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Sample records for hvac controls project

  1. An integrated control-oriented modelling for HVAC performance benchmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, Harish; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment requires the development of accurate models for testing HVAC control strategies and corresponding energy consumption. In order to make the HVAC control synthesis computationally affordable, such

  2. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions.

  3. Transactive Control of Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    This document details the development and testing of market-based transactive controls for building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. These controls are intended to serve the purposes of reducing electricity use through conservation, reducing peak building electric demand, and providing demand flexibility to assist with power system operations. This report is the summary of the first year of work conducted under Phase 1 of the Clean Energy and Transactive Campus Project. The methods and techniques described here were first investigated in simulation, and then subsequently deployed to a physical testbed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus for validation. In this report, we describe the models and control algorithms we have developed, testing of the control algorithms in simulation, and deployment to a physical testbed. Results from physical experiments support previous simulation findings, and provide insights for further improvement.

  4. Towards Autonomous Control of HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.

    autonomous control. Together with better tuned controllers and more dedicated control it would be possible to decrease the energy consumption, save money and increase the indoor air climate. A flexible HVAC test system was designed and implemented. Standard components and sensors were used in the design...... temperature controller, based on airflow control, was designed. Feedback linearisation is used together with an auto-tuning procedure, based on relay feedback. Design of a new CO2 controller was made to achieve a demand controlled ventilation system, in order to save energy. Feedback linearisation was used...

  5. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  6. D-Zero HVAC Heat Pump Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This engineering note documents the integration of Dzero Heat Pump 1 through Heat Pump 15 into the cryo/gas process control system commonly referred to as the cryo control system. Heat pumps 1 through 15 control the ambient air temperature on the 3rd, 5th, and 6th floor office areas at Dzero. The entire Johnson HVAC control system was replaced with a Siemens control system in 1999 leaving behind the 15 heat pumps with stand-alone Johnson controllers. Now, these 15 heat pump Johnson controllers are being replaced with small stand alone Beckhoff BC9000 controllers. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers are network able into the existing Intellution control system. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers use the cryo private Ethernet network and an OPC driver to get data into the Intellution SCADA node databases. The BC9000 is also programmed over this same Ethernet network.

  7. Integrated dynamic modelling and multivariable control of HVAC components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, H.; Babuska, R.; Baldi, S.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rantzer, Anders; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The field of energy efficiency in buildings offers challenging opportunities from a control point of view. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units in buildings must be accurately controlled so as to ensure the occupants' comfort and reduced energy consumption. While the existing HVAC

  8. Optimal Model-Based Control in HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komareji, Mohammad; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    is developed. Then the optimal control structure is designed and implemented. The HVAC system is splitted into two subsystems. By selecting the right set-points and appropriate cost functions for each subsystem controller the optimal control strategy is respected to gaurantee the minimum thermal and electrical......This paper presents optimal model-based control of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This HVAC system is made of two heat exchangers: an air-to-air heat exchanger (a rotary wheel heat recovery) and a water-to- air heat exchanger. First dynamic model of the HVAC system...... energy consumption. Finally, the controller is applied to control the mentioned HVAC system and the results show that the expected goals are fulfilled....

  9. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella [Department of Engineering, University of Napoli “Parthenope” (Italy); Martini, Fabrizio [Green Energy Plus srl (Italy); Pirozzi, Salvatore [SIAT Installazioni spa (Italy); Ubertini, Stefano [School of Engineering (DEIM) University of Tuscia (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting.

  10. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella; Martini, Fabrizio; Pirozzi, Salvatore; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting

  11. D0 HVAC System Controls Evaluation of Upgrade Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.; Simon, P.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering note documents three different options for upgrading the Dzero HVAC control system. All three options leave the current field hardware and field devices intact and upgrade the computer control hardware and software. Dzero will be heading into a physics run starting in 2000. This physics run could last several years. The Dzero HVAC system is an integral part of climate control and electronics cooling. The current HVAC control system is based upon a 1985 Johnson Controls System. In order to enter the next long-term physics run with a solid HVAC control system, the current control system needs to be upgraded. This proposal investigates three options: (1) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the Johnson Controls operator interface - FESS; (2) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the FIX32 Operator Interface - FESS/Dzero; and (3) Replacement with a commercially available Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) WITH THE FIX 32 Operator Interface - Dzero.

  12. Decentralized Optimization for a Novel Control Structure of HVAC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A decentralized control structure is introduced into the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to solve the high maintenance and labor cost problem in actual engineering. Based on this new control system, a decentralized optimization method is presented for sensor fault repair and optimal group control of HVAC equipment. Convergence property of the novel method is theoretically analyzed considering both convex and nonconvex systems with constraints. In this decentralized control system, traditional device is fitted with a control chip such that it becomes a smart device. The smart device can communicate and operate collaboratively with the other devices to accomplish some designated tasks. The effectiveness of the presented method is verified by simulations and hardware tests.

  13. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almerico, F.; Machiels, A.J.; Ornberg, S.C.; Lahti, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  14. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  15. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  16. Design and Implementation of Energy Efficiency in HVAC Systems Based on Robust PID Control for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Imal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems is a primary concern in process projects, since the energy consumption has the highest percentage in HVAC for all processes. Without sacrifice of thermal comfort, to reset the suitable operating parameters, such as the humidity and air temperature, would have energy saving with immediate effect. In this paper, the simulation-optimization approach described the effective energy efficiency for HVAC systems which are used in industrial process. Due to the complex relationship of the HVAC system parameters, it is necessary to suggest optimum settings for different operations in response to the dynamic cooling loads and changing weather conditions during a year. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID programming was developed which can effectively handle the discrete, nonlinear and highly constrained optimization problems. Energy efficiency process has been made by controlling of alternative current (AC drivers for ventilation and exhaust fans, according to supplied air flow capacity and differential air pressure between supplied and exhaust air. Supervisory controller software was developed by using programmable controllers and human machine interface (HMI units. The new designed HVAC control system would have a saving potential of about 40% as compared to the existing operational settings, without any extra cost.

  17. Modeling and Control of AHUs in Building HVAC Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is a mechanical system that provides thermal comfort and accepted indoor air quality often instrumented for large-scale buildings. The HVAC system takes a dominant portion of overall building energy consumption and accounts for 50% of the energy used in the U.S. commercial and residential buildings in 2012. The performance and energy saving of building HVAC systems can be significantly improved by the implementation of better and smarter contro...

  18. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  19. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  20. Critical control points for the management of microbial growth in HVAC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, S; Franchimon, F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Olesen, BW; Wargocki, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    Office buildings with HVAC systems consistently report Sick Building Symptoms that are derived from microbial growth. We used the HACCP methodology to find the main critical control points (CCPs) for microbial management of HVAC systems in temperate climates. Desk research revealed relative humidity

  1. Review of Control Techniques for HVAC Systems—Nonlinearity Approaches Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Behrooz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are the major energy-consuming devices in buildings. Nowadays, due to the high demand for HVAC system installation in buildings, designing an effective controller in order to decrease the energy consumption of the devices while meeting the thermal comfort demands in buildings are the most important goals of control designers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the different control methods for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC & R systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each control method are discussed and finally the Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM method is introduced as a new strategy for HVAC systems. The FCM method is an intelligent and advanced control technique to address the nonlinearity, Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO, complexity and coupling effect features of the systems. The significance of this method and improvements by this method are compared with other methods.

  2. In-the-loop simulation of electronic automatic temperature control systems: HVAC modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domschke, R.; Matthes, M. [Visteon Deutschland GmbH, Kerpen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The Electronic Automatic Temperature Control (EATC) ensures the occupant comfort and provides safety features like rapid defrost and demist protection. Doing this, the EATC controller provides a direct interface to the end consumer and has a considerable impact on customer satisfaction. The In-the-loop (IL) simulation process is an integral part of Visteons model-based development process. It helps to design and calibrate the EATC controller. It consists of several IL simulation techniques like Model-in-the-loop (MIL), Software-in-the-loop (SIL) and Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). In this article, we will focus on MIL/SIL Simulations. MIL/SIL allows simulation of the EATC controller in a virtual vehicle environment from the early states of and throughout the development process. This ensures a rapid, high quality and robust development process. The MIL/SIL model contains a thermal vehicle model, a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) unit model and a model of the EATC controller itself. The thermal vehicle model simulates transient temperature and humidity conditions in the passenger compartment of a vehicle, settings from the controller, heat fluxes through the vehicle shell and windows, solar load and several further boundary conditions. Whereas the thermal vehicle model of a specific vehicle can be adapted from a default data base, one has to pay special attention to the HVAC unit model. Visteon has developed a special, physically based HVAC unit model to be adapted and implemented into the MIL/SIL simulation. This HVAC model enables a straightforward implementation of different HVAC architectures into the MIL/SIL simulation. Moreover, changes in the HVAC settings (i.e. different blower/scroll assemblies) can be assessed and the influence on passenger comfort can be quantified. Examples of the MIL/SIL simulation demonstrate the benefits of this approach. Results are discussed and a further outlook provided. (orig.)

  3. Energy efficient HVAC control in historical buildings : a case study for the Amsterdam Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompatscher, K.; Seuren, S.; Kramer, R.P.; Van Schijndel, J.A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Museums are often located in historical buildings. To provide suitable housing in a historical building for a museum, these buildings are usually adapted to suit the need for object preservation through HVAC control. Maintaining a strict indoor climate and limiting short fluctuations in indoor

  4. Rapid Deployment of Optimal Control for Building HVAC Systems Using Innovative Software Tools and a Hybrid Heuristic/Model Based Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Tutorial. European Journal Of Control. Vol 13/2-3, pp 242–260. Parrish, K., J. Granderson, A. Mercado, P. Mathew. 2013. Improving Energy Efficiency...successfully, the project as a whole was not able to successfully demonstrate the technology. Anecdotal evidence, academic studies, and system simulations...Oceanography Center HVAC heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning NPS Naval Postgraduate School NRL U.S. Naval Research Laboratory NSAM Naval

  5. Thermal analysis of an HVAC system with TRV controlled hydronic radiator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A model for an HVAC system is derived in this paper. The HVAC system consists of a room and a hydronic radiator with temperature regulating valve (TRV) which has a step motor to adjust the valve opening. The heating system and the room are simulated as a unit entity for thermal analysis and contr......A model for an HVAC system is derived in this paper. The HVAC system consists of a room and a hydronic radiator with temperature regulating valve (TRV) which has a step motor to adjust the valve opening. The heating system and the room are simulated as a unit entity for thermal analysis...... and controller design. A discrete-element model with interconnected small scaled elements is proposed for the radiator. This models the radiator more precisely than that of a lumped model in terms of transfer delay and radiator gain. This precise modeling gives us an intuition into a regular unwanted phenomenon...... which occurs in low demand situations. When flow is very low in radiator and the supply water temperature and the pressure drop across the valve is constant, oscillation in room temperature occurs. One reason could be the large gain of radiator in low demand conditions compared to the high demand...

  6. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  7. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  8. Designing the controllability of a HVAC-plant by dynamic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Grindal, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper was presented at CLIMA 2000 - The international conference on energy and environmental matters in built environment, London, 1.-3. November 1993. Nowadays, HVAC engineers can use dynamic simulation programs in their everyday work. Such tools provide the ability to analyze different system configurations and to check the obtained states even before the building and plant are constructed. To encourage its wider use, the authors present in this paper the experiences obtained with the simulation program HVAC-DYNAMICS. The program was used to simulate the retrofitting of a heat recovery wheel to a conventional ventilation plant with a hot water heating coil. The effects of different design parameters on the controllability of the plant were investigated. Interestingly, some commonly recommended ``clever`` configurations can lead to unexpected control scenarios. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  10. Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra

    2014-01-01

    of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user’s preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user’s device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  11. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  12. Simulation Study of IMC and Fuzzy Controller for HVAC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheshwari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how the fuzzy logic controller is used to solve the control problems of complex and non linear process and show that it is more robust and their performance are less sensitive to parametric variations than conventional controllers. These systems will yield a linear response when compared to ordinary controllers. The main advantage of Fuzzy control over conventional controllers is regulation can be done without over shoot.

  13. Control of space HVAC systems. Proceedings. Regelung von raumlufttechnischen Anlagen. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This GMA report presents automation concepts for the control of space HVAC systems using new support methods and means like computer technology and digital simulation methods while considering control problems associated with the application of such methods and means. Both technical and economic aspects are discussed. New findings also concern the structurization and design of control systems, modelling of component and system behaviour for scale-up and simulation of plants. Each of the 10 papers was abstracted for entry into the data base. (HW).

  14. Direct Digital Control of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    controller func- tions such as time-of-day, economizer cycles, reset, load shedding, chiller optimization , VAV fan synchronization, and optimum start/stop...control system such as that illustrated in Fig- urc 4. Data on setpoints , reset schedules, and event timing, such as that presented in Figure 6, are...program code (Figure 7). In addition to the control logic, setpoint and other data are readily available. Program logi:, setpoint and schedule data, and

  15. Control of Variable-Speed Pressurization Fan for an Offshore HVAC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    all the way above the ambient pressure according to safety regulations. Meanwhile, the indoor air needs to be regularly changed in order to guarantee the indoor air quality. Both requirements could be possibly achieved by automatically manipulating either the throttle valve located at the terminal....... This paper proposes a set of control solutions to regulate the variablespeed pressurization fan system such that the energy efficiency of the considered HVAC system can be explicitly considered. A combined feed-forward with a PI-based feedback control solution, and a MPC solution are proposed based...

  16. Control of noise - systems for compact HVAC units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    systems affect the performance of implementations. The source pressure and the impedance of a centrifugal fan were measured, and a number of configurations for noise control were investigated. The performance of a simple analogue feedback control was tested in a physical prototype. An adaptive digital...

  17. A novel intelligent control of HVAC system in smart microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hakimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heating systems have played an important role in building energy and comfort management. This paper set forth a novel intelligent residential heating system controller that has smart grid functionality. In smart grid, demand response systems now have the ability to not only engage commercial and industrial customers, but also the individual residential customers. Additionally, the ability exists to have automated control systems which operate on an availability of renewable energy and welfare of customers. In this paper one possible implementation of an active controller will be examined. An active controller operates by responding to a combination of internal set points and external signal from local control entity. The optimization objective of the heating systems management was to minimize the cost of smart microgrid, minimize the size of smart microgrid units, minimize import energy from distribution grid and maximize reliability of smart microgrid. This means that, smart heating system and renewable energy can work well together and their individual benefits can be added together when used in combination. Simulation studies are used to demonstrate the capability on the proposed heating system controller on the planning of a smart microgrid system.

  18. D0 HVAC System Heat Pump Controller Programming, Networking, and Operating Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering note is to provide the necessary information to setup, program, and network the Electronic Systems USA Heat Pump Controller with the LON network card and Intellution Fix32 to operate properly within the HVAC system at D-Zero. The heat pump controllers are used for local temperature control of the office environments on the fifth and six floors of D-Zero. Heat pump units 1-6 are located in the ceiling of the sixth floor. Heat pump units 7-12 are found in the fifth floor ceiling. Heat pump unit 13 is in the Southeast corner of the fifth floor. Prior to installation the heat pump controller must be properly prepared to operate correctly in the HVAC system. Each heat pump unit must contain firmware (software) version 1.31 to operate properly on the network. Controllers with version 1.30 will not be able to communicate over the LON network. The manufacturer can only update the firmware version. Before installation a series of heat pump setpoints must be manually set using the Intelligent Stat. Connect the Intelligent Stat via the serial cable or wired connection.

  19. Energy efficient model based algorithm for control of building HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, V; Sahu, Chinmay; Radhakrishnan, T K; Sivakumaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An innovative HVAC control system: Implementation and testing in a vehicular cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan; Povalač, Aleš; Urbanec, Tomáš; Jícha, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    Personal vehicles undergo rapid development in every imaginable way. However, a concept of managing a cabin thermal environment remains unchanged for decades. The only major improvement has been an automatic HVAC controller with one user's input - temperature. In this case, the temperature is often deceiving because of thermally asymmetric and dynamic nature of the cabins. As a result, the effects of convection and radiation on passengers are not captured in detail what also reduces the potential to meet thermal comfort expectations. Advanced methodologies are available to assess the cabin environment in a fine resolution (e.g. ISO 14505:2006), but these are used mostly in laboratory conditions. The novel idea of this work is to integrate equivalent temperature sensors into a vehicular cabin in proximity of an occupant. Spatial distribution of the sensors is expected to provide detailed information about the local environment that can be used for personalised, comfort driven HVAC control. The focus of the work is to compare results given by the implemented system and a Newton type thermal manikin. Three different ambient settings were examined in a climate chamber. Finally, the results were compared and a good match of equivalent temperatures was found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  2. Real-time performance assessment and adaptive control for a water chiller unit in an HVAC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianbo; Li, Yang; Chen, Jianhao

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an adaptive control method for a water chiller unit in a HVAC system. Based on the minimum variance evaluation, the adaptive control method was used to realize better control of the water chiller unit. To verify the performance of the adaptive control method, the proposed method was compared with an a conventional PID controller, the simulation results showed that adaptive control method had superior control performance to that of the conventional PID controller.

  3. A novel optimization algorithm based on epsilon constraint-RBF neural network for tuning PID controller in decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaran, Seyed Mohammad; Yusof, Rubiyah; Selamat, Hazlina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Decoupling of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system is presented. • RBF models were identified by Epsilon constraint method for temperature and humidity. • Control settings derived from optimization of the decoupled model. • Epsilon constraint-RBF based on PID controller was implemented to keep thermal comfort and minimize energy. • Enhancements of controller parameters of the HVAC system are desired. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system optimized using a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) combined with the epsilon constraint (EC) method is reported. The new method adopts the advanced algorithm of RBFNN for the HVAC system to estimate the residual errors, increase the control signal and reduce the error results. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate the EC-RBFNN for a self tuning PID controller for a decoupled bilinear HVAC system to control the temperature and relative humidity (RH) produced by the system. A case study indicates that the EC-RBFNN algorithm has a much better accuracy than optimization PID itself and PID-RBFNN, respectively.

  4. HVAC retrofitting and remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford Co., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the pitfalls and problems as well as the benefits of updating a HVAC system. Failures and successes, and the lessons learned working in this dominant portion of the construction market are included as the author describes retrofit projects. The projects have ranged from total replacements in unoccupied buildings to updating systems in occupied buildings.

  5. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  6. Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes three switched control strategies for aggregated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in commercial buildings to track the automatic generation control (AGC signal in smart grid. The existing control strategies include the direct load control strategy and the setpoint regulation strategy. The direct load control strategy cannot track the AGC signal when the state of charge (SOC of the aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs exceeds their regulation capacity, while the setpoint regulation strategy provides flexible regulation capacity, but causes larger tracking errors. To improve the tracking performance, we took the advantages of the two control modes and developed three switched control strategies. The control strategies switch between the direct load control mode and the setpoint regulation mode according to different switching indices. Specifically, we design a discrete-time controller and optimize the controller parameter for the setpoint regulation strategy using the Fibonacci optimization algorithm, enabling us to propose two switched control strategies across multiple time steps. Furthermore, we extend the switched control strategies by introducing a two-stage regulation in a single time step. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed switched control strategies can reduce the tracking errors for frequency regulation.

  7. Maintenance of HVAC-systems and components: How to prevent pollution from HVAC-systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Björkroth, M.; Plitt, U.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies, from seven

  8. Why, when and how do HVAC-systems pollute? Characterisation of HVAC-systems related pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Björkroth, M.; Müller, B.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Roulet, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies from seven

  9. Efficient HVAC. New products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  10. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  11. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  12. Thermal room modelling adapted to the test of HVAC control systems; Modele de zone adapte aux essais de regulateurs de systemes de chauffage et de climatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riederer, P.

    2002-01-15

    Room models, currently used for controller tests, assume the room air to be perfectly mixed. A new room model is developed, assuming non-homogeneous room conditions and distinguishing between different sensor positions. From measurement in real test rooms and detailed CFD simulations, a list of convective phenomena is obtained that has to be considered in the development of a model for a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The zonal modelling approach that divides the room air into several sub-volumes is chosen, since it is able to represent the important convective phenomena imposed on the HVAC system. The convective room model is divided into two parts: a zonal model, representing the air at the occupant zone and a second model, providing the conditions at typical sensor positions. Using this approach, the comfort conditions at the occupant zone can be evaluated as well as the impact of different sensor positions. The model is validated for a test room equipped with different HVAC systems. Sensitivity analysis is carried out on the main parameters of the model. Performance assessment and energy consumption are then compared for different sensor positions in a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The results are also compared with those obtained when a well-mixed model is used. A main conclusion of these tests is, that the differences obtained, when changing the position of the controller's sensor, is a function of the HVAC system and controller type. The differences are generally small in terms of thermal comfort but significant in terms of overall energy consumption. For different HVAC systems the cases are listed, in which the use of a simplified model is not recommended. (author)

  13. HVAC systems and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.T. (Linford Air and Refrigeration Company, Oakland, CA (US))

    1990-02-01

    The author discusses the section of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 which addresses HVAC systems and equipment. New features of HVAC systems mandatory general requirements are described. New prescriptive requirements are detailed.

  14. Project equipment HVAC chilled with R22 in the NPP Asco; Proyecto de sustitucion de equipos HVAC refrigerados con R22 en la C.N. Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimot Jimenez, J. J.; Imbert, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the project of changing units of air conditioning in the Asco NPP currently used R22 as coolant. The project has a powerful, affecting 37 units, of which more than half are Clase1E. The document describes the process of sizing, scope of change and solutions adopted for this change of design.

  15. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-30

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following design calculations: Cooling load in pump pit 241-AY-102; Pressure relief seal loop design; Process building piping stress analysis; Exhaust skid maximum allowable leakage criteria; and Recirculation heat, N509 duct requirements.

  16. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following calculations: Exhaust airflow sizing for Tank 241-C-106; Equipment sizing and selection recirculation fan; Sizing high efficiency mist eliminator; Sizing electric heating coil; Equipment sizing and selection of recirculation condenser; Chiller skid system sizing and selection; High efficiency metal filter shielding input and flushing frequency; and Exhaust skid stack sizing and fan sizing

  17. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-08-07

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following calculations: Exhaust airflow sizing for Tank 241-C-106; Equipment sizing and selection recirculation fan; Sizing high efficiency mist eliminator; Sizing electric heating coil; Equipment sizing and selection of recirculation condenser; Chiller skid system sizing and selection; High efficiency metal filter shielding input and flushing frequency; and Exhaust skid stack sizing and fan sizing.

  18. PROJETO DE UM CONTROLADOR PROPORCIONAL-INTEGRAL PARA O SISTEMA DE CONTROLE DE QUALIDADE DO AR E DE UM NOVO SISTEMA DE CONTROLE HVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millene Caroline Albino de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma sala do Perlstein Hall, da Illinois Institute of Techonology, (Chicago, IL, USA possui um sistema de aquecimento, ventilação e ar condicionado (em inglês – HVAC equipado com um sensor de gás carbônico, cujo intuito é regular diretamente a qualidade do ar e assegurar que a sala esteja em condições aceitáveis. Este procedimento, porém, pode colocar uma carga extra no sistema HVAC e aumentar o consumo de energia. Desta forma, o objetivo principal do trabalho foi o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de uma estratégia de controle de temperatura e concentração de CO2 para o sistema em questão, utilizando um controlador Proporcional-Integral (PI. Dados coletados em testes realizados na sala foram utilizados para a estimação dos parâmetros das funções de transferência e dos controladores. Inicialmente, os controladores foram testados separadamente e, em seguida, em conjunto. Pode-se observar que o controlador PI obteve bons resultados, apesar do overshoot e oscilações do sistema já observados pela literatura, conseguindo atingir o set point desejado de temperatura de 70°F e de concentração de CO2 de 150 ppm. Palavras-chave: HVAC, Controle, controlador PI.

  19. Characterization and control of the microbial community affiliated with copper or aluminum heat exchangers of HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael G; Attaway, Hubert H; Terzieva, Silva; Marshall, Anna; Steed, Lisa L; Salzberg, Deborah; Hamoodi, Hameed A; Khan, Jamil A; Feigley, Charles E; Michels, Harold T

    2012-08-01

    Microbial growth in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with the subsequent contamination of indoor air is of increasing concern. Microbes and the subsequent biofilms grow easily within heat exchangers. A comparative study where heat exchangers fabricated from antimicrobial copper were evaluated for their ability to limit microbial growth was conducted using a full-scale HVAC system under conditions of normal flow rates using single-pass outside air. Resident bacterial and fungal populations were quantitatively assessed by removing triplicate sets of coupons from each exchanger commencing the fourth week after their installation for the next 30 weeks. The intrinsic biofilm associated with each coupon was extracted and characterized using selective and differential media. The predominant organisms isolated from aluminum exchangers were species of Methylobacterium of which at least three colony morphologies and 11 distinct PFGE patterns we found; of the few bacteria isolated from the copper exchangers, the majority were species of Bacillus. The concentrations and type of bacteria recovered from the control, aluminum, exchangers were found to be dependent on the type of plating media used and were 11,411-47,257 CFU cm(-2) per coupon surface. The concentration of fungi was found to average 378 CFU cm(-2). Significantly lower concentrations of bacteria, 3 CFU cm(-2), and fungi, 1 CFU cm(-2), were recovered from copper exchangers regardless of the plating media used. Commonly used aluminum heat exchangers developed stable, mixed, bacterial/fungal biofilms in excess of 47,000 organisms per cm(2) within 4 weeks of operation, whereas the antimicrobial properties of metallic copper were able to limit the microbial load affiliated with the copper heat exchangers to levels 99.97 % lower during the same time period.

  20. A simplified modeling of mechanical cooling tower for control and optimization of HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Guang-Yu; Cai, Wen-Jian; Lu Lu; Lee, Eng Lock; Chiang, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new, simple, yet accurate mechanical cooling tower model for the purpose of energy conservation and management. On the basis of Merkel's theory and effectiveness-NTU method, the model is developed by energy balance and heat, mass transfer analysis. Commissioning information is then used to identified, only three model parameters by Levenberg-Marquardt method. Compared with the existing models, the proposed model has simple characteristic parameters to be determined and without requiring iterative computation when the operating point changes. The model is validated by real operating data from the cooling towers of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a commercial hotel. The testing results show that the performance of the cooling tower varies from time to time due to different operating conditions and the proposed model is able to reflect these changes by tuning its parameters. With this feature, the proposed model can be simply used and accurately predict the performance of the real-time operating cooling tower

  1. Integrated analysis of CFD data with K-means clustering algorithm and extreme learning machine for localized HVAC control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongming; Soh, Yeng Chai; Wu, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a desired comfort level while minimizing the total energy consumed is an interesting optimization problem in Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system control. This paper proposes a localized control strategy that uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results and K-means clustering algorithm to optimally partition an air-conditioned room into different zones. The temperature and air velocity results from CFD simulation are combined in two ways: 1) based on the relationship indicated in predicted mean vote (PMV) formula; 2) based on the relationship extracted from ASHRAE RP-884 database using extreme learning machine (ELM). Localized control can then be effected in which each of the zones can be treated individually and an optimal control strategy can be developed based on the partitioning result. - Highlights: • The paper provides a visual guideline for thermal comfort analysis. • CFD, K-means, PMV and ELM are used to analyze thermal conditions within a room. • Localized control strategy could be developed based on our clustering results

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  3. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvan, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; proper operation of all display data on the operator's console; proper operation of all required alarms; and proper operation of all required interlocks. The MICON A/S control system is configured to replace all the control, indication, and alarm panels now located in the Power Control Room. Nine systems are covered by this control configuration, 2736-ZB HVAC, 234-5Z HVAC, Process Vacuum, Dry Air, 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling, Building Accelerometer, Evacuation Siren, Stack CAMs, and Fire. The 2736-ZB HVAC system consists of the ventilation controls for 2736-ZB and 2736-Z as well as alarms for the emergency generators and 232-Z. The 234-5Z HVAC system is the ventilation controls for 235-5Z and 236-Z buildings. Process Vacuum covers the controls for the 26 inch vacuum system. Dry Air covers the controls for the steam and electric air dryers. The 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling system consists of the status indications and alarms for the 291-Z compressor and vacuum pump closed loop cooling system. The rest of closed loop cooling was tested earlier. The Building Accelerometer system consists of the status indications for the two seismic system accelerometers. The Evacuation Siren system includes the controls for the evacuation and take cover sirens. Stack CAMs cover the alarms for the various building ventilation stack continuous air monitors. Finally, the Fire system covers the various fire alarms now located in Room 321-A

  4. The Design of HVAC System in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    The HVAC systems for conventional facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center consist of 3 systems : accelerator building HVAC system, beam application building HVAC system and miscellaneous HVAC system. We designed accelerator building HVAC system and beam application research area HVAC system in the conventional facilities of Proton Accelerator research center. Accelerator building HVAC system is divided into accelerator tunnel area, klystron area, klystron gallery area, accelerator assembly area. Also, Beam application research area HVAC system is divided into those of beam experimental hall, accelerator control area, beam application research area and Ion beam application building. In this paper, We described system design requirements and explained system configuration for each systems. We presented operation scenario of HVAC system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

  5. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  6. Analog and digital appliance technology for the control and monitoring of space HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoeri, M

    1987-01-01

    Both analog and digital devices are expected to meet the required control functions. The analog control device meets this function by way of a complicated circuitry and wiring technology of varying sophistication. In the digital control by a preprogrammed microprocessor. Digital technology allows to use the copied programme in different devices. Any change in the control of a system can be implemented and met by a programme change in digital technology. In analog technology, this change involves a change in wiring. (orig./HW).

  7. Modelling and adaptive control of small capacity chillers for HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghi, A.; Cecchinato, Luca

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive controller for single and uneven tandem scroll compressor, packaged air-cooled water chillers is described. The designed controller allows to substantially increase the energy performance of the system, as well as to achieve excellent regulation performances in process applications. The controller parameters are adapted on the basis of estimates of the plant thermal load, that are computed by using a Kalman filter. An ad hoc approach is used to define a relay control logic, which is based on a numerical optimization procedure. To support controller design, a detailed simulation environment is developed and validated on an experimental facility. Performance of the algorithm is described with both simulation and experimental data. At low part load ratio values the proposed algorithm grants a 0.6-0.7 K improvement in the regulation performance in terms of supply water temperature standard deviation and mean supply water temperature deviation. The unit energy efficiency improvement with respect to supply water temperature control varies from 7.3% to 3.0% while the experimental seasonal energy efficiency rating improvement is 9.1%. - Research highlights: → Design of an advanced control algorithms for small capacity chillers. → Matlab/Simulink simulation environment development and experimental validation. → Development of an adaptive control algorithm for scroll compressor chillers, which allows to increase both control accuracy and energy performance. → New load estimation scheme based on a Kalman filter.

  8. Direct Digital Control of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    reset, load shedding, chiller optimization , VAV fan synchronization, and optimum start/stop. The prospective buyer of a DDC system should investigate...current and accurate drawings for a conventional, built-up control system such as that illustrated in Fig- ure 4. Data on setpoints , reset schedules, and...are always available in the form of the computer program code (Figure 7). In addition to the control logic, setpoint and other data are readily

  9. An approach to optimised control of HVAC systems in indoor swimming pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eliseu M. A.; Jorge, Humberto M. M.; Quintela, Divo A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Indoor swimming pools are recognised as having a high level of energy consumption and present a great potential for energy saving. The energy is spent in several ways such as evaporation heat loss from the pool, high rates of ventilation required to guarantee the indoor air quality, and ambient temperatures with expressive values (typically 28-30°C) required to maintain conditions of comfort. This paper presents an approach to optimising control of heat ventilation and air conditioning systems that could be implemented in a building energy management system. It is easily adapted to any kind of pool and results in significant energy consumption reduction. The development and validation of the control model were carried out with a building thermal simulation software. The use of this control model in the case study building could reduce the energy efficiency index by 7.14 points (7.4% of total) which adds up to an energy cost saving of 15,609€ (7.5% of total).

  10. Multi-objective optimization of HVAC system with an evolutionary computation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Tang, Fan; Xu, Guanglin

    2011-01-01

    A data-mining approach for the optimization of a HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system is presented. A predictive model of the HVAC system is derived by data-mining algorithms, using a dataset collected from an experiment conducted at a research facility. To minimize the energy while maintaining the corresponding IAQ (indoor air quality) within a user-defined range, a multi-objective optimization model is developed. The solutions of this model are set points of the control system derived with an evolutionary computation algorithm. The controllable input variables - supply air temperature and supply air duct static pressure set points - are generated to reduce the energy use. The results produced by the evolutionary computation algorithm show that the control strategy saves energy by optimizing operations of an HVAC system. -- Highlights: → A data-mining approach for the optimization of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is presented. → The data used in the project has been collected from an experiment conducted at an energy research facility. → The approach presented in the paper leads to accomplishing significant energy savings without compromising the indoor air quality. → The energy savings are accomplished by computing set points for the supply air temperature and the supply air duct static pressure.

  11. HVAC system operation manual of IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun.

    1997-06-01

    This manual is operation procedures of the IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) HVAC(Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) System. General operation procedures and test method of the IMEF HVAC system are described. The manual is as follows; 1. HVAC system operation manual 2. HVAC system management guide 3. HVAC system maintenance manual 4. HVAC system air velocity and flowrate measurement manual 5. HVAC system HEPA filter leak test manual 6. HVAC system charcoal filter leak test manual 7. HVAC system HEPA and charcoal filter exchange manual. (author). 8 tabs

  12. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  13. Management and monitoring of public buildings through ICT based systems: Control rules for energy saving with lighting and HVAC services

    OpenAIRE

    Aghemo, C.; Virgone, J.; Fracastoro, G.V.; Pellegrino, A.; Blaso, L.; Savoyat, J.; Johannes, Kevyn

    2013-01-01

    The presented work addresses the topic of energy savings in existing public buildings, when no significant retrofits on building envelope or plants can be done and savings can be achieved by designing intelligent ICT-based service to monitor and control environmental conditions, energy loads and plants operation. At the end of 2010 the European Commission, within the Seventh Framework Program, has founded a project entitled “Smart Energy Efficient Middleware for Public Spaces” (SEEMPubS). To ...

