhydrous ammonia to transport heat and cool equipment, and radiators release the heat into space. Over the years, NASA has worked with a variety of partners.public and private, national and international. to develop and refine the most complex thermal control systems ever built for spacecraft, including the one on the ISS.

  14. Design of equipment safety & reliability for an aseptic liquid food packaging line through maintenance engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Riccetti, Sauro

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The organisation of maintenance, in the Aseptic Liquid Food (ALF) industry, represents an important management task that enables a company to pursue higher manufacturing effectiveness and improved market share. This research is concerned with the process to design and implement maintenance tasks. These two complementary processes (design and implementation) have been thought and designed to a...

  15. Chitosan membrane development and design of equipment for the removal of heavy metals from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Molina, Jesus; Chaves Barquero, Luis; Araya Marchena, Mario; Starbird Perez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    A filtration technique has compared with 1,75% m/v chitosan membranes, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (0,08% m/v) and without cross link, to quantify the removal capacity of chromium, copper and cadmium ions of model solutions. In addition, a simple and low cost equipment was developed to use with prepared membranes. The main goal has been to use biodegradable materials for removing heavy metals from water, through a low energy consumption, cheap, and applicable to specific problems. Two data sheets were prepared for the membranes and was found that chromium was the metal with the highest removal from water, by using a crosslinked membrane. Metal adsorption was best adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm model, better than Langmuir isotherm model. However, no correlation has been found between pore size of the membranes and crosslinking degree. (author) [es

  16. Chitosan membrane development and design of equipment for the removal of heavy metals from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Molina, Jesus; Starbird Perez, Ricardo; Chaves Barquero, Luis; Araya Marchena, Mario

    2011-01-01

    A filtration technique has compared with 1,75% m/v chitosan membranes, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (0,08% m/v) and without cross link, to quantify the removal capacity of chromium, copper and cadmium ions of model solutions. In addition, a simple and low cost equipment was developed to use with prepared membranes. The main goal has been to use biodegradable materials for removing heavy metals from water, through a low energy consumption, cheap, and applicable to specific problems. Two data sheets were prepared for the membranes and was found that chromium was the metal with the highest removal from water, by using a crosslinked membrane. Metal adsorption was best adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm model, better than Langmuir isotherm model. However, no correlation has been found between pore size of the membranes and crosslinking degree. (author) [es

  17. System design specification for the 1/4-scale tank and ancillary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Waters, E.D.; Heimberger, D.T.

    1993-09-01

    The Fluid Dynamic Test Facility (FDTF) is located in the 336 Building at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The FDTF will contain tanks that model the average internal diameter and height of a 3875 m 3 (1-million-gal) double-shell tank at both 1/12- and 1/4-scale, as well as ancillary equipment required to store, mix, and transport waste simulants. Experiments to be conducted in this facility will include investigations of sludge mobilization, slurry uniformity, aerosol generation, sludge washing, and instrumentation development to support start-up of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project. This facility will also be used to model concepts and mitigating strategies to be used in the resolution of tank safety issues and the retrieval of waste from watch-list tanks

  18. Optomecatronic design and integration of a high resolution equipment Berkut to the 1-meter class telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, R.; López, R.; Farah, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    It is proposed the development and implementation of a High Speed Resolution Camera instrument. The basic principle of this technique is to take several pictures of short exposure using different filters of an astronomical object of interest . These images are subsequently processed using specialized software to remove aberrations from atmosphere and from the instrument itself such as blur and scintillation among others. In this paper are described electronic and control systems implemented for BERKUT instrument based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) generated with VHDL description. An UART communication, using serial protocol, is used with a friendly User Interface providing an easy way for the astronomer to choose between different lenses and different filters for capturing the images. All the movements are produced by stepper motors that are driven by a circuit that powers all the electronics. The camera and the lenses are placed into a linear positioner with the help of a stepper motor which give us repeatable movements for positioning these optical components. Besides it is planned to integrate in the same system a pipeline for image data reduction to have one sturdy system that could fulfill any astronomer needs in the usage of this technique. With this instrument we pretend to confirm the Hipparcos catalogue of binary stars besides finding exoplanets. This technique requires more simple optical equipment and it is less sensitive to environmental noise, making it cheaper and provides good quality and great resolution images for scientific purposes. This equipment will be installed on different 1-m class telescopes in Mexico1 and probably other countries which makes it a wide application instrument.

  19. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  20. Integrovany pristup k reseni systemu vytapeni,vetrani a klimatizace v budovach (HVAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Towards an integral approach of building and HVAC system The dynamic thermal interacion between a building and the HVAC systems which service it, is still difficult to predict. As this thermal interacition becomes more critical in practice, related knowledge and evaluation tools become increasingly

  1. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  2. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  3. HVAC SYSTEMS IN THE CURRENT STOCK OF US K-12 SCHOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on heating, ventilating, an air- conditioning (HVAC) systems commonly found in U. S. school buildings and the effect that operating these systems has on indoor radon levels. The report describes the ability of various HVAC systems to pressurize a...

  4. Critical control points for the management of microbial growth in HVAC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, S; Franchimon, F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Olesen, BW; Wargocki, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    Office buildings with HVAC systems consistently report Sick Building Symptoms that are derived from microbial growth. We used the HACCP methodology to find the main critical control points (CCPs) for microbial management of HVAC systems in temperate climates. Desk research revealed relative humidity

  5. Energy-Smart Choices for Schools. An HVAC Comparison Tool. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A CD ROM program provides comparison construction cost capabilities for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in educational facilities. The program combines multiple types of systems with square footage data on low and high construction cost and school size to automatically calculate HVAC comparative construction costs. (GR)

  6. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  7. Filtration effectiveness of HVAC systems at near-roadway schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M C; Ludwig, J F; Brown, S G; Vaughn, D L; Roberts, P T

    2013-06-01

    Concern for the exposure of children attending schools located near busy roadways to toxic, traffic-related air pollutants has raised questions regarding the environmental benefits of advanced heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) filtration systems for near-road pollution. Levels of black carbon and gaseous pollutants were measured at three indoor classroom sites and at seven outdoor monitoring sites at Las Vegas schools. Initial HVAC filtration systems effected a 31-66% reduction in black carbon particle concentrations inside three schools compared with ambient air concentrations. After improved filtration systems were installed, black carbon particle concentrations were reduced by 74-97% inside three classrooms relative to ambient air concentrations. Average black carbon particle concentrations inside the schools with improved filtration systems were lower than typical ambient Las Vegas concentrations by 49-96%. Gaseous pollutants were higher indoors than outdoors. The higher indoor concentrations most likely originated at least partially from indoor sources, which were not targeted as part of this intervention. Recent literature has demonstrated adverse health effects in subjects exposed to ambient air near major roadways. Current smart growth planning and infill development often require that buildings such as schools are built near major roadways. Improving the filtration systems of a school's HVAC system was shown to decrease children's exposure to near-roadway diesel particulate matter. However, reducing exposure to the gas-phase air toxics, which primarily originated from indoor sources, may require multiple filter passes on recirculated air. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J.

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV

  9. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV.