  14. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thornton, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  15. Overview of HVAC system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system modeling and simulation. The categorization of tools for HVAC system design and analysis with respect to which problems they are meant to deal with is introduced. Each categorization is explained and example tools

  16. Cutting the cost of hospital HVAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Steve Ruddell, head of global marketing, Motors & Generators, at ABB, emphasises the importance of a good motor management and maintenance policy in getting the best performance from, and reducing the energy consumption of, hospitals' HVAC systems, also explaining why investing in energy-efficient, low voltage drives, and high efficiency electric motors, to control such equipment, can pay major dividends for estates and facilities teams.

  17. HVAC retrofit for healthy schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Fisher, G.; Brennan, T.; Turner, W.A.; McKnight, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated the impacts of HVAC systems and building dynamics on radon concentrations in 26 schools across the United States. Diagnostic data indicated that radon was not the only indoor air pollutant in these schools. As a result, an essential step in the School Evaluation Program is determination of the feasibility of using HVAC technology for radon remediation in addition to general indoor air improvement. In 1990, the EPA sponsored the HVAC retrofit of two schools in Maine. This paper presents the information gained by these case studies. First, the extensive pre-retrofit diagnostics and characterizations of the two schools are reviewed. Then follows a discussion of why and how the HVAC systems, including unit ventilators, central air-handling units, and heat recovery ventilation, were retrofitted. Finally, an appraisal of the post-retrofit radon and CO 2 levels is made, along with presentation of related data such as retrofit costs and energy and comfort impacts

  18. Proceedings of the 7th cogeneration and independent power congress, natural gas purchasing '92, HVAC controls and energy conservation '92, 1992 indoor air quality congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Cogeneration and IPP Market Developments; Natural Gas Marketing and Deliverability Strategies; Identifying the Sources of IAQ Problems; User-Owner Cogeneration Systems; Strategies for International Power Development; Strategic Fuel Purchasing; Cogeneration and utility Power Plant Compliance Issues; New HVAC Design Trends; IAQ Practical solutions: Case Studies

  19. Impact of the duct static pressure reset control strategy on the energy consumption by the HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaszczyk Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses different duct static pressure control strategies which could be implemented in variable air volume air-conditioning systems (VAV. Two pressure reset control strategies are compared to the commonly used control solution based on the “Constant static pressure” method. First pressure reset control strategy, known as PID Control, uses signals from VAV boxes controllers to reset duct static pressure in a way that one of the VAV dampers is maintained almost entirely open. Second strategy decreases static pressure setpoint until an adjustable number of pressure requests occur. As a response to the certain amount of requests, static pressure setpoint is increased. This strategy is called Trim & Respond. Both static pressure reset control strategies described in this paper are considered to have more significant potential for energy savings than the “Constant static pressure” method. In order to validate this potential, several simulations for different control strategies were carried out and the obtained results are compared and analysed. The theoretical limit of the energy savings - set of the optimal control actions, was estimated with Nelder-Mead algorithm and also presented in this article. General description of the static pressure control strategies "Constant static pressure", PID Control and Trim & Respond is given.

  20. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    CERN Document Server

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  1. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: HVAC/R Technician Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry. Agency partners involved in this project include: the…

  2. Environmental Control Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the Environmental Control Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA), Piracicaba , Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. Such research comprises: determination of ions and metals in waters from different sources; survey of the mineralogical composition of Amazon Basin rivers; development of specific methodologies for the determination of minerals in studies of mineral nutrition of plants and animal nutrition; development of methodologies for the determination of wood sample density, a nuclear method being developed to be applied to field conditions; study of the water flux mouvement within wood. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems

  4. Analysis and control of the effects of over excitation limiters on the stability of the Itaipu HVAC transmission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, J L; Macedo, N J; Santo, S E; Praca, A S [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The effect of over excitation limiters on power system voltage stability is presented in this paper. A linear analysis based on system eigenvalues for various operating conditions shows that voltage collapse is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. Time simulations using digital tools and real-time simulator were performed to verify lin ear results and study large disturbances. A control system designed to keep system in secure region is proposed. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Applying power electronics to residential HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfstede, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines several of the market and application issues bearing on the economics residential variable speed air conditioners and heat pumps. Technical details of capacity modulized systems have been avoided, along with design issues and tradeoffs involving power semiconductors, motor torque and speed control strategies- and silicon integration for these applications. The intention is to provoke new creative technical solutions but perhaps more importantly, to involve new marketing strategies that will develop the mature potential of air conditioning products containing power electronics to enable them to generate the tough HVAC market, competing successfully against conventional systems

  6. The effect of cleanliness control during installation work on the amount of accumulated dust in ducts of new HVAC installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, R; Tuomainen, M; Asikainen, V; Pasanen, P; Säteri, J; Seppänen, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dust in supply air ducts in recently installed ventilation systems. The samples for the determination of dust accumulation were collected from supply air ducts in 18 new buildings that have been constructed according to two different cleanliness control levels classified as category P1 (low oil residues and protected against contaminations) and category P2, as defined in the Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Building Materials. In the ducts installed according to the requirements of cleanliness category P1 the mean amount of accumulated dust was 0.9 g/m2 (0.4-2.9 g/m2), and in the ducts installed according to the cleanliness category P2 it was 2.3 g/m2 (1.2-4.9 g/m2). A significant difference was found in the mean amounts of dust between ducts of categories P1 and P2 (P < 0.008). The cleanliness control procedure in category P1 proved to be a useful and effective tool for preventing dust accumulation in new air ducts during the construction process. Additionally, the ducts without residual oil had lower amounts of accumulated dust indicating that the demand for oil free components in the cleanliness classification is reasonable.

  7. Project control - the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorii, V.F.; McKinnon, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) second largest Major System Acquisition Project. We have developed an integrated planning and control system (called PACS) that we believe represents the 'Next Generation' in project control. PACS integrates technical scope, cost, and schedule information for over 50 participating organizations and produces performances measurement reports for science and engineering managers at all levels. Our 'Next Generation' project control too, PACS, has been found to be in compliance with the new DOE Project Control System Guidelines. Additionally, the nuclear utility oversight group of the Edison Electric Institute has suggested PACS be used as a model for other civilian radioactive waste management projects. A 'Next Generation' project control tool will be necessary to do science in the 21st century

  8. Study on HVAC system in nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeg, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Oh, Y. O.; Ju, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system in nuclear facility should be equipped and constructed more stable and allowable than that in common facility. The purpose of HVAC system is the maintenance of optimum working environment, the protection of worker against a contaminated air and the prevention of atmospheric contamination due to an outward ventilation, etc.. The basic scheme of a safety operation of nuclear facility is to prevent the atmospheric contamination even in low level. The adaptability of HVAC system which is in operation. In this study, the design requirements of HVAC system in nuclear facility and the HVAC systems in foreign countries are reviewed, and the results can be utilized in the design of HVAC system in nuclear facility

  9. Review of the Operability for the Components Under the Loss of the HVAC System of the Pump Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang Mee Jeong; Yoon, Churl; Yang, Joon Eon; Park, Joo Hwan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we estimated the temperature of the pump rooms and reviewed the operability of the components under the loss of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition) system. The issues relevant to the HVAC system in the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) FT (Fault Tree) model are as follows: does the loss of the HVAC system bring about a function failure of other components?. Can the operator take action to reduce the temperature of the room in case of a HVAC function failure?. At present we do not know whether a component will lose its function or not under the loss of the HVAC. ASME Standard describes that a recovery action can be credited if the related recovery action is included in the procedure or there are similar recovery experiences in the plant. However, there is no description about the recovery action of the HVAC in the EOP (Emergency Operation Procedure) of the UCN3, 4 under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. Even though we consider this assumption positively, it would be limited to the rooms such as the Switchgear Room, Inverter Room, and Main Control Room etc. where a real recovery action can be performed easily. However, if we consider the HVAC failure in the PSA FT model according to the above background, the problem is that the unavailability induced from the loss of a HVAC is highly unrealistically. From a viewpoint of the PSA, it is not true that the related system always fails even though the HVAC system fails. Therefore, we reviewed the necessity of the HVAC model through the identification of the operable temperature of the components' within the pump room and the change of the temperature of the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC system

  10. Design and Implementation of Closed-loop PI Control Strategies in Real-time MATLAB Simulation Environment for Nonlinear and Linear ARMAX Models of HVAC Centrifugal Chiller Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tudoroiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate three different approaches of modeling, design and discrete-time implementation of PI closed-loop control strategies in SIMULINK simulation environment, applied to a centrifugal chiller system. Centrifugal chillers are widely used in large building HVAC systems. The system consists of an evaporator, a condenser, a centrifugal compressor and an expansion valve. The overall system is an interconnection of two main control loops, namely the chilled water temperature inside the evaporator, and the refrigerant liquid level control in condenser. The centrifugal chiller dynamics model in a discrete-time state-space representation is of high complexity in terms of dimension and encountered nonlinearities. For simulation purpose the centrifugal chiller model is simplified by using different approaches, especially the development of linear polynomials ARMAX and ARX models. The aim to build linear ARMAX models for centrifugal chiller is to simplify considerable the control design strategies that are investigated in this research paper. The novelty of this research is a new controller design approach, more precisely an improved version of proportional – integral control, the so called Proportional-Integral-Plus control for systems with time delay, based on linear ARMAX models. It is conceived within the context of non-minimum state space control system that “seems to be the natural description of a discrete-time transfer function, since its dimension is dictated by the complete structure of the model”. The effectiveness of this new controller design, its implementation simplicity, convergence speed and robustness are proved in the last section of the paper.

  11. Breathing Easier: HVAC Specifications for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, C. Curtis; Trent, Warren C.

    1996-01-01

    A major source of indoor air contamination in schools originates within the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems (HVAC), with draw-through systems being the worst offenders. Lists provisions for designing an HVAC system and a set of criteria to adhere to when planning new construction or renovations. (nine references) (MLF)

  12. Workplace Trends In HVAC/R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lynn; Todd, CeCe

    2013-01-01

    This article presents trends in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry, with an emphasis on the importance of technician training programs as exemplified at the East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) in Mesa, Arizona. The article states that HVAC workers are increasingly helping their consumers "go…

  13. Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A

    2008-06-01

    The rate at which airborne particulate matter deposits onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components is important from both indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy perspectives. This modeling study predicts size-resolved particle mass loading rates for residential and commercial filters, heat exchangers (i.e. coils), and supply and return ducts. A parametric analysis evaluated the impact of different outdoor particle distributions, indoor emission sources, HVAC airflows, filtration efficiencies, coils, and duct system complexities. The median predicted residential and commercial loading rates were 2.97 and 130 g/m(2) month for the filter loading rates, 0.756 and 4.35 g/m(2) month for the coil loading rates, 0.0051 and 1.00 g/month for the supply duct loading rates, and 0.262 g/month for the commercial return duct loading rates. Loading rates are more dependent on outdoor particle distributions, indoor sources, HVAC operation strategy, and filtration than other considered parameters. The results presented herein, once validated, can be used to estimate filter changing and coil cleaning schedules, energy implications of filter and coil loading, and IAQ impacts associated with deposited particles. The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components in residential and commercial buildings. This knowledge informs the development and comparison of control strategies to limit particle deposition. The predicted mass loading rates allow for the assessment of pressure drop and indoor air quality consequences that result from particle mass loading onto HVAC system components.

  14. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  15. India: Project Control. Annex 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. India is a country with a long history of nuclear power development, mostly based on indigenous technology and resources. The nuclear power programme has suffered considerable delays due to technical and financial. (author)

  16. Minimization of energy consumption in HVAC systems with data-driven models and an interior-point method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Xu, Guanglin; Zhang, Zijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the energy saving of HVAC systems with a data-driven approach. • We conduct an in-depth analysis of the topology of developed Neural Network based HVAC model. • We apply interior-point method to solving a Neural Network based HVAC optimization model. • The uncertain building occupancy is incorporated in the minimization of HVAC energy consumption. • A significant potential of saving HVAC energy is discovered. - Abstract: In this paper, a data-driven approach is applied to minimize energy consumption of a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system while maintaining the thermal comfort of a building with uncertain occupancy level. The uncertainty of arrival and departure rate of occupants is modeled by the Poisson and uniform distributions, respectively. The internal heating gain is calculated from the stochastic process of the building occupancy. Based on the observed and simulated data, a multilayer perceptron algorithm is employed to model and simulate the HVAC system. The data-driven models accurately predict future performance of the HVAC system based on the control settings and the observed historical information. An optimization model is formulated and solved with the interior-point method. The optimization results are compared with the results produced by the simulation models

  17. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  18. HVAC-DYNAMIC; A training simulator for dynamic analysis of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, M; Novakovic, V [SINTEF Division of Applied Thermodynamic, HVAC Group, Trondheim (Norway); Oegaard, O [SINTEF Division of Automatic Control, Trondheim (Norway); Brustad, G [Computer Aided Modelling, CAMO A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1989-01-01

    HVAC-DYNAMIC is a software tool for the dynamic simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) plants. The program is designed to be used by HVAC engineers during design or troubleshooting of plants and by plant operators in their training. The program is based on a set of the most-used HVAC plant configurations and requires only a minimum of knowledge in numeric methods and programming. A brief presentation of the program structure and examples showing some of the application of the program are given. 4 figs., 4 refs.

  19. HVAC-DYNAMIC: a training simulator for dynamic analysis of HVAC plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Heintz

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available HVAC-DYNAMIC is a software tool for the dynamic simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC plants. The program is designed to be used by HVAC engineers during design or troubleshooting of plants and by plant operators in their training. The program is based on a set of the most-used HVAC plant configurations and requires only a minimum of knowledge in numeric methods and programming. A brief presentation of the program structure and examples showing some of the application of the program are given.

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  1. HVAC design manual for hospitals and clinics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    "Provides in-depth design recommendations and proven, cost effective, and reliable solutions for health care HVAC design that provide low maintenance cost and high reliability based on best practices...

  2. Development of the Aging Management Program for HVAC Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hong Seok; Lee, Dong Min; Lee, Jang Wook; Cho, Ki Hyun; Cho, Sang Bum; Choi, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The HVAC(heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems in nuclear power plants are consisted of fan, damper, duct, filter and cooling coil, which is equipped in the safety-related building such as main control room, auxiliary building and containment building. These systems are designed to maintain the required ambient air temperature in all plant areas for the comfort and safety of personnel and for environmental requirement of equipment and to ensure that the gaseous radioactivity emission to the environment is kept below permissible discharge limits. The purpose of this study is to establish the inspection plan to ensure that touch up parts of the duct are sound and to develop the aging management program for maintaining effectively HVAC systems

  3. Design and Operation of 3-Pin FTL HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, S. K.; Park, K. N.; Lee, J. M.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, Y. J.

    2005-01-01

    According to the increasing demand for irradiation tests to develop new fuels, the 3-Pin FTL(Fuel Test Loop for 3 pin test fuel) facility has now been under design to conduct in-core fuel performance tests at the operating conditions, which will be installed at HANARO. The HVAC system of the FTL will be dependent on that of the HANARO. The FTL has three equipments rooms, which are the room 1, room 2 and the control room. The high pressure and high temperature equipments will be installed in the room 1. The atmosphere of the room 1 shall be maintained under the designed condition. This paper describes the design of the FTL HVAC system in the room 1

  4. ANFIS -Based Navigation for HVAC Service Robot with Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, Mohd Zoolfadli Md; Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md; Mustafah, Yasir Mohd

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an ongoing work on the autonomous navigation of a mobile service robot for Heat, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC) ducting. CCD camera mounted on the front-end of our robot is used to analyze the ducts openings (blob analysis) in order to differentiate them from other landmarks (blower fan, air outlets and etc). Distance between the robot and duct openings is measured using ultrasonic sensor. Controller chosen is ANFIS where its architecture accepts three inputs; recognition of duct openings, robot positions and distance while the outputs is maneuver direction (left or right).45 membership functions are created from which produces 46 training epochs. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the system, a working prototype is developed and tested inside HVAC ducting in ROBOCON Lab, IIUM

  5. Microphonics control for Project X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schappert, W.; Barbanotti, S.; Branlard, J.; Cancelo, G.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Champion, M.; Gonin, I.; Klebaner, A.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed multi-MW Project X facility at Fermilab will employ cavities with bandwidths as narrow as 20 Hz. This combination of high RF power with narrow bandwidths combined requires careful attention to detuning control if these cavities are to be operated successfully. Detuning control for Projects X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various machine subsystems. Considerable progress in this area has been made over the past year. Detuning levels in the Project X cavities, specifically the Low and High β 650 MHz elliptical types, can have a significant impact on the overall cost of the project. The narrow bandwidths, and the high RF Power requirements, and the large number of these cavities mean that careful attention to detuning control will be required if these cavities are to operate successfully. Limiting cavity detuning in Project X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various subsystems of the planned machine. Considerable progress towards this goal has been made by each of these groups over the past year.

  6. Microphonics control for Project X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schappert, W.; Barbanotti, S.; Branlard, J.; Cancelo, G.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Champion, M.; Gonin, I.; Klebaner, A.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The proposed multi-MW Project X facility at Fermilab will employ cavities with bandwidths as narrow as 20 Hz. This combination of high RF power with narrow bandwidths combined requires careful attention to detuning control if these cavities are to be operated successfully. Detuning control for Projects X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various machine subsystems. Considerable progress in this area has been made over the past year. Detuning levels in the Project X cavities, specifically the Low and High {beta} 650 MHz elliptical types, can have a significant impact on the overall cost of the project. The narrow bandwidths, and the high RF Power requirements, and the large number of these cavities mean that careful attention to detuning control will be required if these cavities are to operate successfully. Limiting cavity detuning in Project X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various subsystems of the planned machine. Considerable progress towards this goal has been made by each of these groups over the past year.

  7. Rapid Deployment of Optimal Control for Building HVAC Systems using Innovative Software Tools and a Hybrid Heuristic/Model Based Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Monitoring and Verification Protocol LCDR Lieutenant Commander ME Mechanical Engineering MPC Model Predictive Control: a model-based system...Activity PE Professional Engineer PG&E Pacific Gas & Electric : a California utility company PI Proportional + Integral: a common software element...INTRODUCTION The Department of Defense (DoD) spends approximately $4 billion per year on facility energy consumption to power and fuel over 500

  8. Harmonic modelling, propagation and mitigation for large wind power plants connected via long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Hjerrild, Jesper; Kocewiak, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on grid connection of large offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) using extra-long high voltage AC (HVAC) cables. The paper describes research by DONG Energy Wind Power in close collaboration with Aalborg University addressing related challenges through...... an industrial PhD project. The overall goal is to gain a better understanding of extra-long HVAC cable connected OWPPs, in order to ensure reliability and availability of OWPPs. This will reduce the cost of energy, as the risk of costly delays and modifications after the project has been commissioned can...

  9. VARIABLE SPEED INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT HVAC BLOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shixiao Wang; Herman Wiegman; Wilson Wu; John Down; Luana Iorio; Asha Devarajan; Jing Wang; Ralph Carl; Charlie Stephens; Jeannine Jones; Paul Szczesny

    2001-11-14

    This comprehensive topical report discusses the key findings in the development of a intelligent integrated blower for HVAC applications. The benefits of rearward inclined blades over that of traditional forward inclined blades is well documented and a prototype blower design is presented. A comparison of the proposed blower to that of three typical units from the industry is presented. The design of the blower housing is also addressed and the impact of size limitations on static efficiency is discussed. Issues of air flow controllability in the rearward inclined blower is addressed and a solution to this problem is proposed. Several motor design options are discussed including inside-out radial flux designs and novel axial flux designs, all are focused on the various blower needs. The control of the motor-blower and airflow through the use of a high density inverter stage and modern digital signal processor is presented. The key technical challenges of the approach are discussed. The use of the motor as a sensor in the larger heating/ventilating system is also discussed. Diagnostic results for both the motor itself and the blower system are presented.

  10. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  11. EPR project construction cost control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflo, D.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Dufour, A.; Kauffmann, G.

    2001-01-01

    The EPR project is now managed by EDF in cooperation with the German Utilities. The main engineering activities for this period are related to the preparation of construction project management, deepening of some safety issues, definition of the project technical reference. The EPR project concerns the so-called reference unit, that is an isolated first-off unit, with unit electrical power of about 1500 MW. The construction costs evaluated are those of the nuclear island, the conventional island, site facilities, installation work and the administrative buildings. The EPR project construction cost evaluation method applies to all the equipment installed and commissioned. It requires the availability of a preliminary project detailed enough to identify the bill of quantities. To these quantities are then assigned updated unit prices that are based either on cost bases for similar and recent facilities or taken from request for quotation for similar equipment or result from gains due to contractual conditions benefiting from simplifications in the functional and technical specifications. The input and output data are managed in a model that respects the breakdown on which the evaluation method is based. The structural organization of this method reflects a functional breakdown on the one hand (nuclear island, conventional island, common site elements) and on the other hand a breakdown according to equipment or activity (civil engineering, mechanics, electricity, instrumentation and control). This paper discusses the principle and the method of construction cost evaluation carried out, the cost data base and input and output parameters as well as results and oncoming cost analysis tasks. (author)

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel project interface control plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This implementation process philosophy is in keeping with the ongoing reengineering of the WHC Controlled Manuals to achieve interface control within the SNF Project. This plan applies to all SNF Project sub-project to sub-project, and sub-project to exteranl (both on and off the Hanford Site) interfaces

  13. Application of optimization techniques on lumped HVAC models for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoff, A.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems comprise nearly one third of annual household energy consumption in the United States. HVAC energy use can be reduced by applying controls. This study applies a novel control method on a system with arbitrary steady-state and transient load distributions. The new method uses multi-dimensional interpolation between optimized control configurations for various steady-state load distributions. Demonstration of the new method on a two-room HVAC system predicts power savings for an arbitrary steady load that is nearly equivalent to that using a Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) with chiller modulation. However, the new method provides better energy savings for arbitrary transient loads: 19% energy savings over an uncontrolled system compared to energy savings of 6% for a VAV with chiller modulation. The average transient temperature deviation from setpoint using the new method is slightly better than that using VAV with chiller modulation. (author)

  14. Research and Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) works with researchers and industry partners to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. This opportunity assessment aims to advance BTO’s energy savings, GHG reduction, and other program goals by identifying research and development (R&D) initiatives for joining technologies in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems. Improving joining technologies for HVAC&R equipment has the potential to increase lifetime equipment operating efficiency, decrease equipment and project cost, and most importantly reduce hydroflourocarbon (HFC) refrigerant leakage to support HFC phasedown and GHG reduction goals.

  15. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document

  16. Monitoring-based HVAC commissioning of an existing office building for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Greenberg, Steve; Fiegel, John; Rubalcava, Alma; Earni, Shankar; Pang, Xiufeng; Yin, Rongxin; Woodworth, Spencer; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrated monitoring-based HVAC commissioning using an existing office building. ► Diagnosed various types of faulty operation in the HVAC system by trend data analyses. ► Identified a list of energy saving measures for the HVAC system. ► Quantified energy saving potential for each commissioning measure using calibrated energy simulation model. ► Achieved an actual energy saving of 10% after the implementations of cost-effective measures. -- Abstract: The performance of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems may fail to satisfy design expectations due to improper equipment installation, equipment degradation, sensor failures, or incorrect control sequences. Commissioning identifies and implements cost-effective operational and maintenance measures in buildings to bring them up to the design intent or optimum operation. An existing office building is used as a case study to demonstrate the process of commissioning. Building energy benchmarking tools are applied to evaluate the energy performance for screening opportunities at the whole building level. A large natural gas saving potential was indicated by the building benchmarking results. Faulty operations in the HVAC systems, such as improper operations of air-side economizers, simultaneous heating and cooling, and ineffective optimal start, were identified through trend data analyses and functional testing. The energy saving potential for each commissioning measure is quantified with a calibrated building simulation model. An actual energy saving of 10% was realized after the implementations of cost-effective measures.

  17. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  18. The Joint COntrols Project Framework

    CERN Document Server

    González-Berges, M

    2003-01-01

    The Framework is one of the subprojects of the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP), which is collaboration between the four LHC experiments and CERN. By sharing development, this will reduce the overall effort required to build and maintain the experiment control systems. As such, the main aim of the Framework is to deliver a common set of software components, tools and guidelines that can be used by the four LHC experiments to build their control systems. Although commercial components are used wherever possible, further added value is obtained by customisation for HEP-specific applications. The supervisory layer of the Framework is based on the SCADA tool PVSS, which was selected after a detailed evaluation. This is integrated with the front-end layer via both OPC (OLE for Process Control), an industrial standard, and the CERN-developed DIM (Distributed Information Management System) protocol. Several components are already in production and being used by running fixed-target experiments at CERN as well as for th...

  19. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...... with the controlled room temperature in the range from 10 to 35 °C and relative humidity in the range from 15 to 80 %. The field lab can be used to test the performance of each system included in the field lab as well as the combined performance of two or more systems....

  20. Efficiency improvement of variable speed electrical drives for HVAC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Pedersen, J.K. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    A large part of the produced electrical energy is consumed by ventilators, pumps and compressors, the so-called HVAC applications. A lot of this energy can be saved by speed control, but even with the large saving obtained alone by introduction of variable speed, it is still essential to optimise the control of the variable speed drive and to optimise the electrical machine with respect to efficiency. Experiments are made with energy optimal induction motor control on a 2.2 kW variable speed pump system. It is demonstrated that 10% of the consumed energy can typically be saved by energy optimal motor control compared with constant V/Hz control. In a comparison of induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors for a variable speed pump application it is shown that for 2.2 kW motors an investment in high-efficiency or PM motors are typically paid back within 2.5 years and 7 years respectively. For a 90 kW PM motor the pay-back time would be 24 years. It is today not profitable to use PM motors for variable speed HVAC applications above 2 kW rated motor power. A further study is required to determine this limit in power rating more precisely. (orig.)

  1. The map of energy flow in HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Ortiz, Jose; Maestre, Ismael R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Discussion of the four stages in the 'HVAC systems energy chain'. → Examination of HVAC systems as energy conversion devices. → Analysis of HVAC Sankey diagrams. → Discussion of HVAC loads and HVAC energy losses. -- Abstract: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the most energy consuming building services representing approximately half of the final energy use in the building sector and between one tenth and one fifth of the energy consumption in developed countries. Despite their significant energy use, there is a lack of a consistent and homogeneous framework to efficiently guide research and energy policies, mainly due to the complexity and variety of HVAC systems but also to insufficient rigour in their energy analysis. This paper reviews energy related aspects of HVAC systems with the aim of establishing a common ground for the analysis of their energy efficiency. The paper focuses on the map of energy flow to deliver thermal comfort: the HVAC energy chain. Our approach deals first with thermal comfort as the final service delivered to building occupants. Secondly, conditioned spaces are examined as the systems where useful heat (or coolth) is degraded to provide comfort. This is followed by the analysis of HVAC systems as complex energy conversion devices where energy carriers are transformed into useful heat and coolth, and finally, the impact of HVAC energy consumption on energy resources is discussed.

  2. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  3. HVAC systems and nuclear plant safety. Final report, May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide perspective on the overall risk impact of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system problems. Industry experience with HVAC system problems is documented and analyzed. In addition, the results of 10 plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) were reviewed to determine the contribution of HVAC systems to the risk of core damage. The PRAs included in this review cover a broad range of plant types and operating conditions. The review found that the impact of HVAC systems on risk is plant specific. These results exhibit a broad range of frequencies for HVAC contribution to risk, and the percentage of total core damage due to HVAC problems also had a wide variability. Plant-specific differences in design, environment, operation, and maintenance are the primary factors in determining the risk contribution of HVAC systems. (author)

  4. Novel activity classification and occupancy estimation methods for intelligent HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Rajib; Kusy, Brano; Wall, Josh; Hu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) energy consumption can be achieved by limiting heating in the winter or cooling in the summer. However, the resulting low thermal comfort of building occupants may lead to an override of the HVAC control, which revokes its original purpose. This has led to an increased interest in modeling and real-time tracking of location, activity, and thermal comfort of building occupants for HVAC energy management. While thermal comfort is well understood, it is difficult to measure in real-time environments where user context changes dynamically. Encouragingly, plethora of sensors available on smartphone unleashes the opportunity to measure user contexts in real-time. An important contextual information for measuring thermal comfort is Metabolism rate, which changes based on current physical activities. To measure physical activity, we develop an activity classifier, which achieves 10% higher accuracy compared to Support Vector Machine and k-Nearest Neighbor. Office occupancy is another contextual information for energy-efficient HVAC control. Most of the phone based occupancy estimation techniques will fail to determine occupancy when phones are left at desk while sitting or attending meetings. We propose a novel sensor fusion method to detect if a user is near the phone, which achieves more than 90% accuracy. Determining activity and occupancy our proposed algorithms can help maintaining thermal comfort while reducing HVAC energy consumptions. - Highlights: • We propose activity and occupancy detection for efficient HVAC control. • Activity classifier achieves 10% higher accuracy than SVM and kNN. • For occupancy detection we propose a novel sensor fusion method. • Using Weighted Majority Voting we fuse microphone and accelerometer data on phone. • We achieve more than 90% accuracy in detecting occupancy.

  5. Applications of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification at Walt Disney World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.J.; Dinh, K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and application of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification purposes. In HVAC applications, a heat pipe is used as a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the return air directly to the supply air. The air is pre-cooled entering the cooling coil and reheated using the same heat removed from the return air. While consuming no energy, the heat pipe lets the evaporator coil operate at a lower temperature, increasing the moisture removal capabilities of the HVAC system by 50% to 100%. WALT DISNEY WORLD is currently testing several heat pipe applications ranging from 1 to 240 tons. The applications include (1) water attractions (2) museums/artifacts areas (3) resort guest rooms and (4) locker rooms. Actual energy usage and relative humidity reductions are shown to determine the effectiveness of the heat pipe as an energy efficient method of humidity control

  6. 'Consolidation' of HVAC and cooling systems at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J; Pepinster, P; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A â€ワconsolidation” of installations after they have reached the end of their predetermined life-time is part of the life cycle of industrial installations, regardless how well maintained they are. The â€ワconsolidation” plan might cover the replacement of obsolete equipment, partial refurbishment, the work requested to comply with new standards and applicable rules (environmental aspects) until the complete replacement of the whole installation. This â€ワconsolidation” process is all the more critical since the installation dates of the existing cooling and HVAC equipment at CERN spans over a period of 50 years and â€ワconsolidation” in the past has been not been systematic, being most of the time associated with new projects. This paper describes the reasons behind the recent â€ワconsolidation” requests for cooling and HVAC equipment both for the accelerators backbone and in tertiary buildings. A criticality analysis is given, based on the criteria laid down in the p...

  7. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.

    This module on introductory heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. The module contains four instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) HVAC materials; (2) HVAC tools; (3) HVAC layout; and (4) HVAC basic skills.…

  8. Exergy optimization of cooling tower for HGSHP and HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Das, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of new correlations for outlet parameters with all inlet parameters. • Simultaneous achievement of required heat load and minimum exergy destruction. • Multiple combinations of parameters found for same heat load at minimized exergy. • Study useful for optimum control of cooling tower under varying ambient conditions. • Generalized optimization study can be implemented for any mechanical cooling tower. - Abstract: In the present work, a constrained inverse optimization method for building cooling applications is proposed to control the mechanical draft wet cooling tower by minimizing the exergy destruction and satisfying an imposed heat load under varying environmental conditions. The optimization problem is formulated considering the cooling dominated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSHP). As per the requirement, new second degree correlations for the tower outlet parameters (water temperature, air dry and wet-bulb temperatures) with five inlet parameters (dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, water inlet temperature, water and air mass flow rates) are developed. The Box–Behnken design response surface method is implemented for developing the correlations. Subsequently, the constrained optimization problem is solved using augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. This work further developed optimum inlet parameters operating curves for the HGSHP and the HVAC systems under varying environmental conditions aimed at minimizing the exergy destruction along with the fulfillment of the required heat load.

  9. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.

  10. Neural computing thermal comfort index for HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atthajariyakul, S.; Leephakpreeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system within a building is to make occupants comfortable. Without real time determination of human thermal comfort, it is not feasible for the HVAC system to yield controlled conditions of the air for human comfort all the time. This paper presents a practical approach to determine human thermal comfort quantitatively via neural computing. The neural network model allows real time determination of the thermal comfort index, where it is not practical to compute the conventional predicted mean vote (PMV) index itself in real time. The feed forward neural network model is proposed as an explicit function of the relation of the PMV index to accessible variables, i.e. the air temperature, wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, clothing insulation and human activity. An experiment in an air conditioned office room was done to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results show good agreement between the thermal comfort index calculated from the neural network model in real time and those calculated from the conventional PMV model

  11. System solution to improve energy efficiency of HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, L.; Becerra, R.; Salts, N. P.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    According to recent surveys, heating and air conditioning systems account for over 45% of the total energy usage in US households. Three main types of HVAC systems are available to homeowners: (1) fixed-speed systems, where the compressor cycles on and off to match the cooling load; (2) multi-speed (typically, two-speed) systems, where the compressor can operate at multiple cooling capacities, leading to reduced cycling; and (3) variable-speed systems, where the compressor speed is adjusted to match the cooling load of the household, thereby providing higher efficiency and comfort levels through better temperature and humidity control. While energy consumption could reduce significantly by adopting variable-speed compressor systems, the market penetration has been limited to less than 10% of the total HVAC units and a vast majority of systems installed in new construction remains single speed. A few reasons may explain this phenomenon such as the complexity of the electronic circuitry required to vary compressor speed as well as the associated system cost. This paper outlines a system solution to boost the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of a traditional single-speed unit through using a low power electronic converter that allows the compressor to operate at multiple low capacity settings and is disabled at high compressor speeds.

  12. System-Level Monitoring and Diagnosis of Building HVAC System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Siyu

    2013-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is an indoor environmental technology that is extensively instrumented for large-scale buildings. Among all subsystems of buildings, the HVAC system dominates the energy consumption and accounts for 57% of the energy used in U.S. commercial and residential buildings. Unfortunately, the HVAC system may fail to meet the performance expectations due to various faults, including not only complete hardware failures, but also non-optimal operations....

  13. Contamination control in HVAC systems for aseptic processing area. Part I: Case study of the airflow velocity in a unidirectional airflow workstation with computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A unidirectional airflow workstation for processing a sterile pharmaceutical product is required to be "Grade A," according to EU-GMP and WHO-GMP. These regulations have employed the wording of "laminar airflow" for unidirectional airflow, with an unclear definition given. This seems to have allowed many reports to describe discussion of airflow velocity only. The guidance values as to the velocity are expressed in various words of 90 ft/min, 0.45 m/sec, 0.3 m/sec, +/- 20%, or "homogeneous air speed." It has been also little clarified how variation in airflow velocity gives influences on contamination control of a workstation working with varying key characteristics, such as ceiling height, internal heat load, internal particle generation, etc. The present author has revealed following points from a case study using Computational Fluid Dynamics: the airflow characteristic in Grade A area shows no significant changes with varying the velocity of supplied airflow, and the particles generated from the operator will be exhausted outside Grade A area without contamination.

  14. Development of a computer design system for HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Yotsuya, M.; Hasegawa, M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a computer design system for HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system is presented in this paper. It supports the air conditioning design for a nuclear power plant and a reprocessing plant. This system integrates various computer design systems which were developed separately for the various design phases of HVAC. the purposes include centralizing the HVAC data, optimizing design, and reducing the designing time. The centralized HVAC data are managed by a DBMS (Data Base Management System). The DBMS separates the computer design system into a calculation module and the data. The design system can thus be expanded easily in the future. 2 figs

  15. Canada: Darlington NPP. Project Control. Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieckowski, G.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The just slowed down and delayed. Senior engineering, construction and procurement staff stayed with the project. Documentation was preserved though normal functioning of the records department project was completed and put into service with a few years' delay. (author)

  16. 233S Decommissioning Project Environmental Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This Environmental Control Plan is for the 233S Decommissioning activities conducted under the removal action report for the 233S Decontamination and Demolition Project. The purpose of this ECP is to identify environmental requirements for the 233S project. The ECP is a compilation of existing environmental permit conditions, regulatory requirements, and environmental requirements applicable to the specific project or functional activity

  17. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming more complex systems with many elements, while BEMS provide many data about the building systems. There are, however, many faults and issues in building performance, but there are legislative and cost-benefit forces induced by energy savings. Therefore, both BEMS and the computer-based tools have to be utilized more efficiently to improve building performance. The thesis consists of four main parts that can be read separately. The first part explains the term commissioning and the commissioning tool work principal based on literature reviews. The second part presents practical experiences and issues introduced through the work on this study. The third part deals with the computer-based tools application in design and operation. This part is divided into two chapters. The first deals with improvement in the design, and the second deals with the improvement in the control strategies. The last part of the thesis gives several rules for fault diagnosis developed using simulation tools. In addition, this part aims at the practical explanation of the faults in the building HVAC systems. The practical background for the thesis was obtained though two surveys. The first survey was carried out with the aim to find the commissioning targets in Norwegian building facilities. In that way, an overview of the most typical buildings, HVAC equipment, and their related problems was obtained. An on-site survey was carried out on an example building, which was beneficial for introducing the

  18. Wavelet based artificial neural network applied for energy efficiency enhancement of decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In HVAC systems, temperature and relative humidity are coupled and dynamic mathematical models are non-linear. ► A wavelet-based ANN is used in series with an infinite impulse response filter for self tuning of PD controller. ► Energy consumption is evaluated for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow. ► Substantial enhancement in energy efficiency is realized, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned adaptively. - Abstract: Control methodologies could lower energy demand and consumption of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and, simultaneously, achieve better comfort conditions. However, the application of classical controllers is unsatisfactory as HVAC systems are non-linear and the control variables such as temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside the thermal zone are coupled. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate a wavelet-based artificial neural network (WNN) for self tuning of a proportional-derivative (PD) controller for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow responsible for controlling temperature and RH of a thermal zone, where thermal comfort and energy consumption of the system are evaluated. To achieve the objective, a WNN is used in series with an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter for faster and more accurate identification of system dynamics, as needed for on-line use and off-line batch mode training. The WNN-IIR algorithm is used for self-tuning of two PD controllers for temperature and RH. The simulation results show that the WNN-IIR controller performance is superior, as compared with classical PD controller. The enhancement in efficiency of the HVAC system is accomplished due to substantially lower consumption of energy during the transient operation, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned in an adaptive manner, as the steady state setpoints for temperature and

  19. Modeling of HVAC operational faults in building performance simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongpeng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Discuss significance of capturing operational faults in existing buildings. •Develop a novel feature in EnergyPlus to model operational faults of HVAC systems. •Compare three approaches to faults modeling using EnergyPlus. •A case study demonstrates the use of the fault-modeling feature. •Future developments of new faults are discussed. -- Abstract: Operational faults are common in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems of existing buildings, leading to a decrease in energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Various fault detection and diagnostic methods have been developed to identify and analyze HVAC operational faults at the component or subsystem level. However, current methods lack a holistic approach to predicting the overall impacts of faults at the building level—an approach that adequately addresses the coupling between various operational components, the synchronized effect between simultaneous faults, and the dynamic nature of fault severity. This study introduces the novel development of a fault-modeling feature in EnergyPlus which fills in the knowledge gap left by previous studies. This paper presents the design and implementation of the new feature in EnergyPlus and discusses in detail the fault-modeling challenges faced. The new fault-modeling feature enables EnergyPlus to quantify the impacts of faults on building energy use and occupant comfort, thus supporting the decision making of timely fault corrections. Including actual building operational faults in energy models also improves the accuracy of the baseline model, which is critical in the measurement and verification of retrofit or commissioning projects. As an example, EnergyPlus version 8.6 was used to investigate the impacts of a number of typical operational faults in an office building across several U.S. climate zones. The results demonstrate that the faults have significant impacts on building energy performance as well as on occupant

  20. Project control of WENDELSTEIN 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.; Gottschewsky, M.; Heinrich, S.

    2001-01-01

    WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) is an experimental stellarator presently under construction at the new branch of IPP Garching at Greifswald. Since its beginning in 1996, the project W7-X Construction has been incorporating a comprehensive project control activity to assure the plant is constructed according to schedule and budget. The working fields of the project control--organization, planning and controlling--are described together with the relevant boundary conditions of the project. The activities in these fields are highlighted and an overview of the status of the project is given with emphasis on the components on the time-critical path. As conclusions some important issues for the future of the project are specified

  1. INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Yudenkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation and technics of the account of expenses, efficiency, financial result should enter into the list of regular checks from service of internal control that demands corresponding vocational training of internal controlers which should own methods of an estimation of expediency of acquisition of long-term actives.

  2. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  3. RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

  4. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  5. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  6. Optimal Set-Point Synthesis in HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komareji, Mohammad; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimal set-point synthesis for a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This HVAC system is made of two heat exchangers: an air-to-air heat exchanger and a water-to-air heat exchanger. The objective function is composed of the electrical power for different...... components, encompassing fans, primary/secondary pump, tertiary pump, and air-to-air heat exchanger wheel; and a fraction of thermal power used by the HVAC system. The goals that have to be achieved by the HVAC system appear as constraints in the optimization problem. To solve the optimization problem......, a steady state model of the HVAC system is derived while different supplying hydronic circuits are studied for the water-to-air heat exchanger. Finally, the optimal set-points and the optimal supplying hydronic circuit are resulted....

  7. Bulgaria: Belene NPP. Project Control. Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatov, N.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The Belene project has been suspended for 7 years after approx. 50% of money had been spent. Equipment, structures and documentation have been well protected, but majority of qualified personnel have been lost. Resumption of work awaits government decision and provision of funds. (author)

  8. Efficient HVAC. New products; Climatización eficiente. Nuevos productos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  9. HVAC system optimisation-in-building section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L.; Cai, W.; Xie, L.; Li, S.; Soh, Y.C. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimise in-building section of centralised Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimisation method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  10. HVAC system optimization - in-building section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Lu; Wenjian Cai; Lihua Xie; Shujiang Li; Yeng Chai Soh [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimize in-building section of centralized Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimization method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  11. Cuba: Juragua NPP. Project Control. Annex 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradet, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The long suspension of Juragua NPP has affected personnel, equipment and site structures. Efforts are being made to revive the plant and to protect existing resources (assets). An action plan has been prepared. (author)

  12. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 19 -- HVAC -- chillers and compressors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to HVAC -- Chillers and Compressors. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program

  13. Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Jennings, Wiley; Wylie, Dennis; Horner, Sharon D; Siegel, Jeffrey; Kinney, Kerry A

    2018-01-30

    Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated. The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated. Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a

  14. A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakiloroaya, Vahid; Samali, Bijan; Fakhar, Ahmad; Pishghadam, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various strategies for HVAC energy saving are described and reviewed. • The influence of each strategy on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. • Combination of existing air conditioning technologies appears to be effective for the energy conservation and comfort. • A comparison study between these approaches is carried out. • Changing the HVAC configuration has the potential to increase or reduce energy savings, depending on several factors. - Abstract: Decreasing the energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is becoming increasingly important due to rising cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Therefore, finding novel ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings without compromising comfort and indoor air quality is an ongoing research challenge. One proven way of achieving energy efficiency in HVAC systems is to design systems that use novel configurations of existing system components. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each presents opportunities for energy savings. Energy efficient HVAC systems can be created by re-configuring traditional systems to make more strategic use of existing system parts. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of existing air conditioning technologies can offer effective solutions for energy conservation and thermal comfort. This paper investigates and reviews the different technologies and approaches, and demonstrates their ability to improve the performance of HVAC systems in order to reduce energy consumption. For each strategy, a brief description is first presented and then by reviewing the previous studies, the influence of that method on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. Finally, a comparison study between these approaches is carried out

  15. Project B-610 instrument data base. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvan, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The following technical information document contains the published data base listing for the instrumentation to be connected into the new MICON distributed control computer. Project B-610 PFP Instrument Upgrade (PFP HVAC Control Room Upgrade) will install the MICON system in PFP and provide for a new control room at the present site of the new SWP change room EDT-150750 1/11/93

  16. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  17. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool

  18. The JET PCU project: An international plasma control project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, F.; Crisanti, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Toigo, V.; Hay, J.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Shaw, S.R.; Luchetta, A.; Sousa, J.; Portone, A.; Bonicelli, T.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bigi, M.; Card, P.; Cavinato, M.; De Tommasi, G.; Gaio, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the new JET enhancement project 'Plasma Control Upgrade' (PCU). Initially aimed at an overhaul of JET plasma control capabilities it was eventually focused on improving the vertical stabilisation (VS) system ability to recover from large ELM (edge localised mode) perturbations. The paper describes the results of the first two years where the activity was aimed principally at researching a solution that could be implemented within the timing and budget constraints. A very important task was that of improving the modelling of JET plasma, iron core and passive structures. Using dedicated experiments, the models were progressively refined until it was possible not just to explain the experimental data but predict the VS system behaviour. At the same time the project team studied the best options for power supply (PS) and control system upgrades and evaluated whether a change of turns in the stabilisation coil was desirable and possible. A new fast radial field power supply is now being ordered and the VS control system is being upgraded

  19. Strategy Guideline: Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  20. Strategy Guideline. Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  1. [Analysis and research on cleaning points of HVAC systems in public places].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaolan; Han, Xu; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Dai, Zizhu

    2010-03-01

    To analyze cleaning points of HVAC systems, and to provides scientific base for regulating the cleaning of HVAC systems. Based on the survey results on the cleaning situation of HVAC systems around China for the past three years, we analyzes the cleaning points of HVAC systems from various aspects, such as the major health risk factors of HVAC systems, the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems, cleaning methods and acceptance points of the air ducts and the parts of HVAC systems, the onsite protection and individual protection, the waste treatment and the cleaning of the removed equipment, inspection of the cleaning results, video record, and the final acceptance of the cleaning. The analysis of the major health risk factors of HVAC systems and the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems is given. The specific methods for cleaning the air ducts, machine units, air ports, coil pipes and the water cooling towers of HVAC systems, the acceptance points of HVAC systems and the requirements of the report on the final acceptance of the cleaning of HVAC systems are proposed. By the analysis of the points of the cleaning of HVAC systems and proposal of corresponding measures, this study provides the base for the scientific and regular launch of the cleaning of HVAC systems, a novel technology service, and lays a foundation for the revision of the existing cleaning regulations, which may generate technical and social benefits to some extent.

  2. Efficient solutions from HVAC to offgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    Rio Tinto and Ingenero recently announced that agreement had been reached for the development of the Weipa Solar Photovoltaic Project in Queensland. First Solar will leverage its expertise in utility-scale grid integration and plant control systems to offer a FuelSmart solution that provides maximum fuel savings while maintaining system reliability. Combined with Ingenero's design and integration experience, the project will generate electricity for Rio Tinto Alcan's Weipa bauxite mine, processing facilities and township on the Western Cape York Peninsula

  3. Slovakia: Mochovce NPP. Project control. Annex 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodorik, K.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. Mochovce NPP suffered considerable delay primarily due to lack of money. This situation was corrected and construction resumed in 1996. Throughout the 'dormant' period the plant received considerable support from the major contractors, who maintained skeleton staff at site. Significant safety and managerial improvements are being introduced and a strategic plan for the plant has been developed. (author)

  4. Spain: Project control. Annex 11B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes Rodriguez, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. This annex outlines the method of accounting and coding of expenses during the various phases of transition from construction to long-term suspension. In this way costs can be accurately traced and assigned appropriately. This is an essential part of managing during the suspension phase. (author)

  5. Strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmeter, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The book on strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects covers the following issues: frame of project management and project controlling, classification of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities as resource intensive projects, research design for case studies, results of the study of project management specific characteristics of decommissioning, reference model for the project management of nuclear facility decommissioning.

  6. System optimization for HVAC energy management using the robust evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Hanby, V.I.; Chow, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    For an installed centralized heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system, appropriate energy management measures would achieve energy conservation targets through the optimal control and operation. The performance optimization of conventional HVAC systems may be handled by operation experience, but it may not cover different optimization scenarios and parameters in response to a variety of load and weather conditions. In this regard, it is common to apply the suitable simulation-optimization technique to model the system then determine the required operation parameters. The particular plant simulation models can be built up by either using the available simulation programs or a system of mathematical expressions. To handle the simulation models, iterations would be involved in the numerical solution methods. Since the gradient information is not easily available due to the complex nature of equations, the traditional gradient-based optimization methods are not applicable for this kind of system models. For the heuristic optimization methods, the continual search is commonly necessary, and the system function call is required for each search. The frequency of simulation function calls would then be a time-determining step, and an efficient optimization method is crucial, in order to find the solution through a number of function calls in a reasonable computational period. In this paper, the robust evolutionary algorithm (REA) is presented to tackle this nature of the HVAC simulation models. REA is based on one of the paradigms of evolutionary algorithm, evolution strategy, which is a stochastic population-based searching technique emphasized on mutation. The REA, which incorporates the Cauchy deterministic mutation, tournament selection and arithmetic recombination, would provide a synergetic effect for optimal search. The REA is effective to cope with the complex simulation models, as well as those represented by explicit mathematical expressions of

  7. The LHC experiments' joint controls project (JCOP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne Salter

    2001-01-01

    The development and maintenance of the control systems of the four Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments will require a non-negligible amount of resources and effort. In order to minimise the overall effort required the Joint Controls Project (JCOP) was set-up as a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find and implement common solutions for the control of the LHC experiments. It is one of the few examples of such a wide collaboration and therefore the existence of the JCOP project is extremely significant. The author will give a brief overview of the project, its structure and its history. It will go on to summarise the various sub-projects that have been initiated under the auspices of JCOP together will their current status. It will highlight that the JCOP general principle is to promote the use of industrial solutions wherever possible. However, this does not rule out the provision of custom solutions when non-standard devices or very large numbers of devices have to be controlled. The author will also discuss the architecture foreseen by JCOP and where in this architecture the various types of solutions are expected to be used. Finally, although the selection of common industrial and custom solutions is a necessary condition for JCOP to succeed, the use of these solutions in themselves would not necessarily lead to the production of homogeneous control systems. Therefore, the author will finish with a description of the JCOP Framework, which is being developed to promote the use of these common solutions, to reduce the development effort required by the various experiment development teams and to help to build and integrate control systems which can be more easily maintained

  8. Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.D.; Halverson, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan is to provide requirements and responsibilities for document control for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project and the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Project

  9. ISH. HVAC engineering yearbook 1999; ISH. Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The 1999 HVAC engineering yearbook contains contributions on energy conservation and optimization in the fields of ventilation and air conditioning: inter alia, solar cooling and air conditioning, optimum rating of ventilator units, and cooling ceilings with ventilation function. In the field of heating, the following topics are addressed, equally under the aspect of energy conservation: condensing boiler technology, hydraulic balancing of heating pipe systems and sequential boiler switching using fuzzy control. Further works deal with rational use of electricity in buildings, and building automation. 17 papers are individually listed in the Energy database. [Deutsch] Das Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999 enthaelt Beitraege zur Energieeinsparung und Optimierung auf den Gebieten Lueftung und Klimatisierung, u. a. solare Kuehlung und Klimatisierung, optimale Auslegung von Ventilator-Aggregaten und Kuehldecken mit Lueftungsfunktion. Auf dem Gebiet der Heizung werden ebenfalls unter dem Gesichtspunkt Energieeinsparung die Brennwerttechnologie, der hydraulische Abgleich von Heizungsrohrnetzen sowie Kesselfolgeschaltungen mit Fuzzy Control angesprochen. Weitere Arbeiten befassen sich mit der rationellen Elektrizitaetsverwendung in Geb auden sowie der Gebaeudeautomation. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden 17 Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  10. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-01

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage

  11. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  12. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, Gye Ryung (and others)

    2003-06-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the subprojects from the various fields, It has been tried to make the subprojects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, TRM(Technology Road Map) is made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  13. Framework for virtual control desk projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Freitas, Victor Goncalves G.; Espieito Santos, Andre Cotelli do; Aghina, Mauricio A. da C. e, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b, E-mail: vgoncalves@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mag@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Through the recent advances of the Brazilian nuclear program, the creation of virtual control desks allows an ergonomic evaluation and technique of the same, even before its physical implementation, reducing costs and time in addition to allow the virtual training of operators. This project intends to develop a 'framework' where the components of a real control desk are available for creating a virtual desk, continuing the project control desk developed at the Laboratorio de Interface Homem Sistema do IEN (LABHIS/IEN). Through the C++ programming language integrated with the OPENGL graphics library was possible to create the desk and it's components, allowing a graphical modeling in 3D (stereo) of a virtual control desk where the operator, with the aid of GLUI user interface library, can choose what and where the components are positioned on the bench, and select the type of desk wanted from the pre-defined templates. Finally, with the control desk mounted and configured, enabling a virtual interaction with operators, making possible to reproduce its functionalities. (author)

  14. Framework for virtual control desk projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Freitas, Victor Goncalves G.; Espieito Santos, Andre Cotelli do; Aghina, Mauricio A. da C. e

    2011-01-01

    Through the recent advances of the Brazilian nuclear program, the creation of virtual control desks allows an ergonomic evaluation and technique of the same, even before its physical implementation, reducing costs and time in addition to allow the virtual training of operators. This project intends to develop a 'framework' where the components of a real control desk are available for creating a virtual desk, continuing the project control desk developed at the Laboratorio de Interface Homem Sistema do IEN (LABHIS/IEN). Through the C++ programming language integrated with the OPENGL graphics library was possible to create the desk and it's components, allowing a graphical modeling in 3D (stereo) of a virtual control desk where the operator, with the aid of GLUI user interface library, can choose what and where the components are positioned on the bench, and select the type of desk wanted from the pre-defined templates. Finally, with the control desk mounted and configured, enabling a virtual interaction with operators, making possible to reproduce its functionalities. (author)

  15. Comparison of methods to evaluate the fungal biomass in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyeyeme Bi Mve, Marie-Jeanne; Cloutier, Yves; Lacombe, Nancy; Lavoie, Jacques; Debia, Maximilien; Marchand, Geneviève

    2016-12-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber. Sixty samples were analyzed using four methods: culture, direct microscopic spore count (DMSC), β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) dosing and qPCR. For each method, the limit of detection, replicability, and repeatability were assessed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the methods were also evaluated. Depending on the analytical method, mean spore concentrations per 100 cm 2 of dust ranged from 10,000 to 682,000. Limits of detection varied from 120 to 217,000 spores/100 cm 2 . Replicability and repeatability were between 1 and 15%. Pearson correlation coefficients varied from -0.217 to 0.83. The 18S qPCR showed the best sensitivity and precision, as well as the best correlation with the culture method. PCR targets only molds, and a total count of fungal DNA is obtained. Among the methods, mold DNA amplification by qPCR is the method suggested for estimating the fungal content found in dust of HVAC systems.

  16. Control panel and indicators for production control in building projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orihuela Pablo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, every project should have indicators that monitor compliance with established goals. In con­struction projects, there are a large number of indicators proposed by many researchers; however, an analysis of the state of the art shows a frequent confusion between Result, Process and Leading Indicators. This paper, which is an extended version of the paper sub­mitted by the same authors at the Creative Construction Conference 2017 and published in Procedia Engineering (DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.230, presents a proposal of these three types of indicators for the design, supply and assembly phases of housing projects. Thus, all project stakeholders can have a control panel that will monitor if an indicator exceeds the limits, thereby allowing taking corrective actions in a timely and effective manner.

  17. Cleveland Dam East Abutment : seepage control project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, F.; Siu, D. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ahlfield, S.; Singh, N. [Klohn Crippen Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    North Vancouver's 91 meter high Cleveland Dam was built in the 1950s in a deep bedrock canyon to provide a reservoir for potable water to 18 municipalities. Flow in the concrete gravity dam is controlled by a gated spillway, 2 mid-level outlets and intakes and 2 low-level outlets. This paper describes the seepage control measures that were taken at the time of construction as well as the additional measures that were taken post construction to control piezometric levels, seepage and piping and slope instability in the East Abutment. At the time of construction, a till blanket was used to cover the upstream reservoir slope for 200 meters upstream of the dam. A single line grout curtain was used through the overburden from ground surface to bedrock for a distance of 166 meters from the dam to the East Abutment. Since construction, the safety of the dam has been compromised through changes in piezometric pressure, seepage and soil loss. Klohn Crippen Consultants designed a unique seepage control measure to address the instability risk. The project involved excavating 300,000 cubic meters of soil to form a stable slope and construction bench. A vertical wall was constructed to block seepage. The existing seepage control blanket was also extended by 260 meters. The social, environmental and technical issues that were encountered during the rehabilitation project are also discussed. The blanket extension construction has met design requirements and the abutment materials that are most susceptible to internal erosion have been covered by non-erodible blanket materials such as plastic and roller-compacted concrete (RCC). The project was completed on schedule and within budget and has greatly improved the long-term stability of the dam and public safety. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Nuclear outages: an approach to project controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The annual budget for maintaining and operating a nuclear power plant has risen dramatically over the past 5 years. NRC-mandated plant improvements and outage related expenses are often cited to be the main contributors to these escalating budgets. Nuclear utilities have responded by developing programs to improve plant availability and outage costs through improved outage performance. Utilities recognize that for capital improvements the program to control costs does no begin with outage planning, but rather more appropriately up front during the engineering phase. To support their management objectives, utilities have been developing comprehensive project control systems for concurrently reducing capital expenditures, outage-related costs, and time. This paper provides an approach to project controls that, rather than using one all inclusive comprehensive system, requires five separate monitoring systems - one for each phase of an activity's life cycle. Through the integration of these discrete but interrelated systems, utility management acquires the necessary tools for comprehensive planning and control of their modification program and effective detailed monitoring for all outage-related activities

  19. Project Aquarius. Control of radioisotopes and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Roy G [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Arizona (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The potential application of nuclear explosives to the development of water resources provides real hope for substantial increases in the availability of water from our natural water supplies. A wide range, exploratory project sponsored by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission, and The University of Arizona was conducted by the Hydrology and Water Resources Office, the Department of Nuclear Engineering, and various state and federal governmental agencies in exploring the potential applications of nuclear explosives for developing water resources in the State of Arizona. The primary objective of the project was of a scouting nature, a reconnaissance effort to assess the potential for Arizona. This work, Project Aquarius, is at an early state and any significant conclusions are certainly premature. Since this is a survey, detailed analyses are not justified. Our purpose is to define limiting problems and estimate our ability to solve them. We do not seek to formulate a detailed solution until the project has been defined better. In all of the plowshare activities the primary responsibility of the Atomic Energy Commission for safety and control of not only radiological but all hazards has been well defined and documented. Thus, the work here does not reflect any opinion or voice of the Atomic Energy Commission but is based on my own views and conclusions. I have referred to the work of the various laboratories, offices, and contractors of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  20. Project Aquarius. Control of radioisotopes and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, Roy G.

    1970-01-01

    The potential application of nuclear explosives to the development of water resources provides real hope for substantial increases in the availability of water from our natural water supplies. A wide range, exploratory project sponsored by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission, and The University of Arizona was conducted by the Hydrology and Water Resources Office, the Department of Nuclear Engineering, and various state and federal governmental agencies in exploring the potential applications of nuclear explosives for developing water resources in the State of Arizona. The primary objective of the project was of a scouting nature, a reconnaissance effort to assess the potential for Arizona. This work, Project Aquarius, is at an early state and any significant conclusions are certainly premature. Since this is a survey, detailed analyses are not justified. Our purpose is to define limiting problems and estimate our ability to solve them. We do not seek to formulate a detailed solution until the project has been defined better. In all of the plowshare activities the primary responsibility of the Atomic Energy Commission for safety and control of not only radiological but all hazards has been well defined and documented. Thus, the work here does not reflect any opinion or voice of the Atomic Energy Commission but is based on my own views and conclusions. I have referred to the work of the various laboratories, offices, and contractors of the Atomic Energy Commission

  1. Energization of Long HVAC Cables in Parallel - Analysis and Estimation Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    The installation of long HVAC cables has recently become more common and it tends to increase during the next years. Consequently, the energization of long HVAC cables in parallel is also a more common condition. The energization of HVAC cables in parallel resembles the en-ergization of capacitor...... has several simplifications and does not always provide accurate results. This paper proposes a new formula that can be used for the estimation of these two quantities for two HVAC cables in parallel....

  2. HVAC retrofit evaluations: Persuading owners to do it right

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford (Robert G.), Oakland, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    HVAC system retrofit evaluations for commercial buildings are complex and, at best, imperfect. The number of variables even for a simple system is large. For a complex system, they can be nearly overwhelming. One of the most difficult questions owners of older buildings face is to decide when is it cost effective to replace or upgrade the HVAC system rather than to repair (or ignore) specific components. Similarly, two of the major questions a prospective buyer faces in evaluating a building during the due diligence process are: how well does the HVAC system work today, and how well will it work in the future and at what cost? These are addressed in this article.

  3. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  4. 77 FR 72763 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and Water Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...; commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment; and commercial water heating equipment... refrigeration equipment; commercial HVAC equipment; commercial WH equipment; and walk-in coolers and freezers...

  5. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. It contains three units: HVAC materials, HVAC tools, and applied skills. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the…

  6. 10 CFR 431.402 - Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH... regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products. Beginning on the effective date of such standard, an energy conservation standard set forth in this Part for a commercial HVAC & WH product supersedes any State or local...

  7. 77 FR 76825 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and Water... provisions for commercial refrigeration equipment; commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC...; commercial HVAC equipment; commercial WH equipment; and walk-in coolers and freezers (June 30 Final Rule). 76...

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) HVAC System Component Index; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document identities the components, design media, procedures and defines the critical characteristics of Commercial Grade Items necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. This document lists safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) components for the Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI), as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item

  9. Using variable speed drives technology to reap rewards of efficient HVAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Electric motors are continuously running at full speed with vanes and throttles used to modulate the output, in most HVAC applications. This results in an excessive wastage of electrical energy, and the solution is the variable speed drive, which can save vast amounts of energy in fans, pumps and compressors across the HVAC system. Users of traditional control methods will not benefit from the energy savings that are possible through variable speed drives because the motor speed remains the same, with the result that some, and in some cases most, of the energy drawn will be wasted. Variable speed drives are more efficient because they control output by regulating the motor speed, rather than run the motor at full speed and use restrictions to reduce the flow. Recently, small so-called micro-drives have been launched, cutting the cost for most variable speed operation. Variable speed motors can also introduce new features to the HVAC system. An example of how drives can save money and improve the indoor climate is cited for Heathrow airport. There, the gateroom was earlier controlled by modulating valves in both heater and cooler coils, with two fans that operated continuously at rated speed. This system was very inefficient because the occupancy of the gateroom varied between zero and maximum several times daily. A new system was installed using two AC drives, in which one drive controls the supply air fan and the other the return air fan. The energy savings amounted to 89% during two tests and 77% in a third. A pump installation in the district heating system of Strasbourg, Germany, showed the savings that are possible in pump applications

  10. Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Daniel

    2008-10-18

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including

  11. Project Management Effectiveness: the choice - formal or informal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heales

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Development failures and runaway projects in the information systems (IS area can result in substantial losses to organizations, either financially or to a company’s reputation. One important strategy in mitigating risk is the use of effective controls over IS projects. This research investigates the effectiveness of control mechanisms in IS projects, i.e., how they have been established, applied, and how they have evolved throughout the project. We conducted an in-depth study of six information systems projects with six different project managers. We found that formal controls were adopted on project elements with clearly defined project outcomes and informal controls were adopted mainly on project elements that were unclear and often related to people. Furthermore, formal controls were dominant at project initiation and in most cases these controls became less dominant over the project duration. These formal controls were more rigorously applied in external IS projects while informal controls increased in importance throughout the project duration in internally developed projects. We found the existence of informal controls to be very important in helping ensure successful project outcomes.

  12. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 21 -- HVAC, air handling equipment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 21 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to HVAC-Air Handling Equipment. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  13. A Statistical Project Control Tool for Engineering Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of a Statistical Project Control Tool (SPCT) for managing engineering projects. A literature review pointed to a definition of project success, (i.e., A project is successful when the cost, schedule, technical performance, and quality satisfy the customer.) The literature review also pointed to project success factors, and traditional project control tools, and performance measures that are detailed in the report. The essential problem is that with resources becoming more limited, and an increasing number or projects, project failure is increasing, there is a limitation of existing methods and systematic methods are required. The objective of the work is to provide a new statistical project control tool for project managers. Graphs using the SPCT method plotting results of 3 successful projects and 3 failed projects are reviewed, with success and failure being defined by the owner.

  14. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  15. Low sound level source path contribution on a HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    For compliance test purposes, the noise level of a HVAC is usually measured with a pressure microphone positioned at a certain distance. This measurement is normally performed in an anechoic room. However, this method doesn't provide the engineer any insight on what noise sources do contribute to

  16. Towards an integral approach of building and HVAC system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic thermal interaction between a building and the HVAC systems which service it is still difficult to predict. As this thermal interaction becomes more critical in practice, related knowledge and evaluation tools become increasingly important. It is argued why these need to be based on an

  17. Maximize Benefits, Minimize Risk: Selecting the Right HVAC Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, James T.

    1993-01-01

    An informal survey of 20 major urban school districts found that 40% were currently operating in a "break down" maintenance mode. A majority, 57.9%, also indicated they saw considerable benefits in contracting for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) maintenance services with outside firms. Offers guidelines in selecting…

  18. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  19. INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HVAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in homes during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study and the Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study. A temperature sensor/logger placed on an outlet...

  20. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  1. Application of modeling and simulation to HVAC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages and disadvantages of different modelling approaches for design and performance evaluation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for buildings. Merits and drawbacks of the various modelling methods are illustrated by case study

  2. Advanced HVAC modeling with FemLab/Simulink/MatLab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The combined MatLab toolboxes FemLab and Simulink are evaluated as solvers for HVAC problems based on partial differential equations (PDEs). The FemLab software is designed to simulate systems of coupled PDEs, 1-D, 2-D or 3-D, nonlinear and time dependent. In order to show how the program works, a

  3. HVAC system simulation: overview, issues and some solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings’ heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. Recognizing this fact, in the last forty years many tools have been developed to help achieving this goal. In this paper

  4. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J.-M.