  10. Efficient solutions from HVAC to offgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    Rio Tinto and Ingenero recently announced that agreement had been reached for the development of the Weipa Solar Photovoltaic Project in Queensland. First Solar will leverage its expertise in utility-scale grid integration and plant control systems to offer a FuelSmart solution that provides maximum fuel savings while maintaining system reliability. Combined with Ingenero's design and integration experience, the project will generate electricity for Rio Tinto Alcan's Weipa bauxite mine, processing facilities and township on the Western Cape York Peninsula

  11. Radiation effects on electronic equipment: a designers'/users' guide for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.E.; Garlick, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Designers'/Users' Guide to the effects of radiation on electronics is published by the Radiation Testing Service of AEA Technology. The aim of the Guide is to document the available information that we have generated and collected over some ten years whilst operating as a radiation effects and design consultancy to the nuclear power industry. We hope that this will enable workers within the industry better to understand the likely effects of radiation on the system or plant being designed and so minimise the problems that can arise. (Author)

  12. Switching Restrikes in HVAC Cable Lines and Hybrid HVAC Cable/OHL Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Balle Holst, Per

    2011-01-01

    The disconnection of HV underground cables may, if unsuccessful, originate a restrike in the circuit breaker, leading to high overvoltages, and potentially damaging the cable and near equipment. Due to the cable high capacitance and low resistance the voltage damping is slow, resulting, half a cy...

  13. Without Gravity: Designing Science Equipment for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses space biology research, the space flight factors needed to design hardware to conduct biological science in microgravity, and examples of NASA and commercial hardware that enable space biology study.

  14. 3D design terrain models for construction plans and GPS control of highway construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Research was conducted with the objectives of 1) identifying and characterizing benefits and technological, institutional, cultural, and : legal impediments associated with adoption of 3D design and construction technologies, identifying strategies t...

  15. Thermal design of a fully equipped solar-powered desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual design and thermodynamic analysis of a solar-powered desert home. The home is airconditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated

  16. Gerenciando equipes de design interna e externa no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos: caso de duas empresas calçadistas do sul do Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Capra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo trata da inserção do design no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos em duas empresas da indústria calçadista da região do Vale do Paranhana, no Rio Grande do Sul. Essas empresas podem trabalhar com diferentes tipos de equipes, interna, externa ou mista e, entender as vantagens e desvantagens de cada tipo de equipe é fundamental ao determinar a melhor opção para a empresa. Porém, pouco tem-se estudado buscando essa relação entre equipes de design e desenvolvimento de produtos. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar o gerenciamento de equipes de design, interna e externa, no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos de empresas da indústria calçadista. Para isso, um estudo de caso foi realizado através da análise do caso de uma empresa que trabalhava com os dois tipos de equipes. Com a realização desta pesquisa, foi possível estudar a forma de atuação e gerenciamento das equipes interna e externa de design no processo de desenvolvimento de produtos. Os resultados indicam que diferenças nas formas de atuação e gerenciamento de cada equipe estão relacionados com a autonomia decisória conferida para equipe no início do desenvolvimento de novos projetos.

  17. Thermal design of a fully equipped solar-powered desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M.A.

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents a conceptual design and thermodynamic analysis of a solar-powered desert home. The home is airconditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof mounted photovoltaic modules. A detailed dynamic heat transfer analysis is conducted for the building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model. A dynamic heat balance for a typical Middle-Eastern desert site, reveals that indeed such a design is feasible with present day technology; and should be even more attractive with future advances in technology.

  18. Design of electronic measurement and quench detection equipment for the Current Lead Test facility Karlsruhe (CuLTKa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollik, Markus; Fietz, Walter H.; Fink, Stefan; Gehrlein, Mirko; Heller, Reinhard; Lange, Christian; Möhring, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The Current Lead Test facility Karlsruhe (CuLTKa) is under construction at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to perform acceptance tests of high temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL). CuLTKa is in progress and present planning expects the completion in 2013. The data acquisition system is based on a modular design with electronic measurement and monitoring equipment covering a test voltage of 50 kV DC against ground. It provides plug-in units which enable temperature and voltage measurement at high voltage potential and in addition quench detection units which detect a loss of superconductivity reliably and quickly to avoid damage of the superconducting device under test. Prototype units for quench detection, temperature and voltage measurement have been successfully tested. Six temperature measurement units are already in use in the KIT test facility TOSKA and operated reliably during the acceptance tests of the HTS current leads for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) in 2011/2012. CuLTKa will be used first for 26 current leads which will be built in KIT for the fusion experiment JT-60SA. The present paper gives an overview of the design of the electronic measurement and quench detection equipment

  19. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.

  20. Efficiency improvement of variable speed electrical drives for HVAC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Pedersen, J.K. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    A large part of the produced electrical energy is consumed by ventilators, pumps and compressors, the so-called HVAC applications. A lot of this energy can be saved by speed control, but even with the large saving obtained alone by introduction of variable speed, it is still essential to optimise the control of the variable speed drive and to optimise the electrical machine with respect to efficiency. Experiments are made with energy optimal induction motor control on a 2.2 kW variable speed pump system. It is demonstrated that 10% of the consumed energy can typically be saved by energy optimal motor control compared with constant V/Hz control. In a comparison of induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors for a variable speed pump application it is shown that for 2.2 kW motors an investment in high-efficiency or PM motors are typically paid back within 2.5 years and 7 years respectively. For a 90 kW PM motor the pay-back time would be 24 years. It is today not profitable to use PM motors for variable speed HVAC applications above 2 kW rated motor power. A further study is required to determine this limit in power rating more precisely. (orig.)

  1. Neural computing thermal comfort index for HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atthajariyakul, S.; Leephakpreeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system within a building is to make occupants comfortable. Without real time determination of human thermal comfort, it is not feasible for the HVAC system to yield controlled conditions of the air for human comfort all the time. This paper presents a practical approach to determine human thermal comfort quantitatively via neural computing. The neural network model allows real time determination of the thermal comfort index, where it is not practical to compute the conventional predicted mean vote (PMV) index itself in real time. The feed forward neural network model is proposed as an explicit function of the relation of the PMV index to accessible variables, i.e. the air temperature, wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, clothing insulation and human activity. An experiment in an air conditioned office room was done to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results show good agreement between the thermal comfort index calculated from the neural network model in real time and those calculated from the conventional PMV model

  2. System solution to improve energy efficiency of HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, L.; Becerra, R.; Salts, N. P.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    According to recent surveys, heating and air conditioning systems account for over 45% of the total energy usage in US households. Three main types of HVAC systems are available to homeowners: (1) fixed-speed systems, where the compressor cycles on and off to match the cooling load; (2) multi-speed (typically, two-speed) systems, where the compressor can operate at multiple cooling capacities, leading to reduced cycling; and (3) variable-speed systems, where the compressor speed is adjusted to match the cooling load of the household, thereby providing higher efficiency and comfort levels through better temperature and humidity control. While energy consumption could reduce significantly by adopting variable-speed compressor systems, the market penetration has been limited to less than 10% of the total HVAC units and a vast majority of systems installed in new construction remains single speed. A few reasons may explain this phenomenon such as the complexity of the electronic circuitry required to vary compressor speed as well as the associated system cost. This paper outlines a system solution to boost the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of a traditional single-speed unit through using a low power electronic converter that allows the compressor to operate at multiple low capacity settings and is disabled at high compressor speeds.

  3. Application of mapping crossover genetic algorithm in nuclear power equipment optimization design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guijiang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun; Liu Chengyang

    2013-01-01

    Genetic algorithm (GA) has been widely applied in nuclear engineering. An improved method, named the mapping crossover genetic algorithm (MCGA), was developed aiming at improving the shortcomings of traditional genetic algorithm (TGA). The optimal results of benchmark problems show that MCGA has better optimizing performance than TGA. MCGA was applied to the reactor coolant pump optimization design. (authors)

  4. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  5. Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995, NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (SJMAC-DEM) to test the Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1995 NIR Propellant Analyzer, to MIL-STD-398, "Military Standard Shields, Operational for Ammunition Operations, Criteria for Design of and Tests for Acceptance...