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  5. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J -M

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  6. Project W-058 monitor and control system logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROBERTS, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console

  7. HVAC System Replacements for the Spanish Nuclear Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Gensollen, T.; Pérez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The European Union and its Member States have established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The chiller systems installed at the Spanish nuclear fleet contained zone depleting refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, and R-22), which are being phased out of service. Due to the different material and thermodynamic properties of the replacement refrigerant (e.g. R-134A), a complete chiller system replacement is needed to comply with the EU regulations for CFCs. Delivering state of the art HVAC and Chiller systems that comply with the Nuclear Plant design basis, licensing basis, system and component specifications as well as European Union (EU) and Spanish codes and standards can be challenging for products purchased from US based manufacturers. Procurement specifications and Request for Quotes (RFQs) issued today for the procurement of original Plant components and systems will contain references to numerous codes and standards that were not in effect at the time the original components were specified and procured. The reference to EU and Spanish codes and standards that are unfamiliar to the HVAC suppliers can lead to uncertainty and concern related to specification compliance. The unnecessary burden of ambiguous codes and standards complicates the proposal process and introduces pricing uncertainty and contract risk. A review of the EU and Spanish national codes and standards that are often referenced in HVAC system related RFQs need to be performed to determine what codes and standards are applicable to HVAC systems designed, manufactured and tested in the US for export to Spain for installation in Spanish NPPs. Lessons learned and best practices should be applied to help both the Supplier (HVAC OEM) and the Purchaser Plant Operator) to optimize the procurement process and improve the quality of offerings to comply with applicable codes and standards. (Author)

  8. Fault ride-through and grid support of permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind farms with HVAC and VSC-HVDC transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fault ride-through and grid support of offshore wind farms based on permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines connected to the onshore AC network through two alternative transmission systems: high voltage AC (HVAC) or high voltage DC (HVDC) based on voltage...... source converters (VSC). The proposed configurations of the PMSG-based offshore wind farm and VSC-based HVDC are given as well as their control strategies under both steady state and fault state. The PMSG-based offshore wind farm is integrated into a test power transmission system via either HVAC or VSC...

  9. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP): configuration control system and project activity controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The SSDP has been using a Configuration Control system as a significant element in the management plan for the safe and effective performance of the project. The objective of the Configuration Control system is to control the physical plant configuration, system status, work schedules, status tracking, and day-to-day problem resolution. Prior to the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC) assuming operational responsibility for the Shippingport Plant, an assessment was made of the status of the configuration of the systems and related documentation. Action was taken as required to match the operating procedures and system documentation with the actual physical condition of the plant. During the first stage of the project, planning was put in place for subsequent decommissioning activities. This planning included defining organizational responsibilities, completing the necessary project instructions and procedures, and doing the planning and scheduling for the subsequent decommissioning phase activities. Detailed instructions for the performance of the various decommissioning tasks were prepared. Prior to the start of any work on a given Activity Package, a Work Authorization is required. The Work Authorization form provides a complete checklist to ensure that all necessary prerequisites are completed. A computerized Communications Configuration Control Information system monitors status including information on system status, tag-outs, radiological work permits, etc. An ongoing effort is being directed toward maintaining operating instructions and system schematics, etc. current as the Plant configuration changes. The experience with the Configuration Control System to date has been favorable

  10. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers’ fatigue and passengers’ thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction and outlet (each vent, and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  11. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Tansel, B; Mitrani, J D

    2001-12-01

    Indoor air quality has become one of the most serious environmental concerns as an average person spends about 22 hr indoors on a daily basis. The study reported in this article, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three commercial HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) duct cleaning processes in reducing the level of airborne particulate matter and viable bioaerosols. The three HVAC sanitation processes were: (1) Contact method (use of conventional vacuum cleaning of interior duct surfaces); (2) Air sweep method (use of compressed air to dislodging dirt and debris); (3) Rotary brush method (insertion of a rotary brush into the ductwork to agitate and dislodge the debris). Effectiveness of these sanitation processes was evaluated in terms of airborne particulate and viable bioaerosol concentrations in residential homes. Eight identical homes were selected in the same neighborhood. Two homes were cleaned using each procedure and two were used as controls. It was found that both particle count readings and bioaerosol concentrations were higher when cleaning was being performed than before or after cleaning, which suggests that dirt, debris and other pollutants may become airborne as a result of disturbances caused by the cleaning processes. Particle count readings at 0.3 micron size were found to have increased due to cigarette smoking. Particle counts at 1.0 micron size were reduced due to HVAC duct cleaning. Post-level bioaerosol concentrations, taken two days after cleaning, were found to be lower than the pre-level concentrations suggesting that the cleaning procedures were effective to some extent. Homes cleaned with the Air Sweep procedure showed the highest degree of reduction in bioaerosol concentration among the three procedures investigated.

  12. Project management with dynamic scheduling baseline scheduling, risk analysis and project control

    CERN Document Server

    Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this book is known as dynamic scheduling, and is used to refer to three dimensions of project management and scheduling: the construction of a baseline schedule and the analysis of a project schedule's risk as preparation of the project control phase during project progress. This dynamic scheduling point of view implicitly assumes that the usability of a project's baseline schedule is rather limited and only acts as a point of reference in the project life cycle.

  13. Neuro-optimal operation of a variable air volume HVAC and R system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Min; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are some reasons for high energy consumption of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC and R) systems. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC and R systems should be efficiently operated to maintain a desired indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions. This study proposes a neural network based optimal supervisory operation strategy to find the optimal set points for chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and VAV system fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. Simulation results show that compared to the conventional night reset operation scheme, the optimal operation scheme saves around 10% energy under full load condition and 19% energy under partial load conditions.

  14. Engineering schedule control of nuclear power project planning and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power design is the important part of project management of nuclear power project, it is the way to control the project organization, design schedule, design progress, design quality and cost control. The good schedule system and control is the key to the success for the project. It is also analyzed the problem during the project, by using some theory and analyze the project structure, design schedule management, IED and document management and interface management propose some new idea for better improve the design management to finally better improve the management quality and efficiency. (author)

  15. The Study on quality control of nuclear power installation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jie

    2008-01-01

    The quality planning, quality assurance and quality control are discussed by applying the quality control (QC) theory and combining the real situation of the Qinshan II project. This paper is practical and plays an active role in instruction of project quality control by applying the above QC theory and control techniques. (authors)

  16. The integrated engineering system for the HVAC branch. Annex; Das integrierte Ingenieursystem fuer die Haustechnikbranche; Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenspach, J.; Duppenthaler, A.; Helbling, R.; Kohler, T.; Mantel, R.; Meineke, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-01-01

    In 1987, the intention of the former Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research was to initiate a transfer of know-how into practice by launching this project. The increasing need for software engineering tools by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) companies demanded a new tool; to realise it, a joint venture project with private industry should concentrate the individual capabilities of each partner toward this goal. The present report describes the concept of the integrated engineering system, its user interface, the models, graphics, tools, multiuser operation and the system boundary. Results of field tests are presented together with information of the availability of the system. The annex contains the agreement for the usage of the public-domain-version of the system, experience reports of pilot clients and the end user`s and developer`s documentation. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  17. Performance Monitoring of Chilled-Water Distribution Systems Using HVAC-Cx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Natascha Milesi; Galler, Michael A; Bushby, Steven T

    2017-01-01

    In this research we develop, test, and demonstrate the newest extension of the software HVAC-Cx (NIST and CSTB 2014), an automated commissioning tool for detecting common mechanical faults and control errors in chilled-water distribution systems (loops). The commissioning process can improve occupant comfort, ensure the persistence of correct system operation, and reduce energy consumption. Automated tools support the process by decreasing the time and the skill level required to carry out necessary quality assurance measures, and as a result they enable more thorough testing of building heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. This paper describes the algorithm, developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to analyze chilled-water loops and presents the results of a passive monitoring investigation using field data obtained from BACnet ® (ASHRAE 2016) controllers and presents field validation of the findings. The tool was successful in detecting faults in system operation in its first field implementation supporting the investigation phase through performance monitoring. Its findings led to a full energy retrocommissioning of the field site.

  18. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

  19. Simulative Study into the Development of a Hybrid HVDC System Through a Comparative Research with HVAC: a Futuristic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Narayan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC is considered a better solution for bulk long distance transmissions. The increased use of HVDC is a result of its advantages over the HVAC systems and especially of its fault stability nature. A better solution is proposed by using a Voltage Source Controlled–HVDC as one of the infeed for the Multi-Infeed HVDC (MIDC or MI-HVDC systems. The main advantage with the VSC converter is its flexible power control which enhances the stability of the MIDC systems. In this paper, the behavior of an HVDC system is compared with that of an HVAC during faults. A Hybrid HVDC system that includes a LCC as a rectifier unit and a VSC converter as the inverter is being proposed. It is considered suitable for MIDC systems and particularly for supplying a weak AC system. The performance of the system during steady state and transient conditions for all the proposed topologies including HVDC, HVAC and Hybrid HVDC are studied in MATLAB/SIMULINK. All of the proposed control strategies are evaluated via a series of simulation case studies.

  20. Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project - 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989-1993 are listed. The biomass production chamber to be used by the project is described.

  1. Systems approach for design control at Monitored Retrievable Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.N.; Williams, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the systems approach in establishing design control for the Monitored Retrievable Storage Project design development. Key elements in design control are enumerated and systems engineering aspects are detailed. Application of lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project experience is addressed. An integrated approach combining quality assurance and systems engineering requirements is suggested to practice effective design control

  2. An evaluation of damping ratios for HVAC duct systems using vibration test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunyasu, K.; Horimizu, Y.; Kawakami, A.; Iokibe, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01

    The function of Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems must be maintained including HVAC duct systems to keep the operation of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants during earthquake excitations. Therefore, it is important to carry out seismic design for HVAC duct systems. In the previous aseismic design for HVAC duct systems, the 0.5% damping ratio has been used in Japan. In recent years, vibration tests, held on actual duct systems in nuclear power plants and mockup duct systems were performed in order to investigate damping ratios for HVAC duct systems. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the damping ratio for HVAC duct systems, evaluated from these tests, were much greater than the 0.5% damping ratio used in the previous aseismic design of Japan. The new damping ratio in aseismic design was proposed to be 2.5%. The present paper describes the results of the above mentioned investigation

  3. HVAC; Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning - Aerosol Duct Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    material was applied. Annual energy and cost savings were predicted based on a typical weather year for each site. The installation of the duct...Balance reports; Visible dust streaks on duct work, ceilings near supply diffusers, or electrical boxes; Comfort complaints Specific Leakage...energy consumption , depending on the HVAC system type and the location of the ducts that were sealed. The cost effectiveness of the technology is

  4. Integrated high efficiency blower apparatus for HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Weigman, Herman; Wang, Shixiao

    2007-07-24

    An integrated centrifugal blower wheel for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) blower unit includes a first blade support, a second blade support, and a plurality of S-shaped blades disposed between the first and second blade supports, wherein each of the S-shaped blades has a trailing edge bent in a forward direction with respect to a defined direction of rotation of the wheel.

  5. HVAC fault tree analysis for WIPP integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.; Iacovino, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) due to potential radioactive releases, a probabilistic risk assessment of waste handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which comprise the final barrier between waste handling operations and the environment. 1 refs., 1 tab

  6. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladykas, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  7. A comfort-based, energy-aware HVAC agent and its applications in the smart grid

    OpenAIRE

    Auffenberg, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce a novel heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) agent that maintains a comfortable thermal environmant for its users while minimising energy consumption of the HVAC system and incorporating demand side management (DSM) signals to shift HVAC loads towards achieving more desirable overall load profiles. To do so, the agent needs to be able to accurately predict user comfort, for example by using a thermal comfort model. Existing thermal comfort models are u...

  8. Coupling fast fluid dynamics and multizone airflow models in Modelica Buildings library to simulate the dynamics of HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wei [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Sevilla, Thomas Alonso [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Zuo, Wangda [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-06-08

    Historically, multizone models are widely used in building airflow and energy performance simulations due to their fast computing speed. However, multizone models assume that the air in a room is well mixed, consequently limiting their application. In specific rooms where this assumption fails, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models may be an alternative option. Previous research has mainly focused on coupling CFD models and multizone models to study airflow in large spaces. While significant, most of these analyses did not consider the coupled simulation of the building airflow with the building's Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. This paper tries to fill the gap by integrating the models for HVAC systems with coupled multizone and CFD simulations for airflows, using the Modelica simul ation platform. To improve the computational efficiency, we incorporated a simplified CFD model named fast fluid dynamics (FFD). We first introduce the data synchronization strategy and implementation in Modelica. Then, we verify the implementation using two case studies involving an isothermal and a non-isothermal flow by comparing model simulations to experiment data. Afterward, we study another three cases that are deemed more realistic. This is done by attaching a variable air volume (VAV) terminal box and a VAV system to previous flows to assess the capability of the models in studying the dynamic control of HVAC systems. Finally, we discuss further research needs on the coupled simulation using the models.

  9. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement

  10. The management, control and implementation of SCADA projects

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. The dissertation covers the establishment of a project from the point of view of a project manager. The document refers to examples where possible to illustrate the actual process through which a project goes during the life-cycle of the project. The first chapter provides an introduction to the context of the project and informs the reader of the type of project which the dissertation discusses. An overview of SCAD A (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems is discussed f...

  11. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  12. Successful Control of Major Project Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Lichtenberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper differs from scientific papers describing current research. In line with the theme of this special issue, it challenges conventional risk management practice against the background of former research results successfully finished decades ago. It is well-known that conventional practice frequently results in budget overruns of large projects. International reviews document that. Severe delays of schedules are also well-known. This paper describes successful research results from almost three decades ago, which successfully challenges this severe problem and has led to new practices. The research involved is an unusual mix: Scandinavian researchers from psychology, statistical theory and engineering economy. The resulting procedure has been widely used since around 1990 and challenges conventional procedures. The procedure is documented to be able to yield statistically correct prognoses, when the “rules of the game” have been correctly followed. After a short summary of the basic situation, this paper summarizes the research, followed by some resulting experiences, focusing on two recent studies each of 40 infrastructures and other major projects. In both sets, the actual final cost largely equaled the expected project cost. This result is a marked change from international past and present experience. Finally, the need for further research and progress is discussed.

  13. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 1: Planning Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the planning documents from the GCS project. Volume 1 contains five appendices: A. Plan for Software Aspects of Certification for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Development Standards for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Software Verification Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; and E. Software Quality Assurance Activities.

  14. Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2017-01-01

    Project Management is the bestselling text for students and professionals, presenting a streamlined approach to project management functions in full alignment with PMI(r)'s latest Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK(r)). This new 12th edition has been updated to reflect the latest changes found in the PMBOK(r) Guide--Sixth Edition, and features new coverage of emerging topics including global stakeholder management, causes of failure, agile project management, project governance failure, customer approval milestones, classifying project metrics, and more. Supplementary materials are available for students, working professionals, and instructors. * Understand organizational structures and project management functions * Learn how to control costs, manage risk, and analyze trade-offs * Examine different methods used for planning, scheduling, QA, and more * Work effectively with customers and stakeholders from around the globe Project Management is the comprehensive reference to keep within arm's reach. ...

  15. MILA Antenna Control Unit Replacement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresette, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The Air to Ground Subsystem (AGS) Antenna Control Units at the MILA Ground Network Tracking Station are at end-of-life and are being replaced. AGS consists of two antennas at MILA (Quad-Helix and Teltrac). Software was taken from the existing Subsystem Controller and modified for the Antenna Control Unit (ACU). The software is capable of receiving and sending commands to and from the ACU. Moving the azimuth clockwise, counterclockwise, moving the elevation up or down, turning servo power on and off, and inputting azimuth and elevation angles are commands that the antenna can receive.

  16. HVAC&R Equipment Environmental Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:Large "Truck" ChamberThe large "truck" chamber provides controlled air conditions from -7 °C (20 °F) to 65 °C (150 °F).Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Test...

  17. Thermal Components Boost Performance of HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) travels 17,500 miles per hour, normal is having a constant sensation of free-falling. Normal is no rain, but an extreme amount of shine.with temperatures reaching 250 F when facing the Sun. Thanks to a number of advanced control systems onboard the ISS, however, the interior of the station remains a cool, comfortable, normal environment where astronauts can live and work for extended periods of time. There are two main control systems on the ISS that make it possible for humans to survive in space: the Thermal Control System (TCS) and the Environmental Control and Life Support system. These intricate assemblies work together to supply water and oxygen, regulate temperature and pressure, maintain air quality, and manage waste. Through artificial means, these systems create a habitable environment for the space station s crew. The TCS constantly works to regulate the temperature not only for astronauts, but for the critical instruments and machines inside the spacecraft as well. To do its job, the TCS encompasses several components and systems both inside and outside of the ISS. Inside the spacecraft, a liquid heat-exchange process mechanically pumps fluids in closed-loop circuits to collect, transport, and reject heat. Outside the ISS, an external system circulates anhydrous ammonia to transport heat and cool equipment, and radiators release the heat into space. Over the years, NASA has worked with a variety of partners.public and private, national and international. to develop and refine the most complex thermal control systems ever built for spacecraft, including the one on the ISS.

  18. Weather data around the world for design of field hospital HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forejt, L.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Drkal, F.; Barankova, P.

    2006-01-01

    Field hospital (FH) is a military mobile complex to be deployed in almost any climate around the world. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the Czech Republic FH units is being redesigned. Computer simulation software will be used for the design of HVAC under variety of

  19. Considerations to Prevent Growth and Spread of Legionella in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the threat posed by the Legionnaire's Disease bacterium and the germ's ability to thrive in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, especially in standing water. Describes ways to minimize disease risk through HVAC system design (such as locating cooling towers away from air intakes) and ways to maintain a clean…

  20. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  1. Integrovany pristup k reseni systemu vytapeni,vetrani a klimatizace v budovach (HVAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Towards an integral approach of building and HVAC system The dynamic thermal interacion between a building and the HVAC systems which service it, is still difficult to predict. As this thermal interacition becomes more critical in practice, related knowledge and evaluation tools become increasingly

  2. HVAC SYSTEMS IN THE CURRENT STOCK OF US K-12 SCHOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on heating, ventilating, an air- conditioning (HVAC) systems commonly found in U. S. school buildings and the effect that operating these systems has on indoor radon levels. The report describes the ability of various HVAC systems to pressurize a...

  3. Energy-Smart Choices for Schools. An HVAC Comparison Tool. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A CD ROM program provides comparison construction cost capabilities for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in educational facilities. The program combines multiple types of systems with square footage data on low and high construction cost and school size to automatically calculate HVAC comparative construction costs. (GR)

  4. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  5. Filtration effectiveness of HVAC systems at near-roadway schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M C; Ludwig, J F; Brown, S G; Vaughn, D L; Roberts, P T

    2013-06-01

    Concern for the exposure of children attending schools located near busy roadways to toxic, traffic-related air pollutants has raised questions regarding the environmental benefits of advanced heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) filtration systems for near-road pollution. Levels of black carbon and gaseous pollutants were measured at three indoor classroom sites and at seven outdoor monitoring sites at Las Vegas schools. Initial HVAC filtration systems effected a 31-66% reduction in black carbon particle concentrations inside three schools compared with ambient air concentrations. After improved filtration systems were installed, black carbon particle concentrations were reduced by 74-97% inside three classrooms relative to ambient air concentrations. Average black carbon particle concentrations inside the schools with improved filtration systems were lower than typical ambient Las Vegas concentrations by 49-96%. Gaseous pollutants were higher indoors than outdoors. The higher indoor concentrations most likely originated at least partially from indoor sources, which were not targeted as part of this intervention. Recent literature has demonstrated adverse health effects in subjects exposed to ambient air near major roadways. Current smart growth planning and infill development often require that buildings such as schools are built near major roadways. Improving the filtration systems of a school's HVAC system was shown to decrease children's exposure to near-roadway diesel particulate matter. However, reducing exposure to the gas-phase air toxics, which primarily originated from indoor sources, may require multiple filter passes on recirculated air. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. HVAC optimization as facility requirements change with corporate restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, R.R.; Sankey, M.S.

    1997-06-01

    The hyper-competitive, dynamic 1990`s forced many corporations to {open_quotes}Right-Size,{close_quotes} relocating resources and equipment -- even consolidating. These changes led to utility reduction if HVAC optimization was thoroughly addressed, and energy conservation opportunities were identified and properly designed. This is true particularly when the facility`s heating and cooling systems are matched to correspond with the load changes attributed to the reduction of staff and computers. Computers have been downsized and processing power per unit of energy input increased, thus, the need for large mainframe computer centers, and their associated high intensity energy usage, have been decreased or eliminated. Cooling, therefore, also has been reduced.

  7. 78 FR 15653 - Notice of Intent To Form the Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Certification Working Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 429 Notice of Intent To Form the Commercial HVAC, WH, and... Requirements for Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration equipment...

  8. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 2: Development Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the development documents from the GCS project. Volume 2 contains three appendices: A. Guidance and Control Software Development Specification; B. Design Description for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and C. Source Code for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software

  9. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  10. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  11. Dust control at Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissell, F.; Jurani, R.; Dresel, R.; Reaux, C.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes actions taken to control silica dust at the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility, a tunnel located in Southern Nevada that is part of a scientific program to determine site suitability for a potential nuclear waste repository. The rock is a volcanic tuff containing significant percentages of both quartz and cristobalite. Water use for dust control was limited because of scientific test requirements, and this limitation made dust control a difficult task. Results are reported for two drifts, called the Main Loop Drift and the Cross Drift. In the Main Loop Drift, dust surveys and tracer gas tests indicated that air leakage from the TBM head, the primary ventilation duct, and movement of the conveyor belt were all significant sources of dust. Conventional dust control approaches yielded no significant reductions in dust levels. A novel alternative was to install an air cleaning station on a rear deck of the TBM trailing gear. It filtered dust from the contaminated intake air and discharged clean air towards the front of the TBM. The practical effect was to produce dust levels below the exposure limit for all TBM locations except close to the head. In the Cross Drift, better ventilation and an extra set of dust seals on the TBM served to cut down the leakage of dust from the TBM cutter head. However, the conveyor belt was much dustier than the belt in the main loop drift. The problem originated with dirt on the bottom of the belt return side and much spillage from the belt top side. Achieving lower dust levels in hard rock tunneling operations will require new approaches as well as a more meticulous application of existing technology. Planning for dust control will require specific means to deal with dust that leaks from the TBM head, dust that originates with leaky ventilation systems, and dust that comes from conveyor belts. Also, the application of water could be more efficient if automatic controls were used to adjust the water flow

  12. Modeling and optimization of HVAC energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Li, Mingyang; Tang, Fan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 - 1527 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A data-driven approach for minimization of the energy to air condition a typical office-type facility is presented. Eight data-mining algorithms are applied to model the nonlinear relationship among energy consumption, control settings (supply air temperature and supply air static pressure), and a set of uncontrollable parameters. The multiple-linear perceptron (MLP) ensemble outperforms other models tested in this research, and therefore it is selected to model a chiller, a pump, a fan, and a reheat device. These four models are integrated into an energy optimization model with two decision variables, the setpoint of the supply air temperature and the static pressure in the air handling unit. The model is solved with a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The optimization results have demonstrated the total energy consumed by the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system is reduced by over 7%. (author)

  13. First-of-A-Kind Control Room Modernization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This project plan describes a comprehensive approach to the design of an end-state concept for a modernized control room for Palo Verde. It describes the collaboration arrangement between the DOE LWRS Program Control Room Modernization Project and the APS Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. It further describes the role of other collaborators, including the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It combines advanced tools, methodologies, and facilities to enable a science-based approach to the validation of applicable engineering and human factors principles for nuclear plant control rooms. It addresses the required project results and documentation to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. It describes the project tasks that will be conducted in the project, and the deliverable reports that will be developed through these tasks. This project plan will be updated as new tasks are added and as project milestones are completed. It will serve as an ongoing description on the project both for project participants and for industry stakeholders.

  14. Statistical Process Control. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M.; Clark, I.

    A project was conducted to develop a curriculum and training materials to be used in training industrial operatives in statistical process control (SPC) techniques. During the first phase of the project, questionnaires were sent to 685 companies (215 of which responded) to determine where SPC was being used, what type of SPC firms needed, and how…

  15. Metrics-based control in outsourced software development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, Laura; van Eck, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Measurements have been recognised as vital instruments to improve control in outsourced software development projects. However, project managers are still struggling with the design and implementation of effective measurement programs. One reason for this is that although there is a large body of

  16. Controls and automation in the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothner, U.; Boulot, A.; Maherault, J.; Martial, L.

    1999-01-01

    The control and automation team of the R and D of Accelerator-Exotic Beam Department has had in the framework of SPIRAL collaboration the following tasks: 1. automation of the resonator high frequency equipment of the CIME cyclotron; 2. automation of the vacuum equipment, i.e. the low energy line (TBE), the CIME cyclotron, the low energy line (BE); 3. automation of load safety for power supply; 4. for each of these tasks a circuitry file based on the SCHEMA software has been worked out. The programs required in the automation of load safety for power supply (STEP5, PROTOOL, DESIGNER 4.1) were developed and implemented for PC

  17. Projection Operator: A Step Towards Certification of Adaptive Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larchev, Gregory V.; Campbell, Stefan F.; Kaneshige, John T.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major barriers to wider use of adaptive controllers in commercial aviation is the lack of appropriate certification procedures. In order to be certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), an aircraft controller is expected to meet a set of guidelines on functionality and reliability while not negatively impacting other systems or safety of aircraft operations. Due to their inherent time-variant and non-linear behavior, adaptive controllers cannot be certified via the metrics used for linear conventional controllers, such as gain and phase margin. Projection Operator is a robustness augmentation technique that bounds the output of a non-linear adaptive controller while conforming to the Lyapunov stability rules. It can also be used to limit the control authority of the adaptive component so that the said control authority can be arbitrarily close to that of a linear controller. In this paper we will present the results of applying the Projection Operator to a Model-Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC), varying the amount of control authority, and comparing controller s performance and stability characteristics with those of a linear controller. We will also show how adjusting Projection Operator parameters can make it easier for the controller to satisfy the certification guidelines by enabling a tradeoff between controller s performance and robustness.

  18. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 3: Verification Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the verification documents from the GCS project. Volume 3 contains four appendices: A. Software Verification Cases and Procedures for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Verification Results for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; C. Review Records for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and D. Test Results Logs for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software.

  19. Controlled Environmental Agriculture and Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris [Morrisville State College, NY (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Task A: Heating Plant - To design/build a Heating Plant Building with associated heating components for heating the greenhouse and to house the biomass gasification system. The subtasks for this task was and Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction activities. Overall milestones for this task were one construction permit, a code review and stamped drawings, engineered building vendor supplied sealed drawings, and the actual erection of a 1250 sq.ft. building. Task B: Heating System - The activities for this task included the procurement of the heating boilers and all ancillary components. This also included the installation of all heating system components in the new building plus the existing greenhouse structure. The milestone for this task was for the ability to heat 2500 gallons of water to 80 degrees F. Task C: Organic Matter Automated Hopper - The activities involved in this task involved design/fabrication of an automated hopper to feed the biomass gasification system. We need to procure materials and the automated motion components, have the system installed and factory acceptance test of the system. The milestone is to be able to feed wood chips at a rate of 20 Kg/Hr. Task D: Imbert Gasification System - The activities involved in this include the design/build of the gasifier with all accompany ductwork, cyclones and feeding system. Also there is a modification to the scrubber assembly with an automated ash removal system. Lastly a modification to the exhaust/flair system is made to capture heat from this component. Milestone for this task was to be able to produce 15 CFM of SynGas. Task E: Generator Powered by SynGas - Procure two 20kW 4 pole generator heads for installation on the gasifier system. Modification of the fuel plenum manifold with adjustment to the fuel curves for maximum power and load points. Milestone for this task is the ability to run two fuels, either SynGas or propane. This continues with the following tasks: Controls Heating

  20. A Projection of Automated Book Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barisic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates on the recommendation of systematic introducing of XML technologies as a standard and integral factor in publishing and graphic business activities and as a further improvement of the existing PostScript graphic production platform. Procedures are proposed for applying norm setting in respect to production processes through related connections organized databases under XML technology in a hierarchical way, as well as a book production norm setting system. The proposal for work processes automation in the domain of printing business control is elaborated under the CIP4-JDF automating system. Operation results are used as guidelines for setting the elements of automated business operations in the book production domain, with integrated elements of new technologies, compatible with global trends.

  1. ANG coal gasification project management control system report. [Great Plains project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Much time, money and effort has been spent in the forefront of this project for project controls. The work breakdown structure for the systems has been custom designed. The systems, both manual and computerized, have been well scrutinized and chosen by ANG to represent the most cost effective and efficient way of controlling a project the magnitude of $1.5 billion. These systems have been developed in a manner so that information can be gathered as detailed or as summarized as necessary, and in the most timely and expeditious ways.

  2. Control system of the MACSE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gournay, J.F.; Gougnaud, F.; Matichard, G.; Azoulay, R.; Bouillac, A.

    1991-01-01

    With the goal of investigating all the technological aspects of superconducting RF acceleration, the so-called MACSE facility was put in operation at the end of 1990. The control system is built with several VME crates linked together with a dedicated Ethernet network. VxWorks is the real-time operating system used. A set of software services was built on top of VxWorks (high level communication tools, a data-base management system, a library of VME boards drivers and a limited man-machine interface). A complete range of application programs have been developed with these tools in order to fulfill the requirements of such a facility (settings of the parameters, surveillance, archive facility, closed loops...). The TCP-IP protocols family is extensively used for communications between the components of the system (UDP, RPC, rcmd, NFS). The development environment is based on the host-target approach through the use of a network of Sun 3/80 workstations. After 1 1/2 year of experience, this system has proven to be powerful and flexible [fr

  3. Performance analysis of supply and return fans for HVAC systems under different operating strategies of economizer dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, Nabil [Florida Solar Energy Center, A Research Institute of the University of Center Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    HVAC systems and associated equipment consume a relatively large fraction of total building energy consumption, a significant portion of which is attributed to fan operation. The operation of economizer dampers when installed can cause high energy consumption in fans if they are not functioning in proper and optimal manner. This will mainly be due to the potential high pressure drops through those dampers and associated high total pressures that should be developed by supply and/or return fans. It is then necessary to ensure that a proper strategy to operate optimally the economizer dampers is implemented with minimum fan energy use. The paper examines several operation strategies of the economizer dampers and investigates their effects on the performance of both the supply and return fans in HVAC system. It also discusses a new operating strategy for economizer dampers that can lead to lower fan energy use. The strategies are evaluated by simulations for a typically existing HVAC system. Several factors such as the building locations, system characteristics, resistance in the duct where the dampers are installed, supply air temperature and economizer control, and minimum ventilation requirements are also considered during the evaluations. The results show that the way of the economizer dampers been controlled has a significant effect on fan performance and its energy use. The proposed strategy if properly implemented can provide fan energy saving in the range of 5-30%, depending mainly on the number of hours when the system operates in the free cooling mode, damper characteristics, and minimum outdoor air. (author)

  4. Extending the GANIL control system for the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecorche, E.

    1997-01-01

    The SPIRAL project under construction at GANIL aims to deliver radioactive ion beams to the physicists by the end of 1998. In 1996, it has been proposed to achieve most of the SPIRAL control system as an extension of the system currently in use at GANIL. Therefore the main features of the GANIL control system design are first recalled. Then the paper shows how the GANIL control system should have been upgraded and extended to integrate the SPIRAL project. This evolution had to cope with the specific needs brought by the new machine and to consider the size of the project which is around one third of the GANIL control system volume. Lastly current status of the system is given. (author)

  5. Extending the GANIL control system for the SPIRAL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecorche, E

    1997-12-31

    The SPIRAL project under construction at GANIL aims to deliver radioactive ion beams to the physicists by the end of 1998. In 1996, it has been proposed to achieve most of the SPIRAL control system as an extension of the system currently in use at GANIL. Therefore the main features of the GANIL control system design are first recalled. Then the paper shows how the GANIL control system should have been upgraded and extended to integrate the SPIRAL project. This evolution had to cope with the specific needs brought by the new machine and to consider the size of the project which is around one third of the GANIL control system volume. Lastly current status of the system is given. (author) 5 refs.

  6. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe; Ibarra, A.; Heidinger, R.; Knaster, J.; Sugimoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  7. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  8. Analysis and control of issues that delay pharmaceutical projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallam Sai Nandeswara Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Every project will have certain objectives and service levels to be achieved. The success of a project depends on several dimensions like time, cost/budget, quality, etc. and managing a project involves completing the project within time, within budget and with quality to satisfy the users. Because of the significance of health, pharmaceutical companies realized the importance of project management methods and techniques to make available the life saving drugs in time to the needy patients and hospitals. In literature, there is meager information about pharmaceutical project management oriented towards analysis of issues and factors that contribute to the failure or success of projects. This study attempts to analyse different issues that contribute to time delays in pharmaceutical product-based projects, group them under a finite set of prominent factors and identify remedial measures to control those delays. The feedback of project people of some big pharmaceutical firms of Indian sub-continent was collected for this purpose. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA has been used to reduce the reasons for time delays to a limited number of prominent factors and the EFA model has been further examined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA for its validation. Remedial measures under each factor of time delays have been gathered and a framework designed to mitigate the time delays in pharmaceutical projects. The derived factors that delay the pharmaceutical projects include resource, monitoring & control, scheduling and planning problems. Important remedial measures like blended resource approach, estimation and forecast of shortage of labour and skills, regular quality training, etc. have been recommended.

  9. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Petritchenko, Oxana [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Ringo, Decker [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); McClive, Sam [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) commissioned this characterization and technology assessment of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for commercial buildings. The main objectives of this study: Identify a wide range of technology options in varying stages of development that could reduce commercial HVAC energy consumption; Characterize these technology options based on their technical energy-savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and the ability to compete with conventional HVAC technologies; Make specific recommendations to DOE and other stakeholders on potential research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities that would support further development of the most promising technology options.

  10. Recommended HVAC standard of the Florida Radon Research Program. Final report, Mar-Sep 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) section of the 'Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation.' It deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. Its primary intent is to prevent pressure differentials in houses that can increase the transport of radon into houses. Three pathways of compliance are available to meet the requirements of the HVAC portion of the standards. The first is purely prescriptive. The second is a performance and prescriptive approach. The third is a marketplace approach

  11. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report outlines findings resulting from a U.S. Department of Energy Building America expert meeting to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. IBACOS has embarked upon a research effort under the Building America Program to understand business impacts and change management strategies for HVAC companies. HVAC companies can implement these strategies in order to quickly transition from a 'traditional' heating and cooling contractor to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. Due to HVAC service contracts, which allow repeat interaction with homeowners, HVAC companies are ideally positioned in the marketplace to resolve homeowner comfort issues through whole house energy upgrades. There are essentially two primary ways to define the routes of transition for an HVAC contractor taking on whole house performance contracting: (1) Sub-contracting out the shell repair/upgrade work; and (2) Integrating the shell repair/upgrade work into their existing business. IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the structure of traditional HVAC Companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Seek industry input on how to structure information so it is relevant and useful for traditional HVAC contractors who are transitioning to becoming whole house energy upgrade contractors Seven industry experts identified by IBACOS participated in the session along with one representative from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The objective of the meeting was to validate the general operational

  12. Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendell, Derek Garth [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of prefabricated, portable classrooms (portables, relocatables, RCs) has increased due to class size reduction initiatives and limited resources. Classroom mechanical wall-mount heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may function improperly or not be maintained; lower ventilation rates may impact indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ). Materials in portables may off-gas volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, as a function of age, temperature, and humidity. For a pilot study, public K-12 schools located in or serving target areas within five Los Angeles County communities were identified. In two communities where school districts (SD) consented, 1-3 randomly selected portables, one newer and one older, and one main building control classroom from each participating school were included. Sampling was conducted over a five-day school week in the cooling and heating seasons, or repeated twice in the cooling season. Measurements included passive samplers for VOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and air exchange rate (AER) calculation; indoor air temperature and humidity; technician walk-through surveys; an interview questionnaire above HVAC system operation and maintenance (O and M). For an intervention study evaluating advanced HVAC technologies in comparison to the common conventional technology, and materials for source reduction of VOCs, four RC were manufactured and located in pairs at two schools in two recruited Northern California SD in different climate zones. RCs were built with the two HVAC systems, cabinetry and conduit for monitoring equipment, and standard or advanced interior finish materials. Each RC was its own control in a case-crossover design--HVAC systems alternately operated for 1-2 week intervals in the 2001-02 school year, with IEQ monitoring including aldehyde and indoor air temperature and humidity data. Measured classroom AER were low, formaldehyde concentrations were below the state

  13. Schedule control in Ling Ao nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ahai

    2007-01-01

    Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LANP) is first one built up by self-reliance in China with power capacity 990x2 MWe. The results of quality control, schedule control and cost control are satisfactory. The commercial operation days of Unit 1 and Unit 2 were 28th May 2002 and 8th Jan. 2003 respectively, which were 48 days and 66 days in advance of the project schedule. This paper presents the practices of self-reliance schedule control system in LANP. The paper includes 10 sections: schedule control system; targets of schedule control; schedule control at early stage of project; construction schedule; scheduling practice; Point curves; schedule control of design and procurement; a good practice of construction schedule control on site; commissioning and startup schedule; schedule control culture. Three figures are attached. The main contents of the self-reliance schedule control system are as follows: to draw up reasonable schedules and targets; to setup management mechanism and procedures; to organize powerful project management team; to establish close monitoring system; to provide timely progress reports and statistics information. Five kinds of schedule control targets are introduced, i.e. bar-chart schedule; milesones; Point curves; interface management; hydraulic test schedule of auxiliary piping loops; EMR/EMC/EESR issuance schedules. Six levels of bar-chart schedules were adopted in LANP, but the bar-chart schedules were not satisfactory for complicated erection condition on site, even using six levels of schedules. So a kind of Point curves was developed and their advantages are explained. Scheduling method of three elements: activity, duration, logic, which was adopted in LANP, is introduced. The duration of each piping activities in LANP level 2 project schedule was calculated based on the relevant working Point quantities. The analysis and adjustment of Point curves are illustrated, i.e. balance of monthly quantities; possible production in the peakload

  14. F-15 837 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) for the F-15. The goals of the project are: (1) Demonstrate Revolutionary Control Approaches that can Efficiently Optimize Aircraft Performance in both Normal and Failure Conditions (2) Advance Neural Network-Based Flight Control Technology for New Aerospace Systems Designs. The motivation for the development are to reduce the chance and skill required for survival.

  15. Development of a method for bacteria and virus recovery from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, James E; Goyal, Sagar M; Kim, Seung Won; Kuehn, Thomas H; Raynor, Peter C; Ramakrishnan, M A; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Tang, Weihua

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the work presented here is to study the effectiveness of building air handling units (AHUs) in serving as high volume sampling devices for airborne bacteria and viruses. An HVAC test facility constructed according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 was used for the controlled loading of HVAC filter media with aerosolized bacteria and virus. Nonpathogenic Bacillus subtilis var. niger was chosen as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Three animal viruses; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and fowlpox virus were chosen as surrogates for three human viruses; SARS coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and smallpox virus; respectively. These bacteria and viruses were nebulized in separate tests and injected into the test duct of the test facility upstream of a MERV 14 filter. SKC Biosamplers upstream and downstream of the test filter served as reference samplers. The collection efficiency of the filter media was calculated to be 96.5 +/- 1.5% for B. subtilis, however no collection efficiency was measured for the viruses as no live virus was ever recovered from the downstream samplers. Filter samples were cut from the test filter and eluted by hand-shaking. An extraction efficiency of 105 +/- 19% was calculated for B. subtilis. The viruses were extracted at much lower efficiencies (0.7-20%). Our results indicate that the airborne concentration of spore-forming bacteria in building AHUs may be determined by analyzing the material collected on HVAC filter media, however culture-based analytical techniques are impractical for virus recovery. Molecular-based identification techniques such as PCR could be used.

  16. Co-simulation of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trcka, Marija; Hensena, Jan L.M.; Wetter, Michael

    2010-06-21

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings HVAC systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. However, no single building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to analyze integrated building systems and to enable rapid prototyping of innovative building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation, as an integrated approach to simulation. This article elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in the here described co-simulation prototype. The prototype is validated with the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a proof-of-concept case study to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling time step.

  17. Project-Based Learning in Programmable Logic Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seke, F. R.; Sumilat, J. M.; Kembuan, D. R. E.; Kewas, J. C.; Muchtar, H.; Ibrahim, N.

    2018-02-01

    Project-based learning is a learning method that uses project activities as the core of learning and requires student creativity in completing the project. The aims of this study is to investigate the influence of project-based learning methods on students with a high level of creativity in learning the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). This study used experimental methods with experimental class and control class consisting of 24 students, with 12 students of high creativity and 12 students of low creativity. The application of project-based learning methods into the PLC courses combined with the level of student creativity enables the students to be directly involved in the work of the PLC project which gives them experience in utilizing PLCs for the benefit of the industry. Therefore, it’s concluded that project-based learning method is one of the superior learning methods to apply on highly creative students to PLC courses. This method can be used as an effort to improve student learning outcomes and student creativity as well as to educate prospective teachers to become reliable educators in theory and practice which will be tasked to create qualified human resources candidates in order to meet future industry needs.

  18. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design building systems that provide improvements in both energy efficiency and IEQ. This report outlines the selection of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be used in demonstrating such an opportunity in a field study using relocatable school classrooms. Standard classrooms use a common wall mounted heat pump HVAC system. After reviewing alternative systems, a wall-mounting indirect/direct evaporative cooling system with an integral hydronic gas heating is selected. The anticipated advantages of this system include continuous ventilation of 100 percent outside air at or above minimum standards, projected cooling energy reductions of about 70 percent, inexpensive gas heating, improved airborne particle filtration, and reduced peak load electricity use. Potential disadvantages include restricted climate regions and possible increases in indoor relative humidity levels under some conditions

  19. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  20. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  1. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) theory principles and applying them to the human element of project management and control is not a new concept. As both the literature on the subject and the real-world applications are neither readily available nor comprehensive with regard to how such principles might be applied, this paper has been written to educate the project manager on the "laws of physics" of his or her project (not to teach a GN&C engineer how to become a project manager) and to provide an intuitive, mathematical explanation as to the control and behavior of projects. This paper will also address how the fundamental principles of modern GN&C were applied to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) space suit project, ensuring the project was managed within cost, schedule, and budget. A project that is akin to a physical system can be modeled and managed using the same over arching principles of GN&C that would be used if that project were a complex vehicle, a complex system(s), or complex software with time-varying processes (at times nonlinear) containing multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. The classic GN&C theory approach could thus be applied to small, well-defined projects; yet when working with larger, multiyear projects necessitating multiple organizational structures, numerous external influences, and a multitude of diverse resources, modern GN&C principles are required to model and manage the project. The fundamental principles of a GN&C system incorporate these basic concepts: State, Behavior, Feedback Control, Navigation, Guidance and Planning Logic systems. The State of a system defines the aspects of the system that can change over time; e.g., position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, and temperature, etc. The Behavior of the system focuses more on what changes are possible within the system; this is denoted in the state

  2. Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic systems via adaptive learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Ping, Sun; Jun-Min, Li; Hui-Lin, Wang; Jiang-An, Wang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a learning control approach is applied to the generalized projective synchronisation (GPS) of different chaotic systems with unknown periodically time-varying parameters. Using the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional stability theory, a differential-difference mixed parametric learning law and an adaptive learning control law are constructed to make the states of two different chaotic systems asymptotically synchronised. The scheme is successfully applied to the generalized projective synchronisation between the Lorenz system and Chen system. Moreover, numerical simulations results are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. (general)

  3. Evaluation of High-Performance Rooftop HVAC Unit Naval Air Station Key West, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howett, Daniel H. [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    This report documents performance of a high performance rooftop HVAC unit (RTU) at Naval Air Station Key West, FL. This report was sponsored by the Federal Energy Management Program as part of the "High Performance RTU Campaign".

  4. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study: Summarized Data - Test Space HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues

  5. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was hosted by the IBACOS Building America research team to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting.

  6. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-30

    A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  7. [Case control trial on putative factors antagonising the successful project course of MD thesis projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenberg, J; Schaper, K; Krummenauer, F

    2015-05-01

    Award of the degree MD has special relevance in Germany since the underlying research project can be started during the qualification for admission to doctoral training. This leads to a large number of thesis projects with a not always sufficiently pronounced enthusiasm and thus poor chances of success. Accordingly a case control study was undertaken in the Department of Human Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University to investigate reported drop-outs of thesis projects. In autumn 2012 all students in the clinical phases of human medicine education were surveyed using a self-conceived questionnaire on previously initiated or terminated thesis projects, "terminated" is defined as the unsuccessful ending of a project after working for at least 3 months. Individually reported thesis terminations were evaluated using defined items in a 4-stage Likert scale regarding thesis plan and project, subsequently, graduate students who successfully completed a project received the same questionnaire. The items possibly corresponding to process determinants were averaged to a total of 7 dimensions prior to the analysis; the resulting scores were normalised in value ranges 0.0 to 1.0 (1.0 = optimal project situation) whereby individual items could be included in several scores. By means of 5 items a primary endpoint from the faculty's perspective on "compliance with formal procedures" was aggregated; by means of a two-sided Wilcoxon test at the 5 % level students with unsuccessful and successful courses were compared along the corresponding scores. 181 of 276 students from 7 study semesters participated in the screening; details of 17 terminations and 23 currently successful courses could be evaluated in the case control study. For significant differences (p thesis projects to the responsible committees. A weakness is the low number of evaluable self-reported drop-outs as well as the overall moderate response rate. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Halden Reactor Project Workshop: Understanding Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1991-01-01

    A Halden Reactor Project Workshop on 'Understanding Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Issues' was held in Halden, Norway, during June 17-18, 1991. The objectives of the workshop were to (1) identify and prioritize the types of technical information that the Halden Project can produce to facilitate the development of man-machine interface guidelines and (2) to identify methods to effectively integrate and disseminate this information to signatory organizations. As a member of the Halden Reactor Project, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested the workshop. This request resulted from the NRC's need for human factors guidelines for the evaluation of advanced instrumentation and controls. The Halden Reactor Project is a cooperative agreement among several countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The US began its association with the Halden Project in 1958 through the Atomic Energy Commission. The project's activities are centered at the Halden heavy-water reactor and its associated man-machine laboratory in Halden, Norway. The research program conducted at Halden consists of studies on fuel performance and computer-based man-machine interfaces

  9. Small Business Voucher CRADA Report: Natural Gas Powered HVAC System for Commercial and Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, Daniel [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mudiraj, Shyam [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Tilghman, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Graham, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Be Power Tech is commercializing BeCool, the first integrated electricity-producing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system using a non-vapor compression cycle (VCC), packaged rooftop HVAC unit that also produces base-load electricity, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. BeCool is a distributed energy resource with energy storage that eliminates the tremendous peak electricity demand associated with commonly used electricity-powered vapor compression air conditioning systems.

  10. Expert Meeting Report: HVAC Fault Detection, DIagnosis, and Repair/Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The concept for the expert meeting described in this report was to bring together most of the stakeholders in the area of FDD, including academic researchers, manufacturers, educators, program managers and implementers, representatives of standards organizations, utilities, HVAC contractors, and home performance contractors to identify the major gaps and to develop ideas about what can be done to capitalize on the residential HVAC efficiency resource.

  11. Expert Meeting Report: HVAC Fault Detection, Diagnosis, and Repair/Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States). Davis Energy Group

    2016-05-01

    The concept for the expert meeting described in this report was to bring together most of the stakeholders in the area of FDD, including academic researchers, manufacturers, educators, program managers and implementers, representatives of standards organizations, utilities, HVAC contractors, and home performance contractors to identify the major gaps and to develop ideas about what can be done to capitalize on the residential HVAC efficiency resource.

  12. Microwave-Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Baggiani, A. and Senesi, S. (2004). Effect of Microwave Radiation on Bacillus subtilis Spores . J. Appl. Microbiol. 97: 1220–1227. Damit, B., Lee, C.N...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0020 MICROWAVE-IRRADIATION-ASSISTED HVAC FILTRATION FOR INACTIVATION OF VIRAL AEROSOLS POSTPRINT Myung-Heui Woo and...12-APR-2011 -- 11-DEC-2011 Microwave Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (POSTPRINT) FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F

  13. Evaluation of sampling methods for Bacillus spore-contaminated HVAC filters

    OpenAIRE

    Calfee, M. Worth; Rose, Laura J.; Tufts, Jenia; Morse, Stephen; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an extraction-based sampling method to two vacuum-based sampling methods (vacuum sock and 37 mm cassette filter) with regards to their ability to recover Bacillus atrophaeus spores (surrogate for Bacillus anthracis) from pleated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters that are typically found in commercial and residential buildings. Electrostatic and mechanical HVAC filters were tested, both without and after loading with dust to 50...

  14. HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in Biotechnology & Drugs Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Broomes, Peter; Dornfeld, David A

    2003-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in the clean room environment of biotechnology and drug development and manufacturing, are extremely energy and water intensive and represent a significant operating cost for these facilities [1]. HVAC systems are also the primary source of environmental emissions for the majority of companies operating within the biotechnology and drugs sector. While the processes used in drug manufacture have negligible environmental impact...

  15. Building occupancy diversity and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zheng; Ghahramani, Ali; Becerik-Gerber, Burcin

    2016-01-01

    Approximately forty percent of total building energy consumption is attributed to HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems that aim to maintain healthy and comfortable indoor environments. An HVAC system is a network with several subsystems, and there exist heat transfer and balance among the zones of a building, as well as heat gains and losses through a building's envelope. Diverse occupancy (diversity in terms of when and how occupants occupy a building) in spaces could result in increase of loads that are not actual demands for an HVAC system, leading into inefficiencies. This paper introduces a framework to quantitatively evaluate the energy implications of occupancy diversity at the building level, where building information modeling is integrated to provide building geometries, HVAC system layouts, and spatial information as inputs for computing potential energy implications if occupancy diversity were to be eliminated. An agglomerate hierarchical clustering-based iterative evaluation algorithm is designed for iteratively eliminating occupancy diversity. Whole building energy simulations for a real-world building, as well as virtual reference buildings demonstrate that the proposed framework could effectively quantify the HVAC system energy efficiency affected by occupancy diversity and the framework is generalizable to different building geometries, layouts, and occupancy diversities. - Highlights: • Analyze relationships between occupancy diversity and HVAC energy efficiency. • Integrate BIM for quantifying energy implications of occupancy diversity. • Demonstrate the effectiveness and generalizability of iterative evaluation algorithm. • Improve agglomerative hierarchical clustering process using heap data structure.

  16. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  17. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring of HVAC Components using Signal Unmixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimpour, Alireza [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Qi, Hairong [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning units (HVAC) are a major electrical energy consumer in buildings. Monitoring of the operation and energy consumption of HVAC would increase the awareness of building owners and maintenance service providers of the condition and quality of performance of these units, enabling conditioned-based maintenance which would help achieving higher energy efficiency. In this paper, a novel non-intrusive load monitoring method based on group constrained non-negative matrix factorization is proposed for monitoring the different components of HVAC unit by only measuring the whole building aggregated power signal. At the first level of this hierarchical approach, power consumption of the building is decomposed to energy consumption of the HVAC unit and all the other electrical devices operating in the building such as lighting and plug loads. Then, the estimated power signal of the HVAC is used for estimating the power consumption profile of the HVAC major electrical loads such as compressors, condenser fans and indoor blower. Experiments conducted on real data collected from a building testbed maintained at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) demonstrate high accuracy on the disaggregation task.

  18. Controlling general projective synchronization of fractional order Rossler systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Shiquan

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to achieve general projective synchronization of two fractional order Rossler systems. First, we construct the fractional order Rossler system's corresponding approximation integer order system. Then, a control method based on a partially linear decomposition and negative feedback of state errors was utilized on the integer order system. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Airside HVAC BESTEST. Adaptation of ASHRAE RP 865 Airside HVAC Equipment Modeling Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140. Volume 1, Cases AE101-AE445

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J. [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States); Kennedy, M. [Mike D. Kennedy, Inc., Townsend, WA (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gall, J. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Knebel, D. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Henninger, R. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Witte, M. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hong, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDowell, T. [Thermal Energy System Specialists, Madison, WI (United States); Yan, D. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhou, X. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2016-03-01

    This report documents a set of diagnostic analytical verification cases for testing the ability of whole building simulation software to model the air distribution side of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These cases complement the unitary equipment cases included in American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs, which test the ability to model the heat-transfer fluid side of HVAC equipment.

  20. Occupancy pattern in office buildings : consequences for HVAC system design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvarsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The main objectives with the work presented in this thesis have been: (a) to contribute to an increased understanding of the consequences that the occupancy pattern can have on the indoor climate and for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system design and operation; and (b) to investigate how typical occupancy patterns can look like in office buildings. The occupancy pattern in an office is a function of the floor layout of the building, and the user organisation(s) occupying it and their way of working. The combination of these two, will decide how the users occupy the building, which in turn is an important design prerequisite/constraint for the HVAC system design process. There are many assessments related to indoor climate and HVAC that involve considerations of the occupancy pattern, reaching from estimates of internal heat and pollution loads to deciding on an appropriate control strategy of HVAC systems, or estimating the energy saving potential with demand controlled ventilation. A few numerical measures have been used to describe different aspects of the occupancy pattern. The zone based occupancy factor (OFz) expresses the ratio between the number of occupied sub-zones/rooms in a zone and the total number of sub-zones/rooms in the zone. OFz does not take the number of people into account, only whether a sub-zone/room is occupied or unoccupied. OFz can be used both to express instantaneous occupancy levels and averages over time. Superscript is used to specify the time, or time period, that the measure refers to. For instance, 06 18,wd OFz means the average OFz between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. on working days, while the 95th percentile of OFz6{sub 1}8,wd , means the 95th percentile of all instantaneous values (one or five minute averages in the case studies) of OFz that have occurred during the same time period. The utilisation rate (UR) expresses the fraction of time that a room is occupied, within a specific time period. It is important to

  1. Construction project investment control model based on instant information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-tong

    2006-01-01

    Change of construction conditions always influences project investment by causing the loss of construction work time and extending the duration. To resolve such problem as difficult dynamic control in work construction plan, this article presents a concept of instant optimization by ways of adjustment operation time of each working procedure to minimize investment change. Based on this concept, its mathematical model is established and a strict mathematical justification is performed. An instant optimization model takes advantage of instant information in the construction process to duly complete adjustment of construction; thus we maximize cost efficiency of project investment.

  2. The step from the project control to long-distance control; Von der Projekt- zur Fernkontrolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaelin, W. [Ingenieurbuero Werner Kaelin, Schwyz (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 8 of the anthology about building control the extension from project control to long-distance control is described. The following aspects are discussed: guidelines (operating concept, task anthology), project (implementation, control, documentation), realisation (initiation, example), operation (regional co-operation, characteristic numbers). (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 8 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control ist dem Ausbau von der Projekt- zur Fernkontrolle gewidmet. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themen angesprochen: Vorgaben (Betriebskonzept, Pflichtenheft), Projekt (Umsetzung, Kontrolle, Dokumentation), Ausfuehrung (Inbetriebsetzung, Beispiel); Betrieb (regionaler Zusammenschluss, Kennzahlen). (BWI)

  3. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  4. QA lessons learned for parameter control from the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of lessons learned from experiences on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WJPP) Project in implementation of quality assurance controls surrounding inputs for performance assessment analysis. Since the performance assessment (PA) process is inherent in compliance determination for any waste repository, these lessons-learned are intended to be useful to investigators, analysts, and Quality Assurance (QA) practitioners working on high level waste disposal projects. On the WIPP Project, PA analyses for regulatory-compliance determination utilized several inter-related computer programs (codes) that mathematically modeled phenomena such as radionuclide release, retardation, and transport. The input information for those codes are the parameters that are the subject of this paper. Parameters were maintained in a computer database, which was then queried electronically by the PA codes whenever input was needed as the analyses were run

  5. Tools for a simulation supported commissioning of the automation of HVAC plants. Hardware-in-the-loop in building automation; Werkzeuge fuer eine simulationsgestuetzte Inbetriebnahme der Automation von RLT- Anlagen. Hardware-in-the-Loop in der Gebaeudeautomation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Andreas; Sokollik, Frank [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany). Fachbereich Informatik und Kommunikationssysteme

    2012-07-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) is a method for testing and validating technical automation solutions based on virtual processes in a simulation environment. Applied to the automation of the interior air supply systems, preceded commissioning tests of the controller at a simulated system can be performed. These tests can be used for example to find logic errors in the program development, or to adjust the parameters of a controller. The adjustment of the parameters can be performed independent of the seasons by modifying the ambient climatic conditions. The parameters of the plants can be tested under dynamic conditions. The control mode can be visualized by starting up of load conditions at dynamic HVAC components and optimized if necessary. Within BMBF funded projects, a HiL solution was developed in a.NET environment. The coupling of simulation and control takes place via the bus systems CAN and BACnet. The elements of the simulation of air conditioners are implemented object-oriented in the programming language C, and are based on the solution of dynamic mass and energy balances. The features of HIL are implemented in a multi-client architecture. This includes primarily the simulation and communication. Other feature are implemented: import of virtual systems from a CAE system, adjustment of parameters of the simulation using structured sets of parameters, features for a distributed simulation of complex systems in the network, a tool for the dimensioning of controllers, chart and visualization features.

  6. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  7. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TO SELECTED PORTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR HVAC SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, N.

    2004-01-01

    A design requirement probability of 0.01 or less in a 4-hour period ensures that the nuclear heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in the primary confinement areas of the Dry Transfer Facilities (DTFs) and Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) is working during a Category 1 drop event involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) assemblies (BSC 2004a , Section 5.1.1.48). This corresponds to an hourly HVAC failure rate of 2.5E-3 per hour or less, which is contributed to by two dominant causes: equipment failure and loss of electrical power. Meeting this minimum threshold ensures that a Category 1 initiating event followed by the failure of HVAC is a Category 2 event sequence. The two causes for the loss of electrical power include the loss of offsite power and the loss of onsite power distribution. Thus, in order to meet the threshold requirement aforementioned, the failure rate of mechanical equipment, loss of offsite power, and loss of onsite power distribution must be less than or equal to 2.5E-3 per hour for the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF. The loss of offsite power occurs at a frequency of 1.1E-5 per hour (BSC 2004a, Section 5.1.1.48). The purpose of this analysis is to determine the probability of occurrence of the unavailability of the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF due to loss of electrical power. In addition, this analysis provides insights on the contribution to the unavailability of the HVAC system due to equipment failure. The scope of this analysis is limited to finding the frequency of loss of electrical power to the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF

  8. Experiential learning in control systems laboratories and engineering project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Rebecca Marie

    2015, a panel of 40 control systems faculty members, from a variety of institutions, completed a multi-round Delphi survey in order to bring them toward consensus on the common aspects of their laboratories. The following winter, 45 additional faculty members and practitioners from the control systems community completed a follow-up survey to gather feedback on the results of the Delphi survey. During the Delphi study, the panelists identified 15 laboratory objectives, 26 concepts, and 15 components that were common in their laboratories. Then in both the Delphi survey and follow-up survey each participant rated the importance of each of these items. While the average ratings differed slightly between the two groups, the order of each set of items was compared with two different tests and the order was found to be similar. Some of the common and important learning objectives include connecting theory to what is implemented and observed in the laboratory, designing controllers, and modeling and simulating systems. The most common component in both groups was Math-Works software. Some of the common concepts include block diagrams, stability, and PID control. Defining common aspects of undergraduate control systems laboratories enables common development, detailed comparisons, and simplified adaptation of equipment and experiments between campuses and programs. Throughout an undergraduate program in engineering, there are multiple opportunities for hands-on laboratory experiences that are related to course content. However, a similarly immersive experience for project management graduate students is harder to incorporate for all students in a course at once. This study explores an experiential learning opportunity for graduate students in engineering management or project management programs. The project management students enroll in a project management course. Undergraduate students interested in working on a project with a real customer enroll in a different projects

  9. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Project summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    . The two case studies (Madeira, Portugal and Co. Donegal, Ireland) revealed that sometimes theleast cost and most attractive option is change in the operating strategy of the power system. This allowed that further wind energy can be integrated at competitive cost in the Madeira power system. In Co....... Donegal the options for pumped storage are goodcombined with good wind resources. Unfortunately the grid is weak. The least cost option for the feeder studied is either grid reinforcement or a power control system based on pumped storage if rather large amounts of wind energy are to be absorbed...... by thepower system. The cost estimates for the two options are in the same range. The current report is a summary of the work done in the project 'Power Control for Wind Turbines in Weak Grids'. The project has been partly funded by EU under contractJOR3-CT95-0067....

  10. Islamic Republic of Iran: Bushehr NPP. Project control. Annex 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboury

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. After almost 17 years of delay due to revolution and war, the work on BNPP-1 resumed. The new plant will be a combination of German and Russian designs and as such will present many unique technical and managerial problems. These will be accentuated by the fact that Iranian nuclear personnel are relatively young and inexperienced. In spite of hostile environmental conditions at the site, the equipment, structures and documentation have been relatively well presented. (author)

  11. Quality control of radioactive waste disposal container for borehole project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Azhar Azmi; Ilham Mukhriz Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explained quality control of radioactive disposal container for the borehole project. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) is one of the quality tool used for evaluating the product. The disposal container is made of 316L stainless steel. The suitable NDT method for this object is radiography, ultrasonic, penetrant and eddy current testing. This container will be filled with radioactive capsules and cement mortar is grouted to fill the gap. The results of NDT measurements are explained and discussed. (author)

  12. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  13. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF sound and low-frequency (LF sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant′s probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave

  14. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouharmajd, Farhad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad R; Yazdchi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans) uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC) method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF) sound and low-frequency (LF) sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI) of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant's probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave bands exceed 65

  15. The Halden Reactor Project workshop meeting on control room development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miberg, Ann Britt; Green, Marie; Haukenes, Hanne; Larsen, Marit; Seim, Lars Aage; Veland, Oeystein

    1999-03-01

    The 'Control Room Development' workshop was organised in. Halden, November 5-6, 1998. The purpose of the workshop was to bring forward recommendations for the future use of HAMMLAB with respect to control room development. The workshop comprised thirteen presentations summarising current issues and status in control room development projects and related projects. Following the presentations, five working groups were formed. The purpose of the working groups was to establish a set of recommendations for the future use of HAMMLAB. Each working group developed a set of recommendations. The outcomes of the working groups' discussions were summarised in plenum by the working group chairs. During the workshop, all participants excluding the Halden Project staff were asked to fill in a questionnaire indicating which research topics they found most interesting to pursue in future HAMMLAB research. The purpose of this report is to summarise the workshop participants' presentations, the working groups' discussions, and the recommendations given by the workshop participants concerning the future use of HAMMLAB (author) (ml)

  16. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishler, B

    2011-03-18

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  17. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishler, B.

    2011-01-01

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  18. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  19. 23 CFR 751.23 - Concurrent junkyard control and right-of-way projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-way projects. The State is encouraged to coordinate junkyard control and highway right-of-way projects. Expenses incurred in furtherance of concurrent projects shall be prorated between projects. ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concurrent junkyard control and right-of-way projects...

  20. The effects of HVAC system design and operation on radon entry into school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.A.; Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in schools vary considerably and tend to have a greater impact on pressure differentials--and consequently radon levels--than do heating and air-conditioning systems in houses. If the HVAC system induces a negative pressure relative to the subslab area, radon can be pulled into the building. If the HVAC system pressurizes the building, it can prevent radon entry as long as the fan is running. However, school HVAC systems are normally set back or turned off on evenings and weekends and, even if the HVAC system pressurizes the school during operation, indoor radon levels may build up during setback periods. In this paper many of the historical methods utilized to deliver ventilation air (outdoor air) over the past 40 years are summarized. In addition, for each type of system presented, the possible impact the ventilation system might be expected to have (positive or negative) on the pressure of the building envelope (and subsequent radon levels in the building) is discussed

  1. Review on the HVAC System Modeling Types and the Shortcomings of Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Z. Homod

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system is a prominent topic because of its relationship with energy savings and environmental, economical, and technological issues. The modeling of the HVAC system is concerned with the indoor thermal sensation, which is related to the modeling of building, air handling unit (AHU equipments, and indoor thermal processes. Until now, many HVAC system modeling approaches are made available, and the techniques have become quite mature. But there are some shortcomings in application and integration methods for the different types of the HVAC model. The application and integration processes will act to accumulate the defective characteristics for both AHU equipments and building models such as nonlinear, pure lag time, high thermal inertia, uncertain disturbance factors, large-scale systems, and constraints. This paper shows types of the HVAC model and the advantages and disadvantages for each application of them, and it finds out that the gray-box type is the best one to represent the indoor thermal comfort. But its application fails at the integration method where its response deviated to unreal behavior.

  2. Economic Optimal HVAC Design for Hybrid GEOTABS Buildings and CO2 Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Picard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early design phase of a building, the task of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC engineer is to propose an appropriate HVAC system for a given building. This system should provide thermal comfort to the building occupants at all time, meet the building owner’s specific requirements, and have minimal investment, running, maintenance and replacement costs (i.e., the total cost and energy use or environmental impact. Calculating these different aspects is highly time-consuming and the HVAC engineer will therefore only be able to compare a (very limited number of alternatives leading to suboptimal designs. This study presents therefore a Python tool that automates the generation of all possible scenarios for given thermal power profiles and energy load and a given database of HVAC components. The tool sizes each scenario properly, computes its present total cost (PC and the total CO 2 emissions associated with the building energy use. Finally, the different scenarios can be searched and classified to pick the most appropriate scenario. The tool uses static calculations based on standards, manufacturer data and basic assumptions similar to those made by engineers in the early design phase. The current version of the tool is further focused on hybrid GEOTABS building, which combines a GEOthermal heat pump with a Thermally Activated System (TABS. It should further be noted that the tool optimizes the HVAC system but not the building envelope, while, ideally, both should be simultaneously optimized.

  3. Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Daniel P

    2009-01-12

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm

  4. Validation of the criteria for initiating the cleaning of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ductwork under real conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jacques; Marchand, Geneviève; Cloutier, Yves; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    Dust accumulation in the components of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is a potential source of contaminants. To date, very little information is available on recognized methods for assessing dust buildup in these systems. The few existing methods are either objective in nature, involving numerical values, or subjective in nature, based on experts' judgments. An earlier project aimed at assessing different methods of sampling dust in ducts was carried out in the laboratories of the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST). This laboratory study showed that all the sampling methods were practicable, provided that a specific surface-dust cleaning initiation criterion was used for each method. However, these conclusions were reached on the basis of ideal conditions in a laboratory using a reference dust. The objective of this present study was to validate these laboratory results in the field. To this end, the laboratory sampling templates were replicated in real ducts and the three sampling methods (the IRSST method, the method of the U.S. organization National Air Duct Cleaner Association [NADCA] and that of the French organization Association pour la Prévention et l'Étude de la Contamination [ASPEC]) were used simultaneously in a statistically representative number of systems. The air return and supply ducts were also compared. Cleaning initiation criteria under real conditions were found to be 6.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the IRSST method, 2.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the NADCA method, and 23 mg/100 cm(2) using the ASPEC method. In the laboratory study, the criteria using the same methods were 6.0 for the IRSST method, 2.0 for the NADCA method, and 3.0 for the ASPEC method. The laboratory criteria for the IRSST and NADCA methods were therefore validated in the field. The ASPEC criterion was the only one to change. The ASPEC method therefore allows for the most accurate evaluation of dust accumulation in HVAC

  5. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONTROL DECISION REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    This control decision addresses the Knock-Out Pot (KOP) Disposition KOP Processing System (KPS) conceptual design. The KPS functions to (1) retrieve KOP material from canisters, (2) remove particles less than 600 (micro)m in size and low density materials from the KOP material, (3) load the KOP material into Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) baskets, and (4) stage the MCO baskets for subsequent loading into MCOs. Hazard and accident analyses of the KPS conceptual design have been performed to incorporate safety into the design process. The hazard analysis is documented in PRC-STP-00098, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Project Conceptual Design Hazard Analysis. The accident analysis is documented in PRC-STP-CN-N-00167, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Sub-Project Canister Over Lift Accident Analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, and analyses performed in support of MCO transportation and MCO processing and storage activities at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and Canister Storage Building (CSB), control decision meetings were held to determine the controls required to protect onsite and offsite receptors and facility workers. At the conceptual design stage, these controls are primarily defined by their safety functions. Safety significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that could provide the identified safety functions have been selected for the conceptual design. It is anticipated that some safety SSCs identified herein will be reclassified based on hazard and accident analyses performed in support of preliminary and detailed design.