  6. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  7. Rationalization design on large equipment dismantling facility. The cell fire-extinguishing examination (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donomae, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takita, Koji; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Katoh, Noriyoshi; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi

    2002-07-01

    In order to rationalize for Large Equipment Dismantling Facility (LEDF), the plan of removing vaporizer belong to Cell-fire-extinguishing-system was investigated. When a vaporizer is cut down, it is necessary to grasp a fire-extinguishing performance. The fire-extinguishing performance check examination by liquefaction carbon dioxide in the cell fire-extinguishing examination (I) was carried out in 1999 fiscal year. As the result, the good performance was obtained to polyethylene. But there was the deep-seated fire about a piece of wood. Then, the check items were carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and CO2 concentration holding time for the deep-seated fire in the cell fire-extinguishing examination (III). The results were as follows; (1) By use of the combustion model in which a piece of wood and cotton were put is lit, temperature inside model, mass reduction, and combustion situation were examined. The model burned remarkably in 30∼60 min. The peak temperature rise to 680 degC (MAX), and attained smoldering after (ignition) 70 min. Moreover, in order to determine the generating conditions of a deep-seated fire, the situation of CO2 extinguishing after ignition by the time lag of 50∼90 min were examined. The model around ignition 50 minutes was the most difficult to extinguish, and it turned out that they are the conditions which were most suitable for the deep-seated fire examination model of an exam. (2) In order to decide on CO2 concentration and concentration holding time required for fire extinguishing of the deep-seated fire in LEDF, the fire-extinguishing performance was investigated by 40 ∼ 65% of CO2 concentration. Consequently, CO2 concentration required for deep-seated fire extinguishing was understood that 60% or more was required when safety was taken into consideration at 50% or more. Moreover, when it was 50% or more of CO2 concentration and the holding time of CO2 concentration was 180 minutes or more and 60% or more of CO2 concentration, it

  8. Recent development of aseismic design practice of equipment and piping system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, H.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, the Japanese practice of aseismic (anti-earthquake) design has been reported on at various occasions, and The Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants, JEAG 4601-1987, published by the Japan Electric Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Therefore, it is not necessary to describe these guidelines. However, it is rather difficult to keep a record of why and how decisions which recently were made in Japan. The author describes the process to establish Japanese practice for the first ten years in reference. While the fundamental concept has not been changed since 1961, the details have been modified based on new knowledge obtained from recent research and tests. There has been a continuing effort to make this practice a more rational one

  9. The performance of a prototype device designed to evaluate general quality parameters of X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, C.H.; Fernandes, D.C.; Lavínia, N.C.; Caldas, L.V.E; Pires, S.R; Medeiros, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered

  10. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  11. Design of experiments and equipment to test the ballooning characteristics of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, C.F.; Stern, F.; Hart, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been planned and an apparatus has been designed to enable creep testing of end-of-life pressure tube specimens in a LOCA environment. Effects that could be studied include: annealing of irradiation damage during transient heating; effects of hydride blisters on pressure tube ballooning strains; and, effects of uniformly-distributed hydrogen content on pressure tube ballooning strains. The proposed experimental program will consist of separate effects creep tests on pressure tube sections under transient heating conditions

  12. Prototypical spent nuclear nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment, Phase 2: Final design report: Volume 2, Appendices: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciez, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this specification is to establish functional and design requirements for the Prototypical Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation System. The Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is responsible for the implementation of the Prototypic Dry Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project. This program is to develop and demonstrate a fully qualified, licensable, cost-effective, dry spent fuel rod consolidation system by July 1989. The work is divided into four phases as follows: Phase I--Preliminary Design, Phase II--Final Design Option, Phase III--Fabrication and System Checkout Option, and Phase IV--Installation and Hot Demonstration Option. This specification is part of the Phase II effort. The objectives of this specification are to provide functional and design requirements for the Prototypical Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation equipment; establish specific tool and subsystem requirements such that the integrated and overall system requirements are satisfied; and establish positioning, envelope and size interface control requirements for each tool or subsystem such that the individual components will interface properly with the overall system design

  13. The aging of equipment in service: Preventive measures taken in the design of the EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrancois, A.

    2009-01-01

    The design of a new Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has to take into account past experience, and in particular the lessons drawn from aging of components already in operation. The benefit of this process for tong term operation can be exceptionally high in the case of an evolutionary design such as that of the EPR TM reactor, for which the materials and the manufacturing conditions are the result of a very Long term optimization. Aging of materials in operation encompasses several damages, from the embrittlement caused by irradiation or thermal aging to the generation of cracks by fatigue or corrosion. These damages are known and characterized through international field experience and through a Cot of Laboratory studies performed worldwide, in France mainly by EDF, Cea and AREVA NP. Even if some damage mechanisms are not fully understood, good practice rules or empirical models were developed in order to give accurate predictions of damage kinetics and consequences. All this experience was taken into account during the design phase of the EPR TM project to define mate-rials and/or service conditions allowing to prevent or to minimize aging. (author)

  14. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  15. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  16. Climate design of vegetable oil fuels for agricultural equipment; Klimadesign von Pflanzenoelkraftstoffen fuer landwirtschaftliche Maschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, Michael [B.A.U.M. Consult GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). International and Energy Projects; Pickel, Peter [John Deere European Technology Innovation Center, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of biofuels in agricultural machinery is an option for complying with climate protection requirements that are presently discussed to be placed on manufacturers of mobile off-road machinery by the European Commission. A mathematical model has been developed that allows calculating greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) of biofuels for complex production paths in a straightforward, transparent manner and in pattern with the EU's Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). Therewith it has been shown that both rape seed and camelina sativa oil fuels can save more than 60 % GHGE. Key parameters have been identified and rules for a climate design of vegetable oil fuels have been formulated. (orig.)

  17. Recent advances in the designing and the equipment of high activity laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazire, R.; Duhamel, F.

    1960-01-01

    The authors described the general principles governing the design of a laboratory for experimenting and handling radioactive substances. The difficulties encountered are of two types: 1) those due to the dangers of external irradiation; 2) those due to the dangers of internal contamination. As an example, the authors describe the French achievements in this field and in particular: - the high-activity laboratories at Saclay; - the laboratory for the examination of irradiated fuels at Saclay; - the 'hot' laboratory of the CEN-Grenoble; - the alpha, beta and gamma laboratories of the CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Finally, the report describes the protective materials used for these installations. (author) [fr

  18. Design of extended length submerged traveling screen and submerged bar screen fish guidance equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardy, D.; Lindstrom, M.; Fechner, D.

    1991-01-01

    The hydropower projects on the Snake and lower Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest are unique because these rivers are also the spawning grounds for migratory salmon. The salmon swim upstream from the ocean, lay their eggs, and die. The newly hatched fingerlings must then make their way past the hydroelectric dams to the ocean. Two separate bypass systems are needed, one to pass the adult fish going upstream, and one to pass the fingerlings going downstream. This paper addresses the design considerations for two of the components of the downstream migrant fish passage facilities, the extended Submerged Traveling Screen and Submerged Bar Screen

  19. Calculation and design of natural gas preheater equipments. Berechnung und Auslegung von Erdgas-Vorwaermeanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasold, H G [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany); Wahle, H N [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    A greatly simplified model of a regulating station - consisting of the station components ''preheater'' and ''control unit'' - is used for the calculation and design of natural gas preheating plants. It is hereby possible to calculate the Joule-Thomson effect which occurs on the expansion of natural gas in the controller, the resulting drop in temperature and the thermal output required to compensate this which is to be supplied to the gas flow by the preheating plant. The calculation method and procedure are explained using a programming flowchart. The computational model presented was converted into a personal computer program, whose functioning is elucidated using a numerical example. (orig.)

  20. Design of segmental ultrasonic cleaning equipment for removing the sludge in a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Woo Tae; Byeon, Min Suk; Lee, Ho One

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, the water in the coolant system is managed to be clean but metallic sludge is accumulated on the top of tube-sheet in a steam generator. The sludge causes the corrosion of the tubesheet. The electric utility company in Korea removes the sludge with a lancing system for every outage of nuclear power plants. But the sludge is not perfectly removed with lancing system because the pressurized water of the lancing system cannot reach all area in a steam generator. Therefore the steam generator cleaning system with ultrasonic energy has been developed in KEPCO Research Institute. In this paper, the ultrasonic cleaning system is designed for removing the sludge on the steam generator

  1. Modelling of human-machine interaction in equipment design of manufacturing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, David S.; Arinez, Jorge F.; Collins, Micah T.; Bi, Zhuming

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a systematic approach to model human-machine interactions (HMIs) in supervisory control of machining operations; it characterises the coexistence of machines and humans for an enterprise to balance the goals of automation/productivity and flexibility/agility. In the proposed HMI model, an operator is associated with a set of behavioural roles as a supervisor for multiple, semi-automated manufacturing processes. The model is innovative in the sense that (1) it represents an HMI based on its functions for process control but provides the flexibility for ongoing improvements in the execution of manufacturing processes; (2) it provides a computational tool to define functional requirements for an operator in HMIs. The proposed model can be used to design production systems at different levels of an enterprise architecture, particularly at the machine level in a production system where operators interact with semi-automation to accomplish the goal of 'autonomation' - automation that augments the capabilities of human beings.

  2. Conceptual design studies of in-vessel viewing equipment for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1996-03-01

    In-vessel viewing systems are essential to inspect all surface of in-vessel components so as to detect and locate damages, and to assist in-vessel maintenance operations. The in-vessel viewing operations are categorized into the three cases, which are 1) rapid inspection just after off-normal events such as disruption, 2) scheduled inspection, and 3) supplementary inspection during maintenance operations. In case of the rapid inspection, the viewing systems have to be operated in vacuum (ca. 10 -5 Pa) and high temperature (ca. 300degC) under a gamma ray dose rate of 10 7 R/h. On the other hand, the latter two cases are anticipated to be under atmospheric inert gas, 150degC and 3x10 6 R/h. Accordingly, the in-vessel viewing systems are required to have sufficient durability under those conditions of all cases as well as precision of the vision to all of in-vessel surface. Based on those requirements, scoping studies on various viewing concepts have been performed and the applicability to the ITER conditions have been assessed. As a result, two types of viewing systems have been chosen, which are a periscope type viewing system and a image fiber type viewing system with a multi-joint manipulator. Both systems are based on radiation hard optical elements which are being developed. In this report, the design features of both viewing systems are described, including technical issues for ITER application. Finally, a periscope type viewing system is recommended as a primary system and the following specifications/conditions are proposed for the further engineering design. (1) Unified type periscope with a movable mirror at the tip (2) Integrated lighting device into the periscope (3) Accessed from top vertical ports located at 7.3m from the machine center (4) Proposed configuration with a total length of around 27m and a diameter of 200mm. (author)

  3. MOPABA-H2 - Computer code for calculation of hydrogen generation and distribution in the equipment of power plants with WWER type reactors in design modes of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, O.P.; Kharitonov, Yu.V.; Shumskiy, A.M.; Kabakchi, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    With the aim of ensuring the hydrogen explosive-proof situation in the reactor plant, a complex of scientific-and-research work was carried out including the following: revealing the mechanisms of generation and release of hydrogen in the primary equipment components under design operation modes of the reactor plant with WWER; development of calculation procedure and computer code MOPABA-H2 enabling to determine the hydrogen content in RP equipment components under design operation modes. In the process of procedure development it was found out that the calculation of hydrogen content in the plant equipment requires development of the following main mathematical models: radiochemical processes in the primary coolant which has impurities and added special reagents; absorption of the core ionizing radiation by the coolant; steam-zirconium reaction (during design-basis accident of LOCA type); coolant mass transfer over the reactor plant equipment including transition of the phase boundary by the components of the coolant. (author)

  4. Optimal design of wind power generation equipment%风力发电设备的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗倩

    2016-01-01

    风能清洁无污染,是人们梦寐以求的新能源。风力发电是一种有效利用风能的新形式,风力发电设备决定着发电效率与发电成本,因此优化发电设备至关重要。通过阐述风力发电基本原理及现代风机的基本组成,提出风力发电设备优化设计的几点思路,为提高风力发电可利用价值提供参考。%Wind power is clean and pollution-free, which is the new energy people want to use. Wind power generation is aneffectivenewformofusingwindenergy,windpowergenerationequipmentdeterminestheefficiencyandcostofpower generation, therefore to optimize power generation equipment is essential. Through elaborating basic composition of wind power generation and basic principles of modern wind turbines, this paper proposed a few ideas on optimal design of wind power generation equipment, which provided reference for increasing its use value.

  5. Design Study and Optimization of Irradiation Facilities for Detector and Accelerator Equipment Testing in the SPS North Area at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079748; Stekl, Ivan

    Due to increasing performance of LHC during the last years, the strong need of new detector and electronic equipment test areas at CERN appeared from user communities. This thesis reports on two test facilities: GIF++ and H4IRRAD. GIF++, an upgrade of GIF facility, is a combined high-intensity gamma and particle beam irradiation facility for testing detectors for LHC. It combines a high-rate 137Cs source, providing photons with energy of 662 keV, together with the high-energy secondary particle beam from SPS. H4IRRAD is a new mixed-field irradiation area, designed for testing LHC electronic equipment for radiation damage effects. In particular, large volume assemblies such as full electronic racks of high current power converters can be tested. The area uses alternatively an attenuated primary 400 GeV/c proton beam from SPS, or a secondary, mainly proton, beam of 280 GeV/c directed towards a copper target. Different shielding layers are used to reproduce a radiation field similar to the LHC “tunnel” and �...

  6. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  7. Energy demand and thermal comfort of HVAC systems with thermally activated building systems as a function of user profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałaszyńska, Katarzyna; Bandurski, Karol; Porowski, Mieczysław

    2017-11-01

    Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) are a way to use building structure as a thermal energy storage. As a result, renewable energy sources may be used more efficiently. The paper presents numerical analysis of a HVAC system with TABS energy demand and indoor thermal comfort of a representative room in a non-residential building (governmental, commercial, educational). The purpose of analysis is to investigate the influence of a user profile on system performance. The time span of the analysis is one year - a typical meteorological year. The model was prepared using a generally accepted simulation tool - TRNSYS 17. The results help to better understand the interaction of a user profile with TABS. Therefore they are important for the development of optimal control algorithms for energy efficient buildings equipped with such systems.

  8. Energy demand and thermal comfort of HVAC systems with thermally activated building systems as a function of user profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pałaszyńska Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS are a way to use building structure as a thermal energy storage. As a result, renewable energy sources may be used more efficiently. The paper presents numerical analysis of a HVAC system with TABS energy demand and indoor thermal comfort of a representative room in a non-residential building (governmental, commercial, educational. The purpose of analysis is to investigate the influence of a user profile on system performance. The time span of the analysis is one year – a typical meteorological year. The model was prepared using a generally accepted simulation tool – TRNSYS 17. The results help to better understand the interaction of a user profile with TABS. Therefore they are important for the development of optimal control algorithms for energy efficient buildings equipped with such systems.

  9. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Petritchenko, Oxana [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Ringo, Decker [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); McClive, Sam [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) commissioned this characterization and technology assessment of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for commercial buildings. The main objectives of this study: Identify a wide range of technology options in varying stages of development that could reduce commercial HVAC energy consumption; Characterize these technology options based on their technical energy-savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and the ability to compete with conventional HVAC technologies; Make specific recommendations to DOE and other stakeholders on potential research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities that would support further development of the most promising technology options.