  6. Impact of water control projects on fisheries resources in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Monirul Qader; Ericksen, Neil J.

    1996-07-01

    Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15 20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.

  7. Mine subsidence control projects associated with solid waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Pennsylvania environmental regulations require applicant's for solid waste disposal permits to provide information regarding the extent of deep mining under the proposed site, evaluations of the maximum subsidence potential, and designs of measures to mitigate potential subsidence impact on the facility. This paper presents three case histories of deep mine subsidence control projects at solid waste disposal facilities. Each case history presents site specific mine grouting project data summaries which include evaluations of the subsurface conditions from drilling, mine void volume calculations, grout mix designs, grouting procedures and techniques, as well as grout coverage and extent of mine void filling evaluations. The case studies described utilized basic gravity grouting techniques to fill the mine voids and fractured strata over the collapsed portions of the deep mines. Grout mixtures were designed to achieve compressive strengths suitable for preventing future mine subsidence while maintaining high flow characteristics to penetrate fractured strata. Verification drilling and coring was performed in the grouted areas to determine the extent of grout coverage and obtain samples of the in-place grout for compression testing. The case histories presented in this report demonstrate an efficient and cost effective technique for mine subsidence control projects

  8. The project manager's desk reference: project planning, schedulding, evaluation, control, systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, James P

    2007-01-01

    In this Third Edition of The Project Manager's Desk Reference, top project management consultant James Lewis arms you with today's most comprehensive and understandable project management resources...

  9. Work plan for transition of SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to transfer operating and maintenance responsibility for the 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Westinghouse Hanford Company. This work plan defines the tasks required for a successful turnover. It identifies DACS-1 transition, deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, cost, and schedule. The transition plan will discuss all required hardware, software, documentation, maintenance, operations, and training for use at Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The transfer of responsibilities for DACS-1 to WHC is contingent on final approval of applicable Acceptance for Beneficial Use documentation by Waste Tank Operations. The DACS-1 was designed to provide data monitoring, display, and storage for Tank 241-SY-101. The DACS-1 also provides alarm and control of all the hydrogen mitigation testing systems, as well as ancillary systems and equipment (HVAC, UPS, etc.) required to achieve safe and reliable operation of the testing systems in the tank

  10. Lessons learned in process control at the Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.G.

    1989-12-01

    This report provides a list of those findings particularly relevant to regulatory authorities that can be derived from the research and development activities in computerized process control conducted at the Halden Reactor Project. The report was prepared by a staff member of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission working at Halden. It identifies those results that may be of use to regulatory organizations in three main areas: as support for new requirements, as part of regulatory evaluations of the acceptability of new methods and techniques, and in exploratory research and development of new approaches to improve operator performance. More than 200 findings arranged in nine major categories are presented. The findings were culled from Halden Reactor Project documents, which are listed in the report

  11. A complete geothermal energy cycle with heat pumps and hybrid HVAC systems for the city of Denizli, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Kilkis, I.B. [Heatway Radiant Floors and Snowmelting, Springfield, MO (United States)]|[Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses general aspects of maximizing geofluid effectiveness by employing hybrid cycle plants coupled to district HVAC systems. Alternative and new techniques in space heating and cooling are also discussed. A case study is presented for the district HVAC system for the city of Denizli in Turkey. Results are compared with an open-cycle, open-loop system.

  12. Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools To Balance the Needs for Indoor Air Quality, Energy Conservation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.; Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    Although poor air quality in a school can have multiple causes, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role. Suggestions that architects, facilities managers, school board members, and administrators can use in selecting HVAC systems are discussed. Focus is on the performance criteria for classroom systems, and…

  13. Energy Renovations: Volume 14: HVAC - A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-29

    This report was prepared by PNNL for DOE's Building America program and is intended as a guide that energy performance contractors can share with homeowners to describe various energy-efficient options for heating, cooling, and ventilating existing homes. The report provides descriptions of many common and not-so-common HVAC systems, including their advantages and disadvantages, efficiency ranges and characteristics of high-performance models, typical costs, and climate considerations. The report also provides decision trees and tables of useful information for homeowners who are making decisions about adding, replacing, or upgrading existing HVAC equipment in their homes. Information regarding home energy performance assessments (audits) and combustion safety issues when replacing HVAC equipment are also provided.

  14. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  15. HVAC in sustainable office buildings a bridge between owners and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hovorka, Frank; Kurnitski, Jarek; Litiu, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook aims to build a bridge between the real estate community and the engineering community. It explains the challenges of property valuation based on real data and how the sustainability and HVAC-technology can have an impact on value. It also gathers the latest HVAC- and other technologies used in sustainable buildings and gives some real case study examples. But maybe the most important part in terms of improved communication between the owners and engineers is the list of questions to be asked during the life time of a building. It is impossible to give all the right answers in this guidebook, but we will raise some pertinent questions. As climates and cultures are different, as well as existing building types and energy production, the same solutions do not solve problems universally. This guidebook is aimed for the owners and architects as well as engineers. It doesn’t require deep technical knowhow of HVAC-systems or real estate valuation.

  16. Transient pattern analysis for fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Yang, Hoon-Cheol; Zaheer-uddin, M.; Ahn, Byung-Cheon

    2005-01-01

    Modern building HVAC systems are complex and consist of a large number of interconnected sub-systems and components. In the event of a fault, it becomes very difficult for the operator to locate and isolate the faulty component in such large systems using conventional fault detection methods. In this study, transient pattern analysis is explored as a tool for fault detection and diagnosis of an HVAC system. Several tests involving different fault replications were conducted in an environmental chamber test facility. The results show that the evolution of fault residuals forms clear and distinct patterns that can be used to isolate faults. It was found that the time needed to reach steady state for a typical building HVAC system is at least 50-60 min. This means incorrect diagnosis of faults can happen during online monitoring if the transient pattern responses are not considered in the fault detection and diagnosis analysis

  17. Assessment of auditory impression of the coolness and warmness of automotive HVAC noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Hotehama, Takuya; Kamiya, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Noise induced by a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a vehicle is an important factor that affects the comfort of the interior of a car cabin. Much effort has been devoted to reduce noise levels, however, there is a need for a new sound design that addresses the noise problem from a different point of view. In this study, focusing on the auditory impression of automotive HVAC noise concerning coolness and warmness, psychoacoustical listening tests were performed using a paired comparison technique under various conditions of room temperature. Five stimuli were synthesized by stretching the spectral envelopes of recorded automotive HVAC noise to assess the effect of the spectral centroid, and were presented to normal-hearing subjects. Results show that the spectral centroid significantly affects the auditory impression concerning coolness and warmness; a higher spectral centroid induces a cooler auditory impression regardless of the room temperature.

  18. Building Energy Management Systems BEMS, German contribution to the IEA research projects Annex 16 and 17. Building Energy Management System BEMS; deutscher Beitrag zu den IEA-Forschungsvorhaben Annex 16 und 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H.; Stephan, W.; Madjidi, M. (Univ. Stuttgart, IKE, Abt. HLK (Germany)); Brendel, T.; Schneider, A. (Ingenieurbuero Dr. Brendel, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Ast, H.; Kellner, H. (IFB, Dr. R. Braschel GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    As part of the IEA project Annex 16 and 17 Germany carries out the project Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS). With digital control systems energetic and low-cost operation of space hvac systems can be attained. The project aims at abolishing impediments to efficient use of energy. Potential savings are shown for three examples: A conventional heating system for an office building, a VAV system (circulating air, heating, cooling, washer humidifcation) for an office building and VAV systems (FWRG, heating, cooling, steam humidification) for an office building in compact design. (BWI).

  19. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvan, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: (1) proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; (2) proper operation of all display data on the operators' console; (3) proper operation of all required alarms; and (4) proper operation of all required interlocks. This test only verifies the proper operation of the Westinghouse control configuration (or program). It will not be responsible for verifying proper operation of the MICON hardware or operating software. Neither does it test any of the B610 instrument. The MICON hardware and software has been tested as part of the equipment procurement. Instrumentation and wiring installed under project B620 will be tested under a separate functional test. In some cases, precise transmitter ranges, alarm setpoints, and controller tuning parameters are not available at this time. Therefore, approximate values are used during the test. This should not affect the proper operation of the configuration or the validity of this test. Final values will be assigned during operability testing

  20. Simulation of slag control for the Plasma Hearth Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters. G.G.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the Plasma Hearth Project is to stabilize alpha-emitting radionuclides in a vitreous slag and to reduce the effective storage volume of actinide-containing waste for long-term burial. The actinides have been shown to partition into the vitreous slag phase of the melt. The slag composition may be changed by adding glass-former elements to ensure that this removable slag has the most desired physical and chemical properties for long-term burial. A data acquisition and control system has been designed to regulate the composition of five elements in the slag

  1. Secure digital communication using controlled projective synchronisation of chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, C.Y.; Xu Daolin

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to chaos communication is proposed to encrypt digital information using controlled projective synchronisation. The scheme encrypts a binary sequence by manipulating the scaling feature of synchronisation from the coupled system. The transmitted signal therefore embeds only a single set of statistical properties. This prevents cryptanalysts from breaking the chaotic encryption scheme by using characteristic cryptanalysis that aims to detect switching of statistical properties in the intercepted information carrier signal. Pseudo-random switching key is incorporated into the scheme to masked out the deterministic nature of the underlying coupled system

  2. Selecting HVAC Systems to Achieve Comfortable and Cost-effective Residential Net-Zero Energy Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Skye, Harrison M; Domanski, Piotr A

    2018-02-15

    HVAC is responsible for the largest share of energy use in residential buildings and plays an important role in broader implementation of net-zero energy building (NZEB). This study investigated the energy, comfort and economic performance of commercially-available HVAC technologies for a residential NZEB. An experimentally-validated model was used to evaluate ventilation, dehumidification, and heat pump options for the NZEB in the mixed-humid climate zone. Ventilation options were compared to mechanical ventilation without recovery; a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) and energy recovery ventilator (ERV) respectively reduced the HVAC energy by 13.5 % and 17.4 % and reduced the building energy by 7.5 % and 9.7 %. There was no significant difference in thermal comfort between the ventilation options. Dehumidification options were compared to an air-source heat pump (ASHP) with a separate dehumidifier; the ASHP with dedicated dehumidification reduced the HVAC energy by 7.3 % and the building energy by 3.9 %. The ASHP-only option (without dedicated dehumidification) reduced the initial investment but provided the worst comfort due to high humidity levels. Finally, ground-source heat pump (GSHP) alternatives were compared to the ASHP; the GSHP with two and three boreholes reduced the HVAC energy by 26.0 % and 29.2 % and the building energy by 13.1 % and 14.7 %. The economics of each HVAC configuration was analyzed using installation cost data and two electricity price structures. The GSHPs with the ERV and dedicated dehumidification provided the highest energy savings and good comfort, but were the most expensive. The ASHP with dedicated dehumidification and the ERV (or HRV) provided reasonable payback periods.

  3. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  4. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1: Volume 7, Project design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This Project Design Criteria document for the WRAP facility at the Hanford Site is presented within a systems format. The WRAP Module 1 facility has been categorized into eight (8) engineering systems for design purposes. These systems include: receiving, shipping and storage, nondestructive assay/nondestructive examination (NDA/NDE), waste process, internal transportation, building, heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), process control, and utilities. Within each system section of this document, the system-specific requirements are identified. The scope of the system is defined, the design goals are identified and the functional requirements are detailed

  5. Global optimization for overall HVAC systems - Part I problem formulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lu; Cai Wenjian; Chai, Y.S.; Xie Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the global optimization technologies for overall heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The objective function of global optimization and constraints are formulated based on mathematical models of the major components. All these models are associated with power consumption components and heat exchangers for transferring cooling load. The characteristics of all the major components are briefly introduced by models, and the interactions between them are analyzed and discussed to show the complications of the problem. According to the characteristics of the operating components, the complicated original optimization problem for overall HVAC systems is transformed and simplified into a compact form ready for optimization

  6. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  7. Simplified frequency-dependent formulae for series-impedance matrices of single-core HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies that are ......The installation of HVAC underground cables became more common in recent years, a trend expected to continue in the future. Underground cables are more complex than overhead lines and the calculation of their resistance and reactance can be challenging and time consuming for frequencies...

  8. Power Flow Analysis of HVAC and HVDC Transmission Systems for Offshore WindParks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Castro, Rui

    2009-01-01

    As the onshore wind resource is running shorter, wind power promoters are paying attention to the offshore resources. As in most cases there is no load offshore, wind power must be transmitted to the main land. To do so, two options are available: HVAC and HVDC transmission systems. In this paper...... that HVAC solution is limited by the distance to shore and by the wind transmitted power. HVDC options do not show these limitations, but are more expensive and more delicate to deal with, because there is a lack of operational experience, so far....

  9. Cost control and risk mitigation of major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caddy, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper and presentation, the four major types of estimates will be discussed, i.e., capacity factored, equipment factored, semi-detailed and detailed. Key relationships between particular portions of estimates will be discussed such as the relationship between direct field labor and indirect field costs. Having set the basis for developing a project's cost through estimating, the paper will then list and discuss the fifteen key steps which must be followed to control the costs of a project. Next, the subject of allowances and contingency will be discussed and defined and the differences between the two will be highlighted. Having established exactly what contingency is, the subject of risk analysis through RANGE estimating will be discussed. The methods used to establish a precise contingency and probability of an over/under run will be discussed. Finally, the paper will discuss the methods by which a project manager, owner or contractor can mitigate risks; that is to eliminate, transfer or minimize their effect

  10. Optimal control of quantum systems: a projection approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-J.; Hwang, C.-C.; Liao, T.-L.; Chou, G.-L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal control of quantum systems. The controlled quantum systems are described by the probability-density-matrix-based Liouville-von Neumann equation. Using projection operators, the states of the quantum system are decomposed into two sub-spaces, namely the 'main state' space and the 'remaining state' space. Since the control energy is limited, a solution for optimizing the external control force is proposed in which the main state is brought to the desired main state at a certain target time, while the population of the remaining state is simultaneously suppressed in order to diminish its effects on the final population of the main state. The optimization problem is formulated by maximizing a general cost functional of states and control force. An efficient algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, using the hydrogen fluoride (HF) molecular population transfer problem as an illustrative example, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for a quantum system initially in a mixed state or in a pure state is investigated through numerical simulations

  11. Energy demand and thermal comfort of HVAC systems with thermally activated building systems as a function of user profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałaszyńska, Katarzyna; Bandurski, Karol; Porowski, Mieczysław

    2017-11-01

    Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) are a way to use building structure as a thermal energy storage. As a result, renewable energy sources may be used more efficiently. The paper presents numerical analysis of a HVAC system with TABS energy demand and indoor thermal comfort of a representative room in a non-residential building (governmental, commercial, educational). The purpose of analysis is to investigate the influence of a user profile on system performance. The time span of the analysis is one year - a typical meteorological year. The model was prepared using a generally accepted simulation tool - TRNSYS 17. The results help to better understand the interaction of a user profile with TABS. Therefore they are important for the development of optimal control algorithms for energy efficient buildings equipped with such systems.

  12. Energy demand and thermal comfort of HVAC systems with thermally activated building systems as a function of user profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pałaszyńska Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS are a way to use building structure as a thermal energy storage. As a result, renewable energy sources may be used more efficiently. The paper presents numerical analysis of a HVAC system with TABS energy demand and indoor thermal comfort of a representative room in a non-residential building (governmental, commercial, educational. The purpose of analysis is to investigate the influence of a user profile on system performance. The time span of the analysis is one year – a typical meteorological year. The model was prepared using a generally accepted simulation tool – TRNSYS 17. The results help to better understand the interaction of a user profile with TABS. Therefore they are important for the development of optimal control algorithms for energy efficient buildings equipped with such systems.

  13. PROJECT PLANNING AND CONTROLLING GEDUNG RUSUNAWA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA DENGAN MS.PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu proyek konstruksi selalu dimulai dengan proses perencanaan proyek (Project planning hingga pengendalian proyek (Project controlling Apabila terjadi perencanaan yang tidak matang dan pengendalian proyek yang kurang efektif, maka akan mengakibatkan penyimpangan dalam proyek tersebut seperti proyek selesai lebih cepat ataupun keterlambatan proyek.. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perencanaan dan pengendalian proyek gedung Rusunawa Universitas Indonesia (asrama UI Jakarta Selatan dengan menggunakan bantuan program Microsoft Project. Berdasarkan kontrak, proyek ini dimulai pada tanggal 4 Desember 2014 s/d 10 Juli 2015. Dilihat dari hasil analisa kurva S Rencana dan kurva S aktual sampai dengan tanggal 31 Mei 2015, kurva S Aktual berada dibawah kurva S Rencana, dimana pada minggu ke-9 s/d minggu ke -35 proyek mengalami keterlambatan sebesar 18%, yaitu terlambat 10 hari dari rencana. Namun, dengan dilakukannya percepatan jadwal pada proyek ini dengan memperpendek durasi dan menambah tenaga kerja, maka penyelesaian proyek Rusunawa UI Jakarta Selatan ini masih dapat diselesaikan tepat waktu dan sesuai dengan jadwal yang telah ditentukan.

  14. The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor dismantling project. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomii, Hiroyuki; Seiki, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    In the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling project, radiation control was performed properly with routine and special monitoring to keep the occupational safety and to collect data necessary for future dismantling of nuclear facilities. This report describes a summary of radiation control in the dismantling activities and some results of parametric analysis on dose equivalent evaluation, and introduces the following knowledge on radiological protection effectiveness of the dismantling systems applied in the project. a) Use of remote dismantling systems was effective in reducing equivalent workplace exposure. b) Utilization of existing facilities as radiation shield or radioactivity containment was effective in reducing workplace exposure, and also in increasing work efficiency. c) Use of underwater cutting systems was useful to minimize air contamination, and to reduce the dose equivalent rate in the working area. d) In the planning of dismantling, it is necessary to optimize the radiation protection by analyzing dismantling work procedures and evaluating radiological features of the dismantling systems applied, including additional work which the systems require brought from such activities. (author)

  15. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  16. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.H.; Oji, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization ampersand Consolidation (TFM ampersand C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM ampersand C Project also provides for a new replacement R ampersand D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H

  17. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA's Implementation of the Display System Replacement Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...) implementation of the Display System Replacement (DSR) project. DSR, which replaces the controllers' workstations and other equipment in the nation's en route centers, is one of FAA's major projects under the air traffic control modernization program...

  18. Regulatory Framework for Controlling the Research Reactor Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melani, Ai; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    Decommissioning is one of important stages in construction and operation of research reactors. Currently, there are three research reactors operating in Indonesia. These reactors are operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). The age of the three research reactors varies from 22 to 45 years since the reactors reached their first criticality. Regulatory control of the three reactors is conducted by the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Controlling the reactors is carried out based on the Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy, Government Regulations and BAPETEN Chairman Decrees concerning the nuclear safety, security and safeguards. Nevertheless, BAPETEN still lack of the regulation, especially for controlling the decommissioning project. Therefore, in the near future BAPETEN has to prepare the regulations for decommissioning, particularly to anticipate the decommissioning of the oldest research reactors, which probably will be done in the next ten years. In this papers author give a list of regulations should be prepared by BAPETEN for the decommissioning stage of research reactor in Indonesia based on the international regulatory practice

  19. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 14 - HVAC. A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, Theresa L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, Marye G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hand, James R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, Pat M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This guide, which is part of a series of Best Practices guides produced by DOE’s Building America program, describes ways homeowners can reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort, health, and safety of their homes by upgrading their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

  20. Study on the Operating Strategy of HVAC Systems for Nuclear Decommissioning Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-hwan; Han, Sung-heum; Lee, Jae-gon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    According as Kori nuclear power plant unit 1 was determined to be defueled in 2017, various studies on nuclear plant decommissioning have been performed. In nuclear decommissioning plant, HVAC systems with large fan and electric coil have to be operated for long periods of time to support various types of work from defueled phase to final dismantling phase. So, in view of safety and utility costs, their overall operating strategy need to be established prior to defueled phase. This study presents HVAC system operating strategy at each decommissioning phase, that is, defueled plant operating phase, SSCs(systems, structures, components) decontamination and dismantling phases. In defueled plant operating phase, all fuel assemblies in reactor vessel are transferred to spent fuel pool(SFP) permanently. In defueled plant operation phase, reduction of the operating system trains is more practicable than the introduction of new HVAC components with reduced capacity. And, based on the result of the accident analyses for this phase, HVAC design bases such as MCR habitability requirement can be mitigated. According to these results, associated SSCs also can be downgraded. In similar approach, at each phase of plant decommissioning, proper inside design conditions and operating strategies should be re-established.

  1. Energy Performance and CO2 Emissions of HVAC Systems in Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Al-Waked

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy performance of buildings has attracted much attention among building physicists and engineers worldwide. The effects of building heating; ventilation; and air conditioning (HVAC systems’ design upgrade on the building energy performance are the focus of the current study. The adopted HVAC system consisted of chilled ceiling and chilled beam systems served by a centrifugal water chiller. An energy simulation study was undertaken in accordance with the national Australian built environment rating system-rules for collecting and using data. A three-dimensional simulation study was carried out utilizing the virtual environment-integrated environmental solutions software. Results from the current study have shown the importance of utilizing energy-efficient HVAC systems and HVAC strategies for achieving a high building energy star rating. Recommended strategies in order to achieve the nominated star rating; as predicted by the simulation analysis; were presented. Moreover; the effects of solar radiation inside the building atrium were significant; which cannot be overcome by simply installing a low shading coefficient glazing type at the atrium skylight. In addition to providing chilled ceiling technology; a high efficiency chiller and low energy lighting; it is recommended that the building be well tuned during the commissioning period. The current approach could be extended to accommodate higher energy ratings of commercial buildings at different locations worldwide.

  2. Integrated Simulation for HVAC Performance Prediction: State-of-the-Art Illustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Clarke, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the current state-of-the-art in integrated building simulation for performance prediction of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The ESP-r system is used as an example where integrated simulation is a core philosophy behind the development. The

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

  4. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition and Student Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David

    This package contains teacher and student editions of a residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) course of study. The teacher edition contains information on the following: using the publication; national competencies; competency profile; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, equipment, and…

  5. Evaluation of the ultimate pressure capacity of rectangular HVAC ducts for nuclear pwoer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    Typical Category I HVAC ducts in a nuclear plant must be designed for loads and load combinations including positive and negative pressure loads which are generated due to the normal operation and postulated accident conditions. These pressure loads most often govern the design of the HVAC ducts. Structural design criteria are presently based on the AISI Code which limits the duct panel width-to-thickness ratio to a maximum of 500 and the maximum height-to-thickness ratio to 200, unless it can be shown by structural tests that larger ratios can be used. Test Programs performed on rectangular HVAC ducts subjected to vacumm loads have substantiated the use of ducts having panel width to thickness ratios of up to 1600. The results of the test programs were subsequently incorporated into the design through a more rational analytical design method which was developed from and correlates well with the test results. The purpose of this paper is to present the analytical design method and its correlation with the test results. Simple formulae for the design of rectangular HVAC ducts are presented. Lower bound values of duct sheet, and stiffener ultimate loads are derived, and correlated with recent test results. Analytically predicted ultimate pressures are also compared with other available duct test data

  6. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  7. Comparison of co-simulation approaches for building and HVAC/R system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Wetter, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Jiang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Appraisal of modern performance-based energy codes, as well as heating, ventilation, airconditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) system design require use of an integrated building and system performance simulation program. However, the required scope of the modeling library of such integrated tools

  8. Integrated project scheduling and staff assignment with controllable processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Viagas, Victor; Framinan, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  9. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernandez-Viagas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  10. Warming impact on energy use of HVAC system in buildings of different thermal qualities and in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Al-Khawaj, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving TQBE reduces heating load, while it might increase cooling load. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC varies from one climate to another. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC depends on building’s thermal quality. • In mild climate, warming does not have a significant impact on energy use of HVAC. - Abstract: In order to combat climate change, energy use in the building must be further reduced. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings account for considerable fraction of global energy consumption. The potential contribution the domestic sector can make in reducing energy consumption is recognized worldwide. The driving energy of HVACs depends on the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outside temperature. Definitely, building regulations are changing with the time toward reduce the thermal loads of buildings. However, most of the existing residential buildings were built to lower TQBE. For instant, 72% of residential dwellings in the 15-EU were built before 1972. To investigate the impact of warming on driving energy of HVACs of a residential building a computer model was developed. Three climate categories/cities were considered, i.e. Stockholm (cold), Istanbul (mild), and Doha (hot). In each city, two buildings were modeled: one was assumed to be built according to the current local buildings regulations (standard TQBE), while the anther was built to lower TQBE. The simulations were run for present and future (in 2050) outdoor designing conditions. The calculations show that the impact of the warming on annual driving energy of HVACs (reduction or increase) depends very much on the climate category and on the TQBE. Based on the climate and TQBE, the change in annual HVACs energy varies from −7.4% (in cold climate) to 12.7% (in hot climate). In mild climate, it was shown that the warming does not have significant impact on annual HVACs energy. Improving the TQBE can

  11. Development of predictive control strategies for building climate control

    OpenAIRE

    NAGPAL, HIMANSHU

    2018-01-01

    APPROVED The rapid growth in energy usage and CO2 emissions has become a critical issue for the whole world. It is noteworthy that buildings are a major contributor to global primary energy consumption. Among building services, use of energy in heating-ventilation-air-conditioning (HVAC) system is particularly significant (about 50\\% of the total building energy consumption). Therefore, the development and implementation of effective control strategies to optimize the operation of HVAC sys...

  12. A Study on the Determination of Power Supply Class for HVAC System in KJRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Minjin; Suh, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate electrical class, power supply class, and operation logic for the major equipment of the HVAC system such as a Confinement Isolation Damper (CID), Fission Molybdenum Isolation Damper (FID), Air Handling Unit (AHU), Air Cleaning Unit (ACU), and Contaminated Air Purification System (CAPS) in light of their functional requirements and importance. The classification for the overall HVAC system of the KJRR is a safety class NNS, Non-Seismic category, quality class S, and electrical class Non-1E. Exceptionally, the CID and FID are safety class 3, seismic category I, and quality class Q. The electrical class for the major equipment of the HVAC system should be determined considering the operation concept during Loss of Normal Electric Power (LOEP) regardless of the safety class. In this paper, the electrical and power supply class is determined and the operation logic is proposed for the major equipment of the HVAC system for the KJRR such as the CID, FID, CAPS, ACU, and AHU. The electrical class Non-1E is determined to implement a fail closed for the enhancement of safety. The power supply class is based on the functional requirements of each equipment. The CID, FID, CAPS, and ACU are Class III, but the AHU is Class IV by reflecting the importance and electrical load. After the recovery of the power supply, there is a difference in the operation concept for the HVAC system between the reactor building and fission molybdenum production building depending on the operator's residence time. The CID and CAPS are operated manually through procedures for checking the accident status, and the FID and ACU are operated automatically without special procedures

  13. A Study on the Determination of Power Supply Class for HVAC System in KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Minjin; Suh, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate electrical class, power supply class, and operation logic for the major equipment of the HVAC system such as a Confinement Isolation Damper (CID), Fission Molybdenum Isolation Damper (FID), Air Handling Unit (AHU), Air Cleaning Unit (ACU), and Contaminated Air Purification System (CAPS) in light of their functional requirements and importance. The classification for the overall HVAC system of the KJRR is a safety class NNS, Non-Seismic category, quality class S, and electrical class Non-1E. Exceptionally, the CID and FID are safety class 3, seismic category I, and quality class Q. The electrical class for the major equipment of the HVAC system should be determined considering the operation concept during Loss of Normal Electric Power (LOEP) regardless of the safety class. In this paper, the electrical and power supply class is determined and the operation logic is proposed for the major equipment of the HVAC system for the KJRR such as the CID, FID, CAPS, ACU, and AHU. The electrical class Non-1E is determined to implement a fail closed for the enhancement of safety. The power supply class is based on the functional requirements of each equipment. The CID, FID, CAPS, and ACU are Class III, but the AHU is Class IV by reflecting the importance and electrical load. After the recovery of the power supply, there is a difference in the operation concept for the HVAC system between the reactor building and fission molybdenum production building depending on the operator's residence time. The CID and CAPS are operated manually through procedures for checking the accident status, and the FID and ACU are operated automatically without special procedures.

  14. Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling project management text for students andprofessionals-now updated and expanded This Eleventh Edition of the bestselling "bible" ofproject management maintains the streamlined approach of the prioreditions and moves the content even closer to PMI's ProjectManagement Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). New content has been added tothis edition on measuring project management ROI, value to theorganization and to customers, and much more. The capstone "super"case on the "Iridium Project" has been maintained, covering allaspects of project management. Increased use of sidebars throughoutthe book helps further align it with the PMBOK and the ProjectManagement Professional (PMP) Certification Exam. This new edition features significant expansion, including morethan three dozen entirely new sections and updates on processsupporting; types of project closure; project sponsorship; andculture, teamwork, and trust. This comprehensive guide to theprinciples and practices of project management: Offers new sections...

  15. Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindson, Nicola; Richards-Doran, Dan; Heath, Laura; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for tobacco cessation and prevention interventions. In 2016 TAG conducted a priority-setting, stakeholder engagement project to identify where further research is needed in the areas of tobacco control and smoking cessation. The project comprised two surveys and a workshop. A range of stakeholders participated, including members of the public (smokers and ex-smokers), clinicians, researchers, research funders, health-care commissioners and public health organizations. The first survey phase identified unanswered research questions in the field of tobacco control. The second phase asked participants to rank these, with overall rankings calculated by combining scores across participants. The workshop allowed attendees to discuss prioritization of topics and questions in more depth. Workshop discussions were transcribed and analysed thematically, and a final voting activity at the close of the workshop allowed participants to choose topics to prioritize and to de-prioritize. A total of 304 stakeholders (researchers, health professionals, smokers and ex-smokers, guideline developers, research funders and policymakers, representing 28 countries) identified 183 unanswered research questions. These were categorized into 15 research categories. A total of 175 participants prioritized categories and questions in the second survey phase, with 'electronic cigarettes'; 'addressing inequalities'; and 'mental health and other substance abuse' prioritized as the top three categories. Forty-three stakeholders attended the workshop and discussed reasons for and against category prioritization. Prioritized research categories largely mirrored those in the survey stage, although 'treatment delivery' also emerged as a key category. Five cross-cutting themes emerged: efficacy; relative efficacy; cost effectiveness; addressing inequalities; and different types of evidence. There are many unanswered

  16. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  17. Systems and methods for controlling energy use during a demand limiting period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael J.; Drees, Kirk H.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  18. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  19. HVAC-DYNAMICS - a tool for quality assurance in relation to delivery of air-conditioning systems. [Heating, ventilating and air conditioning]. HVAC-DYNAMICS - et redskap for kvalitetsikring av sluttleveransen i klima-anlegg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V [SINTEF Varmeteknikk, Seksjon VVS (NO)

    1990-07-01

    HVAC-DYNAMICS is a computerized tool for quality assurance of the functioning of an air-conditioning system at the time of delivery. The system's efficiency in the case of fluctuating and critical operation is evaluated. The HVAC-DYNAMICS gives an optimal choice for air-conditioning systems regarding indoor climate, efficiency demands and energy consumption. The program can also be use for calibration of regulators, fault-finding, and training purposes. (CLS).

  20. Project W-320 SAR and process control thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of thermal hydraulic computer modeling supporting Project W-320 for process control and SAR documentation. Parametric analyses were performed for the maximum steady state waste temperature. The parameters included heat load distribution, tank heat load, fluffing factor and thermal conductivity. Uncertainties in the fluffing factor and heat load distribution had the largest effect on maximum waste temperature. Safety analyses were performed for off normal events including loss of ventilation, loss of evaporation and loss of secondary chiller. The loss of both the primary and secondary ventilation was found to be the most limiting event with saturation temperature in the bottom waste reaching in just over 30 days. An evaluation was performed for the potential lowering of the supernatant level in tank 241-AY-102. The evaluation included a loss of ventilation and steam bump analysis. The reduced supernatant level decreased the time to reach saturation temperature in the waste for the loss of ventilation by about one week. However, the consequence of a steam bump were dramatically reduced

  1. Legal control of technical large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1981-01-01

    The principle derived from experience that large projects require approval by the courts may not longer be valid. On the contrary, the courts are only entitled to real legal control according to the principle of the division of powers. If not accurately defined legal terms cannot be waived, the administration has to set the frame for review by courts by technical standards to be given in statutory ordinances, administrative provisions and administrative instructions. The average term of administrative proceedings has to be shortened considerably. The plaintiff as well as the beneficiaries of the act of licensing have a right to a prompt decision. The immediate execution of a decision can, on principle, also not be waived in future. More than up to now, the careful consideration of the interests and not an anticipated judgement on the main issue has to be the subject of legal examination according to section 80, subsection 5 of the German code of administrative procedure (Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung). (orig./HP) [de

  2. Draft PRN 2006-A: Use of Antimicrobial Pesticide Products in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems (HVAC&R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft notice provides guidance to registrants of EPA-registered antimicrobial products whose labels bear general directions related to hard, non-porous or porous surfaces, but which are not but which are not specifically registered for HVAC uses.

  3. Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC/R), AFSC 3E1X1. OSSN 2368

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    Survey Coverage: The Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC/R) career ladder, AFSC 3E1X1, was surveyed to gather data needed to guide the development and evaluation of training...