  10. Recommended HVAC standard of the Florida Radon Research Program. Final report, Mar-Sep 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) section of the 'Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation.' It deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. Its primary intent is to prevent pressure differentials in houses that can increase the transport of radon into houses. Three pathways of compliance are available to meet the requirements of the HVAC portion of the standards. The first is purely prescriptive. The second is a performance and prescriptive approach. The third is a marketplace approach

  11. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report outlines findings resulting from a U.S. Department of Energy Building America expert meeting to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. IBACOS has embarked upon a research effort under the Building America Program to understand business impacts and change management strategies for HVAC companies. HVAC companies can implement these strategies in order to quickly transition from a 'traditional' heating and cooling contractor to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. Due to HVAC service contracts, which allow repeat interaction with homeowners, HVAC companies are ideally positioned in the marketplace to resolve homeowner comfort issues through whole house energy upgrades. There are essentially two primary ways to define the routes of transition for an HVAC contractor taking on whole house performance contracting: (1) Sub-contracting out the shell repair/upgrade work; and (2) Integrating the shell repair/upgrade work into their existing business. IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the structure of traditional HVAC Companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Seek industry input on how to structure information so it is relevant and useful for traditional HVAC contractors who are transitioning to becoming whole house energy upgrade contractors Seven industry experts identified by IBACOS participated in the session along with one representative from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The objective of the meeting was to validate the general operational

  12. Based on the traffic system tools magneto electric equipment design and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In transportation, the road is rough, the engine operation, the instability of the transmission system, and large vibration of the vibration system is to collect the vibration energy, and transformed into stable electricity, provide extra energy for transportation. Experiment device of the system is composed of three parts: simulate vibration test rig, vibration generating device, rectifier voltage regulator circuit. Vibration table is to simulate vehicle vibration in the road, cars, for example, through the check information that cars drive in ordinary road driving axle of some vibration data, thus to calculate all parameters of the vibration table. Vibration generating device is placed on the simulation vibration table, it can convert vibration energy into cars can use electricity. Rectifier voltage regulator circuit is generated by power generation device with a range of random variation of amplitude of electric energy through the rectifier voltage into a stable power output, for car use. The final design and making the vibration system, obtained by the method of experiment proved that the vibration of system feasible.

  13. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment

  14. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Ju, E-mail: shinwooju@hanyang.ac.kr; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment.

  15. Shouldering the load: A review of Joan Stevenson's work on occupational lifting and design evaluation of load carriage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Patrick A; Morin, Evelyn L; Reid, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Dr. Joan Stevenson's work on assessment of the effects of lifting, supporting and transporting loads is reviewed. A defining attribute of this work is the use of objective, biomechanical measures as the basis from which a fuller understanding of all factors affecting worker performance can be obtained, and how such performance should be measured and evaluated. The central objectives and conclusions of Dr. Stevenson's research programs spanning the years from 1985 through 2012 are summarized and discussed in terms of an overall research trajectory. The guiding principle of Dr. Stevenson's work is to reduce the potential harm to which workers are exposed through the development of bona fide occupational standards, a better understanding of risk factors leading to low back pain, and the establishment of an enhanced objective design process for functional load-bearing clothing and equipment.

  16. Design of equipment for the detection of nickel-63 source of the gc-2010 electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez O, A.

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary to design a system that is able to detect the presence of the radioactive source nickel-63, located within the electron capture detector gc- 2010 through the use of Arduino technology, presence sensors and motion This in turn It must be interfaced with a system of tracking and tracing , so collectively be mounted inside the mobile laboratory for research and technological development of systems and equipment for measuring radiation , gases and particles. The program has a structure reading sensors, processing the acquired data and execution of an action if necessary. The system does this by receiving data autonomously, the data is processed and at the end, determines whether the source is in normal operating conditions, if subjected to movements that may cause undesired operation if being handled, or has it has been extracted. (Author)

  17. Direct Digital Control of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    reset, load shedding, chiller optimization , VAV fan synchronization, and optimum start/stop. The prospective buyer of a DDC system should investigate...current and accurate drawings for a conventional, built-up control system such as that illustrated in Fig- ure 4. Data on setpoints , reset schedules, and...are always available in the form of the computer program code (Figure 7). In addition to the control logic, setpoint and other data are readily

  18. The performance of a prototype device designed to evaluate general quality parameters of X-ray equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, C. H.; Fernandes, D. C.; Lavínia, N. C.; Caldas, L. V. E.; Pires, S. R.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2014-02-01

    The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered

  19. Co-simulation of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trcka, Marija; Hensena, Jan L.M.; Wetter, Michael

    2010-06-21

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings HVAC systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. However, no single building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to analyze integrated building systems and to enable rapid prototyping of innovative building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation, as an integrated approach to simulation. This article elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in the here described co-simulation prototype. The prototype is validated with the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a proof-of-concept case study to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling time step.

  20. Regulatory Guide 1.122: Development of floor design response spectra for seismic design of floor-supported equipment or components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    ''Reactor Site Criteria,'' requires, in part, that safety-related structures, systems, and components remain functional in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). It specifies the use of a suitable dynamic analysis as one method of ensuring that the structures, systems, and components can withstand the seismic loads. Similarly, paragraph (a)(2) of Section VI of the same appendix requires, in part, that the structures, systems, and components necessary for continued operation without undue risk to the health and safety of the public remain functional in the event of an Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE). Again, the use of suitable dynamic analysis is specified as one method of ensuring that the structures, systems, and components can withstand the seismic loads. This guide describes methods acceptable to the NRC staff for developing two horizontal and one vertical floor design response spectra at various floors or other equipment-support locations of interest from the time-history motions resulting from the dynamic analysis of the supporting structure. These floor design response spectra are needed for the dynamic analysis of the systems or equipment supported at various locations of the supporting structure

  1. Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Jennings, Wiley; Wylie, Dennis; Horner, Sharon D; Siegel, Jeffrey; Kinney, Kerry A

    2018-01-30

    Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated. The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated. Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a

  2. Free cooling potential of a PCM-based heat exchanger coupled with a novel HVAC system for simultaneous heating and cooling of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    . In particular, a model of a PCM-based heat exchanger was developed in this work by using the programming language Modelica. This device was designed to store cold energy during night-time and release it during daytime through the water circuit. Results for a typical office building model showed...... that the integration of free cooling devices can significantly reduce the primary energy use of the novel HVAC system. In particular, the thermal plant configuration including the PCM-based heat exchanger made it possible to almost completely avoid the use of mechanical cooling, leading to annual primary energy......This article presents a simulation-based study that estimates the primary energy use of a novel HVAC system for different configurations of a thermal plant. The main characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling to buildings by using a single hydronic...

  3. Targeting and design of chilled water network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, Dominic C.Y.; Ng, Denny K.S.; Leong, Malwynn K.Y.; Chew, Irene M.L.; Subramaniam, Mahendran; Aziz, Ramlan; Lee, Jui-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Minimum flowrate targeting for chilled water network. • Mixed series/parallel configuration of chilled water-using units. • Integrated cooling and chilled water networks. - Abstract: Chilled water is a common cooling agent used in various industrial, commercial and institutional facilities. In conventional practice, chilled water is distributed via chilled water networks (CHWNs) in parallel configuration to provide required air conditioning and/or equipment cooling in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In this paper, process integration approach based on pinch analysis technique is used to address energy efficiency issues in the CHWN system for grassroots design problem. Graphical and algebraic targeting techniques are developed to identify the minimum chilled water flowrate needed to remove a given amount of heat load from the CHWN. Doing this leads to higher chilled water return temperature and enhanced energy efficiency of the HVAC system. A recent proposed network design technique is extended to synthesize the CHWN in a mixed series/parallel configuration. A novel concept of integrated cooling and chilled water networks (IWN) is also proposed in this work, with its targeting and design techniques presented. Hypothetical examples and an industrial case study are solved to elucidate the proposed approaches

  4. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  5. Evaluation of High-Performance Rooftop HVAC Unit Naval Air Station Key West, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howett, Daniel H. [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    This report documents performance of a high performance rooftop HVAC unit (RTU) at Naval Air Station Key West, FL. This report was sponsored by the Federal Energy Management Program as part of the "High Performance RTU Campaign".

  6. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was hosted by the IBACOS Building America research team to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting.

  7. The design of in-cell equipment for nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with special reference to the decanners for Pond 5, Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The in-cave equipment has to meet many demanding criteria, which require not only sound and creative design thinking, but a range of design management techniques to ensure the success of the plant. This paper discusses these in some detail in relation to the decanners for Pond 5. (author)

  8. [Hydrotherapy equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibikov, V B; Ragozin, S I; Mikheeva, L V

    1985-01-01

    A flow-chart is developed demonstrating the relation between medical and prophylactic institutions within the organizational structure of the rehabilitation system and main types of rehabilitation procedures. In order to ascertain the priority in equipping rehabilitation services with adequate hardware the special priority criterion is introduced. The highest priority is assigned to balneotherapeutic and fangotherapeutic services. Based on the operation-by-operation analysis of clinical processes related to service and performance of balneologic procedures the preliminary set of clinical devices designed for baths, basins and showers in hospitals and rehabilitation departments is defined in a generalized form.

  9. Small Business Voucher CRADA Report: Natural Gas Powered HVAC System for Commercial and Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, Daniel [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mudiraj, Shyam [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Tilghman, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Graham, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Be Power Tech is commercializing BeCool, the first integrated electricity-producing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system using a non-vapor compression cycle (VCC), packaged rooftop HVAC unit that also produces base-load electricity, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. BeCool is a distributed energy resource with energy storage that eliminates the tremendous peak electricity demand associated with commonly used electricity-powered vapor compression air conditioning systems.

  10. Expert Meeting Report: HVAC Fault Detection, DIagnosis, and Repair/Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The concept for the expert meeting described in this report was to bring together most of the stakeholders in the area of FDD, including academic researchers, manufacturers, educators, program managers and implementers, representatives of standards organizations, utilities, HVAC contractors, and home performance contractors to identify the major gaps and to develop ideas about what can be done to capitalize on the residential HVAC efficiency resource.

  11. Expert Meeting Report: HVAC Fault Detection, Diagnosis, and Repair/Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group

    2016-05-01

    The concept for the expert meeting described in this report was to bring together most of the stakeholders in the area of FDD, including academic researchers, manufacturers, educators, program managers and implementers, representatives of standards organizations, utilities, HVAC contractors, and home performance contractors to identify the major gaps and to develop ideas about what can be done to capitalize on the residential HVAC efficiency resource.

  12. Microwave-Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Baggiani, A. and Senesi, S. (2004). Effect of Microwave Radiation on Bacillus subtilis Spores . J. Appl. Microbiol. 97: 1220–1227. Damit, B., Lee, C.N...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0020 MICROWAVE-IRRADIATION-ASSISTED HVAC FILTRATION FOR INACTIVATION OF VIRAL AEROSOLS POSTPRINT Myung-Heui Woo and...12-APR-2011 -- 11-DEC-2011 Microwave Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (POSTPRINT) FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F

  13. Evaluation of sampling methods for Bacillus spore-contaminated HVAC filters

    OpenAIRE

    Calfee, M. Worth; Rose, Laura J.; Tufts, Jenia; Morse, Stephen; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an extraction-based sampling method to two vacuum-based sampling methods (vacuum sock and 37 mm cassette filter) with regards to their ability to recover Bacillus atrophaeus spores (surrogate for Bacillus anthracis) from pleated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters that are typically found in commercial and residential buildings. Electrostatic and mechanical HVAC filters were tested, both without and after loading with dust to 50...

  14. HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in Biotechnology & Drugs Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Broomes, Peter; Dornfeld, David A

    2003-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in the clean room environment of biotechnology and drug development and manufacturing, are extremely energy and water intensive and represent a significant operating cost for these facilities [1]. HVAC systems are also the primary source of environmental emissions for the majority of companies operating within the biotechnology and drugs sector. While the processes used in drug manufacture have negligible environmental impact...

  15. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  16. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring of HVAC Components using Signal Unmixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimpour, Alireza [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Qi, Hairong [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning units (HVAC) are a major electrical energy consumer in buildings. Monitoring of the operation and energy consumption of HVAC would increase the awareness of building owners and maintenance service providers of the condition and quality of performance of these units, enabling conditioned-based maintenance which would help achieving higher energy efficiency. In this paper, a novel non-intrusive load monitoring method based on group constrained non-negative matrix factorization is proposed for monitoring the different components of HVAC unit by only measuring the whole building aggregated power signal. At the first level of this hierarchical approach, power consumption of the building is decomposed to energy consumption of the HVAC unit and all the other electrical devices operating in the building such as lighting and plug loads. Then, the estimated power signal of the HVAC is used for estimating the power consumption profile of the HVAC major electrical loads such as compressors, condenser fans and indoor blower. Experiments conducted on real data collected from a building testbed maintained at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) demonstrate high accuracy on the disaggregation task.

  17. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design building systems that provide improvements in both energy efficiency and IEQ. This report outlines the selection of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be used in demonstrating such an opportunity in a field study using relocatable school classrooms. Standard classrooms use a common wall mounted heat pump HVAC system. After reviewing alternative systems, a wall-mounting indirect/direct evaporative cooling system with an integral hydronic gas heating is selected. The anticipated advantages of this system include continuous ventilation of 100 percent outside air at or above minimum standards, projected cooling energy reductions of about 70 percent, inexpensive gas heating, improved airborne particle filtration, and reduced peak load electricity use. Potential disadvantages include restricted climate regions and possible increases in indoor relative humidity levels under some conditions

  18. An HVAC [heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning] fault-tree analysis for WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.N.; Iacovino, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk of potential radioactive releases from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a probabilistic risk assessment of waste-handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault-tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, which constitute the final barrier between waste-handling operations and the environment. The WIPP site is designed to receive and store two types of waste: contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) wastes to be shipped in 208-ell drums and remote-handled (RH) TRU wastes to be shipped in shielded casks. The identification of accident sequences for CH waste operations revealed no identified accidents that could release significant radioactive particulates to the environment without a failure in the HVAC systems. When the HVAC fault-tree results were combined with other critical system fault trees and the analysis of waste-handling accident sequences, the approximation of the overall WIPP plant risk due to airborne releases was determined to be 2.6 x 10 -7 fatalities per year for the population within a 50-mile radius of the WIPP site. This risk was demonstrated to be well below the risk of fatality from other voluntary and involuntary activities for the population within the vicinity of the WIPP

  19. Cryogenic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.; Javellaud, J.; Caro, C.; Gilguy, R.; Testard, O.

    1966-06-01

    The cryostats presented here were built from standard parts; this makes it possible to construct a great variety of apparatus at minimum cost. The liquid nitrogen and helium reservoirs were designed so as to reduce losses to a minimum, and so as to make the cryostats as autonomous as possible. The experimental enclosure which is generally placed in the lower part of the apparatus requires a separate study in every case. Furthermore, complete assemblies such as transfer rods, isolated traps and high vacuum valves, were designed with a similar regard for the economic aspects and for the need for standardization. This equipment thus satisfies a great variety of experimental needs; it is readily adaptable and the consumptions of helium and liquid nitrogen are very low. (authors) [fr