  4. Archtechtual Envilomental and Eequipment Laboratory Issues on HVAC System in a Commercial Kitchen(Educational Practice through Research)

    OpenAIRE

    吉野, 一; Hajime, Yoshino

    2017-01-01

    Generally, large amount of heat, oil fume including chemical substances and exhaust gases were generated during cooking in commercial kitchens. Therefore, it is important to keep highly safe and good hygienic condition by HVAC System. In this paper, health effect of oil fume and fire spread were surveyed based on investigation of previous studies. Lastly, current issues and future prospects of commercial kitchens HVAC system in Japan were described.

  5. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  6. State of the Art of HVAC Technology in Europe and America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2015-01-01

    of energy sources and energy generators are very much similar. This paper will present state-of the art-off energy efficient systems that will provide a good indoor environmental quality at a decreased energy use. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling systems are an important requirement...... mechanisms and media to emit and remove heat or moisture from indoor spaces (e.g. hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, fan-coil units, and active beams). The main differences between HVAC systems in Europe, North America and other parts of the world are often the indoor terminal units. Type...... for increasing the energy efficiency of HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) systems and for increasing the amount of renewable energy used. Especially these types of systems are getting increasing attention in Europe and North-America. In the present study, operation characteristics, possibilities...

  7. A Statistical Approach for Selecting Buildings for Experimental Measurement of HVAC Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a statistical methodology for selecting representative buildings for experimentally evaluating the performance of HVAC systems, especially in terms of energy consumption. The proposed approach is based on the k-means method. The algorithm for this method is conceptually simple, allowing it to be easily implemented. The method can be applied to large quantities of data with unknown distributions. The method was tested using numerical experiments to determine the hourly, daily, and yearly heat values and the domestic hot water demands of residential buildings in Poland. Due to its simplicity, the proposed approach is very promising for use in engineering applications and is applicable to testing the performance of many HVAC systems.

  8. Interlaboratory control among INCO-DEV MYCOTOX PROJECT LABORATORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Vargas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Work Package 1 “ Development and standardization of effective analytical tools for mycotoxin (aflatoxins B1, B2  G1, G2  ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin B1, B2  and tricothecenes determination in wheat and maize”  aim to implement the interlaboratory control between the partners laboratories from Brazil, Uruguay, Chile and Argentina as part of the objectives of INCO-DEV MYCOTOX PROJECT 2003-2005  “The Development of a Food Quality Management System for the Control of Mycotoxins in cereal Production and Processing Chains in Latin America South Cone Countries”.  The ojectives of the interlaboratory control were: evaluate the performance of the laboratories and the main difficulties encountered in performing the analytical procedure for mycotoxins  determination in maize and wheat; contribute to the harmonization of analytical procedures of the partners laboratories and contribute to the laboratory’s proficiency in mycotoxin analysis.  Maize reference materials for aflatoxins and zearealenone were prepared and used to the implementation of the interlaboratory control.  In summary, the preparation of these samples involved: milling (<20 mesh, homogeneization, analysis to verify the homogeneity of the bulk material and packing (labelled vacuum “sachets” or plastic bottles and mycotoxin analysis.  The homogeneity of the material was investigated by the analysis of variance – ANOVA- according to International Harmonized Protocol for the Proficiency testing of (ChemicalAnalytical Laboratories as established by ISO 43-1 – Annex at 95% of confidence level by calculating an F-statistic ans Ss/ÿ (ÿ =15%. All batches of test material were stored under – 18ºC and protected from light prior to and after packaging.  Aflatoxins in the test materials were determinated by immunoaffinity with liquid chromatography (LC with pos-column derivatization and thin layer chromatography (TLC.  Zearalenone in the test materials

  9. Strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects; Strategieorientiertes Management und Controlling ressourcenintensiver Projekte. Fallstudienanalyse und Konzeption eines Referenzmodells zum Projektmanagement der Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmeter, Sascha

    2015-07-01

    The book on strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects covers the following issues: frame of project management and project controlling, classification of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities as resource intensive projects, research design for case studies, results of the study of project management specific characteristics of decommissioning, reference model for the project management of nuclear facility decommissioning.

  10. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  11. Potential of HVAC and solar technologies for hospital retrofit to reduce heating energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Octavian G.; Abrudan, Ancuta C.; Adace, Dan S.; Pocola, Adrian G.; Balan, Mugur C.

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a combination of several energy efficient technologies together with their potential to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the comfort through the retrofit of a hospital building. The existing situation is characterized by an old and inefficient heating system, by the complete missing of any ventilation and by no cooling. The retrofit proposal includes thermal insulation and a distributed HVAC system consisting of several units that includes air to air heat exchangers and air to air heat pumps. A condensing boiler was also considered for heating. A solar thermal system for preparing domestic hot water and a solar photovoltaic system to assist the HVAC units are also proposed. Heat transfer principles are used for modelling the thermal response of the building to the environmental parameters and thermodynamic principles are used for modelling the behaviour of HVAC, solar thermal system and photovoltaic system. All the components of the heating loads were determined for one year period. The study reveals the capacity of the proposed systems to provide ventilation and thermal comfort with a global reduction of energy consumption of 71.6 %.

  12. Analysis on energy saving potential of integrated supermarket HVAC and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The paper presents a model-based analysis on the energy saving potential of supermarket HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers among the high-temperature HVAC system, the medium-temperature refrigeration system, and the low-temperature refrigeration system. The principle of energy reduction is to have the higher COP (coefficient of performance) system generate more cooling capacity to increase the cooling capacity or reduce the power consumption of the lower COP system. The subcooler could be placed between the medium-temperature and low-temperature systems, between the high-temperature and medium-temperature systems, and between the high-temperature and low-temperature systems. All integration scenarios of adding one, two and three subcoolers have been investigated. The energy saving potential varies with the load ratio between high-, medium- and low-temperature systems, COP of three systems, and the ''on-off'' duty time of HVAC system. The optimal sequence of adding subcoolers is also proposed. (author)

  13. Evaluation of sampling methods for Bacillus spore-contaminated HVAC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, M Worth; Rose, Laura J; Tufts, Jenia; Morse, Stephen; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an extraction-based sampling method to two vacuum-based sampling methods (vacuum sock and 37mm cassette filter) with regards to their ability to recover Bacillus atrophaeus spores (surrogate for Bacillus anthracis) from pleated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters that are typically found in commercial and residential buildings. Electrostatic and mechanical HVAC filters were tested, both without and after loading with dust to 50% of their total holding capacity. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA across material types, presence or absence of dust, and sampling device. The extraction method gave higher relative recoveries than the two vacuum methods evaluated (p≤0.001). On average, recoveries obtained by the vacuum methods were about 30% of those achieved by the extraction method. Relative recoveries between the two vacuum methods were not significantly different (p>0.05). Although extraction methods yielded higher recoveries than vacuum methods, either HVAC filter sampling approach may provide a rapid and inexpensive mechanism for understanding the extent of contamination following a wide-area biological release incident. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Determining Off-Cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moniot, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jehlik, Forrest [Argonne National Laboratory; Chevers, Netsanet [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Hirabayshi, Hidekazu [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Song, Yuanpei [DENSO International America Inc.

    2018-04-03

    This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state. These vehicle models were integrated into a database of measured on road testing and coupled with U.S. typical meteorological data to simulate vehicle efficiency across seasonal thermal and operational conditions for hundreds of thousands of drive cycles. Fuel economy benefits utilizing the 2-Layer HVAC technology are presented in addition to goodness of fit statistics of the modeling approach relative to the experimental test data.

  15. Otter Brook Lake, New Hampshire Connecticut River Basin, Flood Control Project, Solid Waste Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... This plan provides guidance to establish policies, and responsibilities, procedures, and instructions for proper handling, storage, disposal and recycling of solid waste generated at the flood control project...

  16. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  17. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 4: Configuration Management and Quality Assurance Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes configuration management and quality assurance documents from the GCS project. Volume 4 contains six appendices: A. Software Accomplishment Summary for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Configuration Index for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Configuration Management Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Quality Assurance Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; E. Problem Report for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software Project; and F. Support Documentation Change Reports for the Guidance and Control Software Project.

  18. Rightsizing HVAC Systems to Reduce Capital Costs and Save Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, James

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every institution is faced with the situation of having to reduce the cost of a construction project from time to time through a process generally referred to as "value engineering." Just the mention of those words, however, gives rise to all types of connotations, thoughts, and memories (usually negative) for those in the…

  19. Adaptive Control and Function Projective Synchronization in 2D Discrete-Time Chaotic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yin; Chen Yong; Li Biao

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptive control and function projective synchronization problems between 2D Rulkov discrete-time system and Network discrete-time system. Based on backstepping design with three controllers, a systematic, concrete and automatic scheme is developed to investigate the function projective synchronization of discrete-time chaotic systems. In addition, the adaptive control function is applied to achieve the state synchronization of two discrete-time systems. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  20. Coordination and Control of Globally Distributed Software Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. van Fenema (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRecently, software development and implementation projects have globalized at a rapid pace. Companies in North America, Europe, and the Far East are beginning to integrate international Information Technology (IT) resources to support operations across the globe. Offshore IT services

  1. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation project includes reduction of the risk associated with the integration of new, beneficial software techniques. Demonstrations of this software to baseline engineering and test personnel will show the benefits of these techniques. The advanced software will be integrated into ground testing and ground support facilities, familiarizing its usage by key personnel.

  2. An ex ante control chart for project monitoring using earned duration management observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaji, Seyed Taha Hossein; Noori, Siamak; Noorossana, Rassoul; Bagherpour, Morteza

    2017-12-01

    In the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in developing project control systems. The primary purpose of such systems is to indicate whether the actual performance is consistent with the baseline and to produce a signal in the case of non-compliance. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in monitoring project's performance indicators, by plotting them on the Shewhart-type control charts over time. However, these control charts are fundamentally designed for processes and ignore project-specific dynamics, which can lead to weak results and misleading interpretations. By paying close attention to the project baseline schedule and using statistical foundations, this paper proposes a new ex ante control chart which discriminates between acceptable (as-planned) and non-acceptable (not-as-planned) variations of the project's schedule performance. Such control chart enables project managers to set more realistic thresholds leading to a better decision making for taking corrective and/or preventive actions. For the sake of clarity, an illustrative example has been presented to show how the ex ante control chart is constructed in practice. Furthermore, an experimental investigation has been set up to analyze the performance of the proposed control chart. As expected, the results confirm that, when a project starts to deflect significantly from the project's baseline schedule, the ex ante control chart shows a respectable ability to detect and report right signals while avoiding false alarms.

  3. A review on control system algorithm for building automation systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noubissie-Tientcheu, SI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The building with its components such as Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and lighting constitute a bigger part of energy consumption in Southern Africa. Control system in a building reduced the energy consumption, according to different...

  4. Risk control in energy saving projects; Control de riesgo en los proyectos de ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Since one of the restrictive problems when investing in energy saving is the uncertainty of obtaining the planed savings, a technique in the risk handling for energy efficiency projects, called Insurance for the Energy Saving (IES) is presented. IES economically stimulates those who implement projects for energy saving so they go beyond the normal measures and really obtain significant saving levels, thus contributing to the fulfillment of national objectives in energy saving. In order to reduce the risk of low performance in energy caused by saving projects there exist the international performance measurement and the protocol of investment (IMPVP) as well as diagnoses and starting processes, whereas in order to transfer the financial risk that a saving project represents, mechanisms such as FDIC insurance, conversion of the debt in values, Saving's Guarantees, Performance Bonuses or Guarantee Bonuses and Insurances for Energy Saving can be of great help. This article deals on the IES insurance policies, their loss control management, successful cases, benefits, particular advantages, place in the market and refers argued insurance exceptions and perception surveys. [Spanish] Dado que uno de los problemas restrictivos a la hora de invertir en el ahorro de energia es la incertidumbre de obtener los ahorros proyectados, se presenta una tecnica en el manejo del riesgo para proyectos de eficiencia energetica llamada Seguro para el Ahorro de Energia (SAE). SAE estimula financieramente a quienes implementan proyectos para el ahorro de energia con el fin de que vayan mas alla de las medidas normales y consigan niveles significativos de ahorro, contribuyendo asi al cumplimiento de objetivos nacionales de ahorro energetico. Para reducir el riesgo de bajo desempeno de energia provocados por proyectos de ahorro existe la medicion del desempeno internacional y el protocolo de inversion (IMPVP) asi como diagnosticos y procesos de arranque, mientras que para transferir el

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project document control and Records Management Program Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTIN, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project document control and records management program, as defined within this document, is based on a broad spectrum of regulatory requirements, Department of Energy (DOE) and Project Hanford and SNF Project-specific direction and guidance. The SNF Project Execution Plan, HNF-3552, requires the control of documents and management of records under the auspices of configuration control, conduct of operations, training, quality assurance, work control, records management, data management, engineering and design control, operational readiness review, and project management and turnover. Implementation of the controls, systems, and processes necessary to ensure compliance with applicable requirements is facilitated through plans, directives, and procedures within the Project Hanford Management System (PHMS) and the SNF Project internal technical and administrative procedures systems. The documents cited within this document are those which directly establish or define the SNF Project document control and records management program. There are many peripheral documents that establish requirements and provide direction pertinent to managing specific types of documents that, for the sake of brevity and clarity, are not cited within this document

  6. Tijuana River Flood Control Project, San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-20

    presence of historical and archeological resoureces in the proposed project area. His letter of August 1, 1973 (see appendix) indicated that no state... human misery among those directly affected. Those impacts will be pert of the permanent and disastrous legacy of the "Recommended Plan" (Alternative Ill...of citizens; and general human misery among those directly affected. Those impacts will be part of the permanent and disastrous legacy of the

  7. Evaluation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC System Performance in an Administrative Building in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mari Oriyad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the factors influencing on indoor air quality of the buildings is performance of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. These systems supply clean and odorless air, with temperature, humidity, and air velocity within comfort ranges for the residents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance HVAC system in an administrative building in Tehran. .Material and Method: A questionnaire, developed in their research was used to assess the building occupants’ perception about the performance of HVAC system. To evaluate the performance of HVAC systems, air velocities were measured in the diffusers using a thermal anemometer. Moreover, CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured in the whole floors of the building. Air distribution inside the building was evaluated using smoke test. .Results: Most of the studied people complained about the direction of airflow, thermal conditions and cigarette odor. The highest level of carbon dioxide was measured at 930 ppm inside the restaurant. The maximum and minimum air temperatures and relative humidity were measured 28.3-13.8° C and 28.4-23% respectively. Smoke test showed that the air distribution/direction wasn’t suitable in one third of air diffusers. .Conclusion: Improper air distribution / direction was the main problem with the studied HVAC system which could be corrected by adjusting and balancing of the system.

  8. Multi-model-based Access Control in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hilbert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the execution of large scale construction projects performed by Virtual Organizations (VO, relatively complex technical models have to be exchanged between the VO members. For linking the trade and transfer of these models, a so-called multi-model container format was developed. Considering the different skills and tasks of the involved partners, it is not necessary for them to know all the models in every technical detailing. Furthermore, the model size can lead to a delay in communication. In this paper an approach is presented for defining model cut-outs according to the current project context. Dynamic dependencies to the project context as well as static dependencies on the organizational structure are mapped in a context-sensitive rule. As a result, an approach for dynamic filtering of multi-models is obtained which ensures, together with a filtering service, that the involved VO members get a simplified view of complex multi-models as well as sufficient permissions depending on their tasks.

  9. Controlling the Instructional Development Process. Training Development and Research Center Project Number Fifteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Swanson, Richard A.

    Process control is a way of training managers in business and industry to plan, monitor, and communicate the instructional development process of training projects. Two simple and useful tools that managers use in controlling the process of instructional development are the Process Control Planning Sheet and the Process Control Record. The Process…

  10. Project Planning and Control in a Developing Economy: Implementation and Realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdul-Rahman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive and uncertain environment of the construction industry, the ability to deliver end products with the required quality, schedule and budget is vital to the survival of any construction-related firm. Before embarking on any project, realistic planning and, consequently, a control procedure must be in place to enable the parties to manage the project with sufficient degree of authority and certainty. This paper addresses issues associated with the implementation of project planning and control, identificati on of impacts in the implementation of project planning and the critical success factors of project planning. A questionnaire survey was conducted on construction professionals and contractors involved in the running of construction projects. The survey results showed that common problems associated with the project planning and control are the lack of experienced staff and poor coordination by the contractor. During site operation, a delay in decision making aggravates the effect of poor planning and control and much of the effect of project planning rests on the pro-activeness of experienced staff. The positive impact associated with proper planning and control is the high probability of finishing the project on time while the negative impact is that it is a time-consuming and costly process. The critical success factors identified from the survey are Excellent Teamwork and Experienced Team.

  11. Calificación del sistema de HVAC en una planta de producción de IFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Reyes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La calificación de áreas asépticas constituye uno de los requerimientos esenciales en el cumplimiento de regulaciones nacionales para la fabricación de productos estériles. Se realizó la calificación inicial (as built de una Planta de Ingrediente Farmacéutico Activo (IFA para la fabricación de vacunas contra tétanos, fiebre tifoidea y tos ferina. Las comprobaciones estuvieron basadas en normas internacionales y para ello se empleó un equipamiento que cumple con los requerimientos para la industria farmacéutica. Pudo comprobarse que el sistema de clima es capaz de garantizar los parámetros críticos de operación de las áreas limpias, aunque algunos criterios de pruebas opcionales no fueron cumplidos.Los resultados obtenidos sirven como referencia para el control de los parámetros del sistema de HVAC y para la toma de acciones correctivas.

  12. Computational issues in alternating projection algorithms for fixed-order control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt; Grigoriadis, K.

    1997-01-01

    Alternating projection algorithms have been introduced recently to solve fixed-order controller design problems described by linear matrix inequalities and non-convex coupling rank constraints. In this work, an extensive numerical experimentation using proposed benchmark fixed-order control design...... examples is used to indicate the computational efficiency of the method. These results indicate that the proposed alternating projections are effective in obtaining low-order controllers for small and medium order problems...

  13. Overview and status of the prototype project for Wendelstein 7-X control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: joerg.schacht@ipp.mpg.de; Bluhm, Torsten; Herbst, Uwe; Hennig, Christine; Heinrich, Stefan; Kuehner, Georg; Koester, Erik; Laqua, Heike; Lewerentz, Marc; Marquardt, Mirco; Meyer, Christiane; Mueller, Ina; Pingel, Steffen; Sachtleben, Juergen; Spring, Anett; Werner, Andreas; Woelk, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    This contribution gives an overview of the project 'Prototype W7-X control system'. The objective of this prototype project is to demonstrate the applicability of the segment orientated control system at a running fusion experiment including steady-state operation, interaction of all relevant components, real time control, data acquisition and on-line data analysis. Furthermore, the W7-X safety concept will be implemented at WEGA and tested.

  14. Hoxb1 controls anteroposterior identity of vestibular projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiju; Takano-Maruyama, Masumi; Fritzsch, Bernd; Gaufo, Gary O

    2012-01-01

    The vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) consists of a collection of sensory relay nuclei that integrates and relays information essential for coordination of eye movements, balance, and posture. Spanning the majority of the hindbrain alar plate, the rhombomere (r) origin and projection pattern of the VNC have been characterized in descriptive works using neuroanatomical tracing. However, neither the molecular identity nor developmental regulation of individual nucleus of the VNC has been determined. To begin to address this issue, we found that Hoxb1 is required for the anterior-posterior (AP) identity of precursors that contribute to the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Using a gene-targeted Hoxb1-GFP reporter in the mouse, we show that the LVN precursors originate exclusively from r4 and project to the spinal cord in the stereotypic pattern of the lateral vestibulospinal tract that provides input into spinal motoneurons driving extensor muscles of the limb. The r4-derived LVN precursors express the transcription factors Phox2a and Lbx1, and the glutamatergic marker Vglut2, which together defines them as dB2 neurons. Loss of Hoxb1 function does not alter the glutamatergic phenotype of dB2 neurons, but alters their stereotyped spinal cord projection. Moreover, at the expense of Phox2a, the glutamatergic determinants Lmx1b and Tlx3 were ectopically expressed by dB2 neurons. Our study suggests that the Hox genes determine the AP identity and diversity of vestibular precursors, including their output target, by coordinating the expression of neurotransmitter determinant and target selection properties along the AP axis.

  15. Hoxb1 controls anteroposterior identity of vestibular projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiju Chen

    Full Text Available The vestibular nuclear complex (VNC consists of a collection of sensory relay nuclei that integrates and relays information essential for coordination of eye movements, balance, and posture. Spanning the majority of the hindbrain alar plate, the rhombomere (r origin and projection pattern of the VNC have been characterized in descriptive works using neuroanatomical tracing. However, neither the molecular identity nor developmental regulation of individual nucleus of the VNC has been determined. To begin to address this issue, we found that Hoxb1 is required for the anterior-posterior (AP identity of precursors that contribute to the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN. Using a gene-targeted Hoxb1-GFP reporter in the mouse, we show that the LVN precursors originate exclusively from r4 and project to the spinal cord in the stereotypic pattern of the lateral vestibulospinal tract that provides input into spinal motoneurons driving extensor muscles of the limb. The r4-derived LVN precursors express the transcription factors Phox2a and Lbx1, and the glutamatergic marker Vglut2, which together defines them as dB2 neurons. Loss of Hoxb1 function does not alter the glutamatergic phenotype of dB2 neurons, but alters their stereotyped spinal cord projection. Moreover, at the expense of Phox2a, the glutamatergic determinants Lmx1b and Tlx3 were ectopically expressed by dB2 neurons. Our study suggests that the Hox genes determine the AP identity and diversity of vestibular precursors, including their output target, by coordinating the expression of neurotransmitter determinant and target selection properties along the AP axis.

  16. 10 CFR 434.517 - HVAC systems and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... >3 stories 6 Note 6. Restaurant 1 or 3 Note 1. Health: a. Nursing Home (any size) 2 or 7 Note 7. b... restaurants, assembly and retail which are part of a mixed use building which, according to Table 517.4.1... controlled so that it will not be operated during normal operations of the building. The designer shall...

  17. Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D H; Fisk, W; Apte, M G; Wu, X; Trout, A; Faulkner, D; Sullivan, D

    2012-08-01

    This field study of 37 small and medium commercial buildings throughout California obtained information on ventilation rate, temperature, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics. The study included seven retail establishments; five restaurants; eight offices; two each of gas stations, hair salons, healthcare facilities, grocery stores, dental offices, and fitness centers; and five other buildings. Fourteen (38%) of the buildings either could not or did not provide outdoor air through the HVAC system. The air exchange rate averaged 1.6 (s.d. = 1.7) exchanges per hour and was similar between buildings with and without outdoor air supplied through the HVAC system, indicating that some buildings have significant leakage or ventilation through open windows and doors. Not all buildings had sufficient air exchange to meet ASHRAE 62.1 Standards, including buildings used for fitness centers, hair salons, offices, and retail establishments. The majority of the time, buildings were within the ASHRAE temperature comfort range. Offices were frequently overcooled in the summer. All of the buildings had filters, but over half the buildings had a filter with a minimum efficiency reporting value rating of 4 or lower, which are not very effective for removing fine particles. Most U.S. commercial buildings (96%) are small- to medium-sized, using nearly 18% of the country's energy, and sheltering a large population daily. Little is known about the ventilation systems in these buildings. This study found a wide variety of ventilation conditions, with many buildings failing to meet relevant ventilation standards. Regulators may want to consider implementing more complete building inspections at commissioning and point of sale. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Radiation control in the core shroud replacement project of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Yasunori; Haraguchi, Kazuyuki; Yoshizawa, Yuji; Yamada, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    In Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2, the core shroud replacement was made following that of Unit no.3. This project involves replacement of wide-ranging equipment, with the project extending over a long period of time. This was expected to increase the dose equivalent of workers. Accordingly, various measures to lower the dose equivalent were planned and implemented. We outline radiation controls implemented during the project period. The shroud replacement project was a preventive maintenance project which consisted of replacing the core shroud and other internals with those less susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Problems related to radiation control during the replacement project of Unit no.3 the year before last were summarized. We studied, planned, and implemented measures to be reflected in the project for Unit no.2. This was done to lower the dose equivalent as much as possible while paying due attention to safety and economy. For radiation control during the project for Unit no.2, experiments with Unit no.3 were fully exploited and any effective measures taken at that time were adopted in this project. Problems pointed out after that project with Unit no.3 resulted in new or improved measures being taken with Unit no.2. Measures taken over from the project with Unit no.3; a. Daily analysis of difference between expected and actual dose equivalents b. Dose reduction measures, chemical decontamination, temporary shield, flushing, etc.; New or improved measures; a. Dose reduction measures: Mechanical removal of radiation sources, strengthening of shield, etc.; b. Automatic remote control system; c. Use of new protective devices. With measures implemented as described above, the dose equivalent during shroud replacement of Unit no.2 was reduced by about 30% when compared with that (11.5 persons · Sv) in the case of Unit no.3. Implemented radiation controls will be checked and reviewed in future for reflection in projects with other units. (author)

  19. Predicting the Room Air Temperature of the Containment Spray Pump Room for the Loss of HVAC Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    In PSA Models, the HVAC system is essential for the various vital mitigation safety systems operating during a mission time. So far, the unavailability of the safety system when the HVAC system is unavailable, has been applied conservatively or optimistically based on operating experience and expert judgment, so the total core damage frequency could be unrealistic. In this paper, we performed a heat up calculation for the Containment Spray Pump Room at Kori 3 and 4 Units using a CFD code to estimate the operability of the CS pump and its support systems in the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. The result of this calculation could be applied the PSA Model for Risk Informed Regulation for Kori Units 3 and 4

  20. Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in northeast Thailand: the Lawa project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mallory, Frank F; Smith, John F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode is a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. Despite a long history of control programmes in Thailand and a nationwide reduction, O. viverrini infection prevalence remains high in the northeastern provinces. Therefore, a new strategy for controlling the liver fluke infection using the EcoHealth/One Health approach was introduced into the Lawa Lake area in Khon Kaen province where the liver fluke is endemic. A programme has been carried using anthelminthic treatment, novel intensive health education methods both in the communities and in schools, ecosystem monitoring and active community participation. As a result, the infection rate in the more than 10 villages surrounding the lake has declined to approximate one third of the average of 50% as estimated by a baseline survey. Strikingly, the Cyprinoid fish species in the lake, which are the intermediate host, now showed less than 1% prevalence compared to a maximum of 70% at baseline. This liver fluke control programme, named "Lawa model," is now recognised nationally and internationally, and being expanding to other parts of Thailand and neighbouring Mekong countries. Challenges to O. viverrini disease control, and lessons learned in developing an integrative control programme using a community-based, ecosystem approach, and scaling-up regionally based on Lawa as a model are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-linear HVAC computations using least square support vector machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mahendra; Kar, I.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate application of least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) to model two complex heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) relationships. The two applications considered are the estimation of the predicted mean vote (PMV) for thermal comfort and the generation of psychrometric chart. LS-SVM has the potential for quick, exact representations and also possesses a structure that facilitates hardware implementation. The results show very good agreement between function values computed from conventional model and LS-SVM model in real time. The robustness of LS-SVM models against input noises has also been analyzed.

  2. A Comfort-Aware Energy Efficient HVAC System Based on the Subspace Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tsakiridis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A proactive heating method is presented aiming at reducing the energy consumption in a HVAC system while maintaining the thermal comfort of the occupants. The proposed technique fuses time predictions for the zones’ temperatures, based on a deterministic subspace identification method, and zones’ occupancy predictions, based on a mobility model, in a decision scheme that is capable of regulating the balance between the total energy consumed and the total discomfort cost. Simulation results for various occupation-mobility models demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  3. Measurements and controls implementation for the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Raju; Bhandarkar, Manisha; Moreau, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the diagnostics implemented on WEST and gives more details on the infra-red system which is one of the main systems used to analyze the heat loads and ensure the machine protection. The modification of the CODAC and communications networks is also discussed. The new functionalities and architecture of the WEST PCS are detailed; especially it ensures the orchestration of many subsystems such as diagnostics, actuators and allows handling asynchronous off-normal events during the plasma discharge. In correlation the plasma discharge is now seen as a set of elementary pieces (called segments) joints together. Development of new plasma controllers will be addressed. An overview of the first wall monitoring activity and development is provided. Finally preparing the plasma restart requires control oriented modelling and simulations devoted to the control of the plasma shape will be presented

  4. Financial auditing at enterprises for control of projects realized with credit fund-raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukmanova, Inessa

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes methods of conducting financial audit under the construction control of projects implemented with raising credit funds in modern conditions. This work aims to improve the methodological toolkit of construction control when lending projects of the construction of transport infrastructure. The paper considers correlations of various procedures of construction control, financial audit and organizational and technical factors affecting investment and construction projects. The authors presented the logical scheme of the process of lending to legal entities and developed an algorithm of the procedure for conducting a financial audit, allowing to make possible adjustments and the right decision.

  5. Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Reinhard

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

  6. DISAIN SISTEM KENDALI MESIN AIR LEAK TEST MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM KENDALI PLC OMRON CJ2M DI HVAC (HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING LINE 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses produksi pembuatan komponen HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning dari perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia, memerlukan proses pengecekan kebocoran pada bagian HVAC. Proses pengecekan ini dilakukan untuk memastikan tidak ada komponen HVAC yang bocor sebelum dikirim ke pihak pelanggan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuat system dan alat air leak test. Mesin air leak test ini menggunakan prinsip kerja differential pressure air leak test, yaitu metode yang membandingkan antara tekanan udara yang diberikan ke produk dan master produk. Pada penelitian ini, kami membuat disain mesin air leak test menggunakan sistem kendali berupa air leak tester, PLC, dan HMI. Berdasarkan kondisi dengan kapasitas produksi yang meningkat karena bertambahnya permintaan dari customer, dapat ditanggulangi dengan adanya share loading produksi dari HVAC line 4 ke line baru, yaitu HVAC line 6. Hasil yang didapat dari pengujian deteksi kebocoran produk,didapat nilai parameter kebocoran produk sebesar 2.23 ml/min.

  7. Quality Control and Due Diligence in Project Management: Getting Decisions Right by Taking the Outside View

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Flyvbjerg

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how theories of the planning fallacy and the outside view may be used to conduct quality control and due diligence in project management. First, a much-neglected issue in project management is identified, namely that the front-end estimates of costs and benefits--used in the business cases, cost-benefit analyses, and social and environmental impact assessments that typically support decisions on projects--are typically significantly different from actual ex post costs and ...

  8. Process for planning and control of software projects using XedroGESPRO

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Marín-Sánchez; José Alejandro Lugo-García; Pedro Yobanis Piñero-Pérez; Alena María Santiesteban-García; Félix Noel Abelardo-Santana; Javier Menéndez-Rizo

    2014-01-01

    The software project management in Cuba has become a key area for improving production processes and decisionmaking in organizations. Several models and standards for process improvement, related with project management, proposed best practices on issues of planning and control of projects. However, they are generic guidelines that describe only those activities to execute, leaving the responsibility for implementing to organizations, using sometimes , expensive proprietary infor...

  9. Modernisation of space HVAC systems with high energy consumption; Sanierung von RLT-Anlagen mit hohen Energieverbraeuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willan, U. [ROM (Rud. Otto Meyer) - Technik fuer Mensch und Umwelt, Hamburg (Germany). Zentralbereich Ingenieurtechnik

    1997-12-31

    For office buildings and similarly used buildings, concepts are developed for the modernization of space hvac systems. The state of work in the following sectors is discussed: optimum comparison processes for space HVAC systems, measurements to assess the performance of alternative dehumidification and cooling systems, heat-physiological space model. (MSK) [Deutsch] Fuer Buerobauten und Gebaeude aehnlicher Nutzung werden Sanierungskonzepte fuer RLT-Anlagen erarbeitet. Im Folgenden wird der Stand der Arbeiten in den Bereichen: optimale Vergleichsprozesse fuer RLT-Anlagen, messtechnische Beurteilung alternativer Entfeuchtungs- und Kuehlsysteme sowie ein waermetechnisches Raummodell erlaeutert.

  10. HVAC system operational strategies for reduced energy consumption in buildings with intermittent occupancy: The case of mosques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaiwi, I.; Abdou, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper operational zoning in the early design phase of mosques can lead to up to 30% reduction in the annual cooling energy. • Energy performance index of 71.0 kW h/m 2 yr for an insulated mosque can be realized with A/C proper intermitted operation. • 23% energy saving can be achieved when a properly oversized A/C is operated intermittently for 1 h during each prayer. • 13% reduction in cooling energy use can be achieved when A/C operation precedes worshippers’ occupancy in mosques. • Envelope insulation and A/C intermittent operation with proper operational zoning leads to more than 46% savings in energy. - Abstract: Mosques are places of worship for Muslims with unique functional requirements and operational characteristics. They are partially or fully occupied for about an hour for five intermittent periods during the day. In hot climates, maintaining indoor thermal comfort requires a considerable amount of energy that can be reduced by proper operational zoning and effective HVAC operation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of operational zoning and HVAC system intermittent operation strategies on the energy performance of mosques while thermal comfort is maintained. Energy simulation modeling is used for evaluating alternative zoning and HVAC operation strategies. Results indicate that up to 23% reduction in annual cooling energy is achieved by employing suitable HVAC operation strategy and system over-sizing, and 30% reduction is achieved by appropriate operational zoning. Comparing the cooling energy consumption of HVAC summer continuous operation of an un-insulated mosque with the consumption of the insulated mosque with properly oversized HVAC system operated for 1 h during each prayer, indicated that as much as 46% of cooling energy reduction can be achieved. Furthermore, utilizing proper operational zoning and HVAC operation strategies is expected to bring about an additional significant energy

  11. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  12. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  13. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  14. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  15. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  16. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  17. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Examining the Impact of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  18. Programmable logic controllers in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru (Paper No. 3.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Bhaskar, R.; Maiti, A.; Venkatesu, G.; Satish, P.; Goel, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Enhancement to plant operational flexibility has been achieved in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru by installing programmable logic controllers for its control equipment. The earlier sulfide based Heavy Water Plant, Kota is using relay logic and diode based program-matrix for binary controls. Performance improvement and advantages of PLC and experience in its operation are described. (author). 3 refs

  19. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  20. A Multidisciplinary PBL Robot Control Project in Automation and Electronic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Houcine; Domínguez, Carlos; Martínez, Juan-Miguel; Perles, Angel; Capella, Juan-Vicente; Albaladejo, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) project consisting of the development of a robot arm prototype and the implementation of its control system. The project is carried out as part of Industrial Informatics (II), a compulsory third-year course in the Automation and Electronic Engineering (AEE) degree program at the…

  1. Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingxing; Liang, Youyun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    A design project that focuses on the subject of controlled-release drug delivery devices is presented for use in an undergraduate course on mass transfer. The purpose of the project is to introduce students to the various technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical design exercise for understanding the…

  2. [Project summarize of "reestablishing disease prevention and control system of China"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Mo; Yu, Jingjin; Yu, Mingzhu; Duan, Yong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the project of "reestablishing the disease control and prevention system of China" in brief, including background, objectives, funding resources, researching objects and sampling methods. This project which funded by National Outstanding Younger Fund and the research fund of MOH aimed at nailing down the key problem existed in disease control and prevention system of China, demonstrating the reasons and mechanism of key problem, developing feasible policy idea and strategy. This paper also introduced some issues concerning the reestablishing of the disease control and prevention system of China: the definition of public function, the standard of human resource allocation and the standard of financing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 8 provinces, 80 cities and 80 counties have been sampled to provide information that project needed. In addition, this project also cited some data which come from the early study, in which 3 provinces, 12 counties, 49 towns, 179 villages and 9781 rural families have been sampled and investigated.