  20. Review of the Operability for the Components Under the Loss of the HVAC System of the Pump Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang Mee Jeong; Yoon, Churl; Yang, Joon Eon; Park, Joo Hwan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we estimated the temperature of the pump rooms and reviewed the operability of the components under the loss of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition) system. The issues relevant to the HVAC system in the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) FT (Fault Tree) model are as follows: does the loss of the HVAC system bring about a function failure of other components?. Can the operator take action to reduce the temperature of the room in case of a HVAC function failure?. At present we do not know whether a component will lose its function or not under the loss of the HVAC. ASME Standard describes that a recovery action can be credited if the related recovery action is included in the procedure or there are similar recovery experiences in the plant. However, there is no description about the recovery action of the HVAC in the EOP (Emergency Operation Procedure) of the UCN3, 4 under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. Even though we consider this assumption positively, it would be limited to the rooms such as the Switchgear Room, Inverter Room, and Main Control Room etc. where a real recovery action can be performed easily. However, if we consider the HVAC failure in the PSA FT model according to the above background, the problem is that the unavailability induced from the loss of a HVAC is highly unrealistically. From a viewpoint of the PSA, it is not true that the related system always fails even though the HVAC system fails. Therefore, we reviewed the necessity of the HVAC model through the identification of the operable temperature of the components' within the pump room and the change of the temperature of the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC system

  1. The Effects of the Properties of Gases on the Design of Bubble Columns Equipped with a Fine Pore Sparger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G. Kanaris

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the performance of bubble columns equipped with porous sparger and investigates the effect of gas phase properties by conducting experiments with various gases (i.e., air, CO2, He that cover a wide range of physical property values. The purpose is to investigate the validity of the design equations, which were proposed in our previous work and can predict with reasonable accuracy the transition point from homogeneous to heterogeneous regime as well as the gas holdup and the mean Sauter diameter at the homogeneous regime. Although, the correlations were checked with data obtained using different geometrical configurations and several Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids, as well as the addition of surfactants, the gas phase was always atmospheric air. The new experiments revealed that only the use of low-density gas (He has a measurable effect on bubble column performance. More precisely, when the low-density gas (He is employed, the transition point shifts to higher gas flow rates and the gas holdup decreases, a fact attributed to the lower momentum force exerted by the gas. In view of the new data, the proposed correlations have been slightly modified to include the effect of gas phase properties and it is found that they can predict the aforementioned quantities with an accuracy of ±15%. It has been also proved that computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations are an accurate means for assessing the flow characteristics inside a bubble column.

  2. Design and rescue scenario of common repair equipment for in-vessel components in ITER hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2006-06-01

    Transportation of the in-vessel components to be repaired in the ITER hot cell is carried by two kinds of transporters, i.e., overhead cranes and floor vehicles. The access area for repair operations in the hot cell is duplicated by these transporters. Clear sharing of the respective roles of these transporters with the minimum duplication is therefore useful for rationalization. The overhead cranes, which are independently installed in the respective cells in the hot sell, cannot pass through the components to be repaired between cells, i.e., receiving cell and refurbishment cell as an example. If the floor vehicle with simple mechanisms can cover the inaccessible area for the overhead cranes, a global transporter system in the hot cell will be simplified and the reliability will be increased. Based on this strategy, the overhead crane and floor vehicle concepts are newly proposed. The overhead crane has an adapter for change of the end-effectors, which can be easily changed, to grasp many kinds of components to be repaired. The floor vehicle, which is equipped with wheel mechanisms for transportation, is just to pass through the components between cells with only straight (linear) motion on the floor. The simple wheel mechanism can solve the spread of the dust, which is the critical issue of the original air bearing mechanism for traveling in the 2001 FDR design. Rescue scenarios and procedures in the hot cell are also studied in this report. The proposed rescue crane has major two functions for rescue operations of the hot cell facility, i.e., one for the overhead crane and the other for refurbishment equipment such as workstation for divertor repair. The rescue of the faulty overhead crane is carried out using the rescue tool installed on the rescue crane or directly traveled by pushing/pulling by the rescue crane after docking on the faulty overhead crane. For the rescue of the workstation, the rescue crane consists of a telescopic manipulator (maximum length

  3. Technical guidelines for aseismic design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document is a translation, in its entirety, of the Japan Electric Association (JEA) publication entitled open-quotes Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants - JEAG 4601-1987.close quotes This guideline describes in detail the aseismic design techniques used in Japan for nuclear power plants. It contains chapters dealing with: (a)the selection of earthquake ground motions for a site, (b) the investigation of foundation and bedrock conditions, (c) the evaluation of ground stability and the effects of ground movement on buried piping and structures, (d) the analysis and design of structures, and (e) the analysis and design of equipment and distribution systems (piping, electrical raceways, instrumentation, tubing and HVAC duct). The guideline also includes appendices which summarize data, information and references related to aseismic design technology

  4. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF sound and low-frequency (LF sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant′s probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave

  5. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouharmajd, Farhad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad R; Yazdchi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans) uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC) method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF) sound and low-frequency (LF) sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI) of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant's probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave bands exceed 65

  6. ISH. HVAC engineering yearbook 1999; ISH. Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The 1999 HVAC engineering yearbook contains contributions on energy conservation and optimization in the fields of ventilation and air conditioning: inter alia, solar cooling and air conditioning, optimum rating of ventilator units, and cooling ceilings with ventilation function. In the field of heating, the following topics are addressed, equally under the aspect of energy conservation: condensing boiler technology, hydraulic balancing of heating pipe systems and sequential boiler switching using fuzzy control. Further works deal with rational use of electricity in buildings, and building automation. 17 papers are individually listed in the Energy database. [Deutsch] Das Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999 enthaelt Beitraege zur Energieeinsparung und Optimierung auf den Gebieten Lueftung und Klimatisierung, u. a. solare Kuehlung und Klimatisierung, optimale Auslegung von Ventilator-Aggregaten und Kuehldecken mit Lueftungsfunktion. Auf dem Gebiet der Heizung werden ebenfalls unter dem Gesichtspunkt Energieeinsparung die Brennwerttechnologie, der hydraulische Abgleich von Heizungsrohrnetzen sowie Kesselfolgeschaltungen mit Fuzzy Control angesprochen. Weitere Arbeiten befassen sich mit der rationellen Elektrizitaetsverwendung in Geb auden sowie der Gebaeudeautomation. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden 17 Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  7. Design and fabrication of equipment and devices for a Radiotherapy department; Diseno y fabricacion de equipos y aditamentos para un departamento de Radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon, C.L.; Zaharia B, M. [Departamento de Radioterapia. Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Av. Angamos Este 2520, Lima (Peru)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work is to present the possibility to design and construct utilizing local technology, a series of equipment and devices necessaries for a routine in a Radiotherapy Department with typical budget in the Latin-American hospitals. (Author)

  8. Recent advances in the designing and the equipment of high activity laboratories; Progres recents dans la conception et l'equipement des laboratoires de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R; Duhamel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors described the general principles governing the design of a laboratory for experimenting and handling radioactive substances. The difficulties encountered are of two types: 1) those due to the dangers of external irradiation; 2) those due to the dangers of internal contamination. As an example, the authors describe the French achievements in this field and in particular: - the high-activity laboratories at Saclay; - the laboratory for the examination of irradiated fuels at Saclay; - the 'hot' laboratory of the CEN-Grenoble; - the alpha, beta and gamma laboratories of the CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Finally, the report describes the protective materials used for these installations. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent quels sont les principes generaux qui president a la conception d'un laboratoire a des travaux et des manipulations sur des substances radioactives. Les difficultes a surmonter sont de deux ordres: 1) celles qui proviennent du danger d'irradiation externe; 2) celles qui proviennent du danger de contamination interne. A titre d'exemple, les auteurs decrivent les realisations francaises dans ce domaine et en particulier: - le laboratoire de haute activite de Saclay, - le laboratoire d'examen des combustibles irradies de Saclay, - le laboratoire chaud du CEN-Grenoble, - les laboratoires alpha, beta, gamma du CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Enfin, le rapport decrit les materiaux de protection mis en oeuvre pour ces realisations. (auteur)

  9. Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes three switched control strategies for aggregated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in commercial buildings to track the automatic generation control (AGC signal in smart grid. The existing control strategies include the direct load control strategy and the setpoint regulation strategy. The direct load control strategy cannot track the AGC signal when the state of charge (SOC of the aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs exceeds their regulation capacity, while the setpoint regulation strategy provides flexible regulation capacity, but causes larger tracking errors. To improve the tracking performance, we took the advantages of the two control modes and developed three switched control strategies. The control strategies switch between the direct load control mode and the setpoint regulation mode according to different switching indices. Specifically, we design a discrete-time controller and optimize the controller parameter for the setpoint regulation strategy using the Fibonacci optimization algorithm, enabling us to propose two switched control strategies across multiple time steps. Furthermore, we extend the switched control strategies by introducing a two-stage regulation in a single time step. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed switched control strategies can reduce the tracking errors for frequency regulation.

  10. A 100-Year Review: A century of dairy processing advancements-Pasteurization, cleaning and sanitation, and sanitary equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A; Bradley, R L; Miller, G; Mildenhall, K B

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, advancements within the mainstream dairy foods processing industry have acted in complement with other dairy-affiliated industries to produce a human food that has few rivals with regard to safety, nutrition, and sustainability. These advancements, such as milk pasteurization, may appear commonplace in the context of a modern dairy processing plant, but some consideration of how these advancements came into being serve as a basis for considering what advancements will come to bear on the next century of processing advancements. In the year 1917, depending on where one resided, most milk was presented to the consumer through privately owned dairy animals, small local or regional dairy farms, or small urban commercial dairies with minimal, or at best nascent, processing capabilities. In 1917, much of the retail milk in the United States was packaged and sold in returnable quart-sized clear glass bottles fitted with caps of various design and composition. Some reports suggest that the cost of that quart of milk was approximately 9 cents-an estimated $2.00 in 2017 US dollars. Comparing that 1917 quart of milk to a quart of milk in 2017 suggests several differences in microbiological, compositional, and nutritional value as well as flavor characteristics. Although a more comprehensive timeline of significant processing advancements is noted in the AppendixTable A1 to this paper, we have selected 3 advancements to highlight; namely, the development of milk pasteurization, cleaning and sanitizing technologies, and sanitary specifications for processing equipment. Finally, we provide some insights into the future of milk processing and suggest areas where technological advancements may need continued or strengthened attention and development as a means of securing milk as a food of high safety and value for the next century to come. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description. System 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed and Instrument Air PandID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid PandID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility

  14. Equipment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  15. Research, Calculation for Designing the Technological Equipment Line of Cementation with 3,000 Tonnes of Solid Waste/Year Capacity for ZOC Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van Hoa; Ngo Van Tuyen; Nguyen Ba Tien; Le Ba Thuan; Phung Quoc Khanh; Mai Duc Lanh; Vuong Huu Anh; Luu Cao Nguyen; Duong Dinh Tho; Phung Vu Phong; Nguyen An Thai; Pham Quang Minh

    2013-01-01

    Technological process and equipment line for cementation with 3,000 tons of solid wastes/year capacity for ZOC plant was studied according to the quantity, the composition and the property of solid wastes from ZOC plant. The influence of several parameters with cementation process such as cement mixing ratio, size, moisture and NaCl content in residue, which affected to mechanical and chemical strength of waste block after cementation was evaluated. The calculation and designing for cementation equipment line were thus conducted and total investment cost of construction and installation as well as operation of this equipment line was also estimated. Radiation safety and environmental protection for waste treatment facility was calculated and the design on radiation safety and environmental protection for equipment line was proposed. Technological process and design document of this production line seemed to be reasonable because it is consistent with properties of wastes as well as it has been commonly used in the world to stabilize solid residues in nuclear industry. The advantages of this propose were simple structure of the devices, locally made, easy operation, locally available and inexpensive materials resulting in low cost of investment and operation. (author)

  16. Minimization of energy consumption in HVAC systems with data-driven models and an interior-point method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Xu, Guanglin; Zhang, Zijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the energy saving of HVAC systems with a data-driven approach. • We conduct an in-depth analysis of the topology of developed Neural Network based HVAC model. • We apply interior-point method to solving a Neural Network based HVAC optimization model. • The uncertain building occupancy is incorporated in the minimization of HVAC energy consumption. • A significant potential of saving HVAC energy is discovered. - Abstract: In this paper, a data-driven approach is applied to minimize energy consumption of a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system while maintaining the thermal comfort of a building with uncertain occupancy level. The uncertainty of arrival and departure rate of occupants is modeled by the Poisson and uniform distributions, respectively. The internal heating gain is calculated from the stochastic process of the building occupancy. Based on the observed and simulated data, a multilayer perceptron algorithm is employed to model and simulate the HVAC system. The data-driven models accurately predict future performance of the HVAC system based on the control settings and the observed historical information. An optimization model is formulated and solved with the interior-point method. The optimization results are compared with the results produced by the simulation models

  17. A complete geothermal energy cycle with heat pumps and hybrid HVAC systems for the city of Denizli, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Kilkis, I.B. [Heatway Radiant Floors and Snowmelting, Springfield, MO (United States)]|[Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses general aspects of maximizing geofluid effectiveness by employing hybrid cycle plants coupled to district HVAC systems. Alternative and new techniques in space heating and cooling are also discussed. A case study is presented for the district HVAC system for the city of Denizli in Turkey. Results are compared with an open-cycle, open-loop system.

  18. Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools To Balance the Needs for Indoor Air Quality, Energy Conservation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.; Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    Although poor air quality in a school can have multiple causes, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role. Suggestions that architects, facilities managers, school board members, and administrators can use in selecting HVAC systems are discussed. Focus is on the performance criteria for classroom systems, and…

  19. Application of optimization techniques on lumped HVAC models for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoff, A.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems comprise nearly one third of annual household energy consumption in the United States. HVAC energy use can be reduced by applying controls. This study applies a novel control method on a system with arbitrary steady-state and transient load distributions. The new method uses multi-dimensional interpolation between optimized control configurations for various steady-state load distributions. Demonstration of the new method on a two-room HVAC system predicts power savings for an arbitrary steady load that is nearly equivalent to that using a Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) with chiller modulation. However, the new method provides better energy savings for arbitrary transient loads: 19% energy savings over an uncontrolled system compared to energy savings of 6% for a VAV with chiller modulation. The average transient temperature deviation from setpoint using the new method is slightly better than that using VAV with chiller modulation. (author)

  20. Applications of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification at Walt Disney World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.J.; Dinh, K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and application of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification purposes. In HVAC applications, a heat pipe is used as a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the return air directly to the supply air. The air is pre-cooled entering the cooling coil and reheated using the same heat removed from the return air. While consuming no energy, the heat pipe lets the evaporator coil operate at a lower temperature, increasing the moisture removal capabilities of the HVAC system by 50% to 100%. WALT DISNEY WORLD is currently testing several heat pipe applications ranging from 1 to 240 tons. The applications include (1) water attractions (2) museums/artifacts areas (3) resort guest rooms and (4) locker rooms. Actual energy usage and relative humidity reductions are shown to determine the effectiveness of the heat pipe as an energy efficient method of humidity control