  3. Hexapartite safeguards project team 3: material accounting and control questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Information provided in this report reflects the current design and operating procedures for the GCEP. However, since the installation is currently under construction, facility design and operating procedures discussed in this report are subject to change. Where applicable, the responses are based on material control and accounting practices of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's (GDP) operating contractor (Goodyear Atomic Corporation). These practices meet US Department of Energy (DOE) standards and are assumed to be the reference practices for the GCEP. This report covers data collection and record keeping actions of the operator

  4. Tritium effluent control project progress report, July--September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershner, C.J.; Bixel, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the Tritiated Liquid Waste Decontamination (Molecular Excitation) program, it was found that a 1/4'' Nd:YAG amplifier and a Faraday rotator isolator must be added to the oscillator to obtain the required power for the laser excitation experiments. The isotopic selectivity of the two-photon dissociation process was examined in more detail. The selectivity or ratio of HTO to H 2 O molecules that are photodissociated was found to be on the order of 25, which is inadequate for application to large-scale detritiation projects, e.g., nuclear fuel reprocessing plant waste. The selectivity is such that most of the laser energy is wasted in photodissociation of H 2 O. This obstacle may be overcome by pumping more vibrational energy into the HTO molecules. Various schemes towards this end are being considered. Extensive ab initio calculations on the potential surface for the hydrogen atom-water exchange reaction have been carried out. The energy barrier is calculated to be 38 1/2 kcal/mole, which implies that the exchange reaction T + H 2 O → HTO + H is at least 10 9 times slower than the exchange reaction T + H 2 → HT + H. Calculations were also performed on the analogous hydrogen atom-hydrogen fluoride exchange reaction. In lieu of other disposal methods a system using a General Electric UCT-1 regenerative cell has been assembled and tested. This system should be capable of decomposing pure water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. The tritium from this process can be purified and reused instead of buried. A preliminary economic evaluation was made of the HT/H 2 O catalytic exchange detritiation stripping process as it might apply to a 5 metric ton/day nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A tritiated water shipping container has been designed and developed for use with the ERDA--DOT approved AL--MI secondary container

  5. Complex Projective Synchronization in Drive-Response Stochastic Complex Networks by Impulsive Pinning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex projective synchronization in drive-response stochastic coupled networks with complex-variable systems is considered. The impulsive pinning control scheme is adopted to achieve complex projective synchronization and several simple and practical sufficient conditions are obtained in a general drive-response network. In addition, the adaptive feedback algorithms are proposed to adjust the control strength. Several numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  6. Athens automation and control experiment project review meeting, Knoxville, Tennessee, December 3-5, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braithwait, S.D.; Broadaway, E.R.; Fortson, N.D.; Gellings, C.W.; Hu, P.S.; Lawler, J.S.; Markel, L.C.; McKinley, K.F.; Monteen, L.D.; Newton, B.K.

    1986-08-01

    The AACE is an electric power distribution automation project involving research and development of both hardware and software. Equipment for the project is being installed on the electric distribution system in Athens, Tennessee. Purposes of the AACE are to develop and test load control, volt/var control, and system reconfiguration capabilities on an electric distribution system and to transfer what is learned to the electric utility industry. Expected benefits include deferral of costly power generation plants and increased electric service reliability.

  7. New-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization for radon reduction in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Witter, K.A.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Construction of a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, is being carefully monitored since elevated indoor radon levels have been identified in many existing houses near the site. Soil gas radon concentrations measured prior to pouring of the slabs were also indicative of a potential radon problem should the soil gas enter the school; however, subslab radon measurements collected thus far are lower than anticipated. Radon-resistant features have been incorporated into construction of the school and include the placing of at least 100 mm of clean coarse aggregate under the slab and a plastic film barrier between the aggregate and the slab, the sealing of all expansion joints, the sealing or plugging of all utility penetrations where possible, and the painting of interior block walls. In addition, the school's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system has been designed to operate continuously in overpressurization to help reduce pressure-driven entry of radon-containing soil gas into the building. Following completion, indoor radon levels in the school will be monitored to determine the effectiveness of these radon-resistant new-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization in limiting radon entry into the school

  8. Development and analysis of sustainable energy systems for building HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, F.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main HVAC applications considered in this paper are heating and cooling. Three newly developed systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings are proposed and assessed. Energy and exergy analyses are performed to assess the performance of heating, cooling and overall systems for each case, and the effects of various parameters on the energy and exergy efficiencies are examined. Also, the effect of changing the energy input for each system is also found in terms of overall efficiency. The overall system energy efficiency is found to be highest for the natural gas operated system with a vapour absorption chiller (system 1) at 27.5% and lowest for the photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal operated system with vapour compression chiller (system 3) at 19.9%. The overall system exergy efficiency is found to be highest for the PV and solar thermal operated system with vapour compression chiller (system 3) at 3.9% and lowest for the PV and solar thermal operated system with heat pump (system 2) at 1.2%, respectively. - Highlights: • Three HVAC systems for buildings using renewable energy sources are proposed and assessed. • A performance improvement study is undertaken. • Parametric studies are carried out to determine the effects of various parameters on energy and exergy efficiencies

  9. Membrane heat exchanger in HVAC energy recovery systems, systems energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, M. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Opus International Consultants (New Zealand); AL-Waked, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU), P.O. Box 1614, AlKhobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Morrison, G. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Behnia, M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The thermal performance of an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. The heat exchanger utilizes a 60gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface for HVAC energy recovery. The heat exchanger sensible, latent and total effectiveness have been determined through temperature and moisture content measurements. The annual energy consumption of an air conditioner coupled with an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is also studied and compared with a conventional air conditioning cycle using in-house modified HPRate software. The heat exchanger effectiveness are used as thermal performance indicators and incorporated in the modified software. Energy analysis showed that an air conditioning system coupled with a membrane heat exchanger consumes less energy than a conventional air conditioning system in hot and humid climates where the latent load is high. It has been shown that in humid climate a saving of up to 8% in annual energy consumption can be achieved when membrane heat exchanger is used instead of a conventional HVAC system. (author)

  10. The necessity of HVAC system for the registered architectural cultural heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Cătălin George; Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    This study is intended to highlight the role of the ventilation and air conditioning system for a theatre. It was chosen as a case study the "Vasile Alecsandri" National Theatre of Jassy. The paper also sought to make a comparison in three distinct scenarios for HVAC Main Hall system - ventilation and air conditioning system of the Main Hall doesn't work; only the ventilation system of the Main Hall works and ventilation and air conditioning system of the Main Hall works. For analysing the comfort parameters, the ANSYS-Fluent software was used to build a 2D model of the building and simulation of HVAC system functionality during winter season, in all three scenarios. For the studied scenarios, the external conditions of Jassy and the indoor conditions of the theatre, when the entire spectacle hall is occupied were considered. The main aspects evaluated for each case were the air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity. The results are presented comparatively as plots and spectra of the interest parameters.

  11. Preliminary CFD Analysis for HVAC System Design of a Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sung Man; Choi, Choengryul [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jae Ho; Hong, Moonpyo; Kim, Hyungseok [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) system has been mainly designed based on overall heat balance and averaging concepts, which is simple and useful for designing overall system. However, such a method has the disadvantage that cannot predict the local flow and temperature distributions in a containment building. In this study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) preliminary analysis is carried out to obtain detailed flow and temperature distributions in a containment building and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. This approach can be useful for hydrogen analysis in an accident related to hydrogen released into a containment building. In this study, CFD preliminary analysis has been performed to obtain the detailed information of the reactor containment building by using the CFD analysis techniques and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. We confirmed that CFD analysis can offer enough detailed information about flow patterns and temperature field and that CFD technique is a useful tool for HVAC design of nuclear power plants.

  12. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  13. Multicontroller: an object programming approach to introduce advanced control algorithms for the GCS large scale project

    CERN Document Server

    Cabaret, S; Coppier, H; Rachid, A; Barillère, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2007-01-01

    The GCS (Gas Control System) project team at CERN uses a Model Driven Approach with a Framework - UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) - based on PLC (Programming Language Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) technologies. The first' UNICOS versions were able to provide a PID (Proportional Integrative Derivative) controller whereas the Gas Systems required more advanced control strategies. The MultiController is a new UNICOS object which provides the following advanced control algorithms: Smith Predictor, PFC (Predictive Function Control), RST* and GPC (Global Predictive Control). Its design is based on a monolithic entity with a global structure definition which is able to capture the desired set of parameters of any specific control algorithm supported by the object. The SCADA system -- PVSS - supervises the MultiController operation. The PVSS interface provides users with supervision faceplate, in particular it links any MultiController with recipes: the GCS experts are ab...

  14. Results Without Authority Controlling a Project When the Team Doesn't Report to You

    CERN Document Server

    KENDRICK, Tom

    2012-01-01

    It's tricky enough to spearhead a big project when you're the boss. But when you're the leader of a team of people who don't report to you, the obstacles are even greater. Results Without Authority is the definitive book for project managers looking to establish credibility and control. A groundbreaker in the field, it supplies a start-to-finish system for getting successful project results from cross-functional, outsourced, and other types of teams. The completely updated second edition includes new information on: * Agile methods and evolving project management tools * Strategies for working

  15. Studies of some phenomena in control engineering projects - With application to precipitation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoele-Hansen, Kjell

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the life-cycle of a control engineering project and some phenomena encountered in such projects. Different types of control strategies are discussed and an attempt is made to classify them into categories. Some case projects are presented and forms the basis for discussing the individual`s role in a change project. Further conditions for successful implementation of new control strategies are discussed in general, but also conditions for successful implementation of new control strategies at a process section of a nickel work. Procedures for implementing new control strategies are treated and some remarks are made about operation of control strategies. An introduction is given to the modelling of precipitation in pH systems and different model formulations are discused. The modelling of pH controlled precipitations is discussed in general. A variety of dynamic models, ranging from complex to simple, are proposed and discussed. A rigorous dynamic nonlinear mechanistic model of a precipitation reactor is developed. It is based on the theory of reaction invariants and variants. The model is verified against real process data. The dynamics and characteristics of the precipitation reactor are analysed and some remarks are made with respect to controllability. A new strategy for pH control is proposed. A new model based strategy for controlling the precipitation reactions is also proposed. 93 refs., 63 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Management information system for cost-schedule integration control for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Wang Yongqing; Tian Li

    2001-01-01

    Based on the project management experience abroad and at home, a cost-schedule integration control model was developed to improve nuclear power project management. The model integrates cost data with the scheduling data by unity coding to efficiently implement cost-schedule integration control on line. The software system architecture and database is designed and implemented. The system functions include estimating and forecasting dynamically cash flow, scheduling and evaluating deviation from the cost-schedule plan, etc. The research and development of the system should improve the architecture of computer integrated management information systems for nuclear power projects in China

  17. Projective Synchronization in Modulated Time-Delayed Chaotic Systems Using an Active Control Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cun-Fang; Wang Ying-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems is studied by applying an active control method. Based on the Lyapunov asymptotical stability theorem, the controller and sufficient condition for projective synchronization are calculated analytically. We give a general method with which we can achieve projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed chaotic systems. This method allows us to adjust the desired scaling factor arbitrarily. The effectiveness of our method is confirmed by using the famous delay-differential equations related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (general)

  18. Projective Synchronization of Chaotic Discrete Dynamical Systems via Linear State Error Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baogui Xin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A projective synchronization scheme for a kind of n-dimensional discrete dynamical system is proposed by means of a linear feedback control technique. The scheme consists of master and slave discrete dynamical systems coupled by linear state error variables. A kind of novel 3-D chaotic discrete system is constructed, to which the test for chaos is applied. By using the stability principles of an upper or lower triangular matrix, two controllers for achieving projective synchronization are designed and illustrated with the novel systems. Lastly some numerical simulations are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed projective synchronization scheme.

  19. Final Technical Report of the project "Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Davide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The report describes hypotheses, aims, methods and results of the project 20170675PRD2, “Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations”, which has been run from July 31, 2017 to January 7, 2018. The technical work has been performed by Director’s Fellow Davide Girolami of the T-4 Division, Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, under the supervision of Wojciech Zurek (T-4), Lukasz Cincio (T-4), and Marcus Daniels (CCS-7). The project ended as Davide Girolami has been converted to J. R. Oppenheimer Fellow to work on the project 20180702PRD1, “Optimal Control of Quantum Machines”, started on January 8, 2018.

  20. Application for Underground Injection Control Permit for the PUNA Geothermal Venture Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-01

    Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) plans to construct and operate the 25 MW Puna Geothermal Venture Project in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The project will drill geothermal wells within a dedicated 500-acre project area, use the produced geothermal fluid to generate electricity for sale to the Hawaii Electric Light Company for use on the Island of Hawaii, and inject all the produced geothermal fluids back into the geothermal reservoir. Since the project will use injection wells, it will require an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit from the Drinking Water Section of the State of Hawaii Department of Health. The PGV Project is consistent with the State and County of Hawaii's stated objectives of providing energy self-sufficiency and diversifying Hawaii's economic base. The project will develop a new alternate energy source as well as provide additional information about the nature of the geothermal resource.

  1. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  2. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  3. Comparison of Energy Performance of Different HVAC Systems for a Typical Office Room and a Typical Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons. In this way, the building system can operate at a very low energy use all the year round. The main purpose of this task is to investigate the energy performance of different HVAC systems used in the office room and the classroom...

  4. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  5. Modular VSC converter based HVDC power transmission from offshore wind power plant: Compared to the conventional HVAC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    power transmission options with HVDC systems are under consideration. In this paper, a comparison between a conventional HVAC transmission system and a HVDC system equipped with modular voltage source converters is provided. The comparison is based on the total energy transmission capability...

  6. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  7. Combating dephasing decoherence by periodically performing tracking control and projective measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Dai Hongyi; Xi Zairong; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to overcome phase damping decoherence by periodically performing open loop tracking control and projective measurement. Although it is impossible to stabilize a qubit subject to Markovian dynamics only by open loop coherent control, one can attain a 'softened' control goal with the help of periodical projective measurement. The 'softened' control objective in our scheme is to keep the state of the controlled qubit to stay near a reference pure state with a high probability for a sufficiently long time. Two suboptimal control problems are given in the sense of trace distance and fidelity, respectively, and they are eventually reduced to the design of a period T. In our scheme, one can choose the period T as long as possible if the 'softened' control goal is attained. This is in contrast to the observation that quantum Zeno effect takes place only if measurements are performed in a very frequent manner, i.e., the period T must be extremely small

  8. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  9. Allocation of control rights in the PPP Project: a cooperative game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Feng, Jingchun; Yang, Shengtao

    2017-06-01

    Reasonable allocation of control rights is the key to the success of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. PPP are services or ventures which are financed and operated through cooperation between governmental and private sector actors and which involve reasonable control rights sharing between these two partners. After professional firm with capital and technology as a shareholder participating in PPP project firms, the PPP project is diversified in participants and input resources. Meanwhile the allocation of control rights of PPP project tends to be complicated. According to the diversification of participants and input resources of PPP projects, the key participants are divided into professional firms and pure investors. Based on the cost of repurchase of different input resources in markets, the cooperative game relationship between these two parties is analyzed, on the basis of which the allocation model of the cooperative game for control rights is constructed to ensure optimum allocation ration of control rights and verify the share of control rights in proportion to the cost of repurchase.

  10. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting... Disease or Treated by Assisted Reproductive Technology, SIP11-048, Panel F,'' initial review In accordance...

  11. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  12. Some principles of automated control systems construction with project organizational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko, Ihor I.; Puhachenko, Kateryna S.

    2013-01-01

    The main principles of automated control systems construction with project organizational structures have been considered and the process flow sheet  for organizational systems control has been proposed. The architectural elements of the organizational system have been introduced and described. The instrumental tools of the graphodynamic systems theory have been used for the simulation modeling of hierarchical structures.

  13. Energy efficient ventilation based on demand humidity control. Demonstration project with 49 apartments in Soenderborg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The aim of the project is to demonstrate how the overall energy consumption in apartment buildings can be reduced through a combination of: 1) Energy efficient ventilation based on demand humidity control; 2) Energy efficient design of the building shell including passive solar and seasonally flexible sunspaces; 3) Use of low temperature heating system. The 3 blocks in the project, each with 16 apartments, are furnished with 3 different ventilation systems: 1) Standard exhaust system according to building codes; 2) Ventilation system with humidity control. Each room is furnished with an air inlet valve controlled by a processor, which monitors the humidity; 3) Standard ventilation system with heat recovery. (au)

  14. Controlling engineering project changes for multi-unit, multi-site standardized nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, E.; Boddeker, G.; McGugin, H.; Strother, E.; Waggoner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Multibillioin dollar multiple nuclear power plant projects have numerous potential sources of engineering changes. The majority of these are internally generated changes, client generated changes, and changes from construction, procurement, other engineering organizations, and regulatory organizations. For multiunit, multisite projects, the use of a standardized design is cost effective. Engineering changes can then be controlled for a single standardized design, and the unit or site unique changes can be treated as deviations. Once an effective change procedure is established for change control of the standardized design, the same procedures can be used for control of unit or site unique changes

  15. Status of Pantex Plant Waste Management Project/program control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Wesley J.; Matthews, William L.

    1992-01-01

    During a December 1990 Waste Management Program Review held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Waste Management and Operational Surety Division (WMOSD) introduced the project control system to be used for the Waste Management (WM) Operations Program. The system was entitled 'TRAC-WM' (Tracking and Control for Waste Management). The stated objective for this system was to establish a frame work for planning, managing, and controlling work within the WM program. As a result Mason and Hanger (the operating contractor at the Pantex Plant) initiated the development of a computerized waste management project tracking system. (author)

  16. HVAC Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Clifton W.; D'Angelo, David

    1999-01-01

    Explains how commissioning can help to ensure that all components in a new heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system will work together as designed. Bowdoin College's experience with commissioning is highlighted. (GR)

  17. Implementing the theories: A fully integrated project control system that's implemented and works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Using the theories presented in DOE Orders 4700.1, 1332.1A, and Notice 4700.5 as the basis for system design, the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) has developed and implemented a Project Control System (PCS) that complies with requirements and provides DOE and FERMCO management with timely performance measurement information. To this extent, the FERMCO PCS probably is similar to the systems of the majority of the contractors in the DOE complex. In fact. this facet of the FERMCO PCS generally mirrors those used on projects around the world by FERMCO's parent company, Fluor Daniel. Starting with this open-quotes platformclose quotes, the vision and challenge of creating a fully integrated system commenced. An open-architecture systems approach is the factor that most greatly influenced and enabled the successful development and implementation of the Project Control System for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. All aspects of a fully integrated system were considered during the design phase. The architecture of the FERMCO system enables seamless, near real-time, transfer of data both from and to the Project Control System with all other related systems. The primary systems that provide and share data with the Project Control System include those used by the Payroll, Accounting, Procurement, and Human Resources organizations. To enable data linking with these organizations, the resource codes were designed to map many-to-one from their detailed codes to the summarized codes used in the PCS

  18. Recent progress in flow control for practical flows results of the STADYWICO and IMESCON projects

    CERN Document Server

    Barakos, George; Luczak, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the outcomes on flow control research activities carried out within the framework of two EU-funded projects focused on training-through-research of Marie Sklodowska-Curie doctoral students. The main goal of the projects described in this monograph is to assess the potential of the passive- and active-flow control methods for reduction of fuel consumption by a helicopter. The research scope encompasses the fields of structural dynamics, fluid flow dynamics, and actuators with control. Research featured in this volume demonstrates an experimental and numerical approach with a strong emphasis on the verification and validation of numerical models. The book is ideal for engineers, students, and researchers interested in the multidisciplinary field of flow control. Provides highly relevant and up-to-date information on the topic of flow control; Includes assessments of a wide range of flow-control technologies and application examples for fixed and rotary-wing configurations; Reinforces reader u...

  19. Implementation of quality control systems in laboratories in Paraguay by the participants of ARCAL LXXVI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, Z.

    2004-12-01

    In the Project ARCAL LXXVII, was realized the National Course of Control of Quality of Analytic Laboratories, from 12 to 16 of April in the CNEA, Paraguay, as a result of the one mentioned course was elaborated this project whose purpose is to elaborate the necessary documentation to fulfill the requirements of administration in the Analytic Laboratories to be adapted to the system of quality according to the ISO 17025 [es

  20. Control of the formation of projective synchronisation in lower-dimensional discrete-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, C.Y.; Xu Daolin

    2003-01-01

    Projective synchronisation was recently observed in partially linear discrete-time systems. The scaling factor that characterises the behaviour of projective synchronisation is however unpredictable. In order to manipulate the ultimate state of the synchronisation, a control algorithm based on Schur-Chon stability criteria is proposed to direct the scaling factor onto any predestined value. In the numerical experiment, we illustrate the application on two chaotic discrete-time systems

  1. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J.

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV

  2. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  3. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV.

  4. Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jeremie; Zhang, Jianshun Jensen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.

  5. Optimization of the structural design of HVAC ducts and their supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMatias, I.P.; Barrio, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the computerized process of qualification and design based on experience accumulated in structural designs of HVAC systems in nuclear power plants, using CAD/CAE systems. Such computerization has drastically reduced the number of manhours employed to generate the information necessary to issue duct and support fabrication drawings. During the analysis stage, the requirements for qualification of ducts and supports contained in CONAGT ANSI/ASME AG-1 have been considered. The data package applicable to the process consists of a set of computer programs which may be used independently or combined. A significant portion of such programs governs the graphic design. Moreover, analyses are performed on results of the different types of tests carried out to date, and on those necessary to determine the mechanisms of failures in ducts, and in order to be able to calibrate design criteria currently in use

  6. Impact of HVAC filter on indoor air quality in terms of ozone removal and carbonyls generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Chen, Hsuan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at detecting ozone removal rates and corresponding carbonyls generated by ozone reaction with HVAC filters from various building, i.e., shopping mall, school, and office building. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental chamber. By examining dust properties including organic carbon proportion and specific surface area of dusts adsorbed on filters along with ozone removal rates and carbonyls generation rate, the relationship among dust properties, ozone removal rates, and carbonyls generation was identified. The results indicate a well-defined positive correlation between ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generation on filters, as well as a positive correlation among the mass of organic carbon on filters, ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generations.

  7. Development and implementation of the regulatory control of sources in Latin American Model Project countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferruz Cruz, P.

    2001-01-01

    After a general assessment of the situation regarding radiation safety and the radiation protection infrastructure in Latin American countries, several of them were invited to participate in a Model Project oriented, in some cases, towards establishing a mechanism for national regulatory control of radiation sources, and in others, towards upgrading their national control programme. All these activities aimed at reaching an effective and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure based on international basic safety standards. The paper presents a general overview of the current situation with regard to radiation protection within the Model Project countries in Latin America after almost five years of activities. It includes: the implementation of regulatory issues; the control of occupational, medical and public exposures; emergency response and waste safety issues. The paper also presents some lessons learned during implementation concerning the numerous activities involved in this interregional project. (author)

  8. Lessons Learned and Flight Results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the lessons learned and flight results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project is shown. The topics include: 1) F-15 IFCS Project Goals; 2) Motivation; 3) IFCS Approach; 4) NASA F-15 #837 Aircraft Description; 5) Flight Envelope; 6) Limited Authority System; 7) NN Floating Limiter; 8) Flight Experiment; 9) Adaptation Goals; 10) Handling Qualities Performance Metric; 11) Project Phases; 12) Indirect Adaptive Control Architecture; 13) Indirect Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; 14) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 15) Current Status; 16) Effect of Canard Multiplier; 17) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop; 18) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop Freq. Resp.; 19) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop with Adaptation; 20) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop with Adaptation; 21) Gen 2 NN Wts from Simulation; 22) Direct Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; and 23) Conclusions

  9. Overview of implementing a project control system in the nuclear utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooprider, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    During the late 1980s, a metamorphosis began at Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). A strategic step in nuclear engineering's efforts to become more cost effective began in January 1990. A project control department was formed. The initial mission was to provide support for nuclear engineering design activities associated with FPL's two twin-unit nuclear power generation facilities - Turkey Point and St. Lucie. Later, the goal expanded to include the division's materials management, nuclear licensing, and information management departments. The project control group was organized along the lines of the organizations served. Separate dedicated groups were established for each plant. Since most engineering activity was based at the Juno Beach headquarters, the project control staff also was based there

  10. Spinal sensory projection neuron responses to spinal cord stimulation are mediated by circuits beyond gate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhe C; Janik, John J; Peters, Ryan V; Chen, Gang; Ji, Ru-Rong; Grill, Warren M

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a therapy used to treat intractable pain with a putative mechanism of action based on the Gate Control Theory. We hypothesized that sensory projection neuron responses to SCS would follow a single stereotyped response curve as a function of SCS frequency, as predicted by the Gate Control circuit. We recorded the responses of antidromically identified sensory projection neurons in the lumbar spinal cord during 1- to 150-Hz SCS in both healthy rats and neuropathic rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI). The relationship between SCS frequency and projection neuron activity predicted by the Gate Control circuit accounted for a subset of neuronal responses to SCS but could not account for the full range of observed responses. Heterogeneous responses were classifiable into three additional groups and were reproduced using computational models of spinal microcircuits representing other interactions between nociceptive and nonnociceptive sensory inputs. Intrathecal administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, increased spontaneous and evoked activity in projection neurons, enhanced excitatory responses to SCS, and reduced inhibitory responses to SCS, suggesting that GABAA neurotransmission plays a broad role in regulating projection neuron activity. These in vivo and computational results challenge the Gate Control Theory as the only mechanism underlying SCS and refine our understanding of the effects of SCS on spinal sensory neurons within the framework of contemporary understanding of dorsal horn circuitry. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Transforming local government by project portfolio management: Identifying and overcoming control problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – As public organizations strive for higher e-government maturity, information technology (IT) Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. Assuming control is central in IT PPM, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Danish local government conducts...... to understand how local governments can improve IT PPM. Keywords IT project portfolio management, E-government, Control theory, Control problems, Formal mechanisms, Informal mechanisms, Local government, Denmark...... control in IT PPM. The authors identify control problems and formulate recommendations to address these. Design/methodology/approach – Adopting principles from Engaged Scholarship, the authors have conducted a case study using a wide variety of data collection methods, including 29 interviews, one...

  12. The Control Room Upgrade in Oskarshamn 2 Modernization Project Lesson Learned from Ongoing Human Factor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Gunnarsson; Magnus, Eliasson

    2011-01-01

    Due to recent changes in Swedish commercial nuclear safety system requirements, OKG decided to make the changes required by the new safety requirements, apply for a 30-year license extension, and to concurrently make changes for a major power uprate; this project is called the Plant Life Extension project (PLEX). It was decided, in addition to several plant modifications, to re build the old control room to a new modern screen-based control room located in the same space as the old one, and with the same number of operators. This paper explains the approach taken when modernizing the control room as a part of the Oskarshamn 2 Modernization project PLEX, the results, and the lessons learned from this ongoing work. The combination of changes results in a modernization project that is expected to increase output power by approximately 50 MWe through increased efficiency and to result in an increase in thermal power from 1800 MWt to 2300 MWt (28%) and electrical power from 620 MWe to 840 MWe due to the power uprate. The license to operate OKG2 expires in 2012 The PLEX project is one of the most ambitious nuclear power plant modernization projects ever implemented, world-wide. The application of human factors engineering (HFE) and control room and HSI design is a complex challenge. The original main control room from 1975 in Oskarshamn 2, was quite compact and provided a fairly good overview of the process. New requirements for enhanced safety and other design changes in the process systems and instrumentation led to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room. Since the control room was quite limited in space, the control room grew larger, and the new equipment was installed farther away from the operator workplaces into an adjacent control room. This was even the case for the new safety systems. These systems were functioning well separately as such, but in some cases their interfaces were inconsistent, leading to increased

  13. Control room modernization at Finnish nuclear power plants - Two projects compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarni, J.; Norros, L.

    2006-01-01

    The modernization of automation systems and human-machine interfaces is a current issue at both of the two nuclear power plants (i.e., Fortum's Loviisa plant and TVO's Olkiluoto plant) in Finland. Since the plants have been launched in the 1970's or 1980's, technology is in part old-fashioned and needs to be renewed. At Olkiluoto upgrades of the turbine operator systems have already been conducted; at Loviisa the first phase of the modernization project has just started. Basically, there is a question of the complete digitalization of the information streams at the two plants, and transition from a conventional hard-wired or hybrid control room to a screen-based one. The new human-machine interfaces will comprise new technology, such as PC workstations, soft control, touch screens and large-screen overall displays. The modernization of human-system interfaces is carried out in a stepwise manner at both plants. At both plants the main driver has not been the need to renew the user interfaces of the control room, but the need to upgrade the automation systems. In part because of this, there is a lack of a systematic top-down approach in which different aspects of human factors (HF) engineering are considered in relationship to higher level goals. Our aim here is to give an overview description of the control room modernization projects at the two plants and provide a preliminary evaluation of their progress to date. The projects are also compared, for example, in terms of duration, scope and phasing, and who is responsible for the realization of the project. In addition, we also compare experiences from the Finnish projects to experiences from similar projects abroad. The main part of the data used in this study is based on designers' and project members' interviews. (authors)

  14. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chansuh; Seo, Hana; Choi, Sundo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose.

  15. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chansuh; Seo, Hana; Choi, Sundo

    2014-01-01

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose

  16. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  17. Analysis of critical paths for schedule control of nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Liangmin; Ma Limin; Fan Kai

    2005-01-01

    Study on the critical paths for the schedule control of nuclear power projects has been performed for reactor M310, based on the experiences from Daya Bay project and Ling Ao project. The study shows that the critical paths for the nuclear power project are from NI civil work, NI erection, commissioning of single systems directly serving the CFT to the joint-test. For NI civil work, the critical path is the main civil work of the reactor building, pre-stressing, handover of rooms for important areas, and key CW-erection interfaces; there are four critical paths for NI erection; For startup, two stages can be identified: commissioning of 16 single systems directly serving the CFT and joint-test. (authors)

  18. Review of selected contributions of the conference 'Project control in quality management systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    There were 12 contributions presented of the conference focused on the project management in quality management systems. Contributions were focused both on theoretical problems from the project management area and on the applications in practice in management systems implementation in accordance with the standards: STN EN ISO 9001:2000, STN EN ISO 14 001:2005, and OHSAS 18 001:1999. One contribution was focused on the project management in the project of preparation of finishing of the building of the Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce of 3. and 4. block and one contribution was focused on the amendment of the Atomic Act or on the preparation of the new Atomic Act with regard to duty of transposition of the Directive of the Council 2006/117/Euratom on control and supervision of the overseas transportations of radioactive waste and nuclear fuel burnt-up into legislation of the Slovak Republic

  19. Adaptive controller design for modified projective synchronization of Genesio-Tesi chaotic system with uncertain parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses control problem for the modified projective synchronization of the Genesio-Tesi chaotic systems with three uncertain parameters. An adaptive control law is derived to make the states of two identical Genesio-Tesi systems asymptotically synchronized up to specific ratios. The stability analysis in the paper is proved using a well-known Lyapunov stability theory. A numerical simulation is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme

  20. A homotopy algorithm for digital optimal projection control GASD-HADOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen; Davis, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    The linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) compensator was developed to facilitate the design of control laws for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems. The compensator is computed by solving two algebraic equations for which standard closed-loop solutions exist. Unfortunately, the minimal dimension of an LQG compensator is almost always equal to the dimension of the plant and can thus often violate practical implementation constraints on controller order. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control-design for high-order systems such as flexible space structures. This deficiency motivated the development of techniques that enable the design of optimal controllers whose dimension is less than that of the design plant. A homotopy approach based on the optimal projection equations that characterize the necessary conditions for optimal reduced-order control. Homotopy algorithms have global convergence properties and hence do not require that the initializing reduced-order controller be close to the optimal reduced-order controller to guarantee convergence. However, the homotopy algorithm previously developed for solving the optimal projection equations has sublinear convergence properties and the convergence slows at higher authority levels and may fail. A new homotopy algorithm for synthesizing optimal reduced-order controllers for discrete-time systems is described. Unlike the previous homotopy approach, the new algorithm is a gradient-based, parameter optimization formulation and was implemented in MATLAB. The results reported may offer the foundation for a reliable approach to optimal, reduced-order controller design.